DoD SBIR FY97.2 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Army - Navy - DARPA - SOCOM - OSD

---------- ARMY ----------

199 Phase I Selections from the 97.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
INTEGRATED MICRO INSTRUMENTS
35617 Pond Dr
Fremont, CA 94536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 792-9249
Thor N. Juneau
ARMY 97-001
Title:MEMS Based Sensors, Systems and Algorithms for Weapon Stabilization
Abstract:The military has an unfulfilled need for high performance yet low cost weapon stabilization and fire control systems. Macroscopic technology fails to deliver low cost, while present micromachining technology fails to deliver adequate drift and noise performance. Integrated Micro Instruments (IMI) proposes to manufacture advanced gun turret control systems by micromachining novel sensors providing miniaturization and cost reduction without sacrificing performance. IMI was formed from the core DARPA-sponsored Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center (BSAC) design team which produced some of the first integrated microaccelerometers and gyroscopes as well as the first micro-IMET on a fingernail-sized silicon chip. Under a separate contract, these proven sensor architectures will be combined with a deep trench micromachining technology developed at BSAC providing dramatically increased sensitivity and hence improved performance. Integrating circuits with these sensors will allow drift cancellation, exceptional miniaturization, and digital output. This proposal will involve integrating these sensors into weapon stabilization systems. Phase I will focus on sensor refinement, robust packaging, sensor fusion, and weapon control algorithms. Sensor and system design plus sensor prototypes will verify feasibility and allow rapid fabrication of functional units in Phase II. BENEFITS: Market research firms forecast inexpensive, micromachined inertial sensors to command a market of over $lB with unit sales in the tens of millions by 2000. High volume commercial applications such as automotive safety, virtual reality, 3-D computer mice, and machine monitoring already incorporate miniature sensors which can be vastly improved using this technology.

SYNETICS CORP.
16539 Commerce Drive, Suite 10
King George, VA 22485
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 663-2137
Robert D. Moran
ARMY 97-003
Title:Parametric Difference Waves for Low Frequency Acoustic Propagation
Abstract:Prior research indicates that an array of ultrasonic sources operated with an offset in frequency will produce infrasonic or very low frequency energy. This energy is useful because it is omni-directional, and it propagates well with little absorption. With sufficient energy, the resulting infrasonic waves can be disabling or lethal. Synetics proposes an approach toward developing infrasonic waves that can ultimately be incorporated into future man-portable small arms weapon systems. This approach utilizes modernized pneumatic technology which produces an extremely high-powered ultrasonic source. The resulting frequency generated is precisely controlled such that the desired high power infrasound frequency can be generated at the target by beating two focused ultrasonic sources. BENEFITS: The potential post applications of the parametric difference wave generator include non-lethal crowd control, non-lethal self defense units for police and personal use, and soot and crustacean removal devices for commercial industries.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 416-1161
Dr. Arthur Keen
ARMY 97-004
Title:Raster to Parametric CAD (R2P)
Abstract:The "Raster to Parametric CAD" (R2P) project will demonstrate conversion of CALS Type I raster mechanical drawings to parametric vector format, and to parametric 30 solid models by leveraging KBSI's "Vector to 30" (V3D) technology. Raster drawings consume storage space and network bandwidth, have a finite resolution, often suffer from poor image quality, and are expensive to maintain and edit. These limitations impact electronic commerce, competitive reprocurement, and maintenance. None of the many raster to vector conversion products produce parametric vector drawings (PVD). In PVDs, the text and symbols are bidirectionally associated with the drawings geometry, so a change to a dimension will cause a change to the geometry of the drawing. Conversely, in a vector drawing, a change to a dimension will have no effect on the geometry. In fact, some raster to vector products convert the text into vectors, so they are not even understanding the text. KBSI is currently developing technology that will allow furthur processing to convert the vector file to a solid file format. The availability of this tool will increase the value and extend the usefulness of existing legacy data, as well as, decrease maintenance cost. BENEFITS: This project will enable billions of drawings to be inexpensively converted to parametric CAD, reducing the cost of product data maintenance by an order of magnitude.

ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 11044
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-1284
Michael A. Vaudrey
ARMY 97-005
Title:Modifications to ANR Communication Headsets for Improved Attenuation and Speech Intelligibility
Abstract:ANR technologies have been successfully incorporated in communication headsets to improve speech intelligibility and hearing conservation in high noise environments. This Phase I research effort will introduce advancements in optimal controller/headset architectures that will lead to: greater SPL attenuations at the ear, significantly extended ANR bandwidth, and improvements in speech intelligibility for both high and medium intensity noise fields. One circumaural and one open-air headset prototype will be used to demonstrate the expected improvements compared to existing state-of-the-art active and passive headsets. A unique team is in place to complete the research and development tasks. A total of five investigators will provide expertise in personal ANR system design, optimal control theory, adaptive signal processing methods, personal ANR component fabrication, and evaluation methods to assess attenuation and speech intelligibility provided by ANP headsets. BENEFITS: The proposed Phase I program provides the ARMY an opportunity to realize dramatic improvements in the ANR performance for communication systems in noise fields of varied intensities. Improvements realized from this project will be directly applicable to other DOD communication systems and will be directly applicable to commercial headsets in aviation, manufacturing, and numerous other industries.

SYCAMORE RESEARCH, INC.
3782 Torino Dr.
Santa Barbara, CA 93105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 687-0339
Dr. Richard Bartek
ARMY 97-005
Title:Improvements in Speech Intelligibility using Innovative Noise Reduction Techniques
Abstract:Advanced noise reduction techniques are required to improve intelligibility and reduce noise in ANR headsets employed by U.S. Army personnel. Intercommunication headsets currently employed by tank crewmen expose wearers to unacceptably high levels of background noise when the communication system microphone is keyed and a person is talking. This noise induces fatigue in the wearers, decreases job performance and efficiency, increases perceived operational workload, and could lead to permanent hearing loss. This noise also masks incoming speech and other non-verbal audio signals essential to mission success and crew safety. Our proposed research introduces new technology that will significantly reduce noise and improve intelligibility using a combination of modular hardware components and advanced noise reduction signal processing techniques. These include: 1) an adaptive beamforming multi-microphone array that will increase the speech SNR and reduce noise entering the headset through the voice input, 2) an optimized ANR earphone, which will increase the ANR attenuation bandwidth to include higher portions of the speech range, 3) improved passive earcups and seals made from low-frequency passive sound absorbing materials, which will decrease low-frequency noise entering the system through the earcups and seals, and 4) improved speech filtering using wavelet transforms, spectral subtraction, or others, which will improve speech signal extraction from noise. The overall benefit to the U.S. Army from this combined approach will be modular hardware and software components that can be readily integrated into a variety of headset applications to reduce noise-induced fatigue, reduce hearing loss, improve operational performance, increase comfort and above all, improve the safety of U.S. Army personnel. These benefits aptly apply to other headset wearers as well. BENEFITS: These technologies can be applied to improve intelligibility and reduce noise in commercial and military aviation headsets, commercial and military industrial hearing protection devices, and commercial personal hearing reduction headsets (i.e., for use on board a plane, in other noisy vehicles, or around noisy yard equipment, etc.). They

STANDARD OBJECT SYSTEMS, INC.
1229 Tunica Drive
Opelousas, LA 70570
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(318) 948-9967
Henry Pfister
ARMY 97-006
Title:Natural Speech Processing for Virtual Enviroments using Standard Objects for Phonetic Speech Processing
Abstract:Standard Object Systems, Inc. will apply its Standard Objects for Phonetic Speech Recognition technology to the development of Natural Speech Processing for Virtual Environments. Speech recognition components provide an intuitive and natural interface for both virtual reality systems and natural language processing and understanding. The Natural Speech Processing for Virtual Environments phonetic speech recognition system is based on the international phonetic alphabet applicable to more than 350 spoken languages. It supports speaker independent continuous recognition with adaptation to both multi lingual and multi accent environments. SOS has the experience in complex speech recognition tasks and the control of equipment using speech commands to adapt these phonetic speech recognition objects. The Phase I objective is to design the natural speech processing system for a commercial off the shelf microprocessor configuration and demonstrate the prototype phonetic speech recognition capability. This phonetic approach provides a natural interface for multilingual, lexical, syntactic, and semantic processing. BENEFITS: DoD and commercial applications of hands free and eyes free human computer interface.

EIKOS, L.L.C.
89 Richmond St.
Raynham, MA 02767
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 880-0007
Dr. Paul Winsor
ARMY 97-007
Title:Carbon Nanotube Composites for Tailored EM Radiation Shielding
Abstract:Eikos will develop EM radiation shielding materials suitable for incorporation into non-metallic composites. The basis of the approach is use of ordered high conductivity carbon nanotubes as developed in the laboratories of Professor Charles Lieber at Harvard University. This approach to incorporated shielding in plastic structures will allow Eikos to tailor the shielding for controlled response to electromagnetic radiation, including control of polarization, frequency, and amplitude response. The nature of carbon nanotubes and the incorporation into extruded polymers will result in durable and stable shielding properties. BENEFITS: Protection of electronic components from interference from one another on dense circuit boards is a possible application for composites. In addition, protection of computer systems housed in plastic cases from outside electromagnetic interference is a commercial growth area Protection of airline navigation systems from laptop computers is a another potential application.

HVS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
200 Innovation Blvd.
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 234-3833
Richard D. Hollinger
ARMY 97-007
Title:Multifunctional Chiral and Active Non-Linear Materials for Control of EM Radiation
Abstract:The US Army has need for broadband control of electromagnetic radiation using surface treatment of military vehicles and structures. Current methods for microwave shielding and absorption have several drawbacks. HVS proposes multifunctional composite sandwiches with novel chiral materials, nonlinear metal oxides, ferroelectric tunable materials, voltage controllable dielectrics and conducting polymers (to control the surface wave in the case of absorption). Drs. Varadan, owners of HVS Technologies and professors at CEEAM, Penn State are co-inventors of three US patents on Chiral Electromagnetic Shielding and Absorptive Materials, Electromagnetic Shielding Materials, and Voltage Tunable Dielectric Ceramics. These patents are assigned to Penn State. Applications are envisaged for Army Mobile Shelters and vehicle surfaces for reduced RCS, canopy and windshield with required level of shielding, etc. The Phase I work proposed is optimization and numerical design of sandwich materials incorporating chiral materials, nonlinear metal oxides, ferroelectric tunable materials, voltage controllable dielectrics and conducting polymers to result in broadband performance and at the same time meet the stringent needs of specific Army applications. Samples will be prepared and the performance assessed using unique characterization facilities at HVS and CEEAM demonstrating the viability of our approach. A subcontract to Penn State is planned. BENEFITS: The Phase II effort will address broader issue related to multifunctional material manufacture and commercialization. All needed capital equipment can be financed with state programs for small businesses. We have contacts with several private investors and interested industrial partners for joint ventures. The US military and commercial sectors who have need for high performance microwave absorbers and shielding materials will have easy access to a US supplier. We are confident that this Phase I project will result in a technical approach that can be commercialized for US Army needs.

AET, INC.
PO Box 33071
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 727-7587
Dr. Glenn T. Hess
ARMY 97-008
Title:Automated Testing of Reusable ADA Software Components
Abstract:We propose a new model for testing Ada components which use aspects of artificial intelligence and software reliability engineering (specifically operational profiles). Our goal is to produce a tool that is capable of constructing operational profiles for both prior and new testing of an Ada component. Before testing a reuse artifact, engineers construct a test-input graph using Pest Control Studio, a tool based on AI techniques to describe the state space of an application. This graph is then "trained" with the existing test cases (those applied during prior testing) so that a profile of all prior test experience is obtained. Next, a profile for new use of the component is constructed using a copy of the test-input graph. We envision the development of an intelligent test case generator that is capable of using both profiles to optimize new testing. In addition, we intend to use the operational profiles to compute standard reliability metrics for the component and to derive a new metric to measure a components "reusability" based on the completeness of its testing. We call this metric the reusability index. BENEFITS: The test generator and measurement engine will both be integrated into the Pest Control software tool which AET hopes to commercialize. The AET, Inc. engineering and management team along with Florida Tech researchers have the experience to develop and market these products with high probability of success.

RELIABLE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
21515 Ridgetop Circle, Suite 250
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 404-9293
Dr. Jeffrey M. Voas
ARMY 97-008
Title:A Tool for Re-verifying Reusable Software Components
Abstract:This research focuses on reducing the amount of re-verification necessary for reusable software components The work addresses a fundamental problem facing the reuse of software: when a software component that has been verified to a given level of reliability in one environment is reused in another, how can we assess the same level of reliability for the component with the minimum amount of re-verification. Through solving this issue, software development and maintenance will realize the time and cost benefits of software reuse. Our approach to solving this problem is to collect internal data state information during verification. By collecting this information, along with the output produced by the state, we are able to "short-circuit" the re-verification process whenever a data state created during re-verification is identical to one already collected during verification. When this occurs, we are able to immediately halt the current test case since we already know the outcome of the test. This method of shortcircuiting the re-verification process will have tremendous time and cost impacts for those components where this technique can be applied near the beginning of the component's execution. BENEFITS: This research will benefit all government and commercial software developers by reducing the cost of using reusable software components.

GORCA SYSTEMS, INC.
300 West Route 38
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 273-8200
Hesham Attia, Ph. D.
ARMY 97-009
Title:Autonomous Motion Compensation for UWB SAR Data
Abstract:An innovative data-derived motion compensation technique is proposed to provide the accurate positional information needed for high quality near-field UWB SAR image formation. The low-latency, computationally efficient technique does not require any special targets or a prior knowledge of the scene developing. Assuming nominal values for aircraft velocity and altitude, the algorithm derives accurate estimates of the deviations from the nominal trajectory in three dimensions based on processing received radar data from a general scene. Therefore, the algorithm estimates the (x, y, z) position of the radar antenna on each pulse and hence enables high-resolution image formation. Position estimates in the horizontal cross-track and vertical directions are derived based on the spatial correlation existing across the synthetic aperture measured over a number of disjoint range subintervals. Velocity estimates are also obtained from the data. Phase I will consist of algorithm development and performance assessment as a function of latency, swath length of data, antenna beamwidth, average aircraft velocity, dynamics of the aircraft and signal-to-clutter/noise ratio. Phase II will consist of coding and demonstrating an optimized version of the algorithm on a real-time image formation processor assuming 1.5 Khz PRF, 50-200m/s aircraft velocities, and 256K point records. BENEFITS: The proposed data-derived measurement technique will provide accurate positional information to enable high quality foliage/ground penetration radar image formation. In addition to concealed target detection, commercial applications include such services as bald earth mapping for road construction planning, forest characterization, finding near-surface mineral deposits, locating downed aircraft, and humanitarian unexploded ordnance cleanup.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First St
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0816
Dr. Michael J. Gerver
ARMY 97-010
Title:Metglas Acousitc Panels for Damping and Modication of Noise
Abstract:Noise from machinery and other sources may be controlled passively by high transmission loss panels and damping, or actively using discrete localized sensors and actuators to cancel noise. Effective enclosures for passive noise control are often heavy, especially below 500 Hz, while active noise cancellation systems can be expensive, bulky, and difficult to adapt to different situations. Satcon proposes to develop light weight high transmission loss panels for noise control. Panels will be formed from an array of magnetostrictive Metglas sheets mounted in light weight frames (less than 1 kg/m(2)), with adjacent loops of wire terminating in an adjustable impedance. The Metglas/frame composite panel will act like a dynamic resonator, making its effective mass much greater than its actual mass. The tuning of the panel to achieve dynamic resonance simultaneously over a useful range of frequencies is accomplished by proper choice of the frequency dependence of the loop termination impedance. In principle the choice of impedance can produce any desired acoustic behavior of the panels. A sample panel will be built and demonstrated in Phase I, and a prototype system, adapted to some sound source of interest to the Army, will be built in Phase II. Testing and system design will be done with help from BBN Corporation. BENEFITS: In addition to disguising noisy military equipment to avoid detection, Metglas acoustic panels can be used wherever low weight is important enough to justify the cost, including any application where discrete active noise control (even more expensive) is now used. Applications include noise control in the interiors of aircraft, luxury cars and yachts, and protection of satellites from damage due to vibration during launch.

MARLOW INDUSTRIES, INC.
10451 Vista Park Rd
Dallas, TX 75238
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 503-3363
George S. Nolas
ARMY 97-011
Title:Filled Skutterudites: Potential for Thermoelectric Cooling Applications
Abstract:The skutterudite system is most interesting due to the market reduction in the thermal conductivity upon filling the voids in the structure. Recently data has been presented showing this material system to possess a relatively large figure of merit at high temperatures. However, the effect of the "void-filler" atoms is most prominent below room temperature where the lattice thermal conductivity reduction is well over an-order-of-magnitude. Indeed this system was originally chosen for the investigation of thermoelectrics properties engineering whereby the thermal conductivity of a material can be severely degraded with a minimal affect on the electronic properties. The successful application of this approach would result in a very large figure of merit. In this Phase I Marlow Industries proposes to investigate the feasibility of the filled skutterudite system as thermoelectric cooling materials. This is where we believe the potential lies for this material system. The key technical challenge, however, is in further reducing the lattice thermal conductivity towards its theoretical minimum. When this goal is realized optimization of the filled skutterudites at and below room temperature can begin. BENEFITS: High performance thermoelectric coolers would open potential applications such as medical instruments, microprocessor and electronic cooling, portable refrigerators and freezers, air conditioning and eventually for cooling superconductors.

CREE RESEARCH, INC.
2810 Meridian Parkway, Suite 176
Durham, NC 27713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 361-4770
Lori A. Lipkin
ARMY 97-012
Title:Evaluaation of alternative High-Temperature high-Field Dielectrics for SiC Devices
Abstract:Silicon Carbide is exceptionally well suited for high temperature, high-power electronics. These electronics would be ideal for high-temperature applications for electric combat vehicles, including vehicle propulsion, active protection, electric gun and turret control. Therefore, silicon carbide has been identified as a critical electronic technology for use in future armored vehicles. To fully enable the capabilities of silicon carbide electronic devices, a high-temperature high-field dielectric must be developed. Alternative dielectric materials for use on SiC merit thorough investigation, however, silicon dioxide should not be dismissed as a high-temperature high-field dielectric. There are several potential dielectric materials of interest, including A1N and various combinations of silicon, oxygen and nitride. It is proposed that these alternative dielectrics be evaluated for use as high-temperature, high-field gate dielectrics or field passivation. In addition, we propose to look at three materials with extremely high dielectric constants for this application. This effort will include producing metal-insulator-serniconductor (MIS) capacitors in SiC to evaluate which dielectrics show superior applicability for device operation at 350°C. Dielectrics to be evaluated include silicon oxynitride, AlN, silicon nitride, oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) layers, thermally grown silicon dioxide, deposited silicon dioxide, A1O:N, TiO(2), Ta(2)O(5) and (Ba,Sr)TiO(3). BENEFITS: High power silicon carbide devices which operate at high temperatures are required for a variety of power conditioning applications for motor control, radar systems, more-electric airplanes, turbine engine actuators, and space-based power systems. These devices would also have a large commercial market in the areas of powey switching and conditioning. These applications require strong reliability at high fields and high temperatures.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2929 Eskridge Road, P-1, Eskridge Center
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
T. S. Sudarshan
ARMY 97-013
Title:Synthesis and Consolidation of Nanoceramics for Armor
Abstract:The present proposal describes the synthesis of nano TiB(2) and SiC powders and its consolidation into dense shapes suitable for use as lightweight armor. Particles in the size range of 10 nm to 300 nm will be synthesized by a plasma chemical synthesis (PCS) technique at Materials Modification, Inc. (MMI). During Phase I, they will be consolidated by an ultrahigh plasma pressure system at MMI into dense specimens to study mechanical properties, microstructure, density and consolidation parameters. Application of fast, ultrahigh pressures up to 1 GPa on 5 cm diameter x 1 cm thick specimens - will permit retention of grain sizes in the 50 to 100 nm range. The goal of Phase I is to characterize density, microstructure, and preliminary mechanical propenies - e.g. hardness and high strain rate compressive strength - of fully dense TiB(2) and SiC monolithic, homogeneous specimens. In Phase II we will produce dense plates of each material suitable for ballistic test against small caliber (up to 0.50 caliber) penetrators, e.g. 4 in to 6 in diameter x 0.5 in thick plates. We will also demonstrate graded sections TiB(2) to metallic layers such as Ti, the purpose of which is to increase multi-hit capability and to permit possible bonding to vehicular structures. In any case such metallic layers will reduce "behind armor" effects by reducing spall generation due to projecule impact. BENEFITS: Such dense, lightweight ceramics will constitute a "second generation" of ceramic armor materials to replace current materials used for military and civilian (police, fire fighter, govermient and private security personnel) personnel armor and vehicular armor used for "small arms" protection (e.g. 0.30 and 0.50 caliber and 5.56 mm).

MICROFAB RESEARCH, INC.
338 Westfield Rd.
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 963-4490
Philip Koh
ARMY 97-015
Title:Passive Phased Array Antenna construction by Application of a Novel Micromachined Packaging Technique
Abstract:A novel structure based on silicon micromachining is presented which is capable of forming three-dimensionally integrated packaging for millimeter wave circuits. Such packages would incorporate multiple chips, and interconnect them with an integrated antenna. It is proposed to apply this structure to the fabrication of phased array antennas where half wavelength element spacing is desired. BENEFITS: Commercial applications in millimeter waves are rapidly expanding. Local multipoint distribution systems are being developed at 28 and 40 GHz for wireless delivery of data and video. Also, automotive radars are being developed at 77 GHz. This novel packaging system has the potential to greatly reduce assembly costs for multichip RF modules at millimeter waves, due to its use of wafer scale assembly and test

ALTEC, INC.
P.O. Box 15734
Boston, MA 02215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 236-0599
Carlo J. De Luca
ARMY 97-017
Title:Sensor and Software for Monitoring Muscle Fatigue
Abstract:We propose to develop an Electromyographic (EMG) system consisting of a high-performance EMG sensor, signal amplification and conditioning circuitry and a transmitter/receiver. The system will be attached to the skin, above the muscle(s) of interest, on soldiers performing training exercises and maneuvers. The specifications of the transmitter will be designed in collaboration with the Chem-Bio Defense Command, the Army Medical Command, the Human Engineering Directorate, and the Soldier System at Natick. The transmitted EMG signal will be analyzed to determine the rate of muscle fatigue by tracking the median frequency from the power density spectrum of the signal. This is a well-established technique for static muscle contraction. Because it is required to analyze dynamic muscle contraction, a new signal processing technique must be developed. We will use Time-Frequency analysis techniques for this purpose. The new technique will be tested on synthetic EMG signals and on real EMG signals detected from back muscles during lifting maneuvers. The new signal analysis technique will provide, for the first time, means to monitor the shift in the spectral characteristics of the EMG signal during short burst contractions which occur during daily functional activities.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
11000 Cedar Ave, Suite 461
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 791-6720
Mohammad Modarreszadeh
ARMY 97-017
Title:Ambulatory Muscle Fatigue Monitor
Abstract:Fatigue is a phenomena that accompanies repeated muscular exertion. The ability of the muscle to produce force is reduced as fatigue occurs. Local muscle fatigue is manifested in electromyography (EMG) signals by a shift in the EMG power spectrum from high to low frequencies. By utilizing this phenomena it is possible to monitor local muscle fatigue in soldiers as they perform mission related tasks. Cleveland Medical Devices will design a complete ambulatory muscle fatigue monitor that will utilize wireless telemetry and advanced signal processing techniques to allow researchers to record and monitor muscle fatigue in soldiers without the need to be tethered to a cumbersome EMG monitor. For the Phase I program, Cleveland Medical Devices will design a small, lightweight, unobtrusive three channel differential EMG amplifier/transmitter using proven wireless technology to digitize and transmit the EMG data to a PC compatible computer for storage and data processing. Then the mean power frequency of the EMG signal will be calculated and used to indicate local muscle fatigue. BENEFITS: There are many potential commercial applications for small, rugged three channel telemetry devices. Some potential biological applications are: rehabilitation, physical therapy, medical research, ergonomic design of equipment and tasks, and remote patient care. Some other commercial applications are: vehicle monitoring, robotic communications, short range voice communications, wireless data acquisition, simple local area networks and industrial process monitoring and control.

QUEST INTEGRATED, INC.
21414 68th Ave. South
Kent, WA 98032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 872-1396
Roger Johnson
ARMY 97-018
Title:Small-Arms Shooting-Accuracy Measurement Systems
Abstract:A small-arms training, shooting accuracy, and scoring system is proposed. A set of accelerometers, force sensors, video array, lens, battery, and RF modulator will be contained in a special shock-isolation mount. The entire module will weigh approximately three ounces and will transmit video and multichannel sensor data using spread-spectrum wireless technology. Scoring will be accomplished with a nearby video camera mounted on a tripod and coupled to an ISA bus (PC) image-processing board that will determine the position of bullet holes in the target. Target tracking data will be accomplished with the boresighted video camera also contained in the shock mount. Another image-processing board in the PC will constantly determine the two-dimensional coordinates of the target. For night training, an infrared light source will illuminate the target. All shooting events will be video compressed and archived for later review. All sensors, video array and lens, and datalinks will be tested and evaluated on AR-15 rifles. BENEFITS: The same system could be used in commercial firing ranges for training purposes as it provides a history of an individual's progress in proper shooting technique.

SYNETICS CORP.
16539 Commerce Drive, Suite 10
King George, VA 22485
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 663-2137
Robert D. Moran
ARMY 97-018
Title:Small Arms Shooting Accuracy Measurement System
Abstract:The U.S. Army depends on shooting accuracy for effectiveness on the battlefield, yet the factors that affect accuracy, including body sway, recoil, recoil anticipation, flinching, and trigger pull tension,are not well understood. Currently there is a need for a system that can measure these factors and construct a firing analysis that details the effects on shooting accuracy from these factors. Synetics proposes a shooting analysis system that takes advantage of low-cost, very light rate sensors to measure shooter motion. This technique combined with a CCD camera, a laser pointing device, and wireless communication will yield a detailed profile of shooter motion during the firing process. This information will be graphically displayed in real time to the operator via developed software and graphics tools. This system will help improve shooter accuracy and possibly contribute to a new long-term approach to shooting instruction. BENEFITS: Potential post applications for the shooting analysis system include extensive target range applications for military and police use. Also, a version of the system may be used for analysis in the recreational shooting industry.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 668-2567
Dr. Gerald P. Roston
ARMY 97-020
Title:HAAM: High-mobility, Articulated, All-wheel drive, Modular vehicle
Abstract:The United States military's current doctrine calls for the ability to quickly deploy small units to any place on the globe. The two biggest challenges of this new doctrine are providing the airlift capability for the military's vehicles and overcoming the infrastructure that is incapable of supporting the military's vehicle that is found in many Third-World nations. A new vehicular technology, based on high-mobility, articulated, modular, all-wheel-drive vehicles will overcome these challenges by providing the necessary functional capabilities in smaller-than-current-vehicle modules. The goal of this proposed Phase I SBIR is to develop and simulate these new vehicular technologies and to prove their mobility characteristics using existing mobility models. In addition to the issues related to deployability, we plan to address the issues of component and functional modularity. Thus from a set of common components, modules can be constructed; and from the modules, a wide variety of vehicle systems with a broad spectrum of capabilities can be assembled. Finally, this system must have a number of other important characteristics, such as high speed operation, silent operation, drive-by-wire control, low-signature, good fuel economy, the ability to selectively armor and protect the crew, and be extremely capable of negotiating a variety of terrain. BENEFITS: The component and functional modularity characteristics allow civilian police, fire and rescue units to purchase several pieces of a large system for use for particular applications. As the organization's needs expand, more pieces can be purchased to provide greater capability without ever requiring large captical expenditures.

MOHAWK INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
437 New Karner Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4288
Dr. Hooshang Heshmat
ARMY 97-021
Title:Dynamic Coefficients for Compliant Foil Bearings
Abstract:The cost effective application of compliant foil bearings (CFBS) to high-speed, high-temperature vehicle propulsion systems requires an improved understanding of the factors affecting their dynamic characteristics and accurate predictions of the coefficients to be used in rotordynamic analysis of these systems. Under this program, MiTi will establish the design and test methodology necessary to characterized the stiffness and damping of CFBs operating at high speeds, loads and temperatures. The test facility will have the capability to operate to speeds of over 100,000 rpm and temperatures to 150OF and will also accept bearings of different designs and diameters. Instrumentation with high temperature capability and high frequency response will be defined, as will the data acquisition and reduction methodology. Using an integrated hydrodynamic and compliant structural analysis tool MiTi will conduct a parametric study investigating the key parameters influencing CFB dynamic coefficients. Finally, a minimum of three different CFB configurations will be designed to allow investigation of key parameters and their impact on dynamic coefficients under Phase II testing. BENEFITS: The Developed test facility and methodology will be useful in developing CFB designs with improved dynamic performance. Improved designs will expand applications to turomachinery such as small gas turbines, turbochargers, compressors, expanders, alternators and the like.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 103
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Lothar Kempen
ARMY 97-022
Title:Multi-Spectral Imaging Ellipsometer for Fast, In-Situ Monitoring of Monolayer Film Deposition
Abstract:In this Phase I project, Physical Optics Corporation proposes a novel instrument for the in-situ monitoring of very thin layer film deposition. The system makes use of imaging ellipsometry inside the reaction chamber to provide a spatially resolved measurement of the sample surface in the range of one second, thus enabling monitoring of film growth topography during the coating process. Operating the system at the quasi-Brewster angle, close to the null-ellipsometer condition, gives enhanced sensitivity. The use of several spectral bands for the measurement adds additional parameters to film thickness determination, providing a very precise readout, even at the monolayer level. The monolayer imaging will be performed with about 10 micrometer lateral resolution over the entire surface of the substrate, leading to highly-resolved, fast information for judging the kinetics of surface coverage. This device has commercial potential for optimization of coating processes, for surface investigations, and for sensing applications. To date, most measurements of very thin layers either do not have the required sensitivity for single monolayers or are single-point measurements that require scanning. Since it avoids these problems, the proposed apparatus will be superior for in-situ monitoring and for general sample characterization. BENEFITS: The proposed system will deliver fast, in-situ information about surface coverage and film deposition, opening a vast market in thin-film deposition systems. The device can also be a supplement to Reactive Ion Etching chambers, as well as a potential standard tool for the large market of semiconductor or thin-film processing laboratories and plants.

NIELSEN ENGINEERING & RESEARCH, INC.
526 Clyde Ave
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 968-9457
Daniel A. Pruzan
ARMY 97-023
Title:Innovative Solid-State All-Weather Shear Stress Transducers
Abstract:Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) is proposing to investigate the feasibility of two innovative solid-state concepts for MEMS-based turbulent wall shear-stress transducers. The first design, which relies on the variation in acoustic convection velocity through the boundary layer, employs established MEMS transducers. The second concept, which directly measures the shear force on the wall, is produced using an emerging MEMS fabrication technique. Neither of the proposed designs incorporate any moving parts or are sensitive to airborne contaminants such as dust and rain. During the Phase I program, NEAR will determine the feasibility of each of the proposed designs in terms of their environmental robustness, manufacturability, frequency response, and accuracy. Both theoretical analysis and wind tunnel experimentation will be used to investigate the influence of design parameters and flow conditions. Relatively large scale (non-MEMS) prototypes will be used during the wind tunnel tests to evaluate feasibility. During the Phase II effort, NEAR will use the Phase I results to refine the system design and will fabricate operational transducers using MEMS production techniques. An evaluation study will be conducted to assess the design's ability to handle harsh operating conditions and to evaluate the final system's performance in real-world operational conditions. BENEFITS: These all-weather shear stress sensors will have numerous applications in military and commercial markets. Potential applications include 1) wind tunnel, water tank, flight, and track testing in commercial and government research laboratories, 2) monitoring for increased skin friction on aircraft employing laminar flow wings and drag reduction devices, and 3) detecting reversed flow and incipient stall on wings.

BOSTON DYNAMICS, INC.
614 Massachusetts Ave
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 868-5600
Robert R. Playter
ARMY 97-024
Title:Human Dynamics Modeling: The Digital Biomechanics Laboratory
Abstract:An advanced human simulation system could serve as a digital biomechanics laboratory in which simulated humans perform useful tasks under novel conditions. It will allow us to measure loads, forces, and energy levels in humans that are difficult if not impossible to obtain any other way. It could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of clothing, footwear, equipment or movement strategies. Rapid evaluation cycles using simulation will shorten the product development and acquisition cycle. To test the design and effect of equipment on human performance, we must be able to simulate realistic, life-like behaviors such as running, walking, crawling, and throwing. Physics-based simulation provides the data and flexibility we need in an experimental tool. However, physical simulations need control systems to produce coordinated behavior. There are currently no general techniques for designing control systems for life-like human motion. We propose a novel control design method for complex human behaviors. Our approach combines the life-like motion of recorded human data with the flexibility and rigor of physics-based simulation. We will apply this control design technique to the simulation and control of dynamic running. The resulting simulation will produce life-like human running and physical data suitable for analysis. The simulation will accommodate changes in running speed, incline, and backpack weight and produce data regarding the forces, loads, and energy of the virtual subject. BENEFITS: Companies that produce equipment for athletes, soldiers, or civilians could use an advanced human simulation systems as a means of rapidly designing and valuating products for human use. Combining simulation of the individual with group level simulation and control could provide means of analyzing how group performance is affected by equipment or logistics.

TRANSOM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
201 South Main Street, Suite 1000
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 761-6001
Dr. Lisa M. Schutte
ARMY 97-024
Title:Human Dynamics Modeling
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop physics-based simulation and animation of human movements in a visual, interactive, three dimensional software environment. The system will allow simulation and evaluation of locomotion (walking, running and climbing) under a variety of loading conditions, over a variety of terrain and when constrained by clothing or equipment. Such a system will be an improvement over commercial human modeling systems currently available which generate movements either from direct motion capture, key frame interpolation, or inverse kinematics. The advantages of physics-based forward dynamics simulations are improved realism of human movement and increased generalizabilty to novel task conditions. Phase I efforts will concentrate on developing a thorough and detailed technical assessment and working software prototype. In Phase II, we will complete the software development efforts needed to realize an efficient, effective and usable human movement dynamics tool. The software framework for this work will be the Transom Jackr human modeling system, now commercially developed and supported by Transom Technologies, Inc. BENEFITS:A validatable, physics-based simulation framework allows for virtual prototyping of equipment configurations and loading arrangements, assessment of task feasibility, and more realistic representations of human movement in virtual environments. Ultimately this framework will be of use to ergonomists, equipment designers and medical clinicians.

DIGITAL SCIENTIFIC, INC.
180 South 300 West, Suite 400
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 531-8250
Robert T. Short
ARMY 97-025
Title:Implementalbe Adaptive High Performance SSMA Receiver Architectures
Abstract:Digital Scientific, Incorporated, proposes to develop a set of novel algorithms which will provide a complete baseband solution to the mobile spread-spectrum.multipie access problem. Our adaptive algorithms have the capability of demodulating multiple data streams in the presence of multi path interference, non linear distortions, and mobile environments with nearly single user performance. BENEFITS: This research will lead to higher network capacity and better user performance at a reasonable cost than available with current technologies.

ASTRON CORP.
22560 Glenn Drive, Suite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Joseph R. Jahoda
ARMY 97-026
Title:Antennas for Aerial and Ground Vehicles in Distributed Mobil Networks
Abstract:This Phase I program has as its objective to investigate innovative antenna concepts for small, broadband antennas and a demonstration of the concepts feasibility with experimental models or computer antenna models. These antennas are needed for operation over the HF through X band ranges. Astron has chosen the HF and VHF/UHF ranges for exploration of its innovative monopole and dipole antenna elements and X band for advanced miniature phased array innovations for circular polarized satellite cornmunication antennas. BENEFITS: The antennas selected will have wide applications in IRIDIUM, INMARSAT, and similar satellite communications systems as well as the multi-million quantity cellular and wireless PCS and telephone market.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 130103
Ann Arbor, MI 48113
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 747-6646
Dr. Jui-Ching Cheng
ARMY 97-026
Title:Multifunction Compact Vehicular Antennas: A New Generation of Antenna Designs and Structures Based on Novel Composite Materials
Abstract:The Design of multifunction vehicular antennas for military and commercial mobile distributed networks poses major challenges with regard to the antenna size, radiation efficiency, fabrication cost, etc. This Small Business Innovation Research project proposes a new class of compact vehicular antennas based on novel composite materials. The proposed antenna has a dual slot aperture overlaid by a planar lens with a synthetically graded index profile. Recent developments in material processing technology has made it possible to synthesize low-loss composite lenses with quite arbitrary index profiles. Small antenna size and high radiation efficiency are achieved through optimization of the lens index profile, antenna layout and feed structure. The proposed project will involve both simulation and experimental validation of the proposed antenna design. BENEFITS: The proposed antenna will have a major impact on low-cost, high-performance military and commercial vehicular wireless communications with immediate applications in radio, cellular phone and PCS.

REMCOM, INC.
Calder Square, Box 10023
State College, PA 16805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 353-2986
Joseph Schuster
ARMY 97-027
Title:Communication Channel Propagation Model Based on a Combination of GTD and SBR
Abstract:The prediction of the performance of radio communication channels in complex environments is a challenging problem for computational electromagnetics. The geometries involved are very complicated in. shape. They are also very large, so that large amounts of data are needed to describe the buildings, terrain, and other features to be included in the calculations. Developments that have occurred over the past decade, and to a greater extent over the past few years, now provide the tools needed for accurate prediction of the performance of these communication channels. These developments include more accurate terrain data bases, quick availability of urban feature information, advances in computational electromagnetics, and faster computers with large memory. Utilizing these advances, it has been demonstrated that deterministic, site-specific prediction of radio signal propagation in complex environments is possible. The next step is to take this capability from a research tool to a user-friendly software environment to be applied in realistic situations by non-experts. BENEFITS: Commercial software for the accurate prediction of radio communication channel propagation would be useful to companies desiring to site communication systems and to DOD agencies interested in reliable radio communications, especially in situations where preliminary measurements are not possible.

SITE WARE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
439 10th St.
Brooklyn, NY 11215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(718) 260-3412
George Liang
ARMY 97-027
Title:Site Specific Propagation Prediction Software Tool for Communication Channel Modeling
Abstract:Site Ware Technologies proposes to develop a computer package that will be able to predict the propagation characteristics of radio signals, such as: path loss, time delay profile, angle. of arrival distribution, spatial correlation and depolarization. The program will give site specific predictions in a wide range of outdoor physical environments for frequencies in the range from about 100 MHz to 10 GHz. The software tool will utilize a novel technique known as the Vertical Plane Launch (VPL) method for predicting the propagation paths in a cluttered building environment. The VPL has previously demonstrated the capability of accounting for reflections from a vertical wall and diffractions from the edge of buildings. The objectives of this Phase I proposal is to investigate and demonstrate enhancements to the existing VPL kernel, including the addition of terrain, foliage effects and diffuse scattering from surfaces and objects in the vicinity of the mobile, as well as its integration with user interface and visualization software. The successful completion of these enhancements will greatly increase the versatility and robustness of the propagation prediction tool to accurately predict the propagation phenomena in a broad range of environments and scenarios for military and commercial applications. BENEFITS: The propagation prediction tool is. anticipated to satisfy the current needs of military and commercial communication hardware developers for realistic channel modeling, as well as the site planners and installers of mobile communication infrastructure. There is currently a great need among these groups for a state-of-the-art theoretical propagation prediction tool.

SELF CORP.
P.O. Box 34601
West Bethesda, MD 20827
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 299-6197
Alisa Rogers
ARMY 97-028
Title:Low Temperature Decontamination for Chemical and Biological Defense
Abstract:A universal decontamination solution which is non-flammable, non-toxic and environmentally friendly has been developed. Modifications to the basic technology needs to be made in order to achieve decontamination performance at low temperatures (-20°C). In order to achieve that goal, a microemulsion specifically designed for low temperature applications will be utilized to develop the all temperature solution. The Phase I effort will encompass the testing of the micro emulsion system at low temperatures against live agents. The effects of additives to the low temperature microemulsion will be determined. Phase II will be used to optimize the formulation and maximize reaction rates. Live agent testing will be conducted to determine the most optimal microemulsion formula. Maximizing the rate of reaction, efficacy of the decon solution and logistical considerations will be addressed. BENEFITS: The anticipated benent of this effort will be the development of a safe universal chemical agent decontaminant. The solution can be used as a replacement for the stock piles of DS2. In addition, commercial applications include HazMat teams for use in case of threatened or actual terrorist attacks The universal decontaminant is also capable of destroying pesticides and chemical spills will have a wide variety of applications in various clean-up operations

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Stephen M. Hannon
ARMY 97-029
Title:Solid-State Laser-Based Universal Multipurpose Air Data System
Abstract:The proposed Phase I/II program produces a multipurpose solid-state-laser-based sensor to provide critical flight path management and mission data for Army rotorcraft. The effort leverages significantly off of an ongoing CTI effort to develop a compact coherent lidar for helicopter ballistic winds applications. The Phase I/II effort will develop and demonstrate critical technologies required to achieve a true multifunction capability with a single sensor installation. The functions to be addressed in Phase I include air data, ground track and altitude, obstacle and wire avoidance. Additional functions include ballistic winds and intraformation communication. BENEFITS: The primary and most significant initial application for the proposed multifunction sensor is for military rotorcraft. Commercial airline applications for a multifunction wind sensor include turbulence and windshear detection, gust load alleviation, wake vortex encounter detection and mitigation, and inflight measurement of winds for fuel efficiency purposes.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 622-5504
Thoms Campbell
ARMY 97-030
Title:High Strength, Lightweight Cable/Tape for Cargo-Handling Winches
Abstract:This program will develop a high performance flat braided tension member for cargo handling hoists on the Army's CH47 Advanced cargo Aircraft (ACA). The development of much thinner tape, made possible by use of high strength liquid crystal polymer, PBO, will increase the available tension member length, offering greater stand off capability. Alternatively, the thinner tape will enable a smaller diameter winch, thus further reducing the hoist system weight. Foster-Miller will use a unique flat braiding process to produce a flat tape that will support an 18,000 lb. load with a safety factor of 5:1. The flat braid will greatly reduce the transverse expansion of the tape when wound on the drum under a load. Flat braiding will allow the needed electrical wires to be integrated into the tape and still be thinner than the current tape. Foster-Miller will work closely with Breeze Eastern Inc. who is considered the leader in hoist development for helicopters. The Phase I program will develop braid design and result in fabrication and preliminary testing of braided tape. Testing will include fatigue tests around a simulated winch. A Phase II program is anticipated to produce a 100 ft. length of tape that can be installed on an aircraft hoist system and tested. Foster-Miller will work closely with Breeze Eastern, Inc. to develop a tape that can be integrated into their current tape hoist system. A lighter, more robust tape and hoist system is anticipated as the Phase II program result. BENEFITS: Foster-Miller is actively pursuing further production and development opportunities for our flat braiding technology. Flat braiding offers capabilities no other braider can offer. We believe that the cargo tape product is a perfect example of the types of products Foster-Miller can produce. It is the intention of Foster-Miller to pursue various commercialization routes for the cargo tape technology.

ADVENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
218 Cypress Creek Drive
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 895-9077
Douglas Deason
ARMY 97-031
Title:Novel Concepts for Lightweight Helicopter Ballistic Protection Systems
Abstract:Current and future Army helicopter missions require close support of combat operations, resulting in exposure to enemy ground fire. Current armor systems significantly reduce the load carrying capacity of the helicopter thereby reducing its mission effectiveness. New innovative technologies to significantly reduce the areal density of armor is needed to make significant enhancements to survivability. The purpose of the proposed Phase I SBIR program will be to develop a new opaque armor technology which will enable significant reductions in areal density to be made. This effort will specifically address urgent needs for Systems which effectively deal with the 12.7-mm threat. This is a threat highly applicable to helicopters and with ample room for further weight reductions. Ideally a new armor technology could be developed under this program which would reduce the weight of 12.7-mm API armor from the current minimum of 7.7 lbs/ft(2) to below 5.0 lbs/ft(2). With a thorough knowledge of the state-of-the-art, Advent Technologies, in collaboration with Simula Technologies, as a major subcontractor, proposes to use its materials expertise to develop and evaluate innovative armor concepts. Leading armor concepts will be ballistically tested, and a trade-off study conducted to determine the best concepts for further development and commercialization. BENEFITS: This research will provide anticipated benefits to address small arms threats to helicopters at significantly lower weights. Commercial applications include vehicle protections systems.

JAYCOR, INC.
9775 Towne Center Drive
San Diego, CA 92186
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 535-3124
Dr. Franklin S. Felber
ARMY 97-032
Title:A Safety Interlock for the Cockpit Air Bag System
Abstract:The Phase I objectives are to develop and demonstrate a safety interlock for the Cockpit Air Bag System (CABS) on the UH-60 Black Hawk and AH-64 Apache. Working with the CABS contractor, the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate, and Aircrew Integrated Systems, the Jaycor team will: (1) Evaluate candidate occupant position sensor technologies; (2) Produce conceptual designs of safety interlock and sensor systems for the UH-60 and AH-64 CABS; (3) Develop and build a breadboard safety interlock controller with sensors; and (4) Demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the safety interlock system through computer crash simulations using the Articulated Total Body Code, through Jaycor's biomechanics database for head/neck injuries, and through actual operation of the breadboard system. Continuous monitoring by position sensors in a safety interlock system allows ten times more time, about 100 to 200ms, for sensing aviator position and deciding whether to deploy air bags than systems that must decide instantaneously during a crash. Our goal for the CABS safety interlock development program is to help protect aviators from serious air bag injuries with zero scheduling and cost impact on any of the ongoing or planned CABS programs. This will be achieved through close coordination with the CABS contractor, AATD, and ACIS. BENEFITS: Expected benefits for the Army include a means of protecting helicopter crewmen from serious air bag injuries in crashes. Commercial markets include technology needs for second-generation automotive occupancy sensors and for monitoring and classification of people for other modes of transportation and for security systems.

DOMZALSKI MACHINE
332 W. Stanford Ave.
Gilbert, AZ 85233
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 926-8153
David B. Domzalski
ARMY 97-033
Title:Deformable Training Edges and Smart Material Actuation for Active Control of Rotor Blades.
Abstract:This project will determine the feasibility of smart material actuation of deformable trailing edges for active control of helicopter rotor blades. Several concepts will be developed and analyzed. Innovative structural designs and use of materials will be considered. The proposed designs will be analyzed to predict their performance levels, fatigue strength, and impact on blade weight and balance. Evaluation will be based on the analysis plus factors such as cost, reliability, reparability, etc. Representative portions of a production helicopter blade section including a deformable trailing edge, flexural zones, elastomeric slip joints, and actuation devices will be fabricated. Manufacturing techniques will explore implementation of smart materials, processing of elastomers, and other unconventional uses of materials to make up the deformable trailing edge. Static performance will be measured and used to calibrate the analysis. These sample sections will help validate and discriminate between the different design approaches. They will also provide insight to producability, durability, and areas for improvement. Recommendations will be made for the most effective structural concept and use of actuation materials. If successful, a concept will be generated which has the potential to be developed into a flight article and tested. Follow-on development, i.e. phase II, will be used to fine tune the selected concepts and validate the predictions by testing rotor blade sections and wind tunnel models. BENEFITS: The technology developed may be applied to all existing and future civil or military rotorcraft for improvements in performance, reduction of vibration, and reduction of noise.

CONTINUUM DYNAMICS, INC.
P.O. Box 3073
Princeton, NJ 08543
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 734-9282
Todd Quackenbush
ARMY 97-036
Title:Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise Mitigation via Smart Materials Technology
Abstract:Controlling main rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is a central issue both in detectability of military helicopters and community acceptance of rotorcraft operations. Research to date has produced substantial insight into the BVI phenomenon, though attemps to formulate practical design or active control strategies to reduce BVI noise without significant performance degradation have met with limited success. This proposal involves the development of innovative methods for applying on-blade control using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) smart materials technology to tailor blade loading, deformation, and wake structure to minimize BVI noise in key flight conditions without incurring prohibitive penalties in performance, vibration, or cost. Recent advances in actuation of control surfaces with SMA-driven devices have made feasible a variety of on-blade control concepts for noise reduction and have brought the goal of a variable design blade - optimized to minimize noise in critical flight conditions within reach. Advanced computational aerodynamic models will be used both to assess several candidate on-blade control techniques and to provide insight into BVI events. The proposed effort will involve validation of these models followed by parametric design studies of several SMA-based control devices, laying the groundwork for eventual demonstration of successful concepts at model scale. BENEFITS: The noise control technology to be developed here would have direct application to mitigating the strong BVI noise generated during helicopter landing and approach. Such noise poses an enormous operational difficulty for the rotorcraft industry, and a viable control mechanism for BVI noise and vibration would address one of the industry's most important challenges in community acceptance and passenger comfort.

MICROVISION, INC.
2203 Airport Way South, Suite 100
Seattle, WA 98134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 623-7055
Mr. Ned Nestorovic
ARMY 97-037
Title:The Virtual Retinal Display as New and Innovative Display Technology for Presenting Visual Imagery and Symbology to Helicopter Pilots
Abstract:The Virtual Retinal Display (VRD) is innovative display technology with the performance characteristics (high resolution, high brightness, high contrast) needed for the presentation of visual imagery and symbology to helicopter pilots. The VRD is fundamentally different from previous display technologies It offers significant advantages over competing, flat panel display technologies. Under Phase I of this SBIR, Microvision will accomplish five objectives: (1) design a helmet-mounted display using the VRD as a display engine, (2) describe an innovative way to provide timely, full-color information to a pilot, (3) conduct a technology review, (4) develop a technology roadmap, and (5) develop a commercialization roadmap. BENEFITS: The research proposed for Phase I will immediately support the Army's need for a new and innovative display technology to present visual imagery to helicopter pilots. In the long term, refinements in VRD technology derived from this work will serve a range of diverse applications in the military and commercial sectors including telemaintenance, telemedicine, and applications in various types of head and helmet-mounted display systems.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway, Suite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 859-9161
Howard Jetmundsen
ARMY 97-038
Title:Compressed Voice Data over Variable Bit Rate ATM Adaptation Layer
Abstract:Recently, there has been a trend in the military to utilize ATM as a backbone for the delivery of multimedia digital services. Concurrently, there has also been an active effort by the military to develop new voice algorithms that provide high quality over low data rate links. An opportunity exists to merge these two technologies to create a product which simultaneously solves the problem of voice delivery over low data rate links while maintaining compatibility with ATM networks. SRC proposes to thoroughly investigate all issues surrounding the delivery of efficient compressed digital voice over a variable bit rate (VBR) ATM Adaptation layer (AAL). Based on this investigation, SRC will propose a detailed architecture for the delivery of digital voice over a VBR AAL which conforms to industry standards and which allows connection and interoperability with a variety of existing and legacy voice communications systems. This product could potentially provide interoperability between networks such as telephone and military radio that traditionally are not interoperable. Such a product would find widespread use in both the military and commercial sectors. BENEFITS: The proposed Voice-Over-ATM capability will provide efficient delivery of high quality voice over ATM networks. The proposed voice and ATM algorithms are based on commercial and military standards, facilitating interoperability across platforms. The result will be a commercial-off-the-shelf product providing a significant improvement in efficiency and interoperability over current products.

ASTRON CORP.
22560 Glenn Drive, Suite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Joseph R. Jahoda
ARMY 97-039
Title:Antennas for Satellite Communications-on-the-Move (SCOTM)
Abstract:The objective of the Phase I program is the development of vehicular satellite cornmunications antenna Systems for all military (UHF, SHF, and EFIF) and commercial (L, C, Ku) frequency bands for tactical/strategic cornmunications-on-the-move. Astron has proposed a series of innovations which will result in significantly smaller antenna elements which will translate into smaller antenna systems which further result in smaller pointing and tracking systems. During the course of these innovative antenna developments, the applications of photonics to these new developments will be studied and applied to the Phase II hardware development program. BENEFITS: The proposed advanced miniaturized and low cost antenna elements are ideally suited for miniature hand-held cellular and wireless communications in the commercial market. Over 100 million such antennas are projected for application worldwide. The miniaturized antenna elements will also be used for advanced phased arrays for commercial satellite communication-on-the-move

KVH INDUSTRIES, INC.
110 Enterprise Center
Middletown, RI 02809
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 847-3327
Jeff Hawes
ARMY 97-039
Title:Antennas for Satellite Communications-on-the-Move
Abstract:KVH Industries proposes to determine the feasibility of integrating its commercially (COTS) available, low cost, marine mobile, rate stabilized on-the-move antenna system with new `smart antenna' electronic array technology to produce a solid state, highly ruggedized, flat panel land mobile antenna system capable of multi-band satellite cornmunications. Recent developments in adaptive antenna technologies have been developed and successfully applied for antennas in L-band communications. Similar to 'phased array' technology, these adapative electronic arrays provide electronically steerable azimuth and elevation coverage by generating a number of discrete narrow beams using high speed digital switching technology. The design, manufacturing techniques and digital switching offer dramatically lower production cost and improved performance repeatability over existing phased array technology. Combining KVH's proven experience of rate stabilization and closed loop tracking, and adapting the design of military applications, promises to create the first truly affordable mil qualified, flat panel, land mobile multi-band system. KVH will add to the basic flat panel array technology a three axis stowable actuator based tilt drive for low satellite elevation useage. The anticipated price point of the 2"x14" diameter prototype system will be less than $10,000. BENEFITS: This research and development effort will adapt state-of-the-art miniaturized electronics sensor and adapative antenna technology to provide a lower cost and size full duplex satellite on-the-move communications antenna. As KVH's ASAP (Active Stabilized Antenna Pedestal) has proven (1995/96/97 sales of $12 mil. & 6000 unit qty.) such a device would have broad applications for improved land mobile satellite communications. The proposed system will have multi-use applications in military operations, law enforcement, other government and commercial communication with internet communication type capability at the end of Phase II.

PACIFIC WAVE INDUSTRIES, INC.
10911 Weyburn Ave., Suite 222
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 209-0777
Dr. Boris Tsap
ARMY 97-039
Title:Autotracking Satellite Antenna on-the-Move
Abstract:We propose an innovative new solution to satellite communications on the move which uses photonic technology. There are several approaches to this problem of pointing and tracking which depend on various implementations of actively controlled phased array antennas. Our system is radically different in that we use what amounts to an automatic optically controlled phase array system. It relies upon the phase conjugation of the RF/microwave signal beams. In this systems approach/which has been recently demonstrated, optical interconnections provide the key enabling technology by reducing weight and complexity. The process of wavefront conjugation permits us to have pointing, autotracking, and conformal mounting of the antenna arrays in low profile configurations. Operationally, a weak probe beam from a receiver such as a satellite is conjugated, modulated with the communications information and amplified. The conjugated transmitted beam then returns, automatically and directly to the moving system, which in this case is the satellite. Interesting additional features in this system are that it also corrects for any distortions, or aberrations, in the path and that it possesses many intrinsic security aspects. The system is also inherently robust, relatively low cost and extremely well suited to high frequency communications with moving platforms. BENEFITS: This low cost automatic tracking system has major applications to moving vehicles. Since the system only sends and receives signals with the designated target, communications are secure and low power. The tracking operates at the speed of the conjugation process - which is virtually instantaneous. In addition to military applications we see this system as potentially useful -for every commercial car, truck, and plane.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 103
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Tin M. Aye
ARMY 97-040
Title:Miniature Guided Light Array Sequential Scanning Display for Head Mounted Displays
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a miniature Guided Light Array Sequencial Scanning (GLASS) display for a new low-cost, low-power ultracompact Head Mounted Display (HMD). The proposed display is based on a unique combination of three technologies; (1) low-power light emitting diode (LED) arrays; (2) a polymer waveguide array substrate; and, (3) novel liquid crystal micro-optics. POC's proposed display surpasses current miniature HMD displays in terms of size, power, resolution, and speed. This is achieved by direct modulation of high-speed LED arrays to generate line images, and by parallel projection of light through a flexible polymer waveguide array sequentially scanned using either a refractive or diffractive liquid crystal output coupler array. Using the MHz speed of LEDs and time-multiplexing, the display will have increased grayscale capability, dynamic range, and dimming range. Additionally, the device will be lightweight, rugged, and compact, and will require little power or maintenance. With its high frame refresh rate and high resolution, POC's display will also reduce time-based and spatial image artifacts. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach by design and analysis, demonstration of component fabrication, and integration into a functional demonstration unit. BENEFITS: Because of its low power requirements, low cost, and high performance, the proposed display has many applications, including military head mounted displays (HMDs), space exploration, law enforcement, fire-fighting, education, training, maintenance and inventory-control, entertainment, portable computing and communications, and interactive virtual environments.

VIASAT, INC.
2290 Cosmos Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
Thomas E. Carter
ARMY 97-041
Title:New Multipath & Co-Channel Interference Suppe\ression Techniques for Digital Data
Abstract:Co-channel interference (CCI, i.e. interference from like-modulated signals), is rapidly emerging as one of the greatest impacts to new digital data communications systems, both military and commercial. Multiple users in the same frequency band and overlapping geographic locations often impact performance of communications equipment more than noise or more conventional interference. Multipath and dispersive channels firther exacerbate this impact. A new approach to mitigating Co-channel interference in a dispersive environment, applying Per Survivor Processing (PSP), offers the opportunity to achieve large performance improvements (e.g. improved acquisition, &/or interference rejection) over conventional design techniques when a large number of users, difficult dynamics and/or large channel uncertainties are present. Further, PSP excels when the channel characteristics, the number of interferers or reflections, & other key signal parameters are unknown. ViaSat proposes to develop CCI suppression concepts for multipath environments based on PSP techniques, both scalar and vecton Performance will be analyzed and implementation complexity sized and optimized. Comparisons will be made to conventional approaches. Strawman architectures will also be derived. If the Phase I program is successful ViaSat will clearly show that a PSP based CCI suppression scheme is practical and that it can take full advantage of existing commercial technology. BENEFITS: These PSP CCI suppression techniques offer the potential to greatly enhance the number of users and/or cell packing density through improved frequency reuse on commercial TDMA cellular systems. These same techniques can reduce in-band interference for many emerging military communications systems as well as enhance signal collection schemes.

EPIR LTD.
6598 Tealwood Dr.
Lisle, IL 60532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(312) 942-0841
Dr. Yuanping Chen
ARMY 97-042
Title:Development of a Monolithically Integrated HgCdTe Megapixel IRFPA
Abstract:The Fabrication of large format mid and long wavelength (MWIR and LWIR) mercury cadmium telluride based staring focal plane array (FPAs) is highly desirable for DOD applications such as surveillance and target acquisition missions. However, the development of large FPAs has been seriously impeded by the limited size of commercially available Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te substrates and in the current hybrid technology by the thermal expansion mismatch between HgCdTe detector array and Si readout. In this project, we propose to explore the development of a monolithically integrated HgCdTe megapixel IRFPA High quality (defect density less than 5x10(5) cm(-2)) (211)B Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te epitaxial layers will be grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on 3-inch Si(211) substrates. Device quality p-on-n MWIR HgCdTe heterostructures will be grown also by MBE on these 3-inch lattice matched Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te/Si substrates and photodiodes will be processed and tested. In order to develop, in Phase II, a LWIR HgCdTe IRFPA monolithically integrated with the readout circuit on a common silicon wafer, an advanced device architecture with an extended field of view will be designed in Phase I. A particular attention will be given to the temperature during the entire growth and fabrication process which should not exceed the maximum temperature allowed for a Si readout circuit. In order to evaluate the feasibility of the monolithic concept, localized epitaxy of CdTe on Si substrates will be explored. BENEFITS: The anticipated benefits of this R & D project would be the development of robust, low cost, advanced and very large format long wavelength IRFPAs. Large high performance IRFPAs are needed in many military and commercial applications.

MOSET CORP.
25071 Rivendell Dr
Lake Forest, CA 92630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 533-6010
Kenneth R. Zanio
ARMY 97-042
Title:Monolithically Integrated HgCdTe Staring Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA)
Abstract:The long term objectives of this program are to 1) develop a technology for producing a megapixel staring LWIR IRFPA with optical detection and charge readout monolithically integrated on a common silicon wafer, and 2) demonstrate this technology by fabricating and delivering a prototype of this array. In Phase I we will: 1) choose the best monolithic approach that allows the growth of high quality LWIR HgCdTe and avoids degradation of the readout, 2) Provide a preliminary readout design for an LWIR HgCdTe p-on-n 1280 x 960 monolithic array which has a 25um x 25um or smaller pitch, high optical fill factor, and can accommodate a high background charge, 3) Grow HgCdTe heterostructures on silicon and test the resulting p on n detectors, and 4) develop the processing steps for fabricating the selected monolithic IRFPA and assign the risk to each of those processing steps. Metal refractory in place of aluminum will be considered as an intermediate metallization for the readouts until the higher post silicon processing temperatures required for buffer layer growth for the HgCdTe can be reduced. Both (100) and (211) silicon are considered for HgCdTe growth. BENEFITS: Commercial applications include search and rescue, fire detection, surveillance systems for drug and traffic and border control, vision enhancement, and satellites used for weather forecasting and environmental, global warming and crop management studies. Defense applications include advanced land combat, etc.

DISCOVERY SEMICONDUCTORS, INC.
186 Princeton-Hightstown Road, Bldg, 3A, Box 1
Cranbury, NJ 08512
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 275-0011
Abhay M. Joshi
ARMY 97-043
Title:InGaAs / InP Based Multi-level Photonic Modules for Millimeter Wave Phased Array Antennas
Abstract:The goal of the proposed development is the creation of multilevel photonic modules comprised of monolithic, InGaAs / InP p-i-n photodetector - p-HEMT power amplifier, Opto-electronic integrated circuit (OEIC), that has 60 GHz bandwidth and output power of 100 mW. The photodetector will have a high quantum efficiency (30%) and will be front-illuminated, thereby improving optical performance. The proposed innovation will greatly simplify the implementation of miniaturized optically controlled antenna elements. By integrating the photoreceiver and power amplifier into one OEIC device, the antenna element can be made to resemble a ceramic chip carrier. The element would have two ceramic substrates sandwiching the InP chip, one carrying the fiber input and the other carrying the antenna output. The overall element would be small, rugged, and hermetic, allowing for conformal mounting onto vehicle structures and other such applications. Dr. Arthur Paolella of Lockheed Martin's Communication & Power Center will consult. BENEFITS: Optical signal distribution for phased array antennas in communication satellites is advantageous to system designers. By distributing the microwave and millimeter wave signals optically, a potential savings of up to 100 lbs can be achieved. This weight saving translates into reduced launch costs of $1.5 to $3.0 M per satellite.

