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49 Phase I Selections from the 97.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ACUSOFT, INC.
12249 Science Drive, Suite 130
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 658-9888
Jesse:Liu
OSD 97-001
Title:HLA Development Tools
Abstract:AcuSoft proposes to develop a set of HLA Development Tools to assist simulation software developers in their efforts to implement the HLA. The HLA Development Tools will support the Federation Execution and Development Process (FEDEP) and present an approach to solving the problems associated with the HLA's flexible FOM data definitions. A set of data visualization tools, such as a 2D Plan View Display, 3D Stealth View Display, Data Logger and Data Viewer are also proposed to provide the developer with a means to evaluate and troubleshoot their HLA implementations.

AEGIS RESEARCH CORP.
6703 Odyssey Drive, Suite 200
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 922-0802
Ronnie Turrentine
OSD 97-001
Title:HLA Federation Implementation Tools
Abstract:The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) has developed the High Level Architecture (HLA) as one of the principle components of a DoD-wide Common Technical Framework for modeling and simulation (M&S). Unlike previous distributed simulation technologies such as DIS and SIMNET, HLA provides federation developers, via the Object Model Template (OMT), the means to define the structure and format fo the messages passes between the HLA federation members (federates). This flexibility of HLA, along with its support for dynamic multicasting, transfer of ownership of object attributes and other advanced capabilities, presents the consumers of HLA not only with unprecedented power, but also a new set of technical challenges in planning and building distributed simulation systems. In order to provide the HLA user community with a complete suite of tools for performing HLA federation design and planning, AEgis Research wil investigate developing tools under this SBIR for supporting concept Analysis and Federation Design. In addition to these two tools, AEgis will inestigate augmenting the Object Model Development Tool (OMDT) with a powerful scriptable editing tool that allows users to specify their own rules for automatically editing HLA object models.

CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS & SOFTWARE
P.O. Box 1129
Chino Valley, AZ 86323
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 636-2600
Russell L. Carter
OSD 97-001
Title:Multiple Federation Management Tool Supporting Automated Exercise Management
Abstract:As the simulation interoperability High Level Architecture (HLA) matures, increasingly sophisticated simulations capable of accurately depicting complex realistic systems are being performed. HLA has been designated as the standard technical architecture for all DoD simulations. There exists a need to effectively manage distributed HLA federates and federations. For large scale distributed simulations, the lack of a resource utilization management mechanism leads to load imbalances that greatly reduce the effective computational power brought to bear on the simulation. This SBIR proposes an inovative Multiple Federation Management Tool that implements a set of extension interfaces to enable migration of HLA federates and federations. The extended interfaces enable external, automated exercise management of simulation components by mature commercial COTS resource allocation systems while maintaining complete HLA compliance. This tool has dual military and commercial use in robust interoperable simulations and distributed object computing enterprises.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
3085 Woodman Dr., Ste 200
Dayton, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 299-5999
Mary L. Fricke
OSD 97-001
Title:HLA Federation InterConnect (FedConnect) Tool Set
Abstract:In order to become HLA compliant, a Simulation Object Model (SOM) and interface code must be developed for every legacy model that needs to interoperate with other models in a federation. Lessons learned from the protofederation experiments proved that this is a very difficult task that can take up to three person years of effort. At this point in the HLA development, no tool set to conduct this analysis and generate a SOM and interface code for legacy models has been developed. Spectra Research, Inc. (S*R) proposes to develop the HLA Federation InterConnect (FedConnect) Tool Set to automate much of this process. FedConnect will provide tools so a software engineer and domain expert team can conduct automated and interactive analysis of the legacy code, map elements of the code to a FOM and automate generation of much of the RTI interface code. FedConnect will be developed by extending a Model input/output (I/O) Reengineering environment provides the capability to automatically analyze the source code and group model I/O data into abstract object-oriented classes. consequently, development of the FedConnect tool set is an ideal application for this SBIR funded technology.

