---------- DARPA ----------

69 Phase I Selections from the 97.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
DIAMOND MATERIALS, INC.
120 Centennial Avenue
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-0805
Oleg Voronov
DARPA 97-050
Title:High Pressure High Temperature Consolidation of Carbon Nanotubes for Structural and Other Applications
Abstract:Diamond Materials Incorporated (DMI) proposes to synthesize a new class of carbon-carbon composite, termed "Fullertubite". In conventional carbon-carbon ceramics, composite properties are controlled by the anisotropic properties of the carbon fibers. Fullertubite, synthesized from randomly oriented micron-sized carbon nanotubes, has the potential to overcome the anisotropic strength properties, while improving the toughness by crack deflection and crack branching. Moreover, carbon nanotubes are more oxidation resistant than other forms of fullerene derivatives and thus Fullertubite have potential for superior high temperature stability. Building upon our recent experiments on high pressure high temperature consolidation of C60 fullerenes, Fullertubite will be produced in our High Pressure High Temperature apparatus, by three-dimensional polymerization of carbon nanotubes at pressures of 2 GPa - 8 GPa, and temperatures up to 1600 degrees C. In Phase 1, Fullertubite synthesis will be demonstrated for small pellets (4mm o x 3mm thick), which will allow characterization of its physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and other properties that are pertinent to military and industrial applications. In Phase II, we will develop industrial scale methods of Fullertubite synthesis not only for structural materials but also for additional applications as warranted. In Phase II, we will also focus on methodologies to increase production, improve properties, and reduce cost. In Phase III, we will commercialize the technology.

HYPERION CATALYSIS INTERNATIONAL
38 Smith Place
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 354-9678
Chunning Niu
DARPA 97-050
Title:Affordable nanotube based "molecular composites"
Abstract:There are three elements to the cost of a composite: the matrix, the reinforcement and the cost of the fabrication technology. It is affordable fabrication technology that hinders nanocomposite development. Techniques like lay-up, winding etc., mandated by continuous fibers, are simply too expensive. A truly low cost fabrication method would have to be based on short fibers. Individualized nanotubes, however, form dramatically viscous (and non-Newtonian) suspensions. Considerable experience with these suspensions leads Hyperion to conclude that they will never be economically fabricated into reinforced composite shapes. We propose, therefore, to: 1) assemble robust nanotube preforms of the desired size and shape; 2) infiltrate the preforms with monomer; and 3) polymerize the monomer in situ. In as much as carbon nanotubes are of nearly molecular dimension, the resulting composites will be analogous to an interpenetrating network, one component of which is a rigid rod polymer. In such interpenetrating networks, sometimes called "molecular composites", load is transferred via mechanical entanglement and not by surface interaction, the usual rule-of-mixture equations for the properties of short-fiber reinforced composites do not apply.

MER CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
S. Guha
DARPA 97-050
Title:A New Generation of Magnetic Medium for Improved Information Storage Devices
Abstract:A new generation of information (magnetic) storage medium is being proposed in the form of carbon nanotubes infiltrated with a ferro-magnetic material core. By virtue of their acicular shape and small size (2-20 nm diameter and 50-200 nm in length), such carbon nanotubes with a magnetic material core will be an excellent alternative to the current state-of-the-art information storage materials such as acicular micron-sized particulates of Fe2O3, Co-adsorbed Fe2O3, -Fe with a surface passivation layer of Fe2O3 or CrO2. It is expected that the acicular shape will retain the anisotropy of magnetization while the order-of-magnitude reduction in the scale of these particulates will permit a tremendous increase in information storage density. Further, the carbon nanotubes being non-ferromagnetic, will serve as a natural barrier between individual magnetic domains which will improve the signal response. In addition to the above, the encapsulation of the ferro-magnetic material inside the carbon tube may exhibit some benefits with respect to decreased head wear while the reduction in the magnetic material particulate size should also result in decreased surface roughness which is one of the contributing factors to tape noise. It is proposed to infiltrate these carbon nanotubes either in-situ (during their synthesis) or after synthesis using vapor infiltration etc.) with Fe-group materials since they exhibit high coercivity. The success of such a program will have an impact as a dual-use technology.

ACTIVE DEVICES, INC.
71 Smith St.
Wellesley, MA 02181
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 648-5671
Kamyar Ghandi
DARPA 97-051
Title:Compact Piezoelectric Based Power Generation
Abstract:Active Devices proposes an innovation for energy harvesting using piezoelectric based approaches to extract energy from mechanical vibrations. This innovation consists of a piezoelectric element for energy transduction, rectifier circuits for extraction, and storage devices to store power for use by other devices. Ideal models predict that a 1" x1" x.010" piezoelectric wafer undergoing moderate vibration should be capable of generating on the order of 10's of milliWatts. This indicates potential for developing a very compact chip sized power supply. The power obtained from vibratory motion can now be used to power sensors and/or provide for RF transmit of information to base receivers. Some possibilities include networks of small embedded self-powered sensors in aircraft and helicopters, battlefield logistics using mechanical vibrations on a bridge to record vehicle crossings, seismic event recording, and health monitoring. The primary objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of piezoelectric based approaches to extract electrical power from mechanical vibrations. Tasks designed to accomplish this include: 1) developing a design methodology for piezoelectric energy harvesting, 2) investigating potential circuit topologies, and 3) validating concepts through an experimental program. This research will establish a design for a prototype device for insertion into a selected military application.

AZ TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4901 Corporate Dr, Ste 101
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 837-9877
Howard Dunn
DARPA 97-051
Title:Non-Solar Remote Environmental Energy Power Generator
Abstract:Remote field seismic or vibrations sensors typically use solar power or batteries to power operations. DARPA has identified the need to augment or replace these power sources with a device that produces power independent of solar energy. Specifically, DDARPA is searching for new low power device technology that harvests energy from existing field environments. AZ Technology's novel concept is design of an array type device, less than 50 cm3 in volume, that will use available low temperature environmental energy to generate greater than 10 milliwatts of power during times when solar dependent generators are non-functional (night or north facing hill). This power will be used to trickle charge a capacitor or battery to provide sensor power or pulsed 1-5 watt data transmission. During Phase I, AZ Technology will design and demonstrate, through prototype development, an innovative thermoelectric based field remote environment energy scavenging thermoelectric generator (ESTEG). Phase I efforts will completer a thermal/power analysis on our innovative design. Feasibility will be demonstrated by fabricating a prototype module that generates non-solar power related energy at greater than 0.20-0.5 milliwatts/cm3.

SIGMA LABS, INC.
10960 N. Stallard Pl
Tucson, AZ 85737
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 575-8013
Wolfgang Decker
DARPA 97-051
Title:Thin Film Thermoelectric File for Energy Harvesting
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposes the development of thin film thermoelectric piles for energy harvesting devices. The patented thin film technology, which is successfully used for the production of nanolaminate high density capacitors, allows to produce thermopiles with an extreme high density of active thermocouples, typically app. 500 couples per mm laminate thickness. The serial connection of the thermocouples performed during the production process allow to generate electric energy with a convenient voltage level at temperature gradients of a few degrees only. The proposed investigation will develop an energy harvesting device based on thin film thermopiles. In the Phase I work the basics for the adaptation of the nanolaminate process with the required modifications for the production of thermopiles will be evaluated. The thermopile structures obtained from this work will be tested thoroughly to explore the potential and the limitations of the process. The Phase II work will install an automated process for the high speed production of thermopile laminates. Additionally a complete concept for energy harvesting devices including power management unit and energy storage system will be developed.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS, INC.
7 Commerce Drive
Danbury, CT 06810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 794-1100
Gregory Stauf
DARPA 97-052
Title:Phased Array Antenna on a Wafer
Abstract:The ongoing explosion of microwave radar and communications systems calls for improvement in electronically scanned antennas (ESAs). However, current ESAs crafted from multiple individual elements are extremely expensive. Forming an antenna with integrated scanning and impedance matching elements on a single substrate using thin film technologies may decrease costs by up to two orders of magnitude, allowing essentially disposable antennas. This approach is particularly appealing as microwave frequencies increase, since geometries shrink, making bulk solutions more expensive and those employing thin films less expensive. In Phase I, we will demonstrate a tunable embedded strip line device at 19 GHz with dynamic impedance matching, using ferroelectric BaSrTiO3 (BST) thin films for tunable elements. ATMI has extensive experience with deposition of BST thin films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, which offers the ability to make very high quality ferroelectric material. Intrinsic losses as low 0.002 at 1 MHz in thin film BST produced by MOCVD have been demonstrated, with dielectric constants of >500 at 30 GHz. Phase I will also address design issues in preparation for Phase II, which will culminate in a prototype multielement ESA fabricated on a single substrate.

CCVD, INC.
3901 Green Industrial Way
Chamblee, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 457-7767
Wen-Yi Lin
DARPA 97-052
Title:Low Loss and Cost Thin Film for Frequency Adaptive Electronics
Abstract:Microwave resonators of linear dielectrics for wireless applications have been fabricated in bulk form using conventional ceramic processing in the current commercial market. Machining and fine polishing are frequently required for dimension control and surface finish in addition to the inherent unfeasibility to fabricate miniaturized electronic circuits. It is vital to develop a suitable thin film technique capable of producing commercially viable, high-performance, low-loss, field adaptable oxide films for telecommunications. Thin film devices have been deposited using various CVD techniques, including MOCVD, PECVD, and LPCVD. However, these approaches are limited by the existing precursors of low vapor pressure, high toxicity, and high cost, in addition to the high capital investment in vacuum systems and reaction chambers. Therefore, the aforementioned CVD techniques are not cost effective, as compared to the newly invented combustion CVD at MicroCoating Technologies. Over 90% savings have been demonstrated using CCVD, compared to traditional CVD, with increased deposition flexibility and production-friendliness. The thin films produced in open atmosphere using the CCVD have comparable quality to CVD films. The CCVD also allows substrates to be passed through a deposition zone in a production line for large area coatings. Ba(1-x)Sr(x)TiO(3) and SrTiO(3) are the primary candidates for filter and oscillator applications, due to their high dielectric constants and low loss. Epitaxial YIG is another potential material for microwave filters. Polycrystalline spinel and hexagonal ferrites as well as perovskite ferroelectrics are candidates for tunable phase shifters. Based on past experiences, quality thin films will be grown. The microstructure and electromagnetic properties of the thin films will be characterized. The performance will be optimized and reproducibility will be demonstrated. The above devices are desired for frequency agile filters, oscillators, phase shifters and antennas, impacting on commercial and military applications. These devices can also be easily configured to function as circulators, isolators, DRAM, etc. The CCVD was featured in CNN's Future Watch and Dollars and Sense and in Business Week. American Ceramic Society Bulletin cited CCVD as one of the top five new ceramic coating technologies of the 90's. In April 97, MCT transformed its first completed Phase II into multi-million dollar Phase III funding.