AURORA SIMULATION, INC.
12310 Pinecrest Rd., Suite 200
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 391-9534
Craig H. Heartwell
ARMY 97-044
Title:Battle Damage Prediction
Abstract:In order to assist the Battle Damage Assessment (BDA) operator in performing timely damage estimates for physical and functional damage assessment, Aurora Simulation Inc. proposes to develop an Automatic Battle Damage Prediction System (ABDPS), which will have the following features: ABDPS will not only predict physical damage and functional damage independently, but will also predict the coupling of physical damage and functional damage. The terms of the functional damage model and the Electronic Warfare (EW) Model will be used interchangeably. For the EW models this study will concentrate on the Radar Detection Model and Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) Model. Since the outcome of a battle will be dependent on both the probability of kill (physical damage model) and the probability of detection (EW model). Therefore these models need to be coupled to provide accurate battle damage predictions. The system will be 100% compatible with different computer platforms (PC, workstation, super computer) and operating systems (Windows 95, NT, Unix, VMS, etc). Since the system will be an object-oriented software, the maintenance costs of the software will be low, and the models can be replaced in a plug-and-play style. BENEFITS: The proposed work will integrate the existing physical and functional damage models into one automated system, so the battle damage prediction will become an automatic, timely, and accurate operation. The technology of the system would be applicable to generating physical damage estimates for any type of natural or man-made destruction, as well as, functional damage associated with the physical damage for which predictive models exist. The ABDPS will not only benefit the BDA operator; it will also enhance mission planning, training, and weapon system evaluation

PRINCETON ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 8627
Princeton, NJ 08543
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 716-1608
Yi Tang
ARMY 97-045
Title:Real-Time Image Fusion Processor
Abstract:Princeton Electronic Systems, Inc. (PES) proposes to develop algorithms for combining the most salient features of long wave infrared (LWIR) and near-infrared navigation sensor imagery into a single image, and to implement the algorithms, in real-time, using commercially-available general-purpose processors or digital signal processing devices. The key issue for this project is that the high-resolution imagery (for navigation) that needs to be processed in this project typically has a bandwidth of more than 5 times conventional real-time. Our proposed innovative techniques include: parallel pipeline image processing, and biologically motivated multi-resolution and region-of-interest image processing for image registration, as well as biologically motivated user controllable color coding. The proposed image fusion algorithms and hardware system will be robust and can function properly in the presence of image mismatches or misalignment, especially 5 to 10 pixel displacement mismatches, as specified by the Army. PES has extensive experience in developing image processing systems on low cost commercial off the shelf (COTS) hardware platforms and will implement the entire proposed image fusion system in low cost COTS hardware (PCI image processing boards in Pentium PC). BENEFITS: This project will result in extensive commercial applications, such as Real-time image fusion system for TV news broadcasting and rescue squad, Automatic target recognition (ATR) and tracking, Automatic product inspection.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Dr.
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 860-3456
Michael Geile
ARMY 97-046
Title:Personal Communications System Voice Terminal (PCSVT)
Abstract:The Warf ighter Information Network (WIN) is an evolving Command, Control Communications, and Computer network composed of communications systems whose roots can be traced back to the commercial sector. The primary WIN charter is to dramatically increase the speed and quantity of information transported throughout the battlespace, while adopting commercial standards to leverage the investment. A crucial link in the WIN communications hierarchy is the Future Digital Radio (FDR), which will provide a high speed digital link as well as an interface between the WIN and users of selected legacy radios. The FDR is the anticipated follow-on to the Near Term Digital Radio (NTDR) which is nearing completion. Therefore, it is essential to determine the degree to which the NTDR's `open' architecture objectives have been met. Nova's proposed program includes a detailed system analysis to answer this crucial question. In addition, Nova will assess the viability of providing PCS voice services over the Wireless LAN data channel. To validate this analysis, Nova's COTS vocoders, spread spectrum transceivers, and reconfigurable DSP cards will be integrated to demonstrate a set of Voice/Data Terminals and Access Points which pass voice and data via a Wireless LAN which includes the NTDR. BENEFITS: The proposed system represents an integration of proven technologies in the areas of low rate vocoders, spread spectrum transceivers, and novel network structures. This combination, once fully reduced to practice, represents a powerful solution for a variety of communications needs which demand distributed voice over a wide area.

ATLANTIC CONSULTING SERVICES, INC.
28 Kenneth Drive
Ocean, NJ 07712
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 493-3532
Mark R. Lambert
ARMY 97-047
Title:Transition to the Objective C4T Modeling and Simulation Enviroment
Abstract:Modeling and simulation (M&S) is profoundly affecting the way the Army develops, acquires, tests, and fields new technologies for the future battlefield. While M&S has made a significant impact on Army digitization initiatives to date, fully realizing its benefits in the research, development, and acquisition (RDA); advanced concepts requirements (ACR); and training, exercises, and military operations (TEMO) domains for C4I systems will require significant improvements in M&S tools and practices. The Army Enterprise Implementation Plan, Task 9 Action Plan, specifies the use of Department of Defense (DoD)-compliant tools and methodologies--including the High-Level Architecture (HLA)--to oversee the prioritization and integration of C4I models to facilitate trade-off analysis and validation of the Operational, Technical, and Systems Architectures. The overarching objective of the proposed Phase I work effort is to develop a plan to transition current Army C41 M&S products and tools to an objective M&S environment that meets the criteria established by the Army Enterprise Strategy Task 9 M&S Subgroup. HLA lends itself well to meeting the requirements of the Objective C4I M&S environment. The HLA goal is to meet the wide range of functional M&S applications while facilitating interoperability among simulations and reusability of simulations and their components. BENEFITS: The proposed R&D offers follow-on potential applications to the DoD and commercial telecommunications and entertainment industries. Commercialization of the R&D will be achieved through presentation of documented results, publication of technical papers and participation at trade shows, symposia, and other technical forums.

PREDICTION SYSTEMS, INC.
309 Morris Ave., Suite G
Spring Lake, NJ 07762
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 449-6800
Jose Ucles
ARMY 97-048
Title:System Architecture Toll Design
Abstract:In order to achieve a well-conceived system architecture several steps are involved. Initially, system requirements need to be defined, functional procedures need to be established, an operational architecture needs to be developed, and a System Architecture needs to be realized. The PSI/MU Team proposes to develop a specification and a concept of operation for the Automated Tool Suite (ATS) which will take the various requirements of the Army's Operational Architecture and automate the synthesis of the system architecture. What makes this Automated Tool Suite (ATS) unique is its focus on offering the system architect designer a series of steps that guide the user through the complex process of developing the architecture. They include: (1) a user-friendly interface that includes an expert system which allows various architectural tradeoffs, (2) a series of supporting databases that help in rapidly defining system requirements in support of the operational requirements, (3) an expert system that interacts with high level parametric models that are used to provide the System Architect feedback about expected performance of proposed architectures, and (4) an analyst's back end that permits the viewing of the architecture from several views (e.g., hardware, communication and network, etc.) useful to an architect. BENEFITS: Communication network equipment design, manufacturing plant design, process control system design, local, national, and international econometric modeling, business market modeling, world-wide commodity and currency stock and flow predictions, etc.

EWING TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
5416 143rd Ave. SE
Bellevue, WA 98006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 746-1216
J.J. Ewing
ARMY 97-049
Title:Compact Microlaser and Rangefinder
Abstract:A novel 1.57 micron eye-safe micro laser and rangefinder are proposed. The concept results in a laser and detection system with a total weight with batteries of less than 4 ounces each for the micro-transmitter and the miniaturized detection system. Using novel, state of the art laser modeling codes to support our design, we have quantified a range of options for the transmitter and system design. From this we selected a compact, diode pumped Nd laser plus OPO for our concept. Our proposed effort will combine engineering design, laser modeling and breadboard experiments to arrive at an optimum approach for Phase II. The concept features a novel optical parametric oscillator cavity. Low thresholds and over 120microJ outputs are predicted. The predicted pulse durations are under 5ns, ideal for ranging. For the same drive diode power, the conventional OPO cavity is closer to threshold and produces considerably less power. Breadboard experiments will be used to understand the range of operation for both cavities. The critical interfaces and design options for mating the sensor to the host system will be identified in Phase I. BENEFITS: The micro-laser-rangefinder will expand the range of applicability this modern military tool to a broad class of infantry users, resulting in a more effective and cost effective Army. The technology developed will also be useful in civilian applications such as micro-machining. robotic control and altimetry.

SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY SOLUTIONS, INC.
122 4th Ave.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Gregory McFarland
ARMY 97-050
Title:Rapid Application Builder Based on Internet Technologies (RABBIT)
Abstract:The modern military's information processing needs are continually and rapidly changing due to broadening operational requirements, conflict areas, and adversaries. To effectively provide our warfighters with information superiority, a mechanism to dynamically alter an automated systems functionality and visualization must be provided. To address this need SPS proposes to develop the Rapid Application Builder Based on Internet Technologies (RABBIT). RABBIT is an innovative combination of end-user, model-based RAD techniques, GIS display capabilities, military and Internet-based standards, and architecture driven component-based application development. RABBIT combines these capabilities in an environment that supports end-user composition of complex applications. The Phase I effort will generate a specification and early demonstration of RABBIT. The Phase II will build RABBIT based upon a commercial integrated development environment that supports non-programmed component composition. RABBIT will be developed by a highly qualified team from software Productivity Solutions whose expertise spans model-based RAD, Internet development standards and technologies, and software architectural driven component-based reuse. RABBIT will be highly viable in the commercial marketplace as the growth of the Internet further increases application demand and the need for end-user application development becomes the only viable approach to satisfying this need. BENEFITS: The need for end-user composition of complex applications is driven by rapid requirements evolution in both military and commercial markets. Applications incorporating GIS displays are becoming commonplace as an effective means of visualizing enterprise information. The Internet and component based application development is rapidly becoming the computing paradigm of choice for all types of application. Technology developed under this SBIR which integrates true end-user RAD, GIS display technology, Internet standards, and architecture driven, component based application development will provide a highly differentiated product in area of application development tools.

TLC PRECISION WAFER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
661 5th Avenue N. #160
Minneapolis, MN 55411
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 341-2795
Robert Dwarkin
ARMY 97-051
Title:Low Cost Ka-Band Transmit/Recieve (T/R) module
Abstract:The technical problem to be addressed is that of designing a transmit/recieve module based on a basic GaAs MMIC chip set. Emphasis will be placed on simplicity toward the goal of a low-cost product. To reduce cost, two approaches will be considered. One is to simplify the RF circuitry and packaging as much as possible while maintaining performance requirements. Two is to apply batch processing techniques to the packaging as well as the circuitry. Experimental test data from existing Ka-band MMICs, as well as computer simulations, will be utilized in performing the trade-off analysis. A radiating element will be designed for fabrication directly with the module. This is imperative in order to avoid the need for seperate connections and to keep the cost of the module down. For application to an active phased array antenna, two basic configurations for arranging the radiating elements in the array. The tile configuration is suitable for patch radiators, while the brick configuration is suitable for end-fire dipole, slot line or finline antennas. BENEFITS: The market for mm-wave phased array antennas for commercial applications is potentially very large (e.g., as radar sensors for vehicular application) provided that T/R module costs can be reduced significantly from the present levels.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park Suite 300
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 933-5355
Raman K. Mehra
ARMY 97-052
Title:Investigation of Active Networking Components
Abstract:It has long been known that different data applications have different service requirements. Active Networks offer the opportunity to provide applications and users "Service to Fit" - exact network services tailored explicitly from user and application instructions to precisely fit user and application needs. We propose to identify requirements for effective control and traffic management of distributed, multimedia, multiuser applications, , and determine how network information can be used to provide these services. We will examine both requirements of specific technologies employed by those applications and general requirements for coordinating distributed applications with the aim of abstracting general functions, commands, or features that will be benefit entire classes of applications, both those developed today and those to be developed in the future. We will then look for general methods for implementing these features and attempt to develop a set of requirements for selected application oriented Active Network features. Finally, we will examine proposed implementation methods and suggest how to use one or more of them to provide the selected Active Network features and algorithms. BENEFITS: This strategy will allow current Active Network techniques to be applied selectively where they can optimally provide demonstrated services to a new class of network and computer applications.

PHOTONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
1800 Penn Street, Suite 6
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-8181
Dr. Dennis Pape
ARMY 97-053
Title:VXIbus Wide Bandwidth Real-Time Power Spectrum Analyzer
Abstract:PSI will develop a new real-time parallel filter bank type spectrum analyzer which overcomes the restricted real-time bandwidth available with digital signal processing technology. PSI's wide bandwidth spectrum analyzer is implemented with proven acousto-optic (AO) signal processing technology components, where a real-time bandwidth of 2 GHz, a frequency resolution of 1 MHz, and a dynamic range of 60 dB is possible using state-of-the-art AO Bragg cells and linear photodetector arrays. By taking advantage of recent advances in miniaturization of AO spectrum analyzer components, PSI will implement the spectrometer in a VMEbus related architecture called VXI (VME extensions for Instrumentation). The complete spectrometer will be housed in a 6 slot-wide "B"size (6U X 160 mm) VXI module format. PSI will provide engineering analysis and a detailed component and system hardware implementation plan for this new VXIbus instrument. This new AO spectrometer (AOS) will complement emerging VXIbus instrumentation with a spectrum analysis capability orders of magnitude greater than that available with digital signal processing technology. With its VXIbus modular architecture, PSI's AOS will find application not only in the military but in the test and measurement equipment marketplace where it will be compatible with other VXIbus instrumentation products. BENEFITS: The VXIbus power spectrum analyzer proposed here complements emerging VXIbus instrumentation with a complete spectrum analysis capability orders of magnitude greater than that available with digital signal processing technology. Commercial applications include RF spectrum analysis for the test and measurement and scientific instrumentation marketplace.

DUAL, INC.
30 Skyline Drive
Lake Mary, FL 32746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 333-8880
Dr. David A. Dryer
ARMY 97-054
Title:Decision Support Rendering Tools (DSRTs) for Battlespace Command and Control
Abstract:Increases in information task complexity and technological capability are both driving the need for 3D tools in battlespace and other information-rich topographic domains. Dual, Incorporated (Dual) proposes research and development work to develop and assess the feasibilitv of 3D Decision Support Rendering Tool (DSRT) concepts and technology for evolving battle planning and visualization applications. DSRTs are innovative tools designed to enhance portrayal and comprehension of battlespace information through recent, scientifically-based information visualization and interaction techniques. Classes of DSRTs will portray various types of decision support information concerning battlespace missions through use of enhanced rendering algorithms inside a real-time SD environment. Intuitive DSRT sensory cues such as shape, color, shading, texture, transparency, and location will be used to represent dynamic battlespace realistic and abstract information. Dual proposes a Phase I effort to demonstrate the technical feasibility of DSRTs for battlespace visualization which sets the foundation for Phase II prototype development, software integration, and effectiveness assessments. The anticipated result of this project is a delivered embedded prototype DSRT system for the military application of battlespace planning and execution. This design will be based on theoretical and experimental graphical display research and experimentally tested for effectiveness. BENEFITS: Commercially viability is demonstrated by current positive interest and support from local transportation and land development customers concerning Dual's DSRT software applications. An initial commercial system is currently being tailored for transportation planning and commercial real estate development. Other domains which show promise for commercial application include situational awareness, law enforcement planning, environmental planning, and crisis management.

TELE-SYS, INC.
138 Fairbanks Rd
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 482-2140
J.F.Jamison
ARMY 97-055
Title:ISDN Mode for Near-Term Digital Radio (NTDR)
Abstract:Tele-SyS, Inc. proposes to develop an Integrated Systems Digital Network (ISDN) mode capable of providing rapid, reliable, and low cost digital communication links between U. S. Army Near Term Digital Radio (NTDR) stations. The goal is to permit direct communications between high-speed digital (Group 4) fax machines, television surveillance equipment, digital telephones and other ISDN equipment over the NDTR network. Tele-SyS, Inc. will use commercial software protocol stacks and evaluation hardware to minimize development efforts and ensure reliable performance. Radio frequency communications over the NTDR will utilize the ethernet port provided by the NTDR. The ISDN/NTDR interface devices to be provided by Tele-SyS, Inc. for this purpose will be called ISDN/Ethernet Conversion Modules (I/ECM's). In addition to demonstrating functional connectivity between two NTDR terminals using I/ECM's, the Phase I project will demonstrate digital data transfer and real-time full-duplex digital voice transmission. Deliverable hardware will consist of two I/SCM's, and the transmission and protocol analysis hardware which is necessary to debug problems and quantify transmission performance. Deliverable software will be the software embedded in I/SCM's. Deliverable documentation will be a user's manual to include installation instructions for the I/ECM's and operational training instructions. BENEFITS: The principal benefits of this project will be expanded functionality and improved communication reliability of the NTDR network due to use of commercial ISDN hardware. This will permit real-time audio, video, and text communication between battlefield vehicles. Commercial applications will focus on communication of ISDN equipment over existing industrial and military ethernets.

AUSTIN INFO SYSTEMS, INC.
301 Camp Craft Road, Suite 150
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 329-6667
Kathleen Lossau
ARMY 97-056
Title:Object-Based C2 Visualization Workstation Architecture
Abstract:The command and control (C2) architecture is currently a static client-server environment allowing applications to communicate with their data and in some cases with other applications. The C2 architecture of tomorrow needs to be more diverse, providing for distributed objects to interact with many plug-and play applications. Each platform should be capable of being dynamically configured to run applications specific to tbe task being accomplished by the soldier. The ultimate goal of the C2 architecture environment is to develop an architecture capable of running heirarch of intelligent agents that work cooperatively with the many diverse applications needed by soldiers to complete all of their C2 tasks. The architecture is flexible enough to handle current system requirements and the technology enhancements of the future. There are two essential distributed object-oriented technoligies that will make this architecture possible: CORBA and Java. CORBA provides the mechanism for accessing distributed objects and invoking their behaviors from multiple cooperating agents. Java provides new agents with a platform independent presentation of these distributed objects. BENEFITS: Successful completion of this effort provides a solid technical architecture for developing and delivering a robust framework where applications and data sources can interoperate in a plug-and-play environment. Soldiers no longer have to consider how applications input and output data, but only need to consider the application's capabilities.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4900 University Square, Ste. 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 722-9095
Randall L. Lindsey
ARMY 97-057
Title:Dry Etching Continuous Surface Profiles into Infrared Semiconductor Materials
Abstract:Etching high-efficiency diffractive optical elements (DOES) into InSb substrates, using multiple binary masks, has proven to be problematic. This microfabrication method (sometimes called binary optics technology) is time-consuming, costly, sensitive to alignment errors, and only produces a less-than-ideal DOE. Other major problems, which appear to be unique with InSb and the multi-mask process, are polymer buildup and substrate fracturing in subsequent etch levels. Since these do not appear to be problems with a single etch process, a new process is needed which achieves fabrication of high-efficiency DOEs with only a single mask and single etch step. This proposed effort will investigate the application of gray scale mask technology to etching high-efficiency DOEs in InSb and InAs substrates. New processes appropriate for gray scale masks, including photoresist exposure/development and RIE gas chemistries will be developed. Unique new methods of fabricating gray scale masks will also be investigated. These new processes will be used to fabricate continuous profile DOEs and refractive micro-optical components in III-V semiconductors such as InSb and InAs. BENEFITS: Processes developed under this effort will greatly benefit the production of commercial FLIR and IR detector systems. Potential commercial devices could include radiation hardened focal plane arrays, laser optical limiters for night vision devices, filters and elements for advanced staring FLIR systems, high efficiency/low cost night vision illuminators and spotters, IR detectors, and various applications within the micro-machining industry.

CUSTOM MANUFACTURING & ENGINEERING, INC
P.O. Box 5230
Largo, FL 33779
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 541-8978
Martin A. Hykin
ARMY 97-058
Title:Intelligent Power Management and Distribution System for Shelters and Vehicles
Abstract:In the modern electronic battlefield, the proliferation of electronic devices has increased the demands on electrical power support systems. In both commercial and DOD applications, effective management of limited electric power requires intelligent control of electrical distribution systems. An intelligent management system will take on the burden of managing electrical energy consumption, in portable field systems, freeing personnel to concentrate on mission objectives. Custom Manufacturing & Engineering will utilize wireless technology and microprocessor controlled solid state switching to develop a true "plug and play" power management system. The CHE approach will simplify and reduce the cost of installation while providing a system adaptable to many configurations. The objective of Phase I is to demonstrate the feasibility of wireless control in a solid state switching power managememt systup. Phase II will field a fully functional demonstration system. The system architecture will support manual/automatic scheduling, alarm changes. The basic system building blocks are: control function, switching and power busses. CME is currently commercializing other similar distributed microprocessor based systems used for monitoring, control and management in conjunction with the University of South Florida for commercial customers and also for Department of Energy. BENEFITS: The proposed system will provide an inexpensive strategy for deploying intelligent power management systems within the military and into new areas including office, commercial marine appplications, hospitals and health care providers, fire and police stations, educational institutions and in the entertainment industry.

AUSTIN INFO SYSTEMS, INC.
301 Camp Craft Road, Suite 150
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 329-6667
Kathleen Lossau
ARMY 97-059
Title:Knowledge-Based Doctrine Tool
Abstract:Soldiers using the ABCS systems do not have on-line access to doctrinal publications and context sensitive tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPS) to aid them in their mission planning process. These TTPs should support the users current task by retrieving information based on the force affiliation and situation. Doctrine, missions, policies, and strategies are some of the considerations in generating these mission and task specific TTPS. The focus of this effort is to address the knowledge representation and user interface requirements for storing, retrieving, and synthesizing information based on a specific task for a given force. Considerations during the storage, retrieval, and synthesis of the information are the force affiliation and situation. The TTPs generated support, tactical, peacekeeping, and/or humanitarian operations. This Phase I proposal offers an excellent opportunity to focus on how knowledge-based TTPs can be extracted from a wide variety of sources stored and presented to the user in the military decision-making process (MDMP). These knowledge-based tools enable the user to manipulate data and information by displaying, entering, storing, exchanging, and processing data, information, knowledge, and experience. The storyboards are developed using computer-based training authorware technology and integrate office automation technology. BENEFITS: The research done in Phase I benefits U.S. Army systems by providing a knowledge representation and screen designs for tools that integrate doctrine, strategy, and experience into the mission planning process. In addition, AIS plans to actively pursue this representation in it's commercial Java-based C3I applications (WebC3I) product line which in turn will become available in other military systems that use this product.

EPITRONICS CORP.
21002 N. 19th Avenue, Suite5
Phoenix, AZ 85027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 581-3663
Dr. Joan Redwing
ARMY 97-062
Title:Transition of AlGaP Durable Coating Technology to Production for Development of Affordable Multispectral Windows
Abstract:The overall objective of this program is to develop the foundation to commercially produce durable, and hence affordable, large area AlGaP coated windows for multispectral sensor array Systems. This coating has been shown by Hughes Danbury optical Systems to increase the useful life of test windows under sand abrasion test conditions by a factor of at least 3-6x. The technical objectives of Phase I include: 1) modification of Epitronics' chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system for growth of AlGaP coatings on large area substrates; 2) transfer process from Hughes' laboratory system to Epitronics' production reactor; 3) begin optimization of growth conditions for the commercial reactor; 4) demonstration of deposition of suitable window coatings on a 3" substrate and 5) evaluation of optical performance and durability of a coated window. In Phase I we will transfer this process to a commercial deposition system and demonstrate a 3" window. Transmittance and durability will be characterized at Epitronics and Hughes. Partnering with Hughes, which designs and fabricates windows and sensor systems, creates a team that is uniquely suited to develop and commercialize these windows. BENEFITS: The production applications outlet tor this research is Hughes Danbury optical Systems which is a major manufacturer of sensor array window subsystems for air and missile combat elements. No other method of extending the life of these windows and consequent potential for reducing the overall systems cost by such a large factor for programs such as LRAS-3 has been demonstrated.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 668-2567
Charles J. Jacobus
ARMY 97-063
Title:Object-Oriented Donor-Transparent Data Collection and Fusion Environment
Abstract:This proposal suggests that a data collection, management, and fusion framework under development by Cybernet for distributed testing is ideally suited for integrating a distributed donor-transparent system for data collection from multiple heterogeneous sources and making this data available on a multi-point basis for analysis, viewing, and post review applications. This basic framework was built (and is currently under ongoing development) to support object-oriented, temporally consistent multi-point data collection archival, and query. It is structured into three major C++ software cornponents: (1) the Data Interchange Library, (2) the Data Collection Environment, and the (3) Data Viewing, Analysis, and Management Environment. The environment, is supported on Win 32 platforms (i.e. windows 95 and NT), Posix Platforms (i.e. Unix derivatives), and embedded systems (DSPs, MS-DOS machines, and other microcontrollers). BENEFITS: This effort will add to Cybernet's product developments associated with distributed data collection and fusion. The effort will be commercialized through insertion into several dedicated test, measurement, and server/router products. These multiple product paths will assure effective commercial leverage for the planned development.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4046
Dr. Suneet Chadha
ARMY 97-064
Title:High-Throughput Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for Stand-Off Chemical Detection
Abstract:Advanced autonomous detection of chemical warfare agents and other organic materials has long been a major military concern. While significant advances have recently been accomplished in remote spectral sensing using rugged FTIRs with point detectors, efforts towards spatial chemical discrimination have been lacking. Foster-Miller, Inc. (FMI) together with Boeing/Rockwell Electro-Optic Center proposes to design and demonstrate a radically different mid-infrared (3-5um) and long wave IR (8-12 um) imaging spectrometer for standoff detection of chemical warfare agents and other molecular species. This no moving parts device will: Be readily incorporated into existing or planned FLIR's; Eliminate the cost, complexity, reliability and bandwidth/resolution problems associated with either Fabry Perot or Michelson Interferometer based approaches currently under consideration; Given the small size and performance insensitivity to on-board vibration, high EMI, thermal variations, the proposed optic would easily adapt cryocooling and field deployable requirements for low radiance detection. During the Phase I effort, will demonstrate overall feasibility, determine spectral and spatial resolution and compute NESR and NETD for the system. Our team partner Boeing/Rockwell Electro-Optic Center will provide a cryogenically cooled detector array to be coupled to spectrometer to demonstrate the feasibility of our design approach. The Phase I will provide the basis for the creation of a conceptual design of an integrated FLIR imaging and spectral radiometer for development during Phase II. During Phase II FMI and Boeing/Rockwell will optimize the system design to incorporate higher spatial resolution and light collection optics integrated with a cooled detector array and deliver a well characterized prototype system to the topic sponsor. BENEFITS: The ability to perform standoff infrared imaging of chemical agents and other organic molecules of interest has incredibly broad potential use in both military and commercial applications. Space, ground and airborne based monitoring for both security and environmental sensing will be a major benefactor. This added capability for spatial chemical detection further b

OMAN MOMENTS, INC.
16 Whitehall Dr
Huntington, NY 11743
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 423-6022
Dr. Richard A. Oman
ARMY 97-064
Title:A Proposal for a Frequency Domain Imaging Sensor for Stand-off Chemical Detection
Abstract:Oman Moments, Inc. (OMI), a small business, offers to U.S. Army ERDEC the unique Fabry-Perot Interferometer technology developed by our teammate Northrop Grumman (NG) NG has demonstrated design, construction and performance of imaging etalons operating in low order in the infrared. Their solutions to the Phase I problems of very high mirror reflectance, flatness and alignment over a 1" aperture, and control of mirror spacing will be demonstrated. It will operate with one OSF, allowing transmission >50%. Real-time processing and data bandwidth <20Mbytes/sec are expected. A sensitive imaging instrument with field ruggedness and high spectral resolution is the goal. NG etalon performance with a single detector in Phase 1 and an aperture of 1" diameter, is predicted at. peak transmission >50%, FSR >400cm(-1) (single peak over bandpass), and FWHM spectral resolution <10 cm(-1) over 8-l2um. OMI's founder Dick Oman supervised the etalon project at Grumman until 1993. Dr. Oman is Principal Investigator. OMI has retained Dr. William Van Nostrand, who developed the control system of the low-order NG etalon, and Vincent Calia, who ran the NG IR Plume Laboratory until recently. Phase 1 demonstrations will be performed in NG laboratories with Drs. Robert Ryan and Richard Madonna. BENEFITS: Phase I success will enable a cryogenic focal pland array in Phase 2, and commercial development as a field instrument in Phase 3. This will provide a new direction to chemical detection, pointing to an operational instrument that shows gas cloud shape, size, content and concentration for most species. Commercial and Military applications are many, because the package will be small, light and rugged.

OPTRA, INC.
461 Boston St.
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 887-6600
James R. Engel
ARMY 97-064
Title:A Fabry-Perot Scanning Spectrometer for Standoff Chemical Detection
Abstract:OPTRA is proposing the development of a spectrometer system to measure optical radiation in the 8 to 12 micron spectral range with 8 cm(-1) resolution. The device design is based on a closed loop controlled scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometer that utilizes a spectrally consistent thermal radiation detector array. The system would offer a number of distinct advantages in terms of increased resolution, enhanced ruggedness, large dynamic range and increased spectral throughput. OPTRA has developed a very high sensitivity optical laser based displacement sensor that will be used to sense and control the position of the parallel plate spacing. A parallel plate will be mounted to three piezo-electric actuators. Three optical displacement sensors will control the plate spacing during the entire scan range required to achieve the full 8 to 12 micron spectral bandwidth while maintaining proper parallel plate alignment. OPTRA also plans to incorporate a novel thermal detecting technology as well. These thermal detectors (amorphous silicon microbolometers) will provide spectrally consistent high throughput without the need for active cooling. BENEFITS: The proposed development should advance the field of chemical detection and further the development of advanced thermal detectors for the entire 1 - 30 micron spectral range.

SHAWN SYSTEMS, INC.
350 Pleasant St
Ashland, MA 01721
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 881-7373
Agai Thirumalai
ARMY 97-065
Title:Integral Missle Seeker Signal Processor Desigh, Development and Implementation
Abstract:We will be developing a 4-node integral missile seeker signal processor in colloboration with Northrop-Grumman, based on their proven AMPS (Adaptive Multi-Processor System) technology, which is scalable to 32+ nodes. We then will package the design in a Multi-Chip Module form factor. Note that the AMPS architecture permits use of any COTS processor, though the current engineering development model uses the 68002 processor. We intend to replace it with a TI C6X or C7X DSP processor to give us over 4 MFLOPS of computational power in under 4 cu. in. BENEFITS: This technology can be used in a variety of mission critical applications, including next generation avionics/electronic systems. Military programs that will directly benefit from this technology inlcude AEGIS, JSTARS, E2C, etc.

THE ATHENA GROUP, INC.
3424 N.W. 31st St.
Gainesville, FL 32605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-2567
Jonathon Mellott
ARMY 97-065
Title:David: A Core-Based Digital Signal Processor
Abstract:Digital signal processing (DSP), a multiply-accumulate (MAC) intensive technology, is revolutionizing defense planning systems. The next generation of missile systems will have a high DSP content, undoubtedly based on cell-based integrated circuits (CBICs) along with an integrating electronic design automation (EDA) environment. DSP CBICs can range from complex standard cell objects to narrowly focused FPGA macros. The EDA environment will consist of a highly integrated collection of CBIC. IC integration, and board level design and verification tools. The proposed study will provide the Army with a state-of-the-art analysis of this field, plus identify and exploit several new opportunities such as David, an innovative, fast, compact, MAC-centric CBIC technology with built-in testing logic. David will be shown to have the ability to bypass an entire generation of DSP cores. Included in the software integration study will be best-of-breed EDA systems, behavioral level synthesis tools which create a new bridge from VHDL processor to board-level system design activities, an evaluation of the impact of very long instruction word (VLIW) architecture on missile signal processing, and the rigorous and accurate design and simulation of important missile-seeking DSP applications. BENEFITS: The Army has immediate and future needs for smarter missile systems which fully exploit the potential of DSP. DSP CBIC technology will provide robust, low-cost solutions to missile-seeking problems. The same technology will also provide immediate benefits to high-end defense and civilian application areas.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 103
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Tin M. Aye
ARMY 97-066
Title:High-Speed Solid State Scanner Based on Liquid Crystal Micro-Prism Array
Abstract:A lightweight, compact, low-power, two-dimensional beam scanning device would greatly enhance compact, low cost imaging laser radars (ladars). Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a unique 2-D laser beam scanning device based on an electro-optically tunable Active Micro-Prism Array Scanner (AMPAS) concept. The device will build on three major POC innovations: 1) non-mechanical, electrooptic, tunable micro-prism arrays for high efficiency, wide spectral band, and large angle beam scanning; 2) a new variety of us-response ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) for high-speed, large-angle scanning driven by only 0 10 V; and 3) scalability to large arrays using well-developed integrated circuit processing and liquid crystal display technologies. Since the scanner is an analog device, it can have 40º x 40º field-of-regard. This monolithic scanning device will be small, light, and inexpensive and draw little power. Phase I will yield a preliminary system design, performance analyses, and a laboratory demonstration of the proposed AMPAS concept. The success of Phase I will lead us to fabricate preproduction prototypes of AMPAS in Phase II for eventual commercialization in Phase III. BENEFITS: This development will find many commercial applications for high-speed three-dimensional imaging. Applications include range finders, small aperture ladar systems, laser scanned displays, laser printers, engravers, copy machines, machine vision, highway safety, and environmental monitoring.

ELO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3205 Ocean Park Blvd, Suite 120
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 452-6688
Mike Sickmiller
ARMY 97-068
Title:Epitaxial Liftoff for an Integrated MEMS-Optoelectronic Optical Read-Write Pick-up Head
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop a high data rate, lightweight, low cost optical read-write head combining epitaxial liftoff integration of opto-electronics with MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. Lifted-off thin film lasers and photodetectors, unlike their bulk counterparts, are light enough to allow rapid motion and positioning by MEMS actuators. MEMS allows new technology options and recent achievements have shown that it can easily replace bulk lenses in tiny optical systems for memory and communications. By using ELO to integrate the opto-electronic components directly onto the MEMS components, a high efficiency, low cost, compact, multifunctional optical pickup head can be constructed. Such a module can also contain local CMOS processing circuitry for pre-processing of data, error correction, and associative memory at the pick-up head. BENEFITS: This effort shall produce a prototype high-speed, lightweight read-write head for optical memory and communications. It will enable CMOS processing on the optical head for local error correction and associative memory.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 726-4800
Mark J. Ostrander
ARMY 97-069
Title:Development and Validation of a CFD/Controls Based Tool for Low cost Pintle Motor Design
Abstract:Development of a software system incorporating accurate transient an simulations coupled with advanced valve control logic is proposed to aid in the design and analysis of axial pintle valve systems for low cost tactical motors. Due to strong current commercial software capability and similar pintle valve control technology, CFDRC will be able to draw on existing software to: perform the transient CFD calculations (CFD-ACE. CFDRC's commercial CFD code); automatically generate grids for the design configuration (CFD-GEOM - a GUI-driven geometry and grid generation program); and control the transient response of the system using advanced inverse control logic (PINCON- a pintle valve control simulation environment validated using ATR propellant development test data). These areas will be integrated with nozzle design methodologies and simple propellant ballistic performance to create the Phase I design software. The Phase I software will be validated at little additional cost with data generated from testing of a prototype low cost axial pintle motor concept at Atlantic Research Corporation. All developed software and engineering data will be delivered to MICOM, ARC and Aerojet at the conclusion of Phase I. During Phase II the CFD/controls based pintle motor design tool will be fully coupled to advanced internal ballistics modeling and CFDRC's MultiDIscilpinary Computational Environment (MDICE). The final tool will be capable of predictions of motor pressure, thrust, efficiency, structural/thermal loading, control response and pertinent vehicle integrated system dynantics in terms of cost and complexity. BENEFITS: Both the Phase I and Phase II pintle motor design tools will have immediate impact at propulsion manufacturers Atlantic Research, Aerojet, Thiokol, etc. in the design, analysis and testing of smart propulsion systems. Other applications include numerous industrial pneumatic actuation control systems and high pressure steam throttling within the marine propulsion and industrial power industries. CFDRC's close proximity to MICOM and close working relationships with propulsion manufacturers assures rapid technology and expertise transfer to MICOM and rapid and Phase III commercialization resp

COLORADO ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
121 East Pikes Peak Ave, Suite 332
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 442-0632
Robert J. Prozan
ARMY 97-069
Title:Low-Cost Tactical Motor Test Bed: The CEA/Aerojet Reponse
Abstract:Colorado Engineering Analysis (CEA) teams with Aerojet to develop, install and verify, through subsequent testing, a comprehensive tactical motor pintle analysis and data base for use by industry and government. The pintle technology, long studied and promoted by Aerojet, offers exciting prospects for the advancement of controlled solid propulsion systems. Our team has many years of experience in the development, testing, and analysis of many applications of pintle technology. Herein are discussed important aspects of the application of pintle technology such as; two phase flow, erosion, thermal expansion, transient loading, and internal ballistics. These phenomena have an important (indeed critical) bearing on the design and analysis of the subject configurations. Aerojet's long history of research and development of this technology has been supported by CEA in the development of CFD analysis tools which address the phenonena important (in many ways unique) to this propulsion concept. This long term involvement has led to the creation of CFD analyses which treat many of the complicating factors occurring in these novel situations. We look to this procurement as a mechanism to further our own pintle nozzle technology and to provide this significant experimental and computational resource to the industry. In the Phase I portion of effort we will deliver a CFD analysis which is based not only on academic developments but also on the ongoing experience in the real world application. BENEFITS: The further development of the pintle technology will have an important commercial benefit to the industry as more applications result from an enhanced understanding of design aspects.

LSA, INC.
1215 Jefferson Davis Hwy, Suite 1300
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
Dr. Robert Carlson
ARMY 97-070
Title:Video Transmission in a Non-Line-of-Sight Environment
Abstract:Success in the battlefield requires extensive distribution of near-real-time data amongst all levels of war fighters. Distribution may be limited by terrain, obstacles in the communication path, or by the impending risk to human life. Unmanned vehicles extend the range of distribution, while reducing the risk of casualties, by providing a platform for non-line-of-sight communication relay systems. Laser-communication technologies permit the realization of high-bandwidth, secure communication links via light, compact payloads suitable for airborne relays. We have developed satellite transceivers that use a solid-optic design to reduce size, weight, and cost and to ensure high reliability and availability. Our commercial laser-communication products provide point-to-point communications at high data rates for situations in which communication links are impractical or overly expensive. On this program, we will extend our successful work on laser-communication systems by addressing requirements unique to airborne, non-line-of-sight lasercom relays. We will then determine the optimum laser communication system for video transmission in this environment and provide a comparison with alternative technologies. BENEFITS: The need for non-line-of-sight video transmission is not peculiar to military applications; it also exists in law enforcement, environmental monitoring, and hazardous waste-site management. Therefore, concepts and technologies selected on this program will yield significant benefits to military, industrial, and government organizations.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECH.
174 North Main Street, Bldg. 3, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Sanford M. Dash
ARMY 97-071
Title:Scramjet Combustor Modeling
Abstract:An advanced computational framework for scramjet combustor simulation will be developed via turbulence extensions to a finite-volume implicit/upwind Navier-Stokes code that presently contains generalized multiphase combustive capabilities and is operational on parallel architecture machines using domain-decomposition with MPI protocol. Turbulence upgrades will include: use of nonlinear (explicit algebraic Reynolds-stress) extensions to two-equation turbulence models such as ke; nonequilibrium compressibility extensions; variable turbulent Prandtl number modeling; and, an assumed PDF approach for turbulent chemistry. A unique feature of this framework will be the ability to use different turbulence modeling procedures in different zones, recognizing the limited invariance of even the most sophisticated turbulence models and the need to cater such models' varied dominant features. Phase I work will be limited to gas-phase combustion while Phase II will emphasize multiphase combustion aspects as associated with solid propellant gas generator partially burnt products and varied new fuels (gel-based, fullerenes, etc.). Analyses of relevant scramjet experiments utilizing swept ramp injection concepts to enhance mixing with minimal performance loss will serve to validate the advanced turbulence modeling framework. BENEFITS: This work not only benefits scramjet and related airbreathing propulsive technology, but also enhances our ability to analyze other missile components such as lateral jet thruster interactions and base combustion, critical for TMD interceptor design and signature applications. Support to improve noise reduction in commercial airplane turbofan exhausts (via turbulence upgrades) and overall performance enhancements in internal combustion engines (via turbulent-chemistry methodology ) result from this work.

TAITECH, INC.
2372 Lakeview Dr., Suite H
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-4141
Dr. Robert Baurle
ARMY 97-071
Title:A Probability Density Function Model for the Calculation of Scramjet Flowfields
Abstract:A proposal for the development of an advanced probability density function (PDF) model for the analysis of scramjet combustion is presented. The effects of turbulence chemistry interactions can have a pronounced effect on the ignition process, particularly for supersonic combustion applications where the residence time for fuel and air mixing is limited. Semi-empirical models have little hope for accurately predicting the ignition process due to the highly non-linear nature of the chemical source terms, therefore a computational methodology based on the physics of the flow is preferred. In Phase I, efforts will focus of 1) Development of a Monte Carlo based algorithm for solving the evolution PDF transport equation for supersonic combusting flows, 2) Comparison of the evolution PDF results with newly designed assumed PDF formulations, and 3) validation of the models with available experimental data for simple geometries. BENEFITS: This research effort encompasses state-Of-the-art turbulence-chemistry interaction models or scramjet applications. The proposed model, while emphasizing scramjet applications, can be applied to subsonic flows as well. The broad range of applicability of the model can be readily commercialized.

DYNETICS, INC.
P.O. Box 5500
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 922-9230
James Miller
ARMY 97-072
Title:An Analytical Model for Evaluation of Warhead Performance and Lethality
Abstract:A fast running analytical tool is proposed which will allow warhead developers and systems analysts the capability to evaluate warhead designs, analyze and predict test results, determine performance requirements, and evaluate system effectiveness. A modular software architecture will be designed to provide maximum growth and maintainability. The tool will incorporate a Graphical User Interface to decrease the knowledge required to perform assessments. warhead/target interactions will be modeled using high fidelity penetration mechanics models that are widely accepted. BENEFITS: This analytical model will allow warhead developers to analyze and predict test results. The tool will also allow systems analysts to perform design-level trade-off studies and what-if analyses. This product will be beneficial to warhead developers, missile system developers, government evaluators, oil well perforator designers, and space debris analysts.

PRINCETON SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, INC.
7 Deer Park Dr.
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 274-0774
John Lowrance
ARMY 97-073
Title:Programmable High Speed Large-Format CCD Camera
Abstract:Programmable high speed, large format Charge Coupled devices (CCDs) have numerous applications in image processing, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications. Such devices are also valuable tools in medical imaging and high speed event analysis. Motion or change detection is of definite interest in security applications, and high speed inspection is a priority in assembly lines and in evaluating surveillance imagery. Ideally, such cameras would also allow the user to trade-off speed for spatial resolution. One specific application of particular interest to the U.S. Army Missile Command is optical correlator systems. The proposed programmable high speed CCD camera would be employed in the optical correlator system as the input detector and or the correlation plane detector. The overall goal is the development of a programmable 1024 x 1024 pixel CCD camera system, including on-board frame subtraction, capable of at least 200 frames per second framing rates for application in optical correlators and other fast imaging applications. The Phase I objective is to demonstrate real time frame subtraction and the tradeoff between speed and spatial resolution by binning pixels in the CCD during readout. A further Phase I objective is to carry out the conceptual design of a camera system that would be designed and built in Phase II. BENEFITS: Programmable, high spatial resolution, fast framing digital cameras have broad commercial and military applkation, including motion analysis, surveillance, and medical imaging and optical data processing and computing

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 221-2240
James J. Gorman
ARMY 97-074
Title:High Strength, Low Cost Pultruded Panel Structures for High Expansion Ratio, Hybrid Shelters
Abstract:KaZaK Composites Incorporated (KCI) proposes to develop critical material technologies for high expansion ratio tactical shelters. The critical material and component requirements are developed by formulating shelter concepts meeting the habitability, operational deployment, and loading requirements outlined in the solicitation. It is shown that the critical material technologies will be in the construction of lightweight, high stiffness panels for roof, sidewalls, and floor of this shelter. It is further shown that integrally stiffened panels have significant operational and packaging advantages for this shelter concept. Novel sandwich technologies including hybrid foam/composite cores and open cellular construction also promise important advantages for a 12:1 expansion ratio shelter. In order to produce the desired shelter components at affordable prices, KCI proposes extensive ost/performance/processing tradeoffs during Phase I. These tradeoffs will include applicable manufacturing processes such as RTM, SCRIMP, and Pultrusion. These tradeoffs allow cost- and performance-effective materials and components to be selected for fabrication and testing in Phase I. The components tested will include principally skin panels subjected to ending, impact, joint integrity, and thermal insulation testing. The results of said testing will be fed back into the shelter design analysis to update and confirm shelter configurations to be pursued during Phase II. BENEFITS: Material developments achieved under this project will have significant benefit to KCI commercial refrigerated container design development. The overall high expansion ratio shelter concept will further have wide applicability to disaster relief and refugee housing by the Red Cross, UN, and other international aid groups.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
114 Turnpike Road, Unit 1
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 250-4200
Anant Singh, Ph.D
ARMY 97-075
Title:Novel Glass-Embedded Polymer nanocomposite Food Tray
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes an innovative nanotechnology that will develop an inexpensive, recyclable, and mechanically durable material for a food tray with sufficient barrier properties to provide food with a three-year shelf-life. A new generation of polymeric sheet stock material with a high baffler embedded glass structure capable of being thermoformed into a retortable food-container will be produced. This unique and innovative technology will embed a highly elastic barrier glass structure within the polymer sheet stock during extrusion. This single-layered, recyclable food tray will replace the current unrecyclable co-extruded 3-layered tray. A reduction in energy and die costs will be realized because of the use of a single extruder for processing of the single-layered tray. This Phase I program will develop the enabling technology which could impact the food packaging industry as well as other applications requiring high gas-barrier and moisture-barrier properties. BENEFITS: This technology has tremendous potential as barrier materials in food packaging applications in the form of rigid and semi-rigid food containers, as well as flexible pouches. Other applications include airplane interiors, brakes, tires, fuel tanks, components in electrical and electronic parts, and under-the-hood structural components. Replacement of current filled-polymer systems in automobiles, and airplanes offers tremendous potential.

CHEMMOTIF, INC.
60 Thoreau St., Suite 211
Concord, MA 01742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 229-8556
Dr. Louis
ARMY 97-076
Title:Residual Life Indicator Based on Dye Desorption
Abstract:We will develop a novel type of Residual Life Indicator (RLI) for determining the remaining capacity after prolonged storage of Chemical Protective Garments (CPC). These garments, which are designed for use by troops at risk of exposure to chemical weapons, can be stored for long periods of time in sealed bags. However. if a bag leaks or is punctured, common air pollutants like fuel vapors and paint fumes can consume the protective capacity of the garment, making its use hazardous. Our RLI will be a passive device, consisting of a piece of clear plastic coated with indicator chemistry. The device will function by causing the appearance of color on the plastic side as a result of contaminant vapors displacing a carefully chosen dye from an adsorbent on the other side of the RI. The adsorbent will be chosen to accurately reflect the behavior of the protective adsorbent in the CPC. These devices will be rugged, relatively low cost, and potentially of use under conditions of actual threat exposure as well as in storage. BENEFITS: Low-cost Residual Life Indicators for chemical protective gear will provide assurance to chemical emergency response teams, including fire fighters. law enforcement personnel, industrial workers, and environmental remediation personnel, that their protective clothing is in working order on removal from storage prior to use under hazardous conditions.

CREATIVE OPTICS, INC.
360 State Route 101, Suite 201
Bedford, NH 03110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 472-6686
Dr. John Ebersole
ARMY 97-078
Title:Innovative Technologies to Optimize Embedded Training & Simulation
Abstract:We are proposing an exploratory study to investigate the feasibility of applying innovative fuzzy logic analysis and genetic algorithm technologies to embedded training (ET) and embedded simulation (ES) . We propose to investigate the application of these technologies to optimizing registration of live/virtual objects and generation of information superiority training scenarios. Information superiority is one of the goals of the military of tomorrow. A warfighter is confronted with situations that border on chaos. Speed, tension, and complexity all impact a warfighter's performance (and thus a mission's Chances of success). One of the major issues facing a warfighter is the fact that the information he/she receives comes from various sources, and these sources may produce outputs that are in conflict with each other. Such a condition is known as information dissonance. Learning to deal with information dissonance and leveraging of information superiority are the keys to attaining situation awareness. Helping the warfighter to experience and attain situation awareness through ET/ES can be viewed as a means of preparing the warfighter to experience and attain situation awareness on the real battlefield. The training of the warfighter, then, must reflect these battlefield conditions and make use of available information in a similar way. Our proposal also addresses this key need of future ET/ES systems. BENEFITS: Any situation in which a human must learn to resolve conflicting or dissonant information from multiple sources in a time-critical fashion stands to benefit from our proposed approach. These situations include, but are not limited to. image analysis (intelligence and reconnaissance) , medical imaging and diagnosis, aerospace (both military and commercial) , scheduling, and resource allocation.

VISITEK, INC.
1409 Harbrooke
Ann Arbor, MI 48103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 761-1571
Yi L. Murphey
ARMY 97-079
Title:A Computatronal Model for Moving Target Detection, Depth and Velocity Estimation
Abstract:This proposal describes a computational model of human observers, DYTA(dynamic Target analysis), for dynamic target detection, depth and velocity estimation DYTA will be developed based on human perception knowledge as well as physics of moving vehicles. The computational model consists of two levels of processes, early and cognitive visual processes. At the early visual processes level, DYTA has two independent units: Gabor multi-channel filtering to model human early vision processing, and computation of motion vectors of moving vehicels based on the physics of moving vehicles. At the cognitive level, DYTA has a fuzzy learning and inference model for reasoning about the behavior of dynamic targets, such as Location, distance and velocity. The algorithma we will develop in phase I includes computing target location by combining texure and motion features; computing depth and velocity of moving targets using rigid body motion techniques; and performing fuzzy learning and inference. A number of basic research issues will be addressed including moving vechicle detection, 3D structure recovery from image sequences,robust fuzzy learning and inflerence under uncertain and incomplete knowledge. DYTA is designed to predict human observer's response to the dynamic information in a scence,in particular, to moving vehicle location, distance and velocity. BENEFITS: This technology has potential applications in both military and commercial markets. Examples of such applications are military dynamic target detection and acquisition, military and commercial surveillance, a monitoring and warning system in military operational driving, commercial vehicle saftey study, driver's warning system and visual enhancement, highway traffic control. etc

ADVANCED PROJECTS RESEARCH, INC.
1925 McKinley Avenue, Suite B
La Verne, CA 91750
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 392-3155
Dr. Thomas H. Sobota
ARMY 97-080
Title:A Performance and Thermal Simulation Code for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Design
Abstract:The complex HEV power systems necessitates flexible and dynamic simulation software providing tools for evaluating, characterizing and optimizing these systems. Existing software have neglected to characterize significant component data such as heat loads, cabin cooling requirements, battery thermal management, and heat rejection. Vehicle performance (accounting for environmental conditions and speed), both wheeled and tracked propulsion, and management of packaging data (component volume and weight) have also been previously not accounted for. In order to efficiently and comprehensively model HEV systems with precision, the software model must be able to incorporate all of these characteristics while providing ease of user input, flexibility in making modifications, and easily understood graphical results. Each vehicle component would be represented by a modular graphics icon from the extensive data base of pre-defined vehicle components and selected by the user by a drag-and-drop method for any given model. Performance data for each component would include actual manufacturer specifications and corresponding icons would graphically indicate the required parameters/connections needed for proper operation of the system. The component database would be unrestricted in size and configuration, allowing the user the flexibility of manipulating unlimited vehicle component models with the capability to study any conceivable vehicle configuration with ease. BENEFITS: The code to be developed will be specifically geared to hybrid electric vehicle simulations. However, with only small modification it will be broadly applicable to modeling any type of a mixed mechanical and electromechanical systems accounting for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. This tool can be applied to the analysis of many types of systems important to the DOD and to industry including, but not limited to: electric and hybrid electric vehicles, aircraft power, fuel and hydraulic Systems, satellite and spacecraft energy systems, refrigeration and air conditioning systems, power generation stations, and marine propulsion and power systems including submarine hybrid electric marine propulsion

THERMOANALYTICS, INC.
94X Airport Rd, P.O. Box 66
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 482-9650
Allen R. Curran
ARMY 97-080
Title:A Comprehensive HEV Design Tool for Dual-Use Applications
Abstract:A very capable team composed of a small business, ThermoAnalytics, with support from a major aerospacecompany, Boeing, and a long time TACOM contractor, MTU/KRC, will develop a Hybrid Electric Vehicle design tool. This team will pursue the research required to develop a practical and useful design tool for the HEV designer. The development of the prototype software will begin in Phase I resulting in a functional code comprised of the required physical equations for modeling the power systems analysis of a hybrid electric vehicle. The primary goal is to produce an engineering software tool that is accessible to all.designers and consistent with manufacturing databases. An innovative approach will be taken that essentially.links a power systems analysis code with a CAD database resulting in an early rapid prototyping capability for hybrid electric vehicles. This tool will have dual-use capability for military vehicles and commercial automotive applications. The virtual prototyping capability will be developed over the potential three phases of this program with Phase I concentrating on the software algorithm, database formats, and mobility aspects of the design code. BENEFITS: The Phase I program will produce a tool tomake effective HEV design decisions on emerging concept programs such as the Future Scout Cavalry System. This SBIR research product will develop into a commercial product through anticipated participation by Ford, Boeing, and ThermoAnalytics.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 668-2567
Dr. Gerald P. Roston
ARMY 97-081
Title:An articulated joint for the High-mobility, Articulated, All-wheel drive, Modular vehicle (Haamer)
Abstract:The United States military's current doctrine calls for the ability to quickly deploy small units to any place on the globe. The two biggest challenges of this new doctrine are providing the airlift capability for the military's vehicles and overcoming the infrastructure that is incapable of supporting the military's vehicle that is found in many Third-World nations. A new vehicular technology, based on high-mobility, articulated, modular, all-wheel-drive vehicles will overcome these challenges by providing the necessary functional capabilities in smaller-than-current-vehicle modules. The goal of this proposed Phase I SBIR is to design, simulate and develop a small-scale working model of the articulated vehicle-module joint. Some of the technical challenges to be addressed with this project include the kinematic arrangement of the vehicle-module joint elements, the automatic coupling/decoupling process and the incorporation of the vehicle-module joint into the active suspension system. The articulated vehicle-module joint will support connectivity between modules of any type, wheeled or tracked, driven or frowed, and manned or unmanned. BENEFITS: The component and functional modularity characteristics allow civilian police, fire and rescue units to purchase several pieces of a large system for use for particular applications. As the organization's needs expand, more pieces can be purchased to provide greater capability without ever requiring large captical expenditures.

ADIABATICS, INC.
3385 Commerce Drive
Columbus, IN 47201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 372-5052
Lloyd Kamo
ARMY 97-082
Title:Advanced Ground Vehicle Propulsion Systems - "Insulative Ceramic Coatings for Monolithic Engine Components"
Abstract:The future of the Low Heat Rejection (LHR) compression ignition powerplant currently focuses upon the use of monolithic ceramic or ceramic composite engine components as a means of achieving heat rejection and component durability targets. These monolithic ceramic composite materials are desired for their ability to withstand extreme temperature and pressures associated with the LHR type and uncooled engines. However, such materials do not provide the necessary or desired heat transfer coefficients to soundly achieve heat rejections goals calculated to meet increased performance targets of the future military powerplants. It is for this reason, Adiabatics, Inc. proposes a new method of applying a Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) to the initial heat bearing surtace at such monolithic ceramic engine components. The method or application incorporates study of surface preparation techniques and use of an intermediate bonding layer to these monolithic ceramic components by a proven coating technology such as Physical Vapor (PVD) or Chemical Vapor (CVD) Deposition. Such a coating film has and is becoming more and more prevalent in today's arena of coating technology. It will also change the monolithic ceramic component surface to a different composition which will allow for application of a traditional "porous" thermal sprayed to be applied to the monolithic component surface. Our chemical bonding system will serve to enhance bond strength and integrity of the coating to the monolithic substrate. Essentially, this coating system will allow monolithic components to achieve desired goals and open avenues of applying coatings to materials that previously could not be coated. BENEFITS: Commercially there exist two very prevalent materials used throughout industry which cannot be coated using traditional coating methods. These are plastics and carbon composites. There exists a good possibility that the proposed method of coating monolithic ceramics would work for such materials based upon surface chemistry. This would serve to advance and revolutionize these industries as we know them.

BAKER ENGINEERING, INC.
17165 Baker Blvd
Nunica, MI 49448
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 837-8975
Jack Jerovsek
ARMY 97-082
Title:High Density Inwardly Opposed Piston Two Cycle Diesel Engine
Abstract:The focus of the program is to complete the concept design of a 1500 hp two cycle opposed piston diesel engine. This concept shall provide a platform for component and material technology implementation and evaluation. The program consists of three major tasks; concept design. modeling and testing. Concept design will be based on the EOS 4.1 liter prototype. The principals of the engine will be scaled for higher horsepower while focusing on low heat rejection. single cooling media, high power density (2hp/lb., 100 hp/ft3) and signature reduction. Solid modeling will be utilized to evaluate engine weight and volume characteristics. The modeling effort consist of expanding an existing zero dimensional diesel engine simulation to model the thermodynamic cycle of the opposed piston engine and predict performance. The model will include combustion chamber and porting details while evaluating multi-loop scavenging and fuel injection timing and duration. Testing will be conducted on the EOS 4.1 liter engine. Initial performance characteristics will be obtained to support concept design and to provide validation of the modeling. The success of the testing will provide a base for proof of principal and establish the risk level for the technologies being evaluated. BENEFITS: High power density engines and technology have commercial applications in the marine, aircraft and industrial markets. This project will directly benefit the introduction of the EOS engine to the marine market. This two cycle design provides two cycle power density while maintaining four cycle emission levels. This characteristic alone provides many commercial applications

SUR. RES. & APP. &, INC.
8330 Melrose Drive
Lenexa, KS 66214
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 541-1221
Paul A. Sutor
ARMY 97-082
Title:Synergistic Liquid-Solid Lubricant System
Abstract:The objective of this program is to develop an advanced tribology system for the next generation of high-output, low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engines. Engines for the U.S. Army Future Combat System will operate at significantly higher temperatures than today's prototype LHR engines. Surfaces Research proposes a program to develop wear-resistant coatings and engine oils that each contain solid lubricants, to augment the wear protection and friction reduction afforded by liquid lubricants. We further propose to tailor the formulations of the coating materials, solid lubricants and liquid lubricants to work together in a synergistic manner. Our major emphasis in Phase I will be on development and evaluation of unique wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings. The coatings will contain a superior Surfaces Research high-temperature solid lubricant. Both metal matrix and ceramic matrix will be investigated. We will determine the tribological interactions of the coatings with liquid lubricants, soluble antiwear additives and dispersed solid lubricant additives. We will also determine the need for improvements in dispersancy, to achieve stable high-temperature dispersions of solid lubricants in oil. We will demonstrate new sludge-dissolution additives and a new solid lubricant for dispersion in oil, in addition to the new coatings. BENEFITS: Advanced diesel engines will achieve large increases in fuel efficiency, durability, and trouble-free life, with targeted and lower levels of maintenance, by using the improved high-temperature coatings and lubricants. Commercial heavy-duty truck diesel engines will benefit from these advances as well as military diesel and automobile engines.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway, Suite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 859-9161
R. Gail Holbrook
ARMY 97-083
Title:Framework for Collaborative Simulation Security
Abstract:Scientific Research Corporation (SRC) proposes to design enhancements to the TACTICS infrastructure for distributed simulations to meet requirements for information security. The design will use security services offered by a new breed of Object Request Brokers (ORBS) that meet the CORBA Security Service Specification. The design will, at a minimum, provide three forms of security for TACTICS simulation users: (1) identification and authentication of all simulation users, (2) integrity and confidentiality of all simulation data, and (3) audit of all simulation activity. Support for other forms of security (e.g., access control, non-repudiation, availability, time service, secret sharing target authentication) will be considered, based on anticipated uses of TACTICS-based simulations. Information will be solicited from ORB vendors regarding capabilities of current and future secure ORB implementations in order to determine or estimate their adequacy and to influence the design. The design will facilitate a phased implementation plan that leverages initial secure ORB capabilities while leaving room for incorporation of future advances in the implementation of secure ORBS. BENEFITS: The results of this work will promote common simulation capabilities across military and industry by providing a secure environment for simulation activities. This secure simulation environment is applicable to highly competitive industries, such as the automotive industry, which require (and that frequently undertake joint ventures in) design, development, and manufacturing, but wish to maintain competitive advantages within individual companies.

VOCAL POINT, INC.
300 Brannan Street, Suite 604
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 896-6300
Ronald Benson
ARMY 97-084
Title:Speech-Recognition Techniques for Robust Acoustic-Signature Identification
Abstract:Tanks of different models have unique acoustic signatures. These signatures can be used for detection and for identification. One approach is to analyze the signature in the spectral domain, using the Fourier transform, and comparing new sound samples with known templates. Problems arise when signatures vary or are corrupted by noise. The problem of signature recognition has much in common with speech recognition, an active field for several decades. We propose to apply traditional and novel speech-recognition techniques to the identification of acoustic signatures. Preliminary tests in this proposal, applied to Army-supplied signature data, show error rates of less than 1%. In Phase I we will first develop "traditional" speech recognizers, which use non-Fourier features that have proven more robust, such as cepstral and linear-predictive-coding (LPC) coefficients. As back ends, we will investigate both hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural algorithms. The algorithms will be modified to fit the problem domain in terms of frequency ranges and time scales. We will also apply more recent algorithms: the auditory image model (AIM) mimics the human auditory system; learning vector quantization (LVQ) is a novel neurally inspired, Bayesian optimal algorithm. The systems will be compared to the more traditional Fourier-based approach and evaluated for noise robustness. In Phase II, we will develop a noise-robust, real-time system to be evaluated in the field. BENEFITS: Commercial applications for robust acoustic-signature recognition are numerous. In particular, the field of speech-recognition is on the verge of leaving the laboratories and entering the consumer market. Non-speech applications include fault detection in machinery and medical diagnostics.