F&S, INC.
P.O. Box 11704
Blacksburg, VA 24062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4267
Michael Miller
DARPA 97-052
Title:Ionic Self-Assembled Electric Field Tunable Frequency Adaptive Electronic Materials and Devices
Abstract:This DARPA SBIR Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of revolutionary ionic self-assembly methods of creating electric field-tunable thin-film electronic materials and devices. Exciting recent work at F&S and Virginia Tech has shown that the ionic nature of the self-assembly process inherently results in the spontaneous regular geometric ordering of noncentrosymmetric dipole molecules. Alternating ultra-thin dipole molecules and low-loss polymers in successive monolayers yields a polar ferroelectric thin-film material, with properties determined by both the monolayer constituents on the molecular level. Very recent F&S research results indicate that these thin-films exhibit both piezoelectric and electro-optic behavior. Initial results also indicate that the thin-films exhibit long-term stability, in contrast to poled piezoelectric polymer materials that degrade with time. The self-assembly process additionally allows simplicity of manufacturing, adaptability to two- and three-dimensional patterning and low-cost. F&S has licensed the enabling Virginia Tech patent for self-assembled noncentrosymmetric thin-films, and would work with Virginia Tech and Litton to rapidly transition recent laboratory results to prototype device products.

SUPERCONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
460 Ward Dr., Ste F
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 683-7646
Muralidhar Rao
DARPA 97-052
Title:Superconductor-Ferroelectric-Superconductor Trilayers for Novel Tunable Microwave Devices
Abstract:This effort will develop tunable microwave resonators based on high temperature superconductor (HTS) multilayer technology, which will form the basic building block for a new generation of advanced communications filters. The proposed work will contribute to the growth of wireless communications for both military and commercial sectors. At Superconductor Technologies, Inc. (STI), thick trilayers utilizing YBa2Cu3)7-x (YBCO) HTS and NdAlO3 dielectric layers have been developed with performance superior to the existing state-of-the-art. In addition, trilayer resonators orders of magnitude smaller than conventional devices have been demonstrated. Tunability of trilayer resonators will be achieved in the proposed program by moving to SrTiO3 as the dielectric, which is ferroelectric. Phase I research will focus on demonstrating a novel microwave resonator with HTS/SrTiO3/HTS trilayers. Trilayer properties relevant to the device will be measured. The device will be fabricated, tested, and modeled, and the loss tangent measured over a wide range of temperatures. The tunability of the resonators will be simulated using experimentally confirmed properties of trilayers. These structures will ultimately enable frequency agile filters with orders of magnitude higher selectivity than is possible with existing filter technologies, and simultaneously reduced component volume. Beneficial to civilian cellular and PCS providers, and military units, who need high performance tunable filters to reduce interference and improve jamming resistance. HTS trilayer tunable filters will meet customer needs of frequency agility, reduced interference, improved communication range, increased mobility, and reduced service & environmental costs. Potential markets are about $1B/yr in each of military and commercial sectors.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 E. College Avenue, Suite J
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Wesley Hackenberger
DARPA 97-052
Title:Voltage Tunable Ferroelectric Composites for Phased Array Radar
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I program will address the fabrication and testing of voltage variable dielectrics (VVD) in which the refractive index (n) can be E-field tuned providing electronic scanning in the microwave regions. In collaboration with Hughes' Radar Division, the manufacturing of large area composites based on the perovskite Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) will be integrated into a continuous transverse antenna architecture for phased array radar concurrent to this effort will be investigation of thick film BST or cofired / tape-cast BST for fabrication of voltage tunable microwave frequency capacitors. The Phase I research will provide a basis for the manufacturing of BST composites with further optimization in Phase II, including device specific applications such as automotive collision warning devices, airport encursion, sensors, etc.

ADVANCED DEVICE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2015 Ivy Road, Suite 308
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 979-1648
Michael Hurt
DARPA 97-053
Title:Nanoelectric Modeling Software Development
Abstract:This Phase I project has two primary objectives. The first objective is to develop an engineering model of Resonant Tunneling Devices (RTD) to be implemented in AIM-Spice, a commercial software package running under Windows 95/NT. The development of a reliable device model is a prerequisite for the design and production of any semiconductor device technology. The RTD model will be a semi-empirical, physics-based model which will be scalable, allowing the user to accurately simulate RTD circuits. The second technical objective of this project is to simulate RTD and RTD/FET circuits, such as inverters, memory elements, and analog-to-digital converters. One driving FET which we will examine closely is the heterodimensional 2-D MESFET, a novel side-gated FET which offers considerable promise for compact, ultra low-power, multifunctional logic circuits. As part of this Phase I project, we will also refine the 2-D MESFET model already implemented in AIM-Spice in order to predict nanoscale 2-D MESFET device and circuit operation.

GARMAN SYSTEMS, INC.
2401 21st Ave S., Suite 102
Nashville, TN 37212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 292-7022
Lowell Jones
DARPA 97-054
Title:Nanoscale X-Y Stage for Precision Lithography
Abstract:The state-of-the-art in the microelectronics industry is being pushed primarily by two motivations: the demand for more circuitry etched per unit area and the demand for higher throughput. Both of these needs can be met by an increase in the speed and/or the resolution of lithography positioning equipment. Proposed herein is an innovative X-Y stage design through which control of positions on the order of nanometers will be attempted while simultaneously increasing stroke length to 300 mm per axis, maximum speed to 1 m/s, and turnaround time to under 100 ms. The proposed design will utilize a macro-micro positioning approach analogous to an audio "woofer-tweeter" arrangement for each axis of the stage. This approach will allow for a decoupling of the positioners coarse and fine motion properties simplifying components and design of the entire system.

OPTRA, INC.
461 Boston St.
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 887-6600
Michael Hercher
DARPA 97-054
Title:High Speed, High Accuracy Stage for Advanced Lithography
Abstract:The development of a high-speed, very accurate XY stage for semiconductor lithography is proposed. Key features are: a grid-based metrology system which is immune to turbulence and has subnanometer resolution; a high-speed, light-weight XY stage capable of supporting 12" wafers, and including active control of all six degrees of freedom; and dual-loop servo systems for X and Y to provide fast long-range moves and highly accurate short-range positioning. If successful, this approach will provide all of the capabilities needed for the next generation of steppers for high throughput, high accuracy microlithography. This approach also promises to reduce the cost of the metrology system by at least a factor of two relative to the cost of a comparable, but less capable, laser interferometer system.

BOSONICS, INC.
1472 North St.
Boulder, CO 80304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 447-0645
Charles Stirk
DARPA 97-055
Title:Programmable Optical Beam Former with 10 Nanosecond Reconfiguration Rates
Abstract:This project develops low-cost optical beamscanners using fast binary amplitude modulators. The modulators are solder-bumped to silicon drive circuits which have a programmable architecture for rapid, flexible array addressing. The multiple quantum well (MQW) based modulators operate at 850-860 nm with a random access speed over 100 MHz---faster than any known scanner. Preliminary simulation and optimization results show that high-resolution scanning can be obtained using a novel device arrangement with 10% efficiency, 20 dB SNR, and 1% uniformity. Under this Phase I effort, Bosonics will 1) further simulate and optimize the modulator performance; 2) optimize the epitaxial layer structure, wafer lithography, and solder bump integration; 3) develop a marketing plan for military and commercial applications; and 4) design, simulate and fabricate the silicon driver chip in 0.5 microns CMOS. The chip will contain drivers and bond pads for both 1-D and 2-D arrays. In Phase II we will process the GaAs wafer and flip-chip solder bump it onto the silicon driver chip for testing and demonstration.

LAWRENCE SEMICONDUCTOR RESEARCH LABS
2300 West Huntington Drive
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 493-5659
Joseph Boisvert
DARPA 97-056
Title:Wafer-Bonded Silicon-Based Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Optical Interconnects
Abstract:Recent advances in two-dimensional laser emitter arrays have led to the opportunity for innovative optical interconnects that will require low-power receiver arrays. Silicon-based avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays offer several attractive features for this application including internal gain, low-power consumption, compatibility with silicon-based amplifier technologies, and low-cost. Unfortunately, present silicon APDs suffer from relatively poor optical response at the wavelengths of most interest for this application (850 nm and 980 nm). Also, neither monolithic nor hybridized silicon APD receiver arrays have been reported to date. This proposed program will develop separate absorption and multiplication, low-power SiGe alloy APD arrays using conventional chemical vapor deposition materials growth techniques. These APDs will be designed to operate at less than 50 volts applied bias, to have gain-bandwidth products in excess of 100 GHz, and to dissipate approximately 1 nW/micron2 operating at 10 GHz. In Phase I, 8x8 element, coarse pitch arrays will be produced to establish feasibility. These arrays will be wafer bonded to silicon fanout arrays using a novel approach that minimizes exposure of the APD arrays to current-generating transition metal impurities. This approach can be subsequently extended to wafer-level bonding of high-density (sub-50 micron) APD-amplifier hybrid arrays.