ARCCA, INC.
2288 Second Street Pike, P.O. Box 78
Penns Park, PA 18943
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 598-9750
Gary Whitman
ARMY 97-085
Title:Vertical Force Crash Protection for HMMWV Occupants
Abstract:Historically, more fatalities and serious injuries occur from Army ground vehicle mishaps than from combat operations. Training, contingency, and combat operating tempo makes a significant number of vehicular mishaps with fatalities and serious injuries inevitable. Effective occupant crash protection, absent in Army tactical vehicles, would reduce this toll. Operations introduce significant hazards not seen in civilan use: vertical forces from land mine blasts, roll overs and "slam downs." Although definable and predictable, these forces are not countered in conventional automotive design. ARCCA can develop cost-effective seating and restraint systems that mitigate vertical hazards and are compatible with, and may even enhance, protection from frontal crashes. Our approach mirrors the Army's risk management. We will review selected Army mishaps to collect and analyze data. Using computer simulation and limited physical testing, we will analyze cost-effective ways to minimize the hazards. Applying our knowledge of aviation and emerging civilian automobile technology, we will explore feasible means of injury reduction that is compatible with the vehicle and its mission. We will establish requirements for solutions and analyze their feasibility. This will result in a requirements statement, proof of concept/prototype for in-depth analysis and testing in Phase II, and a testing methodology. BENEFITS: The results of our HMMWV research and development effort will apply to the entire Army vehicle fleet, new development, and the fast growing civilian and government off road sport utility fleets. The anticipated benefits are a substantial reduction in serious injuries and death from vertical force induced hazards, using solutions that can easily and cost-effectively retrofit into existing vehicles and designed into new vehicles.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
8A Gill St.
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 935-2030
Dr. Hua Jiang
ARMY 97-086
Title:High Speed Electro-Optic Shutters for Eye Protection from Lasers
Abstract:This proposal addresses the fabrication of novel complex oxide film based laser protective shutters. Current electro-optic (E-O) materials and devices do not provide fast enough response time for military use, especially for personnel protection from Q-switched lasers. Our goal is to develop advanced oxide materials for the fabrication of fast E-O device which will fulfill critical military requirements. Advanced complex oxides are particularly suitable for E-O devices due to their large E-O coefficients, fast response times, broad specttum bandwidths, wide range of operating temperatures and physical ruggedness. In this Phase I program, we will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach by fabricating a prototype device via an innovative metalorganic chemical liquid deposition (MOCLD) process. The electric response time of the device will be minimized by our innovative device structure. Due to the anticipated rapid growth in the optical communication market, the technology development will also find many applications in the private sector. BENEFITS: Laser protective devices have enormous commercial applications for safety and health equipment due to the proliferation of lasers in laboratories, academia, industry and medicine. Besides laser protection, the proposed low cost, high performance E-O materials and devices will open a potentially large market for laser printers, fiber optic switches and optical interconnections. Success in the Phase I effort will lead to the commercial fabrication of a new generation of light modulation systems.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 726-4800
Ashok Singhal
ARMY 97-087
Title:Multiple Laser Pulse Ignition for Ultra Cold Starting of CI Engines
Abstract:The demonstration of CI engine injector ignition using multiple laser energy pulsing at cold soak conditions approaching -40F is proposed. This level of ignition performance will be demonstrated using a 150 mj Nd:YAG laser, low cost fiber optics, and quartz windows to minimize cost and packaging. Specific Phase I research includes: 1) Experimental quantification of optimally pulsed laser energy, Q-switching specifications, beam quality, and focal point flexibility using a Caterpillar CI engine injector test configuration at ambient and cold soak (<0 deg F) conditions. 2) CCD camera photography (250 nanosecond frame speeds) of numerous laser (Nd:YAG and Cr:LiSAF) ignition and flame propagation events in the Phase I test rig. 3) Analytical characterization of laser ignition and flame propagation using transient Computational Fluid Dynamics and specialized laser beam propagation theory. 4) Specification and layout of all system components (fuel injection, electronics, optics, windows, etc.) to demonstrate minimal system complexity and low cost. As a result of this rigorous scientific comparison between numerical simulation and CCD camera photography, Phase I is expected to generate revolutionary insights into cold fuel ignition from CI engine injectors. Phase II will focus on refining, packaging, and testing the technology defined in Phase I within a Caterpillar production engine setting. Phase III will include transferring and marketing the developed laser ignition and flame propagation techniques to the entire U.S. reciprocating and gas turbine community. BENEFITS: The ability to precisely deliver optimally pulsed laser energy for ultra cold CI engine starting will generate numerous cmmercial and military technological breakthroughs. These include robust reciprocating engine cold starting, instantaneous flame stabilization during abrupt aircraft maneuvers and dramatically enhanced lean premixed solid, liquid or gaseous combustion operation for ultra-low emissions. CFDRC's existing working relationships with U.S. reciprocating and gas turbine engine manufacturers assures rapid commercialization of the laser controlled/augmented combustion technology developed here.

FAR NORTH TECHNOLOGIES
5 Pine Circle RR1
Houghton, MI 49931
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 487-9419
Janet C. Metsa
ARMY 97-087
Title:Innovative cold Start Assist Module For Diesel Engines
Abstract:The main barrier to efficient starting in cold conditions is the low volatility and high autoignition temperature of diesel fuel. This study proposes a systematic approach to address the fundamental chemical kinetics of the cold start problem in compression ignition engines and yield a turn-key starting aid module which could be added to an existing diesel engine. There are four fundamental ways to improve the kinetics of combustion processes: (1) increase the system temperature; (2) use a catalyst; (3) use more reactive fuel components; and (4) increase the oxygen supply. The proposed appproach involves technology that impacts three of these principal components of the combustion process, that is (a) enhancement of the ignition process using catalytic glow plugs, (b) in-situ enhancement of the existing fuel to produce more volatile fractions, and (c) in-situ oxygen enrichment during cold starts. These processes will not be studied independently, but as pieces of one process to improve the overall combustion kinetics during cold starts. BENEFITS: Improved performance and energy efficiency of diesel direct injection engines in cold conditions. This module can be used on military or commercial diesel engines.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4125
Uday Kashalikar
ARMY 97-088
Title:Metal Matrix Composites for Lightweight, Nonmagnetic and Durable Diesel Engines
Abstract:Substitution of the cast iron head and block with aluminum will significantly reduce the weight and magnetic signature of military and commercial diesel engines. However, aluminum cannot withstand the combustion chamber environment. Diesel engine experts agree that the headplate, is the weak link in all-aluminum head. Many engine companies are investigating the use of cast iron, or metal matrix composite (MMC) headplate inserts to address this problem. This program will develop a ceramic/aluminum headplate insert fabricated to net-shape via the Pressurized Shell Mold Casting (PSMC). Compared to cast iron, the MMC would exhibit superior elevated temperature mechanical properties and would be easier to integrate with an aluminum head. By combining low cost expendable tooling, solid freeform fabrication (SFF), low cost reinforcement and high volume pressure coating machinery, an MMC headplate insert may be cost competitive with cast iron. The program team can meet the five year TRP production requirement. Foster-Miller provides PSMC tooling methods and MMC expertise, Cummins Engine provides design, producibility guidance and a commercial engine application and MMCC provides high volume casting technology and a potential production source. Phase I will involve MMC properties characterization, production trials and a comprehensive producibility analysis. BENEFITS: A number of military and commercial diesel engine applications have been identified for MMC headplate inserts: commercial engines in the <200 hp range (Cummins B engine) non-magnetic diesels for Army systems, for pick-up trucks and marine craft, Coast Guard "Tiger Team" air transportable emergency pumps/generators, and light military trucks and ground vehicles. Cummins Engine has agreed to feed promising results directly into their ongoing lightweight engine internal R&D program.

OCEANA SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1632 Corporate Landing Parkway
Virginia Beach, VA 23454
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 426-3678
Mr. Richard W. Lally
ARMY 97-088
Title:Advanced Combustion Pressure Sensor and Engine Diagnostic/Control Technology for Diesel engines
Abstract:We propose the development of a pIezoelectric pressure transducer to be used in diesel engines for machine health monitoring and inclusion in an engine combustion control system. Reliability, accuracy. and affordability are the focus of this research since these issues remain the most difficult to overcome for the development of a cost effective pressure transducer. Manutacturing costs of $5.00 or less are the target for such a sensor. BENEFITS: The low cost of a pressure transducer will allow the installation of engine health monitoring systems and control systems that will improve performance, save on maintenance costs, extend engine life, and transition from military diesel engines to commercial trucks and automobiles.

INDUSTRIAL QUALITY, INC.
640 E. Diamond Ave., Suite C
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 948-2460
Eric A. Lindgren
ARMY 97-089
Title:Enhanced Portable Ultrasonic Nondestructive Inspection of Composite Armor
Abstract:An advanced ultrasonic inspection system is proposed to locate and characterize defects in thick composite armor. The technique will detect characteristic signals to identify and evaluate defects in the material. The methodology has also an inherent large signal-to-noise ratio enhancement that allows it to be used to inspect highly attenuating materials. If defects are present, the changes in the characteristic signal will help identify the type of defect. The defect could be classified whether it is due to delaminations or impact damage. Phase I will concentrate on implementing the ultrasonic technique on various composite armor specimens to determine the optimal inspection parameters. The methodology will be used to test composite armor specimens with simulated defects to determine the characteristic response from each defect type and to catalog the information for additional processing and classification. This will demonstrate the ability of this ultrasonic method to inspect thick composite armor samples and identify the type of defect. Using the information collected from these tests, an initial design of the inspection system will be completed for the examination of actual parts. Preliminary contacts with commercial users have demonstrated a significant interest in the proposed system, simplifying the commercialization process. BENEFITS: This project will result in a state-of-the-art portable ultrasonic system that can perform inspection and characterization of composite armor in advanced military vehicles. There is a market for an improved ultrasonic instrument capable of inspecting thick, attenuating composites for a wide variety of a applications, including submersible vessels, boats, trucks, automobiles, trains, bridges and military vehicles. This continued increase in the use of composite materials requires a system capable of rapid, nondestructive inspection to insure the quality of composite structures.

PHYSICAL ACOUSTICS CORP.
195 Clarksville Road
Lawrenceville, NJ 08648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 716-4025
Yuyin Ji
ARMY 97-089
Title:Acousto-Ultrasonic Defect Detectionin Composite Armor Material
Abstract:Advanced armor composites offer lightweight designs using unique materials, laminated together, to provide the same protection as its metal counterpart. Using these different material designs also means dealing with different types of defects. Delaminations between the different layers of materials are the most commonly encountered defects which need to be found and characterized during normal inspection procedures. Inspection of this material to find delaminations, with conventional, high frequency, ultrasonic methods is not possible and justifies the development of new inspection methods. One possible solution is to study oblique incidence waves that are reflected from delaminations, and develop an Acousto-Ultrasonic approach. Preliminary studies have shown that measurements made below 300 kHz with the incidence angle varying between -20° and +20°, yield promising results. This study will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and ultimately deliver a probe/system concept that will form the basis of a prototype inspection instrument. BENEFITS: It is anticipated that the results of this study will lead to the development of a unique inspection instrument useful for detecting delaminations and other defects in thick, multi-layered composite. It will be effective as an acceptance tool for newly fabricated material and for in-service fleld inspection where only one surface is available for measurements. Besides being useful for lightweight armor composites, we see its use being extended to the automotive industry where composites will eventually find its way into the design of primary load carrying structure. In addition, we believe that other markets will benefit from this type of instrument such as in the Aerospace industry for both fixed and rotary wing aircraft fabricated from composites as well as future bridge structures that will be built from composite materials. There is already a need for such a device for Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV) for the inspection and detection of delaminations in Types II, III and IV cylinders.

ADVANCED SEPARATION & ADSORPTION PRODUCT
3113 Old Crow Court
Lexington, KY 40502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(606) 257-0305
Geoff Kimber
ARMY 97-090
Title:Activated Carbon Fiber Composite for On-board Water Recovery Unit
Abstract:The proposed work in phase I will address the problem of establishing the feasibility of a new approach for developing a system to be used with military land vehicles for the on-board recovery and purification of water. The system will ultimately generate 15 gallons of potable water per day. The aims are to produce a lightweight, compact, robust, reliable, and energy efficient unit that requires minimum maintenance. The preferred source of water will be from the vehicle engine exhaust emissions, where it will be collected by condensation. The principal challenge is the purification of this water. The core of the proposed purification system relies upon different forms of novel, rigid fiber composite materials that will be used to produce a combined purification train. The first section of the train will contain activated carbon fibers for the removal of organic contaminants and residual particulates. The second section will contain immobilized ion exchange resin to remove ionic species, and final polishing will be achieved by another section of activated carbon fiber. The train will be formed a single monolithic cartridge that will be sealed into a lightweight container. The absence of moving parts or particulates means that the cartridge is extremely robust and resistant to movement under rugged conditions. The same principles can be applied to the development of lightweight portable units for use in the field. The goals of phase I are to confirm that the system can be operated to meet potable water standards, to achieve a reasonable period of on-line service, and to provide reasonable estimates of production, maintenance, and operating costs. The work will also establish whether there are any other practical requirements for a phase II development, such as the need to incorporate a disinfection protocol. BENEFITS: The market for on-board water recovery units include applications in both military and recreational vehicles. Lightweight, rugged portable water treatment units is another potential application for this technology.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson St, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
R.L. Mitchell
ARMY 97-091
Title:Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Radar Signal Processing
Abstract:The Army has two comprehensive workstation based programs for the processing of data collected by its instrumentation radars. One program is based on the TMR technology for processing one-dimensional data and the other is based on the CIA technology for processing two-dimensional data. Both of these interactive programs are capable of extracting considerable information about the motion and dynamics of targets, but only under the guidance of an experienced analyst. The objective of the proposed effort is to incorporate expert system tools into these programs to reduce the tedium in the processing of data, to enable users with less experience to be productive, and to produce more reliable results. Some of these expert system tools already exist in other programs developed for target identification, so that the proposed effort should be of relatively low risk. BENEFITS: The existing workstation based software is already being sold in the commercial marketplace. The expert system enhancements developed in the proposed effort should create additional demand for the software.

SANTA BARBARA INFRARED, INC.
312 North Nopal Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 965-3669
Richard Lane
ARMY 97-093
Title:Dynamic Built-In Test/Simulation (DBITS) using Synthetic In-Band Visible/IR Scent
Abstract:Laboratory infrared scene simulators are traditionally large, complex systems that require a massive electronic infrastructure immediately surrounding the infrared scene emitter and an equally large and complex collection of interface electronic equipment including computers, frame buffers, timing generators, and calibration cameras. Santa Barbara Infrared Inc., a small company with a long record of commercial application of military technology, has under development a new type of micro-emitter for infrared scene simulation. This emitter combines a high performance integrated circuit and a micro-resistor array. This new emitter technology dramatically increases the integration of support electronics into the basic emitter itself. The result is a small, low power efficient emitter with a small footprint. Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. is poised to bring scene simulator integration to the next generation by moving the infrared scene simulator from the laboratory to the field. The concept calls for building on the work done so far with highly integrated micro-emitters by adding highly integrated electronics in compact packages for the operation of the emitter. This proposal is for a feasibility study on the design concept of a third generation scene simulator system for Dynamic Built-In Test/simulation. The proposal will also produce a specification for such a system. BENEFITS: The successful conclusion of the study proposed will provide the specifications for a third generation scene simulator. Further development of this concept will yield compact, inexpensive COTS scene simulator systems for commercial and military applications.

CREARE, INC.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
James J. Barry
ARMY 97-094
Title:A Micromachined High-Output Aerosol Generator
Abstract:Existing aerosol generators cannot meet the Army's need for sufficiently high output, monodisperse aerosols for use in room-size test chambers. We propose an innovative aerosol generator that will produce aerosols of the required size and at production rates that meet (or can far exceed, if desired) the stated requirements. Our design is made possible by our proprietary high-speed micromachining and droplet generation technology. In Phase I, we will assemble and test a proof-of-principle aerosol generator to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach and design the full-scale Phase II prototype. The resulting aerosol generator will be simple to operate, compact, and provide highly monodisperse aerosols at up to very high concentrations. BENEFITS: The proposed aerosol generator will meet or exceed the Army's requirements. The design is scalable and could be used in a variety of applications, including testing of ventilation systems, dispersion of agents for agriculture, materials processing, and biomedical research.

ANCO ENGINEERS, INC.
4826 Sterling Drive
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-7580
Dr. Paul Ibanez
ARMY 97-095
Title:"Six Degree-of-Freedom (DOF) Motion Similator and Vibration Platform"
Abstract:An existing ANCO tri-axial (surge/heave/sway) servo-hydraulic shake table will be modified to six degrees-of-freedom (surge/heave/sway/pitch/roll/yaw) The modified table will be used to investigate the performance possibilities and reliability of such a system applied to testing military vehicles subjected to seaborne motion and vibration. The system will lead to production (in Phase II) of a portable land-based system for evaluation of missile guidance and launch systems under seaborne vibration and motion. The Phase I effort includes the design of the Phase II platform with +/- 30 degree motion and 60,000 pound payload capacity. As a design and optimization aid, the multi-axes table will be motion-visualized on the PC using the ADAMS 3D motion graphics package and the system control and dynamics simulated using Matlab/Simulink. BENEFITS: Phase I will provide performance information and an optimized design that will be implemented in Phase II. A reliable portable system would provide extended and less costly test opportunities for critical seaborne DOD vehicles at multiple land-based ranges. Refinements developed in the control and portability of the system could be incorporated into similar testing systems for commercial vehicles, such as automobiles, trucks, and civilian aerospace vehicles.

INTERSCIENCE, INC.
105 Jordan Rd.
Tory, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 283-7500
Mr. Steven Nordhauser
ARMY 97-096
Title:Real-Time Automated Scoring and Flight Path Analysis of High-Speed Projectiles
Abstract:Accurate scoring on target ranges is key to both the development of new weapons and the training of soldiers in the use of existing weapons. For long range weapons, non-visual methods must be developed for analysis of the flight path. InterScience, building on its previous success at Yuma Proving Grounds, is proposing to design and install a low cost automated targeting system based on high speed linear cameras. This system will not only provide the location of each hit in real time but report the avenge speed between two targets for the projectile. This system is capable of continuous measurements of up to 1000 rounds per minute and velocities of up to 2 km per second with an accuracy of 1 cm. A fully functional, single target system shall be demonstrated under live firing conditions at the end of Phase I. A multi-target system and complete user interface shall be demonstrated during Phase II. BENEFITS: An automated target range scoring and projectile speed measurement system will benefit military test ranges. The product will be tested for scoring smaller caliber weapons with a different set of optics and higher frame rates. Possible markets would then include small arms ranges on military, police and private shooting clubs.

BRUCE M. LAWLOR, P.C.
103 Summer St, PO Box 830
Springfield, VT 05156
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 885-5127
Bruce M. Lawlor
ARMY 97-097
Title:Imprpved Soldier Decision-Making in Urban Settings
Abstract:This is a basic research project that will develop a conceptual model for soldier decision-making in urban settings and use it to create individual training programs. The model and subsequent training programs will focus on individual soldier decision-making skills pertaining to the employment of lethal force (lethality), force or population protection (survivability), and mission accomplishment (timeliness). The project's objectives will be twofold: 1) understand how the urban environment affects individual decision-making and task performance; 2) prepare prototype tasks summaries that will set forth the knowledge individual soldiers must know concerning specific tasks they are likely to encounter in high risk urban environments and the skills they must exercise to achieve desired outcomes. The project's methodology will include both contemporary and historical research into military and civilian police operations in urban settings. Civilian police practices and procedures will be studied closely because they present a lucrative source of information for pinpointing task requirements and for establishing desired outcomes for soldier-civilian interaction in volatile situations. The conceptual model will be used to develop tasks, conditions, and standards that will form the basis for prototype programs to train soldiers in urban decision-making skills. BENEFITS: A training program to teach effective and rapid decision-making in high risk urban settings has broad commercial and military applications. Police, fire, emergency services personnel, National Guard, and other organizations required to work in urban terrain during civil unrest, urban terrorism, mass casualty producing events, or violent confrontations will all benefit from such a program.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
582 E Dayton-Yellow Springs Rd
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Gary Klein
ARMY 97-097
Title:Decision Requirements of Small Units in Urban Warfare
Abstract:Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) create new decision-making challenges for small unit leaders. To train small unit leaders to handle these challenges, we need to describe the decision requirements for MOUT: the critical judgments and decisions, the reasons why they are difficult, the types of errors found, and the cues, patterns and strategies used by experienced personnel. These decision requirements cover situation awareness as well as problem-solving and decision-making skills. To define the decision requirements, we will perform a Cognitive Task Analysis using methods that have been recently developed to discover the basis of skilled performance. We will conduct in-depth interviews with skilled subject matter experts to identify the types of things they can see that others cannot - subtle cues and patterns they can detect, discriminations they can make, ways that they can rapidly size up situations. At the completion of this project, we will generate a comprehensive account of the cognitive skills that are necessary for leading small units in MOUT environments. We will link these decision requirements to training objectives. In addition, we will draw upon recent developments in decision skills training to recommend strategies for training. BENEFITS: The findings and methods that emerge from this project will have general value for training decision skills in a variety of settings requiring rapid decision making. These include police and firefighting activities as well as hospital emergency rooms and emergency response organizations in nuclear power and petrochemical plants.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Cohen
ARMY 97-098
Title:Recognition of Computer-Based Human Gestures for Device Control and Interacting with Virtual Worlds
Abstract:We propose the development of a system for visually tracking and interpreting human gestures for the purpose of controlling devices, improving training methods, and interacting with virtual worlds. That is, we intend to implement a gesture recognition and device control system. In many applications, using gestures for device control has many practical advantages over other -forms of input, such as speech or keyboard. These advantages include longer input device life due to the lack of moving parts, improved hygiene in systems used by the public, less system degradation by a noisy background environment, and more intuitive commands represented as gestures. We will implement a gesture recognition system which performs in a cluttered background environment using standard video and an inexpensive PC-based system. We intend to use the static and dynamic properties of gestures for real-time recognition, transforming dynamic parameters into reference trajectories used for device control and interaction in virtual worlds. Further, we propose the development of a system which uses both static and dynamic gestures to control the information provided on a public information kiosk. For example, detailed maps could be displayed and manipulated with gestures. BENEFITS: The fundamental technology developed under this Phase I is important because it facilitates a more dynamic interaction between humans and devices. As a result, it would allow many commercial areas to profit, such as entertainment (video games and virtual reality simulators), manufacturing, and telerobotics.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
4350 N. Fairfax Dr. Ste 420
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 524-3600
Dr. Michelle Sams
ARMY 97-099
Title:Hybrid Dialog Tutor
Abstract:We propose a -"Hybrid Dialog Tutor" capable of tutorial dialog covering a very large breadth of material and mixed-initiative. In-depth dialog about specific complex concepts. The hybrid approach was driven by the desire to provide the Army with a method to rapidly convert large volumes of instructional material supported by tutorial dialog. This method uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) which statistically reduces material into a very compact knowledge representation. LSA will support normal tutorial dialog, such as. evaluating student responses and answering factbased questions. We provide the mixed-initiative in-depth dialog through an NLP approach. We have an easy to use template-driven authoring tool for the conceptual knowledge base. Continuous speech recognition is provided, as well as a talking head tutor with realistic facial animation that is synchronized with a text-to-speech synthesis system. Every component is already operational and the concept for integration is described in this proposal. The final proposed tutor is available to the government for free distribution and requires no separate purchase agreements for any of the components. The proposed hybrid tutor can be delivered over the Internet and will have a reasonable footprint (memory, storage) and speed on a Pentium in Windows NT. BENEFITS: The benefit to the Army is that large volumes of instructional material can be rapidly converted into a realistic, simulated learning environment delivered on a PC or over the Internet for self-development and just-in-time training. All of the components are easily extensible for foreign language training.Offering a realistic task environment in which the trainee can interact naturally through speech with a simulated tutor along with an authoring capability provides this product an edge over existing commercial computer-based training and assessment products.

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3275 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 281-1948
Michael J. Orr
ARMY 97-100
Title:Cyanobacterial Inoculants for Arid Land Reclamation
Abstract:Engineering Technology, Inc. (ETI) proposes the investigation of deagglomeration and dissemination of cyanobacteria as an arid land inoculant. Dissemination technologies developed for the agriculture industry and by the U.S. Army for the formation of battlefield smokes/obscurants will be evaluated. These technologies will be assessed for their viability in the dissemination of cyanobacteria as an arid land inoculant, which share size, shape, and density characteristics with existing powder dispersions used in battlefield smoke dissemination and agricultural fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. The effort will investigate the physiology of the various bacteria of interest (microcoleus vaginatus, and others) and their ability to withstand the mechanical, chemical and storage environments adopted for the successful dissemination of centimeter or smaller sized materials. Techniques to be examined for particle formation and dissemination include spray drying agglomeration, mechanical chopping/pelletizing equipment, flash atomization dissemination, and large scale smoke generator technology. Approaches will focus strictly upon methods that involve no water for the dissemination process. In addition, based upon current limitations in the rapid growth of cyanobacteria, the effort will examine non-traditional methods for large scale, economical growth of the bacteria directly onto suitable substrates that permit their ready drying and packaging for storage, dissemination, and rapid adherence to the soil upon contact with the arid land environment. BENEFITS: This technology represents the only reasonable approach to cost-effective, large-scale reclamation of arid areas. As such, there should be a significant market among Federal and State agencies involved in reclamation of disturbed lands in arid regions of the country, e.g., the DoD, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service.

THERMOANALYTICS, INC.
94X Airport Rd, P.O. Box 66
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 482-9568
Alan C. Koivunen
ARMY 97-101
Title:A Texture Synthesis Code for Cold Backgrounds
Abstract:We propose an approach for the investigation of algorithms to be used to generate time-varying texture for synthetic background scenes in the mid and long-wave IR bands and the millimeter wave bands. These algorithms will be based on deterministic physics, with average values of background signatures based on physical modeling of average terrain properties. The sub-pixel signatures (i.e., the texture) will be based on physical modeling of the same processes controlling the large scale signature. The terrain properties used to drive the model will be varied through their statistical distributions, generating an appropriate signature variation to be applied to the large scale average signature. The algorithms to be investigated for the terrain and emission modeling will be taken from methods either in current use or in development and described in the technical literature. The development of entirely new algorithms for terrain and emission modeling is not proposed. Given physics-based predictions of the large scale average signatures and the small scale variation of the signatures about these averages, texturing algorithms will be investigated to be used to apply the spatially varying total signature to the synthetic scene. BENEFITS: The algorithms developed in this project could be applied to electro-optical system development, automatic target recognition algorithm development, and the training of military personnel.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4283
Robert Lee Cardenas
ARMY 97-102
Title:Rapid Measurement of Ice Density by Compact Nuclear and Membrane Methods
Abstract:Rapid and accurate field ice density measurement is required to determine the load bearing capacity of ice, the load ice imposes on existing structures, and the electromagnetic signature of ice. Current ice density determinations use mass volume techniques and submersion techniques on ice core samples. A Phase I effort, to determine the feasibility of accurately measuring ice density with a nuclear and a membrane method, is proposed. The nuclear method is currently used throughout the United States to measure soil density and moisture content at earthwork construction sites. The nuclear method has been demonstrated for ice density (and salinity) measurement on a limited basis in the former Soviet Union. The membrane method improves the accuracy of determining volumes (a major source of error) by the proven mass-volume technique. Phase I will apply these technologies to benchtop ice density measurement. Benchmark ice specimens will be used to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of the two techniques. A determination will be made as to which technology will be advanced in a Phase II study. Both can be configured into a rugged portable field unit for measuring core samples. The nuclear device can also be configured as an in-situ measuring device. BENEFITS: Successful development of a small, portable, and easy to use method for rapid measurement of ice density will provide a useful tool for determining the load bearing capacity of ice, the ice imposed loads on structures, and the electromagnetic properties of ice. This information is of great interest to military agencies and geophysical research, as well as municipalities and industries that have to deal with frozen bodies of water and ice loading.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin
ARMY 97-103
Title:GPS-Based Portable Geospatial Data Field Capture System
Abstract:This Phase I project is intended to develop the GPS-based geospatial data capture system for in-theater use. A solution for a data storage unit is given in this project, which is a hard disk with the features of low vibration, moisture proof, acid and alkali resistance, and suitability for low and high temperatures. An innovative approach of the GPS/FACC Integration Query & Access Method (GFIQAM) is investigated to realize rapid and efficient database query and access with the aid of the PLGR sensor and a FACC-compliant dictionary. The Cutting and Reorganization Coverage Method (CRCM) is given to efficiently create a mission-specific database based on the GPS coordinates. The Database Update Based-on GPS/FACC (DUBGF) technique is provided in this project to value-add geospatial data. As an innovative method, this DUBGF will efficiently change the nodes, edges, faces, and rings by utilizing GPS coordinates and the menu options provided by the module's small screen. An interface design technique, referred to as the Integrated Menu Design Method (IMDM), is investigated in this project to realize the friendly human-machine interface with the advantages of ease of use, interactive operation and the ability of fault tolerance. The corresponding software package will be developed in this project. BENEFITS: With the ability to access and value-add vector database information using a PLGR interface, this system has many potential markets. It provides a solution of environment and resource information generation for the Environmental Protection Agency. It can also be used in the transportation industry, communications, power and water supply fields for geospatial data generation and update.

GEOPHEX, LTD.
605 Mercury Street
Raleigh, NC 27603
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 839-8515
I. J. Won
ARMY 97-104
Title:Broadband Electromagnetic Sensing for the Detection and Discrimation of Buried Unexploded Ordinance
Abstract:Geophex has prototyped and field-tested a new broadband electromagnetic sensor that has not only proved its detection capabilities but also indicated a tantalizing possibility that it can discriminated targets and, therefore, substantially reduce the false alarm rate. Empirical evidence from the new sensor, known as the GEM-3, includes large amplitude and phase changes over a bandwidth of 300 Hz to 23 kHz. Although the first GEM-3 sensor was fabricated during the fall of 1996, it has already gained widespread recognition for its performance, potential, and promise. We propose to advance the GEM-3 sensor during Phase I by studying the physics of frequency-dependent scattering, acquiring calibration data over a wide frequency band (300 Hz to 23 kHz), and improving the overall design. Specifically, we plan to (1) study the physics using mathematical modeling, (ii) conduct con trolled experiments using the GEM-3 over known UXO-like targets, and (iii) develop a preliminary design of an improved GEM-3 sensor for UXO detection and discrimination based on the results of tasks (i) and (ii). BENEFITS: The GEM-3 sensor, when completed, will be in demand worldwide to satisfy the current UXO detection and removal needs. The technology would be applicable to detecting other buried objects, natural or man-made, such as landmines, sink holes, underground storage tanks, utility pipes, power lines, hazardous landfills, and lost treasure.

D.E. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3620 Horizon Dr
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 270-9700
Maurice E. Grudza
ARMY 97-105
Title:The Long Standoff Explosive Gun (LSEG) A Multiple Fragment Launcher
Abstract:General purpose bombs and warheads project fragments of varied mass, geometry, and velocity. Typically, bombs and warheads are too large to enable economical experimental evaluation of fragment effects. A repeatable, effective, easily employed and maintainable system to explosively launch scaled simulated fragments in a predictable paflern is required. The proposed solution, The Long Standoff Explosive Gun (LSEG), is based upon Explosively Formed Penetrator (EFP) warhead technology, modified for projecting fragments. The major components of the device are an explosive charge, a liner from which fragments are produced, and a casing. The launcher concept employs recently established multi-mode warhead technology which has been demonstrated in several warhead development programs. The LSEG will be designed to sprelect fragments in a predetermined pattern, and the concept is readily adaptable for projecting fragments of varied characteristics. The LSEG will be developed for use at long standoffs, thereby greatly reducing the amount of blast energy transmitted to the pendulum target. Additionally, the device will use the absolute minimum amount of explosive necessary for launching the fragments at the required velocity, and the explosive charge will he surrounded by a casing in order to attenuate the transfer of the shock energy to the surrounding air. The combination of these three design approaches will ensure the blast loading is minimized. BENEFITS: The proposed development program relates to many research efforts currently.being conducted by the Department of befense This program will advance the understanding of controlled fragmentation, and therefore will benefit all programs concerned with optimizing fragment output. The system will have application in evaluating materials and equipment in the design of buildings where explosion effects are a consideration. The launcher would also be applicable to the design of systems for the protection of buildings and vehicles against terrorist attacks.

SRICO, INC.
2724 Sawbury Blvd
Columbus, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 799-0664
Dr. S.A. Kingsley
ARMY 97-106
Title:Non-Invasive, Non-Contact Optrodes for Electrocardiography
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of a non-invasive, non-contact optical electrode (optrode) for rapidly determining a person's vital signs at or near the scenes of battlefield trauma. In particular, a sensor is proposed that uses fiber optic and integrated optic technologies for rapid determination of an electrocardiogram (ECG). Heart rate can also be determined from the ECG signal. The fiber optic based ECG sensor (optrode) can be integrated within a suite of other small, low-powered, non-contact sensors supported by hand-held, PC-based computers. The sensor will process the ECG signal and communicate the information by a local area network embedded in the soldier's uniform. This information is then transmitted to command and medical personnel who will be able to monitor the physiological threats to health and life of a soldier operating in a realistic field environment. The optrode consists of a miniature electro-optic crystal based intensity modulator mounted at the end of an optical fiber. The optical interface uses the electro-optic effect to convert weak bioelectric potentials, produced at the skin surface, to measurable electrical signals. Common-mode rejection of unwanted electrical signals is provided by applying the outputs of the optrodes to remote differential amplifiers connected to conventional physiological recording devices interfaced to a personal computer. BENEFITS: It would eliminate the need for time-consuming and troublesome electrode attachment and allow medical personnel to routinely monitor various important physiological parameters. The system would allow for a wide spectrum of monitoring capabilities for patients outside of a restrictive hospital setting. For example, this technology can be used in many civilian applications involving health and safety patient monitoring by fireman, police and rescue workers during emergency situations.

GENERAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
11341 Rolling Springs Drive
Carmel, IN 46033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(317) 844-8278
John K. Critser
ARMY 97-107
Title:Development of an Improved System for Platelet Storage
Abstract:Survival rates of human platelets cryopreserved using current methods are very low (10%). This is largely due to a lack of knowledge regarding the fundamental cryobiology of this cell type. Because of this limitation, most blood banks maintain platelets in non-frozen solutions. Using this approach, platelets can only be stored for about 5 days and then they are discarded. This situation greatly limits the use of platelet transfusion in clinical practice. In addition, the ability to successfully cryopreserve platelets would allow increased time for disease screening (e.g. HIV, HBV, HCV). We have found with other cell types that the major limiting factor in the cryopreservation process is the approach (rate) used to add and remove the cryoprotectant solutes to cells. Therefore, this Phase I project has 3 technical objectives: (1) Determine human platelet cell volume excursion limits (osmotic tolerance limits), (2) Determine platelet plasma membrane permeability coefficients for water and cryoprotectants and their activation energies and (3) Determine optimal methods for addition and removal of cryoprotectants which prevent cell damage. Using this information, Phase II will focus on development of specific device to facilitate the implementation of optimal platelet cryopreservation in blood banks and for military applications in the field. BENEFITS: Platelet survival should be improved using methods developed in this project. This will provide wider application of human platelet utilization in blood bank and transfusion medicine settings. In addition, the longer storage times provided by this technology will allow for more complete disease screening of platelet preparations.

EIKOS, L.L.C.
89 Richmond St.
Raynham, MA 02767
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 880-0007
Joseph Piche
ARMY 97-109
Title:Drug Discovery Through Geration of Gene-Sequence Tags of the P. Falciparum Genome
Abstract:Eikos LLC will carry out research designed to address the shortage of drug discovery research for malaria. Using a genes first approach to sequencing the genome of P. Falciparum, Eikos will produce a library of over 2,500 gene sequence tags of P. Falciparum and analyze the resulting database with state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools. In addition, computational folding and initial analysis of promising targets will begin. Eikos will identify overexpression methods best suited to P. Falciparum genes. In the anticipated Fast Track Phase II program, Eikos will begin cloning and overexpression of full length genes of promising targets. Eikos' Fast Track position will enable a more ambitious gene sequence tag program in Phase II of 15-20 thousand gene sequence tags. By the end of this SBIR program, Eikos will generate a sequence database of containing over 80% of P. Falciparum genes, with the most promising protein targets characterized in support of Phase III drug discovery. Eikos has assembled a team unequaled in expertise for this sequencing project including, Professor John Dame, University of Florida and Dr. Nathan Goodman, from the Jackson Laboratory. This research will provide the cornerstone for a larger anti-malarial program at Eikos. BENEFITS: The commercial applications of the proposed research are numerous, especially for antimalarial drugs and other anti-infectives used by international travelers. Antimalarial drugs also have applications in cancer chemotherapy and for opportunistic infections in HIV patients.

MISSION MEDICAL, INC.
5670 Stewart Ave
Fremont, CA 94538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 623-3777
Thomas C. Robinson
ARMY 97-110
Title:Systems for Improved Red Blood Cell Storage
Abstract:The objectives of this project are to design, develop, test, and evaluate prototypes of Systems for deoxygenating human packed red blood cells that are fully compatible with current blood banking techniques and devices. The goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of reducing red cell oxygen partial pressures to below 2 mmHg and maintaining the oxygen partial pressure at or below this level during long-term storage. Oxygenator hollow fiber membrane material will be used in a de-oxygenator designed, fabricated, and optimized for this project. A prototype of the overall system will be constructed and tested. The feasibility and future practicality, simplicity, ease-of-use, consistent performance, and low cost for military and commercial blood bank use will be evaluated and demonstrated. BENEFITS: The benefits of longer red cell storage periods include logistical benefits to the military, greater flexibility and reduced waste in the storage and use of red cells by commercial blood banks, and improved red cell quality. The lengthened storage of red cells for potential combat or blood bank use result in significantly less overall outdating and discarding of red cells.

POLESTAR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
220 Reservoir Street, Suite 32
Needham Heights, MA 02194
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 449-2284
Ronald H. Micheels
ARMY 97-111
Title:Non-Invasive Hematocrit Monitor
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project will develop a high-precision, non-Invasive instrument for monitoring hematocrit. There exists a need to have an automated, continuous, and non-Invasive method of measuring hematocrit directly on the patient as a way to gauge blood loss of trauma victims and to evaluate the success of resuscitative efforts. The monitoring approach is based on near-infrared absorption and will provide a low-cost and man-portable device for rapid and accurate hematocrit measurement. The Phase I effort will develop a prototype instrument to be evaluated with human subjects. The instrument response will be calibrated against conventional capillary bematocrit measurements. The near-infrared device will be extremely valuable for measuring hematocrit in emergency situations such as the medical evaluation of combat casualties in the field, or accident victims in an ambulance or emergency room. The device should find a large market since hematocrit is one of the most common blood tests utilized by physicians. BENEFITS: The proposed instrument will provide improved hematocrit measurement capabilities over current systems in the areas of improved accuracy/precision and portability. The hematocrit monitor will find commercial applications in hospitals, ambulances, medical labs, physician offices, and in military combat medical care.

PROMEGA CORP.
2800 Woods Hollow Road
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 274-4330
Dr. Alexey G. Zdanovsky
ARMY 97-112
Title:The Design and Construction of Botulinum Toxin Drug Delivery Vehicles
Abstract:This proposal describes strategies to develop a neural cell specific delivery vehicle system which utilizes the target specificity of the botulinum toxin family to provide a generic platform for the delivery of drugs to the neuronal cytosol. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we will construct and evaluate a non-toxic form of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) for use as a neural cell specific delivery vehicle. In Phase I, we will set out to accomplish: 1) Construct of BoNT-derived delivery vehicles coupled to a reporter molecule. 2) Evaluate the delivery capabilities of the BoNT-derived vehicles. 3). Determine the minimal components of BoNT for successful drug delivery. In Phase II, we will: synthesize aminoquinoline derivatives that can be coupled to the delivery vehicle and increase the number of BoNT delivery vehicle delivery drug binding sites. The work proposed here is intended to lead to systems which will function as important pharmacological delivery systems in antitoxin therapy and possibly serve in targeting therapeutic agents to nerve terminals for a variety of disease states. BENEFITS: These drug delivery vehicles have potential as antitoxin therapeutics under battle field conditions. They also would benefit consumer food safety as well as create new applications in medical therapeutics for the treatment of various neurological disorders. The dual use applications of this technology are economically significant.

CEPHEID
3410 Garrett Drive
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 969-0775
Dr. M. Allen Northrup
ARMY 97-113
Title:Portable, Hand-Held, High Speed, PCR Thermal Cycler with Real-Time Optical Detection
Abstract:Cepheid proposes to develop a hand-held, battery-operated, high-speed DNA diagnostic instrument with true real-time, multi-wavelength optical detection and integrated sample purification modules. This instrument will allow practitioners to perform PCR reactions 5-10 times faster than almost all commercial instruments (i.e., 30 PCR cycles in as little as 15 minutes). It will also perform real-time fluorescence detection of up to four separate DNA targets, avoiding post-amplification verification of products (such as electrophoresis) , further decreasing the time of analysis. Phase I will provide the requisite analysis and engineering design for the extension of a previously proven portable prototype thermal cycling instrument into a commercial product. Due to existing interest by third party investors, including diagnostic and life science research product companies, and financial institutions; Cepheid anticipates being able to participate in a Fast Track program. During Phase II, Cepheid will integrate the separate computer controller with the analytical thermal cycling instrument into a single hand-held package, suitable for high volume production. The Phase II product represents a significant step toward Cepheid's vision of a powerful, portable DNA diagnostic instrument capable of receiving raw samples, such as whole blood, extracting and purifying target nucleic acids (DNA and/or RNA), performing amplification, and identifying and quantifying target organisms or sequences. BENEFITS: Instruments based on this approach could be used in biowarfare and medical defense applications, and for rapidly diagnosing diseases (and disease vectors) in the field. Commercial versions will have diverse applications such as identifying infected or contaminated livestock, food, water supplies, and infectious disease diagnostics in the doctor's office or the emergency room. It will lower the cost of such instruments while increasing the speed of analysis.

IMMUNOLOGICAL ASSOC. OF DENVER, INC.
101 University Blvd, Suite 330, P.O Box 61159
Denver, CO 80206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 321-6027
Diane Kozwich
ARMY 97-113
Title:A Rapid and Simple Integrated extraction amplificaion and detection device for Y. pestir
Abstract:This proposal is directed toward the development of a rapid, simple and efficient method for extraction, purification, amplification and detection of nucleic acids found in biological or environmental samples. This proposal will demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel self contained isothermal particle (SCIP) assay to detect Yersinia pestis. SCIP integrates extraction, purification, amplification and detection into a single testing device. The assay is expected to take less than an hour, yet provide the sensitivity and specificity afforded by nucleic acid based assays. The self contained nature of the device elminates possibility of contamination from previously ran samples. The extraction method is extremely efficient, with expected recoveries greater than 65%, and does not require the use of centrifugation or vacuum source. The nucleic acid is purified and free from inhibitors of amplification enzymes. The amplification strategy proposed is isothermal, eliminating the use of thermocycling equipment and produces high copy in less than 30 minutes. The amplified product is labeled for detection during the amplification reaction. The detection mechanism is based on microparticle and lateral flow chromatography technology. The assay will be easy to perform and can be completed in the field or at the first level of medical care. BENEFITS: The successful development of a SCIP assay for Y. pestis detection will make testing for plague in biological or environmental samples easy and rapid. Early detection will provide an opportunity for treatment before the disease progresses to fatality. SCIP testing increases the sensitivity, specificity and precision for detection of Y pestis. SCIP can be used in the field, eliminating the use of skilled laboratory personnel and sophisticated equipment. Based on preliminary cost analysis, SCIP, will provide substantial cost savings in terms of medical care. The SCIP concept is adaptable for detection of almost any organism with unique and determined genetic sequences.

OPHIDIAN PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
5445 East Cheryl Parkway
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 271-0878
Dr. Joseph R. Firca
ARMY 97-114
Title:Quantitative Detection of Toxins Using Novel Compounds that Bind to Carbonhydrate Binding Sites
Abstract:A novel set of compounds has been devised and synthesized, members of which bind to bacterial toxins with high affinity and selectivity. The compounds are covalently attached to a solid phase and can be used to selectively bind to toxins from various sources (e.g., body fluids or food extracts) for their detection and quantitation. In this proposal is described the theoretical background for the construction and nature of the compounds, and their selective binding with the ricin agglutinin, the botulinum toxin A hemagglutinin component, and the botulinum A, B, and E neurotoxin components. Data is presented that compounds can be obtained that will be selective for a host of other pathogenic toxins. Using these toxin selective binding compounds, ELISA and other detection-quantitation assays will be developed for the ricin and botulinum toxins. The sensitivities, reproducibilities, and applications of the assays will be tested by addition of purified toxins to serum/plasma and to selected foods, and the conduct of quantitative assay. Because of the nature of the compounds binding to the toxins, it is expected that the compounds may also be used therapeutically to inhibit the toxin effects. In Phase II, compounds that bind selectively to a number of additional toxins will be identified and quantitative assays constructed. The assays would be used to quantify toxin levels in appropriate clinical situations and in the field. BENEFITS: The toxin-binding compounds are stable and assay tests can be constructed that can be stored at typical room temperatures and which would withstand higher temperatures that may be experienced in shipping or in the field. Thus, the assays could be used in a number of situations including medical and veterinary applications, as well as in the food industry. The toxin binding compounds may also be used to inhibit toxin binding and thus neutralize the potential harmful physiological effects of the toxins.

SYMBIOTECH, INC.
8 Fairfield Blvd
Wallingford, CT 06492
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 949-2766
Robert Greenfield
ARMY 97-114
Title:Antibody Mimics for ELISA-like Detection of Toxins and DIsease Pathogens
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research Grant proposal will develop antibody mimics that bind to Clostridia tetanli toxin and ricin. The antibody mimics will be prepared using chemical synthetic processes without the use of animals. The antibody mimics will be evaluated for their ability to bind to the respective whole toxin molecules. Studies with the synthetic antibody mimics will include evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and affinity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) formats. The stability of the antibody mimics will also be determined with respect to time of storage and retention of binding activity upon exposure to high temperature. BENEFITS: The antibody mimics developed will be useful as replacements for antibodies in ELISA kits. Assay kits containing antibody mimics with high affinity, high sensitivity and high stability will be usetul under field conditions. The military, medical, food and environmental industries have a need for antibody mimics.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2849 E. Elvira Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
Tapesh Yadav
ARMY 97-115
Title:Mechanistically-based Biosensors for Toxicity Test Kit
Abstract:There is a need to develop rapid, inexpensive, accurate mechanistically-based toxicity test kits for the assessment of new chemicals being developed for various applications. Currently, no such technology is available. This effort aims at developing biosensors that can enable such test kits. Phase I will establish the proof-of-concept. Phase II will optimize and produce prototype test kit. Phase III will commercialize the technology. BENEFITS: The toxicity test kits will be useful in rapid and early assessment of carcinogenic, developmental, immunotoxicologic, neurotoxicologic, and reproductive toxic contaminants in single exposure situations or in complex environmental contamination. The kit will also be an enabling non-invasive hazard and environmental monitor.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 689-0003
Mitchell R. Zakin
ARMY 97-115
Title:Polymeric Toxicity Test
Abstract:Rapid and accurate assessment of the toxicity of environmental contaminants and other hazardous species, including military-unique chemicals such as warfare agents, remains a significant challenge. Current methodologies are slow, expensive, and require sophisticated laboratory instrumentation. Increasing concerns over the biological effects of common industrial chemicals such as solvents and hydrocarbon fuels, particularly in the context of assessing the overall toxicity of contaminated environmental areas such as waste sites, has motivated the need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive toxicity tests which can be implemented in field environments. Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a simple, low-cost chemical microsensor-based toxicity test for rapid screening of hazardous species. The toxicity test will utilize an array of sensors whose chemical specificity can be tuned by precise control of chemical composition, and which are self-transducing. In Phase I the concept of developing a microsensor-based toxicity test will be demonstrated by the construction and testing of prototype toxicity test kits for chlorinated hydrocarbons and cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. The results will be used to design test kits for other classes of toxic species, which will be constructed and tested in Phase II. BENEFITS: The proposed toxicity tests will be rapid, low-cost, and easy to use in laboratory and field environments, offering significant cost and time savings over current technology. Applications include toxicity screening of environmental pollutants and military-unique chemicals, determination of the overall toxicity of waste sites, and monitoring the progress and effectiveness of environmental clean-up and remediation efforts.

MISSION MEDICAL, INC.
5670 Stewart Ave
Fremont, CA 94538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 623-3777
Thomas C. Robinson
ARMY 97-116
Title:Blood Processor for Donated Blood
Abstract:The objectives of this project are to develop an improved process for red cell glycerolization prior to freezing utilizing a closed, sterile disposable set. This Set is coupled to an actuation and monitoring system that provides fully automatic, well-controlled, consistent operation. The hemolysis from the glycerolizing process will be reduced to improve red cell recovery and shorten the deglycerolization process. Closed, sterile glycerolization is necessary for the desired long-term storage of deglycerolized red cells. Automated deglycerolization systems and improved fluid mixing methods and devices developed by us will be modified and special disposable sets will be fabricated to test and demonstrate the feasibility of automatic, closed glycerolization. BENEFITS: The benefits are reduced hemolysis and red cell; more consistent results; reduced user time, training, and costs; and closed, sterile procedures. Sterile glycerolization is critical to the military blood program because it permits long-term refrigerated storage of deglycerolized red cells, with major logistical advantages. Commercial applications include emergency use and long-term storage of autologous or rare blood types.

SRICO, INC.
2724 Sawbury Blvd
Columbus, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 799-0664
Dr. S.A. Kingsley
ARMY 97-117
Title:High-Impedance, Dry Physiological Recording Optrode
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of a dry, high-impedance electrode for physiological monitoring in operational environments. In particular, a device is proposed that uses optical fiber based voltage sensing technology to provide an optoelectronic interface to standard electrical recording devices. This optical-based-electrode (optrode) can be placed in contact with the skin and record physiological signals without requiring any special skin preparation. When placed in the helmet, a suite of such optrodes would provide the high-impedance, high-sensitivity interface needed to monitor the physiological status of various warfighters, including aviators, in battlefield scenarios. The optrode consists of a miniature electro-optic crystal based intensity modulator mounted at the end of an optical fiber. The optical interface uses the electro-optic effect to convert weak bioelectric potentials, produced at the skin surface, to measurable electrical signals. Common-mode rejection of unwanted electrical signals is provided by applying the outputs of the optrodes to remote differential amplifiers connected to conventional physiological recording devices. Because the electro-optic crystal presents a very high impedance and very low capacitance, the optrode need not be in good physical contact with the head. Therefore, the points of contact can be dry. It should thus be feasible to obtain routine, real-time physiological recording with the minimum of setup time. BENEFITS: The -need for time-cionsuming and troublesome electrode attachment and allow medical personnel to routinely monitor various important physiological parameters. The system would allow for a wide spectrum of monitoring capabilities for patients outside of a restrictive hospital setting. For example, this technology can be used in many civilian applications involving health and safety patient monitoring by fireman, police and rescue workers during emergency situations.

AMBULATORY MONITORING/PRECISION CONTROL
731 Saw Mill River Road
Ardsley, NY 10502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 693-9240
William Gruen
ARMY 97-118
Title:Aircrew Management Device
Abstract:Aircrew management device software, based upon USAARL code and information contained in the "Leader's Guide to Crew Endurance" (Comperature & Caldwell, USAARL/USASC 1996) will be refined and optimized for inclusion in an improved existing activity monitoring device. A 3-year cooperative effort between the Walter Reed Army Research Institute and Precision Control Design, Inc., resulted in the functioning, commercially available SLEEP WATCH-L, an actigraph instrument that incorporates many of the features necessary to complete an aircrew management device. WRAIR studies directed by Col. D. Redmond, M.D., tested and developed sleep deprivation and performance algorithms incorporated in the SLEEP WATCH-L. LCD displays time-of-day and sleep history for 7 or more days and a calculated performance estimation and light levels. The proposed software effort will be the framework for implementation of predictive scheduling based on circadian rhythm, sleep/wake patterns, environmental conditions, time zones, and expected duty hours. Components from the SLEEP WATCH-L will be combined with an ergonomic miniature keypad for data entry.. A prototype will be tested on subjects for sleep deprivation and performance decrement. The combined expertise of Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., in software development and Precision Control Design, Inc., in hardware development assures successful completion of Phase I. Phase II will implement miniaturization and validate results in cooperation with existing military and Department of Transportation efforts for use by military aircrew, commercial pilots, and truck drivers. BENEFITS: A wrist-worn air-crew management device containing precision accelerometer, keypad and time display provides vital information for military and commercial air personnel using their personal recorded sleep history and circadian cycles to predict performance and optimal work scheduling. Sleep length, timing, naps, meal times, time zones, circadian rhythm and light are software inputs. Sale of such device, as well as rental and consulting service are a lucrative, desirable business opportunity for use by pilots and truckers.

SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING ASSOC., INC.
265 Church Str., One Century Tower
New Haven, CT 06510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 777-7442
Dr. Andrew Sherman
ARMY 97-119
Title:Electronic Structure of Large Molecules using Parallel Computers
Abstract:Modern methods of drug discovery rely heavily on computer modeling of potential therapeutic agents to calculate their geometric and electronic properties and optimize them to interact specifically with target receptors with high potency. This process is extremely compute intensive due to the large sizes of the molecular Systems involved. Recently, new linear-scaling algorithms based on fast multipole methods (FMM) have been introduced for computing the electronic structures of such large systems. Energies, forces, and force constants can now be computed efficiently even on workstations. However, study of biological systems requires new linear-scaling methods capable of modeling solvation, computing additional important properties, such as excitation energies, and optimizing geometry. Moreover, to enable routine application, it is necessary to exploit highly parallel computer systems. We propose to address all of these issues by investigating parallel linear-scaling methods suitable for drug design. In Phase I we will develop prototype parallel versions of FMM-based methods for basic electronic structure calculations and geometry optimization, and we will design algorithms for calculating solvation effects and other properties, such as the lowest-unoccupied and highest-occupied molecular orbitals. Phase II will include implementation of the latter algorithms along with significant extension, refinement, and testing of all the proposed methods. BENEFITS: This project will lead to enhanced software that will dramatically improve the ability of researchers in the DOD, universities, and commercial industry to carry out the kinds of modeling required for advanced drug discovery and other molecular analysis of biological systems. Since the software will be based on widely used commercial computing and chemistry technologies, it will have broad appeal and be readily accessible to research groups involved in the design of future medicinal and agricultural products as well as to material scientists designing new alloys, propellants, and explosives.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin
ARMY 97-120
Title:Intelligent Multisensor Integration and Fusion
Abstract:This SBIR project proposes the investigation and development of an advanced intelligent information fusion system using neural networks and expert systems. Our approaches feature the following innovations: 1) A Digent neural network for data fusion problem in the presence of noise is designed to be robust to prescribed noise margins; and 2) A real time knowledge processing system is developed for management and implementation of dynamic control, multiple assignment, and tracking algorithms. The knowledge base that exists in the machine and the knowledge engineering used to capture the expert's skills is explained. The developed expert system can teach and aid less-experienced operators in decision making. A prototyping system will be developed to demonstrate the advanced multisensor integration and fusion techniques to be conducted in this project. The prototyping system will be designed to be user-friendly and easy to use through employing state-of-the art window and object-oriented programming techniques. The developed techniques will be transferred to our commercial product: Intelligent Multisensor Integration and Fusion Systems. The effectiveness of the proposed intelligent multisensor fusion approaches will be demonstrated on a fully integrated prototype module at the end of Phase I. BENEFITS: The developed techniques will result in the commercial product: Intelligent Multisensor Integration and Fusion Systems. Airline pilots, power station operators, air defense tactical operations center commanders, military commanders, manufacturing plant managers and others are the candidates for this project.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
55 Wheeler St.
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Subrata K. Das
ARMY 97-120
Title:AVID: Agent for Visualization and Intelligent Decision-Aiding
Abstract:We propose to develop a robust, adaptive Agent for visualization and Intelligent Decision-aiding (AVID). The AVID architecture consists off four modules, one each for: decision-aiding, visualization, profile adjustments, and communication and coordination. the structure of the key decision-aiding and visualization modules closely matches a unified cognitive theory, so as to provide assistance at multiple levels of information processing: skill-based, rule-based, and knowledge-based The decision-aiding module is the core component of AVID and provides three key decision-support functionalities: 1) fusion of data into task-relevant information, supporting skill-based processing; 2) event detection and situation assessment providing high-level aggregates of task-relevant knowledge, supporting rule-based processing; and B) response recommendations based on current context and prior knowledge, supporting knowledge-based processing. Robust performance is assured through the use of complementary AI techniques (e.g., fuzzy logic, belief nets, probabilistic rule-bases), and by providing aiding at the highest level allowed by available data and knowledge. Adaptive assistance is assured by allowing the user to customize an information and display profile to best fit the current situation. We propose to develop AVID using COTS software, and demonstrate it in the domain of battlefield monitoring. BENEFITS: Commercial applications of the generic AVID architecture exist in a variety of contexts characterized by high-information flow rates, decision-making under uncertainty, and distributed "players," such as operation centers for complex process control, financial services, rail and air traffic control. Vertical applications for these markets would significantly improve effectiveness and safety in a number of life-critical applications.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. Joseph H. Discenza
ARMY 97-120
Title:Decision Aiding Through Bayesian Inference and Quasi-Axiomatic Theorem (Innovative Decision Aid)
Abstract:This proposed research draws on classical Bayesian Inference combined with powerful new tools called Quasi-Axiomatic Theorem (QAT) to provide a comprehensive and adaptive situation analysis decision aid. The Bayesian Inference component provides automatic assessment of hypotheses based on the continuous arrival of positive (contact) and negative (search) information. The QAT component provides the adaptive mechanism by which new hypotheses can be formed in the presence of conflicting or seemingly erroneous data. A graphical user interface allows the operator to interact with the adaptive algorithms to create and assess hypotheses. BENEFITS: An adaptive system of algorithms promises to improve situation assessment and reduce confusion in the demanding, time~ritical environment of.the battlefield. These results can also be applied to police surveillance, counternarcotics and industrial intelligence analysis.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
2016 Belle Monti Ave
Belmont, CA 94002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 650-7242
Terrance Goan
ARMY 97-120
Title:Artificial Intelligence Support for Cooperative Decision Management
Abstract:We propose an innovative architecture for a unique and important class of decision aids. Traditionally, decision aids have been used to help manage the vast amounts of information that may be pertinent to time-critical decisions. In contrast, our project will focus on developing a tool that advises human decision makers as to when the assumptions which form the basis of their plans are no longer valid. The Cooperative Decision Management Tool (CDMT) will track decision rationale and assumptions explicitly, identify invalid decisions, and efficiently propagate information corrections and updates to all affected individuals in a way not currently possible (effectively providing active information filtering, fusion, and prioritization). The CDMT would be interfaced to current planning, management, and decision support tools, and be useable over computer networks. The CDMT will include several AI concepts which have been combined into a system of theories, capabilities, and formalisms, explicitly to aid the management and coordination of complex cognitive tasks. This system (called Redux) has been extensively studied, extended, and tested with real domain problems by Stanford University's Dr. Charles Petrie, a leading researcher in the field of collaborative problem-solving. We will prove CDMT's feasibility by developing a proof-of-concept, limited prototype in Phase I. BENEFITS: The CDMT will dramatically reduce response time and errors, and will increase the quality of decisions for highly time-constrained, complex, and distributed battle management. Because this effort directly addresses perhaps the most important issues in military operations the potential military market opportunities are enormous.

XDI
3150 North Lake Shore Drive
Chicago, IL 60657
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(773) 525-5896
Lucian russell
ARMY 97-120
Title:Innovative Decision Aid
Abstract:New computer based process will be designed that will filter and fuse data from past experience and a wide range of disparate input sources to provide the best decision to human operators or military commanders. The process takes as input the description and content of data to be used in the decision and the logical and mathematical processes to be applied, and provides a continuous update of the recommended course of action. The process is categorized as a middleware interface; it will support visual decision aids. It is permits the application in combination of techniques such as artificial intelligence, neural networks, fuzzy logic, and probability estimators to assess the usefulness of all decision relevant data. The best recommendation is then made based upon the decision-maker's assessment criteria. The process is robust, allows for consideration of missing data. The process is based upon mathematically precise operations on data. BENEFITS: Benefits which will accrue to the users of the processes developed from this research are decisions based on quantitatively qualified data sets. Better data means better decisions. Commercially these abilities to make better decisions will impact most, if not all, areas of corporate life, finance, operations, staffing, new product introduction, etc.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State St, PO Drawer 719
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 339-6500
Dr. Michael Bollen
ARMY 97-121
Title:GAL: A RF Effects Mitigation Technique for Radar and Communication Equipment
Abstract:Feasibility of a GaAs adjustable limiter (GAL) integrated with a low-noise PHEMT amplifier will be demonstrated. Produced as a monolithic GAL/LNA and incorporated into radar and communication equipment front-ends, it will provide protection from damage and disruption by electromagnetic radiation and ESD. Phase-1 consists of four tasks: 1) design and fabrication of GAL prototypes, 2) testing of GAL prototypes, 3) design and performance modeling of the monolithic GAL/LNA for Phase-2, and 4) final report. First, prototype GAL units using power PHEMTs are designed and constructed using discrete components which are bond-wired together. Next, the GAL units are tested to assess their a) power-protection capability as a function of gate periphery and rf pulse width, b) adjustability characteristics (turn-on adjustment level and time required to vary this level), and c) operational lifetime. The noise parameters for the power PHEMTs used will be obtained. The test results will be used to design and model monolithic GAL/LNA units for fabrication and demonstration in Phase-2 and provide performance predictions for the monolithic GAL/LNA. The final report will document all work performed and provide a schedule and work plan to build and demonstrate a family of monolithic GAL/LNA units for use as commercial products. BENEFITS: A monolithic limiter/LNA with an adjustable turn-on threshold such as GAL provides cost effective, small size, and robust RF-protection capability. It meets the growing military need for radar and communication system RF protection and similar commercial needs to mitigate disrupting RF interference in the exploding wireless technology market. This program fosters an early implementation of this type of protection in COTS products for utilization by the military.

TRACE
147 Piedra Loop
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 672-3118
Dr. Kenneth E. Bower
ARMY 97-123
Title:Small Photon Battery
Abstract:The performance and endurance of military electronic equipment depends on the implementation of advanced scientific and engineering technology. Lightweight and inexpensive power supplies with long life would be especially valuable. A useable life greater than four years, independence from solar flux,continuous current, and a materials cost less than $100/Watt-year are advantages offered by photon batteries which can be developed on the foundation of advanced solar voltaic and radiation detection technologies. The purpose of this proposal is to present a project work plan for construction and testing of a photon battery using tritium as the sealed radioactive source. Low current electronic devices are increasingly important in military and civilian life, yet electrochemical battery technology has not progressed in a manner commensurate with the electronics because of the inherent electrochemical limitation that chemical reagents are quickly exhausted under load. Small, modular, power supplies will be developed for military electronics that provide continuous current for over four years on the basis of this research. BENEFITS:Successful completion of this applied research project could result in reduced military use of chemical batteries, greatly enhanced performance of electronic devices, all at lower cost and lower weight.

SKIAMETRICS, INC.
19 Glengarry Rd.
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 721-2908
Dr. Paul Burstein
ARMY 97-125
Title:An Inexpensive, Universal CT System for Automatic High-Speed Inspection of Munitions
Abstract:We propose a real-time radiography (RTR)-based universal computed tomography (UCT) system that requires no new hardware development. UCT utilizes existing hardware components that are available from a multiplicity of manufacturers and can easily be assembled into a CT system, by employing techniques and applying software that we have already developed. The RTR system is based on deep-well charge coupled devices (CCDS) that are optically coupled to a scintillating x-ray screen. Such screens are very inexpensive, and they can easily and quickly be interchanged, allowing usage of the system over the 50 keV-5OMeV x-ray energy range. UCT can be used with our existing cone-beam reconstruction algorithm. This approach allows for much higher spatial resolution in the axial direction of the munition and a much higher throughput, because many slices worth of data are obtained simultaneously. Coded anomaly detection and measurement algorithms have already been successfully tested on a substantial database of munitions/ rocket motor data. The team of Skiametrics, Perceptics/ Northrop, and Alliant has a strong record of CT implementation over the last 15 years, including the first production usage of CT as a primary inspection mode on a military program. BENEFITS: Universal CT presents a high-throughput, high resolution NDT/NDE tool. UCT is sufficiently inexpensive and versatile that it is well within the fiscal constraints of typical large manufacturing organizations. UCT is especially applicable for industrial research laboratories for in-process examinations and understanding.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 987-0600
Jeffrey R. Sachs
ARMY 97-126
Title:Speech Recognition in Noisy Environments for Enhanced Tactical Performance
Abstract:Recent advances in computer recognition of human speech have made it possible to perform reliable recognition of the content (words) in continuous speech, independent of the speaker. Using these new speech recognition tools together with algorithms which allow interpretation of the spoken messages, it's possible to dramatically reduce the human effort required to process spoken information, while improving information flow. We propose to use the expertise we have gained from developing our national-award winning VICTOR system and our SPRITE speech recognition and processing system, together with our proven expertise in signal processing and noise removal algorithms, to improve voice communications in high noise environments. We will design a speech recognition system with high accuracy in high noise environments that automatically responds to voice commands and sends this information to external systems, thus reducing required human effort, improving performance, and increasing the timeliness of information delivery. Goals include: 1.Designing a flexible, highly accurate speech recognition system that is usable in a high noise, multi-peopled environment; 2.Adapting and implementing noise reduction algorithms resulting in relatively noise-immune speech recognition; 3.Evaluating these noise reduction algorithms and the resulting speech recognition performance; 4.Demonstrating an early prototype system. BENEFITS: The most immediate applications are to improving soldier performance. User-friendly, flexible voice operated systems reduce operator training time and increase operator efficiency. Analogous systems also exist for the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corp., etc. Civilian applications include manufacturing (robotics and quality control databases), access control (voice command and logging systems), emergency dispatch (police, fire, etc.), and others.