TERABIT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
861 Ward Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 692-9450
Aaron Hawkins
DARPA 97-056
Title:Arrays of High Sensitivity Optical Receivers
Abstract:Wafer fusing is proposed for integrating InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with silicon VLSI Circuits. A new structure, a silicon heterointerface photodetector (SHIP), which was recently used to demonstrate record gain bandwidth products of 315 GHz, is proposed for integration with the silicon preamplifier. The SHIP detector is predicted to have a larger temperature range and greater temperature and voltage stability, important for military applications. These predictions will be investigated here. Linear and square arrays of SHIP APDs integrated with silicon preamplifiers will be investigated at bit rates from 155 Mbit/s to 2.5 Gbit/s.

PIEZOMAX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1006 Starlight Drive
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 274-6176
James MacKay
DARPA 97-057
Title:Advanced Piezoelectric-Positioner Controller for High-Speed Scanning Probe Microscopy
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will investigate the feasibility of an improved control strategy for piezoelectric positioners used in scanned-probe microscopes (SPMs) to increase their speed and reliability for nanocharacterization. Rapid nanocharacterization requires fast motion of the scanned piezo probe with sub-Angstrom vertical resolution and with frequent rapid changes in its axial position. Settling time after a change in the position has been commanded is a serious issue that currently places severe limits on speed and reliability: under present control schemes SPMs cannot be operated anywhere near the resonant frequencies of the piezo element. PIEZOMAX Technologies, Inc. proposes to test the feasibility of an improved control scheme that should allow an order of magnitude increase in scan speed of SPMs by reducing settling time. In the feasibility study the control strategy will be designed, implemented digitally, and tested on a variety of piezoelectric positioners used in SPMs. The effect of noise,passive damping, and detuning of the controller will be investigated and comparisons established with the performance of conventional SPMs. The approach should be applicable to a variety of piezoelectric positioners and thus to a broad range of applications in characterization, inspection, and nanopatterning involving scanned probes.

NANODYNAMICS, INC.
510 E. 73rd St.
New York, NY 10021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 249-2232
Oi Wang
DARPA 97-059
Title:Single Electron Field Effect Transistor (SEFET) Memory on SOI (silicon on insulator) by MBE and in Situ Oxidization
Abstract:Single electron FET (SEFET) has the advantage of nano-scaled devices size, fast charging time and quantized charging voltage, with much lower power. However, the technical requirement and large threshold voltage fluctuation, shift the performance at room temperature resulting in difficulties in its integration. We propose a SEFET with crystalline Si floating gate and channel on EPSOI (epitaxy silicon on insulator) mainly fabricated by MBE with in situ oxidization. This can not only significantly relax the fabrication requirements, improve the performance of SEFET at room temperature, but also, more importantly, provide a more uniform threshold voltage to make this new type of device suitable for integration. The SEFET basically includes control-gate/floating-gate, nano-channel and insulator between gate/channel and channel/substrate. The process for the device is very complicated and highly costly. The silicon channel was typically fabricated on SOI, formed by oxygen ion implantation, followed by deposition of polysilicon layer for floating gate. The difficulty involved in the grain size control of polysilicon affects the performance of the floating gate charge, and ion implantation results in oxygen inclusions and annealing at high temperature. However, our newly developed technology Si/O superlattice is capable of being incorporated into a MBE process of the construction for device structure envisioned in this endeavor.

OVATION INDUSTRIES, INC.
300 First Street N. E.
Rochester, MN 55906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(507) 285-4490
David Braddock, Ph.D.
DARPA 97-060
Title:High-Performance Analog-to-Digital Converters
Abstract:Ovation is committed to becoming a military supplier of high speed analog-to-digital converters (ADC). In this work, we propose to undertake an extensive research and development effort to demonstrate an advanced 2-4 GHz 6-8 effective bit ADC with a spurious free dynamic range of 60-85dB. We intend to achieve this goal through a comprehensive effort that integrates recent advances in materials growth, device technology, circuit design, packaging, and testing. In particular, we propose to employ carbon doped Npn HBT's grown on InP and the revolutionary Transferred-Substrate HBT process recently demonstrated at the University of California, Santa Barbara. A team that includes investigators from both Ovation and the University of California, Santa Barbara has been assembled to meet the challenge of this project. We believe the proposed approach has the potential to realize an ADC that operates at 10 GHz with 6-8 effective bits and 85dB of spurious free dynamic range. Our ultimate goal is to demonstrate ADC's at or above 10 GHz by the end of Phase II, and provide the critical infrastructure necessary to manufacture, package, and test these components for a variety of military and commercial customers.

PHYSICAL RESEARCH, INC.
25500 Hawthorne Blvd., Suite 2300
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 378-0056
Ahmadreza Rofougaran
DARPA 97-060
Title:High Speed Analog to Digital Converter Technology
Abstract:Current advanced as well as future electronic data communications and signal processing requirements for military as well as commercial applications need the operations of analog to digital converters (ADCs) with performances beyond that of commercially available designs. In this Phase I proposal, PRI will develop the architectural design for a new integrated circuit chip set to be housed in a single multi-chip module. This ADC concept consists of an array of bandpass sigma-delta modulator-based ADCs combined with a digital self-calibration scheme. Simulations and analysis will be performed on a 16-bit, 200Ms/s design to establish the feasibility of such a scheme. The bandpass sigma-delta ADC will be based on a PRI design developed on a previous DARPA-sponsored SBIR. Higher resolution will be achieved by using a 3-bit quantizer instead of the 1-bit used in our previous design. The bandpass sigma-delta modulator concept achieves high resolution by over-sampling and noise shaping as demonstrated in our previous work. Decimation filters at the output will filter the shaped quantization noise and provide the desired ADC output. High bandwidths can be achieved by an array of these ADCs where the signals of each ADC are combined to form the final output.

SIERRA MONOLITHICS, INC.
103 W. Torrance Blvd., Suite 102
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 379-2005
David Rowe
DARPA 97-060
Title:High Speed Analog to Digital Converter Using SiGe Technology
Abstract:Sierra Monolithics, Inc. (SMI) proposes to develop a 16-bit, 2 GS/s A/D Converter using a novel Delta-Sigma architecture to achieve the bit resolution and incorporating IBM's Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process for the requisite speed. Commercial A/D converters on silicon or GaAs do not simultaneously provide GHz sampling rate and high 16-bit resolution. In order to satisfy both of these performance criteria for a 100 MHz input signal bandwidth, the device technology has to be fast enough to reduce the sampling aperture jitter down to less than 50 fsec and the digitizing error to 15 V. SMI proposes an A/D converter approach that will meet these requirements. The approach uses IBM's SiGe HBT technology for low jitter (5 fsec), high sample rate (2 GS/s) and a unique Delta-Sigma architecture for the digitizing accuracy. The novel Delta-Sigma architecture uses a second order noise shaping single loop, dynamic element matching for improved DAC accuracy, and linearity enhanced subtraction circuit with an embedded DAC to achieve 16-bit resolution. System design and device simulation for the A/D converter will be performed in Phase I while fabrication and test will be performed in Phase II.

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 Via vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-1195
Sherry Chu
DARPA 97-061
Title:A Reliable Method for Direct Chip Attach for Mixed Technology Integration
Abstract:The emergence of compact products employing mixed technologies, such as personal digital assistants, wireless communicators and sensor systems, is creating a host of new needs in electronics packaging. These products are driven by small size, light weight, high-operating frequencies, unique micro-to-macro interfacing and low-cost. There is a need for a simplified and reliable process for direct chip attachment. Through under-filling the chip with a solid encapsulant, direct chip attach technology is now a reliable method for attachment of small chips to polymeric substrates. The encapsulant redistributes stress in the package from the fatigue-intolerant solder joints. However, the encapsulant's effect is to force the chip and the substrate to take up the strain, bulging the substrate and the chip. This bulging causes its own new set of problems such as making larger chips susceptible to cracking during bending. Another problem is that the degree of bulging, and hence the degree of strain relief, is highly dependent on the flexibility of the structure of the underlying substrate. For MEMs, this bulging will have significant impact on the performance of the device attached. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a new, reliable, compliant direct chip structure that eliminates this bulging. A program to improve direct chip attachment technology is of the highest priority for industry. The realization of this technology will reduce the cost and increase the reliability of a myriad of military and commercial products that require high-density, chip-scale packaging. The improved cost and reliability will impact a broad range of applications with an annual market potential for the technology exceeding $50 million.

ELECTRONIC PACKAGING SERVICES, LTD. CO.
430 Tenth Street, Suite S-002
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 881-1114
Yinyan Wang
DARPA 97-061
Title:Thermomechanical Characterization System for Mixed Technology Electronic Assemblies
Abstract:One approach to wider use of mixed mode technology requires polymer-based packaging materials, which place greater demands on the thermomechanical performance of the package design. Electronic Packaging Services (EPS) proposes to develop a commercial instrument for the experimental measurement of out-of-plane thermal displacements in populated mixed mode electronic assemblies. The system will be based on shadow moire, a full-field non-contact optical technique. Phase stepping analysis, which convolutes multiple moire fringe images with fixed phase differences between them, extends the resolution in out-of-plane displacement measurement below 0.1 mils, automatically identifies contour maxima and minima, and reduces interference from permanent optical features. The sample will be held within an oven combining radiant and convective heating to allow computer-controlled simulation of a variety of manufacturing and testing processes. This project is an extension of analytical services currently provided by EPSto electronics manufacturers. The Phase I objective is construction of a fully-functional laboratory prototype. Specific technical aims include increasing speed and robustness of automated analysis algorithms, handling regions occluded by components, cut-outs, and other features, demonstrating localized heating simulation approaches, and identifying useful reporting formats for out-of-plane displacement information.