TERI RESEARCH, INC.
16 Wildhedge Lane
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 219-0020
Benjamin Tirabassi
ARMY 97-126
Title:High Accuracy Speech Recognition in Noisy Environments
Abstract:Wide acceptance of spoken language interfaces with automated equipment is contingent upon its continued accurate performance in adverse noise environments. Significant to the research is the ability to perform Natural Language Speech (NLS) recognition and synthesis in both a high and variable noise environment. The noise environment may contain varying amounts of non-stationary, stationary and impulse components or even competing speech. A practical small self-contained and portable module containing the necessary micro-processor and software plus standard connectors for speech enabling other automated computer systems wiil perform speech recognition and voice response in real-time. The goal NLS module for high noise environments would also contain a display and acoustic man-machine interface for application flexibility. The research of multiple noise abatement and speaker voice tracking technologies is implemented in the system together with state-of-the-art speech recognition, synthesis and natural language understanding. The combination of these emerging technologies are expected to be very resistant to accuracy degradation caused by both continuous and impulse noises present in military armored vehicles and on factory floors, as well as in the presence of other voices. An integrated micro-miniature system will be designed that is able to understand spoken statements, speak responses in dialog fashion, display all input and output on an internal display and exchange data with an external computer. BENEFITS: The first product is a microcomputer prototype device containing the high-accuracy natural language speech system for noise environments, suitable for OEM and computer integrators of automated controls, automobiles, construction machinery, aircraft and spacecraft. The device can control machinery, hands-free tele-communications, operation of unmanned vehicles, ground/air traffic control, maintenance, riot control. police activities simulator training and the entertainment industry.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin
ARMY 97-127
Title:Intelligent Distributed Multi-Agent Hybrid Control Systems
Abstract:Autonomous intelligent multi-agent systems are systems that sense and manipulate their environment by gathering multi-model sensor data, compressing and representing it in symbolic form at various levels of granularity, and using the representations to reason and learn about how to optimally interact with the environment. This project proposes an innovative multi-agent distributed intelligent control methodology by integrating planning and decision making, soft computation, autonomous control and discrete event control techniques. The proposed intelligent system is organized by the distributed control functions in a hierarchical architecture that makes those functions relatively autonomous by introducing enough coordination and supervision to ensure the harmony of the distributed controllers necessary for high performance. An important new feature of our approach is that we work on both fully autonomous intelligent systems and intelligence augmentation of human centered systems. In Phase I, the detailed methodology, computation approaches and architectural concepts to support design and implementation of generic distributed multi-agent control systems are developed, and the applicability to the intelligent digital battlefield is illustrated. In Phase II, a fully integrated design and prototyping environment to support multi-agent control applications will be developed. BENEFITS: The research results of this SBIR program have the potential to lead to the following commercialized product: Intelligent Control for Multi-Agent Hybrid Dynamic Systems. The applications of this technology arise in all areas of the intelligent digital battlefield, manufacturing systems, intelligent vehicle highway systems, industrial processes, and command, control, communications and intelligence (C(3)I) systems.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 668-2567
Dr. Gerald P. Roston
ARMY 97-128
Title:A COTS-based, Highly Mobile, Telerobotic Firefighter
Abstract:The military has a strong need for telerobotic fire fighting equipment because the current operating procedure for combating fires in hazardous areas is to deploy humans, but once the fire exceeds a predefined level, the people are removed from the scene and the fire is left to burn its course. There arc two problems with this procedure: first, people are put at risk since the fire fighters might not be removed from the scene in a timely manner. Second, by letting a fire run its course, there is a larger loss of materiel and an increased probability of secondary conflagrations. This project proposes to carry out the trade studies necessary as a precursor to the development of a telerobotic fire fighting vehicle. Such a vehicle will provide fire fighting personnel with greater capabilities for combating fires in hazardous areas because it will be possible to remotely deploy the vehicle, thus allowing greater operating times without the attendant risk to personnel. Such a vehicle will have many of the capabilities of manned fire fighting systems, such as on-board, multiple agent systems; external water pumping capabilities and a suite of sensors for providing vital information to the remotely located fire fighting personnel. BENEFITS: There is a strong, civilian market need for teleoperated fire fighting equipment for hazmat applications. Hazmat fires occur at chemical plants, manufacturing plants, refineries and other, common commercial sites. Due to the cost and danger associated with deploying human fire fighters into these situations, a teleoperated fire fighter is a cost efficient means for fire fighting.

F&S, INC.
P.O. Box 11704
Blacksburg, VA 24062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4267
Michael B. Miller
ARMY 97-129
Title:Microcomposite-Based Munitions Packaging System
Abstract:At the present time, steel containers are used for packaging munitions in the majority of cases. The problems with steel containers are that they are heavy, and that they will contain gases from burning propellants because the propellants cannot burn through the steel before trapped gases cause an explosion. Alternate materials have been considered, including aluminum and composites, but each has its own drawbacks. We propose to solve this problem by modifying a manufacturing process based on microcomposite materials. F&S and its research partners have been working on the development of novel materials and manufacturing methods incorporating tailored material properties using the microcomposite process, wherein small particles of various materials can be preprocessed with high performance polymers to manufacture components in net shape or near-net shape. The properties of the resulting component depend on the combination of the properties of the processed powders used in their fabrication and on the properties and amount of polymer binder used. By building on this demonstrated performance, and then developing methods to scale the process up to larger components, the F&S development team will be able to produce larger tailored components for military munitions packaging as well as other commercial applications. BENEFITS: Integrated, multi-component mixed technology devices resulting from this program would have immediate application in military and commercial markets including munitions packaging and storage, hazardous material packaging and storage, and low-cost, lightweight structures.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Alan V. Bray
ARMY 97-129
Title:Advanced Munitions Packaging Materials and Manufacturing Technology
Abstract:Steel containers for munitions are heavy, expensive, and potentially hazardous. TRI/Austin will evaluate the potential for replacing a variety of munitions containers with lightweight, low cost polymer composite materials. Materials will be selected for testing according to TRI/Austin's previous research experience in replacing metallic designs with composite material designs. Cost savings of 50% and weight ratios of 1:5 have been achieved in our earlier work. Mechanical tests will be conducted over the service temperature range of-65°F to +160°F to obtain design parameters. Munitions handling safety issues will be addressed by our experienced munitions packaging consultant (1). Resistance to humidity, nuclear, biological, and chemical contamination will be addressed by our permeation consultant (2). TRI/Austin will perform a design study on the optimum material and fabricate a generic lab prototype for Phase I. The Phase I results will form the basis of design studies and test programs for specific munitions packages in Phase II. A commercialization plan is presented to put the containers in full production for both military and industrial customers. (3) Dn Paul of Michigan State University. (2) Dr. Bill Koros of the University of Texas. BENEFITS: Cost and weight reductions in packaging will be the primary benefits.

IMAGINET, LLC
23 Industrial Drive
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 532-8994
Dr. Todd Hylton
ARMY 97-130
Title:Magnetoresistive Sensors and Magnetic Integrated Circuits for Electronic Fuzing
Abstract:This proposal involves the development of highly sensitive magnetoresistive sensors for use in electronic fuzing applications. Such fuzing applications include post-launch, projectile warhead initiation of spinning rounds and the safe and arming of non-spinning rounds. The magnetoresistive devices to be developed are highly-sensitive, DC-coupled sensors with very low magnetic offsets and hysteresis, which are the principal requirements for effectively performing the electronic fuzing applications. The work to be performed in this proposal includes building and testing prototype sensors for delivery to the government, as well as an analysis of their suitability for use in the electronic fuzing applications. BENEFITS: Benefits of this development project include enhancing the capabilities of "smart" weapons by providing such weapons with "smart" projectiles and lowering the cost and size of safe and arm systems and "smart" fuzes. Commercial applications include anti-lock braking sensors, magnetic sensors. current sensors, electronic compasses, proximity/position sensors.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Rd.
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 829-9217
Russell Beech
ARMY 97-130
Title:Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors for Electronic Fuzes
Abstract:The proposed research program will develop and demonstrate two giant magnetoresistance magnetic sensors for electronic fuzing: one sensor, which will detect gun tube exit of a projectile, will be for safety and arming of a non-spinning projectile, and the other sensor, a spin counter, will count projectile revolutions. Performance goals for the spin count sensor are: 0.02 Oe minimum detectable field, 10 ms recovery after removal of a 1000 Oe disturb field, operation from -50 to +145 F, accuracy of +/- 0.5% out to a target range of 1 km, and signal bandwidth of 500 kHz. The gun tube exit sensor will work with a sensor-to-gun tube gap of up to 2 inches. Both sensors will have CMOS compatible outputs with a +3 to +5 V power supply. The specific technical objectives of this program are to: a) complete a cost and producibility analysis for the proposed magnetic sensors, b) design both gun tube exit detection and spin count sensors which will meet the performance requirements, c) develop performance predictions for the sensors, d) fabricate and test prototypes of both GMR sensors, and e) deliver sensor prototypes for evaluation. The success of this Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the GMR spin counter and exit sensor, and provide the basis for development of fully integrated versions under a Phase II program. BENEFITS: The GMR spin counter demonstrated in this Phase I program will provide a high output, small size, and low cost alternative to existing spin rate sensors and spin counters in applications ranging from fuzes, motors, automobile engines, and machine tools, to robotics and toys.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, N.E.
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4472
David W. Cutler
ARMY 97-130
Title:Ultra Sensitive Integrated Magnetic Field Sensors for Fuze Applications
Abstract:Military ordinance is becoming increasingly sophisticated to upgrade safety and accuracy. Improved environmental sensors are needed to address these issues. A positive indicator of safe separation would materially enhance safing mechanisms. Effective ordinance range would be extended if environmental information were used to track a round's location. TPL proposes development of ultra sensitive, nano-Tesla range, magnetic field sensors for the safing and targeting applications. Magnetic fields can be used to detect gun barrel exit providing an environmental indication of safe separation. The Earth's magnetic field can be used to derive turns counting information for estimation of total distance traveled. The proposed magnetic field sensors will be compatible with integrated circuit manufacturing techniques allowing the sensor and signal processing circuitry to be inexpensively fabricated on the same device. During Phase I magnetic field sensors would be implemented and tested for the ranging and safing applications. These sensors would be delivered for agency evaluation. In addition, the sensors would be tested in simulated service conditions to verify correct performance. TPL's instrumentation group has years of experience developing state of the art sensors and supporting instrumentation. Magnetic field detectors form an important part of equipment being developed for nondestructive evaluation applications. BENEFITS: Development of magnetic sensors will improve ordinance safety, reliability, and effectiveness. Savings will be realized in ammunition required for target defeat. training, and logistics. Magnetic sensors will also have application in commercial pyrotechnics. electronic compasses. metal detectors, position detectors for robotics and medical instrumentation.

VISIDYNE, INC.
10 Corporate Place, S. Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 273-2820
Dr. Ronald J. Rieder
ARMY 97-130
Title:Miniature Photonic Magnetic Sensor for Fuzes
Abstract:Using newly available materials and component technologies, Visidyne proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel monolithic sensor based on the photonic sensing of a magnetic field. The proposed sensor is capable of routine high sensitivity at bandwidths in excess of 500 kHz, and large dynamic range. Its ability to be implemented as a monolithic design will result in a package less than one centimeter in length, immunity to extreme environments such as EMI and ultra-high g-loading. Low cost manufacturing is assured by the fact that implementation of the technique is accomplished using components already in mass use for such fields as CD players and Fiber Optic Communication. The proposed effort includes a bench top experiment demonstrating its sensitivity, temporal response, and dynamic range. A Phase II effort would consist of the construction and field testing of several monolithic fuzes. BENEFITS: A miniature high bandwidth magnetic field sensor that is electrially passive is presently not available and can be expected to find use for diagnostic applications around electrical generators, high voltage power lines and for mapping antenna fields.

AZ TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4901 Corporate Dr, Ste 101
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 837-9877
Randell Thompson
ARMY 97-131
Title:Moisture Vapor-Gas Barrier Coatings for Carbon-Epoxy Composites
Abstract:AZ Technology proposes to design and test an innovative polymer coating system and demonstrate prototype production of a moisture/gas barrier coating to effectively eliminate composite sabot moisture related expansion. The Army has identified a need to reduce expansion of epoxy composite materials used in experimental artillery ammunition sabots. We propose to use our expertise in coating design, experience with application of halogenated polymer systems, and our commercially available composite primer coatings to develop a fully functional composite moisture barrier coating for the Army. Several polymer materials, polyvinylidene chloride copolymers and polytetrafluoroethylene, are proposed as primary candidates. This coating will. be low temperature cured, approximately 1 mil thick, compatible with propellants and depleted uranium, -46 C to 63 C service temperature and easily applied in ammunitions production facilities via high volume low pressure spray technology. Moisture/gas barrier coating development will include defining application procedures that provide for bonding of boot material to the sabot and testing to demonstrate coating suitability. Phase II will investigate improvement coating adhesion and demonstrate application process scale up. Scale up shall include the spray application of the barrier coating(s) onto Government Furnished Material sabots to be used by the Army for full-scale humidity and ballistics testing. BENEFITS: A viable, commercially available moisture barrier coating for composites is beneficial to satellite industry, aircraft industry, and all hardware organizations that use composite materials. Weight reduction is the primary driver for the use of composites. This type of coating will reduce weight of the copposite even further by reduction/elimination of water vapor absorption.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
9929 Hibert St, Suite C
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 675-7404
Mark Dombrowski
ARMY 97-132
Title:Development of a Long-Wave Infrared Imaging Spectrometer
Abstract:A program to develop a long-wave infrared (LWIR) infrared imaging spectrometer for use in nondestructive inspection (NDI) is proposed. Under Phase I of an SBIR contract, we will investigate feasibility of an LWIR imaging spectrometer, explore its specific NDI applications, and develop a preliminary design for the instrument. Under Phase II, the instrument will be designed in detail and then built and tested. Surface Optics Corporation has already developed a unique system based on a common processor unit and multiple imaging heads. By virtue of its patents, it is the only byperspectral system capable of real-time acquisition combined with real-time spectral processing available on the market. VIS-NIR heads have been built, and a SWIR-MWIR head is under development for the U.S Army ARDEC. Under the proposed program, LWIR imaging spectroradiometry capability will be provided in a cost-effective manner to ARDEC by developing an LWIR head for the system already to be delivered under the in-place SWIR-MWIR contract. The system has high commercialization potential, as demonstrated by a number of specific applications - both NDI and non-NDI - being explored by SOC and others. BENEFITS: Efficient spectral imaging, with real-time; processing and decision making, to solve numerous NDI problems, including surface contamination in manufacturing or repair processes, paint and coating quality control, variations in material composition and microstructure on a production line, and maintenance-depot inspection of low-observable surface treatments. Non-NDI potential applications include remote sensing, geophysics, target discrimination, environmental monitoring, and land mine clearing.

GINER, INC.
14 Spring St
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 899-7270
Dr. John A. Kosek
ARMY 97-133
Title:Advanced Membrane for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Abstract:Development of a low-cost high-exclusion proton-exchange membrane (PEN) for use as an electrolyte in a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (LFDMFC) is proposed. The LFDMFC, because of its simplicity (no reformer, simple heat management) and inherent reliability (cell membrane flooded with water), is a potentially attractive power source for low- to medium-power applications, such as a battery replacement for mobile electric power applications. One drawback to LFDMFCs is that methanol permeates across currently available PEMs from the anode to the cathode where it reacts with air (02), resulting in parasitic methanol loss and reduced fuel cell voltage. To overcome this problem, Giner, Inc. proposes to develop a composite membrane which is expected to minimize methanol permeability while maintaining high proton transport, leading to increased LFDMFC power output and improved system efficiency. The research objectives are to incorporate a methanol exclusion layer within a membrane, evaluate physical/chemical properties of the composite membrane, identify conditions to bond electrodes to the membrane, evaluate the membranes in a LFDMFC, and conduct a cost analysis. We expect to develop an advanced PEM for use in a LFDMFC which results in a significant decrease in methanol crossover, compared to Nafion 117, while providing high LFDMFC performance. BENEFITS: LFDMFC-powered vehicles have a very large market potential in states mandating use of zero-emission vehicles by early in the next decade. Additional opportunities include airport and mail vehicles, golf carts, lawn mowers, power tools and dispersed power generators. Military applications include standard vehicles, unmanned underwater and air vehicles, and person portable backpack power supplies.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive, Suite 105
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 693-0017
Dacong Weng
ARMY 97-133
Title:Man Portable Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack Based on Monopolar Design
Abstract:Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are promising for applications such as portable power sources for Individual Soldiers due to their high efficiency, high power to weight and power to volume ratios, and fast start-up property. However, most hydrogen/air (oxygen) PEM fuel cell stacks require significant support hardware for air supply, hydrogen storage/delivery system, and humidification. The proposed direct methanol fuel cell stacks based on monopolar design with internal methanol storage eliminates all of these. The use of monopolar design with an ambient air cathode will eliminate the need for an air handling system, and significantly reduce the cost and weight of the key components in the PEM fuel cell stack. The use of methanol (liquid fuel) and an internal methanol storage system for stack will eliminate the bulky hydrogen storage/delivery system, reduce the methanol crossover, and simplify the heat management of the fuel cell stack. This rugged, innovative direct PEM fuel cell stack is capable of operating at ambient temperatures and pressures, and requires no preconditioning or clean-up of the air supply. BENEFITS: A small, lightweight, and rugged PEM fuel cell power system has promising commercial applications wherever clean, quiet portable power is desired. This includes remote communication systems, remote environmental monitoring systems, medical instrumentation for rescue teams, notebook computers, portable testing equipment, and as power supplies for a myriad of recreational uses.

MAXDEM, INC.
140 E. Arrow Highway
San Dimas, CA 91773
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 394-0644
Ying Wang
ARMY 97-133
Title:New Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells
Abstract:We propose to develop a new class of proton exchange membranes (PEM) based on polyphenylene polymers. These new PEM's are designed to overcome fuel crossover problems encountered with conventional sulfonated fluoropolymers. Recently, Maxdem has conducted preliminary studies of polyphenylene PEM's and demonstrated the outstanding properties of these materials for proton conductivity. The proton conductivities of some of these polymer materials are much higher than Dupont's Nafionr membranes, even at high temperature (>100°C). Films with methanol absorption comparable to the commercial products showed better performance in operating direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). A new approach is proposed in this proposal to minimize the solvent crossover while maintaining high proton conductivity. Further investigation based on the preliminary results is expected to provide PEM's for practical fuel cell applications with unmatched performance and at lower costs than current commercial products. The new PEM's with optimized properties are expected to find immediate applications in both hydrogen and direct methanol fuel cells. BENEFITS: The novel proposed electrolytes would allow major advances in small, light and more efficient fuel cells by providing high conductivity and low fuel crossover. Light weight, high energy density fuel cells are needed for powering electric vehicles and for manportable applications. Both defense (future soldier systems), and civilian (electric cars) applications present large potential markets.

SYSTEMS PLANNING & ANALYSIS, INC.
2000 N Beauregard St., Suite 400
Alexandria, VA 22311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 578-6332
Dr. Peter C. Chen
ARMY 97-134
Title:Semi-Active Magnetorheological Recoil Dampers for the Apache Helicopter Chain Gun
Abstract:Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) proposes to develop a semi-active recoil damper system for the Apache AH-64 helicopter nose chain gun based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) magnetorheological (MR) fluid and digital control technologies. This retro-fittable recoil system will allow for substantial improvements in the accuracy of the 30mm chain gun during high rates of fire by dissipating recoil forces, which excite the flexural modes of the gun barrel and gun mount structure, thereby causing dispersion of rounds at the target. SPA will exploit a semi-active nonlinear controller, which will remove energy from the system, for suppression of gun recoil forces (primarily 10Hz). During the proposed Phase I effort, a full scale prototype system will be designed and built based on the prototype Rheonetics(tm) MR damper by Lord Corp., and integrated with an Apache 30mm gun test apparatus in collaboration with the U.S. Army Advanced Drives and Weapon Stabilization Lab (ADAWS), U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), at Picatinny Arsenal, N.J. BENEFITS: Real-time, on-line, recoil damping augmentation of fire systems will increase the lethality of air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons systems by reducing the number of rounds required for a specific target kill. Nondimensional scaling analysis tools will allow for accurate scaling of full-scale dampers based on model-scale data.

TECHNOCHEM COMPANY
203-A Creek Ridge Rd.
Greensboro, NC 27406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(910) 370-9440
Dr. Shyam Argade
ARMY 97-135
Title:Long-Cycle Life Metal Hidride Alloys
Abstract:Nickel/metal hydride batteries are attractive from the standpoint of environmental considerations, their inherent safety and good performance characteristics Presently available Ni/M-H batteries have an energy density of 55 Wh/kg and 178 Wh/L, two to three times that of Ni-Cd batteries. Present state of the art batteries utilize metal hydrides, containing 1-1.1 wt % hydrogen. Development efforts are in progress in many laboratories to develop nickel/metal hydride batteries which have a very long cycle life. Technochem Company has developed a metal hydride alloy whose crystal lattice parameters remain invariant before and after subjecting the alloy to hydriding and dehydriding cycles This alloy potentially can yield a high stable capacity and extremely long cycle life. By developing these types of reversible metal alloy hydrides of > 1.3 wt% hydrogen storage capacity and appropriate battery design and engineering, the energy density of this system can be enhanced to >100 Wh/kg and 300 Wh/L, meeting the DoD requirements for many applications in communications and man-portable electronic devices. The proposed Phase I program will (i) research novel metal hydride materials with > 1.35 wt% hydrogen capacity, (ii) establish reversibility and stability and (ii) demonstrate at the cell prototype level superior nickel/metal hydride battery characteristics. The Phase II program will involve design, development, fabrication, and testing of battery prototypes for the identified DoD applications. BENEFITS: Nickel/metal hydride batteries with performance characteristics of 100 Wh/kg, 240 Wh/L and 200 W/kg will have DoD applications for robotic vehicles and communications. The commercial applications will include power sources for tools, uninterrupted power supplies, and remote telecommunications. Larger batteries may also be used for electric vehicles, utility load leveling, solar energy storage.

INNOVATIVE AERODYNAMIC TECHNOLOGIES
534 Wythe Creek Road, Suite C
Poquoson, VA 23662
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 868-4151
Dr. M.D. Deshpande
ARMY 97-136
Title:Portable Electromagnetic Diagnostic Tool for Nondestructive Evaluation System
Abstract:Composite materials are being used in many practical applications such as aircraft, automobiles, spacecraft etc. for flghtweight. However, successful use of composite materials in these applications depends upon customer's ability to determine their properties and detecting volumetric or surface defects, if present. Most promising way of estimating properties and detecting defects in these materials is through the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of the materials using Electomagnetics (EM) diagnostic tools. In this proposed innovation, Innovative Aerodynamic Technologies (IAT) will develop (Phase I), a microwave system for detecting faults and cracks in a composite material and support the experimental results through numerical simulation. The successful demonstration of concept to detect faults in a composite material through experimental procedure may lead to the development of dedicated microwave system for fault detection. By the end of this innovation, IAT proposes to deliver the experimental setup for fault detection and also numerical simulation program for non-destructive evaluation of composite material slab. It will evaluate the resolution of NDE system in terms of size of fault/crack, spacing between two faults for given frequency range and angular range of scanning system. It will also deliver preliminary experimental results on some simple faults in multilayer slabs using hp 8510 Network Analyzer. BENEFITS: The proposed portable electromagnetic diagnostic toll will improve the quality checking prccedure for industries manufacturing composite materials. This will also be useful in detecting cracks and fatigue flaws in structures made up of composite material before they cause serious accidents. This will be highly useful for aircraft inspection performed by the airlines as well as by the general Aviation industry, the aircraft manufacturers and military repair facilities.

FLUIDYNE ENGINEERING CORP. D.B.A.
5900 Olson Memorial Highway
Minneapolis, MN 55422
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 544-2721
Dr. Gary J. Hanus
ARMY 97-137
Title:Gun Tube Wear/Erosion Prevention Using Combustion-Synthesized, Functionally-Graded Materials
Abstract:Substantial operational savings and cost reduction can be met for gun barrels and liners with development of materials, processes and/or components/equipment that exhibit wear and erosion protection characteristics greatly improved over current materials and methods. Utilizing self-propagating, high-temperature synthesis (SHS) techniques, functionally-graded property, gun barrel/liner production methods will be identified and tube samples fabricated which eliminate current ceramic or refractory metal liner interfacial, thermal/mechanical failure mechanisms. The methodology may have the potential to produce a complete monolithic gun barrel structure exhibiting transitional material property changes from bore-to-barrel. The specific technical objective of Phase I indude: (1) identification of materials and processing techniques consistent with SHS processing capabilities which span the thermal/mechanical performance requirements from the bore to the barrel as a single, composite matrix structure (i.e. functionally-graded material), (2) design and build the necessary SHS processing support hardware to demonstrate fabrication of tube-like samples with an overall objective of producing up to 150 mm diameter tube segments for subsequent material property evaluation, (3) perform base-line, thermal/mechanical tests on the samples to verify the extent to which functional-gradation has been achieved, and (4) define advanced property and material performance test methods consistent with functionally-graded materials and in an appropriately-simulated in-bore environment. BENEFITS: Benefits include material process development for gun barrels and liners which may substantially improve the life-cycle economics for the Army on these important components. In the private, commercial sector the results from the work will directly apply to pipe and tube coating for protection against erosion, wear and corrosion in the power, petrochemical and waste processing industries

SANTEC SYSTEMS, INC.
716 S. Milwaukee Ave.
Wheeling, IL 60090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 215-8884
Jaswinder S. Sandhu
ARMY 97-138
Title:New Acousto-Optic Sensors for Real Time Full Field Acoustic Inspection
Abstract:New Acousto-Optic (AO) sensors will be produced that will 1) offer at least a 5x increase in the field-of-view of current AO sensors and 2) cover a wide range of frequencies (500kHz-l5MHz). Phase I work will focus on the design and fabrication of the new AO sensors to demonstrate the feasibility of acoustography to provide dramatic increases in ultrasonic inspection over conventional point-by-point ultrasonic inspection methods. In addition, the applicability of acoustography to inspect traditional and advanced materials/components previously outside of acoustography's range will be established. BENEFITS: Large area AO sensors covering 0.5-15MHz frequency range could allow acoustography to provide significant efficiency and cost-savings benefits over conventional point-by-point ultrasonic NDT methods, which are widely used in the military and industry to ensure material/component quality.

PNEUVENTURES, INC.
19 Ransier Drive
West Seneca, NY 14224
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 675-0820
Hugh Cronin
ARMY 97-139
Title:Pneumatic Device for the Insertion of Discontinuous Reinforcement in Dry Fiber Preforms
Abstract:pVi has developed a novel electropneumatic paintball gun, the ShockerÖ, which is currently marketed exclusively through SmartParts of Latrobe, PA. Several features of the ShockerÖ are pending before the US Patent and Trademark Office. pVi has initiated development of a second generation pneumatic gun technology. Our electronically controlled and pneumatically actuated gun technology has several advantages over traditional paintball guns and nail guns. With the ShockerÖ we have demonstrated the ability to consistently propel a projectile with a variety of propellant gases (C02, N2, and compressed air), at unusually low operating pressures (below 170 psig), at a repetition rate in excess of 10 Hz. Our SBIR development plans include direct digital control, and development of a composite nail chamber loading subsystem. The current ShockerÖ technology relies on hybrid digital/analog electronics. Our electronic control over the dynamics of the firing sequence allows us to apply virtually any pressure profile to a projectile, and allows us to gently accelerate a composite nail into dry fiber preforms using only the force required to achieve insertion without buckling the nail. Our gun can be driven by simple digital electronics for automated manufacturing applications. BENEFITS: This project will allow pVi to develop as an R&D firm to support needs. pVi's will use the basic technology from this SBIR Phase I proposal to commercialize (1) a new nail gun for the defense and commercial composites joining market, (2) a second generation paintball gun, and (3) a new nail gun to compete in the construction tool market, currently dominated by Japanese firms.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
401 Camp Craft Rd.
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 306-1100
Michael W. Mayo
ARMY 97-140
Title:Automated Field Fluorescence Microscope Using Compact Disc Technology for Single Biological Particle Detection
Abstract:Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) and Dr. John Taboada of Taboada Research Instruments propose to design and provide proof-of-concept for an Automated Field Fluorescence Microscope (AFFM) instrument to rapidly and specifically identify individual biological particles in complex samples taken from the air, water, or blood. The proposed instrument combines the advantages of high-precision compact disc (CD) technology, fluorescence staining of nucleic acids, immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The proposed instrument will identify pathogenic bacteria or viruses by detecting the fluorescence from membrane permeable nucleic acid stains. The AFFM will use this fluorescence signal to focus on areas of interest. Using confocal microscopy, the AFFM creates a high resolution 3D image of the target location while simultaneously measuring the fluorescence from a second, spectrally discriminating dye-labeled antibody. This dye-labeled antibody, though naturally weaker in signal, will be highly specific to a biological pathogen. This process can take place in a matter of minutes and provide highly specific detection of targets. In Phase II, SPEC plans to design, construct and test a fieldable instrument which can rapidly and specifically identify individual biological particles, and which can be combined with an air or water sampler for remote. stand-alone monitoring of BW agents. BENEFITS: The AFFM instrument provides a capability to detect and identify single biological particles using a inexpensive compact disc based confocal microscope and fluorescent probes. The instrument developed in Phase II of this SBIR program has the potential to become a widely used commercial product with utility for field measurements and research in both the military and civilian sectors. Improved rapid methods for identifying pathogenic bacteria and viruses would be useful for a variety of applications.

TACAN CORP.
2330 Faraday Ave.
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Jeffrey T. Ives
ARMY 97-140
Title:A Multistep, Integrated System for Identifying Individual Biological Particles
Abstract:Small numbers of biological particles can be a serious threat as warfare agents and health hazards due to their ability to rapidly multiply. Therefore, accurate and rapid identification of low biohazard concentrations would be useful for early battlefield warning systems, cleanup and surveillance of production facilities, and frontline medical diagnoses. Current methods are not accurate due to reaction kinetics, sensitivity limits and false positives caused by environmental interferants. The facilities that come the closest to routine identification of very low numbers of biological particles in environmental samples are the clinical and forensic laboratories that apply a succession of sample processing steps. Building upon these successful but equipment and time-intensive methods, this proposal describes a compact, integrated system of advanced filtration, concentration, antibody assays and long wavelength fluorescence detection designed to achieve accurate and rapid single particle identification. In order to demonstrate commercial feasibility, the Phase I technical objectives are: a) filter and concentrate a narrow size range of particles, b) fluorescently detect a specific, rapid (10-15 minute) sandwich immunoassay in a small volume reaction cell, and c) design the necessary improvements for a fieldable instrument to be fabricated and tested within approximately 2 years. BENEFITS: The benefits from successful development would be the ability to identify biological substances at extremely low concentrations within approximately 15 minutes or less. commercial applications for this single particle identifier would include early stage medical diagnosis, food processing, and environmental monitoring for herbicides and pesticides. The instrumentation could also be applied to forensic identification of controlled biological agents, or industrial safety monitoring when hazardous or regulated biochemistry is being performed.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, N.E.
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4436
Thomas J. Schilling
ARMY 97-141
Title:Advanced Method for Manufacturing Erosion Resistant Gun Barrels
Abstract:The complexities of barrel erosion are manifested in thermal, mechanical, and chemical interactions. Gun tubes made from refractory metals have excellent barrel erosion resistance, but are costly to manufacture. A need exists for an economical technique to line gun barrels with erosion and wear resistant materials. TPL will demonstrate a three unit operation process for cladding liners into gun tubes using its customizable explosive, REPLEX. These three unit operations are :1) An explosive cladding of a refractory metal to a steel gun tube; 2) An explosive depth hardening operation; and 3) The application of a metal conditioner to improve the surface microstructure of the liner. TPL's approach to the program will consist of three stages: 1) Design of the processes and fabrication of the necessary hardware; 2) Conduct of the processes (cladding, hardening, and chemical treatment); and 3) Evaluation of the products. An economic analysis of the process is a dependent task based ont he results of the testing. TPL's team is composed of individuals with the requisite experience - shock physics, dynamic test experience, and metallurgical engineering. The company has the means to commercializae this process including manufacturing space, testing ranges, and experience taking products from R&D to full scale. BENEFITS: The anticipated benefit to the militasry will be a substantial reduction in the costs associated with gun tube manufacture and replacement. The commercial applications include manufacture of economical erosion resistant chemical process tubing and reactors.

AMORPHOUS TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL
27722 El Lazo
Laguna Niguel, CA 92677
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 643-1700
Dr. Michael Tenhover
ARMY 97-142
Title:Development of Highly Reinforced Amorphous Metal Matrix Composites
Abstract:Amorphous Matrix Composite samples will be developed and fabricated using Tungsten and Carbon wires as the reinforcements, and the bulk amorphous alloys known as LIQUIDMETALTM as the matrices. Emphasis will be placed on achieving high loading fractions of the reinforcing materials. A process to commercially manufacture will be studied and mapped, and feasibility of the process will be determined. Rods of the Amorphous Maxtrix Composite will then be fabricated using this process. Material characterization experiments to determine the properties will be carried out. Key parameters under investigation include alloy refinement, temperature control sensitivity and finished part porosity. BENEFITS: The results from this study will provide valuable process data for the future development of Amorphous Matrix Composite products, as well as specific product concept feasibility. The product application of Amorphous Metal Composites is well suited to many industries, including sporting goods, biomedical, and anywhere a unique combination of strength and corrosion resistance is needed.

BKM, INC.
5141 Santa Fe Street
San Diego, CA 92109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 270-6760
William P. Johnson
ARMY 97-143
Title:Diesel Engine Efficiency Improvement Through Closed Loop Air-Fuel Ratio Optimization
Abstract:The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of optimizing the performance of diesel engines through closed loop electronic control of air management hardware. Optimizing the air/fuel ratio of a turbocharged diesel engine at each speed and load operating point has been proven to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, particularly NOx and particulates. The innovative technology presented in this proposal provides a Technical Abstract system for high speed closed loop air/fuel ratio trimming. A compact, robust sensor based on fiber optic technology used in conjunction with high speed data processing and electronically controlled air management are the basis for this concept. The feasibility of this concept will be demonstrated an a commercial heavy duty diesel engine which will be provided by the contractor, BKM, Inc. BENEFITS: The proposed technology will lead to the optimization of both fuel efficiency and the reduction of pollutants in military as well as commercial automotive, marine and stationary engines. The system will allow engines to operate at peak efficiencies regardless of turbocharger matching compromises, conventional control tolerances and operating environment.

EMF INDUSTRIES, INC.
1700 Riverside Dr. (Rear)
S. Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 320-2748
Dr. Gareth J. Knowles
ARMY 97-144
Title:Multicellular Actuators
Abstract:The proposal introduces a new concept of electronically integrated multilaminar (induced strain) actuators that addresses many Army and commercial needs by driving at higher strain and force than currently achievable. In a reversal of recent trends, it will require much lower drive voltage levels and will exhibit low power consumption levels. It is attractive for existing military and commercial needs. As an enabling technology for many new applications previously unrealizable, it provides a multi/purpose, smaller, lighter integrated design with flexibility and increased performance capability. The proposed research will leverage recent advances by- TRS Ceramics Corporation in multilaminar active ceramic materials. processing and fabrication. EMF Industries' regenerative electronics developed for monolithic and multilayer electronic ceramics and recent advances by Penn State-IMRL in actuator geometrys and construction. The proposed technology introduces an integrated design concept that provides high strain-low- bandwidth and low strain-high bandwidth capabilities. This innovation represents a necessary- technology for improved control of fluid-structure interaction, acoustic loads and mechanical vibration. BENEFITS: Burleigh Instruments have expressed interest in commercializing the results of the proposed research for their markets in nanopositioning, adaptive optical systems, multi-stage translators fiber optic alignment, lithography and lenses. Boeing Helicopter Division has also expressed interest in this technology- for integration into their on-blade active independent blade control program.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2849 E. Elvira Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
Dr. Tapesh Yadav
ARMY 97-145
Title:Multi-sensor Arrays for Unexploded Landmines Detection
Abstract:At least 100 million land mines are now scattered across 64 countries and given the low-cost and ready deployability, mines are planted by the thousands every day. Over 15,000 civilians become victim to mine pollution every year and numerous soldiers become victims during wars and peace keeping missions. This program seeks to focus on demonstrating a multi-sensor technology that can reliably, rapidly, and safely detect unexploded mines in presence of natural and man made clutter. During Phase I, NRC will demonstrate the proof-of-concept Phase II will optimize, build prototypes, and field test the technology. Phase III will commercialize the technology. BENEFITS: The technology will help detect unexploded mines reliably and in presence of clutter. The technology is critically needed to save lives, to reclaim land previously mined during hostilities, and to detect concealed (luggage) explosives by terrorists. Spin off applications include airport security enhancement, environment protection, warfare agent detection, clinical diagnosis, biotechnology, and forensic science.

CORDEC CORP.
P.O. Box 188
Lorton, VA 22199
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 550-8044
Dr. Raymond Weimer
ARMY 97-146
Title:Rapid Consolidation of Near Net Shape Titanium Alloy Composites for Helicopter Turbines
Abstract:The extraordinary potential of high-temperature composite materials to meet the engineering design challenges presented by advanced turbine engines is well known. Implementation has been seriously impeded by high cost and fabrication difficulties. Recently, continuous microcomposite monofilaments were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods to provide an improved alternative to drum-wound foil/fiber or plasma-sprayed monotapes. Such metal matrix composite (MMC) precursors are highly uniform and reproducible. Moreover, the local fiber volume fraction is precisely that desired in the consolidated macrocomposite structure, making the precursor ideal for a precision fiber placement and consolidation scheme. In the proposed work, a unit consolidation process will be modeled and developed using laser energy to effect consolidation of continuous SiC/Ti PVD MMC precursor wires. Feasibility of the approach will be demonstrated in Phase I by fabricating representative cylindrical test specimens. Phase II will explore the dimensions of the processing window, relying on parametric studies to model the consolidation response surface and produce a high-quality full scale demonstration article. The Phase II focus will be on design and development of a commercially viable manufacturing process for components having complex geometry. BENEFITS: Next-generation commercial aircraft turbine engine components will benefit greatly from possible weight savings of more than 50%, compared to currently used superalloys. However truly staggering economies will come from power plants using large land turbines, for which 5% more efficiency can result from a 100°F increase in operating temperature.

THERMAL PRODUCTS, INC.
2257 South 1100 East, Suite 1B
Salt Lake City, UT 84106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 485-4994
Dr. Jared Sommer
ARMY 97-146
Title:High-Conductivity Composite Heat Sinks for High-Speed Helicopter Gears
Abstract:Helicopters are very vulnerable to small arms fire during low-flying operations. One major concern is the loss of the primary oil supply in the transmission due to battle damage. The absence of lubricant and subsequent overheating can cause the gears to fail prematurely. For high-speed highly-loaded gears, the heat generated by friction between the transmission gears cannot be effectively dissipated through the current gear material. New gear and heat transfer designs are required to allow high speed gears to operate for thirty minutes after loss of the primary oil supply with no supplemental emergency oil supply. Thermal Products, Inc. proposes to fabricate an aluminum composite heat sink, containing oriented, high-conductivity graphite fibers. The heat sink will be attached within the side of the gear. The high-conductivity graphite fibers will be oriented within an aluminum alloy matrix to transfer heat away from the surface contact regions of the gear toward the cooling fins of the heat sink. The aluminum composite will also exhibit a low thermal expansion to minimize thermal mismatch stresses between the gear and heat sink material. In Phase I, thermal and mechanical properties of the aluminum composite will be determined. A prototype heat sink will be fabricated. BENEFITS: The material will find use as a thermal plane or heat spreading material in high-power electronic applications because of the high conductivity and tailorable thermal expansion. The material may find application in helicopter oil reservoirs.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
114 Turnpike Road, Unit 1
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 250-4200
Joseph J. Stanco
ARMY 97-146
Title:Direct Fabrication of Titqnium Matrix Composite Components for Advanced Turboshaft Engine Technology
Abstract:The successful development and deployment of lightweight, high temperature. metal matrix and intermetallic matrix composites are critical to reaching the goals of the Joint Turbine Advanced Gas Generator (JTAGG) advanced development program. Current methods for processing these advanced materials into complex shape components and structures are expensive, requiring multiple processing steps and tooling specific to the desired shape. Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a solid freeform fabrication process that directly fabricates metal components from a computer generated solid model. Phase I will demonstrate the DLF process for producing titanium alloy continuous SiC fiber monotapes and titanium matrix composites (TMC) with improved control over matrix composition and microstructure. The Phase I effort is directed towards defining the optimum materials processing parameters necessary for direct fabrication of a TMC ring structure with properties comparable to conventionally processed materials with emphasis on control of matrix microstructure and matrix fiber interaction. The follow-on Phase II program will focus on fabricating full scale TMC ring structures for testing and evaluaflon on gas generator cores. BENEFITS: Technology will meet the need to rapidly develop and process high temperature, high specific strength metal matrix and intermetallic matrix composites into complex shape components and structures. Applications include: hollow fan blades, diskless rotors, spacers, shafts, structural rods, links and vanes in aircraft engines, turbopump blades and rocket nozzles used in advanced space propulsion and power systems as well as biomedical implants.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 726-4800
Matthew E. Thomas
ARMY 97-147
Title:Multi Pulse laser Ignition for Ultra Cold Turboshaft Engine Starting
Abstract:Recent CFDRC and Los Alamos National Lab CRADA research activity has demonstrated 100% JTAGG fuel injector ignition reliability at fuel tesperatures approaching -10 F using precisely controlled multiple pulse formatting of a single 150 mj laser discharge. This level of performance is achievable with minimal packaging complexity using diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers and demonstrated fiber optics/windows technologies. Conclusive Phase I demonstration will include: 1. Experimental quantification of laser ignition energy, pulse formatting, Q-switching specifications, beam quality, and focal point flexibility at ambient and cold soak (<-10 deg F) JTAGG fuel injection conditions. 2. CCD camera photography (250 nanosecond frame speeds) of numerous laser ignition events. 3. Analytical laser ignition characterization of cold fuel sprays using transient conputational Fluid Dynamics and specialized laser beam propagation theory. 4. Specification and layout of all system components (fuel injection, electronics, optics, windows, etc.) to demonstrate comparable complexity and cost with capacitive discharge technology in an AlliedSignal JTAGGs combustion system. 5. Assessment of laser apparatus in a diagnostics mode. Phase I is expected to generate revolutionary ignition insights as a result of comparison between numerical simulation and CCD camera photography. Phase II will focus on refining and packaging the technology in a flight worthy setting and full scale evaluation in an AlliedSignal combustion test rig. Phase III will include marketing and transferring the developed laser ignition and cold engine acceleration flame stabilization techniques to the entire U.S. gas turbine and reciprocating engine community. BENEFITS: The ability to deliver precisely controlled laser energy for ignition, stabilization and flame monitoring will generate numerous conmercial and military technological breakthroughs. These include robust ignition in cold military environments, instantaneous flame stabilization during abrupt aircraft maneuvers and dramatically enhanced lean premixed solid, liquid or gaseous combustion operation for ultra-low emissions. CFDRc's mature working relationstips with all U.S. gas turbine and many r

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 622-5509
Sara Rosenberg
ARMY 97-147
Title:High Temperature Airfoil Preforming for Small Turbine Engine Components
Abstract:As a part of the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) program, the Joint Turbine Advanced Gas Generator (JTAGG) program aims to revolutionize aircraft propulsion performance and operational capability by decreasing specific fuel consumption by 40%. and increase power-to-weight by 120%. In order to accomplish these goals, higher operating temperatures must be achieved through the incorporation of ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) into turbine components. Foster-Miller has previously proven the ability to braid net shape airfoils with ceramic fibers, for low pressure turbine components for jet aircraft engines. Foster-Miller proposes to further develop this technology by addressing the miniaturization issues which will be encountered to fabricate a turbine nozzle guide vane for the JTAGG engine, while optimizing the airfoil-to-platform strength for the integrally braided preforms. In cooperation with our Phase I partner, GE Aircraft Engines, Foster-Miller has developed a technology development plan for all related CMC turbine components. Successful development of this technology will result in low cost, high performance parts which can be incorporated into future generation engines. This technology will not only benefit the JTAGG engine program, but will also provide essential data and technology to feed into related engine programs for the Navy, Air Force, NASA, and Army. BENEFITS: Advancing and miniaturizing the technology to braid high temperature materials with complex geometry will be developed to meet the needs of the IHPTET program and GE Aircraft Engines, a leading manufacturer of the future generation engines. The nozzle guide vanes in gas turbine engines have been identified as the ideal first implementation location. The preforming technology will be applicable to all future turbine applications. These preforming technologies are critical to the incorporation of high temperature materials into complex, highly loaded geometries.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
5660 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 440-8008
Ella F. Spiegel
ARMY 97-148
Title:Advanced High Energy Lithium Polymer Electrolyte Battery
Abstract:This program is directed toward synthesis of two closely related classes of new lithium ion conducting polymer electrolytes which hold promise of achieving both higher ionic conductivity and improved elastomeric properties over current state-of-the-art polymer electrolytes. Approaches to be used for synthesis of these two materials will be based upon, (i) the modification of polycarbonate hosts by poly(dimethyl siloxane) and multifunctional silanes, and (ii) introducing cyclic carbonates into poly(dimethyl siloxane) matrix. Both of these related strategies exploit the idea that carbonate oxygens, within the single phase carbonate-siloxane polymer matrix, will facilitate extensive ionic dissociation of introduced lithium salts, and that furthermore elastomeric behavior of the matrix under ambient temperature conditions will lead to enhanced mobility of lithium ions. This would permit small inter-electrode distances to be achieved within portable secondary lithium batteries incorporating these new polymer electrolytes. Following verification of high lithium ion conductivity in these polymeric materials and their elastomeric phase under ambient or close to ambient temperature, they will be incorporated into lithium cells and their reversible electrochemical performance evaluated. BENEFITS: A new class of lithium ion conducting polymer electrolytes to emerge from this investigation, possessing both ionic conductivities 10(-3) S/cm and improved elastomeric properties compared to currently available technology, will find commercial application in high performance portable secondary lithium batteries. Performance of these devices is currently limited by inadequate combinations of ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability, that will be resolved in this program.

MAXPOWER, INC.
220 Stahl Road
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-4230
David L. Chua
ARMY 97-148
Title:Low-Temperature Capable Polymer Battery
Abstract:This proposal presents a baseline cell technology which utilizes the "Mesocarbon Microbead" as the Li-ion anode, a PVDF-based separator filled with treated amorphous fumed silica, and high-energy LiCoO2 as the cathode. The performance capability of this baseline cell was ambly demonstrated with respect to reproducibility, rate, 0°C performance, and cycle life at 100% depth. It is proposed that this baseline cell will be used to further advance the low temperature performance of the proposed polymer technology. The objective is to extend the performance at low temperature from O°C to -45°C. Four tasks are proposed to achieve and demonstrate the accomplishments: Task I - Electrolyte Improvement, A novel approach is proposed in which toluene is used as the major component of the liquid with smaller additions of other liquids such as EC, PC, or BL. Target objective is improved solution conducitivity; (2) Task 11 Anode Improvement. A novel approach to synthesize a composite anode material that has a graphite core and a carbon shell structure. This type of composite is considered to be more rate capable than the baseline MCMB carbon- and (3) Task III - Cathode Improvement. The novel use of active cathode material in a carbon-webbed matrix to increase the utilization of the active material is proposed for this task-, and, finally, Task IV - 300 mAh Cell Performance Demonstrations. BENEFITS: Significant improvement in low-temperature performance for all types of Li-ion rechargeable batteries inparticular, and rate improvement in general/all portable devices and equipments, and wireless communication devices.

T/J TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3850 Research Park Dr. Suite A, P.O. Box 2150
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 213-1637
Dr. Cong Pu
ARMY 97-148
Title:Novel Electrode Materials for Lithium Polymer Batteries
Abstract:We will demonstrate the use of new, high capacity cathode materials in lithium polymer batteries based on a new class of electrode materials. Charge storage capacities for these materials will exceed those of nickel, cobalt or manganese oxides. During the Phase I program T/J Technologies new cathode materials will be used in conjunction with polymer electrolytes developed by SAFT. Cells will be tested to determine the charge capacity, energy density, efficiency, cyclability and Li-ion diffusivity. Our performance target is 150 mAh/gr for more than 50 cycles. We will supplement these electrochemical measurements with structural and compositional analysis to verify that lithium can be reversibly inserted and de-inserted without extensive physical or chemical degradation. During Phase II we will produce additional electrode compounds that should offer even higher capacities. These materials will be optimized for use with the best available polymer electrolytes. Several generations of prototypes will be assembled including these materials for testing at third-party laboratories. Our performance goal for the Phase II effort is a capacity of 180 mAh/g. This research and development program will ultimately lead to a low-cost, high energy lithium polymer battery for use in military and commercial applications. BENEFITS: New cathode materials developed by T/J Technologies will increase the energy and power density of lithium polymer batteries. These materials are lower in cost than existing alternatives. The primary defense applications are in communications and aerospace electronics. The vast commercial opportunities includes applications in cellular electronics, laptop computers, and camcorders.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
6515 Main Street
Trumbull, CT 06611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Mark R. Cammarere
ARMY 97-149
Title:Data Fusion in Support of Spatial Reasoning
Abstract:Modern situational awareness is supported by a multiplicity of sensors. These provide target information over spatial scales from a few square meters to hundreds of square kilometers. When combined with geographic and other environmental information, the volume of data available to commanders is extensive. This produces challenges in the effective and efficient fusion of all relevant information for maximum utility. Computer architectures offer the throughput to handle large volumes of data. However, automated algorithms are typically ineffective at data fusion, due to their specific and rigid reasoning structures. Hence, the reliance on biologic systems (i.e. human analysts) that employ general and flexible reasoning. Unfortunately, biologic systems are easily overloaded unless data are heavily filtered, decreasing their utility. This program proposes combining general/flexible biologic reasoning with digital computer speed/throughput in automated algorithms. These algorithms fuse spatial target and environment information to perform specific functions, but are not scenario or target specific. Hierarchical systems of fuzzy and crisp rules are employed to perform the processing. Given the data representations and environmental information supported, commercial Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are employed as the framework for such spatial reasoning modules. Current and enhanced GIS functionality to support generic spatial reasoning will be examined. BENEFITS: This research will develop a military spatial reasoning capability which fuses target and environment information, but is not scenario or target specific. Examples include path planning, mobility assessments and unit specialization/generalization. Given the military feasibility of generic spatial reasoning, the concepts can then be applied to commercial uses such as disaster damage assessment, wildlife preservation and law enforcement.

ESSENTIAL RESEARCH, INC.
23811 Chagrin Blvd
Cleveland, OH 44122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 433-5586
Navid Fatemi
ARMY 97-150
Title:Tactical, Multifuel, Man-Portable Battery Charger
Abstract:Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) electrical generation is a technology well-suited to the development of highly efficient, compact, lightweight, and reliable sources of electricity. Tn TPV electrical generation, heat generated by combustion is converted to radiant energy by an emitting surface, then to electrical energy by a photovoltaic (PV) cell. The bandgap of the PV cell is tailored to convert the bulk of the infrared (IR) spectrum being emitted. Making the spectrum more monochromatic leads to higher electrical conversion efficiencies; therefore, filtering elements are placed between the emitter and cells to reflect out-of-band radiation back to the combustor for recycling. Theoretically, TPV electrical generation can exceed 35%. Importantly. TPV generators are totally static; with no moving parts they produce no noise or vibration and can be highly reliable. Essential Research, Inc., teaming with Teledyne Brown Engineering-Energy Systems, propose to develop a rugged TPV power supply to meet the operational requirements requested in the Army SBIR solicitation: person-portable, 200 W output power, and utilizing liquid, logistic fuels. Our technical approach is to develop a combustor that heats a graybody SiC emitter to moderate temperature (1500 K) . The IR radiation is tailored with a shortpass filter that reflects the near out-of-band radiation back to the combustor for recycling. The in-band radiation is converted to electricity with narrow-bandgap PV cells made from InGaAs deposited on InP. BENEFITS: We plan to prototype a 200 w, man-portable battery charger at the end of Phase II. The unit will be capable of generating electricity from burning tactical, liquid military fuels. The unit will have use in the military as a reliable, silent battery charger and remote power generator. Commercial applications include recreational boating and camping, and off-grid power generation.

JX CRYSTALS, INC.
1105 12th Avenue N.W., Suite A2
Issaquah, WA 98027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 392-5237
Dr. Lewis M. Fraas
ARMY 97-150
Title:Multifuel, Portable Thermophotovoltaic Battery Chargers
Abstract:Thermophotovoltaic generators work by directly converting heat energy in the form of infrared radiation into electricity using photovoltaic cells. With no moving parts in the conversion process, these direct current generators promise quiet and reliable operation. With their capacity to utilize logistic fuels, they have the potential to meet the military's emerging requirement for portable battery charging units in the field. JX Crystals has developed key components for thermophotovoltaic systems and has performed extensive public demonstrations of its prototypes. The key to the company's approach is the use of low cost infrared-sensitive photovoltaic cells and an emitter matched to these cells. Building on the company's development of propane fired systems for the commerical market, this proposal calls for delivery of a 20 Watt field-ready battery charger operating on propane or butane. In anticipation of phase II requirements, liquid fuel options will be investigated for both 20 Watt and 200 Watt battery chargers. Phase I will include demonstration of a liquid fuel burner for the 20 Watt system. Under a subcontract, the Tecogen division of Thermo Power will draw on its experience with liquid fuel fired thermoelectric generators to design a liquid fuel burner for a 200 Watt thermophotovoltaic system. BENEFITS: JX Crystals is pursuing commercial development of thermophotovoltaic generators for mountain cabins, boats and recreational vehicles, as well as military applications. All of these markets have segments with a strong preference for liquid fuels, which is addressed in this proposal.

MOLECULAR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
270 Littleton Rd., Suite 29
Westford, MA 01886
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 392-1304
Dr. Srinivasan Balasubram
ARMY 97-151
Title:Enzymatically Polymerized Conducting Polyaniline/Biodegradable Polymer Composite
Abstract:The development of obscurant materials has become increasingly important for the prevention of detection in the battlefield. An obscurant is a material that modifies the spectral signatures over a wide wavelength range and renders detection based on specific spectral signatures difficult. While the obscurant materials currently available have multi-spectral capability, there is a need to develop obscurants that are biodegradable and nonpersistent to overcome problems associated with environmental toxicity. The objective of this Phase I proposal is to develop biodegradable obscurant materials that possess the same or surpass the multi-spectral capabilities of the current materials. Further, the materials should be produced in an environmentally benign production process. Materials based on composites of doped polyaniline/polyanion complex and the biodegradable polymer chitosan will be developed. The doped polyanilines will be synthesized in an aqueous medium using enzymatic polymerization of aniline in the presence of a polydopant, namely, poly (vinylphosphonic acid), under close to neutral PH condition. The soluble polycomplex will be precipitated by the addition of polycationic biodegradable chitosan and processed into films and fibers. The multi-spectral capabilities of the composites will be determined. BENEFITS: The water soluble conducting polyaniline that will be synthesized can be used as a multi-spectral obscurant and will find application in the electronic battlefield by preventing detection by enemy sensors. A biodegradable polymer base makes the multi-spectral obscurant environmentally nontoxic and nonpersistent.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
401 Camp Craft Rd.
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 306-1100
Noe A. Salazar
ARMY 97-151
Title:Development of Biological Obscurants
Abstract:SPEC and Dr. James P. Chambers of the University of Texas at San Antonio propose to develop biological obscurants for battlefield applications based on the use of bacteriochlorophylls. In this Phase I program, SPEC and Dr. Chambers will conduct spectroscopic investigations of bacteria containing bacteriochlorophyll b with tetrapyrrole pigments to demonstrate the feasibility of using chlorophyll compounds as obscurants. Also in the Phase I, we will investigate the use of combinatorial techniques to alter the protein microenvironment near the tetrapyrrole ring and thus tune the absorption spectra to provide multi-spectral capabilities. The rational for use of chlorophyll compounds as an obscurant is based on the broad range of spectral absorption possible using chlorophyll derivatives. Observed absorption peaks coincide well with specific areas of military interest including: (1) the visible range; (2) night vision ranges including 700 to 800 for older systems and 900 for 3rd generation image tube technology; and (3) the 1064 nm range for most smart bomb and missile laser guidance systems. Based on these absorption spectra, bacteriochlorophyll compounds are excellent candidate compounds to investigate as replacements for obscurants currently in use which have a number of shortcomings including: limited spectral ranges, cleanup requirements, and toxic effects. BENEFITS: Biological obscurants could provide multi-spectral capabilities, environmental-friendly biodegradation, and non-pathogenic constituents and by-products. Other advantages could come in the manufacturing process by providing low-cost, rapid production and simplified storage and transport. It is conceivable that production of large quantities of obscurant could take place in forward locations from only small quantities biologically active cells.

TAPS, INC.
1015 Old Elkton Pike
Fayeheville, TN 37334
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 732-4155
Dale H. Divis
ARMY 97-151
Title:Biologically-Generated Multi-spectral Obscurants
Abstract:This proposal evaluates the feasibility of using biodegradable, non-toxic, non-persistent obscurants based upon biological materials. It further evaluates the feasibility of using biomanufacturing processes to produce such obscurants. BENEFITS: The anticipated/potential commercial application of this research is development and production of highly electromagnetic absorbing commercial materials that are non-toxic.

TERA BIOTECHNOLOGY CORP.
3099 Science Park Rd, Suite 100
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 450-5945
Bob Shopes
ARMY 97-151
Title:Production of an Optimal biological Obscurant
Abstract:A multi-spectral obscurant that is non-toxic and biodegradable will lower risks to personnel and to the environment. We propose to produce an effective and safe obscurant by combining the fermentation products of several strains of photosynthetic bacteria. By mixing pigments and whole bacteria from several strains we will create an obscurant with significant adsorption of ultraviolet, visible and infrared electromagnetic radiation. In Phase I studies we will devise an optimal multi-spectral obscurant by computer simulation. We will prepare a preproduction batch of our optimal biological obscurant and test the spectral and dispersion characteristics of the material. BENEFITS: Current obscurants used in the battlefield and in training are toxic to personnel on the ground and damage surrounding flora and fauna. To lower the risk to personnel and the environment, and to generate considerable cost savings, a multi-spectral obscurant that is non-toxic and biodegradable is highly desirable.

NAVIX, INC.
542 Flynn Rd
Camarillo, CA 93012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 987-7891
Dr. Miklos Sahin-Toth
ARMY 97-152
Title:Development of Sucrose-Fermenting Escherichia Coli K-12 Strains for Low-Cost Overproduction of Recombinant Proteins
Abstract:Escherichia coli (E. coli) K-12 strains are widely used for overproduction of a variety of recombinant proteins. These strains are incapable of utilizing sucrose as carbon source, therefore, the use of inexpensive raw materials, e.g. molasses, in the fermentation process is not possible. Our goal is to develop a generally applicable model system of E. coli K-12 strains, which expresses recombinant proteins to high levels and is able to grow in media containing sucrose as the main carbon source. The use of sucrose-fermenting E. coli K-12 could substantially reduce the cost of recombinant protein production. In Phase I of the project we will construct and characterize a number of sucrose-fermenting strains, and test production of a model recombinant protein, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Finally, we will integrate our findings in a genetic-metabolic model, with primary emphasis on defining the optimal genetic arrangement for high-level target protein production. BENEFITS: The primary products resulting from this project will include proprietary genetically engineered E. coli K-12 strains capable of sucrose fermentation and sucrose-rich culture media formulations optimized for these strains. The proposed technology is qenerally applicable for the production_of a variety of recombinant proteins.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
401 Camp Craft Rd.
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 306-1100
Dr. William H. Hallidy
ARMY 97-152
Title:Biorector Model for Optimization of Recombinant Protein Products
Abstract:Advances made in recent years in recombinant DNA technology and high-level expression of foreign proteins in genetically engineered cells have also brought new problems to solve Bioreactor operators have discovered that large-scale cultivations of plasmid-containing bacteria do not behave exactly as those of plasmid-free cells; plasmid stability isa major hurdle; and the protein product might not be in soluble form. These and other problems represent new challenges for bioreactor modeling. Models to optimize bioprocess variables, including both genetic and bioreactor parameters have not been developed, resulting in non-optimum yield of recombinant products. To provide a cost-effective tool for control, Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation proposes to develop a bioreactor model for optimization of recombinant protein products. SPEC will work with the program sponsor to develop a model specifically for PEF processes. In Phase I SPEC will assess protein turnover rates for model protein expression systems and develop a detailed metabolic model to include factors for metabolic stress and cellular and bioreactor parameters. SPEC has extensive experience in modeling, simulation, and algorithm development. SPEC will work in collaboration with Professor Carl A. Batt of Cornell University who has broad experience with bioreactors, recombinant proteins, and high-level protein expression systems. BENEFITS: Successful development of a model for optimization of bioreactor performance can significantly aid in research and development of new genetic and bioreactor parameters. Optimization of expression systems in bioreactor processes will lead to lower cost and improved quality in the production of antibodies and other protein products. Providing products of equal or better quality at lower costs will have a significant commercial impact.

INSTITUTE FOR LASER TECHNOLOGY (ILT)
P.O. Box 2070
Rolling Hills, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 377-5342
Milton Birnbaum
ARMY 97-153
Title:Manportable Chemical and Biological Sensor
Abstract:Center for Laser Studies (USC-CLS), as subcontractors, propose to develop a ruggedized, solid-state laser-based, Manportable Chemical and Biological Sensor (MCBS) for the purpose of detecting biological and chemical warfare agents in the field. The MCBS will be capable of operating at a 50 Hz pulse repetition rate, will occupy less than 0.5 cubic foot in volume, and will have a weight of less than 20 pounds. The MCBS will be capable of simultaneous operation in the eyesafe (1.5-1.6 micron) band, and in the 8-12 micron band, and will have the capability of rapidly switching wavelengths within these bands at a 50 Hz, or greater, rate. The MCBS will providetopographical CL measurements out to several kilometer ranges, and will have a range capability of at least 8 kilometers for aerosol clouds. The main goal of the Phase I effort will be to demonstrate the feasibility of our transmitter design, thus providing the basis for Phase II system development. BENEFITS: The wavelength agility techniques developed here are broadly applicable to both military and commercial markets. Potential commercial markets include the remote detection and monitoring of chemical pollutants. This includes the detection of hazardous industrial waste chemicals.

AEGIS RESEARCH CORP.
6703 Odyssey Drive, Suite 200
Hunsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 922-0802
Dr. Jeff Cites
ARMY 97-154
Title:Polarization Coupling Analyzer for Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyroscope (IFOG) Coils
Abstract:The ability to characterize optical fiber coils with long lengths of fiber (at least one kilometer) is crucial for the characterization and testing of interferometric fiber optic gyroscope systems. An important characteristic of the fiber sensing coil which directly impacts system performance parameters such as bias stability is the amplitude and spatial location of spurious polarization cross-couplings. The optical coherence domain polarimeter, an instrument based on white light interferometry, has the ability to quantify distributed polarization coupling in fiber coils, as well as polarization extinction ratio of integrated optical chips and beat length of coherent signals. This instrument is recognized as a key piece of test apparatus in evaluating IFOG components prior to assembIy to screen out sub-standard components, resulting in decreased "per unit" costs in IFOG Systems. It is the goal of this proposed research, therefore, to perform a systematic performance analysis on a Photonencs WIN-P-400 optical coherence domain polarimeter, determine the performance limiting optical, electronic, and/or software subsystems for each critical performance specification, and prescribe hardware modifications to improve them. These modifications will be implemented in Phase II as part of a cooperative effort with Photonetics, Inc., with the resulting high performance OCDP marketed to international IFOG manufacturers. BENEFITS: The commercial and military markets for IFOG Systems are emerging. IFOG technology is currently being implemented as part of the navigation/mapping devices inastalled in luxury Japanese automobiles and has been implemented into an Air Force missile system. Other commercial uses, such as intrusion sensors, rate sensors, and platform stabilizers have appeared in the past several years. Since there exist numerous applications for IFOGs, especially in navigation and alignment systems, many such systems would benefit from the technology developed under this topic.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
180 North Vinedo Ave.
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 792-3000
Dr. Thomas Bartolac
ARMY 97-155
Title:Passive Detection of Low-Contrast Moving Point Targets
Abstract:Sensor advances toward large format, high resolution focal planes with fast frame times are limited by read-out bandwidth and processor throughput. Biological vision systems overcome this difficulty by only operating on information relating to the target. Tanner Research has developed a near-focal-plane architecture that mimics this behavior, the Wave Process. It acts as a motion filter, operating on focal plane output in real-time. The Wave Process has already demonstrated an exceptional ability to detect low-contrast moving point targets, but in its present form, it is intended for use on stationary sensing platforms. Tanner Research proposes to extend the Wave Process to detect moving point targets that are observed from a sensing platform that is moving, while still rejecting all focal plane data not near the target. This approach to smart vision chips will significantly reduce the focal plane data rate and subsequent computational load on the down-stream processing. The Wave Process uses revolutionary processing concepts that can be efficiently implemented in analog VLSI for a compact, high performance, low power signal processing component allowing near-focal-plane integration. In Phase I we will design an extension to the Wave Process architecture and demonstrate it detecting moving point targets from a moving platform. BENEFITS: We anticipate the results of this Phase I effort will be to allow the Wave Process low-contrast detection capabilities be applied to moving sensor platforms. These advances will extend to commercial applications including night vision goggles and search & rescue binoculars.

US NANOCORP, INC.
20 Washington Ave. Ste 106
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 234-8024
David E. Reisner
ARMY 97-156
Title:Thin Film Thermal Battery Electrode Production by HVOF Thermal Spray of Nanostructured FeS(2) Feed
Abstract:Li-Alloy/FeS2 thermal batteries are the predominant thermal cell chemistry today, and have been deployed in MICOM missiles (replacing Ag-Zn). Despite progress, the use of pressed powders for thermal batteries has several intrinsic limitations. A more efficient means of providing thinner catholyte electrodes would drastically increase the volumetric and gravimetric efficiency of thermal batteries. The objective of this proposal is to develop a process for the deposition of a thin coherent and adherent film of FeS(2) on a metal (e.g., Fe or SS) sub strate. The proposed research is intended to demonstrate the feasibility of exploiting the unique properties of an exciting new class of "nanostructured" materials (i.e. atomic-scale particles on the order of several nanometers, where 1 nm = 10 angstroms) as the active ingredients for high performance thin cell thermal batteries. The principals of US Nanocorp, Inc. have developed techniques for the synthesis and processing of nanostructured materials and their use as feedstocks for thermal spray. The proposed program will examine the feasibility of fabricating thin cell electrodes for thermal batteries by the process of thermal spray of nanostructured FeS(2). HVOF thermal spray avoids the elevated temperatures of DC arc plasma techniques that would melt the feedstock. Sandia National Labs has agreed to participate in the program. BENEFITS: It is estimiated that the Military uses more than 3800 different types of batteries with an annual procurement cost exceeding $300 million. This innovative approach for the production of thin film electrodes can be applied to many other battery systems, including nickel alkaline and rechargeable lithium batteries. It can also be applied to fuel cells, e.g., in the deposition of thin films of YSZ in SOFCs.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. Alan Bray
ARMY 97-157
Title:Multi-Stress Chamber for Accelerated Life Testing of Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits
Abstract:(1) Development and fabrication of a PEM/EEC with temperature cycling, relative humidity (RH), solar exposures, and PEM electrical stimulus and output monitoring (2) A series of experiments to develop delivery and monitoring mechanisms for dust, contaminants, and other specified stresses. The results of the second path will be integrated in Phase II into the chamber developed in path (1). Each path is supported by design and materials selection efforts, and a marketing survey proposed to define the PEM/EEC market and begin the process of forming alliances for marketing, distribution, and sales of PEM/EEC products in Phase III. A notional design package integrating all exposures for Phase II fabrication, and Phase I PEM/EEC drawings are included as deliverables. A model of the exposures is proposed to provide guidance in setting intensity levels and for investigating the effects of exposure interaction. The model will be a modification of an earlier TRI/Austin software product on accelerated test design, as will the design for chamber RH exposure and control making TRI/Austin a unique opportunity to develop PEM/EEC technology. BENEFITS: The ability to test electronics within a chamber that will be capable of multiple stress environments will benefit anyone that is concerned about the synergistic effect that combined aging environments can have. To ignore these simultaneously applied environments is a risk that can be overcome by the use of this next generation environmental chamber.

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT ASSOC., INC.
992 Old Eagle School Road, Suite 910
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 687-9669
Richard Foedinger
ARMY 97-158
Title:Rapid Low-Cost Manufacturing Techniques for Filament Wound Composite Structures
Abstract:Filament wound composite structures are being increasingly used in tactical rocket motorcase applications to reduce weight and enhance system performance. Conventional fabrication methods for composite motorcase structures are time-consuming and often require expensive tooling. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) proposal addresses the development and evaluation of rapid, low-cost manufacturing and processing techniques for filament wound composite motorcase structures. Specific areas to be investigated as part of the proposed Phase I feasibility demonstration include: (1) preimpregnated tow materials, (2) rapid electron beam curing processes, (3) low cost tooling designs and (4) back-to-back winding of full diameter opening motorcase structures. Each of these areas will be evaluated and compared through material/process trade studies and manufacturing feasibility investigations in order to select the most promising and technically feasible materials and process conditions for further development and demonstration as part of a follow-on Phase II program. Representative filament wound pressure vessels will be fabricated and hydrostatically pressure tested to compare the perforrnance of structures fabricated using the selected materials and processing techniques. BENEFITS: The primary application of the proposed research is filament wound rocket motorcases and launch tubes. Other applications for the proposed research include filament wound composite structures for the automotive, ship, aircraft, spacecraft and sporting goods industries.

VERTIGO, INC.
P.O. Box 117
Lake Elsinore, CA 92531
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 674-0604
Glen J. Brown
ARMY 97-159
Title:Airbeam Reinforced Parafoil
Abstract:Military and civilian users need deployable wings with high glide ratios. Applications include high offset airdrop, covert personnel insertion and sport flying. Ram air wings (parafoils) have relatively low glide ratios, generally less than 4:1. Paragliders have better glide performance at very low speeds, but are not suitable for deployment from free fall. Parafoil performance is limited principally by (1) high parasitic drag from suspension lines, (2) high profile drag from leading edge inlets, and (3) high induced drag due to low aspect ratio. All three of these drag sources can be reduced by the introduction of internal structure to the wing. Technology now exists for high strength, light weight, packable/deployable structures that are compatible with this requirement. High pressure, seamless airbeams have been developed for transportable shelters. These are manufactured by a braiding process that allows curved shapes to be made conveniently. This research has the objective of demonstrating the feasibility of using airbeam technology to dramatically improve the glide performance of ram air wings. Airbeam spars will be added to an existing parafoil and tested for improved L/D. BENEFITS: A high glide wing that is deployable form free fall and has a glide ratio of 8:1 or better is useful for a variety of military applications, principally associated with delivery of personnel or equipment. There is also a known, demonstrated market for easily portable, foot launched gliders for sport flying. The proposed wing has a unique combination of performance and convenience that will appeal to this market.

FEDERAL FABRICS-FIBERS
51 Middlesex Sex Street
N. Chelmsford, MA 01863
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 470-1859
Zvi Horovitz
ARMY 97-160
Title:Novel Parfoil Construction using 3D Weaving Techniques
Abstract:Ram air paragliders offer the advantage of relatively safe and quiet insertion of cargo that can be remotely guided to within 100 meters of the target point. Fabrication of cargo ram air parafoils however involves cumbersome cut-and-sew processes which is labor intensive leading to high cost. Weaving the ram air parafoil fabric in Net Shape Three Dimensions (NS3D) will eliminate the labor intensive cut-and-sew method. Two methods will be investigated and the best method will be used for the deliverable. Current parafoils are made of non-porous materials with ribs cut and sewn into the top and bottom of the canopy forming cells, into which the air flows. Moving through the air, filling each cell in the parafoil creates lift. This mechanism forms an aerodynamic wing-like structure. The cut and sewing process can be replaced however by other structural designs which can be manufactured cheaper and can carry heavier loads. One such design is a series of arched and tapered tubes sandwiched on the top and bottom with flat woven material. The real challenge in the airfoil project is creating an arched and tapered tube that contains no seams. Arched tubes are fairly routine in practice using NS3D weaving. However, weaving of the tapered tube requires more research for perfecting the technique (Fig. 1). FFF has the necessary technology and skill in order to successfully complete the task. BENEFITS: In addition to military and sport paragliders, this structure can be rigidized. The rigid parafoil form can be used to construct wings for military and sport gliders as well as motorized aircraft that are either heavier or lighter then air. For the same reasons that such structure can be used in an efficient aircraft, it can be used for watercraft structures as well. This can be accomplished by fitting the hydro surface with structural beams-ribs.

DIAMOND VISIONICS, LLC
400 Plaza Dr, Suite D, P.O. Box 1276
Vestal, NY 13851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 729-8593
David L. Peters
ARMY 97-161
Title:Wireless & Cableless Binocular Simulator Subsystem for CCTT
Abstract:The US Army's stated need is to develop a Binocular Simulator for the CCTT. The CCTT is the first in a family of interoperable simulators for training a combined arms force in a real-time synthetic environment. The focus of the CCTT is sustainment training for collective tasks and skills in command, control, communication, and maneuver. Diamond Visionics Company (DVC) proposes a feasibility study and implementation of a video Transmission/Reception system interfacing to a Micro-Display. This system will be capable of being formed into a hand-held system, which is Wireless & Cableless. Phase One will be the Feasibility and Demonstration Phase. In Phase I DVC will design, construct, and demonstrate a monocular non-hand-held technology demonstration system using State-of-the-Art technology. Phase II will be the development of the Prototype Binocular system, centered on the packaging and the power aspects for hand-held and wireless operation. Phase II will result in one deliverable system to be tested on site and approved for manufacture. BENEFITS: The resulting product will be a wireless, compact, and efficient means of Transmitting, Receiving and displaying wide bandwidth video. The application to wireless Helmet Mounted Displays (HMD's) for military training and the gaming market is obvious, and such means of wireless high resolution display has been long awaited in both the military and the commercial markets

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Scott Hamilton
ARMY 97-162
Title:Development of a Suite of HLA Transition Products
Abstract:ELA has been designated as the standard technical architecture for all DoD simulations. All DoD simulation systems must be HLA compliant by 1998 or program. funding will be cut, and no systems will be allowed to play after 1999 if they are not HLA compliant. It is imperative that the Army's legacy systems be upgraded to HLA compliance in as rapid and cost-effective way as possible. MAK developed VR-Link, the world's most widely used DIS interface product, from an SBIR very similar to this one, awarded six years ago. In that time VR-Link has enabled over 400 organizations worldwide to become DIS compliant, more than all other DIS development efforts combined and about 70% of the worldwide market. MAK has also invested considerable resources into VR-Link 3.0, the HLA version of VR-Link, which is about to be offered for commercial sale. With this unparalleled track record, and immense head-start, MAK proposes the development of a suite of transition products for legacy Army systems, including a protocol converter hardware/software product based on VR-Link 3.0, VR-Link 3.0 itself, and a detailed "How to Transition Your Legacy System to HLA" manual. This suite of transition products would enable the transition of almost all of the Army's legacy simulations that they would reasonably care to upgrade to HLA compliance. Early in Phase II, the products would be commercialized and sold on MAK's product list, leaving the remainder of the Phase II budget for performing several upgrades, and possibly developing a high-performance RTI for select Army programs which might require it (i.e. - JSIMS). BENEFITS: For Phase I, MAK will produce a prototype DIS to HLA translator which will be productized and commercially sold in Phase II. The draft "How to Transition Your Legacy System to HLA" manual will be reviewed and completed in Phase II, and distributed freely to the DoD. This firm foundation will permit several transitions to be accomplished in Phase II, as well as providing a vital set of commercial products which the Army can use to transition all of its candidate DIS systems to HLA.

FIDELITY TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
2501 Kutztown Road
Reading, PA 19605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 929-3330
Max Alaniz
ARMY 97-163
Title:Non-System Training Devices and Training Instrumentation Systems/Technology, Part a."process to produce realistic terrain scenes for PC based systems"
Abstract:FIDELITY proposes to investigate the requirements for developing processes to facilitate faster and more cast-effective terrain scene generation which targets PC-based simulation systems employing photo-realistic visuals and high-resolution range-elevation databases. The research targets the most costly and time-consuming areas in existing terrain scene generation processes: data collection, occultation, and target generation. The investigators will establish requirements and designs for the following systems: (1) AutoPhotonanger. This hardware and software system comprises a digital camera, range finder, motorized platform, PC, and software. The instrument performs automated data collection, acquiring, with minimal human intervention, the visual and range-elevation information needed to construct a photo-realistic high-resolution terrain scene and automatically maintaining a correlation database relating the collected visual and range-elevation data sets. (2) AutoOccultor. Using the AutoPhotoRanger data as input, this software system automatically identifies and processes occulting objects, yielding a database containing occulting object information. (3) AutoTargetGenerator. Using as input AutoPhotoRanger data combined with user inputs including target type, waypoints, velocity, and other target information, this software system automatically generates visual target animation sequences for use by the runtime target simulation system. BENEFITS: Automation of these processes will reduce terrain scene generation time and costs. Potential commercial applications of the Research and Development include manufacturing inspection training, forest fire observation training, surveying applications, natural disaster damage assessment applications, entertainment applications.

RBD GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS LLC
95 Main Street, Suite 3
Reading, MA 01867
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 655-0440
Paul T. Barham
ARMY 97-164
Title:Force XXI- soldier Virtual Simulator
Abstract:RBD Government Systems LLC (RBD) proposed to develop a mular, man-in-the-loop, virtual simulation system for the Force XXI soldier. The system will be designed to simulate and stimulate such Force XXI soldier systems as the Land Warrior system, the Objective Individual Combatant Weapon (OICW) and Combat Identification (CID). The purpose of the system is to provide modeling and simulation technology to facilitate advanced prototyping, analysis of alternatives, mission rehearsal and training. The multi-sensory, simulation system will be PC-based and will be compliant with the High Level Architecture (HLA). Part of the Phase I effort will be to conduct a feasibility analysis to examine which Force XXI soldier systems gain rmximim benefit from simulation technology. Based on this analysis combined with a review of current and past approaches, RBD will design and develop the architecture for the Force XXI Soldier Virtual Simulator. To demonstrate the feasibility of building an actual simulation system based on this architecture, RBD will prototype a module frm the architecture to simulate and stimulate a Land Warrior system. The architecture developed in Phase I will provide the framework and will facilitate the construction of an actual simulation system in Phase II. BENEFITS: The proposed simulation system will: support law enforcement for hostage rescue, anti-terrorist and crime-fighting activities; be used in entertainment as a networked, individual and team gain such as "virtual paintball"; directly support the Army OSCR Program by reducing the dependency on expensive military maneuvers and live-fire range munitions.

CAMBER CORP.
635 Discovery Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 866-5404
Edward J. Wright
ARMY 97-165
Title:Scene Generation Quality Assessment
Abstract:Production of 3D terrain databases for visualization requires resolving tradeoffs between a complex set of constraints: time, resources, accuracy, resolution, hardware, limitations, etc. The relationship between these parameters and the quality of the final database for most applications is not well understood. There are few tools to measure quality and there is little understanding of the impacts of data uncertainty on end applications, so there is little incentive to expend additional resources to achieve an unappreciated and unmeasurable return. Our main objectives are to formulate a comprehensive approach for tracking fundamental quality attributes through the database production and scene generation processes, and to develop methods to evaluate database quality for various applications, especially for scene generation. The research will involve: defining fundamental quality attributes for terrain database generation and visualization; documenting the processes of database production and scene generation, with emphasis on establishing and tracking quality attributes and identifying processes that modify quality attributes; developing quality evaluation methods for scene generation and other simulation applications, establishing critical levels of quality for these applications; and developing a methodology to portray the resulting scene quality to an end-user. Our proposal is a collaboration of three companies, each with unique technical specialties to address key aspects of the problem. BENEFITS: The potential benefits of this work are wide spread. For DOD applications, the main advantage will be for mission rehearsal, training and battlefield visualization, where understanding the differences between virtual and real worlds is of great importance. Commercial applications such as land-use and urban planning will also benefit from this approach. Coryphaeus Software will provide the vehicle for commercialization of the proposed research, with extensions to their existing COTS software for visual simulation.

---------- NAVY ----------

93 Phase I Selections from the 97.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
AMERICAN XTAL TECHNOLOGY
4311 Solar Way
Fremont, CA 94538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 683-5900
Heikki Helava
NAVY 97-100
Title:Pressure Dependence of AlN Growth Rate
Abstract: Slack developed a thermodynamic model to predict how AlN crystal growth would vary with system pressure. He concluded growthrate increases proportionally to the square root of the nitrogen partial pressure. Thus he predict that increasing the pressure by a factor of 100 would increase the growthrate by a factor of 10. However, to date, the effect of the pressure on the growthrate has not been experimentally determined. A counter argument can be made that the growthrate should increase by reducing the pressure. Slack based his arguments on the supposition that the process is in equilibrium, but more realistically, the growthrate is limited by either the kinetics of sublimation (at the AlN powder source) or condensation (at the seed crystal) and mass transport between the source and seed. If the condensation rate is rapid and nearly irreversible, the AlN growthrate will be limited by the sublimation process. The sublimation process is analogous to evaporation, for which it has been established that the evaporation rate is directly proportional to the pressure above the melt. Thus, the evaporation rate is enhanced with a reduction in the system pressure. Furthermore, mass transfer rates are increased as the pressure is reduced since gas phase diffusion coefficients are directly proportional to the pressure. High pressures may in fact be detrimental to crystal growth, as gas-phase convection increases with pressure, and convection can lead to nonuniform growthrates of the crystal. In the analogous SiC bulk crystal growth technique, the crystal growthrate does indeed increase as the system pressure is reduced. Because the sublimation - recondensation crystal processes are similar for both AlN and SiC, it is reasonable to assume that AlN crystal growthrate also increases with a decrease in pressure.

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
25 Cord Dr.
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-4015
Glen A. Slack
NAVY 97-100
Title:Development of Commercially Viable Growth Rates for Bulk
Abstract: We propose to develop AlN substrates for III-nitride epitaxy which will be superior to all substrates currently available commercially. In particular, the AlN substrates have significantly superior chemical compatibility, lattice/crystal structure match, thermal expansion match, and thermal conductivity when compared to sapphire substrates that are currently being extensively used for epitaxial growth. Production of bulk crystals of AlN will be easier than production of GaN or InN crystals due to the higher crystal growth rates possible for comparable nitrogen pressures. In addition, the higher thermal conductivity, larger band-gap energy and higher thermal stability of AlN will be attractive for many nitride applications. Our approach to bulk AlN crystal growth will be based on the sublimation- recondensation technique first developed for this material by Slack and McNelly. However, a significant reduction in the cost of individual substrates could be achieved if the growth rate is increased from the 0.3 mm/hr demonstrated in Slack's prior work. Here we propose to develop techniques to increase the growth rate to over 1 mm/hr based on our prior studies of the growth kinetics. In addition, we will demonstrate an appropriate substrate polishing technique during Phase I of this proposal using our existing AlN substrates.

CONDUCTUS, INC.
965 W. Maude Ave
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 523-9496
Gregory A. Lehmann
NAVY 97-101
Title:Development of an HTS Transmit Filter Package System thatProvides Uniform Cooling
Abstract:Conductus proposes to develop an HTS transmit filter package system that provides uniform cooling to the HTS elements of the filter. An isothermal or as near as possible temperature distribution in the filter elements is highly desirable for optimum filter performance. Both filter design and package system design ultimately impact filter performance; this program emphasizes the contributions of package design. The main goal of the proposed effort is to design an HTS transmit filter package that is mechanically stable and provides an isothermal environment or as close to as needed to realize good HTS transmit filter performance. Key items that will be addressed are resonator design, package system thermal performance, and package system structural details such as tuning stability, wafer bonding, and cryocooler interface.

CREARE, INC.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Michael G. Izenson
NAVY 97-101
Title:Cryogenic Cooling for Vertically Arrayed HTS Devices
Abstract: The objective of this project is to develop practical, cryogenic packaging technology for HTS devices that are packaged in rigidly bonded, vertical arrays. The approach is to develop uniform-temperature cooling planes that can be integrated directly with an array of HTS substrates. In Phase I we will demonstrate the feasibility of the integral cooling planes by (1) specifying the thermal and interface requirements for the cooling planes, (2) selecting a cryogenic cooling system that can provide the needed cooling, and (3) demonstrating the fabrication and cryogenic operation of the integral cooling plane using standard microwave substrates for YBCO circuits.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1, Building 12
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-0610
Dr. Alan R. Sugg
NAVY 97-102
Title:"Type II Interband Quantum Cascade Mid-Infrared Laser"
Abstract: Sensors Unlimited will grow, fabricate and test a Type II AlGaAsSb/InAs/InGaSb interband quantum cascade laser (QCL) designed to operate at a wavelength of 3.3 ¦m. The goal of this program is the delivery of the relevant basic material and structural characterization necessary for the design of a type II interband quantum cascade laser along with a QCL operating at a temperature of at least 273 K. The motivation for a 3.3 ¦m wavelength is the commercial potential of mid-infrared laser diodes for CH4 gas-sensing applications. In order to achieve this goal, Sensors Unlimited will use the services of Sarnoff Corporation to grow and fabricate low-loss broadened waveguide laser structures in the antimonide system. In addition to the electrical injection laser structure, we will separately fabricate and test the optical gain and superlattice electrical injection regions of the quantum cascade active region in order to evaluate the basic material properties, such as absorption, thermal conductivity, and the electrical and optical performance of the respective regions. Data from these measurements will prove invaluable for further designs to be fabricated and tested in Phase II of the program. For this program, Sensors Unlimited and Sarnoff Corporation will leverage the experience gained by successful commercialization of 2.6 ¦m antimonide-based Type I quantum well lasers.

MILLIMETER WAVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1920 West Oak Circle, Suite 200
Marietta, Ga 30062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 425-9382
Dr. Dennis Kozakoff
NAVY 97-103
Title:Advanced Antenna Concepts
Abstract: Navy Applications of compact antennas span nearly all frequency bands, from ELF to SHF. In the short wavelength bands, electronically-steered array applications would benefit from small element-to-element spacing because in such geometries The effort begins with fundamental approaches to achieving wideband performance, with an emphasis on microstrip antenna elements. Surface mode microstrip (SMM) is shown viable. Next, antenna radar cross section (RCS) is investigated from the viewpoint of both structural and antenna mode scatter. Methods of reducing both of these components are addressed. In particular, structural mode scatter may be reduced with a structural RAM plastic, while antenna mode scatter requires special matching conditions.

PATRIOT SCIENTIFIC CORP.
10989 Via Frontera
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 674-5000
Elwood G. Norris
NAVY 97-103
Title:Ionized Plasma Antenna Development Concept
Abstract:By utilizing ionized conductors as antenna elements (ICA) you can construct an antenna that can be dynamically reconfigured for frequency, directionality, bandwidth, gain and beamwidth. Further, the antenna could be deionized when not in use, which will substantially reduce its radar cross-section and thus it's detectability (stealth). When used as an impulse transmitter, extremely short pulses are possible by deionizing the antenna to prevent ringing associated with traditional antenna configurations, thus combining the benefits of low probability of intercept (outgoing signal) with low probability of detection (stealth). Further, the extremely short impulse(because ringing was prevented) will allow substantially improved wavelet decomposition of the return with less computational overhead. The improved decomposition yields greater accuracy in the target detection and classification algorithms.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Geoff A. Wilson
NAVY 97-104
Title:4D Atmospheric Data Retrieval with an Airborne Solid-State LIdar
Abstract: The proposed Phase I/II program develops a flexible, modular 3D scanner for integration aboard small research aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), with a variety of solid-state coherent lidar sensors. The Phase I effort explores both mechanical and non-mechanical scanner architectures in an effort to benefit both research aircraft and UAV, as well as commercial airliner lidar platforms in the lidar marketplace. The most promising scanner technique will be chosen for Phase II development. The scanner built under Phase II will be modular and versatile, in that it will be a bolt-on unit compatible with several available and emerging transceiver designs, for a variety of airborne experiments. The Phase I further extends the capabilities of coherent lidar wind-sensing technology by developing preliminary design extensions to existing lidar transceivers to incorporate dual polarization reception for aerosol characterization, as well as water vapor and temperature profiling.

METRATEK, INC.
12330 Pinecrest Rd.
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 620-9500
Raymond L. Harris
NAVY 97-104
Title:Four-Dimensional Atmospheric and Oceanographic Instrumentation - Processing & Control Station and Data Link for RPV SAR
Abstract: Topic N97-104 has the objective of developing innovative instrumentation to obtain marine atmospheric and oceanographic variables in 3-D space and time. The proposed effort addresses several key areas that are mentioned in the solicitation: (1) application to the air/sea environment of the open ocean, continental slope and the very near-shore surf zone; (2) support of active electromagnetic sensors, in this case Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing of the air-sea interface; (3) use of off-the-shelf, low-cost components.The area of investigation is the development of a new type of data link and a mobile ground Processing and Control Station (P&CS) to support an RPV or small manned aircraft that is being used to collect interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) or SAR data. The P&CS permits remote control of the RPV mission, monitoring of the GPS location of the RPV,display of real-time radar data to ensure data quality, and permits use of high-capacity commercial recording devices that would otherwise be too heavy and too power-hungry for use aboard the vehicle carrying the radar.

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd.
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-5433
Dr. Enson Chang
NAVY 97-105
Title:Shallow Water Synthetic Aperture Sonar
Abstract: Acoustical MCM and ASW operations in shallow water are plagued by the prevalence of false targets as well as strong reverberation and multipath. The combination of imaging and environmental adaptivity may be the key to overcoming these problems. Synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) is a revolutionary technology which provides at least an order of magnitude search rate improvement over side looking sonar (SLS) while maintaining the same resolution. Important classification and identification cues are obtained at search ranges by imaging the target's highlight structures and acoustic shadow. These cues will reduce false alarm rate (FAR) in MCM and may present the only viable means by which to discriminate low or no-doppler targets against clutter in ASW. Extending SAS capabilities into shallow water requires modifying the SAS processor to account for propagation effects. Dynamics Technology, Inc. (DTI) proposes several alternatives for incorporating model-based matched filtering (MBMF) into the existing SAS processing stream to counter multipath distortions of the signal waveform. We will also evaluate the effectiveness of "focalization" (or matched field tomography) for adaptively tracking environmental variations in the SAS imaging context. Emulated and recently collected field data will provide the test bed for these concepts.

LITE CYCLES, INC.
2010 N. Forbes Blvd., Suite 100
Tucson, AZ 85745
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 798-1214
Lonnie K. Calmes
NAVY 97-105
Title:Raman Image Amplifier for Marine LIDAR Applications
Abstract:This project will focus on the development of a compact, rugged, low-maintenance, cost-effective, all solid-state Marine Raman Image Amplifier (MARIA) capable of amplifying low-level ocean LIDAR images and producing gated images with potential gate times of tens of picoseconds. The innovative technology to be implemented is based on a solid-state stimulated Raman scattering technique developed by our team. This proposal describes the unique features of this new technique for producing gated images and shows how this device can substantially improve underwater image resolution and reject interfering sunlight in bright daylight conditions. Integration of this device into an imaging marine LIDAR system has the potential to greatly improve classification and identification of sea mines and submarines. The MARIA can be seen as a technology alternative to microchannel plate image intensifiers that are limited in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and require complicated, bulky, and expensive high voltage electronics modules for operation.

DELPHI COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
30 North Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 221-2200
Dr. John G. Proakis
NAVY 97-106
Title:Underwater Acoustic Channel and Network Optimization
Abstract:The objectives of this work are (1) to develop methods for acoustic channel prediction from nominal oceanographic data, and (2) to optimally design underwater acoustic networks to maximize the network surveillance performance, while minimizing its power consimption. The example network consists of a master node and a multitude of possibly mobile sensor nodes whose task is to report the information collected to the master node by relaying it from node to node. Acoustic channel characterization involves signal strngth prediction based on the transmossion loss; multipath intensity profile prediction based on acoustic propagation modeling, and prediction of Doppler spectrum due to random fluctuations using statistical characterization of surface scattering and nodes' spatial properties. In addition, adaptive channel estimation and interference prediction methods will be developed. Network design encompasses optimal dynamic routing and the choice of a multiple-access technique. It includes optimization of the network layout based on the acoustic channel prediction; network initialization procedure; data frame design; multiple-access technique optimization based on capacity calculations, and optimization of routing functions. Dynamic routing algorithm design provides adaptive selection of optimal routes based on the channel state, as well as flexibility to node failures and new node initializations. Acoustic channel characterization involves signal strngth prediction based on the transmossion loss; multipath intensity profile prediction based on acoustic propagation modeling, and prediction of Doppler spectrum due to random fluctuations using statist Network design encompasses optimal dynamic routing and the choice of a multiple-access technique. It includes optimization of the network layout based on the acoustic channel prediction; network initialization procedure; data frame design; multiple-access technique optimization based on capacity calculations, and optimization of routing functions. Dynamic routing algorithm design provides adaptive selection of optimal routes based on the channel state, as well as flexibility to node failures and new node initializations.

CENTER FOR REMOTE SENSING, INC.
P.O. Box 9244
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 848-0800
Suman Ganguly
NAVY 97-107
Title:Satellite Based Sensors for Unambiguous Retrieval of Ionospheric Data in Conjunction with Ground Based Receivers
Abstract: We propose a small low powered satellite based instrument package consisting of EUV monitoring system, a modern swept frequency type sounder and a two frequency beacon. This package will provide primary standard measurements of electron density distributions in the topside ionosphere, where most of the ionization resides. Intercomparison of different satellite instruments and ground based measurements will help DMSP operations and enhance the space-weather activities. Intercomparison and validation of the ionospheric profiles derived with different techniques and from model predictions are essential for both operational enhancement and development of new techniques. These will help validation of different techniques, development of ionospheric tomography, understanding global morphology and other ionospheric processes. During Phase I, we address the issues associated with the development of such a system and perform an initial system design.

MICROFAB RESEARCH, INC.
338 Westfield Rd.
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 963-4490
Philip J. Koh
NAVY 97-107
Title:Application of Novel Micromachined Millimeter Wave Systems to Space Based Radiometers and Radar Systems
Abstract: Novel techniques have been developed for the application of micromachining techniques to the fabrication of millimeter and submillimeter wave components for space based receivers and radar systems. These techniques may permit significant reductions in costs of fabrication. Also, design cycles and system development may be accelerated. These techniques are compatible with the fabrication of linear and two-dimensional arrays of components, opening up new possibilities for space based millimeter wave systems.

CERAMARE CORP.
262 Lincoln Avenue
Highland Park, NJ 08904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 445-2724
Dr. Larry E. McCandlish
NAVY 97-108
Title:Seeded Hydrothermal Growth of Large PZT Crystals and Single-Crystal Array Transducers
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project seeks to provide large seeds for the hydrothermal growth of centimeter-size lead zirconate titanate (PZT) crystals. Large crystals of strontium titanate (ST) and lanthanum alumminate (LA) share the same perovskite crystal structure with PZT and are readily available candidate for the heteroepitaxial growth of PZT. There is, however, a large a-axis lattice mismatch that inhibits nucleation of the PZT phase. Our preliminary experiments suggest that a sputtered nanolayer of PZT on ST substrated provides numerous nucleation sited for the hydrothermal growth of a dense single-crystal PZT overlayer ( as shown by our FESEM and X-ray diffraction studies). The nanostructured interlayer eases the transition between the substrate lattice and the PZT lattice, accommodating the lattice mismatch and relieving the accompanying stress. Having circumvented the lattice mismatch problem, hydrothermal processing should provide a high growth rate leading to a large single crystals of PZT in reasonably short time. In Phase I program we will test the feasibility of hydrothermally growing single crystals of PZT on interlayer prepared ST and LA seeds (5mm x 5mm). We will also examine the feasibility of growing single crystal arrays on substrates that have an interlayer pattern written upon them.

CRYSTAL ASSOC., INC.
31 Farinella Drive
East Hanover, NJ 07936
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 581-1717
Paul Bridenbaugh
NAVY 97-108
Title:Growth of Single Crystal Piezoelectrics
Abstract: Single crystals of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate have superior dielectric and piezoelectric properties. To date all crystals have been grown by flux techniques and sizes have been small. Also growth rates in flux systems are slow. In this study we will investigate growth of PMN-PT by a melt technique, specifically the Bridgman technique. We will study by DTA the liquidus and solidus temperature as a function of composition and from this data construct a preliminary phase diagram. Materials for and designs of crucibles will be evaluated to reduce or eliminate sticking of the grown crystal to the crucible. A two zone furnace will be used for Bridgman growth so that we will have more control over the temperature gradient at the melt-solid interface than would be possible with a single zone furnace. Using seeds cut from single crystals of PMN-PT we grow by the high temperature solution technique, seeded growth will be studied. Physical properties of crystals grown by the Bridgman technique will be measured for comparison with single crystals grown by other methods.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4183
Mr. Ronald G. Roy
NAVY 97-108
Title:DOPED PSN.91-PT.09 ELECTROSTRICTIVE SINGLE CRYSTALS
Abstract:Requirements for high quality electrostrictive single crystals continue to be important because the polycrystalline PSN-PT materials have a lower coupling coefficient . Single crystal PSN-PT is an attractive transducer material because of its very high energy density and its capacity to undergo large electrostrictive strains. Foster-Miller has conceived of an innovative approach to grow PSN.91- PT.09 single crystal compositions, uniformly doped, large diameter PSN-PT single crystals either by itself or encapsulated in a porous single crystal sapphire skeleton. Our processing approach eliminates the following problems - small crystal size, high defect structure and cracking, high >42% PT compositions associated with limitations of the current state of the art crystal growth processes. Additionally, our "sapphire/PSN-PT composite" will have a high fracture toughness, thermal shock resistance, and light weight without much reduction in the PSN-PT electrostrictive properties. Foster-Miller's process has the capability of growing single crystals at relatively low temperatures not possible with current crystal growth processes. Also, being a isothermal constant temperature process, it will promote uniform distribution of dopants and constant PT concentration levels. Our approach will be an enabling technology for producing low cost, high efficiency, high strength electrostrictive single crystals that are stable at high temperatures. The process is versatile and has the potential to produce high quality piezoelectric and electrostrictive single crystal materials of other desired compositions. The Phase I program will involve the growth of PSN-PT single crystal specimens and characterization including X-ray diffraction, dielectric and piezoelectric measurements. The Phase I team includes Penn State University as a subcontractor who will evaluate these materials. Foster-Miller's process has the capability of growing single crystals at relatively low temperatures not possible with current crystal growth processes. Also, being a isothermal constant temperature process, it will promote uniform distribution of dopan The Phase I program will involve the growth of PSN-PT single crystal specimens and characterization including X-ray diffraction, dielectric and piezoelectric measurements. The Phase I team includes Penn State University as a subcontractor who will evaluat

LASERGENICS CORP.
6830 Via Del Oro, Ste. 103
San Jose, CA 95119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 363-9791
Dr. Sandor Erdei
NAVY 97-108
Title:Growth of Large Solid-Solution Piezoelectric Crystals by the BSFT Technique
Abstract: High performance transducers are not presently available using today's ceramic piezoelectric materials. The lead based complex oxides and their possible solid-solution systems have large dielectric constants, large piezoelectric strain coefficients and high longitudinal coupling constants. But these constants are compositionally dependent. Much more efficient transducers are possible if the lead based oxides can be grown in single crystals of sufficient size. Our proposal is to apply our new growth method, the BSFT technique, to this problem.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS, INC.
521 Great Rd.
LittletoN, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 486-0404
Richard Gentilman/Kelley
NAVY 97-108
Title:Low Cost Manufacturing of Advanced Undersea Actuator Materials
Abstract: Single Crystal relaxor ferroelectric materials have been found to have significant electroacoustic property enhancements compared to their polycrystalline counterparts. Navy underwater acoustic projectors would benefit significantly from the high sound pressure levels and compactness that such transducer materials make possible. The key to their successful application in many Navy transducer systems is to achieve a low cost, high volume manufacturing process. In Phase I, Materials Systems Inc. plans to demonstrate the basic feasibility of recrystallizing net shape injection molded relaxor ceramic 1-3 preforms at a manufacturing viable production rate using two methods of seeded solid state conversion. In Phase II, the Phase I process work will be extended to refine the process parameters for high rate crystallization and to improve actuation performance. Single crystal SonoPanelÇ 1-3 composite transducers will be fabricated to demonstrate in water performance. The technology will be inserted into ongoing MSI 1-3 composite projector development and manufacturing programs under Phase III.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
8A Gill St.
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 935-2030
Dr. Jing Zhao
NAVY 97-108
Title:Novel Approach to the Growth of Single Crystalline Relaxors
Abstract: Single-crystals of PMN-PT and other excellent ferroelectric materials hold the promise of realizing the next generation of high performance piezoelectric transducers. Presently, bulk single crystal growth techniques are severely hampered for producing this type of materials, due to the difficulties caused by lead evaporation and the formation of the other phases. Epitaxial growth of very thick films is a favorable, alternative, approach to obtaining large area, high purity single-crystals. Such technical approach is currently the production method for large transparent single-crystalline ZnS and ZnSe crystals for IR window fabrication. NZ Applied Technologies has developed an innovative low cost process which is well suited to produce large single crystalline PMN-PT. This novel process has unique deposition capabilities of very low cost , large area , and very thick film capability. Based on our initial success in epitaxial growth of relative thick films (25¦m), in Phase I, we will optimize our process to grow large area single-crystalline PMN-PT disk of a few mm in thickness.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 E. College Avenue, Suite J
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Wesley Hackenberger
NAVY 97-108
Title:Single Crystal Growth of Relaxor Based Piezoelectric Materials for High Performance Transducers.
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program will address the fabrication and testing of large relaxor based piexolectric single crystals (PMN:PT), to meet size requirements for various DOD transducer applications. Crystals of PMN:PT will be directly grown from the melt in encapsulated plantinum (Pt) crucibles using flux grown crystals as seeds. The expected cylinderical shape (<2 " diameter) will offer the potential of wafer technology as utilizing dopant strategies. TRS Ceramics has an exclusive license from the Pennsylvania State University for the commercial application of piezoelectric single crystals that include actuator and biomedical transducer.

LIGHTWORKS, LLC
8513 N 95th Street
Longmont, CO 80501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 651-3268
Paul J.M. Suni
NAVY 97-109
Title:Diode Laser Velocimeter for Flow Measurements
Abstract: Using non-traditional techniques, optical velocity measurements can be made at a cost far below that of traditional LDVs and coherent laser radar systems. Despite extreme simplicity, including the use of low power COTS diode lasers, we have demonstrated that the proposed devices have nearly quantum limited sensitivity. This has been demonstrated to be sufficient to easily and accurately measure the speed of single micron size aerosol particles. The sensor performance, coupled with extreme compactness and low cost, makes it ideally suited for US Navy water flow measurements near submerged structures, such as propeller blades. The operating principle of the basic sensor is different from traditional LDV systems, in that radial, rather than transverse, velocities are measured. This difference only implies that the sensor look angles need to be changed. Furthermore, it appears feasible to configure the proposed sensors such that transverse measurements are made. If this proves successful, there is no difference at all in the two sensor types. We propose to demonstrate in Phase I the applicability of these sensors to vector velocity recovery in water flows. We will also build a waterproof prototype unit for testing by the U S Navy.

METROLASER, INC.
18006 Skypark Circle #108
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 553-0688
Cecil F. Hess
NAVY 97-109
Title:Two-component, frequency shifted LDV system for underwater applications
Abstract: We propose to develop a compact, robust, and low cost diode laser-based Doppler velocimeter system capable of simultaneously measuring two velocity components with frequency shifting for resolving flow directional ambiguity. In addition to being compact, the system will require low power consumption leading to the ability of implementing multiple battery-operated probes within a constrained volume. These attributes will be possible due to an innovative frequency shifting strategy that can be implemented with low speed electronics without the detriment associated with the RF radiation of acousto-optic modulators. Furthermore, the shifted Doppler signal will also be low speed thus optimizing signal/noise of the photodetector and associated electronics.The Phase I work will consist of system modeling, design, and construction and experimental verification in a small water tank. We plan to deliver a working prototype to the Navy for testing in their water tunnel facility. Phase II will produce a complete system including signal processing electronics which should be of significant value to the Navy program.

NAL RESEARCH
14318 Montverd Court
Centreville, VA 20121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 803-1418
Ngoc Hoang, PhD
NAVY 97-109
Title:Development of Velocity Sensor Utilizing Laser Diodes and Avalanche Photodiodes
Abstract: The system consists of two laser diodes of either the same or different wavelengths in the visible range. Both laser diodes are driven by a single current oscillator at a pre-determined base frequency. This base frequency is divided into two electrical pulse trains at exactly half the original base frequency by a two-stage shift register. One of these electrical pulse trains is applied to the first laser diode to trigger a laser pulse. At a short time later, a second electrical pulse train is applied to the second laser diode to initiate a second laser pulse. These laser pulses are subsequently focused into two measurement volumes by collimator optics, mirrors and focusing lens and resulted in two orthogonal sequentially pulsed fringe systems. The phase different between the first and second laser pulse fringe system can be accurately determined. A receiver system consisted of a single avalanche photodiode and focusing lens is used to detected the scattered Doppler signals from both measurement volumes. The sampling rate of the avalanche photodiode is synchronized with the current oscillator base frequency. Doppler signal from each measurement volume can be de-coupled, from the signal sampled by the photodiode, to obtained two-dimensional velocity information of a particle.

BLATEK, INC.
2820 E. College Avenue, Suite F
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 231-2085
Timothy Ritter
NAVY 97-110
Title:1-3 Single Crystal Composites for Broadband Ultrasonic Imaging Transducers
Abstract: This SBIR program will address the modelling, fabrication, and testing of single crystal composite transducers. Comprised of single crystal relaxor-PT piezoelectrics, both single element and array configurations will be investigated for high performance medical ultrasonic imaging transducers. In collaboration with TRS Ceramics, Inc., single crystal relaxor PT piezoelectrics will be integrated into the transducer, providing ultra high electromechanical coupling (up to 92%), broad bandwidth, high sensitivity, and decreased impulse response for improved axial resolution. Using a one dimensional model, bandwidths of up to 130% have been realized. A direct comparison between an optimally designed single crystal relaxor PT composite transducer and an optimally designed PZT composite transducer will be made to demonstrate this performance enhancement. This Phase I research will provide a basis for further transducer optimization and cost effective manufacturing of an optimally matched broadband array in Phase II. A Phase I option for modelling, construction, and testing of an array element will enhance the development of the Phase II proposal.

TETRAD CORP.
357 Inverness Dr. South
Englewood, CO 80112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 754-2315
Dr. Clyde G. Oakley
NAVY 97-110
Title:Single Crystal Relaxor-Based Ferroelectrics Offer a Quantum
Abstract: The goal of this program is to apply recent advancements in the growth of piezoelectric single crystal materials to build ultrasound transducers with very broad bandwidth, which can improve and simplify ultrasound imaging for combat casualty care. Relaxor-based ferroelectric materials of PZN-PT and PMN-PT have been shown to have coupling factors for some modes of over 90%. Transducer modeling shows that these properties can theoretically lead to transducers with exceptionally wide bandwidth (over 120%). The set of procedures which would be useful for external imaging during triage in a combat casualty care would take up to three transducers of standard construction ranging from 3.5 MHZ to 7.5 MHZ in center frequency. If a transducer with 120% bandwidth can be constructed, that single transducer can perform all of those imaging functions. Tetrad will work with TRS Ceramics and Crystal Associates who are the leading U.S. manufacturers of high-coupling single crystal material. In Phase I, methods for surface preparation, grinding, metalizing for electrode attachment, bonding of polymers, and processes for building 2-2 and 1-3 composite materials will be investigated. Samples of these materials will be used to build subapertures of medical imaging arrays demonstrating broad bandwidth in the water tank. The goals for Phase II will be to use these designs and production methods to develop complete 1-D and 1.5-D ultrasound imaging arrays and to show images covering the bandwidth achieved.

DIGITAL OPTICS CORP.
5900 Northwoods Parkway, Suite J
Charlotte, NC 28269
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 599-9191
Dr. Eric Johnson
NAVY 97-111
Title:Self-Assembled Monolayer Based Methods for Fabrication of Diffractive Optical Elements
Abstract: This SBIR Phase I project builds upon Digital Optics Corporation's experience in the design, fabrication and commercialization of diffractive and micro-optics and the experience of Dr. George Whitesides of Harvard University to provide an innovative approach to the fabrication of diffractive and micro-optical components using self-assembled monolayers (SAM's). The proposed approach makes use of SAM's for the inexpensive fabrication of submicron diffractive structures on both flat and curved surfaces. Many exciting and useful micro-optical elements exist that cannot be efficiently manufactured in production quantities with conventional methods, if they can be fabricated at all. The use of SAM-based methods will provide additional opportunities for cost-efficient fabrication of both existing and new types of micro-optics. This Phase I effort will demonstrate the application of SAM's to the fabrication of micro-optical elements. Both analytical and experimental work will be performed to verify the objectives of the proposed project.

EIKOS, L.L.C.
89 Richmond St.
Raynham, MA 02767
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 880-0007
Dr. Paul Winsor
NAVY 97-111
Title:High Performance Capacitor Dielectrics From Self Assembled Monolayer Based Fabrication
Abstract: Eikos will develop high performance capacitor dielectrics based on self-assembled monolayer buildup processing. This approach to building a capacitor dielectric will include incorporation of a graft conducting polymer as at least one of the electrodes, resulting in superior stored energy density with low dissipation factor at voltage ranges (5V to 500V) currently dominated by inefficient electrolytic capacitors. This processing technique will allow for capacitor fabrication directly onto circuit boards as well as fabrication of discrete rolled capacitors. Adoption of monolayer based dielectric assembly opens the opportunity for rapid development of new polymer dielectrics currently impeded by the lengthy and expensive process development required for traditional polymer dielectrics.

APTIMA, INC.
25 Mall Road, Suite 300
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 270-0613
Dr. Jean MacMillan
NAVY 97-112
Title:COMPUTER-BASED ADAPTIVE TUTOR FOR ADULT READING COMPREHENSION
Abstract:We propose to develop a computer-based adaptive tutor to improve the reading comprehension skills of adult readers. Our instructional strategy is based on the Reciprocal Teaching method, demonstrated to improve reading comprehension. The "scaffolded" Reciprocal Teaching method demonstrates strategies for full reading comprehension, then gradually withdraws instruction, encouraging learners to practice and gain comprehension on their own. The challenge for this project is to capture the spirit and techniques of Reciprocal Teaching in a computer-based tutor. We focus on three components of advanced reading: reading to understand key concepts, reading to evaluate the legitimacy of ideas, and reading to apply ideas and information to new circumstances. We believe that the learner needs both generic instruction in reading-comprehension strategies and content-specific instruction that shows how to apply those strategies to a specific text. We also propose note-taking as a valuable tool for increasing reading comprehension. The adaptive tutor will use these three instructional strategies to improve reading understanding, evaluation, and application skills. The products of Phase I will be a tutoring framework, adaptation principles for creating individual learning paths, a prototype that demonstrates the concept, a system architecture for Phase II, and a plan for evaluating the effectiveness of the tutor.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Jacqueline Haynes
NAVY 97-112
Title:CBT To Enhance Adult Literacy Through In-Depth Assessments and Automated Guiance
Abstract:In response to this Phase 1 SBIR solicitation, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) proposes to research a new technological approach for enhancing adult literacy. Our objective is to design and prototype a CBT system that integrates pedagogically sound instructional methods with automated assessment technologies to accommodate the special needs of the adult literacy students. Out technical objectives represent a development approach between simplistic CBT and traditional ITS. This approach does not require the extensive effort and impracticalities of student modeling that are required in traditional ITS. Instead, our approach enhances a (simplistic) CBT environment with robust, in-depth assessments and automated guidance techniques. IAI proposes to: (1) enhance a CBT environment with multiple, automated, in-depth assessments of student progress in vocabulary, reading comprehension, fluency, and accuracy; (2) establish a reading competence "ladder" of the materials in the CBT curriculum; and (3) build an automated guidance tool to match individual students with the materials that best suit their current reading competence and their "zone of optimal learnability". Additionally, we propose to ease the authoring effort by integrating an authoring tool that automatically places new materials in the proper location within the "ladder-like" structure of the curriculum.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
2016 Belle Monti Ave
Belmont, CA 94002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 655-7242
Richard H. Stottler
NAVY 97-112
Title:An Intelligent Tutoring System for Adult Literacy Enhancement
Abstract: This proposal presents the opportunity to apply our existing experience, research, and technology in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) and pedagogical techniques to the adult literacy problem. ITSs assess, model, diagnose, and automatically develop a tailored course of remedial instruction for individuals. ITSs emphasize custom instruction tailored to the particular individual. Our approach includes theoretical, pedagogical, empirical, and practical philosophies. We emphasize the use of real-world, adult-applicable reading material, chosen for its appropriate reading difficulty and relevancy to the end user. This is facilitated by the capability of our ITS to receive a document (which includes multi-media) from Naval personnel (non-programmers) and automatically extract the information from it for reading practice, exercises, and assessment. In Phase I, we will develop a prototype (ITS) for adult literacy enhancement for testing and evaluation. The use of an ITS for reading enhancement will achieve many of the same benefits as one-on-one instruction. When ITSs are enhanced with interactive multimedia, students demonstrate greater motivation during training and greater retention of course material. Thus, an ITS provides instruction that is at once cost-effective and potentially superior to traditional reading teaching methods. We have used this ITS approach with much success in other training domains.

IMAGECORP, INC.
9104 Mistwood Dr.
Potomac, MD 20854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-6486
Qinfen Zheng
NAVY 97-113
Title:An Unattended System for Monitoring Human Combatant
Abstract: Unattended surveillance of human combatants in urban environments is an important and challenging task in law enforcement and peace keeping missions. Traditional approaches, based either on temporal difference or pattern recognition using still frames, are inadequate. As a technology transfer effort based on prior research results of leading scientists, ImageCorp proposes in this Phase I effort to design a site model supported, PC-based surveillance system for automatic detection, tracking and monitoring of human combatants in urban environments. Using a site model, information from multiple sensors and platforms, as well as prior knowledge such as locations of sensitive areas and typical combatant activities can be employed in image exploitation. Further, the history of moving targets can be effectively represented, enabling the tracking of targets even under concealment or cessation of motion. The proposed system will fuse information collected from distributed acoustic sensors, as well as wide angle and zoom infrared and visual cameras. Solutions to issues such as 2-D site model construction, sensor stabilization and image mosaicking, moving object detection, human recognition, tracking, action understanding, and data fusion are proposed and will be investigated during the proposed Phase I effort.

ATLANTIC AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS CORP.
470 Totten Pond Rd
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 890-4200
Kenneth Ellis
NAVY 97-114
Title:Integrated Color Coding and Monochrome Multi-Spectral Fusion
Abstract:The proposed effort is aimed at the development and demonstration of the feasibility of a new integrated color coding and a contrast-based monochromatic fusion process. We will investigate two methods for color coding that utilize the monochrome fused image. Each of the color coding methods will provide consistency of color presentation as a function of daytime, background variability and illumination conditions. The new monochrome fusion process will maximize the information content in the combined image, while retaining visual clues that are essential for navigation/piloting tasks. The Phase I development will focus on the fusion of imagery from image intensifiers and forward looking infrared sensors currently used by the U.S. Navy for navigation and targeting. The approach is easily extendible to more than two bands. To be effective, the fused imagery will maintain relationships that correspond to natural (daytime) vision of the same features. Under stress the human operator is liable to revert to his most natural interpretation and act on it. Thus any image transformation which distorts such relationships, even if it can be learned by the user and responded correctly in the lab or during training, may be less effective. Since the overall objective of the effort is a real time demonstration, we will focus during the Phase I program on practical and computationally efficient image processing components. The real-time implementation of the developed process using commercially off the shelf (COTS) digital signal processors (DSPs) will be deferred to the Phase II effort Since the overall objective of the effort is a real time demonstration, we will focus during the Phase I program on practical and computationally efficient image processing components. The real-time implementation of the developed process using commercially off the shelf (COTS) digital signal processors (DSPs) will be deferred to the Phase II effort.

TERAOPS
1051 Cragmont Ave
Berkely, CA 94708
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 548-3514
Tibor Kozek
NAVY 97-114
Title:Analogic CNN Engine for Muli-Spectral Fusion
Abstract: TeraOps Corporation proposes to develop a suite of algorithmic techniques and corresponding hardware implementation based on the powerful CNN technology to address Navy requirements for multi-band image fusion in real-time. TeraOps will exploit the unique architecture of the CNN supercomputer-on-a-chip to implement spatial-temporal image processing algorithms for the fusion of multi-band sensory data to be used in advanced targeting systems. These algorithms will draw upon studies of biological image processing systems as well as on CNN models for color constancy and color visualization developed earlier by TearOps researchers. CNN is a massively parallel locally interconnected dynamic array computer capable of performing more than 10 to the 12 operations per second which allows it to perform image processing operations three orders of magnitude faster than conventional digital signal processors. Its very high processing speed is essential in executing computationally intensive image processing operations in real-time at high resolutions. The CNN image processing package including associated hardware will be small enough to fit in the limited space of an image processing pod and will consume very little power due to its highly efficient VLSI implementation. Thus, the proposed work combines the efficiency and speed of the hardware implementation and the algorithmic power of CNN technology to solve the real-time image fusion problem.

IMETRIX, INC.
P.O. Box 152
Cataumet, MA 02534
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 564-6460
Ms. Barbara Fletcher
NAVY 97-115
Title:Stand Alone ROV Trainer
Abstract: A remotely operated vehicle (ROV) pilot is faced with a complex task, with few tools available for training and mission planning. Training is generally "on-the job", and is often limited by the availability and high cost of deploying equipment.

CAMBER CORP.
635 Discovery Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 866-5404
Yi Bian
NAVY 97-116
Title:Hard Target Penetrator End-Game Guidance
Abstract:Precision strike weapons have been proved repeatedly to be able to provide substantial tactical advantages. Much attention in the past has been focused on improving the strike position accuracy. To penetrate a consolidated hard target, however, the missile velocity and impact angle also plays a significant role. This raises the requirement for the capability to precisely control the missile attitude. Traditionally, missile attitude is determined by use of inertial systems. High accuracy inertial systems, however, are expensive and all inertial systems have the drawback that their errors accumulate over time. Camber Corporation proposes to use kinematic GPS technology to develop the capability of attitude determination. The GPS system has the advantage of being able to provide high accuracy at a fraction of the unit cost compared to the inertial system. In contrast to the inertial system, attitude determination using GPS is drift free - its error is bonded and remains unchanged over time. Kinematic GPS will not only increase the attitude control accuracy; it will also extend its application to weapon systems that are prohibited from using the inertial system due to cost constraint. Camber Corporation proposes to use kinematic GPS technology to develop the capability of attitude determination. The GPS system has the advantage of being able to provide high accuracy at a fraction of the unit cost compared to the inertial system. In contrast to the inertial system, attitude determination using GPS is drift free - its error is bonded and remains unchanged over time. Kinematic GPS will not only increase the attitude control accuracy; it will also extend its application to weapon systems that are prohibited from using the inertial system due to cost constraint.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS COMP., INC.
900 Middlesex Turnpike, Building 8
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 436-9600
Triveni N. Upadhyay
NAVY 97-117
Title:Virtual Laser- Kinematic Relative GPS-Based Navigation and Covert Communication (KREGNACC) System for Terminal Guidance
Abstract:The U.S. Navy has identified a need to develop a passive precision target location and terminal guidance from Spotter to Projectile capability which can deliver 1 meter CEP relative navigation-to-the-target accuracy. The targeting sensor, referred to as Virtual Laser, should be able to range to a moving target and provide the target coordinates in real-time to a projectile/vehicle. The objective of this SBIR Phase I Study is to analyze the feasibility of the proposed GPS/INS-based targeting, relative navigation and communication data link system which can meet the accuracy goal, be packaged in a small size, and produced at low-cost, thereby eliminating the requirements of a terminal seeker in most precision guided munition applications. The Phase I study will analyze various sensor-target scenarios, model their error sources and evaluate their relative navigation performance using Mayflower novel dual-stage carrier phase processing algorithm and inertial error calibration techniques. An important focus of the Phase I research is to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed data link to provide the communications connectivity. The Phase II effort will develop a brassboard data link, integrate it with a miniature GPS/INS package, and validate the Virtual Laser concept with a hardware-in-the-loop simulation incorporating the projectile GN&C algorithms.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Rd.
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Alison K. Brown PhD
NAVY 97-117
Title:SPOTter/Sensor (SPOTS) Targeting system using relative kinematic GPS processing
Abstract: The purpose of this SBIR is to demonstrate precision targeting to enable terminal guidance of munitions from Spotter-to-Shooter, in a "Virtual Laser" mode of operation. This requires the Spotter to be able to precisely determine the target coordinates (and munition aim point) in 3-D coordinates, to allow for automatic call for fire and automatic target handoff to the weapon system. To support a targeting accuracy of 1 meter at a range of 1 km from the target, the SPOTS system must be able to determine range to the target to an accuracy of 1 meter, and bearing to an accuracy of 1 mrad. In the proposed system architecture an innovative "relative kinematic" algorithm is described. Simulation results have shown that this can support 1 mrad attitude accuracy in a man-portable targeting system by optimally integrating data from a GPS receiver and Micro-Electro- Mechanical (MEM) inertial measurement unit (IMU). Under this Phase I contract, we will develop and demonstrate the attitude accuracy possible with the relative kinematic GPS/inertial algorithms using in-house test equipment. Under Phase II, a man-portable SPOTS unit will be fielded and tested.

AMERICAN ELECTRONICS, INC.
8229 Boone Blvd, Suite 200
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 883-0506
Dr. Joseph T. Siewick
NAVY 97-118
Title:Compact Sensors and Guidance for Mid-Caliber Naval Guns
Abstract: One of the most important applications of mid-caliber (5-inch) Naval guns is in meeting the defensive requirements of the Close-In-Weapon-System (CIWS). The function of the CIWS is to engage and defeat aircraft and cruise missile threats that have avoided or survived the extended area defenses. AMELEX offers to explore combining a guidance and control/divert system with a radar or IR seeker in the five-inch munition to provide a hit probability approaching 100%. PIN photodetector's active area. PIN electroabsorptive devices are attractive for military applications because the technology is mature and the costs are low. A preliminary operational energy estimate of an electroabsorpative PIN diode structure is low, essentially that of charging a capacitor of comparable dimensions. This energy is recoverable from the capacitor structure of a reverse biased PIN. The power required to sustain the emissivity variation is equal to the leakage currents through and voltage across the reverse biased PIN structure, and this too seems relatively low compared to the power of several alternative methods.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Chiman Kwan
NAVY 97-119
Title:Real Time Infrared Thermal Signature Detection Using Neural Networks
Abstract: Thermal imaging is a simple and useful technique for post mission analysis. Combining with health monitoring and fault diagnostic techniques, the method can reduce false alarms and improve the diagnostic capability of naval surface, subsurface, and air assets. It can also be used for detecting corrosion, erosion, and hot spots due to bearing degradation. However, there is a fundamental problem in thermal imaging. There is too much data and it must be processed in real time. There is a technology, often used in other domains, to reduce the amount of data in the image to an alternative set of data which represents the most important features in the image. This technology is called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Using a dynamic PCA, the amount of data which would need to be searched for the target of interest can be greatly reduced. The reason PCAs have not been used for this application is that dynamically computing the Principal Components from an image was too time consuming. Each component had to be computed independently - first the first component, then the second component, then the third component, etc. Since the computation of each component is itself an iterative process, real-time results could not be achieved. Intelligent Automation, Incorporated (IAI) has solved this problem. With our approach, we will be able to compute the Principal Components of an image in real-time. Our innovation allows us to compute all the Principal Components in parallel, with all values converging at the same rate, so that final values are achieved for all components simultaneously instead of serially. This allows us to perform dynamic PCA in real-time and therefore apply this powerful technology to high speed thermal image processing. Intelligent Automation, Incorporated (IAI) has solved this problem. With our approach, we will be able to compute the Principal Components of an image in real-time. Our innovation allows us to compute all the Principal Components in parallel, with all values converging at the same rate, so that final values are achieved for all components simultaneously instead of serially. This allows us to perform dynamic PCA in real-time and therefore apply this powerful technology to high speed thermal image processing. Intelligent Automation, Incorporated (IAI) has solved this problem. With our approach, we will be able to compute the Principal Components of an image in real-time.