MURRAY HILL DEVICES, INC.
133 Colchester Rd.
Murray Hill, NJ 07974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 665-8643
R. Marcus
DARPA 97-061
Title:Microspring Contact Technology
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project involves the development of a new MicroSpring Contract (MSC) technology for making compliant, low-cost silicon backplane interconnects for multi-chip hybrid assemblies and modules. The microsprings are compressible coils about 50 m diameter with sufficient compliance to maintain ohmic contact throughout a continuous displacement of at least 10 m. The use of a silicon wafer as backplane permits the addition of passive components, active IC devices, and transmission lines on the opposite surface for applications involving high-frequency and other critical device dies, connected to microsprings through "vias". MSC technology has additional applications to 2) probe cards for "known-good-die" testing, 3)high-density interconnects for complex chips, and 4) contact/interconnect interfaces in vertically-stacked modules. Essential advantages are 1) high compliance of spring elements to accommodate dies/modules which vary in height, 2) high compliance to maintain contact during motion due to thermal expansion differences, 3) non-permanent nature of contacts for easy replacement of defective modules. While fabrication of a MSC backplane card is the aim of this proposal, the feasibility of MSC technology demonstrated in Phase I is also viewed as a springboard for application of MSC technology to these other areas.

IBIS TECHNOLOGY CORP.
32A Cherry Hill Dr.
Danvers, MA 01923
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 777-4247
Maria Anc
DARPA 97-062
Title:Low-Dose Low-Energy SIMOX for Fully Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI)
Abstract:A program is proposed to investigate and develop thin buried oxide (BOX) SIMOX with quality of silicon and BOX layers suitable to support fully depleted SOI applications with minimum feature size at and below 0.18 um. In Phase I, novel, low dose SIMOX processes in low energy (less than 100keV) regime will be examined. This approach will allow to tailor thin film layer thicknesses by proper choice of implant parameters, employment of the Ibis 1000 implanter with independent temperature and beam current control will allow to achieve low dislocation density silicon layer, and extreme anneal conditions will be used to achieve the best characteristics of silicon and BOX layers. The thrust of the proposed work is to develop the new generation of low cost, high quality SIMOX with improved reproducibility and reliability for advanced commercial and rad hard microelectronics.

ANVIK CORP.
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Thomas Dunn
DARPA 97-063
Title:Maskless Lithography System Based on Spatial Light Modulator Arrays
Abstract:This program addresses the problems associated with current microelectronic lithography systems which utilize masking technology. These problems include: the inability to generate prototype electronic modules quickly; the difficulties associated with generating large-area masks; and the dependence on foreign suppliers for mask substrates. The only available technology which does not require masks is direct-write imaging which suffers from an inherently slow speed due to its serial mode of addressing. In this proposal we present a program which eliminates all of the above shortcomings through the development of Anvik's maskless, large-area, high-throughput, high-resolution lithography system which combines a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) with Anvik's patterning technology. The SLM acts as a programmable mask with high parallel-processing power which replaces the conventional mask. When used in conjunction with Anvik's seamless scanning technology, it can generate any possible pattern with high resolutionover an unlimited area. The proposed program will fill a critical need in the microelectronics manufacturing industry, and also significantly increase US competitiveness in an enabling technology area.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2849 E. Elvira Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
Dmitri Routkevitch
DARPA 97-064
Title:High Aspect Ratio Inorganic Resist for MEMS Structures Fabrication
Abstract:Patterning on the micron and submicron levels with high aspect ratio, high quality edge definition, and low taper of vertical edges is critical for fabrication of advanced microelectromechanical structures. Deep X-ray lithography, used in one of the major existing fabrication processes, LIGA, requires expensive exposure sources, has limited aspect ratio (1:100's), and resolution (about 1 m). Polymer resist, currently used in LIGA, has low mechanical and thermal stability, which limit its processing capabilities. This program seeks to demonstrate a reliable and inexpensive patterning technology based on new inorganic resist with very high etching anistropy and unmatched combination of feature size, resolution, depth of focus, edge definition, adhesion to the substrate, chemical and mechanical stability. Besides being a matrix for depositing microstructures, proposed material can be also used as a structural element for MEMS as well as an active micro- and nano-device component. During Phase I, NRC will demonstrate the proof-of-concept. Phase II will optimize the technology, build and test device prototypes. Phase III will commercialize the technology.

HOLOPLEX
600 South Lake Ave, Suite 102
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 793-9616
Allen Pu
DARPA 97-065
Title:Optically Reconfigurable FPGA
Abstract:We propose to develop integrated optoelectronic modules that combines directly holographic optical memories and integrated silicon circuits. We use a novel phase conjugate readout method that allows direct, lens-less mating of the optical and integrated components resulting in a compact and inexpensive package. The inclusion of detector arrays on the silicon surface results in parallel transfer of data from the optical memory into the electronic circuit at rates in excess of 100Gbits/sec. We propose to use laser diode arrays for accessing individual holograms providing very rapid access to individual pages of stored data. We will concentrate on the development of optically reconfigurable FPGA's. These devices are normally reprogrammed electronically from local memories to perform a variety of logic functions. The direct interface between the optical memory and the FPGA will provide rapid access to a huge set of reconfiguration geometries. Our goals for the Phase I portion of the proposed program are: Design, fabricate, and characterize FPGA chips incorporating detector arrays to allow optical addressing. Design the rapid access optical holographic memory system using switchable laser diode arrays. Perform proof-of-concept experiments to confirm the method. Explore specific application areas for which the optically reconfigurable FPGA's are best suited, including image processing and general purpose parallel computing.

UNIAX CORP.
6780 Cortona Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 562-9293
Gang Yu
DARPA 97-065
Title:Enabling Technology for a New Optical Random Access Memory Architecture
Abstract:Trends in information technology have focused attention on the need for the storage and rapid retrieval of ever-increasing amounts of data in compact media. Incremental improvements in existing systems will be inadequate for meeting long range needs. Hence, system designers have begun to contemplate new storage device architectures. UNIAX Corp. a world leader in the development of optoelectronic devices based on semiconducting polymers, proposes to work with Information Optics Corp. (formed in 1990 by optical data storage pioneer James Russell) to develop a light source array which will enable a concept for a revolutionary new method of portable, high density storage that requires no moving parts. Although now on the verge of commercial introduction, polymer electroluminescent devices are not yet suitable for use in this Optical Random Access Memory (ORAM) system. The emission from these devices is neither narrow enough nor bright enough. However, recent work, performed at a number of academic laboratories around the world, indicates that microcavities built incorporating electroluminescent polymers have characteristics suitable for the ORAM application. The following proposal outlines a program which UNIAX will undertake to examine this possibility. If successful, Phase II would include the demonstration of an ORAM system incorporating this device.

KAB LABORATORIES, INC.
3116 Mercer Lane
San Diego, CA 92122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-5361
John Konotchick
DARPA 97-066
Title:Portable Electric Power Generator
Abstract:For the past six years KAB Laboratories, Inc. has been investigating various techniques for extracting electrical power from linear mechanical motion. It has built, tested, patented, and licensed devices to do this. The electric power generation techniques used can extract electric power from the slightest movement of the devices, and can be made in a variety of form-fit shapes. Devices have been made which, when worn or carried, will power a radio, a flashlight, and create a self-charging battery. The work to date has mostly defined the concept and explored some useful applications. It is the objective of this proposal to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology to develop sufficient electric power for portable computing (and other uses) from the normal movement available in activities such as walking, riding in a vehicle, etc. This will be done by measuring the available mechanical energy present in a variety of activities, designing devices to enhance electric power generation from those activities, and testing the resultant designs to determine their actual power generation potential and efficiency.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8302 Lincoln Lane, Suite 103
Mc Lean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-7564
Sherry Marcus
DARPA 97-067
Title:Data Mining Techniques for Plan Sentinel Development
Abstract:We propose a plan sentinel prototype consisting of three components. The first component is the development of a plan mining tool which identifies and computes false or missing assumptions and deviations to plans and time phased tasks. The second component, the annotated database, computes plans which the plan mining tool access and parses into a logical annotated rule set. Finally, MAVIS, a tool developed by 21st Century Technologies, shall integrate data from diverse sources and databases for the purpose of regenerating plans. We use Oracle's database and development tools for the implementation of the proposed plan sentinel prototype. Probabilistic and Temporal Reasoning Systems are deployed to solve the requirements outlined within this effort.

PARALLELIZATION, INC.
100 West Jefferson St., Suite 102
Falls Church, VA 22046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 532-5501
John Ko
DARPA 97-068
Title:Multi-Platform Real-Time 3-D Visualization System for Urban Environments and 3-D Terrain Imagery
Abstract:There is an explosion of 3-D graphics technology in the mainstream commercial market. A $10,000 3-D graphics PC outperforms a $100,000 UNIX 3-D graphics workstation in virtually all aspects, in particular the 3-D rendering speed. We have an opportunity to exploit this new technology so every analyst or war-fighter can use their desktop PC to visualize in real-time 3-D urban and terrain data. In the past, DoD users have relied on shared or limited access to real-time 3-D graphics computer systems. Our objective is to design, prototype, and demonstrate a distributed, 3-D virtual "white-board", where the background is unlimited imagery draped terrain and the markings are complex 3-D models that make up an urban scene. By using mainstream technology, the virtual white-board will be as easy to use as a conventional electronic white-board. There are two major technical objectives: 1) design a client/server architecture, where unlimited terrain and urban data, and behavioral information are distributed to clients for real-time 3-D visualization; and 2) rapidly prototype the designed system with two different PC based clients served by a single data server.