THRESHOLDS UNLIMITED, INC.
Box 425, 2113 Sunnyside Road
Findley Lake, NY 14736
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 769-7781
Karen A. Weinert
NAVY 97-119
Title:Thermographic Technology Development for Real-Time Fault Detection
Abstract:High resolution infrared (IR) thermal imaging technologies have a proven ability to detect faults and pre-fault conditions in machinery and structures. Through many hours of video and digital analysis and documentation, Thresholds Unlimited, Inc. has established that observation and analysis of thermal patterns (in real time) can provide go/no-go checks and can simplify the condition monitoring process while providing diagnosis of machinery and structural members while the vehicle systems are in operation. This technique holds great promise for reducing false fault identifications and improving condition monitoring activities throughout the Navy. The cost of maintaining aging fleets of air, sea, and land vehicles can be reduced using thermography and other conditions based monitoring techniques. This process will significantly reduce personnel risk and costs with aging systems.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin
NAVY 97-120
Title:Fuzzy Neural Control Design Software for Multiple Effector Control Systems
Abstract: In this Phase I project, a fuzzy neural control design software tool will be developed with the Genetic Algorithms (GAs) based adaptive fuzzy neural control method to enhance the performance and autonomous control ability of multiple effector control systems. First, a fuzzy logic control algorithm will be developed. Second, the GAs will be used to form a self-learning and self-tuning mechanism to tune the membership parameters and modify the rules. A fuzzy neural algorithm will also be developed. With the GAs based adaptive fuzzy neural control system the performance of the multiple effector control systems will be improved significantly in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties. Finally, a software toolkit will be developed and commercialized for the design, analysis and demonstration of genetic algorithms based adaptive fuzzy logic control systems. The software will be developed using the software engineering, object-oriented and Windows programming techniques. It provides a graphical user-friendly interface and design and analysis functions for autonomous intelligent control. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the toolkit, it will be used to design an autopilot for a tactical ballistic missile. Then, nonlinear 6 DOF simulation will be conducted to evaluate the design.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
3046A Berkmar Drive
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 973-1215
David G. Ward
NAVY 97-120
Title:Intelligent Reconfigurable Control for Systems with Multiple Effectors
Abstract: Many modern systems rely on multiple innovative actuators and effectors to improve performance, versatility, and survivability. In systems where several actuators or actuator combinations are capable of affecting the behavior of a single controlled varaible, an opportunity exists to incorporate non-traditional features in the control law, including post-failure reconfiguration and optimization of high-level system functions (e.g., overall efficiency). Often, one requires an intelligent nonlinear control algorithm to achieve these benefits. This proposal describes such an algorithm based on neural network system modeling, robust on-line system identification, and receding-horizon optimal control. This algorithm has been evaluated favorably in piloted simulations and F-16 flight tests (including simulated impairments), and it is currently being applied to a tailless aircraft having over 14 independent effectors. The proposed Phase I research will (1) develop a prototype control system design toolkit based on the algorithm, (2) extend these algorithms with a control allocation module that provides desired closed-loop performance while achieving higher-level mission objectives such as reduced drag or low observability, and (3) demonstrate the algorithms and the prototype software tool on a complex system application of interest to the Navy.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park Suite 300
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 933-5355
Raman K. Mehra/M. Gopinat
NAVY 97-120
Title:Intelligent Control Algorithms and PC-Based Software Tool Development for Multiple Effector Control Systems
Abstract: The main objective of the proposed work is to develop systematic control design procedures and simulation modules for complex uncertain multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Scientific Systems proposes to integrate these modules within a highly flexible and user-friendly Intelligent Control Design Tool (ICDT) for Matlab that will include the design of System Identification (SI) and Model Predictive Control (MPC)-based adaptive control algorithms, and intelligent supervisory control modules based on the system response and fuzzy logic. MPC framework will enable the designer to develop efficient control algorithms for both linear and nonlinear models in the case of hard constraints on control inputs, system outputs, and states. The presence of system nonlinearities and uncertainties will be addressed by both the extensions of several existing identification techniques to nonlinear models, and by the development of MPC-based neural network identification and control algorithms. To preserve robustness under large perturbations, uncertainties, and sensor and actuator failures, the suggested control system will have substantial reconfiguration capabilities introduced by supervisory control based on on-line adaptation, fuzzy rules and Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) mechanisms. The feasibility of the intelligent MPC algorithms will be tested through simulations of Eagle Eye UAV, or other Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) model recommended by the Navy. Prof. K.S. Narendra of Yale University will provide technical consulting support.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Rd.
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
RICHARD AKITA & ALIANNA M
NAVY 97-121
Title:BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED PROCESSOR FOR ALL-SOURCE DATA ASSOCIATION AND FUSION
Abstract:This project will develop improved sensor fusion of underwater surveillance and fire control related ]data based upon biologically inspired data association and sensor fusion techniques. In this _proposed SBIR, AAC will examine under-sea surveillance requirements for providing contact data hassociation for two or more contacts in the littoral environment. We will analyze biologically-inspired [techniques to perform all source data assimilation, fusion and correlation, and develop an darchitecture that will easily integrate with the Navy's Neurally Inspired Contact Estimation (NICE) \component. We will also develop a neural network-based system design inspired by biological fphenomenon, to be used in the all-source real-time data assimilation, fusion and correlation process; \develop a Phase II plan for the development of the Biologically Motivated Neural Processing cArchitectures for All-Source Data Association and Fusion; provide a test plan and deliver a final .report. RWe propose to develop the advanced Biologically Motivated Neural Processor (BMNP).ein a prototype COTS workstation. In this SBIR, AAC will develop the workstation architecture and the \capability to incorporate a number of biologic sensor fusion models. This work will lay the ffoundation for a Phase II program in which AAC will perform the development of the "fully functional" prototype system.

DECISION DYNAMICS, INC.
4600 East West Highway, Suite 4
Bethesda, MD 20814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 657-8500
Louis Edward Alfeld, ScD.
NAVY 97-122
Title:Affordability Measurement and Prediction Technologies
Abstract:This proposal builds upon work currently underway for the Office of Naval Research's Acquisition Reform Office. This body of work known as SNAP (Simulating New Acquisition Processes), consists of five interconnected simulation models that make up a "virtual acquisition process." The models, developed using the system dynamics methodology, can quantify the long-term tradeoffs among cost, performance and schedule measures. SNAP output includes key decision variables allowing program managers to test the consequences of alternative "what-if?" scenarios and to place high confidence in the resulting priorities for affordability actions. Although SNAP development is well underway, SNAP models lack funding to incorporate an essential feature -- Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs). EAs mimic biological evolution by repeatedly "mutating" selected parameter values and simulating the model to produce a generation of project solutions. During simulation the EA automatically evaluates tradeoffs among cost, schedule and performance variables, using feedback to alter both tasks and resources in a search for the most effective result. The addition of EAs to SNAP will result in an incredibly advanced affordability prediction tool that will not only correctly predict the total cost of ownership for any system but will also enable program managers to evolve better and better program plans with CAIV (Cost as an Independent Variable) guidelines.

GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY CONNECTION, INC.
2690 Spencers Trace
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 971-7072
Dr. A.B. Thakker, P.E.
NAVY 97-122
Title:Affordability Measurement and Prediction Technologies
Abstract: A Çroadmap for affordabilityÇ will be developed in Phase I based on Robust Design Simulaton(RDS) which will be applied in Phase II to address affordability design tradeoffs for propulsion system technologies in V/STOL aircraft. The V-22 tilt rotor aircraft with the T-406 engine will be used as the baseline V/STOL aircraft for affordability measurement verification and validation of the RDS. The proposed research will serve as the Current Development linkage between the current ONR initial Research and Theoretical Development Program, being conducted by universities and the Verification and Validation effort involving industry and Navy project offices. The integration of synthesis/sizing models with life cycle cost (LCC) analysis for V/STOL aircraft will be accomplished in Phase II. Historical databases in the synthesis/sizing models and LCC analysis will be replaced with data generated from physics-based disciplinary models and activity and process-based cost models, respectively. Affordability design tradeoffs for propulsion system technologies applied to the V-22/T406 baseline will be assessed using the RDS as a prediction technology in Phase II.

PROMETHEUS, INC.
103 Mansfield Street
Sharon, MA 02067
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 849-5389
James S. Byrnes
NAVY 97-122
Title:Affordability Modeling in an Uncertain Environment
Abstract: We propose to create a technology to improve Naval acquisition planning in a partially known environment, thereby reducing the negative impact of uncertainty, while simultaneously incorporating affordability as a fundamental constraint. Our decision support system will be flexible in its assumptions to facilitate replanning in response to changes faced by planners and warfare systems architects. It will contain a genetic algorithm based optimization module, to enable the efficient determination of near optimal decisions despite enormous numbers of alternatives and numerous complications involved in their evaluation. This planning support tool will be based on our theory of dependency modeling, which we have successfully applied to Naval combat systems assessment and Air Force aircraft allocation problems. The proposed Phase I research will enable the adaptation of our MAAP technology, developed under Air Force sponsorship, to assist in making technological decisions that impact the affordability and performance of current and projected Naval systems. This will form the foundation for a Phase II decision aid tool that will allow acquisition planners, be they Navy, other military, or commercial, to evaluate and compare candidate strategies for the optimal and affordable allocation of assets to varied and often uncertain system requirements.

SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY SOLUTIONS, INC.
122 4th Ave.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Jeffrey A. Heimberger
NAVY 97-122
Title:Project Stoddert, A System Dynamics Model of Affordability Using Utility Theory
Abstract:In a time of decreasing defense budgets, the long-term affordability of different Navy warfighting and support systems is an increasingly important consideration when deciding between competing systems, and is also increasingly more difficult to objectively measure. SPS proposes an innovative approach for developing a model that measures the affordability of existing systems and predicts the affordability of alternative systems. Our proposed Project Stoddert honors Mr. Benjamin Stoddert, the first Secretary of the Navy. Our approach will establish the theoretical bases for developing executable models to measure the affordability of complex weapon systems. We will employ a unique combination of system dynamics and utility theory to capitalize on the strengths of these two powerful decision analysis techniques. The key innovative aspects of our approach are: (1) using a system dynamics model which can employ qualitative data as well as quantitative data to measure affordability, and (2) applying utility theory to provide users a formal method of determining their inputs to the model. This approach has the best chance for success and for advancing the state-of-the-art in affordability measurement and prediction because it uses two established decision analysis techniques to attack the most important aspects of the affordability measurement and prediction problem.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Rd.
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Francis L. Keohan
NAVY 97-124
Title:New Multi-Functional Vapor Phase Corrosion Inhibitors
Abstract:A new family of surface-active organic compounds is proposed for formulating multi-purpose vapor phase corrosion inhibitors (VCI's). The proposed research explores the feasibility of applying state-of-the-art surface science with the concepts of molecular simulation and molecular self assembly to produce a new class of corrosion inhibitors. The ultimate objective is to develop a family of VCI's that readily volatilize at ambient temperature, pose little toxicological or environmental hazard, displace surface water from metallic substrates, effectively prevent the corrosion of ferrous and nonferrous metals and self-assemble into coherent coatings for long-term protection. In the proposed study the candidate precursor materials for these VCI's will be identified, chemically derivatized for improved volatility, the compatibility of different compounds predicted by computer simulation, and structure-property profiles determined. The ability of selected experimental VCI blends to inhibit the corrosion of ferrous and nonferrous metals in enclosed environments will be demonstrated. The anticorrosive properties will be measured by traditional accelerated tests such as salt spray exposure, enclosed humid environment exposure, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

FAKESPACE, INC.
241 Polaris Ave.
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 688-1940
Ian McDowall
NAVY 97-125
Title:A Multi-User Deployable Virtual Workbench
Abstract: Fakespace proposes to develop a feasible system for use in a Naval environment which permits two users to see stereo images on a virtual workbench simultaneously. NRL and other groups have implemented virtual workbenches which display 3D models on a table top. The proposed development effort will permit several users (initially two) to simultaneously view and interact with the model. The technical approach will build on expertise at both NRL and Fakespace. NRL's applications expertise and understanding of the Navy's needs will be essential to creating an effective solution. Insights gained by Fakespace in the development of the first two-user stereo system will permit a focusing of effort towards systems design issues which meet the Navy's specific objectives. The understanding of end user needs together with appropriate technology experience will enable Fakespace to synthesize an excellent solution. In addition to forming a foundation for work in later Phases, the systems design work accomplished as part of Phase I will impact the development of products for the CAD, medical, and display fields.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 689-0003
Steven A. Africk
NAVY 97-126
Title:Structural Health Monitoring Using Fiber Optic Sensing
Abstract: A system for structural health monitoring of ships using fiber optic sensors will be developed. The baseline system to be investigated is a proprietary spread spectrum interrogation system under development by Lucent Technologies, which will support monitoring of strain, temperature, and potentially other parameters, continuously in space and time. Ideally, this system will be able to interrogate the intrinsic sensitivities of fiber to strain to measure mechanical strain and temperature. If greater sensitivity is required, Bragg grating reflectors will be integrated into the system. A test rig will be built to simulate hull and decking areas which are to be monitored by the system, and the potential performance of bare fibers, fibers with intrinsic Bragg grating sensors, and telemetry systems based on proprietary Lucent technology and variations on that technology, including wavelength multiplexing, will be tested with static and slowly varying structural strains. A system capable of meeting Navy requirements and which can be interfaced with other automated systems will be defined and a plan to demonstrate this system in Phase II will be developed.

SYSTEMS PLANNING & ANALYSIS, INC.
2000 N Beauregard St., Suite 400
Alexandria, VA 22311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 578-6332
Peter C. Chen, Ph.D.
NAVY 97-126
Title:Structural Health Monitoring Using Fiber Optic Sensing
Abstract: Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) proposes to develop an open architecture structural health monitoring system for naval ships based on fiber optic Bragg grating and digital telecommunications technologies. This dual-purpose system will allow for simultaneous sensing and transmission of existing analog data streams afloat (i.e., communications, fire control, resistance strain data, etc.) and digital strain data from fiber strain sensors distributed along multiple sensing fibers. Using wavelength division multiplexed sensors along each fiber path, structural strains of the primary hull and other substructures will be measured to provide real-time, on-line health monitoring of the vessel during operations. During the proposed effort, a prototype system will be built with a 2-sensor array of 4 sensors each, 2 transmission nodes, and a 100m data bus consisting of Mil-Spec 85049 digital cable. SPA will test this system on a dynamically-scaled ship hull structure at a bandwidth of 20 Hz, while simultaneously transmitting an analog single frequency TTL current modulation function (to simulate analog data transmission). SPA will develop a software package to record and process the sensor data for real-time assessment of the hull to provide predictions of the remaining life. SPA will interface the prototype system with the naval structural assessment code, ULTSTR, in the Phase I option, to facilitate acceptance of the system in the fleet.

DYNAFLOW, INC.
7210 Pindell School Road
Fulton, MD 20759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 604-3688
Dr. Ramani Duraiswami
NAVY 97-127
Title:High Fidelity Ocean Surf Zone Model for Use in USMC Simulators
Abstract:In the proposed research Dynaflow, Inc. and Nichols' AME propose to develop a high fidelity model of the surf-zone for implementation in marine corps simulators for the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle. Phase I research will concentrate on identifying those elements of a surf-zone model that must be specified so that accurate forces are generated by the simulator model. Particular attention will be paid to wave induced forces, breaking wave forces, and slamming forces, and to providing good models for the engine propulsion and control subsystems of the vehicle. The model will be able to take advantage of inputs such as information on wave spectra, breaking wave spectra, cartographic information, and topographic data. Gaps in the model proposed will identified, and model tests and computational fluid dynamic simulations to fill these gaps proposed. System Identification techniques will be surveyed, and a technique chosen to use the acceptance trials data to enhance the simulator fidelity. In the Phase I option a simulator fidelity. In the Phase I option a simulator wil be implemented using the collected information, and the AME Virtual Ship software to provide a baseline for Phase II. Phase II will perform the tests and simulations necessary to develop an ingrated simulation software for the AAAV dynamics, that includes the enhanced sur-zone model. The model will be validated and demonstrated for inclusion in future DoD efforts in Phase II. The proposing companies and key personnel have decades of experience in the fields of developing marine simulators, model testing, computational fluid dynamics, and system identification.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. Michael Dingus/Mr. Jo
NAVY 97-130
Title:Commercial Digital Camera Environmental Protection
Abstract: Digital cameras offer extraordinary advantages in reconnaissance applications. They provide critical real time imaging capabilities not available with film; images can be transmitted electronically with no time delay. Unfortunately, commercially available digital cameras cannot withstand the conditions encountered by a Marine Expeditionary Force Reconnaissance Team (MEFRT). A protective housing is needed to shield the camera from harsh environmental and physical challenges. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. (TRI/Austin) will develop advanced structural polyurethane formulations that will be used in the design of a rugged, waterproof, saltwater resistant, shock resistant, camera housing. A prototype housing that allows control of all camera functions will be prepared, including component drawings, a parts list, and assembly and operating instructions. A final report will be prepared, and the prototype digital camera housing will be delivered to the sponsor.

APOLLO ENTERPRISE
18019 Sky Park Circle, Suite F
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 756-3111
Alice Gheen
NAVY 97-131
Title:A Compact, High Quality Anamorphic Adapter for COTS Infrared Camera
Abstract: We propose to design and fabricate a high performance anamorphic adapter for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) infrared array cameras. With this anamorphic system, the viewing angle along the preferred axis can be maximized and the viewing angle along the orthogonal axis can be diminished while an equal projected area per pixel can be maintained. The viewing angles for the proposed system with an isothermal focus will be 150 degreex15 degree. The anamorphic system will be designed and made so that best possible image quality can be obtained when used together with a COTS hardware. The system are expected to be compact in structure, easy to realize and relatively low in cost. By incorporating the innovative design of the anamorphic optical system into the wide-field-of-view adapter, it is anticipated that all the Navy requirements for the IR imaging applications can be met. The objective new system represents a breakthrough, enabling technology for wide-angle IR imaging for distended scene with high imaging quality by allowing recording, playback and data analysis using generic equipment. The proposed high performance wide-field-of-view anamorphic adapter will find many dual applications and will greatly expand the usage of COTS infrared cameras.

SMART DISPENSING DEVICES, INC.
508 Oreland Mill Road
Oreland, PA 19075
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 884-6909
Anthony Passamante
NAVY 97-132
Title:Detection and Classification Using Fractal Models: Analysis,
Abstract: Methods are developed and investigated which will exploit the fractal and nonlinear characteristics of measured sensor data. Novel autoregressive and fractal signal processing methods are applied to the detection and classification of pertinent signals. Autoregressive and other techniques are generalized to take advantage of potential nonlnear and fractal properties of data. Furthermore, it is essential to have objective measures of processor performance on which to base assessments. Toward this end, we calculatee statistically correct and objective measures of detection and classification. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves are calculated to quantify detection results; classification results are quantified by the Bayes error calculated using the K-th Nearest Neighbor method.

VOCAL POINT, INC.
300 Brannan Street, Suite 604
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 896-6300
Ronald G. Benson
NAVY 97-132
Title:Speech-Recognition Techniques for Robust Acoustic Signature Identification
Abstract: Military target vehicles of different models have unique acoustic signatures. These signature can be used for detection and for identification. One approach is to analyze the signature in the spectral domain, using the Fourier transform, and comparing new sound samples with known templates. Problems arise when signatures vary or are corrupted by noise. The problem of signature recognition has much in common with speech recognition, an active field for several decades. We propose to apply traditional and novel speech-recognition techniques to the identification of acoustic signatures. Preliminary tests in this proposal, applied to military vehicle signature data, show very high accuracy rates. In Phase I we will first develop "traditional" speech recognizers, which use non-Fourier features that have proven more robust, such as cepstral and linear-predictive-coding (LPC) coefficients. As back ends, we will investigate both hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks. The algorithms will be modified to fit the problem domain in terms of frequency ranges and time scales. We will also apply more recent algorithms: the auditory image model (AIM) mimics the human auditory system; learning vector quantization (LVQ) is a novel neurally inspired, Bayesian optimal algorithm. The systems will be compared to the more traditional Fourier-based approach and evaluated for noise robustness. In Phase II, we will develop a noise-robust, real-time system to be evaluated in the field.

INTERCONNECT SYSTEMS SOLUTION (ISS)
22691 Lambert Street
Lake Forest, CA 92630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 587-0628
Khan Kibria
NAVY 97-133
Title:Real Time COTS Chip for Unified Avionics Interconnect
Abstract:This proposal covers the first phase of three work phases: Phase I: a) study the Serial Express and SCI-RT protocols, b) develop the adaptations necessary for real-time applications, c) simulate them, d) choose the best protocol, e) determine the requirements, feasibility, and cost of standard cell and a prototype ASIC design, and f) determine the basic requirements, feasibility and cost of a VMEbus-based SCI/SX bridge, as a demonstration vehicle; Phase II: Design a standard cell ASIC component, prototype chip, and VMEbus-based SCI-RT/SX bridge; Phase III: Transition the standard cell and prototype ASIC designs to a commercial chip fabricator for production. Phase I work will take advantage of previous or current work, done by Interconnect Systems Solution and Edgewater Computer Systems, Inc.: ISS has designed commercial SCI chips and is about to complete a SX chip design. ISS will be responsible for Phase I items d), e) and f), above. ECSI wrote the original proposed SCI-RT draft specification and was key in starting the SCI-RT Working Group. ECSI is currently carrying out a study of the SCI-RT and SX protocols, for the Navy, which will be the basis for Phase I items a), b), c), d) and f), above.

DARYOUSH GEMS, INC.
250 South Roberts Road
Bryn Mawr, PA 19010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 526-9012
Warren A. Rosen, Ph.D.
NAVY 97-134
Title:Low-Cost High-Speed Optical Links for Advanced Avionics
Abstract: Daryoush GEMS proposes to research and demonstrate the feasibility of developing a low-cost, low-latency serial optical link capable of supporting data transfers at data rates up to 8 Gb/s. The link will be based on a low-cost 10 GHz transceiver being developed by Focused Research (who will act as subcontractor on this project) and a low-cost injection-locked phase-locked loop technology developed by Daryoush GEMS. In addition, a low-cost encoder/decoder will be designed, modeled and simulated and available technologies for low-cost high-speed serializer/deserializers will be evaluated and a suitable technology selected for subsequent implementation. The link will be designed to support a high-performance commercial standard such as Scalable Coherent Interface, Serial Express, or Fibre Channel. Advanced modeling and simulation techniques will be used to model both the protocol and hardware to match the link characteristics to the protocol in order to achieve optimum throughput, latency, and system cost.

PRINCETON ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 8627
Princeton, NJ 08543
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 799-7860
Reza Saedi, PhD
NAVY 97-134
Title:Low-cost High-Speed Optical Links for Advanced Avionics Data networks
Abstract: Fiber optic links are becoming integral part of the high speed communications and signal processing environment. With excellent immunity to EMI, almost unlimited bandwidth and low loss over large distances, digital and analog fiber optical links are preferred for many DOD applications. The incorporation of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) through the same single mode fiber is able to multiply the data rates through the fiber without the need to install additional fibers for the links. The objective of this research is to develop high performance digital links in the range of 4-8Gb/s or higher data rates with low noise, high dynamic range, low error rate and stability. PES has a strong background in developing high performance analog and digital fiber optical links. In phase I of this project, PES will study the Navy's need in detail and design a complete COTS components and software protocol based solution for the system. In addition , we will analyze the various aspects of the design of the digital fiber optic link in terms of loss, frequency response, noise figures, dynamic range and link latency. On the basis of the analytical prediction we will design,fabricate,charecterize and demonstrate a 4-8Gb/s directly modulated link usung availble laser diodes and photo-detectors. In phase II, we will extend our design to fabricate the state of the art transmit/receive modules as well as a complete link using COTS laser diodes, detectors and protocol for the broadband operation from 4 to 8 Gb/s or higher speed. The links will be low cost and can be made available to Navy at costs significantly lower than $1500 each. The fiber optic links will be operable over the MIL temperature range and will be ruggedized to MIL specifications in phase II. The links will be manufactured at low cost in phase III.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
2016 Belle Monti Ave
Belmont, CA 94002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 650-7242
Alexander Davis
NAVY 97-135
Title:Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Ship Motion Forecasting
Abstract: We propose an innovative combination of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to implement a real-time ship motion forecasting system, to augment current aircraft launch and recovery support systems in support of Dynamic Interface operations. This system will improve on previous prediction system efforts by introducing innovative techniques to generate actual ship motion forecasts in real-time with an immediacy commensurate with pilot and crew reaction times. It will provide sufficient support to significantly increase efficiency and safety of equipment and personnel during operations, for which previous work has been insufficient. SHAI is uniquely qualified to solve this problem by our experience in a broad range of AI paradigms, many of which promise innovative applicability to this task. These include model-based reasoning, case-based reasoning and neural networks. Further, we have acquired extensive knowledge about Dynamic Interface operations and physical system behavior prediction in general in past projects. In Phase I, we will study the state of the art of ship motion forecasting, determine the data sources available on current Naval aviation ships, acquire and study ship motion time histories, and develop a limited prototype which proves the feasibility of our approach by actually implementing the techniques that we develop to forecast ship motion.

SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
13766 S Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 679-2281
Peter M. Thompson, Ph.D.
NAVY 97-135
Title:Advanced Ship Motion Forecasting for Expanded Aviation Operations
Abstract: An innovative approach to Ship Motion Forecasting Systems (SFMS) based on Neural Net (NN) technology is proposed. Preliminary results using NNs with limited amounts of recorded ship motions indicate superior performance over classical forecasting techniques. The proposed Phase I effort will develop improved versions of the NNs and will demonstrate their performance on a significantly larger set of recorded ship motion data. The ship motions will be representative of different types of naval ships operating in various sea states. The Phase I effort will also develop performance metrics and confidence levels. For example, the estimated pitch at 10 seconds has a 90% chance of being within 0.25 degrees of the actual pitch. A software and hardware specification for a real time SFMS will be written during the Phase I Option, and a PC-based prototype system will be built and verified during the Phase II effort. Specialized NN or DSP hardware will be used if required for real time operation. The prototype system will include a hardware interface for current generation Shipboard Visual Landing Aid Systems, and will include a user interface with textured 3D graphics.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
55 Wheeler St.
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Paul G. Gonsalves
NAVY 97-136
Title:Intelligent Learning Agent System for Advanced Targeting Decision-Aiding
Abstract: The digitization of the tactical military environment with its concomitant increase in accessible information provides an opportunity to enhance decision-aiding capabilities of advanced Navy targeting systems. An approach employing intelligent software agents can facilitate enhanced decision-aiding by automating: the management and dissemination of relevant targeting information and intelligence data; the coordination and communication required for supporting distributed multi-site/multi-user operations; and the interface to tactical C4I systems. Additionally, the learning and tutoring aspects of agent technology can address user customization and on-line in-context coaching. Here, we propose an intelligent learning agent system for advanced targeting decision-aiding. Our system incorporates an off-line learning agent for learning operator responses to given tactical state information and event changes from prior event histories, and an on-line agent that incorporates an inference engine to map current event/state information into actions (in the autonomous decision-making mode) or suggested actions (in the tutoring/coaching mode). Our key innovation is the incorporation of several synergistic technologies: distributed processing and inter-agent communication capabilities, embedded knowledge, inferencing power, and on-line learning and customization of software agents. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing Navy advanced targeting decision-aiding systems and addressing future digitized battlespace requirements.

INTERSCIENCE, INC.
105 Jordan Rd.
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 283-7500
Dr. James Castracane
NAVY 97-138
Title:The DMD-NVG: Use of Digital Micromirror Technology for Interference Reduction in Night Vision Systems
Abstract: The use of image intensifiers in night vision systems provides significant advantages for military missions. Extremely sensitive detectors are currently in use which enable the user to operate effectively in starlight conditions. These advantages, however, can be mitigated by bright sources within the field of view. Effects can range from simple loss of contrast to blinding and resulting loss of hardware or personnel. Because of the widespread use of night vision systems, this significant problem demands a solution. InterScience proposes to leverage our current work in high resolution image intensification and micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) and apply them to the development of a new optical system for interference mitigation in night vision goggles (NVG) to be used for Navy applications. Exploiting recent developments in digital micromirror display (DMD) technology and using a novel optical arrangement, we intend to demonstrate a compact, DMD-based retrofit to NVG systems. With this goal in mind, Phase I and Phase II represent stepping stones to demonstrate the concept and develop a viable version of the DMD-NVG for the Navy. Phase III commercial spin-offs include surveillance, research applications and recreational use in as well as direct technology transfer to other branches of the Armed Services.

LSA, INC.
1215 Jefferson Davis Hwy, Suite 1300
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
Kevin M. Flood
NAVY 97-138
Title:Interference Mitigation in Night Vision Goggle (NVG) Systems
Abstract:LSA has demonstrated the ability to minimize many of the degrading effects of night-vision interference sources through the use of spatial light modulators (SLMs). In our prior work or night-vision devices (NVDs), we realized an increase in the effective dynamic range of an intensified imaging system by a factor of 500. For this program, we intend to bring the same technology to bear for night-vision goggles. Hower, night-vision goggles have additional requirements for interference-mitigation devices in addition to those imposed by other NVD systems. Size and weight considerations, which are of utmost importance to aviators, impose demanding constraints on the design of the interference-mitigation components. Furthermore, counter-counter measures to combat laser jammers require a different approach from those used for blooming control. On this program, we will address the requirements that are unique to NVGs through a combination of proprietary device designs and existing technologies.

ATLANTIC AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS CORP.
470 Totten Pond Rd
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 890-4200
Dr. Benson Rosen
NAVY 97-139
Title:Advanced Signal Processing and Display Concepts for Airborne Active ASW Systems
Abstract:Atlantic Aerospace proposes to develop an Active Sonar Display Processor (ASDP) to distinguish between submarine and non-submarine contacts in airborne active sonar systems. Accurate active classification of anti-submarine warfare (ASW) sonar echoes is a long standing need for the Navy. Current system performance is based upon an operator viewing the sonar screen and making classifications based upon his experience. For low-frequency active systems with their inherently greater range sensitivity and operating in shallow water, the number of false contacts can overwhelm the sonar operator. The penalties associated with incorrect active classification are great. The ASDP Display Processor will provide significant display features to increase the efficiency of a sonar operator by combining and associating contacts from different sensors and platforms, displaying tracking data for sonar contacts, overlaying bathymetry to indicate likely clutter area, indicating regions of low ensonification at target depths, using icons to indicate classification results and color coding to indicate confidence in classification. This will allow the operator to ignore contacts with high confidence and concentrate on those with low confidence employing single-ping and multi-ping automatic classification clues to aid operator decision-making. Finally, it will allow operators to interact with the display to make final classification decisions.

MULTISPEC CORP.
25 Black Latch Lane
Cherry Hill, NJ 08003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 751-0013
Dr. David Sheby
NAVY 97-139
Title:Advanced Signal Processing for Airborne Active ASW Systems in High Clutter Environments
Abstract:The key to enhanced detection performance of future active ASW sonar systems is the suppression of heavy clutter present in projected areas of operation (e.g., littoral waters). Although improvements can be made in many operational aspects of future systems, the fundamental limitation in performance will remain the heavy clutter, which is now known to be non-Gaussian. The non-Gaussian statistics of the clutter imply that the conventional processing technique of replica correlation (matched filtering) is sub-optimal and may exhibit poor performance since it is designed for Gaussian environments. In order to achieve (near-)optimal performance in these non-Gaussian clutter environments. MultiSpec Corporation has developed a situationally-adaptive technique for non-Gaussian clutter/noise environments to achieve (near-)optimum detection performance via clutter/noise suppression. Preliminary results with real data have shown a ten-fold decrease in false alerts (for the same probability of detection) when MultiSpec's technique is used instead of the conventional replica correlation processing. In Phase I. we propose the thorough testing and evaluation of this innovative signal processing technology using suitable performance metrics of target detection in the context of future airborne active ASW systems. This will include feasibility and cost- effectiveness of system implementation, as well as crisp quantification of the value added to the planned airborne ASW systems. The non-Gaussian statistics of the clutter imply that the conventional processing technique of replica correlation (matched filtering) is sub-optimal and may exhibit poor performance since it is designed for Gaussian environments. In order to achieve (nea In Phase I. we propose the thorough testing and evaluation of this innovative signal processing technology using suitable performance metrics of target detection in the context of future airborne active ASW systems. This will include feasibility and cost-effectiveness of system implementation, as well as crisp quantification of the value added to the planned airborne ASW systems.

RDA, INC.
P.O. Box 49
Doylestown, PA 18901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 349-8083
Ronald H. Buratti
NAVY 97-139
Title:Advanced Signal Processing and Display Concepts for Airborne Active ASW Systems
Abstract: Environmental robustness is a significant challenge facing the extension of the Airborne ASW search mission to littoral environments. As ASW systems are used increasingly in littoral waters, environmentally adaptive signal processing, classification, and display techniques are required if the systems are to be effective in diverse sonar conditions. The Navy has undertaken a number of active classification projects which have not proven to be environmentally robust. When the classifiers are exposed to a new and unknown environment, they suffer a drastic performance reduction. The human operator is more adept than any current automatic active classifier at adjusting to the environmental variability, and should remain central to the classification process. The solution proposed here will provide comprehensible information to the operator without overwhelming him with useless data.

SICOR (SEILER INTERNATIONAL CORP.)
2239 Portside Way
Charleston, SC 29407
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 766-5628
Carl S. Holland
NAVY 97-140
Title:AutoLog Large Array Robot for Rapid Cargo Throughput
Abstract: SICOR and the Pennsylvania State University propose to further the technology for an advanced, human interactive, automated material handling/logistics system (AutoLog) or large array robot. The system will robotically traverse large area work a Together with user-centered material handling software and controls, employing advanced virtual tools, the concept enables this large array robot to: + quickly learn and execute single, grouped or repetitive movement tasks, robotically with sophisticated attribute definition and attribute recognition software. + cost less than one third to half the price of comparable mobile crane or bridge crane systems while providing ten times the operating range along with significant positioning dexterity and movement reliability improvements. + provide remote, virtual "Point and Direct" control of operations. + greatly reduce and minimize operator training requirements.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin
NAVY 97-142
Title:Universal Intelligent Ferry Control System
Abstract: This SBIR project proposes the development of a Universal Intelligent Ferry Control System to meet the Navy's requirement of more capable causeway ferries of operating in sea state 3. Through employing and integrating advanced control approaches and state-of-the-art computer hardware/software techniques, the control system will have the following features: 1) robust, adaptive and reconfigurable control capability, 2) intuitive, operator friendly and easy to use, and 3) low cost, light weight and small size. To achieve the first feature, an integrated three-level control scheme of nonlinear control, robust control and neural fuzzy control is proposed for linearization, decoupling and compensation of thruster causalities, maximum efficiency, robustness against and adaptivity to the varying length and displacement of causeway ferries with or without load. A friendly, easy-to-use and multiple-mode operator interface will be designed to provide ferry status display, mouse function selection, keyboard parameter input, and joy stick/throttle control. The latest proven hardware and software techniques, such as microelectromechanical (MEM), multi-layered integrated circuits, and windows and object-oriented programming techniques, will be utilized to reduce the physical size, weight and manufacturing cost and enhance the reliability. The emphasis of the Phase I project will be on the conceptual design, feasibility study and performance demonstration of the proposed approaches and techniques.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
401 Camp Craft Rd.
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 306-1100
Dr. Michael G. Durrett
NAVY 97-143
Title:Multi-Access portal Cargo Tracking System
Abstract: Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes to develop an automated package tracking system which incorporates PDA/portal based RFID tags with a software reconfigurable portal readers, SPEC's Falcon Gateway SATCOM link, and SPEC Communications Router hosted at the Navy's designated logistics operations center. As packages traverse the portal reader or move pass a handheld PDA, the pallet or package contents are automatically read. Upon completion of the loading/unloading operation, the cargo manifest is transmitted as a digital e-mail message via an inexpensive Inmarsat SATCOM link to a designated Navy operations center. At the operations center a communications router sorts the manifest messages and routes the messages to multiple end location databases according to the specifics of the message routing template.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4171
Dr. Patricia Wilson
NAVY 97-146
Title:Environmentally Friendly Disposable Utensils from Clay Nanocomposites
Abstract:Foster-Miller, Inc. (FMI) proposes to use novel nanocomposite technology to enhance the thermomechanical properties of degradable polymers. These property improvements will enable the use of degradable polymers for applications requiring resistance to temperatures exceeding 100_C, such as plastic cutlery for hot food service. The primary objective of this research is to provide the U.S. Navy with ocean degradable food service items to replace currently used plastic cutlery and other disposable galley items. In this Phase I program, Foster-Miller will demonstrate the feasibility of producing nanocomposite materials with degradable resin systems. FMI will measure the thermomechanical properties and degradability of the resulting nanocomposites. The Phase I optional task is a demonstration of the use of a degradable nanocomposite material in an injection molded cutlery application. This work will be performed with the aid of Signature Works, Inc. (a member of the National Industries for the Blind).

KEY CONSULTING ASSOC.
1008 NE 94th Ct
Kansas City, MO 64155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(816) 468-5695
Joseph C. Roetheli
NAVY 97-146
Title:Environmentally-Safe Gluten Polymer Based Degradable Food Service Utensils
Abstract: The proposed research addresses a very pragmatic issue faced by the U.S. Navy--development of environmentally-friendly, safe, disposable food service utensils to meet terms of the MARPOL Treaty and to support efforts to automate galleys aboard ships. Competitive cost has been a major hurdle for all biodegradable food service utensils publicized to date; in addition, the slow rate of degradation has been an issue with many such products. The wheat gluten based resin and processing technology proposed herein holds promising potential to overcome these hurdles. For the past year, Key Consulting Associates has been developing and now is in the process of commercially launching an injection molded product using Midwest Grain Products' wheat gluten resin and its processing technology. Injection molding of product for the pet industry with current formulations demonstrates the desirable mechanical properties of the gluten resin--somewhere between polypropylene and polystyrene but degradable. The finished products proposed herein are projected to be very cost competitive with strong commercial viability. Food service items manufactured using the wheat gluten resin are expected to be not only biodegradable and environmentally safe, in fact they can also be edible. When the utensils degrade, they produce carbon dioxide and water. Objectives for Phase I; 1. Formulate resins and mold prototype products, 2. Build improved mold and refine molding proceudres to improve product performance, and 3. Evaluate mechanical properties and degradability.

PSYCHOMETRIC SOLUTIONS
4661 Harvey Road
San Diego, CA 92116
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 396-3031
Edward F. Alf, Jr.
NAVY 97-147
Title:A Tool to Optimize the Predictive Accuracy of Personnel Selection and Classification Instruments
Abstract:The primary goal of this proposal is to design a method for providing unbiased estimates of test validities, intercorrelations, and means for Navy applicants when the test validation samples contain only selected individuals. In practice, personnel selection test and criterion performance scores, obtained only from Navy selectees, rather than the entire population of applicants are used to estimate the validity of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) tests and composites. Since the individuals in these samples have been preselected in a variety of ways and are restricted in their range of ability, their predictive validities do not accurately estimate applicant validities. Accurate estimates of applicant test validities are required, since these tests are actually designed to make selection and classification decisions for applicants. Although there are known and scientifically acceptable procedures for estimating applicant validities, involving correcting validities observed on the selected samples, they do not take into account the effect of sequential selection systems that can result in samples which fail to meet the required statistical assumptions of the available correction procedures.During the Phase I effort, we will investigate the feasibility of designing a methodology to estimate, for Navy applicants, or any population, an unbiased predictor and criterion intercorrelation matrix. In short, our major goal is to provide unbiased and accurate estimates of school validities in the applicant population, with its biases and distortions, rather than in a general population of non-applicants, such as the ASVAB norming group, the American Youth Population (U.S. Department of Defense, 1983).

PSYCHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS & RESEARCH
1975 Willow Ridge Circle
Kent, OH 44240
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(330) 678-8958
David DuBois
NAVY 97-148
Title:Diagnostic Cognitive Task Analysis and Test Design
Abstract: The overall goal of this project is to enable team trainers to develop effective assessments of team training and performance. To achieve this goal, we plan to complete the following three objectives during Phase I. These are: (1) conduct cognitive task analyses focused on team knowledge acquired in formal instructional settings; (2) develop a diagnostic test team performance; and (3) refine the ADEPT software tool for cognitive test design.

COGNITIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4200 Lorcom Lane
Arlington, VA 22207
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 524-4331
Jared T. Freeman
NAVY 97-149
Title:A Hybrid Analysis of Task and Team Performance in the CIC
Abstract:CTI and its subcontractors, BDM's Defense Enterprise Integration Team and Sonalysts, Inc., propose to apply a hybrid task analysis methodology to model critical functions in the CIC and derive measures of performance by individuals and teams. The approach is a hybrid in that it joins cognitive analysis techniques with methods typically used to in business re-engineering studies. In addition, it integrates analyses of individual and team performance. From the analysis results, we will develop a model of individual and team performance, derive measures of performance and identify tasks in which those measures might be taken. The model and measures will be designed to be implemented in a multi-media performance assessment system which will be conceptualized in a Phase I option and implemented in Phase II.

KAPOS ASSOC., INC.
1101 Wilson Blvd.
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 524-1564
Michael E. McDevitt
NAVY 97-149
Title:Cognitive and Process-based Diagnostic Tool for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Team Training
Abstract: This proposal applies experience gained developing Measures of Proficiency for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) and cognitive task analysis (CTA) techniques to develop multi-media diagnostic tools for team training. Phase I will result in full cognitive and team process analyses of teams performing mission tasks in Anti-Submarine Warfare in a simulator. A key facet of these analyses will be development of an expert rules list and comparison of novice and expert behaviors in both knowledge representation and communications. Diagnostic tests fro declarative knowledge and in-situ diagnostic survey instruments will be produced to determine the rule-based procedures used by teams conducting ASW. Performance measures and methodology developed for resource analysis of proficiency, adopted from the FY96/97 ASW Measures of Proficiency study funded by CINCPACFLT, will be used to benchmark team performance using the 14A12 ASW Team Trainer at Fleet ASW Training Center, San Diego, CA. Eight to ten shipboard ASW teams will be used as test subjects for the research as they participate in the Single Ship ASW Course (CIN K-2E-4634), a two-week course of instruction comprised of classroom and simulator training. Phase II will develop and test prototype multi-media technology application based upon diagnostic clues provided by the phase I analyses. Validation of diagnostic procedures will be conducted in Phase II using ASW Measures of Proficiency for comparative analysis of diagnostic effectiveness.

SUMMIT RESEARCH CORP.
1 West Deer Park Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 460-6205
Robert S. Myre
NAVY 97-150
Title:Target Imagery Classification System
Abstract: Summit Research Corporation's (SRC) technical objectives are to research and develop a robust, innovative Target Imagery Classification System that utilizes ISAR Imagery reports via OTH Gold Message, I&Q radar data and ISAR processed, video imagery received at a fusion center via video link. SRC will design OTH Gold Message ISAR "trial lines" to report operator-measured key image attributes and characteristics. SRC and the LM scientists will also utilize current SRC/LM String Edit, Autofocus and FCDS Probabilities/Fuzzy Logic Algorithms to process, evaluate and classify the three types of imagery, combined with an ISAR, Acoutic, EW, E/B Field Multi-Sensor Correlation, Classification and Data Fusion Process. A robust ISAR Imagery Attributes and Characteristics DBase will be developed to support this project, based on current SRC work on the USN THAW/DADS and PACS-FCDS R&D Projects.

EM&I, INC.
1600 Autumnwood Drive
Reston, VA 20194
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 739-1945
Dennis Broderick
NAVY 97-151
Title:Interactive Audio Human System Interface
Abstract: Engineering, Management & Integration, Inc. (EM&I), as the prime contractor, and Global Associates, Ltd. (Global), as a subcontractor, propose to assess the feasibility of implementing an Interactive Audio (IA) Human-System Interface (HSI) to obtain data from information systems. As proposed, the IA HSI will provide warfighters with a means of timely access to data, while allowing them to simultaneously perform other mission essential activities. It could be especially useful to shorten response times in rapid response situations, allowing personnel to obtain information using voice and hearing, leaving eyes and hands free to perform other activities. Our proposal focuses on the exploitation of human multi-sensory capabilities to increase productivity and information transfer. It builds on the results of the proprietary Audio Publications Services (APS) initiative performed by the EM&I/Global Team. The APS initiative defines a concept for providing commuters interactive audio services, including a prototype for an audio newspaper. This concept will be expanded to encompass the broad range of IA HSI applications. Phase I objectives include developing design concepts for IA HSI implementation and a prototype that demonstrates the projected user environment. The EM&I/Global Team proposes six tasks to accomplish the Phase I objectives plus an optional seventh task to support transition to Phase II. Collectively, these tasks provide the requirements generation, technical analysis, design synthesis, and prototyping needed to achieve the Phase I objectives and establish the foundation for IA HSI implementation. The EM&I/Global Team is committed to this effort and proposes highly qualified personnel to ensure its successful completion.

HYPRES, INC.
175 Clearbrook Rd.
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Dr. Michael S. Pambianchi
NAVY 97-152
Title:Superconducting tunable multipole bandpass filter with in-situ trim
Abstract: In this Phase I SBIR project, HYPRES proposes to demonstrate a tunable lumped-element superconducting bandpass filter for transmit/receive isolation applications, using Josephson circuits for in situ trim and control. Such a filter will provide insertion loss below 1 dB and 60 dB out-of-band rejection in a filter which can be tuned over the range 500 MHz - 2 GHz. The project will take advantage of the ability to fabricate precision capacitive and inductive filter elements with very small physical dimensions using the HYPRES NB process, reducing costs and imposing only modest cooling requirements while increasing fabrication yield over filters designed for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. After feasibility is shown, the project will culminate with the design of a digitally controlled bandpass filter which is fully tunable over the range 2 MHz - 2 GHz by a control circuit interfaced to a room-temperature interface control bus. In Phase II, HYPRES proposes to build and test a prototype of that filter circuit with control interface bus.

TECSEC, INC.
1953 Gallows Rd., Suite 220
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 506-9069
Francis J. Adamouski, Jr.
NAVY 97-153
Title:Use of CKM, SuperCard and RFRS to achieve "Security for Reprogrammable Electronic Devices"
Abstract: STS/TECSEC has several technologies that provide a high degree of assurance that Multi-level security for Reprogrammable Electronic Devices is an achievable goal. The cornerstone of these technologies is a cryptographic key management system called Constructive Key Management (CKM). CKM is product which provides a unique method of generating cryptographic key and managing multiple algorithms. It has been accepted as a standard for Finance and Banking transactions by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), has been implemented in an audio and imagery processing system under government contract and is available commercially in a file encryption, mail encryption and web site encryption product. Used with the second technology, a "Super" Smart Card having a 16-bit processor, 256 Kbytes of SRAM and 8 to 32 Mbytes of Flash Memory, a system of "split technology" can be achieved, protected by cryptography, allowing an individual to control only the authorized parameters of a reprogrammable device while at the same time providing multi-level security to the data flow. In addition, a third technology, Radio Frequency Resonant Signature will be used to authenticate and identify the SuperCards. This technology has been selected for use with US passports and Social Security card beginning in 1998 and is under consideration by the FAA for use on baggage tags in US airports. A fourth technology, presently being investigated for use on the SuperCard, would enable remote updates of the card, anywhere in the world. The "bringing together" of all these technologies plus the use of either a passphrase or biometrics to enhance authentication would provide a cryptographic process to configure the "Device" and also provide multi-level cryptographic security to the "data flow" created by the device.

VIASAT, INC.
2290 Cosmos Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 438-7210
Mark Johnson
NAVY 97-154
Title:MIDS/JTIDS Transmission of Critical Aircraft Flight/Emergency Data
Abstract: Communications and data processing have progressed to the point where it is now feasible to widely employ MIDS/JTIDS technology on commercial aircraft. By tapping the flight data information sent to the Flight Data Recorder (FDR), information can be transmitted in real-time to air traffic monitoring sites. In the event of a mishap or accident, rescue agencies would be able to quickly determine the precise location of the incident as well as make initial determinations as to the cause of the incident. The system ViaSat is proposing provides the required MIDS/JTIDS based Flight Data Transmission and is referred to as M-FDT (MIDS Flight Data Transmission). No other company large or small has demonstrated enhanced thruput modes without any modification which would effect the IPF/EMC features circuitry. The enhanced thruput Link-16 modes developed at ViaSat allow the M-FDR to provide a Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) function and provide Quick Access Recorder (QAR) functionality allowing parameters to be sampled at increased data rates to aid in hazard identification and prevention.

ECO ENERGY CONVERSION
(d/b/a Tracer Technologies, In
Somerville, MA 02145
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 776-6610
Fraser Walsh
NAVY 97-155
Title:An Improved High-Energy-Density Battery
Abstract:The objective of the Phase I program is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a cell in annular design which meets the Navy's mission needs. This cell is to utilize Li/CFx chemistry to take advantage of the high energy density and improved safety of this chemistry. In the Phase I program, ECO will develop an improved cathode material and then demonstrate the performance of this cathode material in both cylindrical and annular cell designs.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
7923 Jones Branch Dr.
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(601) 863-0007
John Walrod
NAVY 97-156
Title:Application of Standard Network Technologies to Surveillance Arrays
Abstract: Planning Systems Incorporated (PSI) presents an innovative approach to the development and design of a Surveillance Array ATM Network which provides the benefits of open-architecture ATM technology while solving issues such as coherent sample rate clock distribution across sensor nodes. PSI's proposed approach leverages recent advancements in technical areas such as Navy towed array ATM telemetry, Navy measurement range ATM telemetry, and commercial Voice and Telephony over ATM (VTOA).

DCS CORP.
1330 Braddock Place
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 683-8430
Willian Pritchett
NAVY 97-157
Title:A Code Analysis Tool for High-Integrity Systems
Abstract: Research is currently underway to produce guidelines for the development of mission and safety critical systems implemented in Ada 95. This research will analyze whether certain features of Ada 95 should be included or excluded from a critical application. To be of practical value such an analysis will require specific tool support. The Ada Semantic Interface Specification (ASIS) defines a vendor independent API for accessing both the syntactic and semantic information stored within an Ada compiler's library. In this Phase I proposal, we propose to design a tool utilizing ASIS, which is compiler and platform independent and which will allow code to be analyzed based on the evolving standard guidelines for critical systems. The design will employ a layered approach separating the GUI, the ASIS query engine and the report generator. This combined with the use of Ada/Java technology will allow the tool to operate on multiple platforms with little or no modification. The design will be object-oriented with emphasis and utilizing and developing reusable components wherever possible. The design will be expressed in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

ORINCON HAWAII, INC.
970 North Kalaheo Ave., Suite C-215
Kailua, HI 96734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 254-1532
Mr. Richard D. Trueblood
NAVY 97-158
Title:Detection Using a Generalized Hough Transform Track-Before-Detect Processing
Abstract: Under this SBIR program, ORINCON proposes to demonstrate algorithms to perform detection, localization, and tracking of targets in shallow-water scenarios where the primary measurements available are bearing (time difference of arrival at two phase centers) versus time. The approach used is Track-Before-Detect processing. The term Track-Before-Detect refers to the joint estimation-detection process involved when several time epochs of the basic measurements are combined in such a way as to include the temporal processing gain available from integrating over the total time span associated with the measurements. This utilization of the past data samples however does not need to imply an equivalent time-late as the processing will be done recursively and the information from the past is stored in the state parameters associated with the hypothesized tracks of the targets. A similar more restrictive process is currently being used at ORINCON in connection with the Full Spectrum Program. The restrictive feature alluded to is that the presently implemented ÇHough TransformÇ assumes the time difference versus time track is sufficiently short enough to be approximated by a straight line. The utilization of the ÇGeneralized Hough TransformÇ as proposed by NRL will remove this restriction.

IRI COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS CORP.
19562 Ventura Blvd
Tarzana, CA 91356
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 996-9805
Dr. Izhak Rubin
NAVY 97-159
Title:Generic multiple Access Module Prototype for the PRIDE System
Abstract: Wireless networks heavily rely on the effective use of multiple access radio links to support multimedia communications. Programmable intelligent digital electronics structures, such as the PRIDE system, are being developed to provide dynamic adaptation of the radio system physical layer functions to changes in link communications behavior. Yet, to effectively allocate the medium access control and network layer resources of wireless links, a generic multiple access module and tool must be developed and integrated. The purpose of this proposed work is to use IRI's innovative hybrid analytical and simulation techniques, integrated with the structure of the currently existing IRI ÇPlanystÇ tool, to develop in Phase I models and methods that can then be used in Phase II for the development of a software based generic multiple access prototype module and tool. This module can interact with the employed intelligent electronics system, and with the network management controllers. The proposed module incorporates the traffic and quality-of-service (QoS) requirements of realtime and non-realtime applications, the inputs provided from radio links and the PRIDE system, and other network signals, to best select and tune-up the multiple-access system operation in sharing the available radio link and network resources. It will serve as a tool for planning, analysis, management, control, and resource allocation of hybrid wireless and wired network systems, under application based QoS guarantees. Applications include Navy and Marine Corps JMCOMS ADNS, GCCS, JDISS, Link-11, TADIL, Battle Group RF LOS and SATCOM, Tactical Force Battle Management, NGFS, SAR, AAW, and ASuW network systems.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Mr. Kermit Harvel
NAVY 97-160
Title:Broadband Signature Information Identification and Extraction
Abstract: Operators have some difficulty classifying contacts on current system displays. Existing display techniques could incorporate broadband spectra to assist operators in the discrimination of contacts. A unique approach is proposed that uses color encoded broadband spectral signature information to discriminate contacts. This simple addition of encoding contact broadband information with color allows the smooth integration of new classification capabilities into current BTH displays in operation. In this Phase I SBIR study I, several encoding techniques will be investigated to determine which provides the best target discrimination improvement. Verifying the performance of automatic systems in dense contact environments, manually operating sonar systems, and discriminating between submarine and surface traffic should become less taxing with ITA's proposed enhancement of existing displays.

METROLASER, INC.
18006 Skypark Circle #108
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 853-3857
William E. Finley
NAVY 97-161
Title:Shipboard Auto-Tracking with a Unique Gimbal System
Abstract: We propose to develop a unique gimbal system for shipboard auto-tracking based on technology developed by the proposing team for an airborne system. The airborne system features jitter control to less than 10 microradians while performing line of sight stabilized tracking from aircraft. Two MetroLaser gimbals now in service are delivering 3-5 microradian performance. The high bandwidth control system completely compensates for roll, pitch, and yaw of the moving vehicle. Much of the technology is directly applicable to the shipboard problem. The control system will always maintain lock-on of operator designated targets using edge, correlation, or centroid tracking after handover from the ship's radar. Sea State 3 is within the gimbals' performance envelope. The combination of MetroLaser's rigid structures and the Hughes patented quasi-strapdown equation solution results in a gimbal of exceptional stability and performance. Either a mirror or a sensor package mounted directly on the gimbal can be adapted to meet the Navy requirement. We will assess critical issues such as materials, field-of-regard, protective coatings and candidate mounting locations. Phase I culminates in a recommended configuration and design analysis for a prototype gimbal.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Dr. Michael Wazenski
NAVY 97-162
Title:Physics Based Signal Processing for Next Generation Naval Systems
Abstract: Current signal processing techniques for passive sonar are limited by their simple plane wave mechanics assumptions. Next generation systems, if they are to offer significant performance improvements, must account for the complex propagation conditions that exist in the ocean. To this end DSR proposes an adaptive technique to perform localization of contacts using the highly complex acoustic propagation inherent in littoral waters. DSR will focus on the Advance Deployable System (ADS), leveraging any and all resources to provide maximum cost-effectiveness. The Phase I effort will derive and analyze the proposed adaptive technique, test algorithms through comprehensive simulation, and document results. In addition, DSR will develop appropriate system and operator interfaces and make recommendations for continued research.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. Alan Bray/Mr. John Bu
NAVY 97-163
Title:Abrasion Resistant Low Friction Elastomeric Boot Materials for High Power Active Projectors
Abstract: High power transducer boots must undergo one of the most stringent stress profiles of any underwater encapsulation. Added to the hydrostatic and vibratory fatigue stresses are the problems that come with moving frictional contact - abrasion and heating. Abrasion resistant materials are typically not heat resistant, and fatigue resistant materials are not good at sustaining heat, abrasion, and wear processes. The solution proposed is a multi-layer material built on a fatigue resistant base boot, with a heat or abrasion resistant liner impregnated with friction reducing additives. By using a dual or tri-material approach the benefits of the most resistant materials to a given stress type are combined into a single transducer boot. The challenge is to combine these in a way that maintains boot reliability - this means chemically bonding the laminates to insure an integral boot. Bonds between materials so diverse are difficult to achieve in a transducer environment, and strategies are outlined which should prove bonding feasibility in Phase I. Phase I will culminate with the installation of three prototype boots on scale slotted cylinder transducers. Phase I Option I takes the booted transducers to Lake Seneca, NY for a fully submerged endurance test to demonstrate boot life enhancement over current designs.

MISSION DATA CORP.
12910 Factory Lane
Louisville, KY 40245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(502) 243-2423
Alvin J. Alexander
NAVY 97-164
Title:Visual Transformation Software Tool
Abstract: Mission Data Corporation proposes to develop a software tool and transformation process that analyzes existing C and Ada83 procedural source code, identifies the software objects and operations contained within that code, and re-packages those objects into C++ and Ada95 object-oriented programming languages, with the simultaneous repackaging of the new code for distribtuion amongst various computing platforms. The software tool will use a novel reengineering/redistribution process, combined with existing code parser technology, and a computer platform abstraction layer (CPAL) to achieve reengineering of the distributed source code. The main goal of the proposed Phase I effort will be to demonstrate the viability of this approach by creating a prototype tool, and testing this tool against the existing Navy IUSS Ada83 and C source code. During the project, creation of a Requirements Specification, followed by Object-Oriented Analysis, Design, and Development of the Phase I prototype will be achieved to support this goal.

---------- DARPA ----------

69 Phase I Selections from the 97.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
DIAMOND MATERIALS, INC.
120 Centennial Avenue
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-0805
Oleg Voronov
DARPA 97-050
Title:High Pressure High Temperature Consolidation of Carbon Nanotubes for Structural and Other Applications
Abstract:Diamond Materials Incorporated (DMI) proposes to synthesize a new class of carbon-carbon composite, termed "Fullertubite". In conventional carbon-carbon ceramics, composite properties are controlled by the anisotropic properties of the carbon fibers. Fullertubite, synthesized from randomly oriented micron-sized carbon nanotubes, has the potential to overcome the anisotropic strength properties, while improving the toughness by crack deflection and crack branching. Moreover, carbon nanotubes are more oxidation resistant than other forms of fullerene derivatives and thus Fullertubite have potential for superior high temperature stability. Building upon our recent experiments on high pressure high temperature consolidation of C60 fullerenes, Fullertubite will be produced in our High Pressure High Temperature apparatus, by three-dimensional polymerization of carbon nanotubes at pressures of 2 GPa - 8 GPa, and temperatures up to 1600 degrees C. In Phase 1, Fullertubite synthesis will be demonstrated for small pellets (4mm o x 3mm thick), which will allow characterization of its physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and other properties that are pertinent to military and industrial applications. In Phase II, we will develop industrial scale methods of Fullertubite synthesis not only for structural materials but also for additional applications as warranted. In Phase II, we will also focus on methodologies to increase production, improve properties, and reduce cost. In Phase III, we will commercialize the technology.

HYPERION CATALYSIS INTERNATIONAL
38 Smith Place
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 354-9678
Chunning Niu
DARPA 97-050
Title:Affordable nanotube based "molecular composites"
Abstract:There are three elements to the cost of a composite: the matrix, the reinforcement and the cost of the fabrication technology. It is affordable fabrication technology that hinders nanocomposite development. Techniques like lay-up, winding etc., mandated by continuous fibers, are simply too expensive. A truly low cost fabrication method would have to be based on short fibers. Individualized nanotubes, however, form dramatically viscous (and non-Newtonian) suspensions. Considerable experience with these suspensions leads Hyperion to conclude that they will never be economically fabricated into reinforced composite shapes. We propose, therefore, to: 1) assemble robust nanotube preforms of the desired size and shape; 2) infiltrate the preforms with monomer; and 3) polymerize the monomer in situ. In as much as carbon nanotubes are of nearly molecular dimension, the resulting composites will be analogous to an interpenetrating network, one component of which is a rigid rod polymer. In such interpenetrating networks, sometimes called "molecular composites", load is transferred via mechanical entanglement and not by surface interaction, the usual rule-of-mixture equations for the properties of short-fiber reinforced composites do not apply.

MER CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
S. Guha
DARPA 97-050
Title:A New Generation of Magnetic Medium for Improved Information Storage Devices
Abstract:A new generation of information (magnetic) storage medium is being proposed in the form of carbon nanotubes infiltrated with a ferro-magnetic material core. By virtue of their acicular shape and small size (2-20 nm diameter and 50-200 nm in length), such carbon nanotubes with a magnetic material core will be an excellent alternative to the current state-of-the-art information storage materials such as acicular micron-sized particulates of Fe2O3, Co-adsorbed Fe2O3, -Fe with a surface passivation layer of Fe2O3 or CrO2. It is expected that the acicular shape will retain the anisotropy of magnetization while the order-of-magnitude reduction in the scale of these particulates will permit a tremendous increase in information storage density. Further, the carbon nanotubes being non-ferromagnetic, will serve as a natural barrier between individual magnetic domains which will improve the signal response. In addition to the above, the encapsulation of the ferro-magnetic material inside the carbon tube may exhibit some benefits with respect to decreased head wear while the reduction in the magnetic material particulate size should also result in decreased surface roughness which is one of the contributing factors to tape noise. It is proposed to infiltrate these carbon nanotubes either in-situ (during their synthesis) or after synthesis using vapor infiltration etc.) with Fe-group materials since they exhibit high coercivity. The success of such a program will have an impact as a dual-use technology.

ACTIVE DEVICES, INC.
71 Smith St.
Wellesley, MA 02181
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 648-5671
Kamyar Ghandi
DARPA 97-051
Title:Compact Piezoelectric Based Power Generation
Abstract:Active Devices proposes an innovation for energy harvesting using piezoelectric based approaches to extract energy from mechanical vibrations. This innovation consists of a piezoelectric element for energy transduction, rectifier circuits for extraction, and storage devices to store power for use by other devices. Ideal models predict that a 1" x1" x.010" piezoelectric wafer undergoing moderate vibration should be capable of generating on the order of 10's of milliWatts. This indicates potential for developing a very compact chip sized power supply. The power obtained from vibratory motion can now be used to power sensors and/or provide for RF transmit of information to base receivers. Some possibilities include networks of small embedded self-powered sensors in aircraft and helicopters, battlefield logistics using mechanical vibrations on a bridge to record vehicle crossings, seismic event recording, and health monitoring. The primary objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of piezoelectric based approaches to extract electrical power from mechanical vibrations. Tasks designed to accomplish this include: 1) developing a design methodology for piezoelectric energy harvesting, 2) investigating potential circuit topologies, and 3) validating concepts through an experimental program. This research will establish a design for a prototype device for insertion into a selected military application.

AZ TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4901 Corporate Dr, Ste 101
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 837-9877
Howard Dunn
DARPA 97-051
Title:Non-Solar Remote Environmental Energy Power Generator
Abstract:Remote field seismic or vibrations sensors typically use solar power or batteries to power operations. DARPA has identified the need to augment or replace these power sources with a device that produces power independent of solar energy. Specifically, DDARPA is searching for new low power device technology that harvests energy from existing field environments. AZ Technology's novel concept is design of an array type device, less than 50 cm3 in volume, that will use available low temperature environmental energy to generate greater than 10 milliwatts of power during times when solar dependent generators are non-functional (night or north facing hill). This power will be used to trickle charge a capacitor or battery to provide sensor power or pulsed 1-5 watt data transmission. During Phase I, AZ Technology will design and demonstrate, through prototype development, an innovative thermoelectric based field remote environment energy scavenging thermoelectric generator (ESTEG). Phase I efforts will completer a thermal/power analysis on our innovative design. Feasibility will be demonstrated by fabricating a prototype module that generates non-solar power related energy at greater than 0.20-0.5 milliwatts/cm3.