ALPHATECH, INC.
Executive Place III, 50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 273-3388
Thomas Kurien
DARPA 97-069
Title:Continous All-Source Region Monitoring
Abstract:In this effort we will design and demonstrate the benefits of an integrated fusion system (IFS) for continuous monitoring of targets. The proposed IFS architecture will ensure that all available sensor data is used to generate a consistent picture of target tracks and activities, and it will enable processing of data from each sensor to be cued based on all available information. We will specify components of the architecture for which algorithms already exist, and we will describe our plans to demonstrate benefits of IFS to potential users. We will also specify our plans to generate a top-level software design for IFS, and how this design can be mapped onto an operational system (e.g., Army CGS). Our expertise, built over the last two decades, in the areas of multi-target tracking, intel and image fusion, and force pattern analysis will ensure that we can achieve the above objectives. Our current participation in major DARPA battlespace awareness programs will provide cross-fertilization of ideas amongst these programs and avoid duplication of efforts. Finally, our ongoing effort for Motorola to integrate our target tracking algorithm into CGS will ensure that our design supports user information and interface requirements.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 Court St, Suite 210
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 798-1377
James Graham
DARPA 97-070
Title:Innovative Approaches for Embedded Real-Time UHF/VHF SAR Image Formation
Abstract:There is a critical need for an all weather capability to detect and classify military targets concealed in foliage and/or camouflage. Recent advances in high resolutions synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology, operating at low frequencies (VHF-UHF), have demonstrated significant capability for detection and classification of such targets. However, one of the primary difficulties is the significant amount of processing throughput and memory required to realize real-time operation. Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI) proposes an implementation which leverages the high throughput of various specialized DSP devices by integrating them into a highly efficient heterogeneous parallel processor optimized for the FOPEN SAR function. Algorithm alternatives, partitioning, and parametric trades will be evaluated with the purpose of achieving maximum algorithm-hardware synergy. Improvements in critical processing performance areas will be demonstrated using representative hardware components, such as SHARP's BDSP 9124block floating point device, which will be integrated into ISI's Mercury based heterogeneous test bed. By making judicious algorithm tradeoffs and carefully matching specific processing resources to different aspects of the problem, one can reasonably expect an order of magnitude improvement in performance. A strawman design for a Phase II real-time heterogeneous processor will also be developed.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
2950 31st Street, Suite 200
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 450-9755
Randy van Daalen Wetters
DARPA 97-070
Title:Multi-Stage Processing for UHF/VHF SAR Image Formation
Abstract:Current radar technology for the detection, location and targeting of fixed and mobile targets hidden by foliage or camouflaged is severely limited. These systems typically operate in the UHF/VHF band using ultra-wideband, synthetic aperture techniques to obtain high resolution images of concealed targets. Algorithms used to form images are very complex in order to compensate for platform motion effects such as differential range curvature, widebeam motion compensation, autofocus, and environmental effects such as RF interference. TSC, along with our subcontractor, ERIM, proposes to develop, evaluate, and compare various image formation algorithms. A 2-stage process will be emphasized, in which data is first formed into a number of smaller subpatches, then combined to obtain the full desired aperture. Techniques to be investigated will include Range Migration Algorithm (RMA), RMA with Subchirp Processing, Planar Subarray Processing and BackProjection. As a Phase I goal, image formation algorithms will bedefined and evaluated for performance against a set of metrics. Signal processor architectures and COTS hardware with the requisite power necessary for real-time implementation will be investigated. At the conclusion of Phase I, one or more algorithm suites and a COTS hardware implementation will be recommended for development in Phase II.

GENERAL REALITY CORP.
124 Race Street
San Jose, CA 95126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 289-8340
Arthur Zwern
DARPA 97-071
Title:Vision-Assisted Controlled Imagery Acquisition (VACIA) System
Abstract:Acquisition of metrically-accurate imagery under field conditions is of growing importance in DoD applications such as 3-D scene reconstruction, but current methods are ad-hoc and costly because no existing products combine metrically accurate sensors with high-precision position and pose data. General Reality Corporation (GRC) and subcontractor Korbin Systems Incorporated (KSI) propose to solve this problem by developing a modular, scalable, COTS architecture and system applicable to a wide range of controlled image acquisition tasks, using a portable 3U CompactPCI running a WindowsNT real-time OS to host multiple calibrated imagers. The proposed system will incorporate a novel vision-assisted approach for obtaining highly accurate position and orientation data even during poor GPS reception in urban canyons. Our approach establishes feature correspondences between image frames, and uses correspondence information in a Kalman filter to correct inertial measurement device drift and to bridge across sparse GPS data. Expected results include geospatial/pose accuracy to in/mrad levels, sufficient to enable a new generation of image-based 3-D reconstruction applications such as automated surveying. The proposed Phase I effort will provide a strong foundation for rapid implementation and field validation during Phase II by delivering a complete requirements analysis using inputs from NIMA, DMSO, and image understanding researchers, system design to the hardware component/software flowchart level, and design, empirical validation, and simulation of the proposed navigation solution.

ARCA SYSTEMS, INC.
8229 Boone Blvd, Suite 750
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 734-5611
Gary Grossman
DARPA 97-072
Title:Automated Intrusion Detection for GCCS Les
Abstract:Arca Systems proposes to initiate the design and development of an intrusion detection system for the GCCS LES (and similar environments). Many current intrusion detection tools are Unix-based, focused on a single host or on a generally homogeneous distributed environment. The notional GCCS LES environment makes extensive use of distributed architecture, using support from the COTS technologies DCE and CORBA. The concepts of users, permissions, identification and authentication, and audit, which are central to existing intrusion detection tools, may vary significantly in the GCCS LES. Arca Systems proposes to identify a class of detectable intrusion in GCCS LES and determine what data items need to be analyzed to detect such intrusions. This analysis will be performed both by porting existing intrusion detection tools to the GCCS LES environment and by extending and modifying those tools. These tools will be developed to the robust prototype stage.

OBSERVERA, INC.
P.O. Box 6309
Alexandria, VA 22306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 360-8225
Curtis Kelly
DARPA 97-073
Title:Automated Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Quality Assessment
Abstract:For this Phase I effort, Observera proposes to develop an attribute based system for automated image quality assessment of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery. Observera's expertise in SAR image analysis, image quality assessment and digital image processing algorithms are uniquely suited to this program. The imagery community uses the Radar National Imagery Interpretation Rating System (RNIIRS) as a metric to describe SAR image quality as a function of image utility in task performance. However, RNIIRS is derived from subjective, scene dependent criteria ill suited to automation. Observera personnel have participated in recent studies have correlated RNIIRS with the image domain attributes of brightness, focus, contrast and noise. We will demonstrate that these attributes can be measured algorithmically in formed digital SAR imagery. The metrics from these algorithms will be fed into a classifier that analyzes the metrics and outputs an image quality score that can be correlated back to an RNIIRS rating. This measures the potential usability of the imagery with respect to predicted quality based on collection parameters. Observera will deliver image quality algorithms to measure the attributes of brightness, contrast, focus and noise, as well as a classifier to determine quality based on analysis of these measurements.

ALPHATECH, INC.
Executive Place III, 50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 273-3388
Simon Streltsov
DARPA 97-074
Title:Unsupervised Pattern Analysis of Vehicle Tracks
Abstract:In this effort ALPHATECH will develop algorithms for extraction of purposeful temporal-spatial patterns from moving vehicle data and demonstrate their efficiency on a set of simulated MPA scenarios. We apply unsupervised learning algorithms to find similarities between traffic activities. Traffic activities are constructed using ALPHATECH's multiple hypothesis tracking algorithm and grouping correlated tracks into most probable activities. We use clustering techniques in order to identify motion patterns as groups of similar activities where similarity is defined based on the features inferred from MTI observations. In order to develop a full set of traffic activity features, we will perform Bayes Net estimation of kinematic and motion vehicle/group attributes and traffic centers analysis. Discovered clusters can be used to describe motion patterns in high-level terms for interaction with experts, to build statistical models of the motion patterns and ambient traffic, and to predict future traffic activities. We will perform feasibility and feature importance analysis by simulating known military patterns embedded into ambient traffic. Scenarios will be generated using existing ALPHATECH behavior pattern and motion target generators.

ODYSSEY RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
301 Dates Drive
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 277-2020
Roshan Thomas
DARPA 97-075
Title:Open Architecture Security Tools
Abstract:In this research proposal, we seek to develop two key technologies that will advance the state-of-the-art in security engineering. First we wish to develop a Secure Component Integration Protocol (SCIP) that will allow a message-based, protocol-driven approach to integration and interoperability of security components. Secondly, we propose to develop a set of security component application programming interfaces (SCAPIs) that will be built on top of SCIP for specific component types or security areas. These APIs will package the services offered by individual components so they can be used in a variety of applications. Collectively, the SCIP protocol and SCAPIs will make it possible to build security tools and solutions using a component-based approach. This will enable plug and play among products such as firewalls, intrusion detection tools, routers, etc. even when different vendors supply them. Our long-term vision is to create a component market in security. To enable this, we will seek industry and vendor acceptance by forming a standards body to evolve the SCIP protocol and SCAPIs.

SECURE COMPUTING CORP.
2675 Long Lake Road
Roseville, MN 55113
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 628-1544
Timothy Tiemens
DARPA 97-075
Title:Local Security API
Abstract:Distributed computing technology is making it possible for information based organizations to realize long promised benefits. But the low degree of security standardization available from distributed and local computing environments inhibits this realization. This proposal is firmly directed toward solving the distributed problem by solving the local problem first. By creating a solid Local Security Application Program Interface (LS API), we create a basis which supports both the distributed object implementations and the definition of the distributed API itself. This API is partitioned into sections (miniature APIs), where each section is governed by frameworks and is implemented by modules. This project will produce Local Security API sections, a process to produce more sections, and a plan to realize the API sections from existing components.

QUALTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
66 Davis Road
Storrs, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 423-3659
Amit Mathur
DARPA 97-076
Title:A Multi-Signal Modeling Environment for Network Fault Monitoring
Abstract:We propose to develop a comprehensive environment for fault monitoring and diagnostics of heterogeneous networks, utilizing Qualtech Systems' (QSI) core technologies in a suite of commercial tools presently used for modeling, maintenance and troubleshooting of hybrid systems. Unlike currently available tools, the proposed technology will not only perform efficient on-line fault isolation using network alarm correlation, but also support interactive diagnosis by network operators using subsequent drill-down tests, support both single and multiple fault isolation, and handle unreliable test results. The proposed effort will be conducted in consultation with BBN Corp., an industry leader and pioneer in the development and advancement of network technologies. The complementary capabilities of QSI and BBN make the QSI-BBN collaboration a strong team for this effort. In Phase I, the QSI-BBN team proposes to enhance the GUI in QSI's tool TEAMS and its underlying multi-signal modeling methodology in developing a network performance modeling tool (TEAMS-NP). The proposed TEAMS-NP modeling environment will treat network objects (sources of faults) as modules and the exceptional events as signals. The utility of the developed technologies will be demonstrated on an RSVP session for multimedia applications. In Phase II, TEAMS-NP will be integrated with QSI's real-time and interactive diagnostic tools TEAMS-RT and TEAMATE, into a monitoring system.

SYNECTICS CORP.
111 East Chestnut Street
Rome, NY 13440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 337-3510
Joseph Riolo
DARPA 97-076
Title:Real-Time Network Management
Abstract:The objective of this proposed program is to model and implement an object-oriented system for monitoring and diagnosing computer network and service problems in real-time. The system comprises four major subsystems, viz. the network modeling subsystem, the monitoring subsystem, the diagnostic subsystem, and the user interface subsystem. All four subsystems access a database that stores, in particular, the network models and performance logs. The system is envisioned to utilize continuous time Markov chains, multiclass queuing networks, and stochastic petri nets as the underlying mathematical description of the managed network assumes that standardized mechanisms such as SNMP agents (up to the RMON 2 level) are available to provide real-time network data, and is implemented through well-established object-oriented practices. In particular, the architecture of the proposed system is defined by an object model that logically describes the managing and managed entities of the network, their static relationships, and dynamic interactions. The Phase I prototype of the proposed system is implemented in the Java language, JMAPI (Java Management API) and JDBC (the Java Data Base Connectivity API).

TAGOSOFT, INC.
6119 114th Ave. NE
Kirkland, WA 98033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 822-4128
Ramon Pantin
DARPA 97-077
Title:Accelerated Network Protocols by Intelligent Intermediate Networking Elements
Abstract:TagoSoft, Inc. proposes to investigate and simulate a set of Internet protocols that achieves better throughput by utilizing multi-layer protocol knowledge. This effort will focus in a class of improvements that take advantage of processing capabilities in intermediate network components, and will take into account the software/hardware characteristics of next generation scaleable intermediate network componentry: clustered routers; continuously available clusters of servers that additionally provide continuously available routing; replicated and hierarchical caching servers that transparently reduce network load presented by next generation information appliances (NCs and NetPCs) while providing additional service availability. It is very important to preserve the current availability properties of Internet protocols, which only rely on the availability of the end systems. Intelligent protocol processing done at intermediate elements must not transform the intermediate elements into statefull elements required for the proper operation of Internet protocols. TagoSoft has done significant R&D (ICCOS) in the development of Internet protocol software for next generation scaleable network components, and we expect significant synergy between these efforts. A set of initial (confidential) protocol changes to be investigated is described in this proposal.

OPTIMIZATION TECHNOLOGY, INC.
125 West Park Loop, Suite 201
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 721-1288
Robert Cox
DARPA 97-078
Title:Large-Scale Distributed / Parallel System Performance Simulation (LDPsim)
Abstract:OTI proposes research leading to the construction of a prototype Large Parallel/Distributed system simulation (LDPsim) tool. This tool will provide an automated simulation generation and analysis environment supporting performance analysis and design for large complex parallel and distributed systems. A powerful set of analysis tools, integrated into a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, provides rapid performance analysis of alternative hardware and software configurations while maintaining a high degree of accuracy in performance predictions. The framework is based upon object technology, with all simulation scenarios, simulation models, simulation experiment data sets, and simulation analysis results constructed, manipulated, and stored as objects. Rapid construction of complete simulation scenarios is facilitated by the instantiation of new model instances from a predefined library of model definitions. Integration of new component models, possibly utilizing different underlying modeling techniques and levels of fidelity, is facilitated by encapsulating the implementation details of each model as an object must conform to a standard discrete event message passing paradigm. The implementation of a given object's operations is unconstrained, providing the analyst the maximum possible degree of freedom in selection of simulation techniques for each model.

SCALABLE SYSTEM SOLUTIONS
10495 Colina Way
Los Angeles, CA 90077
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 475-1919
Jay Martin
DARPA 97-078
Title:IMPACT: Integrated Multilevel Performance Framework for Scalable Systems
Abstract:The current state-of-art in performance technology does not facilitate detailed performance evaluation of complex, large scale systems. The aim of this proposal is to design IMPACT, an integrated performance framework that can be used to measure the performance of operational systems and to extrapolate those measurements into performance predictions for alternative machine configurations. IMPACT will use multi-level, hierarchical models to support end-end performance models of systems that include application level, system software level, and hardware level models. Where feasible, direct execution will be used to integrate measurements on operational system components. The framework will support modeling of subsystems at multiple levels of granularity, and the composition of a model from such multi-level models. It will also incorporate parallel simulation technology as a modular option such that parallelism can be explored in an iterative manner during the model development cycle. The Phase I report will produce a detailed design and requirements analysis for the framework. To demonstrate its feasibility, a simple library of models will be prototyped to simulate hardware, software, and application levels of a parallel database system that can simulate sample queries from the TPC-D benchmark suite.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4364
Dan Deguire
DARPA 97-079
Title:SEA Snoop-A Mobile Oceanographic Sensor Suite
Abstract:Foster-Miller will build on the highly mobile and long range (9 mi) bottom crawling systems of the Lemmings family of vehicles, used to perform surveillance and reconnaissance in the shallow water (SW) and very shallow water (VSW) regimes. Lemmings, Sea Dog and in-house research efforts have attached a variety of sensors including acoustic, optical, bottom condition and water-column characterization instruments with great success. Single units can measure in both the look-up or look-out mode and they have intimate contact with the bottom for direct sea floor measurements. Used in groups, the Lemmings can perform across-volume characterization. The advantages of operating directly in the highly turbid and turbulent VSW and SZ are significant and unique to the Lemmings system. In addition, the time and spatial varying capability minimizes point-measurement bias and greatly improves the large area understanding.

MOBILE INTELLIGENCE CORP., THE
7963 Pine Hollow Drive, SE
Alto, MI 49302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 554-4639
Douglas MacKenzie
DARPA 97-080
Title:Voice and Graphical Command and Control for Mobile Robots
Abstract:Typically, operator interaction with mobile robots has been via standard mouse and keyboard entry using computer workstations. While this suffices for laboratory experiments, it is unmanageable for field deployment of robotics. This is especially true when the operator, and thus the operator console, must go into the field with the robots (i.e., the UGV program). Dragging along a large, cumbersome operator is not viable for soldiers whose lives and missions depend on moving quickly and unobtrusively. To overcome these limitations, Mobile Intelligence Corporation proposes a Phase I project to demonstrate a multi-modal operator interface for robot command and control. The robot commander will be able to use both a simplified graphical interface which has undergone formal usability evaluation and structured English input/output over FM radios. The speech and graphical interfaces will be integrated to allow either to control missions. This technology will culminate in allowing soldiers in the field to command and control robots using their existing voice radios or a laptop computer. A possible scenario is to create and archive stereotypical mission segments using the graphical interface and these mission components are invoked, parameterized, and monitored in the field via the voice interface.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Ave. Bldg. #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 549-8211
Chris Saunders
DARPA 97-081
Title:A Micro Tactical Grade INS using MEMS Technology and a Multiple Sensors Adaptive Filler (MSAF)
Abstract:Irvine Sensors Corporation proposes the development of a Multiple Sensors Adaptive Filter (MSAF) to provide a Tactical Grade INS using MEMS Technology in a smaller (two cubic inch) package, at lower power and lower cost than other approaches. The MSAF is a custom IC that will perform complex filtering on multiple sensor inputs, Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) and combine the sensor results into one digital output. The goal of MSAF development is to improve the performance of MEMS sensors by using multiple sensors and multiple adaptive filters in one IC. This approach is useful for MEMS inertial sensors, such as micro accelerometers and gyroscopes, that are low cost and miniature in size, but are limited in performance. By using MSAF, a module of multiple sensors can improve the INS accuracy for many military and commercial applications, and still achieve lower cost than present solutions. The MSAF chip is integrated with multiple sensors using ISC 3-D stacking technique to achieve optimum size and performance. MSAF combines two filters: as Neural Adaptive Pre-Filter (NAF), and a Wavelet Transform Filter (WTF). MSAF is ideally suited to remove electronic noise, non-linearity, and performance degradation. MSAF also provides the fault-tolerant capability for the system.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First St
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0875
Richard Torti
DARPA 97-081
Title:LIGA Microfabricated Inertial Navigation System
Abstract:DARPA wishes to exploit MEMS technology to develop a tactical grade INS. SatCon is proposing to develop an angular rate sensor combined with an accelerometer which are microfabricated on a single "chip" using the LIGA lithographic process. The accelerometer element employs a rebalanced cantilever, oriented orthogonally to the substrate, while the rate sensor uses a vibrating cylinder sensitive to rotation through Coriolis effects. The topology is simple but well-suited for moderate sensitivity, high shock performance. Acceleration can be sensed in two axes parallel to the substrate, while angular rate is detectable along the perpendicular axis. Only one structural layer is required, eliminating the complexity of overhanging features or structure-to-structure bonding. Both actuation and sensing is done electrostatically. During Phase I, half-height, but fully testable versions of the sensing structures will be fabricated by our microfabrication foundry, LSU/CAMD from a mask set already under development. The electronics to both drive and sense both the cylinder gyroscope and cantilever accelerometer will be built up and used to electronically characterize the seductress. Based upon the test results a prototype design for Phase II will be developed. Additionally, an approach to the guidance processing which accommodates the special characteristics of the performance of the sensing elements will be developed. In Phase II, prototype versions of the accelerometer structures will be fabricated from a full set of masks, operated with drive and sensing electronics under test conditions with appropriate INS software and made available to DARPA.