SIGMA LABS, INC.
10960 N. Stallard Pl
Tucson, AZ 85737
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 575-8013
Wolfgang Decker
DARPA 97-051
Title:Thin Film Thermoelectric File for Energy Harvesting
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposes the development of thin film thermoelectric piles for energy harvesting devices. The patented thin film technology, which is successfully used for the production of nanolaminate high density capacitors, allows to produce thermopiles with an extreme high density of active thermocouples, typically app. 500 couples per mm laminate thickness. The serial connection of the thermocouples performed during the production process allow to generate electric energy with a convenient voltage level at temperature gradients of a few degrees only. The proposed investigation will develop an energy harvesting device based on thin film thermopiles. In the Phase I work the basics for the adaptation of the nanolaminate process with the required modifications for the production of thermopiles will be evaluated. The thermopile structures obtained from this work will be tested thoroughly to explore the potential and the limitations of the process. The Phase II work will install an automated process for the high speed production of thermopile laminates. Additionally a complete concept for energy harvesting devices including power management unit and energy storage system will be developed.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS, INC.
7 Commerce Drive
Danbury, CT 06810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 794-1100
Gregory Stauf
DARPA 97-052
Title:Phased Array Antenna on a Wafer
Abstract:The ongoing explosion of microwave radar and communications systems calls for improvement in electronically scanned antennas (ESAs). However, current ESAs crafted from multiple individual elements are extremely expensive. Forming an antenna with integrated scanning and impedance matching elements on a single substrate using thin film technologies may decrease costs by up to two orders of magnitude, allowing essentially disposable antennas. This approach is particularly appealing as microwave frequencies increase, since geometries shrink, making bulk solutions more expensive and those employing thin films less expensive. In Phase I, we will demonstrate a tunable embedded strip line device at 19 GHz with dynamic impedance matching, using ferroelectric BaSrTiO3 (BST) thin films for tunable elements. ATMI has extensive experience with deposition of BST thin films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, which offers the ability to make very high quality ferroelectric material. Intrinsic losses as low 0.002 at 1 MHz in thin film BST produced by MOCVD have been demonstrated, with dielectric constants of >500 at 30 GHz. Phase I will also address design issues in preparation for Phase II, which will culminate in a prototype multielement ESA fabricated on a single substrate.

CCVD, INC.
3901 Green Industrial Way
Chamblee, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 457-7767
Wen-Yi Lin
DARPA 97-052
Title:Low Loss and Cost Thin Film for Frequency Adaptive Electronics
Abstract:Microwave resonators of linear dielectrics for wireless applications have been fabricated in bulk form using conventional ceramic processing in the current commercial market. Machining and fine polishing are frequently required for dimension control and surface finish in addition to the inherent unfeasibility to fabricate miniaturized electronic circuits. It is vital to develop a suitable thin film technique capable of producing commercially viable, high-performance, low-loss, field adaptable oxide films for telecommunications. Thin film devices have been deposited using various CVD techniques, including MOCVD, PECVD, and LPCVD. However, these approaches are limited by the existing precursors of low vapor pressure, high toxicity, and high cost, in addition to the high capital investment in vacuum systems and reaction chambers. Therefore, the aforementioned CVD techniques are not cost effective, as compared to the newly invented combustion CVD at MicroCoating Technologies. Over 90% savings have been demonstrated using CCVD, compared to traditional CVD, with increased deposition flexibility and production-friendliness. The thin films produced in open atmosphere using the CCVD have comparable quality to CVD films. The CCVD also allows substrates to be passed through a deposition zone in a production line for large area coatings. Ba(1-x)Sr(x)TiO(3) and SrTiO(3) are the primary candidates for filter and oscillator applications, due to their high dielectric constants and low loss. Epitaxial YIG is another potential material for microwave filters. Polycrystalline spinel and hexagonal ferrites as well as perovskite ferroelectrics are candidates for tunable phase shifters. Based on past experiences, quality thin films will be grown. The microstructure and electromagnetic properties of the thin films will be characterized. The performance will be optimized and reproducibility will be demonstrated. The above devices are desired for frequency agile filters, oscillators, phase shifters and antennas, impacting on commercial and military applications. These devices can also be easily configured to function as circulators, isolators, DRAM, etc. The CCVD was featured in CNN's Future Watch and Dollars and Sense and in Business Week. American Ceramic Society Bulletin cited CCVD as one of the top five new ceramic coating technologies of the 90's. In April 97, MCT transformed its first completed Phase II into multi-million dollar Phase III funding.

F&S, INC.
P.O. Box 11704
Blacksburg, VA 24062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4267
Michael Miller
DARPA 97-052
Title:Ionic Self-Assembled Electric Field Tunable Frequency Adaptive Electronic Materials and Devices
Abstract:This DARPA SBIR Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of revolutionary ionic self-assembly methods of creating electric field-tunable thin-film electronic materials and devices. Exciting recent work at F&S and Virginia Tech has shown that the ionic nature of the self-assembly process inherently results in the spontaneous regular geometric ordering of noncentrosymmetric dipole molecules. Alternating ultra-thin dipole molecules and low-loss polymers in successive monolayers yields a polar ferroelectric thin-film material, with properties determined by both the monolayer constituents on the molecular level. Very recent F&S research results indicate that these thin-films exhibit both piezoelectric and electro-optic behavior. Initial results also indicate that the thin-films exhibit long-term stability, in contrast to poled piezoelectric polymer materials that degrade with time. The self-assembly process additionally allows simplicity of manufacturing, adaptability to two- and three-dimensional patterning and low-cost. F&S has licensed the enabling Virginia Tech patent for self-assembled noncentrosymmetric thin-films, and would work with Virginia Tech and Litton to rapidly transition recent laboratory results to prototype device products.

SUPERCONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
460 Ward Dr., Ste F
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 683-7646
Muralidhar Rao
DARPA 97-052
Title:Superconductor-Ferroelectric-Superconductor Trilayers for Novel Tunable Microwave Devices
Abstract:This effort will develop tunable microwave resonators based on high temperature superconductor (HTS) multilayer technology, which will form the basic building block for a new generation of advanced communications filters. The proposed work will contribute to the growth of wireless communications for both military and commercial sectors. At Superconductor Technologies, Inc. (STI), thick trilayers utilizing YBa2Cu3)7-x (YBCO) HTS and NdAlO3 dielectric layers have been developed with performance superior to the existing state-of-the-art. In addition, trilayer resonators orders of magnitude smaller than conventional devices have been demonstrated. Tunability of trilayer resonators will be achieved in the proposed program by moving to SrTiO3 as the dielectric, which is ferroelectric. Phase I research will focus on demonstrating a novel microwave resonator with HTS/SrTiO3/HTS trilayers. Trilayer properties relevant to the device will be measured. The device will be fabricated, tested, and modeled, and the loss tangent measured over a wide range of temperatures. The tunability of the resonators will be simulated using experimentally confirmed properties of trilayers. These structures will ultimately enable frequency agile filters with orders of magnitude higher selectivity than is possible with existing filter technologies, and simultaneously reduced component volume. Beneficial to civilian cellular and PCS providers, and military units, who need high performance tunable filters to reduce interference and improve jamming resistance. HTS trilayer tunable filters will meet customer needs of frequency agility, reduced interference, improved communication range, increased mobility, and reduced service & environmental costs. Potential markets are about $1B/yr in each of military and commercial sectors.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 E. College Avenue, Suite J
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Wesley Hackenberger
DARPA 97-052
Title:Voltage Tunable Ferroelectric Composites for Phased Array Radar
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I program will address the fabrication and testing of voltage variable dielectrics (VVD) in which the refractive index (n) can be E-field tuned providing electronic scanning in the microwave regions. In collaboration with Hughes' Radar Division, the manufacturing of large area composites based on the perovskite Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) will be integrated into a continuous transverse antenna architecture for phased array radar concurrent to this effort will be investigation of thick film BST or cofired / tape-cast BST for fabrication of voltage tunable microwave frequency capacitors. The Phase I research will provide a basis for the manufacturing of BST composites with further optimization in Phase II, including device specific applications such as automotive collision warning devices, airport encursion, sensors, etc.

ADVANCED DEVICE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2015 Ivy Road, Suite 308
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 979-1648
Michael Hurt
DARPA 97-053
Title:Nanoelectric Modeling Software Development
Abstract:This Phase I project has two primary objectives. The first objective is to develop an engineering model of Resonant Tunneling Devices (RTD) to be implemented in AIM-Spice, a commercial software package running under Windows 95/NT. The development of a reliable device model is a prerequisite for the design and production of any semiconductor device technology. The RTD model will be a semi-empirical, physics-based model which will be scalable, allowing the user to accurately simulate RTD circuits. The second technical objective of this project is to simulate RTD and RTD/FET circuits, such as inverters, memory elements, and analog-to-digital converters. One driving FET which we will examine closely is the heterodimensional 2-D MESFET, a novel side-gated FET which offers considerable promise for compact, ultra low-power, multifunctional logic circuits. As part of this Phase I project, we will also refine the 2-D MESFET model already implemented in AIM-Spice in order to predict nanoscale 2-D MESFET device and circuit operation.

GARMAN SYSTEMS, INC.
2401 21st Ave S., Suite 102
Nashville, TN 37212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 292-7022
Lowell Jones
DARPA 97-054
Title:Nanoscale X-Y Stage for Precision Lithography
Abstract:The state-of-the-art in the microelectronics industry is being pushed primarily by two motivations: the demand for more circuitry etched per unit area and the demand for higher throughput. Both of these needs can be met by an increase in the speed and/or the resolution of lithography positioning equipment. Proposed herein is an innovative X-Y stage design through which control of positions on the order of nanometers will be attempted while simultaneously increasing stroke length to 300 mm per axis, maximum speed to 1 m/s, and turnaround time to under 100 ms. The proposed design will utilize a macro-micro positioning approach analogous to an audio "woofer-tweeter" arrangement for each axis of the stage. This approach will allow for a decoupling of the positioners coarse and fine motion properties simplifying components and design of the entire system.

OPTRA, INC.
461 Boston St.
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 887-6600
Michael Hercher
DARPA 97-054
Title:High Speed, High Accuracy Stage for Advanced Lithography
Abstract:The development of a high-speed, very accurate XY stage for semiconductor lithography is proposed. Key features are: a grid-based metrology system which is immune to turbulence and has subnanometer resolution; a high-speed, light-weight XY stage capable of supporting 12" wafers, and including active control of all six degrees of freedom; and dual-loop servo systems for X and Y to provide fast long-range moves and highly accurate short-range positioning. If successful, this approach will provide all of the capabilities needed for the next generation of steppers for high throughput, high accuracy microlithography. This approach also promises to reduce the cost of the metrology system by at least a factor of two relative to the cost of a comparable, but less capable, laser interferometer system.

BOSONICS, INC.
1472 North St.
Boulder, CO 80304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 447-0645
Charles Stirk
DARPA 97-055
Title:Programmable Optical Beam Former with 10 Nanosecond Reconfiguration Rates
Abstract:This project develops low-cost optical beamscanners using fast binary amplitude modulators. The modulators are solder-bumped to silicon drive circuits which have a programmable architecture for rapid, flexible array addressing. The multiple quantum well (MQW) based modulators operate at 850-860 nm with a random access speed over 100 MHz---faster than any known scanner. Preliminary simulation and optimization results show that high-resolution scanning can be obtained using a novel device arrangement with 10% efficiency, 20 dB SNR, and 1% uniformity. Under this Phase I effort, Bosonics will 1) further simulate and optimize the modulator performance; 2) optimize the epitaxial layer structure, wafer lithography, and solder bump integration; 3) develop a marketing plan for military and commercial applications; and 4) design, simulate and fabricate the silicon driver chip in 0.5 microns CMOS. The chip will contain drivers and bond pads for both 1-D and 2-D arrays. In Phase II we will process the GaAs wafer and flip-chip solder bump it onto the silicon driver chip for testing and demonstration.

LAWRENCE SEMICONDUCTOR RESEARCH LABS
2300 West Huntington Drive
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 493-5659
Joseph Boisvert
DARPA 97-056
Title:Wafer-Bonded Silicon-Based Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Optical Interconnects
Abstract:Recent advances in two-dimensional laser emitter arrays have led to the opportunity for innovative optical interconnects that will require low-power receiver arrays. Silicon-based avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays offer several attractive features for this application including internal gain, low-power consumption, compatibility with silicon-based amplifier technologies, and low-cost. Unfortunately, present silicon APDs suffer from relatively poor optical response at the wavelengths of most interest for this application (850 nm and 980 nm). Also, neither monolithic nor hybridized silicon APD receiver arrays have been reported to date. This proposed program will develop separate absorption and multiplication, low-power SiGe alloy APD arrays using conventional chemical vapor deposition materials growth techniques. These APDs will be designed to operate at less than 50 volts applied bias, to have gain-bandwidth products in excess of 100 GHz, and to dissipate approximately 1 nW/micron2 operating at 10 GHz. In Phase I, 8x8 element, coarse pitch arrays will be produced to establish feasibility. These arrays will be wafer bonded to silicon fanout arrays using a novel approach that minimizes exposure of the APD arrays to current-generating transition metal impurities. This approach can be subsequently extended to wafer-level bonding of high-density (sub-50 micron) APD-amplifier hybrid arrays.

TERABIT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
861 Ward Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 692-9450
Aaron Hawkins
DARPA 97-056
Title:Arrays of High Sensitivity Optical Receivers
Abstract:Wafer fusing is proposed for integrating InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with silicon VLSI Circuits. A new structure, a silicon heterointerface photodetector (SHIP), which was recently used to demonstrate record gain bandwidth products of 315 GHz, is proposed for integration with the silicon preamplifier. The SHIP detector is predicted to have a larger temperature range and greater temperature and voltage stability, important for military applications. These predictions will be investigated here. Linear and square arrays of SHIP APDs integrated with silicon preamplifiers will be investigated at bit rates from 155 Mbit/s to 2.5 Gbit/s.

PIEZOMAX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1006 Starlight Drive
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 274-6176
James MacKay
DARPA 97-057
Title:Advanced Piezoelectric-Positioner Controller for High-Speed Scanning Probe Microscopy
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will investigate the feasibility of an improved control strategy for piezoelectric positioners used in scanned-probe microscopes (SPMs) to increase their speed and reliability for nanocharacterization. Rapid nanocharacterization requires fast motion of the scanned piezo probe with sub-Angstrom vertical resolution and with frequent rapid changes in its axial position. Settling time after a change in the position has been commanded is a serious issue that currently places severe limits on speed and reliability: under present control schemes SPMs cannot be operated anywhere near the resonant frequencies of the piezo element. PIEZOMAX Technologies, Inc. proposes to test the feasibility of an improved control scheme that should allow an order of magnitude increase in scan speed of SPMs by reducing settling time. In the feasibility study the control strategy will be designed, implemented digitally, and tested on a variety of piezoelectric positioners used in SPMs. The effect of noise,passive damping, and detuning of the controller will be investigated and comparisons established with the performance of conventional SPMs. The approach should be applicable to a variety of piezoelectric positioners and thus to a broad range of applications in characterization, inspection, and nanopatterning involving scanned probes.

NANODYNAMICS, INC.
510 E. 73rd St.
New York, NY 10021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 249-2232
Oi Wang
DARPA 97-059
Title:Single Electron Field Effect Transistor (SEFET) Memory on SOI (silicon on insulator) by MBE and in Situ Oxidization
Abstract:Single electron FET (SEFET) has the advantage of nano-scaled devices size, fast charging time and quantized charging voltage, with much lower power. However, the technical requirement and large threshold voltage fluctuation, shift the performance at room temperature resulting in difficulties in its integration. We propose a SEFET with crystalline Si floating gate and channel on EPSOI (epitaxy silicon on insulator) mainly fabricated by MBE with in situ oxidization. This can not only significantly relax the fabrication requirements, improve the performance of SEFET at room temperature, but also, more importantly, provide a more uniform threshold voltage to make this new type of device suitable for integration. The SEFET basically includes control-gate/floating-gate, nano-channel and insulator between gate/channel and channel/substrate. The process for the device is very complicated and highly costly. The silicon channel was typically fabricated on SOI, formed by oxygen ion implantation, followed by deposition of polysilicon layer for floating gate. The difficulty involved in the grain size control of polysilicon affects the performance of the floating gate charge, and ion implantation results in oxygen inclusions and annealing at high temperature. However, our newly developed technology Si/O superlattice is capable of being incorporated into a MBE process of the construction for device structure envisioned in this endeavor.

OVATION INDUSTRIES, INC.
300 First Street N. E.
Rochester, MN 55906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(507) 285-4490
David Braddock, Ph.D.
DARPA 97-060
Title:High-Performance Analog-to-Digital Converters
Abstract:Ovation is committed to becoming a military supplier of high speed analog-to-digital converters (ADC). In this work, we propose to undertake an extensive research and development effort to demonstrate an advanced 2-4 GHz 6-8 effective bit ADC with a spurious free dynamic range of 60-85dB. We intend to achieve this goal through a comprehensive effort that integrates recent advances in materials growth, device technology, circuit design, packaging, and testing. In particular, we propose to employ carbon doped Npn HBT's grown on InP and the revolutionary Transferred-Substrate HBT process recently demonstrated at the University of California, Santa Barbara. A team that includes investigators from both Ovation and the University of California, Santa Barbara has been assembled to meet the challenge of this project. We believe the proposed approach has the potential to realize an ADC that operates at 10 GHz with 6-8 effective bits and 85dB of spurious free dynamic range. Our ultimate goal is to demonstrate ADC's at or above 10 GHz by the end of Phase II, and provide the critical infrastructure necessary to manufacture, package, and test these components for a variety of military and commercial customers.

PHYSICAL RESEARCH, INC.
25500 Hawthorne Blvd., Suite 2300
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 378-0056
Ahmadreza Rofougaran
DARPA 97-060
Title:High Speed Analog to Digital Converter Technology
Abstract:Current advanced as well as future electronic data communications and signal processing requirements for military as well as commercial applications need the operations of analog to digital converters (ADCs) with performances beyond that of commercially available designs. In this Phase I proposal, PRI will develop the architectural design for a new integrated circuit chip set to be housed in a single multi-chip module. This ADC concept consists of an array of bandpass sigma-delta modulator-based ADCs combined with a digital self-calibration scheme. Simulations and analysis will be performed on a 16-bit, 200Ms/s design to establish the feasibility of such a scheme. The bandpass sigma-delta ADC will be based on a PRI design developed on a previous DARPA-sponsored SBIR. Higher resolution will be achieved by using a 3-bit quantizer instead of the 1-bit used in our previous design. The bandpass sigma-delta modulator concept achieves high resolution by over-sampling and noise shaping as demonstrated in our previous work. Decimation filters at the output will filter the shaped quantization noise and provide the desired ADC output. High bandwidths can be achieved by an array of these ADCs where the signals of each ADC are combined to form the final output.

SIERRA MONOLITHICS, INC.
103 W. Torrance Blvd., Suite 102
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 379-2005
David Rowe
DARPA 97-060
Title:High Speed Analog to Digital Converter Using SiGe Technology
Abstract:Sierra Monolithics, Inc. (SMI) proposes to develop a 16-bit, 2 GS/s A/D Converter using a novel Delta-Sigma architecture to achieve the bit resolution and incorporating IBM's Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process for the requisite speed. Commercial A/D converters on silicon or GaAs do not simultaneously provide GHz sampling rate and high 16-bit resolution. In order to satisfy both of these performance criteria for a 100 MHz input signal bandwidth, the device technology has to be fast enough to reduce the sampling aperture jitter down to less than 50 fsec and the digitizing error to 15 ¦V. SMI proposes an A/D converter approach that will meet these requirements. The approach uses IBM's SiGe HBT technology for low jitter (5 fsec), high sample rate (2 GS/s) and a unique Delta-Sigma architecture for the digitizing accuracy. The novel Delta-Sigma architecture uses a second order noise shaping single loop, dynamic element matching for improved DAC accuracy, and linearity enhanced subtraction circuit with an embedded DAC to achieve 16-bit resolution. System design and device simulation for the A/D converter will be performed in Phase I while fabrication and test will be performed in Phase II.

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 Via vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-1195
Sherry Chu
DARPA 97-061
Title:A Reliable Method for Direct Chip Attach for Mixed Technology Integration
Abstract:The emergence of compact products employing mixed technologies, such as personal digital assistants, wireless communicators and sensor systems, is creating a host of new needs in electronics packaging. These products are driven by small size, light weight, high-operating frequencies, unique micro-to-macro interfacing and low-cost. There is a need for a simplified and reliable process for direct chip attachment. Through under-filling the chip with a solid encapsulant, direct chip attach technology is now a reliable method for attachment of small chips to polymeric substrates. The encapsulant redistributes stress in the package from the fatigue-intolerant solder joints. However, the encapsulant's effect is to force the chip and the substrate to take up the strain, bulging the substrate and the chip. This bulging causes its own new set of problems such as making larger chips susceptible to cracking during bending. Another problem is that the degree of bulging, and hence the degree of strain relief, is highly dependent on the flexibility of the structure of the underlying substrate. For MEMs, this bulging will have significant impact on the performance of the device attached. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a new, reliable, compliant direct chip structure that eliminates this bulging. A program to improve direct chip attachment technology is of the highest priority for industry. The realization of this technology will reduce the cost and increase the reliability of a myriad of military and commercial products that require high-density, chip-scale packaging. The improved cost and reliability will impact a broad range of applications with an annual market potential for the technology exceeding $50 million.

ELECTRONIC PACKAGING SERVICES, LTD. CO.
430 Tenth Street, Suite S-002
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 881-1114
Yinyan Wang
DARPA 97-061
Title:Thermomechanical Characterization System for Mixed Technology Electronic Assemblies
Abstract:One approach to wider use of mixed mode technology requires polymer-based packaging materials, which place greater demands on the thermomechanical performance of the package design. Electronic Packaging Services (EPS) proposes to develop a commercial instrument for the experimental measurement of out-of-plane thermal displacements in populated mixed mode electronic assemblies. The system will be based on shadow moire, a full-field non-contact optical technique. Phase stepping analysis, which convolutes multiple moire fringe images with fixed phase differences between them, extends the resolution in out-of-plane displacement measurement below 0.1 mils, automatically identifies contour maxima and minima, and reduces interference from permanent optical features. The sample will be held within an oven combining radiant and convective heating to allow computer-controlled simulation of a variety of manufacturing and testing processes. This project is an extension of analytical services currently provided by EPSto electronics manufacturers. The Phase I objective is construction of a fully-functional laboratory prototype. Specific technical aims include increasing speed and robustness of automated analysis algorithms, handling regions occluded by components, cut-outs, and other features, demonstrating localized heating simulation approaches, and identifying useful reporting formats for out-of-plane displacement information.

MURRAY HILL DEVICES, INC.
133 Colchester Rd.
Murray Hill, NJ 07974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 665-8643
R. Marcus
DARPA 97-061
Title:Microspring Contact Technology
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project involves the development of a new MicroSpring Contract (MSC) technology for making compliant, low-cost silicon backplane interconnects for multi-chip hybrid assemblies and modules. The microsprings are compressible coils about 50 ¦m diameter with sufficient compliance to maintain ohmic contact throughout a continuous displacement of at least 10 ¦m. The use of a silicon wafer as backplane permits the addition of passive components, active IC devices, and transmission lines on the opposite surface for applications involving high-frequency and other critical device dies, connected to microsprings through "vias". MSC technology has additional applications to 2) probe cards for "known-good-die" testing, 3)high-density interconnects for complex chips, and 4) contact/interconnect interfaces in vertically-stacked modules. Essential advantages are 1) high compliance of spring elements to accommodate dies/modules which vary in height, 2) high compliance to maintain contact during motion due to thermal expansion differences, 3) non-permanent nature of contacts for easy replacement of defective modules. While fabrication of a MSC backplane card is the aim of this proposal, the feasibility of MSC technology demonstrated in Phase I is also viewed as a springboard for application of MSC technology to these other areas.

IBIS TECHNOLOGY CORP.
32A Cherry Hill Dr.
Danvers, MA 01923
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 777-4247
Maria Anc
DARPA 97-062
Title:Low-Dose Low-Energy SIMOX for Fully Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI)
Abstract:A program is proposed to investigate and develop thin buried oxide (BOX) SIMOX with quality of silicon and BOX layers suitable to support fully depleted SOI applications with minimum feature size at and below 0.18 um. In Phase I, novel, low dose SIMOX processes in low energy (less than 100keV) regime will be examined. This approach will allow to tailor thin film layer thicknesses by proper choice of implant parameters, employment of the Ibis 1000 implanter with independent temperature and beam current control will allow to achieve low dislocation density silicon layer, and extreme anneal conditions will be used to achieve the best characteristics of silicon and BOX layers. The thrust of the proposed work is to develop the new generation of low cost, high quality SIMOX with improved reproducibility and reliability for advanced commercial and rad hard microelectronics.

ANVIK CORP.
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Thomas Dunn
DARPA 97-063
Title:Maskless Lithography System Based on Spatial Light Modulator Arrays
Abstract:This program addresses the problems associated with current microelectronic lithography systems which utilize masking technology. These problems include: the inability to generate prototype electronic modules quickly; the difficulties associated with generating large-area masks; and the dependence on foreign suppliers for mask substrates. The only available technology which does not require masks is direct-write imaging which suffers from an inherently slow speed due to its serial mode of addressing. In this proposal we present a program which eliminates all of the above shortcomings through the development of Anvik's maskless, large-area, high-throughput, high-resolution lithography system which combines a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) with Anvik's patterning technology. The SLM acts as a programmable mask with high parallel-processing power which replaces the conventional mask. When used in conjunction with Anvik's seamless scanning technology, it can generate any possible pattern with high resolutionover an unlimited area. The proposed program will fill a critical need in the microelectronics manufacturing industry, and also significantly increase US competitiveness in an enabling technology area.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2849 E. Elvira Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
Dmitri Routkevitch
DARPA 97-064
Title:High Aspect Ratio Inorganic Resist for MEMS Structures Fabrication
Abstract:Patterning on the micron and submicron levels with high aspect ratio, high quality edge definition, and low taper of vertical edges is critical for fabrication of advanced microelectromechanical structures. Deep X-ray lithography, used in one of the major existing fabrication processes, LIGA, requires expensive exposure sources, has limited aspect ratio (1:100's), and resolution (about 1 ¦m). Polymer resist, currently used in LIGA, has low mechanical and thermal stability, which limit its processing capabilities. This program seeks to demonstrate a reliable and inexpensive patterning technology based on new inorganic resist with very high etching anistropy and unmatched combination of feature size, resolution, depth of focus, edge definition, adhesion to the substrate, chemical and mechanical stability. Besides being a matrix for depositing microstructures, proposed material can be also used as a structural element for MEMS as well as an active micro- and nano-device component. During Phase I, NRC will demonstrate the proof-of-concept. Phase II will optimize the technology, build and test device prototypes. Phase III will commercialize the technology.

HOLOPLEX
600 South Lake Ave, Suite 102
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 793-9616
Allen Pu
DARPA 97-065
Title:Optically Reconfigurable FPGA
Abstract:We propose to develop integrated optoelectronic modules that combines directly holographic optical memories and integrated silicon circuits. We use a novel phase conjugate readout method that allows direct, lens-less mating of the optical and integrated components resulting in a compact and inexpensive package. The inclusion of detector arrays on the silicon surface results in parallel transfer of data from the optical memory into the electronic circuit at rates in excess of 100Gbits/sec. We propose to use laser diode arrays for accessing individual holograms providing very rapid access to individual pages of stored data. We will concentrate on the development of optically reconfigurable FPGA's. These devices are normally reprogrammed electronically from local memories to perform a variety of logic functions. The direct interface between the optical memory and the FPGA will provide rapid access to a huge set of reconfiguration geometries. Our goals for the Phase I portion of the proposed program are: Design, fabricate, and characterize FPGA chips incorporating detector arrays to allow optical addressing. Design the rapid access optical holographic memory system using switchable laser diode arrays. Perform proof-of-concept experiments to confirm the method. Explore specific application areas for which the optically reconfigurable FPGA's are best suited, including image processing and general purpose parallel computing.

UNIAX CORP.
6780 Cortona Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 562-9293
Gang Yu
DARPA 97-065
Title:Enabling Technology for a New Optical Random Access Memory Architecture
Abstract:Trends in information technology have focused attention on the need for the storage and rapid retrieval of ever-increasing amounts of data in compact media. Incremental improvements in existing systems will be inadequate for meeting long range needs. Hence, system designers have begun to contemplate new storage device architectures. UNIAX Corp. a world leader in the development of optoelectronic devices based on semiconducting polymers, proposes to work with Information Optics Corp. (formed in 1990 by optical data storage pioneer James Russell) to develop a light source array which will enable a concept for a revolutionary new method of portable, high density storage that requires no moving parts. Although now on the verge of commercial introduction, polymer electroluminescent devices are not yet suitable for use in this Optical Random Access Memory (ORAM) system. The emission from these devices is neither narrow enough nor bright enough. However, recent work, performed at a number of academic laboratories around the world, indicates that microcavities built incorporating electroluminescent polymers have characteristics suitable for the ORAM application. The following proposal outlines a program which UNIAX will undertake to examine this possibility. If successful, Phase II would include the demonstration of an ORAM system incorporating this device.

KAB LABORATORIES, INC.
3116 Mercer Lane
San Diego, CA 92122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-5361
John Konotchick
DARPA 97-066
Title:Portable Electric Power Generator
Abstract:For the past six years KAB Laboratories, Inc. has been investigating various techniques for extracting electrical power from linear mechanical motion. It has built, tested, patented, and licensed devices to do this. The electric power generation techniques used can extract electric power from the slightest movement of the devices, and can be made in a variety of form-fit shapes. Devices have been made which, when worn or carried, will power a radio, a flashlight, and create a self-charging battery. The work to date has mostly defined the concept and explored some useful applications. It is the objective of this proposal to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology to develop sufficient electric power for portable computing (and other uses) from the normal movement available in activities such as walking, riding in a vehicle, etc. This will be done by measuring the available mechanical energy present in a variety of activities, designing devices to enhance electric power generation from those activities, and testing the resultant designs to determine their actual power generation potential and efficiency.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8302 Lincoln Lane, Suite 103
Mc Lean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-7564
Sherry Marcus
DARPA 97-067
Title:Data Mining Techniques for Plan Sentinel Development
Abstract:We propose a plan sentinel prototype consisting of three components. The first component is the development of a plan mining tool which identifies and computes false or missing assumptions and deviations to plans and time phased tasks. The second component, the annotated database, computes plans which the plan mining tool access and parses into a logical annotated rule set. Finally, MAVIS, a tool developed by 21st Century Technologies, shall integrate data from diverse sources and databases for the purpose of regenerating plans. We use Oracle's database and development tools for the implementation of the proposed plan sentinel prototype. Probabilistic and Temporal Reasoning Systems are deployed to solve the requirements outlined within this effort.

PARALLELIZATION, INC.
100 West Jefferson St., Suite 102
Falls Church, VA 22046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 532-5501
John Ko
DARPA 97-068
Title:Multi-Platform Real-Time 3-D Visualization System for Urban Environments and 3-D Terrain Imagery
Abstract:There is an explosion of 3-D graphics technology in the mainstream commercial market. A $10,000 3-D graphics PC outperforms a $100,000 UNIX 3-D graphics workstation in virtually all aspects, in particular the 3-D rendering speed. We have an opportunity to exploit this new technology so every analyst or war-fighter can use their desktop PC to visualize in real-time 3-D urban and terrain data. In the past, DoD users have relied on shared or limited access to real-time 3-D graphics computer systems. Our objective is to design, prototype, and demonstrate a distributed, 3-D virtual "white-board", where the background is unlimited imagery draped terrain and the markings are complex 3-D models that make up an urban scene. By using mainstream technology, the virtual white-board will be as easy to use as a conventional electronic white-board. There are two major technical objectives: 1) design a client/server architecture, where unlimited terrain and urban data, and behavioral information are distributed to clients for real-time 3-D visualization; and 2) rapidly prototype the designed system with two different PC based clients served by a single data server.

ALPHATECH, INC.
Executive Place III, 50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 273-3388
Thomas Kurien
DARPA 97-069
Title:Continous All-Source Region Monitoring
Abstract:In this effort we will design and demonstrate the benefits of an integrated fusion system (IFS) for continuous monitoring of targets. The proposed IFS architecture will ensure that all available sensor data is used to generate a consistent picture of target tracks and activities, and it will enable processing of data from each sensor to be cued based on all available information. We will specify components of the architecture for which algorithms already exist, and we will describe our plans to demonstrate benefits of IFS to potential users. We will also specify our plans to generate a top-level software design for IFS, and how this design can be mapped onto an operational system (e.g., Army CGS). Our expertise, built over the last two decades, in the areas of multi-target tracking, intel and image fusion, and force pattern analysis will ensure that we can achieve the above objectives. Our current participation in major DARPA battlespace awareness programs will provide cross-fertilization of ideas amongst these programs and avoid duplication of efforts. Finally, our ongoing effort for Motorola to integrate our target tracking algorithm into CGS will ensure that our design supports user information and interface requirements.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 Court St, Suite 210
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 798-1377
James Graham
DARPA 97-070
Title:Innovative Approaches for Embedded Real-Time UHF/VHF SAR Image Formation
Abstract:There is a critical need for an all weather capability to detect and classify military targets concealed in foliage and/or camouflage. Recent advances in high resolutions synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology, operating at low frequencies (VHF-UHF), have demonstrated significant capability for detection and classification of such targets. However, one of the primary difficulties is the significant amount of processing throughput and memory required to realize real-time operation. Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI) proposes an implementation which leverages the high throughput of various specialized DSP devices by integrating them into a highly efficient heterogeneous parallel processor optimized for the FOPEN SAR function. Algorithm alternatives, partitioning, and parametric trades will be evaluated with the purpose of achieving maximum algorithm-hardware synergy. Improvements in critical processing performance areas will be demonstrated using representative hardware components, such as SHARP's BDSP 9124block floating point device, which will be integrated into ISI's Mercury based heterogeneous test bed. By making judicious algorithm tradeoffs and carefully matching specific processing resources to different aspects of the problem, one can reasonably expect an order of magnitude improvement in performance. A strawman design for a Phase II real-time heterogeneous processor will also be developed.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
2950 31st Street, Suite 200
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 450-9755
Randy van Daalen Wetters
DARPA 97-070
Title:Multi-Stage Processing for UHF/VHF SAR Image Formation
Abstract:Current radar technology for the detection, location and targeting of fixed and mobile targets hidden by foliage or camouflaged is severely limited. These systems typically operate in the UHF/VHF band using ultra-wideband, synthetic aperture techniques to obtain high resolution images of concealed targets. Algorithms used to form images are very complex in order to compensate for platform motion effects such as differential range curvature, widebeam motion compensation, autofocus, and environmental effects such as RF interference. TSC, along with our subcontractor, ERIM, proposes to develop, evaluate, and compare various image formation algorithms. A 2-stage process will be emphasized, in which data is first formed into a number of smaller subpatches, then combined to obtain the full desired aperture. Techniques to be investigated will include Range Migration Algorithm (RMA), RMA with Subchirp Processing, Planar Subarray Processing and BackProjection. As a Phase I goal, image formation algorithms will bedefined and evaluated for performance against a set of metrics. Signal processor architectures and COTS hardware with the requisite power necessary for real-time implementation will be investigated. At the conclusion of Phase I, one or more algorithm suites and a COTS hardware implementation will be recommended for development in Phase II.

GENERAL REALITY CORP.
124 Race Street
San Jose, CA 95126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 289-8340
Arthur Zwern
DARPA 97-071
Title:Vision-Assisted Controlled Imagery Acquisition (VACIA) System
Abstract:Acquisition of metrically-accurate imagery under field conditions is of growing importance in DoD applications such as 3-D scene reconstruction, but current methods are ad-hoc and costly because no existing products combine metrically accurate sensors with high-precision position and pose data. General Reality Corporation (GRC) and subcontractor Korbin Systems Incorporated (KSI) propose to solve this problem by developing a modular, scalable, COTS architecture and system applicable to a wide range of controlled image acquisition tasks, using a portable 3U CompactPCI running a WindowsNT real-time OS to host multiple calibrated imagers. The proposed system will incorporate a novel vision-assisted approach for obtaining highly accurate position and orientation data even during poor GPS reception in urban canyons. Our approach establishes feature correspondences between image frames, and uses correspondence information in a Kalman filter to correct inertial measurement device drift and to bridge across sparse GPS data. Expected results include geospatial/pose accuracy to in/mrad levels, sufficient to enable a new generation of image-based 3-D reconstruction applications such as automated surveying. The proposed Phase I effort will provide a strong foundation for rapid implementation and field validation during Phase II by delivering a complete requirements analysis using inputs from NIMA, DMSO, and image understanding researchers, system design to the hardware component/software flowchart level, and design, empirical validation, and simulation of the proposed navigation solution.

ARCA SYSTEMS, INC.
8229 Boone Blvd, Suite 750
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 734-5611
Gary Grossman
DARPA 97-072
Title:Automated Intrusion Detection for GCCS Les
Abstract:Arca Systems proposes to initiate the design and development of an intrusion detection system for the GCCS LES (and similar environments). Many current intrusion detection tools are Unix-based, focused on a single host or on a generally homogeneous distributed environment. The notional GCCS LES environment makes extensive use of distributed architecture, using support from the COTS technologies DCE and CORBA. The concepts of users, permissions, identification and authentication, and audit, which are central to existing intrusion detection tools, may vary significantly in the GCCS LES. Arca Systems proposes to identify a class of detectable intrusion in GCCS LES and determine what data items need to be analyzed to detect such intrusions. This analysis will be performed both by porting existing intrusion detection tools to the GCCS LES environment and by extending and modifying those tools. These tools will be developed to the robust prototype stage.

OBSERVERA, INC.
P.O. Box 6309
Alexandria, VA 22306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 360-8225
Curtis Kelly
DARPA 97-073
Title:Automated Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Quality Assessment
Abstract:For this Phase I effort, Observera proposes to develop an attribute based system for automated image quality assessment of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery. Observera's expertise in SAR image analysis, image quality assessment and digital image processing algorithms are uniquely suited to this program. The imagery community uses the Radar National Imagery Interpretation Rating System (RNIIRS) as a metric to describe SAR image quality as a function of image utility in task performance. However, RNIIRS is derived from subjective, scene dependent criteria ill suited to automation. Observera personnel have participated in recent studies have correlated RNIIRS with the image domain attributes of brightness, focus, contrast and noise. We will demonstrate that these attributes can be measured algorithmically in formed digital SAR imagery. The metrics from these algorithms will be fed into a classifier that analyzes the metrics and outputs an image quality score that can be correlated back to an RNIIRS rating. This measures the potential usability of the imagery with respect to predicted quality based on collection parameters. Observera will deliver image quality algorithms to measure the attributes of brightness, contrast, focus and noise, as well as a classifier to determine quality based on analysis of these measurements.

ALPHATECH, INC.
Executive Place III, 50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 273-3388
Simon Streltsov
DARPA 97-074
Title:Unsupervised Pattern Analysis of Vehicle Tracks
Abstract:In this effort ALPHATECH will develop algorithms for extraction of purposeful temporal-spatial patterns from moving vehicle data and demonstrate their efficiency on a set of simulated MPA scenarios. We apply unsupervised learning algorithms to find similarities between traffic activities. Traffic activities are constructed using ALPHATECH's multiple hypothesis tracking algorithm and grouping correlated tracks into most probable activities. We use clustering techniques in order to identify motion patterns as groups of similar activities where similarity is defined based on the features inferred from MTI observations. In order to develop a full set of traffic activity features, we will perform Bayes Net estimation of kinematic and motion vehicle/group attributes and traffic centers analysis. Discovered clusters can be used to describe motion patterns in high-level terms for interaction with experts, to build statistical models of the motion patterns and ambient traffic, and to predict future traffic activities. We will perform feasibility and feature importance analysis by simulating known military patterns embedded into ambient traffic. Scenarios will be generated using existing ALPHATECH behavior pattern and motion target generators.

ODYSSEY RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
301 Dates Drive
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 277-2020
Roshan Thomas
DARPA 97-075
Title:Open Architecture Security Tools
Abstract:In this research proposal, we seek to develop two key technologies that will advance the state-of-the-art in security engineering. First we wish to develop a Secure Component Integration Protocol (SCIP) that will allow a message-based, protocol-driven approach to integration and interoperability of security components. Secondly, we propose to develop a set of security component application programming interfaces (SCAPIs) that will be built on top of SCIP for specific component types or security areas. These APIs will package the services offered by individual components so they can be used in a variety of applications. Collectively, the SCIP protocol and SCAPIs will make it possible to build security tools and solutions using a component-based approach. This will enable plug and play among products such as firewalls, intrusion detection tools, routers, etc. even when different vendors supply them. Our long-term vision is to create a component market in security. To enable this, we will seek industry and vendor acceptance by forming a standards body to evolve the SCIP protocol and SCAPIs.

SECURE COMPUTING CORP.
2675 Long Lake Road
Roseville, MN 55113
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 628-1544
Timothy Tiemens
DARPA 97-075
Title:Local Security API
Abstract:Distributed computing technology is making it possible for information based organizations to realize long promised benefits. But the low degree of security standardization available from distributed and local computing environments inhibits this realization. This proposal is firmly directed toward solving the distributed problem by solving the local problem first. By creating a solid Local Security Application Program Interface (LS API), we create a basis which supports both the distributed object implementations and the definition of the distributed API itself. This API is partitioned into sections (miniature APIs), where each section is governed by frameworks and is implemented by modules. This project will produce Local Security API sections, a process to produce more sections, and a plan to realize the API sections from existing components.

QUALTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
66 Davis Road
Storrs, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 423-3659
Amit Mathur
DARPA 97-076
Title:A Multi-Signal Modeling Environment for Network Fault Monitoring
Abstract:We propose to develop a comprehensive environment for fault monitoring and diagnostics of heterogeneous networks, utilizing Qualtech Systems' (QSI) core technologies in a suite of commercial tools presently used for modeling, maintenance and troubleshooting of hybrid systems. Unlike currently available tools, the proposed technology will not only perform efficient on-line fault isolation using network alarm correlation, but also support interactive diagnosis by network operators using subsequent drill-down tests, support both single and multiple fault isolation, and handle unreliable test results. The proposed effort will be conducted in consultation with BBN Corp., an industry leader and pioneer in the development and advancement of network technologies. The complementary capabilities of QSI and BBN make the QSI-BBN collaboration a strong team for this effort. In Phase I, the QSI-BBN team proposes to enhance the GUI in QSI's tool TEAMS and its underlying multi-signal modeling methodology in developing a network performance modeling tool (TEAMS-NP). The proposed TEAMS-NP modeling environment will treat network objects (sources of faults) as modules and the exceptional events as signals. The utility of the developed technologies will be demonstrated on an RSVP session for multimedia applications. In Phase II, TEAMS-NP will be integrated with QSI's real-time and interactive diagnostic tools TEAMS-RT and TEAMATE, into a monitoring system.

SYNECTICS CORP.
111 East Chestnut Street
Rome, NY 13440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 337-3510
Joseph Riolo
DARPA 97-076
Title:Real-Time Network Management
Abstract:The objective of this proposed program is to model and implement an object-oriented system for monitoring and diagnosing computer network and service problems in real-time. The system comprises four major subsystems, viz. the network modeling subsystem, the monitoring subsystem, the diagnostic subsystem, and the user interface subsystem. All four subsystems access a database that stores, in particular, the network models and performance logs. The system is envisioned to utilize continuous time Markov chains, multiclass queuing networks, and stochastic petri nets as the underlying mathematical description of the managed network assumes that standardized mechanisms such as SNMP agents (up to the RMON 2 level) are available to provide real-time network data, and is implemented through well-established object-oriented practices. In particular, the architecture of the proposed system is defined by an object model that logically describes the managing and managed entities of the network, their static relationships, and dynamic interactions. The Phase I prototype of the proposed system is implemented in the Java language, JMAPI (Java Management API) and JDBC (the Java Data Base Connectivity API).

TAGOSOFT, INC.
6119 114th Ave. NE
Kirkland, WA 98033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 822-4128
Ramon Pantin
DARPA 97-077
Title:Accelerated Network Protocols by Intelligent Intermediate Networking Elements
Abstract:TagoSoft, Inc. proposes to investigate and simulate a set of Internet protocols that achieves better throughput by utilizing multi-layer protocol knowledge. This effort will focus in a class of improvements that take advantage of processing capabilities in intermediate network components, and will take into account the software/hardware characteristics of next generation scaleable intermediate network componentry: clustered routers; continuously available clusters of servers that additionally provide continuously available routing; replicated and hierarchical caching servers that transparently reduce network load presented by next generation information appliances (NCs and NetPCs) while providing additional service availability. It is very important to preserve the current availability properties of Internet protocols, which only rely on the availability of the end systems. Intelligent protocol processing done at intermediate elements must not transform the intermediate elements into statefull elements required for the proper operation of Internet protocols. TagoSoft has done significant R&D (ICCOS) in the development of Internet protocol software for next generation scaleable network components, and we expect significant synergy between these efforts. A set of initial (confidential) protocol changes to be investigated is described in this proposal.

OPTIMIZATION TECHNOLOGY, INC.
125 West Park Loop, Suite 201
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 721-1288
Robert Cox
DARPA 97-078
Title:Large-Scale Distributed / Parallel System Performance Simulation (LDPsim)
Abstract:OTI proposes research leading to the construction of a prototype Large Parallel/Distributed system simulation (LDPsim) tool. This tool will provide an automated simulation generation and analysis environment supporting performance analysis and design for large complex parallel and distributed systems. A powerful set of analysis tools, integrated into a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, provides rapid performance analysis of alternative hardware and software configurations while maintaining a high degree of accuracy in performance predictions. The framework is based upon object technology, with all simulation scenarios, simulation models, simulation experiment data sets, and simulation analysis results constructed, manipulated, and stored as objects. Rapid construction of complete simulation scenarios is facilitated by the instantiation of new model instances from a predefined library of model definitions. Integration of new component models, possibly utilizing different underlying modeling techniques and levels of fidelity, is facilitated by encapsulating the implementation details of each model as an object must conform to a standard discrete event message passing paradigm. The implementation of a given object's operations is unconstrained, providing the analyst the maximum possible degree of freedom in selection of simulation techniques for each model.

SCALABLE SYSTEM SOLUTIONS
10495 Colina Way
Los Angeles, CA 90077
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 475-1919
Jay Martin
DARPA 97-078
Title:IMPACT: Integrated Multilevel Performance Framework for Scalable Systems
Abstract:The current state-of-art in performance technology does not facilitate detailed performance evaluation of complex, large scale systems. The aim of this proposal is to design IMPACT, an integrated performance framework that can be used to measure the performance of operational systems and to extrapolate those measurements into performance predictions for alternative machine configurations. IMPACT will use multi-level, hierarchical models to support end-end performance models of systems that include application level, system software level, and hardware level models. Where feasible, direct execution will be used to integrate measurements on operational system components. The framework will support modeling of subsystems at multiple levels of granularity, and the composition of a model from such multi-level models. It will also incorporate parallel simulation technology as a modular option such that parallelism can be explored in an iterative manner during the model development cycle. The Phase I report will produce a detailed design and requirements analysis for the framework. To demonstrate its feasibility, a simple library of models will be prototyped to simulate hardware, software, and application levels of a parallel database system that can simulate sample queries from the TPC-D benchmark suite.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4364
Dan Deguire
DARPA 97-079
Title:SEA Snoop-A Mobile Oceanographic Sensor Suite
Abstract:Foster-Miller will build on the highly mobile and long range (9 mi) bottom crawling systems of the Lemmings family of vehicles, used to perform surveillance and reconnaissance in the shallow water (SW) and very shallow water (VSW) regimes. Lemmings, Sea Dog and in-house research efforts have attached a variety of sensors including acoustic, optical, bottom condition and water-column characterization instruments with great success. Single units can measure in both the look-up or look-out mode and they have intimate contact with the bottom for direct sea floor measurements. Used in groups, the Lemmings can perform across-volume characterization. The advantages of operating directly in the highly turbid and turbulent VSW and SZ are significant and unique to the Lemmings system. In addition, the time and spatial varying capability minimizes point-measurement bias and greatly improves the large area understanding.

MOBILE INTELLIGENCE CORP., THE
7963 Pine Hollow Drive, SE
Alto, MI 49302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 554-4639
Douglas MacKenzie
DARPA 97-080
Title:Voice and Graphical Command and Control for Mobile Robots
Abstract:Typically, operator interaction with mobile robots has been via standard mouse and keyboard entry using computer workstations. While this suffices for laboratory experiments, it is unmanageable for field deployment of robotics. This is especially true when the operator, and thus the operator console, must go into the field with the robots (i.e., the UGV program). Dragging along a large, cumbersome operator is not viable for soldiers whose lives and missions depend on moving quickly and unobtrusively. To overcome these limitations, Mobile Intelligence Corporation proposes a Phase I project to demonstrate a multi-modal operator interface for robot command and control. The robot commander will be able to use both a simplified graphical interface which has undergone formal usability evaluation and structured English input/output over FM radios. The speech and graphical interfaces will be integrated to allow either to control missions. This technology will culminate in allowing soldiers in the field to command and control robots using their existing voice radios or a laptop computer. A possible scenario is to create and archive stereotypical mission segments using the graphical interface and these mission components are invoked, parameterized, and monitored in the field via the voice interface.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Ave. Bldg. #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 549-8211
Chris Saunders
DARPA 97-081
Title:A Micro Tactical Grade INS using MEMS Technology and a Multiple Sensors Adaptive Filler (MSAF)
Abstract:Irvine Sensors Corporation proposes the development of a Multiple Sensors Adaptive Filter (MSAF) to provide a Tactical Grade INS using MEMS Technology in a smaller (two cubic inch) package, at lower power and lower cost than other approaches. The MSAF is a custom IC that will perform complex filtering on multiple sensor inputs, Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) and combine the sensor results into one digital output. The goal of MSAF development is to improve the performance of MEMS sensors by using multiple sensors and multiple adaptive filters in one IC. This approach is useful for MEMS inertial sensors, such as micro accelerometers and gyroscopes, that are low cost and miniature in size, but are limited in performance. By using MSAF, a module of multiple sensors can improve the INS accuracy for many military and commercial applications, and still achieve lower cost than present solutions. The MSAF chip is integrated with multiple sensors using ISC 3-D stacking technique to achieve optimum size and performance. MSAF combines two filters: as Neural Adaptive Pre-Filter (NAF), and a Wavelet Transform Filter (WTF). MSAF is ideally suited to remove electronic noise, non-linearity, and performance degradation. MSAF also provides the fault-tolerant capability for the system.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First St
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0875
Richard Torti
DARPA 97-081
Title:LIGA Microfabricated Inertial Navigation System
Abstract:DARPA wishes to exploit MEMS technology to develop a tactical grade INS. SatCon is proposing to develop an angular rate sensor combined with an accelerometer which are microfabricated on a single "chip" using the LIGA lithographic process. The accelerometer element employs a rebalanced cantilever, oriented orthogonally to the substrate, while the rate sensor uses a vibrating cylinder sensitive to rotation through Coriolis effects. The topology is simple but well-suited for moderate sensitivity, high shock performance. Acceleration can be sensed in two axes parallel to the substrate, while angular rate is detectable along the perpendicular axis. Only one structural layer is required, eliminating the complexity of overhanging features or structure-to-structure bonding. Both actuation and sensing is done electrostatically. During Phase I, half-height, but fully testable versions of the sensing structures will be fabricated by our microfabrication foundry, LSU/CAMD from a mask set already under development. The electronics to both drive and sense both the cylinder gyroscope and cantilever accelerometer will be built up and used to electronically characterize the seductress. Based upon the test results a prototype design for Phase II will be developed. Additionally, an approach to the guidance processing which accommodates the special characteristics of the performance of the sensing elements will be developed. In Phase II, prototype versions of the accelerometer structures will be fabricated from a full set of masks, operated with drive and sensing electronics under test conditions with appropriate INS software and made available to DARPA.

WELCH ENGINEERING, LTD.
15200 Shady Grove Rd, Suite 350
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 947-5173
Quang Lam
DARPA 97-081
Title:Tactical Grade Inertial Navigation System (INS) Using Microelectromechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology
Abstract:The Welch Engineering and Hughes Space and Communications (WE/HSC) team is pleased to propose a universal Inertial Navigation System (INS) enabled by Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. We will leverage Welch Engineering's expertise in inertial navigation system software design for space and ground applications and HSC's extensive internal MEMS R&D and several of its MEMS research partnerships for the more stringent space INS applications. With our relevant expertise, we will define requirements and identify MEMS sensors from proven single-crystal-silicon designs that have the hallmarks of navigation grade inertial sensors. Custom low-power digital CMOS for sensor compensation, control and I/O will complement this high performance MEMS and is also key to our compact universal design. The basic MEMS-based IMU performance will be enhanced and further optimized using a two-layered software compensation approach via unaided and aided fashion to provide a robust navigation solution. The overall compensation scheme will be architected for maximum reuse and plug-and-play utility for future component interchangeability. The Phase I success will set the stage for building a breadboard of the universal INS using a Commercial-off-the-shelf PC product development system in Phase II and the laboratory or field demonstration of the complete INS and an integrated GPS/INS.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4379
Arnis Mangolds
DARPA 97-082
Title:Stick-Um: Robotic Attachment to Moving Vehicles
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to build on its previous work on robotic attachment of packages to moving vehicles. It has found that a combination of acoustic and seismic with z-direction magnetic signature can positively identify the vehicle type as well as provide a decision for a launch point. We have also shown through experiment that a mechanical clamp, certain adhesives and magnetics, pyrotechnically launched, can attach themselves to vehicles moving 30 mph. A hybrid system including all three components is proposed as well as two different means of launching, including signature suppressed pyrotechnic and a wholly fluidic means. A robotic delivery vehicle based on the tracked Lemmings will bring the launch package to the launch site. The proposed Phase I effort will include all full scale hardware experiments of all of the critical subsystems.

OMNITECH ROBOTICS, INC.
2640 S. Raritan Circle
Englewood, CO 80110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 922-7773
Sidney Gluckman
DARPA 97-082
Title:Robotic Mechanisms Capable of Attaching Themselves to Moving Ground Vehicles
Abstract:This proposal introduces an innovative robotic mechanism and control system designed to localize, track, and attach itself to a moving ground vehicle. Our proposed design is presented in detail, however the Phase I effort will evaluated a range of alternatives for all major components using a Kepner Tregoe analysis. This vehicle has many applications such as tracking and targeting enemy vehicles, reconaissance, miscelaneous payload delivery, and restricted facility entrance. The proposed system would be capable of both supervised teleoperated control and unsupervised autonomous control. Utilizing an optimized radio control car chassis and a modular control system design the robot will be capable of traversing a variety of terrains and engaging many different types of vehicles. An innovative mechanical engagement system is proposed. A collection of behavior control algorithms utilizing an optimized navigational sensor suite govern the robot's navigation, control, and the deployment of the mechanical engagement system. Target acquisition, tracking, engagement, and obstacle avoidance are all supported behaviors using a suite of sensors including a visual tracking system for real-time control.

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3275 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 281-1948
Guy Mattson
DARPA 97-083
Title:Man Portable Smoke Generator Using Flash Vaporization Dissemination
Abstract:Engineering Technology, Incorporated (ETI) proposes the design and development of a portable backpack smoke generator for Small Unit Combat, Non-confrontational Combat and National Institute of Justice Applications. The device shall be capable of producing sustained "visible" obscurants, effective in the visible and near-IR wavelengths, but transparent at longer wavelengths. The proposed system shall form the obscurant via the "flash atomization" of gelled gases combined with a solid particle visible obscurant, titanium dioxide (TiO2). The smoke generator shall function essentially like a conventional fire extinguisher, but will be capable of enhanced powder dissemination due to the vaporization of a carbon dioxide carrier gas. Benefits of the proposed system over current technology include low cost, non-toxic, high extinction coefficient obscurant material; low cost production of the filled obscurant cylinder; high efficiency dissemination of near-monodisperse smoke particles; proven shelf life of pressurized containers; and extremely simple operation.

ELECTRONIC PACKAGING SERVICES, LTD. CO.
430 Tenth Street, Suite S-002
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 881-1114
Yinyan Wang
DARPA 97-084
Title:Shadow Moire System for Large Area Substrate Thermal Deformation Measurement
Abstract:Electronic Packaging Services (EPS) proposes to develop a commercial instrument for the experimental measurement of out-of-plane thermal displacements for large area electronic substrates. The system will be based on shadow moire, a full-field non-contact optical technique. Phase stepping analysis, which convolutes multiple moire fringe images with fixed phase differences between them, extends the resolution in out-of-plane displacement measurement below 0.1 mils, automatically identifies contour maxima and minima, and reduces interference from permanent optical features. The sample will be held within an oven combining radiant and convective heating to allow computer-controlled simulation of a variety of manufacturing and testing processes. This project is an extension of analytical services currently provided by EPS to electronics manufacturers. The Phase I objective is construction of a full-scale laboratory prototype. Specific technical aims include scaling equipment to 24" x 24" sample areas,increasing speed and robustness of automated analysis algorithms, demonstrating uniform temperature control over large samples, and identifying useful reporting formats for out-of-plane displacement information.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 103
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Indu Saxena
DARPA 97-085
Title:Single-Ended Optical Fiber Stress Monitor
Abstract:Physical Optics Corp. proposes a new method of stress profiling in optical fiber data links. The proposed method, based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and fiber Bragg gratings, will measure the spectral shift caused by stress changes. The system is single ended, allowing the monitoring station to be at the pay-out end of the fiber. The dual measurement also enables cross calibration against temperature changes. The Phase I effort is expected to result in an improved single ended optical fiber stress profilometer (SEOFS) based on Brillouin scattering and fiber Bragg gratings that measure stresses of about 100 N/m2. The success of this project will lead to SEOFS devices that will measure and prevent stress buildup during winding and unwinding of optical fiber from optical fiber bobbins, preventing breakage. While making deployment of fiber more efficient, the SEOFS device will also meet a crucial diagnostic need in the optical fiber industry.

FOCUSED RESEARCH, INC.
555 Science Dr., Suite E
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 238-2455
Robert Marshland
DARPA 97-086
Title:High-Optical-Power, Wideband Distributed Photodetectors for Optical RF Interconnects
Abstract:We propose, in this Phase I program, to study the feasibility of InP-based Velocity Matched Distributed Photodetectors (VMDP) for operation at 1.55 ¦m wavelength. The VMDP offers the possibility of high-power (100 mW), Wide bandwidth (up to 100 GHz) operation by combining the outputs of many photodetector elements along a transmission line. The basic concept has been demonstrated for the GaAs-based system for operation at 860 nm using MSM detector elements and e-beam lithography. We will investigate the adaptation to the InP-based system and the use of Schottky photodetector elements that do not require e-beam lithography to reach 100 GHz speeds. The approach is to design, model, and fabricate a series of test structures that allow the optical waveguide, electrical transmission line, photodetector, and integration challenges to be fully assessed. A successful program will provide sufficient data to evaluate feasibility of the InP-based VMDP structure, compare the MSM and Schottky diode approaches, and plan a technology development program for Phase II.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4047
Paul Haugsjaa
DARPA 97-086
Title:High-Power, Wideband Analog Optical Reciever
Abstract:Foster-Miller, a company committed to growth in the commercialization of optical communications products, proposes to conduct a Phase I SBIR effort directed towards the development of a wideband optical receiver. This development has goals for performance of the receiver that include operational bandwidths of 20 - 100 GHz for linear operation at power levels of greater than 20 mW of optical power at optical wavelengths of 1.3 and 1.55 ¦m. Foster-Miller will apply experience in optical waveguides, optoelectronic packaging, and rf modules to the selection of technical approaches to be modeled for optical and mm-wave performance, selecting the most promising technology for breadboard experimentation. A travelling-wave photodetector coupled to Foster-Miller's embedded optical waveguide technology is a likely approach. Phase II of the program will involve implementation of a receiver prototype and demonstration of the wideband optical receiver technology in a link testbed.

ASTRON CORP.
22560 Glenn Drive, Suite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Joseph Jaohda
DARPA 97-087
Title:Continuous Apertures
Abstract:The program objective is to develop novel designs, techniques, and structures to synthesize apertures capable of efficient operation over broad frequency ranges and functions. Conventional apertures are narrowly focused, application specific, and basically single point design. To decrease the cost of antennas, a more universal building block design is required. It would provide a significantly broadband frequency coverage to meet the requirements of multiple opportunities; a multipoint design. The wider the market for this universal antenna, the lower its cost.

DYNETICS, INC.
P.O. Box 5500
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 922-9230
Keith Harris
DARPA 97-087
Title:Continuous Apertures Using Aggregate Patch Elements (APEs)
Abstract:Dynetics proposes the use of Aggregatable Patch Elements (APEs) as a potential solution for synthesis of arbitrary antenna performance from a near continuum of small patch elements. This solution is based on the innovative concept of integration of element switching directly on the array surface. A large field of small patches will allow considerable latitude in synthesis of a patch array because multiples of the small patches may be aggregated to form larger patches which will serve as radiators. These larger patches may be used in ways consistent with conventional patch array design. This technology can be used over extremely broad frequency ranges, limited only by the performance of the switching devices employed in the aperture. Lattice spacing of the conventional patch array thus formed will remain proportional to the wavelength of operation, maintaining good control of grating lobes. Power requirements on the switching devices (PIN diodes or GaAs switches, for example) are low relative to both thetotal radiated power and the patch element radiated power because the incident RF power is distributed over several devices. With appropriate dual (or asymmetric) feeds this concept can support any required polarization (even dual or variable polarization).

CENTER FOR REMOTE SENSING, INC.
P.O. Box 9244
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 848-0800
Suman Ganguly
DARPA 97-088
Title:Digital Wideband Electromagnetic Sensor
Abstract:Improved magnetic and electromagnetic sensors covering a wide range of frequencies, 0 to 10kHz, and with extremely high sensitivity are proposed for broad area detection and characterization of underground targets. The sensors can be used for a variety of applications and for different e.m. sources. They can be configured as gradiometers, as vector or scaler sensors and can be used as internetted ground sensors, as well as from UAV. The improved generic sensors will find numerous applications for diverse types of tunnel detection problems using passive and active techniques as well as for detecting activities in the tunnel. The improvements will be made in terms of stability, ruggedness, compactness, low-power requirements, as well as for superior noise cancellation and signal processing schemes. Complete digital system is proposed to attain the desired characteristics.

CODAR OCEAN SENSORS, LTD.
1000 Fremont Ave, Suite K
Los Altos, CA 94024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 773-8240
Donald Barrick
DARPA 97-088
Title:ELF/VLF Electromagnetic Detection and Characterization of Deeply Buried Targets
Abstract:We propose to provide a numerical capability to map the ELF/VLF electric and magnetic fields above the ground, as perturbed by threat underground structures of interest to the DoD. MATLAB source code will be delivered that will produce these perturbed fields as a function of radio frequency, as well as values for the unperturbed background field and the external noise. The latter two signals are the primary limiting factors to the sensitivity of any low-frequency surveillance system. Two sources will be employed in the calculations of the perturbed fields: 1) distant HAARP/HIPAS low-frequency modulated signals; 2) a local source, for example from a coil near the surveillance area. This phenomenological capability is sorely lacking at present, as various sensor and surveillance concepts are being designed and offered for subsurface monitoring. There is little basis for assessing feasibility or performance effectiveness among proposed candidates. The MATLAB package we will deliver will be comprised of extensive tools our company already has in place, modified and adapted to handle subsurface DoD threat objects and the above two radio signal sources. Example calculations will be provided to demonstrate how the code is used, and to give feasibility estimates for the most obvious system implementations of such sensors. The output of Phase I will form the basis of the Phase II effort to: a) design, model, prototype, and test and ELF/VLF sensor, and b) use ELF/VLF field maps to examine the methodology for inverting/extracting information about underground structures.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State St, PO Drawer 719
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 347-1118
Jerry Cole
DARPA 97-088
Title:Remote Sound Sensing to Detect and Characterize Deeply Buried Targets
Abstract:Discovering, locating, and characterizing foreign buried facilities remotely is a high National priority. Most buried facility has machinery that emits acoustic energy through outside vents that possibly has uniquely identifiable spectra. MRC has a novel proprietary laser sensor for remote sound sensing possibly capable of detecting and characterizing target emissions from buried targets. Feasibility to detect and recover acoustic waveforms is proven in four existing contracts and one previous contract. MRC made measurements (Internal Research) at a US buried facility. Analysis of data from the target and background acoustic signals indicates significant differences (sound levels and spectra) that should be detectable and possibly identifiable at useful operational ranges. In this project MRC will 1) develop an estimate of the foreign target acoustic signatures based on measured data, technical material, and other Government data; 2) develop potential system operational concept options for various platforms; 3) develop a sensor technology feasibility assessment of our sensor and a system concept design including a technology roadmap; 4) produce estimates for unit cost of system components, producibility of technology components, and develop system requirements for system support elements; and 5)develop and deliver a final report including all results and recommendations for Phase II.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Dr.
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-5530
S Marple
DARPA 97-088
Title:Autonomous Underground Microborer for Characterization of Deeply Buried Underground Facilities
Abstract:Although construction and entrances of deeply buried underground facilities (UGFs) may be detected by remote surveillance assets available to U.S. forces, detailed internal characterization and 24-hour monitoring of denied access facilities cannot be accomplished by current remote sensors and has therefore depended heavily on human intelligence (humint) resources, which are often not available or may be unreliable. An innovative system concept is presented for a stealthy autonomous underground microborer (AUM) to deliver sensors to designated positions near or into a UGF by microboring through the ground with a rock-melting penetrator. For an entrance monitoring mission, the AUM would carry electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) imaging and/or audio sensors periscoped to ground level near an entrance. For a UGF mapping mission, the AUM would carry a ground-penetrating radar transmitter to perform bistatic tomographic imaging of the UGF in conjunction with stealthy receiving unattended ground sensors (UGS). For an internal access mission, the AUM would carry EO/IR, audio, and/or radiological/chemical sniffers to be placed in or through walls of a UGF chamber.

QUANTUM MAGNETICS, INC.
7740 Kenamar Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 566-9200
Robert Penny
DARPA 97-088
Title:Development of a Sensitive Multi-Axis Magnetic Tensor Gradiometer for Passive and Active Electromagnetic Detection of Underground Facilities
Abstract:The state-of-the-art in magnetoresistive sensors has improved to a point where they can be used to construct extremely sensitive, room temperature, multi-axis magnetic gradiometers. Typical magnetoresistive elements have a white noise floor of 5 pT/Hz(square root), and operate with flat response from DC to tens of MHz. A light weight, inexpensive, multi-axis gradiometer could be constructed from these devices that would be a key element in airborne electromagnetic surveys for detecting underground facilities. The sensitivity and versatility of the sensors is such that the one instrument could be used in both passive and active electromagnetic surveys; detecting perturbations in the Earth's magnetic field from ferrous materials used in the construction of the facility; magnetic leakage from power used in the facility; and eddy currents and magnetic moments induced in materials within the facility from externally applied ELF/VLF probe signals. These complimentary data sets can be combined in a sensor fusionscheme to minimize sensor clutter and discriminate against false targets.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC
15262 Pipeline Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 373-5509
John Spadaro
DARPA 97-088
Title:Technologies for the Detection and Characterization of Deeply Buried Targets
Abstract:Deeply-buried targets offer the most challenging location and identification issues for the military commander and intelligence officer. Their value generally dictates extraordinary measures for concealment and deception. While measures exist for the detection of suspect sites and NBC/RF emissions if good concealment practices are not employed, techniques are needed for characterizing and monitoring such suspect sites. ELF electric and magnetic sensing offers multiple means for passively obtaining the requisite information using a simple, unattended sensor system. SARA, Inc. is eminently qualified to define, evaluate and develop such systems by virtue of its extensive involvement with strategic weapon system concealment, ELF sensing and innovative data acquisition systems for background-limited scenarios. SARA has previously conducted a similar program, "Surveillance of Buried Command & Control Centers," for SPAWAR, leading to development of a flexible architecture for ELF sensing that can be adapted to the exploitable signatures and propagation paths for deeply-buried targets. This architecture incorporates our recently-commercialized CASSPER data acquisition System, evolved from a series of test data acquisition development programs for USAF and others. This integration of expertise, experience and proven metnodology gives high confidence that we can achieve a low-risk path to solution of this demanding task.

ATOM SCIENCES, INC.
114 Ridgeway Center
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 483-1113
Heinrich Arlinghaus
DARPA 97-089
Title:A New Instrument for Quantitive Measurements of High-Ionization Thereshold Elements in Nanostructures
Abstract:The objective of the project is to develop a new mass spectrometric diagnostic tool that will allow quantitative measurement on a nanometer scale of elements having a high ionization potential, such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen fluorine, and phosphorous. The proposed work would extend the proven capabilities of laser resonance postionization of sputtered material to enable efficient measurements of high-ionization threshold elements in nanoscale devices. Two advances are required to enable these highly sensitive and selective measurements over tens of nm scales, with essentially no matrix effects: 1) demonstrating effective one-photon resonance ionization for the chosen elements, and 2) removing vibrations and drift from existing instrumentation. Work in Phase I is aimed at developing vacuum ultraviolet laser wavelengths to accomplish the first of these requirements. Assuming successful completion of Phase I and Phase II, the high efficiency (3% to 8% useful yield) and lack of matrix effects characteristic of resonance postionization measurements would allow quantitative measurements of major constituents in extremely small dimensions (e.g., 50 nm x 550 nm x 1 nm), even in dynamic stoichiometries. Measurement of low-concentration constituents, dopants, and impurities could be performed in slightly larger volumes.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-9741
Bruce Shetler
DARPA 97-090
Title:Spatial-Spectral Automatic Target Recognition
Abstract:The complexity and pace of the modern battlefield make Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) technologies critical to the ability to fight and prevail. Given this, it has proven technically challenging to implement ATR in a universally effective and effective way. Shape-based ATR suffers many of the limitations of the human eye-brain system. For example, the algorithms can be deceived by decoys, camouflage, shadow or darkness. Systems that take advantage of spectral information may be resistant to these limitations while suffering from others such as mis-identification due to mixed pixels. This research effort seeks to redress the limitations of shape or spectral-based systems by synergistically combining the best features of both to create a superior ATR system. Photon Research Associates, while leading research in spectral ATR, recognizes that this program will require equivalent experience and innovation in shape-based ATR; therefore we have teamed with Hughes SCS in order to create a creative, effective team to address this problem. The initial effort will consist primarily of two activities: 1) devising a number of candidate spatial-spectral ATR algorithms which promise to provide performance superior to either method in isolation, and 2) testing these algorithms throughout the spectral, spatial and operational trade space.

---------- SOCOM ----------

5 Phase I Selections from the 97.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
STAR COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2213 Abbotsford Drive
Vienna, VA 22181
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 255-2388
Mike Smisko
SOCOM 97-004
Title:Ultra Low Power SATCOM Transceiver
Abstract: Design of an ultra low power satellite transceiver is needed, which is technically innovative in three areas. First, interoperability with non-geostationary satellite systems as well as conventional geostationary systems is proposed, allowing global coverage, very small antenna, large field of view, and near 100% availability even for poorly sited terminals. Second, digital signal processing techniques capable of low power operation in extreeme environments are proposed to achieve high data rate with low bit error rate, suppress stron, nearby, inband transmitters, and reduce the probability of detection or intercept. Third, development of digital and analog circuits, including application specific integrated circuit design, microwave solid state circuit design, will be investigated to minimize power consumption, increase reliability in austere environments, and reduce production costs. Together, these design innnovations will allow manufacture of units that are lightweight, rugged, easily deployable, and able to operate on a small battery for 30 days. The goal of this research is to valideate the achievability of cost, size, and power consumption objectives in a militarized unit while maximizing operational unitlity including hight data reae, wide interoperability (e.g., military/commercial, current/near future, frequency ability and geographic coverage), and maximum link availability.

TRIANGLE RESEARCH & DEV. CORP.
P.O. Box 12696
Research Triangle, NC 27709
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 832-5959
Richard A. McKinney
SOCOM 97-005
Title:A Hybrid Collar for Combat Protection (HYCOPS) to Increase Survivability and Reduce Injuries to Crew Members
Abstract:The helmet for helmsmen and crew members helmet has evolved from a device to provide impact and projectile protection, into a platform for communications equipment, into today's complex system that includes sophisticated optical and head-mounted display systems. The resultant increase in size and mass has caused at least two problems not previously experienced by the increased G-force loads on the cervical spine of the CCM. Secondly, increased helmet size and mass increases the degree of slippage fo the helmet relative to the head, thereby reducing thevisual acuity of helmsman/CCMs using optical systems. During the proposed effort, the investigators will design a prototype Hybrid Collar for Combat Protection System (HYCOPS) using innovative air chambers and inflators for helmet and neck support as well as life jacket bouyancy, state fo the art body armor and energy absorbing materials, and an innovative thermal stress management system. Each of these technologies have been developed separately and will be commercially available. The proposed work will take these unrelated technologies and combine them into a system that meets SOCOM's needs to protect small craft helmsmen and CCCM against many of the hazards faced on missions and during training.

SIERRA MONOLITHICS, INC.
103 W. Torrance Blvd., Suite 102
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 379-2005
Dr. Binneg Lao
SOCOM 97-006
Title:Man Personal Dual-Band Miniature Beacon
Abstract:A miniature hand held smart I-band and K-band beacon transponder is proposed to provide location, data transmission, and IFF applications. Based on Sierra Monolithics SMP-1000 I-band Microponder, which has single, double, triple, and active pulse operations, the proposed beacon adds a k-band capability with smart band selections according to interrogation pulse frequency. For data transmission, its pulse position modulation (PPM) architecture will allow data input through an RS-232 data interface, transmission of SELCAL codes for IFF operation, and GPS location data. It's agile AGC receiver responds to weak as well as strong interrogation pulses in quick succession. The target life for it's 9-V battery power supply is 24 hours of continuous operation.

ADVANCED PROTECTION PRODUCTS, INC.
1701 W. 10th Street #5
Tempe, AZ 85281
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 517-1150
William J. Perciballi
SOCOM 97-007
Title:Titanium-Composite Body Armor Plates
Abstract:Advanced Protection Products, Inc. (APPI) will use advanced materials and processes to develop and certify Very Light Body Armor (VLBA) plates that are capable of defeating a variety of ballistic threats. The VLBA plates will be designed using a titanium allow based metallic-composite armor system to provide cost-effective, lightweight protection. Composite facing and backing materials will be utilized to minimize the effects of front-face spall and rear-face deformation. Commercially available titanium alloys (Ti-6A1-4V, Ti-6A1-6V-2Sn) will be evaluated for the VLBA plate application. Titanium cost will be minimized by ordering to industry standard or commercial specifications for alloy chemistry; performance will be mazimized by specifying a heat-treatment schedule developed specifically for armor. Ballistic testing will be conducted to determine required thickness for the titanium and composite armor materials. NIJ-style ballistic testing (using a clay backing) will be conducted on the final design in preparation for SBIR Phase II NIJ Certification efforts.

DYNETICS, INC.
P.O. Box 5500
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 922-9230
Keith R. Harris
SOCOM 97-008
Title:On-The-Aperture Patch Tuning (OTAPT) for Broadband Antennas
Abstract:Dynetics proposes the use of On-The-Aperture Patch Tuning (OTAPT) as a potential solution for broadband performance from a low profile antenna. This solution is based on the innovative concept of integration of digital switching of tuning elements directly on the aperture surface. A single patch antenna can then be digitally tuned to successively lower frequencies, modifying the patch dimensions to the new resonant dimension by adding small strips. This technology may, in principle, be used over extremely broad frequency ranges, limited only by the performance of the switching devices employed in the aperture. RF power requirements on the switching devices (PIN diodes or GaAs switches, for example) are low relative to both the total radiated power because the incident RF power is distributed over several devices. The switching devices are readily controllable by digital computer commands which could be incorporated into existing crew instrumentation. With appropriate dual (or asymmetric) feed this concept can support any required polarization, including dual- or variable- polarization.

---------- OSD ----------

49 Phase I Selections from the 97.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ACUSOFT, INC.
12249 Science Drive, Suite 130
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 658-9888
Jesse:Liu
OSD 97-001
Title:HLA Development Tools
Abstract:AcuSoft proposes to develop a set of HLA Development Tools to assist simulation software developers in their efforts to implement the HLA. The HLA Development Tools will support the Federation Execution and Development Process (FEDEP) and present an approach to solving the problems associated with the HLA's flexible FOM data definitions. A set of data visualization tools, such as a 2D Plan View Display, 3D Stealth View Display, Data Logger and Data Viewer are also proposed to provide the developer with a means to evaluate and troubleshoot their HLA implementations.

AEGIS RESEARCH CORP.
6703 Odyssey Drive, Suite 200
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 922-0802
Ronnie Turrentine
OSD 97-001
Title:HLA Federation Implementation Tools
Abstract:The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) has developed the High Level Architecture (HLA) as one of the principle components of a DoD-wide Common Technical Framework for modeling and simulation (M&S). Unlike previous distributed simulation technologies such as DIS and SIMNET, HLA provides federation developers, via the Object Model Template (OMT), the means to define the structure and format fo the messages passes between the HLA federation members (federates). This flexibility of HLA, along with its support for dynamic multicasting, transfer of ownership of object attributes and other advanced capabilities, presents the consumers of HLA not only with unprecedented power, but also a new set of technical challenges in planning and building distributed simulation systems. In order to provide the HLA user community with a complete suite of tools for performing HLA federation design and planning, AEgis Research wil investigate developing tools under this SBIR for supporting concept Analysis and Federation Design. In addition to these two tools, AEgis will inestigate augmenting the Object Model Development Tool (OMDT) with a powerful scriptable editing tool that allows users to specify their own rules for automatically editing HLA object models.

CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS & SOFTWARE
P.O. Box 1129
Chino Valley, AZ 86323
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 636-2600
Russell L. Carter
OSD 97-001
Title:Multiple Federation Management Tool Supporting Automated Exercise Management
Abstract:As the simulation interoperability High Level Architecture (HLA) matures, increasingly sophisticated simulations capable of accurately depicting complex realistic systems are being performed. HLA has been designated as the standard technical architecture for all DoD simulations. There exists a need to effectively manage distributed HLA federates and federations. For large scale distributed simulations, the lack of a resource utilization management mechanism leads to load imbalances that greatly reduce the effective computational power brought to bear on the simulation. This SBIR proposes an inovative Multiple Federation Management Tool that implements a set of extension interfaces to enable migration of HLA federates and federations. The extended interfaces enable external, automated exercise management of simulation components by mature commercial COTS resource allocation systems while maintaining complete HLA compliance. This tool has dual military and commercial use in robust interoperable simulations and distributed object computing enterprises.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
3085 Woodman Dr., Ste 200
Dayton, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 299-5999
Mary L. Fricke
OSD 97-001
Title:HLA Federation InterConnect (FedConnect) Tool Set
Abstract:In order to become HLA compliant, a Simulation Object Model (SOM) and interface code must be developed for every legacy model that needs to interoperate with other models in a federation. Lessons learned from the protofederation experiments proved that this is a very difficult task that can take up to three person years of effort. At this point in the HLA development, no tool set to conduct this analysis and generate a SOM and interface code for legacy models has been developed. Spectra Research, Inc. (S*R) proposes to develop the HLA Federation InterConnect (FedConnect) Tool Set to automate much of this process. FedConnect will provide tools so a software engineer and domain expert team can conduct automated and interactive analysis of the legacy code, map elements of the code to a FOM and automate generation of much of the RTI interface code. FedConnect will be developed by extending a Model input/output (I/O) Reengineering environment provides the capability to automatically analyze the source code and group model I/O data into abstract object-oriented classes. consequently, development of the FedConnect tool set is an ideal application for this SBIR funded technology.

SYNETICS CORP.
16539 Commerce Drive, Suite 10
King George, VA 22485
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 663-2137
Stephen M. Goss
OSD 97-001
Title:HLA Federation Implementation Tools
Abstract:Developing a set of tools that is automated, integrated, and compliant with the deired goals of this SBIR is not a simple task. If a coordinated approach is not taken from the start, then a hodgepodge of tools and capabilities for a hodgepodge of environments wil be developed with unwanted outcome of falling short of the desired goals. Therefore, SYNETICS proposes to establish a CASE-like environment under which HLA Federations can be planned, designed, developed, certified, and checked prior to execution. This environment, referred to as the Computer-Aided Federation Development Environment (CAFDE), will be structured to establish a common environment from which plug-and-play tools may be developed and easily integrated. CAFDE will include a standard HMI look and feel for all tools to be considered for inclustion, published application interface (AI) and data exchange formats (DEFs) between the tools and CAFDE, and a common CAFDE database enting for storage, retrieval, and sharing of information between the integrated tools. The CAFDE concept is similar to that of today's fully integrated software development environments.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Dr. Darrin Taylor
OSD 97-002
Title:A Runtime Analysis and Monitoring Tool Suite
Abstract:The increasing number and complexity of HLA-based distributed simulation exercises has created an urgent need for a suite of commercially-supported HLA Runtime Analysis and Monitoring (RAM) tools. These tools must provide a clear, accurate and timely view into the dynamic virtual battlefield and its supporting infrastructure while also providing supervisory control of all federates. Mak Technologies has an extensive background in commercially successful distributed simulation products and a growing body of HLA runtime monitoring tools, so a low-risk development foundation is assured. Our extensive experience in worldwide marketing of simulation tools will significantly further the transitioning of the software developed under this contract to the global HLA community. During the Phase I work effort, MaK will design an open, collaborative suite of RAM tools. MaK will also develop a tool FOM to support the interaction among the RAM components and other federates. MaK is able to produce an initial prototype of a RAM tool suite by leveraging thier existing HLA-compliant commercial products, such as VR-Link, Stalth, and Data Logger. Each of these tools will be modified to adhere to the RAM API and the RAM Tool FOM. The developed prototype will not only provide a set of tools currently unavailable in the M&S community, but will also provide a strong starting point for Phase II testing, design, and further development. MaK's proposed work effort results in an open specification for the RAM Tool Suite, a RAM Tool FOM, and a working prototype which includes the incorporation of two existing commercial HLA tools. This not only provides a strong foundation for future development, but also provides a jump start on the incorporation of commercail tools into the RAM Tool Suite.

SYSTRAN CORP.
4126 Linden Ave
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-5601
George J. Valentino
OSD 97-002
Title:AgentsTools - intelligent agents for analysis and modeling
Abstract:SYSTRAN, and our subcontractor , Katherine Morse of SAIC (San Diego), will design and selectively demonstrate (in Phase I), and develop and significantly demonstrate (in Phase II), a series of intelligent software agents - collectively called AgentsTools - that will effect the analysis and modeling of data collected in real-time during HLA compliant simulations. AgentsTools will be developed using the highly portable Java language (sith some additional software tools and "plugins"). JavaSoft's RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and Objectspace's Voyager are the two primary adjuncts to Java we will employ. Consequently, AgentsTools will be built on a foundation of COTS software, with an open-architecture to enable and promote user extensibility and flexibility. AgentsTools will be a toolkit of specialized software programs, called "agents," that will alloworganizations to obtain heretofore unavailable insights from HLA-compliant distributed simulations. Two agent examples are Identify_Link_Latency and Monitor_Port_Bandwidth: these two programs will aid researchers in formulating simulations that are correctly implemented with respect to human-in-the-loop control system response. The AgentsTools developed will support all HLA compliant simulations, with backware compatibility to any simulation implemented via distributed, heterogeneous, networks (including the Internet World Wide Web). incremental releases during Phase II will reduce time to market in Phase III.

VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY CORP.
8996 Fern Park Drive
Burke, VA 22015
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 978-2211
Paul Perkinson
OSD 97-002
Title:HLA RUNTIME ANALYSIS AND MONITORING TOOLS
Abstract:As the potential of the High Level Architecture (HLA) is realized, the size, scope, and frequency of federations will grow, and as they do, so will the expense of the manual federation planning, execution, monitoring, and analysis process. The basis for an automated approach to exercise execution and monitoring is the Execution Plan developed during the federation planning phase and containing Federation Execution. Host, LAN, Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) Services and Object/Interaction Table data. An execution and management tool will provide a central repository for the Configurtion Management (CM) of execution plan data. The federate and federation data gathered during the planning phase includes all of the necessary information to visualize a detailed representation of the federation and federates. Virtual Technology Corporation will focus on the design of a Federation Monitoring Analysis Tool which will include: (1) visualization of federation planning, monitoring, and analysis data, (2) production of federation planning tables, (3) satisfaction of federation monitoring and analysis data requirements, and (4) identification and correction of federation run-time inaccuracies. A visual representation of the federation provides the ideal control point for executing decisions across the entire federation based upon notification of the state of the federation and its member federates.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Robert Faucher
OSD 97-003
Title:Integrating HLA into the Spearhead Game
Abstract:To promote the commercial use of HLA outisde the DoD, non-military applications must be fielded which clearly demonstrate the benefits of HLA over and above other network architectures. MaK Technologies is the world's leading supplier of DIS software, and is the first company toproduce a commercial product based on HLA (VR-Link++). MaK will integrate VR-Link++ with MaK's completed, state-of-the-art, M1 Abrams tank combat game, called Spearhead. This will produce amil-spec, HLA compliant, commercial video game. This game will unequivocally demonstrate that HLA is capable of running in a commercial application, since the Spearhead game will be selling commercially in the marketplace before the completion of this Phase I effort. MaK will also extend their general purpose application called a Lobby Server. The Lobby Server acts as a meeting place/battle manager on the Internet for players who want to use Spearhead online. Some additional functionality will be built into the Lobby Server during Phase I, demonstrating capabilities which RTI V1.0 makes possible, but which would have been too difficult or costly to implement without it. MaK will also create and document appropriate FOMs and SOMs and an initial design of a game-specific RTI. Phase I will result in an HLA variant of the commercial game which will be suitable for use by the DoD for tank simulation and training. Phase II will result in a sequel to Spearhead which will be sold commercially, and fielded on the Internet with the new HLA-enabled, general purpose Lobby Server. At the end of Phase I, a Real-Time RTI desing document will exist, enabling developers to immediately proceed to a lightweight real-time RTI implementation during Phase II.

PERCEPTRONICS, INC.
21010 Erwin Street
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 884-7470
Andreas Kemkes
OSD 97-003
Title:Development of a Commercial FOM for 3D Interactive Entertainment Applications
Abstract:Perceptronics and its team members, Litton Guidance & Control Systems and Infinity Multimedia, will demonstrate that the High Level Architecture (HLA) provides a viable approach for multi-participant entertainment applications and implement an HLA federation and a Federation Object Model (FOM) for this domain. A simple tennis-like game with both 2D and 3D visualization will be used as representative for the general application class. Its design demonstrates the need to address three key issues for the class of multi-participant entertainment applications: transfer of ownership, viewpoint sharing, and multiple level of detail viewing. Solutions for these issues will be developed within the HLA architecture using specific FOM classes, HLA Ownership Management, and HLA Data Distribution Management. The design of our federationwill support the emerging technology of autostereoscopic 3D-displays. Viewing is greatly enhanced by this technology. The impact on the device-independent abstractions used in the FOM for viewpoint sharing and multiple level of detail viewing will be a focus of our resarch.

SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY SOLUTIONS, INC.
122 4th Ave.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Deborah Hevstek
OSD 97-003
Title:Simulation and Analysis of Fire Evacuation (SAFE)
Abstract:Unlocking the vast resources represented by models and the domain knowledge they contain, and facilitating greater reuse of simulations based on those models, is of paramount importance to the DoD. The DoD has proposed the High Level Architecture (HLA) as a means to achieve reuse by enabling the federation of disparate simulations. To demonstrate the broader value of the HLA, SPS is proposing an innovative federation of DoD and commercial domain simulations. The federation, called Simulation and Analysis of Fire Evacuation (SAFE), includes two simulation federates, an existing Government-developed RTI, and an innovative tool for scenario specification. In Phase I, SPS will define a set of scenarios using the scenario specification tool, develop SOMs for the two federates, create a FOM to support each scenario, and specify a complete HLA-compliant system architecture for the Phase II demonstration of the SAFE. Phase I will also result in a plan for the FOM implementation.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7770
Leland J. Tankersley
OSD 97-003
Title:HLA-ENHANCED DISTRIBUTED GAMING ENVIRONMENT
Abstract:The High Level Architecture (HLA) for Modeling and Simulation is evolving into the DoD standard paradigm for developing distribution simulation environments through the integration of disparate simulations ("federates"). HLA also has significant potential to provide similar benefits to the commercial software industry in general, and the online distributed entertainment industry in particular. HLA's ready support for integrating federates with widely-varying scopes will facilitate the rapid and effective production of distributed virtual worlds offering users a wide variety of entertainment options. The development of an HLA-Enhanced Distributed Gaming Environment (HEDGE) will provide users with ready access to many different popular game genres, and will also constitute an important resource to existing game developers desiring to link their products together into a single integrated gaming environment.

ACUSOFT, INC.
12249 Science Drive, Suite 130
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 658-9888
Jesse:Liu
OSD 97-004
Title:Research and Development of a Synthetic Environment RTI
Abstract:AcuSoft proposes to research and develop a Synthetic Environment RTI (SE-RTI). The SEDRIS initiative has established a new programming paradigm that provides lossless transmission of synthetic environment objects. The HLA has been designed to support interoperability and reuse of DoD simulations, and SEDRIS is a major component of HLA. Currently, the SEDRIS data model, APIs and format are primarily designed to support data exchange in a non-realtime application environment. AcuSoft proposes to research for a solution to bridge the gap between SEDRIS and HLA Runtime Infrastructure. As part of Phase I effort, we will prototype a small extension to RTI that will allow simulations to "subcribe" synthetic environment objects from SEDRIS Server. We will demonstrate multiple entities, air and ground interacting through RTI, exercising on a composite terrain that served from the SEDRIS server using data from two different source formats. We will apply the knowledge to Phase II development of SEDRIS real-time extension to RTI that can meet to RTI that can meet real-time frame rate requirement.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 668-2567
Hugo Feugen
OSD 97-004
Title:Commercial Game Development Using HLA and SEDRIS
Abstract:Significant similarities exist between DoD simulation applications and networked simulation games developed for entertainment. To date, however, there has been no compelling reason for commercial game developers to adopt DoD methods and standards. Interestingly, HLA compares favorably to current commercial solutions like Microsoft's DirectPlay. There is clear benefit to DoD if HLA is embraced by the gaming world as the de facto standard for architecting distributed simulations. Widespread commercial development reduces acquisition costs for HLA compliant simulations and provides for a richer set of tools, technologies, and developers. The objective of this research effort is to assess HLA as a commercially viable alternative for implementing networked games, and finding solutions to the distributed database design problem. This shall be one by developing a civil aviation flight simulation game. A primary objective shall be evaluation of the SEDRIS data model within this commercial software. Phase I shall define requirements for such a product, map these requirements into suitable Federation and Simulation Object Models, and assess performance using the RTI for WindowsNT. Leveraging simulation capabilities and expertise already present at Cybernet, this effort shall include a demonstration of the resulting federation prototype.

CREARE, INC.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Robert J. Kline-Schoder
OSD 97-005
Title:Haptic Display Software for Hiqh Level Architecture Simulations
Abstract:Future High Level Architecture (HLA) simulations will incorporate non-visual stimuli. One such stimulus will be force feedback that is provided using haptic displays. Force feedback will be instrumental in o btaining high fidelity information exchange between the simulation and the user. However, one significant problem with providing force feedback between a simulation and a user is that time delays associated with computational requirements or finite bandwidth communication links between the haptic display and distributed simulation processors and databaases can cause instability. Creare's innovation is to convert the kinematic information that is typically transferred between the haptic display and simulations into the mathematical equivalent of a transmission line. We will demonstrate that this results in a system that is guaranteed to be stable, regardless of the length or structure of the time delay. This results because transmission lines can be shown to be passive and passive systems, by definition, are guaranteed to be stable. During Phase I, Creare will incorporate our algorighm into a federated object model and demonstrate a real-time implementation. During Phase II, we will build and demonstrate multiple federated object models and provide real-time haptic feedback while interacting with a distributed simulation and database.

MYSTECH ASSOC., INC.
5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1200
Falls Church, VA 22041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 671-8680
M. J. Lyell
OSD 97-005
Title:Representation and Transmission of Non-Visual Stimuli Using the HLA
Abstract:This effort will develop an HLA compliant representation of non-visual stimuli with the intention of utilizing the models developed in Phase I effort to provide data for "human" mannequin stimulation in Phase II. The Phase II goal is to have the mannequin respon in a physiologically realistic manner to the non-visual stimuli data that will be passed to it over a network and via an interface. Such mannequins could then be used in training or simulation scenarios. In the fundamental efforts of Phase I, an object oriented approach is planned. In addition to representation of the non-visual stimuli, object model representation of key human physiological systems will be developed, as well as relevant interactions.

SYSTRAN CORP.
4126 Linden Ave
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-5601
George J. Valentino
OSD 97-005
Title:Implementing 3-D Audio into the HLA/RTI Structure
Abstract:SYSTRAN, and our partner Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. (BATC) - an experienced HLA user and member of the HLA Protofederation activity - will design and selectively demonstrate (in Phase I), and develop and significantly demonstrate (in Phase II) a series of techniques and processes that will allow users of idstributed simulations the ability to incorporate audio signatures, audio transmissions, and the reception of these transmissions within their Federates. The techniques will apply to audio whether generated from weapons or people. Weapon audio outputs include the audio from engines, movement, and activity within a modeled environment (i.e., one including terrain and weather), plus the actual audio due to the detonations of the munitions. The audio output of people-in-the-loop will be actual speech, while models of people within constructive simulations will output text that must be converted to speech at the receiving site. The models and techniques we propose will be compatible with all HLA and RTI rules; they will utilize the existing techniques developed for Data Distribution Management using multidimensional routing spaces. The generation of sound at the receiving end will be compatible with COTS PC hardware and sophisticated digital signal processing systems for immersive 3-dimension sound presentation.

LIONHEARTH TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
25401 Spanish Ranch Rd.
Los Gatos, CA 95033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 357-5536
Mark Morgenthaler
OSD 97-006
Title:HLA-Virtual Command Post
Abstract:Many simulations require tactical intelligence information and audio communication. This topic's thrust is to develop commercial applications that use the current C4I HLA constructs. A Virtual Command Post (VCP) has been desigend and build in response to an earlier solicitation and is being delivered as a proof-of-concept for CECOM's future battlefield visualization, planning and radio communication efforts. This VCP runs a distributed simulation of a battlefield TOC inside a Commander's VR helmet in order to provide operational, fully portable, mobile, battlefield C4I capabilities. This project proposes to port the VCP to HLA using MRCI components wherever possible and to develp alternate simulations (such as virtual classrooms, virtual sales centers and virtual service and support centers) which would be suitable for both military and commercial use.

MYSTECH ASSOC., INC.
5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1200
Falls Church, VA 22041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 671-8680
Maria Shugars
OSD 97-006
Title:Commercialization of C4I Simulation Components for Disaster Planning and Recovery Using HLA
Abstract:Federal, state, local, and military missions for Disaster Relief, Emergency Action, and Humanitarian Assistance (DREAHA) require all of the traditional command, control, communications, computer and intelligence (C4I) functions used by military units for traditional warfare. New civilian systems that leverage and reuse military C4I systems to plan, prepare, identify, vector, monitor, and recover from man-made and natuarl disasters are starting to become viable while the military takeson increasingly larger roles in non-traditional warfare. both communities and missions are converging on requirements for mission rehearsals and training that focus on a broad range of simulations and model fidelity, scalability, and robustness. Mystech proposes to develop information flow models and Reference Federation Object Model (Reference FOM) as a precursor to building a proto-federation for disaster planning and recovery analysis, mission rehearsal and training, to conduct a survey of existing simulations and models in the domain, and to develop a mini-prototype of a system based on the Reference FOM that validates a design approach.

OPTIMETRICS, INC.
3115 Professional Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 973-1177
Fredrick G. Smith
OSD 97-007
Title:Data Analysis Tools for HLA Simulations
Abstract:OptiMetrics, Inc. proposes to develop real-time monitoring and after action review tools specifically designed to function in advanced HLA simulation environments. The development approach will include: Tailoring tools to user requirements; A highly object-oriented design; A layered design to interface between our software and the external interfaces (e.g., HLA/RTI); A preference for COTS or GOTS software components; Object-oriented data structures designed to match simulation data requirements; Sequential software builds to develop, demonstrate, test and then improve the tools. Unique features to be included in the tools would be: Efficient and distributed data acquisistion within the HLA environment, including storage of audio, video and command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (CI) data; Real-time display and monitoring of selected exercise parameters; After action analysis of C3Idata as wella s physical exercise results; The ability to correlate C3I data with exercise outcomes.

VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY CORP.
8996 Fern Park Drive
Burke, VA 22015
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 978-2211
Kevin Bair
OSD 97-007
Title:DATA MANAGEMENT/ANALYSIS TOOLS
Abstract:The Defense Modeling & Simulation Office (DMSO) is in the process of defining a common technical framework for modeling and simulation to promote interoperability and reuse, and has established the High-Level Architecture (HLA) to which all DoD simulation must conform. This decree has led to the need for a modular data management system capable of passively collecting data from an HLA federation and providing a rapid reduction and analyiss capability of federate and federation data. Virtual Technology Corporation (VCT) proposes to meet these needs by designing a component based suite of data collection and analysis tools. The componenets include an extensible object oriented data management framework, template based FOM parser, standard database independent interfaces, and tools for information analysis. These tools will allow for the reconstruction of an entire federation exercise, synthesize distributed recorded data, and provide the decomposition of the data into significant activities for replay and analysis.

EMPIRICAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
P.O. Box 8175
Charlottesville, VA 22906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 296-7000
Martin C. Baruch, Ph.D.
OSD 97-008
Title:Liquid Crystal-Based Underwater Imager
Abstract:The contractor proposes a new approach to underwater imaging that directly converts a two-dimmensional acoustic pressure wave into an electronic requirements fo convential piezo-element arrays. The imager relies on the piezo-birefringent properties of a nematic liquid crystal panel that serves as both sensor and display. The capability of nematic liquid crystals has been established and published by the authors and others. Pressure waves established by acoustic transducers are reflected by the target, focused by an acoustic lens system, and converted into a visible image for target identification. A compact device with a volume of 1-2 ft3 for diver-held applications at ranges of about 5 meters, as well as larger versions for increased distances, are feasible. In Phase I liquid crystal panels will be constructed and tested for maximum resolution using the contractor's diffraction-limited acoustic lens system. The engineering specifications applicable to the design of field prototype, to be built under Phase II, will be determined.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 103
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Sanjay Tripathi, Ph.D.
OSD 97-008
Title:Underwater Acousto-Optical Imaging System
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an innovative high Resolution Acousto-optic Imaging Sensor (RAIS) device based on limitations of existing technologies for underwater imaging. The compactly packaged RAIS device comprises an AOLCD, ultrasound generator, acoustic lens, and CCD camera. The acoustic ultrasound transducers produce ultrasonic waves. The acoustic waves propagating through the liquid crystal produce compression and shear deformations. The elastic deformations result in a destabilizing torque, and because of the low viscosity of the liquid crystal material the torque propagates into its bulk and causes molecular reorientation -- and hence birefringence. Since the optical structural transofrmation can be detected by optical methods. Integration of this concept with ultrasonic probing techniques yields a unique imaging method that produces a fast, accurate image allowing for in-depth imaging of hard-to-reach areas. The basic device is hand held, and can be modified for use outside of subsurface and surface craft.

SANTEC SYSTEMS, INC.
716 S. Milwaukee Ave.
Wheeling, IL 60090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 215-8884
Jaswinder S. Sandhu
OSD 97-008
Title:A New Liquid Crystal Detector for Underwater Acoustic/Optical Imaging
Abstract:A new liquid crystal based detector (acousto-optic sensor) will be developed for operation at frequencies below 500kHkz. The superior acoustic detection sensitivity of the sensor will be demonstrated and its feasibility for providing efficient and cost-effective means of acousto-optic image conversion in underwater acoustic imaging systems will be established.

IMAGE ACOUSTICS, INC.
97 Elm St.
Cohasset, MA 02025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 383-2002
Dr. John L. Butler
OSD 97-009
Title:High Efficiency, Broadband, Acoustic Transucer/Arrays for Various Underwater Applications
Abstract:An innovative deep submergence low frequency, broadband transducer forefficient operation is presented. The transducer uses a multiport concept (U.S. Patent 5, 184, 332) which allows back radiation to arrive in phase with the forward radiation and allows broadband depth independent operation. Because the system utilizes Helmholtz resonators, low frequency operation can be achieved. A number of possible configurations are considered as well as a number of possible drive mechanisms. A transducer operating in the 500 to 1000 Hz frequency range is proposed as a scale model for the intended 50 to 100 Hz operation. The scheme of operation allows multiple combinations for an unlimited operating band if desired. The device would be environmentally suitable as an expendable source.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First St
Cambridge, MA 01242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0816
Michael J. Gerver, Ph.D.
OSD 97-009
Title:Composite Terfenol-D Transducers for Underwater Arrays
Abstract:Oriented composites of PZT and polymer can have properties superior to ordinary PZT as drivers for sonar transducers and hydrophones because they have a lower Poisson ratio, and a lower dielectric constant. Terfenol-D is superior to ordinary PZT because it has larger maximum strains and higher energy density, and is not subject to fatigue or depoling. For these reasons, composite Terfenol-D should be superior to both composite PZT and ordinary Terfenol-D. This is especially true at high frequencies, since the brittleness of ordinary Terfenol-D makes laminating it expensive and does not allow very thin laminations. SatCon proposes to investigate the hydrostatic magnetostrictie properities of an improved composite Terfenol-D recently developed by Prof. G. Carman's group at UCLA. It is the hydrostatic properties that are relevant for underwater sonar transducers with dimensions that are small compared to a wavelength, as would be true of a small transducer used in an array. In collaboration with the UCLA group, we will develop Terfenol composites that are optimized for sonar and hydrophone use (e.g., reducing the Poisson ration). A small composite Terfenol-D transducer, operating in the 1kHz to 20kHz range, will be designed and built in Phase I, and a full array will be built and demonstrated in Phase II.

SENSORTEX, INC.
P.O. Box 644
Unionville, PA 19375
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 444-2383
Dr. William J. Biter
OSD 97-009
Title:Novel Matrix Addressable Sonar Transducer
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I will fabricate a new transducer element, which is matrix addressable, conformable and low cost. It is based on the use of a composite magnetoelectric film fabricated as a hollow cylinder. This cylinder contains both the sensing elements and the matrix-forming element. This approach builds on previous work on a composite laminar maggetoelectric material that measures applied stress and will result in a new and unique sonar transducer. During this Phase I program, the composite material will be fabricatedin the form of a hollow cylinder that contains a layer of a magnetostrictive film and a layer of piezoelectric film with a conductive coating. An individual transducer element is defined by an intersection with a second conductor. The low cost and small size will allow fabrication of a large dense array of such transducers.

WEBB RESEARCH CORP.
82 Technology Park Dr.
E. Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 548-2077
Douglass Webb
OSD 97-009
Title:A High Efficiency, Wide Band Sound Projector for Acoustic Tomography and Global Ocean Monitoring
Abstract:An acoustic projector suitable for long range signaling in the ocean is described. The design employs a novel approach, which could result in projectors of high performance, high efficiency, operation at any depth, and substantially reduced cost. Resolution of short pulses fundamentally requires acoustic energy spread over a broad band. Traditionally this has been done with projectors that perform well over the band of interest; however, this has led to costly designs for frequencies <= 250 Hz. A projector designed for a specific family of codes isdescribed. Starting with a simple, high efficiency, narrow band design, the system of energy storage in the projector is slowly and controllably changed, permitting an FM sweep over a broad band, that is, the required broad band is achieved by controlled and continuous tuning of a high efficiency narrow band projector. A prototype of the basic projector, without tuning, has been built and the performance is measured. A program for adding the tunable capability is proposed for Phase I as well as a digital simulation of the projector equivalent circuit to verify input/output amplitude and phase tracking.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4364
Dan Deguire
OSD 97-010
Title:MiniMOP (Miniature Multipurpose Optical Pod)
Abstract:The following proposal describes an affordable modular sensor system which can be used for tactical oceanography. The system, referred to as MiniMOP (Miniature Multipurpose Optical Pod) is teh integrated sensor package capable of measures fluorometry, luminometry, transmissiometer, salinity, tempature and water depth. The sensor package will remain module for mounting in any small AUV but developed and tested with the Lemmings bottom crawler vehicle. The MiniMOP program will leverage off the Lemmings success in the sensor, coverage and mobility technologies. No other small amphibious vehicle can operate as effectively offer tremendous advantages in clandestine performance. This proposed phase will address the integrated optical and physical sensor development by proof of concept demonstration. Initial emphasis will be on single sensor/Lemming operation however later extensions can be used for mapping large areas with multiple vehicles in a very cost effective surveys needed to construct accurate coastal models.

RD INSTRUMENTS
9855 Businesspark Ave.
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 693-1178
Joel Young
OSD 97-010
Title:Multiple Acoustic Sensor Technology (MAST) System for AUVs
Abstract:RD Instruments has several acoustic sensor technologies which are on the threshold of achieving the affordability, low-power, robustness, and miniaturization needed for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) applications. We manufacture Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), Doppler Velcoity Logs (DVLs), and Correlation Velocity Logs (CVLs). We are also developing a phased array sonar in which the multiple transmit and receive beams required by the ADCP are formed by a single aperture using electronic beamforming. These technologies can be combined to provide a Multiple Acoustic Sensor Technology (MAST) System suitable for use on a small diameter AUV. The quantities which can be measured include altitude, current profiles, water turbulence, bottom track Doppler navigation, multi-beam bottom bathymetry, and volume backscatter intensity measurement which includes applications such as fish and zooplankton biomass and particulate concentration. Water turbulence can be measured in several ways using either Doppler or correlation techniques. We have also recently demonstrated the ability to determine ocean wave directional spectra from upward looking ADCP beams, and we are in investigating the feasibility of measuring temperature profiles by accoustics techniques. Thus, there is a great potential available for making a wide variety of interesting oceanographic measurements from a flexible acoustic sensor on an AUV.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Dr.
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Marshall K. Quick
OSD 97-011
Title:Extensible Beamformer for Portable Imaging Sonar
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop a unizue, lower-power, low-cost beamformer for portable imaging sonars. The original two chip set will form 100 beams from 100 input channels. A 0.3 cm2 BiCMOS chip comprises a low noise amplifier (LNA), a time-gain control (TGC), an apodizer and a Delta-Signma modulation (ADC) for each channel. A 0.66 cm2 CMOS chip accepts 100 digital input channels and produces 100 digital beams demodulated to baseband. The two chip set is estimated to dissipate a total of 650 mW or 6.5 mW channel when operating with a 500 KHZ carrier. The chip set is extensible to sonar arrays which use 10,000 elements to generate 10,000 beams without additional glue logic or processors. Q-DOT, SonaTech, and Messrs. Freeman and O'Donnell in close cooperation with the Navy, will assess the feasibility of relaizing an extensible beamformer suitable for imaging sonars during Phase I. The same team will realize a functional 100 channel/100 beam chip set in Phase II and evaluate it at a Government facility.

TERATECH CORP.
223A Middlesex Turnpike
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 270-4143
Alice M. Chiang
OSD 97-011
Title:Small, Low-Power, Low-Cost 2D Beamformer for Portable Imaging Sonar
Abstract:The need for multiple, cost-effective deployments of undersea acoustic mine-field reconnaisance and mine hunting systems requires the development of light-weight, low-power, low-cost, high-resolution sonars. These imaging sonars should be portable enough for use in a diver's hands, in a remote imaging sonar on an unmanned undersea vehicle or with a small surface-craft sonar. To achieve these goals, a beamformer capable of forming 100 simultaneous beams on a single low-cost, low-power chip is proposed here. A 100 element two-dimensional array, when used with the proposed beamformer, would produce a real-time 10 by 10 or 100-pixel image. In this way, a detailed image could be formed to search for mine like objects. Obstacles in the vehicles path could be detected and a path to circumnavigate obstacles determined. Areas of interest could be discriminated from clutter in littoral waters. The proposed 2D beamform chip is implemented based on our proprietary CDP technology. The computation power offered by this technology allows a 2D computing algorithm to be efficiently mapped onto a single-chip device. As a result, the chip can support a continuous throughput rate of 14 billion multiply/accumlate operations per second with an estimated power dissipation less than 2 Watts. Compared with a state-of-the-art DSP, Analog Devices' SHARC processor, the proposed 2D-beamforming device provides more than two-orders-of-magnitude power and weight savings when compared to the conventional imprlementation.

ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERTS, INC.
215 First St.
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 577-0700
Erik Saarmaa
OSD 97-012
Title:High Performance Piezoceramic Coatings for Ultrasound Applications
Abstract:ACX proposes an innovative new process for the manufacture of smart structures using a High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. This simple, multi-step process will be capable of depositing electroded piezoceramic coatings. The coatings will be poled while still hot, reducing poling times and voltages while increasing poling efficiency. Process times will be extremely short. The process will also eliminate the need for sintering, vastly reducing manufacturing costs. The resulting Thermally Sprayed Piezoceramic Coatings (TSPCs) will have higher bond strengths than conventional adhesives and will be conformable to any surface. By applying the coatings directly to the structure to be actuated, bond layers will be eliminated, improving the effectiveness of the actuation. TSPCs will increase the performance of smart material actuators through improved bonding and poling efficiencies, while reducing the cost of manufacturing and increasing their commercial marketability. This proposed project will provide OSD with a superior and inexpensive process for the manufacture of these structures. ACX will work with Hobart-Tafa of Concord, NH to modify their thermal spray process to accomodate PZT powders and electrode materials. At the conclusion of Phase I ACX will have demonstrated the feasibility of the process through fabrication, modeling, and detailed testing.

CERAMARE CORP.
262 Lincoln Avenue
Highland Park, NJ 08904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 445-2724
Dr. Larry E. McCandlish
OSD 97-012
Title:Ultra-Textured Active polymer (UTAP) Composite for High-Performance Intelligent Acoustic Transducers
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project seeks to combine the enhanced piezoelectric properties of single crystal perovskite ferroelectrics, recently discovered at Pennsylvania State University, with the electrostrictive properties of polyurethane to make a new class of "smart" materials for acoustic transducers. A tape casting process is used to form composite sheets compromising highly oriented platelets of hydrothermally grown single-crystal lead texture, so achieved, greatly enhance poling efficiency. Composite sheets are combined with polyurethane sheets to form a transducer plate. By using an electromechanically active polyurethane matrix we not only improve the acoustic impedance match between the composite material and water, but also improve signal/noise ratio and acoustic projection power. Furthermore, since piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials are the enabling component in "smart" actuator/sensor systems for adaptive control, the electrostrictive response of the polyurethane can be used in an actuator mode, independent of the piezoelectric response of the crystal phase, to make an adaptive acoustic transducer. Thus, the polymer matrix can distort itself in controlled ways for the purpose of beam steering or to suppress unwanted resonances.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2849 E. Elvira Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
Zhonglin Wu, Ph.D.
OSD 97-012
Title:Core/Shell Structured Piezoelectric-Polymer Composites for Enhanced Performance Acoustic Transducers
Abstract:Acoustic transducers have found wide applications ranging from Navy sonar systems to civilian underwater imaging. Piezoelectric materials perform an essential role of electromechanical energy conversion in such devices. Current piezoelectric materials can not satisfy the increasing requirement of the sensitivities of acoustic transducers for both military and civillian applications. This program seeks to focus on demonstrating a technology that significantly increases the hydrostatic piezoelectric strain coefficient as well as hydrostatic piezoeletric voltage coefficient, leading to high performance acoustic transducers. The effort will demonstrate the developed piezoelectric materials that are sensitive, robust, durable, low-cost and can be integrated readily for various applications. During Phase I, NRC will demonstrate the proof-of-concept. Phase II will optimize, build prototypes, and field test the technology. Phase III will commercialize the technology.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 689-0003
Peter E. Nebolsine
OSD 97-013
Title:Automated Sound Velocity Profiling System
Abstract:The development of an innovative, affordable and automated system for near-surface, real-time, remote sound velocity profiler to measure the velocity of a transmitted acoustic pulse as a function of depth is proposed. Alternative technologies for environmental sampling will be explored and a tradeoff study to determine the most promising approach will be conducted. A design concept study to determine the feasibility of implementing the selected approach will be performed. The design concept study shall present options which define ship impacts and the integration of device ouput with a combat system necessary to achieve goals of reduced workload and increased mission performance. A detailed design of the device which implements the recommended technology will be provided. A breadboar test will be conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of approach. The proper implementation of a Laser Doppler Sound Velocity Profiler (LDSVP) (U.S. Patent 5,379,270) or a fiberoptic/electrical cable technique will enable the optimization of active sonar performance on surface combatants to maximize detection ranges and search rates by environmental adaptation in the highly variable, adverse, shallow water environments of littoral areas.

SCIENTIFIC FISHERY SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 242065
Anchorage, AK 99524
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(907) 563-3474
Gerald F. Denny
OSD 97-013
Title:Automated Broadband Acoustic Sound Velocity Profiler
Abstract:Scientific Fishery Systems, Inc. (SciFish) recently completed a Phase I SBIR that used neural networks to learn the relationship between temperature and the spectra of broadband returns for a fixed location during a fixed time of the year. This approach relaxes the assumption of the consistency of backscatterers: now we will assume that the backscatter will be consistent at the same location at the same time of year. Using data collected at various locations in Alaska during the spring and winter, SciFish demonstrated the ability to estimate the temperature profile with less than .5 C mean error in any depth cell. Using the results, a ship-mounted sonar system was designed for use in the fisheries. Unfortunately, the Phase I funding was supplied by the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), and future funding for the entire TRP program was canceled, leaving no Phase II funding opportunity. As such, SciFish proposes to build upon the results of this earlier work, with an emphasis on modeling and improved data collection and a re-alignment of the design toward Navy missions. SciFish will expand upon its initial automated broadband sonar temperature estimation approach by developing an acoustic model for comparative evaluations, modifying the existing broadband sonar system and collecting better data for performance evaluations, and developing a Navy-specific design that can be built and tested during Phase II.

EIKOS, L.L.C.
89 Richmond St.
Raynham, MA 02767
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 880-0007
Mr Joseph Piche
OSD 97-014
Title:TOS Enhanced Phthalonitrile Resins with MDC Composite Stitching Technology
Abstract:Eikos LLC will modify and enhance the chemistry of the NRL developed phthalonitrile resin to meet the 700F TOS requirements of high temperature RTM and RFI aerospace composites. Eikos is intimately familiar with the chemistry of the phthalonitrile resin because of our efforts to scale the production of the current bases resin from the laboratory to the pilot plant. Eikos has teamed with McConnell Douglas to evaluate three phthalonitrile based resins against the MDC proprietary stitching technology, the state-of-the-art in Damage Tolerance Improvement. Combining the TOS enhanced phthalonitrile with the MDC stitching technology will provide the most advanced high performance aerospace composites system available for advanced aircraft.

MAVERICK CORP.
1776 Mentor Ave
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-9919
Robert A. Gary
OSD 97-014
Title:Resin Transfer Molding of High Temperature Composites
Abstract:Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) offers the opportunity for significant cost savings in the fabrication of polymer matrix composite structures. However, the realization of this cost savings has been limited to lower temperature (e.g. epoxy) matrix composites. The main reason for this has been that available high temperature (e.g. polymide) composites have not possessed the characteristics which make them amenable to the RTM process. Newer systems have been developed (e.g. Phthalonitrile) but their use as high temperature RTM systems have not been proven. In addition, the exploration of novel (lower molecular weight) polymide resin formulations for RTM application has not yet been attempted. The overall goal of the proposed program is to develop resin transfer moldable high-temperature (550F-700F) resin systems and processes. A two pronged approach involving both materials adn process engineering will be utilized to reach this objective; 1) newe high-temperature resins will be screened via conventional RTM tooling and equipment will be screened vai conventional RTM processing, and 2) unique RTM tooling and equipment will be screened via study "novel" high-melt flow polyimide oligomeric polymers. A 6-month Phase I SBIR effort is proposed.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
114 Turnpike Road, Unit 1
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 250-4200
John D. Lennhoff, Ph.D
OSD 97-015
Title:Poly Arylene Ether (PAE) Based, High Performance, Solvent Free Procesing of Aircraft Canopies
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc will demonstrate a new method to produce a low melt viscosity PolyArylene Ether (PAE) macrocyclic oligomer that will be resin transfer molded (RTM) into optically transparent aircraft canopies. A ring opening polymerization converts the macrocyclic oligomer to an optically transparent PAE polymer with a high glass transition temperature. The PAE macrocycle is processable without the use of a solvent because of its low viscosity at moderate temperatures (polyarylene ether ketone is 1-100 poise@250C). Thermal treatment of the PAE macrocycles in the presence of an initiator causes a "ring-opening" polymerization to form a conventional high molecular weight PAE polymer. The synthesis and processing of PolyArylene Ether (PAE) materials will be the focus of this study because of their high optical transparency, glass transition temperatures in the 250-350C range, and Triton Systems expertise with these types of polymers. The Phase I program will lead to a solvent free synthetic and processing method for a range of high temperature and optically transparent PAE compositions. This process optimizes low operating cost and rapid cycle with high use temperature PAE materials.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
3591 Apple Grove Dr.
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 643-0007
Dr. Seng C. Tan
OSD 97-015
Title:Processing of High Tg Polymers for Aircraft Canopies using a Supermicrocellular Foaming Technique
Abstract:Current fighter canopy systems are fabricated using acrylics and polycarbonates which have low use temperatures, up to 220F and 300F, respectively. Wind tunnel testing of aircraft windshield showed that the transparency surface temperatures varied from 200F to 500F. Therefore, high Tg canopy systems are needed to fully utilize advanced weapon systems. Conventional processing techniques for high Tg polymers have encountered a coloration problem as the specimen become thicker. We propose a supermicrocellular foaming technique using the principle thermodynamic instability to process aircraft canopy system. The cell size of a supermicrocellular foram (submicrons) is smaller than the wavelength of visible light (0.4-0.7) so the majority of light will be transmitted through the material without being deflected.

CERAMIC COMPOSITES, INC.
1110 Benfield Blvd.
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Dr. Mark Patterson
OSD 97-016
Title:A Remarkable Material for Advanced CMC Propulsion Systems
Abstract:The development of a remarkable Ti3SiC2 material for use in ceramic matrix composite (CMC) fiber coatings and matrix laminates is proposed. This material possesses a myriad of favorable properties for high temperature structural applications - demonstrating machinability, strength, ductility, oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance never before observed in a single phase material. Property measurements on hot-pressed samples cited in a recent article "Synthesis and Characterization of a Remarkable Ceramic: Ti3SiC2", reflected a potential opportunity for ceramic Matrix Composites. In conjunction with Dr J. Lackey at the Georgia Technical Institute, CCI will demonstrate that Ti3SiC2 can mitigate two of the major limitations of Cf/SiC and SiCf/SiC CMCs for thermal protection and propulsion system applications; the lack of a tough. long life fiber matrix interface coating and particle impact susceptibility. In order to achieve the IHPRPT objectives, it will be essential to develop and integrate new and advanced materials such as Ti3SiC2 and to address the critical issues relating to CMC applications and fabrication.

WILSON COMPOSITE GROUP, INC.
6611 Folsom-Auburn Rd., Ste. C
Folsom, CA 95630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 989-4812
Brain Wilson
OSD 97-016
Title:Composite Preburner & Turbopump Housing Materials and Process
Abstract:Composite technology exists for application to cryogenic fluid storage without an interface liner. This technology is being applied to an LH2 storage pressure vessel under Air Force Contract F29601-C-0217. This proposal outlines a program to transfer the LH2 composite technology to liquid rocket engine components. This proposal will address requirements for feed system assemblies, such as preburners, gas generators and turbopumps. Segments of housings of these components will be selected for review, analysis and design. A material system review is described together with an investigation of manufacturing processes to integrate with the housing design and materials selection. The basic material system to support the program will be the Fiberite IM7/977-2 prepreg. Alternatives will be considered, including their interface with proposed manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes reviewed for these complex structures will be lay-up, filament winding and molding. Non-crimped fabric, unidirectional tape and chopped fiber reinforcement forms will be used. Hybrid methods will also be considered. Fabrication of prototype demonstration boss component will be performed for evaluation purposes. A selected material system and manufacturing method will be used. A Phase II program is planned to demonstrate the selected material and process with prototype hardware.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, N.E.
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4450
Patrick F. Fleig
OSD 97-017
Title:Porous Sol-Gel Derived Ceramic Release Agent
Abstract:Breathable release coatings that can withstand processing conditions up to 750F are needed for use on ceramic tooling. In situ removal of volatiles in solvent-based composite processing is a critical issue that will enable production of high quality parts at lower cost per part. Current release coatings meet neither the temperature nor the solvent transport requirements of solvent-based composite processing.TPL proposes to develop innovative sol-gel routes to produce a porous ceramic coating as a release agent which can function at temperatures of 750F. The addition of various organic functional groups can be used to tailor the release properties of sol-gel derived coatings. The coating will be compatible with solvents and materials used in composites processing, adhere strongly to the tool surface, and permit passage of volatiles.TPL will formulate coating solutions and apply them to catable ceramic tooling. The coating will be evaluated for release, thermal shock, thermal cycling, adhesion and porosity characteristics.TPL has extensive experience and resources in sol-gel technology, as well as composite processing and so is well qualified to execute the proposed research. The PI is experienced in sol-gel processing and characterization.

UTILITY DEVELOPMENT CORP.
112 Naylon Avenue
Livingston, NJ 07039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 994-4334
Harry S. Katz
OSD 97-017
Title:Breathable Release Coatings for Ceramic Tooling
Abstract:The main objective of this Phase I program will be to develop a release coating for use with ceramic tooling that will be capable of withstanding cure temperatures in excess of 700F and will have high solvent vapor permeability. The main approach will be to formulate a high temperature film forming silicone resin system by investigating improvements of silicone resins that will be modified with phenyl siloxanes, fluoropolymers, and polyimides. UDC will demonstrate the feasibility of a release coating capable of providing both release and volatile removal for solvent based advanced composite materials which process at temperatures up to 750F. UDC will evaluate the candidate material's resistance to thermal shock and its adhesion to castable ceramic tools. Additional tests will be conducted to evaluate permeability of the release coating materials. At the end of Phase I, we will provide a detailed report that will include all work performed, resultant data, a Phase II plan, schedule and cost estimate.

DAMONA SERVICE CO. & FASTENIX CORP.
10 Lincoln
Kansas City, KS 66103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 384-0777
David Linder
OSD 97-018
Title:Advanced Fasteners for Low Cost Airframe Assembly and Repair
Abstract:The Joint Venture of Damona Service Company and the Fastenix Corporation proposes to develop self-locking fasteners for airframe assembly and repair. The design concepts for these self-locking fasteners are well thought-out. A prototype fastener is made and proves the design concept works. In order to claim total success of the product, mathematics and stress models need to be developed to predict the fatique life cycle and stress distibution of the composite/fastener assembly. A series of shock and vibration tests need to be conducted to demonstrate fastener performances.The proposed self-locking fasteners have two major parts per set. These two parts lock each other in the assembly after the pre-determined torque is set. Under shock and vibration, the dynamic interlocking force is higher than the static locking force because of the unique design. In addition, a stopper design is incorporated to prevent the interlocking force from being too high in dynamic condition. The interlocking design ensures that the fastener stays intact even though the fastener may lose preload from the changes of composite thickness. Airframe composite thickness may change due to lightning strikes, thermal expansion, water absorption, etc.These invented fasteners allow for loose tolerance holes, and provide efficient interface for high load transfer. No special tools are required for assembly. Standard thread forms are used on the fasteners. For a self-locking nut design, a conventional bolt may be used. The proposed fasteners requires no special drill tooling or pre-assembly fixtures. All these features will save assembly cost significantly.

NAVMAR APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
65 West Streeet Road, Suite B-104
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 675-4900
Carl T. Calianno
OSD 97-018
Title:Advanced Fasteners for Low Cost Airframe Assembly and Repair
Abstract:This SBIR proposes the development of the 3/16 inch diameter "Wing-It" blind fastener. This effort will include fastening both aluminum and composite sheet material. The technical objective is to demonstrate a low-cost fastener for future aircraft as an alternative to production fasteners. The "Wing-It" fastener distributes the load in the joint over a much larger area than conventional fasteners. This loading characteristic minimizes the stresses at the hole in the joined material. The small tolerances for the fastener and hole dimensions, which are required to achieve fatigue life in current aircraft applications, and are costly to achieve, will not be required with the "Wing-It". In addition to saving money due to relaxed tolerances, fewer "Wing-It" fasteners will be required which will also save money. This task will include a structural analysis to help design test models. A series of tensile, shear, and fatique tests, in compliance with Navy Qualified Parts List qualification requirements and procedures, will be conducted to compare the performance of the "Wing-It" to qualified aluminum sleeve blind rivet, M7885/2-6-03. This fastener has potential application in military and commercial aviation, architectural, marine, and automotive industries.

EIKOS, L.L.C.
89 Richmond St.
Raynham, MA 02767
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 880-0007
Michael Tilleman
OSD 97-019
Title:Hand Held High Resolution Imagin Devices for Aircraft Substructures
Abstract:Eikos LLC will evaluate two approaches, millimeter waves and opto-acoustics, for locating edges and holes in substructure that are hidden under exterior panels and skins during aircraft assembly. These devices will work in a camera-like fashion to allow non-destructive remote imaging. Eikos has developed promising approaches to both techniques that have the potential to be low cost and easy to use tools during aircraft assembly. Both approaches will yield hand-held, high resolution, imaging devices based on inexpensive commercially available components. Both systems are based on innovative laser and nonlinear optical configurations designed by Eikos. Based on commercially available components, the Phase I prototypes will be easily assembled and tested. The most promising candidate system will be recommended for development in Phase II. This system will be further developed with the use of private-sector funding and the Fast Track Phase II program. The end of theis SBIR program will result in the delivery of a working prototype.

PACIFIC-SIERRA RESEARCH CORP.
2901 28th Street, Suite 300
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 314-2382
Arnold Daniels
OSD 97-019
Title:Detection of Hidden Substructure Edges and Holes
Abstract:Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation (PSR) proposes to develop a robotic alignment system for aircraft assembly using its non-contact thermographic technology. This automated robotic-thermographic positioning system will be capable of accurately locating and monitoring subsurface holes and edges under exterior panels or skins. The non-contact thermographic system will include a portable high-speed infrared camera with enough spatial resolution, thermal sensitivity, and modern image-processing tools to characterize hidden holes and edges in structural components. This methodology uses a photothermal xenon flashlamp pulse to generate a steep momentary temperature gradient in the material. Subsurface hole regions will restrain the passage of heat, causing the flaw areas to be contrasted against the surroundings when viewed with a thermal imager. The dependence of the transient response on hole and edge locations beneath the surface will be investigated. The temperature history of the surface temperature after the absorption of the short photothermal pulse is used to locate the subsurface holes of the aircraft panels under test. A graphical user interface windowing environment is used to display the entire inspection on a high-resolution monitor; the instrument then, automatically and accurately marks the hole locations with little operator intervention. This robotic-thermographic system will greatly reduce the time and cost associated with examining aircraft structures. A potential Phase III partner has been identified and contacted.