WELCH ENGINEERING, LTD.
15200 Shady Grove Rd, Suite 350
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 947-5173
Quang Lam
DARPA 97-081
Title:Tactical Grade Inertial Navigation System (INS) Using Microelectromechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology
Abstract:The Welch Engineering and Hughes Space and Communications (WE/HSC) team is pleased to propose a universal Inertial Navigation System (INS) enabled by Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. We will leverage Welch Engineering's expertise in inertial navigation system software design for space and ground applications and HSC's extensive internal MEMS R&D and several of its MEMS research partnerships for the more stringent space INS applications. With our relevant expertise, we will define requirements and identify MEMS sensors from proven single-crystal-silicon designs that have the hallmarks of navigation grade inertial sensors. Custom low-power digital CMOS for sensor compensation, control and I/O will complement this high performance MEMS and is also key to our compact universal design. The basic MEMS-based IMU performance will be enhanced and further optimized using a two-layered software compensation approach via unaided and aided fashion to provide a robust navigation solution. The overall compensation scheme will be architected for maximum reuse and plug-and-play utility for future component interchangeability. The Phase I success will set the stage for building a breadboard of the universal INS using a Commercial-off-the-shelf PC product development system in Phase II and the laboratory or field demonstration of the complete INS and an integrated GPS/INS.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4379
Arnis Mangolds
DARPA 97-082
Title:Stick-Um: Robotic Attachment to Moving Vehicles
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to build on its previous work on robotic attachment of packages to moving vehicles. It has found that a combination of acoustic and seismic with z-direction magnetic signature can positively identify the vehicle type as well as provide a decision for a launch point. We have also shown through experiment that a mechanical clamp, certain adhesives and magnetics, pyrotechnically launched, can attach themselves to vehicles moving 30 mph. A hybrid system including all three components is proposed as well as two different means of launching, including signature suppressed pyrotechnic and a wholly fluidic means. A robotic delivery vehicle based on the tracked Lemmings will bring the launch package to the launch site. The proposed Phase I effort will include all full scale hardware experiments of all of the critical subsystems.

OMNITECH ROBOTICS, INC.
2640 S. Raritan Circle
Englewood, CO 80110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 922-7773
Sidney Gluckman
DARPA 97-082
Title:Robotic Mechanisms Capable of Attaching Themselves to Moving Ground Vehicles
Abstract:This proposal introduces an innovative robotic mechanism and control system designed to localize, track, and attach itself to a moving ground vehicle. Our proposed design is presented in detail, however the Phase I effort will evaluated a range of alternatives for all major components using a Kepner Tregoe analysis. This vehicle has many applications such as tracking and targeting enemy vehicles, reconaissance, miscelaneous payload delivery, and restricted facility entrance. The proposed system would be capable of both supervised teleoperated control and unsupervised autonomous control. Utilizing an optimized radio control car chassis and a modular control system design the robot will be capable of traversing a variety of terrains and engaging many different types of vehicles. An innovative mechanical engagement system is proposed. A collection of behavior control algorithms utilizing an optimized navigational sensor suite govern the robot's navigation, control, and the deployment of the mechanical engagement system. Target acquisition, tracking, engagement, and obstacle avoidance are all supported behaviors using a suite of sensors including a visual tracking system for real-time control.

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3275 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 281-1948
Guy Mattson
DARPA 97-083
Title:Man Portable Smoke Generator Using Flash Vaporization Dissemination
Abstract:Engineering Technology, Incorporated (ETI) proposes the design and development of a portable backpack smoke generator for Small Unit Combat, Non-confrontational Combat and National Institute of Justice Applications. The device shall be capable of producing sustained "visible" obscurants, effective in the visible and near-IR wavelengths, but transparent at longer wavelengths. The proposed system shall form the obscurant via the "flash atomization" of gelled gases combined with a solid particle visible obscurant, titanium dioxide (TiO2). The smoke generator shall function essentially like a conventional fire extinguisher, but will be capable of enhanced powder dissemination due to the vaporization of a carbon dioxide carrier gas. Benefits of the proposed system over current technology include low cost, non-toxic, high extinction coefficient obscurant material; low cost production of the filled obscurant cylinder; high efficiency dissemination of near-monodisperse smoke particles; proven shelf life of pressurized containers; and extremely simple operation.

ELECTRONIC PACKAGING SERVICES, LTD. CO.
430 Tenth Street, Suite S-002
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 881-1114
Yinyan Wang
DARPA 97-084
Title:Shadow Moire System for Large Area Substrate Thermal Deformation Measurement
Abstract:Electronic Packaging Services (EPS) proposes to develop a commercial instrument for the experimental measurement of out-of-plane thermal displacements for large area electronic substrates. The system will be based on shadow moire, a full-field non-contact optical technique. Phase stepping analysis, which convolutes multiple moire fringe images with fixed phase differences between them, extends the resolution in out-of-plane displacement measurement below 0.1 mils, automatically identifies contour maxima and minima, and reduces interference from permanent optical features. The sample will be held within an oven combining radiant and convective heating to allow computer-controlled simulation of a variety of manufacturing and testing processes. This project is an extension of analytical services currently provided by EPS to electronics manufacturers. The Phase I objective is construction of a full-scale laboratory prototype. Specific technical aims include scaling equipment to 24" x 24" sample areas,increasing speed and robustness of automated analysis algorithms, demonstrating uniform temperature control over large samples, and identifying useful reporting formats for out-of-plane displacement information.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 103
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Indu Saxena
DARPA 97-085
Title:Single-Ended Optical Fiber Stress Monitor
Abstract:Physical Optics Corp. proposes a new method of stress profiling in optical fiber data links. The proposed method, based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and fiber Bragg gratings, will measure the spectral shift caused by stress changes. The system is single ended, allowing the monitoring station to be at the pay-out end of the fiber. The dual measurement also enables cross calibration against temperature changes. The Phase I effort is expected to result in an improved single ended optical fiber stress profilometer (SEOFS) based on Brillouin scattering and fiber Bragg gratings that measure stresses of about 100 N/m2. The success of this project will lead to SEOFS devices that will measure and prevent stress buildup during winding and unwinding of optical fiber from optical fiber bobbins, preventing breakage. While making deployment of fiber more efficient, the SEOFS device will also meet a crucial diagnostic need in the optical fiber industry.

FOCUSED RESEARCH, INC.
555 Science Dr., Suite E
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 238-2455
Robert Marshland
DARPA 97-086
Title:High-Optical-Power, Wideband Distributed Photodetectors for Optical RF Interconnects
Abstract:We propose, in this Phase I program, to study the feasibility of InP-based Velocity Matched Distributed Photodetectors (VMDP) for operation at 1.55 m wavelength. The VMDP offers the possibility of high-power (100 mW), Wide bandwidth (up to 100 GHz) operation by combining the outputs of many photodetector elements along a transmission line. The basic concept has been demonstrated for the GaAs-based system for operation at 860 nm using MSM detector elements and e-beam lithography. We will investigate the adaptation to the InP-based system and the use of Schottky photodetector elements that do not require e-beam lithography to reach 100 GHz speeds. The approach is to design, model, and fabricate a series of test structures that allow the optical waveguide, electrical transmission line, photodetector, and integration challenges to be fully assessed. A successful program will provide sufficient data to evaluate feasibility of the InP-based VMDP structure, compare the MSM and Schottky diode approaches, and plan a technology development program for Phase II.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4047
Paul Haugsjaa
DARPA 97-086
Title:High-Power, Wideband Analog Optical Reciever
Abstract:Foster-Miller, a company committed to growth in the commercialization of optical communications products, proposes to conduct a Phase I SBIR effort directed towards the development of a wideband optical receiver. This development has goals for performance of the receiver that include operational bandwidths of 20 - 100 GHz for linear operation at power levels of greater than 20 mW of optical power at optical wavelengths of 1.3 and 1.55 m. Foster-Miller will apply experience in optical waveguides, optoelectronic packaging, and rf modules to the selection of technical approaches to be modeled for optical and mm-wave performance, selecting the most promising technology for breadboard experimentation. A travelling-wave photodetector coupled to Foster-Miller's embedded optical waveguide technology is a likely approach. Phase II of the program will involve implementation of a receiver prototype and demonstration of the wideband optical receiver technology in a link testbed.

ASTRON CORP.
22560 Glenn Drive, Suite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Joseph Jaohda
DARPA 97-087
Title:Continuous Apertures
Abstract:The program objective is to develop novel designs, techniques, and structures to synthesize apertures capable of efficient operation over broad frequency ranges and functions. Conventional apertures are narrowly focused, application specific, and basically single point design. To decrease the cost of antennas, a more universal building block design is required. It would provide a significantly broadband frequency coverage to meet the requirements of multiple opportunities; a multipoint design. The wider the market for this universal antenna, the lower its cost.

DYNETICS, INC.
P.O. Box 5500
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 922-9230
Keith Harris
DARPA 97-087
Title:Continuous Apertures Using Aggregate Patch Elements (APEs)
Abstract:Dynetics proposes the use of Aggregatable Patch Elements (APEs) as a potential solution for synthesis of arbitrary antenna performance from a near continuum of small patch elements. This solution is based on the innovative concept of integration of element switching directly on the array surface. A large field of small patches will allow considerable latitude in synthesis of a patch array because multiples of the small patches may be aggregated to form larger patches which will serve as radiators. These larger patches may be used in ways consistent with conventional patch array design. This technology can be used over extremely broad frequency ranges, limited only by the performance of the switching devices employed in the aperture. Lattice spacing of the conventional patch array thus formed will remain proportional to the wavelength of operation, maintaining good control of grating lobes. Power requirements on the switching devices (PIN diodes or GaAs switches, for example) are low relative to both thetotal radiated power and the patch element radiated power because the incident RF power is distributed over several devices. With appropriate dual (or asymmetric) feeds this concept can support any required polarization (even dual or variable polarization).

CENTER FOR REMOTE SENSING, INC.
P.O. Box 9244
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 848-0800
Suman Ganguly
DARPA 97-088
Title:Digital Wideband Electromagnetic Sensor
Abstract:Improved magnetic and electromagnetic sensors covering a wide range of frequencies, 0 to 10kHz, and with extremely high sensitivity are proposed for broad area detection and characterization of underground targets. The sensors can be used for a variety of applications and for different e.m. sources. They can be configured as gradiometers, as vector or scaler sensors and can be used as internetted ground sensors, as well as from UAV. The improved generic sensors will find numerous applications for diverse types of tunnel detection problems using passive and active techniques as well as for detecting activities in the tunnel. The improvements will be made in terms of stability, ruggedness, compactness, low-power requirements, as well as for superior noise cancellation and signal processing schemes. Complete digital system is proposed to attain the desired characteristics.

CODAR OCEAN SENSORS, LTD.
1000 Fremont Ave, Suite K
Los Altos, CA 94024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 773-8240
Donald Barrick
DARPA 97-088
Title:ELF/VLF Electromagnetic Detection and Characterization of Deeply Buried Targets
Abstract:We propose to provide a numerical capability to map the ELF/VLF electric and magnetic fields above the ground, as perturbed by threat underground structures of interest to the DoD. MATLAB source code will be delivered that will produce these perturbed fields as a function of radio frequency, as well as values for the unperturbed background field and the external noise. The latter two signals are the primary limiting factors to the sensitivity of any low-frequency surveillance system. Two sources will be employed in the calculations of the perturbed fields: 1) distant HAARP/HIPAS low-frequency modulated signals; 2) a local source, for example from a coil near the surveillance area. This phenomenological capability is sorely lacking at present, as various sensor and surveillance concepts are being designed and offered for subsurface monitoring. There is little basis for assessing feasibility or performance effectiveness among proposed candidates. The MATLAB package we will deliver will be comprised of extensive tools our company already has in place, modified and adapted to handle subsurface DoD threat objects and the above two radio signal sources. Example calculations will be provided to demonstrate how the code is used, and to give feasibility estimates for the most obvious system implementations of such sensors. The output of Phase I will form the basis of the Phase II effort to: a) design, model, prototype, and test and ELF/VLF sensor, and b) use ELF/VLF field maps to examine the methodology for inverting/extracting information about underground structures.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State St, PO Drawer 719
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 347-1118
Jerry Cole
DARPA 97-088
Title:Remote Sound Sensing to Detect and Characterize Deeply Buried Targets
Abstract:Discovering, locating, and characterizing foreign buried facilities remotely is a high National priority. Most buried facility has machinery that emits acoustic energy through outside vents that possibly has uniquely identifiable spectra. MRC has a novel proprietary laser sensor for remote sound sensing possibly capable of detecting and characterizing target emissions from buried targets. Feasibility to detect and recover acoustic waveforms is proven in four existing contracts and one previous contract. MRC made measurements (Internal Research) at a US buried facility. Analysis of data from the target and background acoustic signals indicates significant differences (sound levels and spectra) that should be detectable and possibly identifiable at useful operational ranges. In this project MRC will 1) develop an estimate of the foreign target acoustic signatures based on measured data, technical material, and other Government data; 2) develop potential system operational concept options for various platforms; 3) develop a sensor technology feasibility assessment of our sensor and a system concept design including a technology roadmap; 4) produce estimates for unit cost of system components, producibility of technology components, and develop system requirements for system support elements; and 5)develop and deliver a final report including all results and recommendations for Phase II.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Dr.
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-5530
S Marple
DARPA 97-088
Title:Autonomous Underground Microborer for Characterization of Deeply Buried Underground Facilities
Abstract:Although construction and entrances of deeply buried underground facilities (UGFs) may be detected by remote surveillance assets available to U.S. forces, detailed internal characterization and 24-hour monitoring of denied access facilities cannot be accomplished by current remote sensors and has therefore depended heavily on human intelligence (humint) resources, which are often not available or may be unreliable. An innovative system concept is presented for a stealthy autonomous underground microborer (AUM) to deliver sensors to designated positions near or into a UGF by microboring through the ground with a rock-melting penetrator. For an entrance monitoring mission, the AUM would carry electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) imaging and/or audio sensors periscoped to ground level near an entrance. For a UGF mapping mission, the AUM would carry a ground-penetrating radar transmitter to perform bistatic tomographic imaging of the UGF in conjunction with stealthy receiving unattended ground sensors (UGS). For an internal access mission, the AUM would carry EO/IR, audio, and/or radiological/chemical sniffers to be placed in or through walls of a UGF chamber.

QUANTUM MAGNETICS, INC.
7740 Kenamar Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 566-9200
Robert Penny
DARPA 97-088
Title:Development of a Sensitive Multi-Axis Magnetic Tensor Gradiometer for Passive and Active Electromagnetic Detection of Underground Facilities
Abstract:The state-of-the-art in magnetoresistive sensors has improved to a point where they can be used to construct extremely sensitive, room temperature, multi-axis magnetic gradiometers. Typical magnetoresistive elements have a white noise floor of 5 pT/Hz(square root), and operate with flat response from DC to tens of MHz. A light weight, inexpensive, multi-axis gradiometer could be constructed from these devices that would be a key element in airborne electromagnetic surveys for detecting underground facilities. The sensitivity and versatility of the sensors is such that the one instrument could be used in both passive and active electromagnetic surveys; detecting perturbations in the Earth's magnetic field from ferrous materials used in the construction of the facility; magnetic leakage from power used in the facility; and eddy currents and magnetic moments induced in materials within the facility from externally applied ELF/VLF probe signals. These complimentary data sets can be combined in a sensor fusionscheme to minimize sensor clutter and discriminate against false targets.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC
15262 Pipeline Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 373-5509
John Spadaro
DARPA 97-088
Title:Technologies for the Detection and Characterization of Deeply Buried Targets
Abstract:Deeply-buried targets offer the most challenging location and identification issues for the military commander and intelligence officer. Their value generally dictates extraordinary measures for concealment and deception. While measures exist for the detection of suspect sites and NBC/RF emissions if good concealment practices are not employed, techniques are needed for characterizing and monitoring such suspect sites. ELF electric and magnetic sensing offers multiple means for passively obtaining the requisite information using a simple, unattended sensor system. SARA, Inc. is eminently qualified to define, evaluate and develop such systems by virtue of its extensive involvement with strategic weapon system concealment, ELF sensing and innovative data acquisition systems for background-limited scenarios. SARA has previously conducted a similar program, "Surveillance of Buried Command & Control Centers," for SPAWAR, leading to development of a flexible architecture for ELF sensing that can be adapted to the exploitable signatures and propagation paths for deeply-buried targets. This architecture incorporates our recently-commercialized CASSPER data acquisition System, evolved from a series of test data acquisition development programs for USAF and others. This integration of expertise, experience and proven metnodology gives high confidence that we can achieve a low-risk path to solution of this demanding task.

ATOM SCIENCES, INC.
114 Ridgeway Center
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 483-1113
Heinrich Arlinghaus
DARPA 97-089
Title:A New Instrument for Quantitive Measurements of High-Ionization Thereshold Elements in Nanostructures
Abstract:The objective of the project is to develop a new mass spectrometric diagnostic tool that will allow quantitative measurement on a nanometer scale of elements having a high ionization potential, such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen fluorine, and phosphorous. The proposed work would extend the proven capabilities of laser resonance postionization of sputtered material to enable efficient measurements of high-ionization threshold elements in nanoscale devices. Two advances are required to enable these highly sensitive and selective measurements over tens of nm scales, with essentially no matrix effects: 1) demonstrating effective one-photon resonance ionization for the chosen elements, and 2) removing vibrations and drift from existing instrumentation. Work in Phase I is aimed at developing vacuum ultraviolet laser wavelengths to accomplish the first of these requirements. Assuming successful completion of Phase I and Phase II, the high efficiency (3% to 8% useful yield) and lack of matrix effects characteristic of resonance postionization measurements would allow quantitative measurements of major constituents in extremely small dimensions (e.g., 50 nm x 550 nm x 1 nm), even in dynamic stoichiometries. Measurement of low-concentration constituents, dopants, and impurities could be performed in slightly larger volumes.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-9741
Bruce Shetler
DARPA 97-090
Title:Spatial-Spectral Automatic Target Recognition
Abstract:The complexity and pace of the modern battlefield make Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) technologies critical to the ability to fight and prevail. Given this, it has proven technically challenging to implement ATR in a universally effective and effective way. Shape-based ATR suffers many of the limitations of the human eye-brain system. For example, the algorithms can be deceived by decoys, camouflage, shadow or darkness. Systems that take advantage of spectral information may be resistant to these limitations while suffering from others such as mis-identification due to mixed pixels. This research effort seeks to redress the limitations of shape or spectral-based systems by synergistically combining the best features of both to create a superior ATR system. Photon Research Associates, while leading research in spectral ATR, recognizes that this program will require equivalent experience and innovation in shape-based ATR; therefore we have teamed with Hughes SCS in order to create a creative, effective team to address this problem. The initial effort will consist primarily of two activities: 1) devising a number of candidate spatial-spectral ATR algorithms which promise to provide performance superior to either method in isolation, and 2) testing these algorithms throughout the spectral, spatial and operational trade space.