SYNETICS CORP.
16539 Commerce Drive, Suite 10
King George, VA 22485
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 663-2137
Stephen M. Goss
OSD 97-001
Title:HLA Federation Implementation Tools
Abstract:Developing a set of tools that is automated, integrated, and compliant with the deired goals of this SBIR is not a simple task. If a coordinated approach is not taken from the start, then a hodgepodge of tools and capabilities for a hodgepodge of environments wil be developed with unwanted outcome of falling short of the desired goals. Therefore, SYNETICS proposes to establish a CASE-like environment under which HLA Federations can be planned, designed, developed, certified, and checked prior to execution. This environment, referred to as the Computer-Aided Federation Development Environment (CAFDE), will be structured to establish a common environment from which plug-and-play tools may be developed and easily integrated. CAFDE will include a standard HMI look and feel for all tools to be considered for inclustion, published application interface (AI) and data exchange formats (DEFs) between the tools and CAFDE, and a common CAFDE database enting for storage, retrieval, and sharing of information between the integrated tools. The CAFDE concept is similar to that of today's fully integrated software development environments.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Dr. Darrin Taylor
OSD 97-002
Title:A Runtime Analysis and Monitoring Tool Suite
Abstract:The increasing number and complexity of HLA-based distributed simulation exercises has created an urgent need for a suite of commercially-supported HLA Runtime Analysis and Monitoring (RAM) tools. These tools must provide a clear, accurate and timely view into the dynamic virtual battlefield and its supporting infrastructure while also providing supervisory control of all federates. Mak Technologies has an extensive background in commercially successful distributed simulation products and a growing body of HLA runtime monitoring tools, so a low-risk development foundation is assured. Our extensive experience in worldwide marketing of simulation tools will significantly further the transitioning of the software developed under this contract to the global HLA community. During the Phase I work effort, MaK will design an open, collaborative suite of RAM tools. MaK will also develop a tool FOM to support the interaction among the RAM components and other federates. MaK is able to produce an initial prototype of a RAM tool suite by leveraging thier existing HLA-compliant commercial products, such as VR-Link, Stalth, and Data Logger. Each of these tools will be modified to adhere to the RAM API and the RAM Tool FOM. The developed prototype will not only provide a set of tools currently unavailable in the M&S community, but will also provide a strong starting point for Phase II testing, design, and further development. MaK's proposed work effort results in an open specification for the RAM Tool Suite, a RAM Tool FOM, and a working prototype which includes the incorporation of two existing commercial HLA tools. This not only provides a strong foundation for future development, but also provides a jump start on the incorporation of commercail tools into the RAM Tool Suite.

SYSTRAN CORP.
4126 Linden Ave
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-5601
George J. Valentino
OSD 97-002
Title:AgentsTools - intelligent agents for analysis and modeling
Abstract:SYSTRAN, and our subcontractor , Katherine Morse of SAIC (San Diego), will design and selectively demonstrate (in Phase I), and develop and significantly demonstrate (in Phase II), a series of intelligent software agents - collectively called AgentsTools - that will effect the analysis and modeling of data collected in real-time during HLA compliant simulations. AgentsTools will be developed using the highly portable Java language (sith some additional software tools and "plugins"). JavaSoft's RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and Objectspace's Voyager are the two primary adjuncts to Java we will employ. Consequently, AgentsTools will be built on a foundation of COTS software, with an open-architecture to enable and promote user extensibility and flexibility. AgentsTools will be a toolkit of specialized software programs, called "agents," that will alloworganizations to obtain heretofore unavailable insights from HLA-compliant distributed simulations. Two agent examples are Identify_Link_Latency and Monitor_Port_Bandwidth: these two programs will aid researchers in formulating simulations that are correctly implemented with respect to human-in-the-loop control system response. The AgentsTools developed will support all HLA compliant simulations, with backware compatibility to any simulation implemented via distributed, heterogeneous, networks (including the Internet World Wide Web). incremental releases during Phase II will reduce time to market in Phase III.

VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY CORP.
8996 Fern Park Drive
Burke, VA 22015
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 978-2211
Paul Perkinson
OSD 97-002
Title:HLA RUNTIME ANALYSIS AND MONITORING TOOLS
Abstract:As the potential of the High Level Architecture (HLA) is realized, the size, scope, and frequency of federations will grow, and as they do, so will the expense of the manual federation planning, execution, monitoring, and analysis process. The basis for an automated approach to exercise execution and monitoring is the Execution Plan developed during the federation planning phase and containing Federation Execution. Host, LAN, Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) Services and Object/Interaction Table data. An execution and management tool will provide a central repository for the Configurtion Management (CM) of execution plan data. The federate and federation data gathered during the planning phase includes all of the necessary information to visualize a detailed representation of the federation and federates. Virtual Technology Corporation will focus on the design of a Federation Monitoring Analysis Tool which will include: (1) visualization of federation planning, monitoring, and analysis data, (2) production of federation planning tables, (3) satisfaction of federation monitoring and analysis data requirements, and (4) identification and correction of federation run-time inaccuracies. A visual representation of the federation provides the ideal control point for executing decisions across the entire federation based upon notification of the state of the federation and its member federates.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Robert Faucher
OSD 97-003
Title:Integrating HLA into the Spearhead Game
Abstract:To promote the commercial use of HLA outisde the DoD, non-military applications must be fielded which clearly demonstrate the benefits of HLA over and above other network architectures. MaK Technologies is the world's leading supplier of DIS software, and is the first company toproduce a commercial product based on HLA (VR-Link++). MaK will integrate VR-Link++ with MaK's completed, state-of-the-art, M1 Abrams tank combat game, called Spearhead. This will produce amil-spec, HLA compliant, commercial video game. This game will unequivocally demonstrate that HLA is capable of running in a commercial application, since the Spearhead game will be selling commercially in the marketplace before the completion of this Phase I effort. MaK will also extend their general purpose application called a Lobby Server. The Lobby Server acts as a meeting place/battle manager on the Internet for players who want to use Spearhead online. Some additional functionality will be built into the Lobby Server during Phase I, demonstrating capabilities which RTI V1.0 makes possible, but which would have been too difficult or costly to implement without it. MaK will also create and document appropriate FOMs and SOMs and an initial design of a game-specific RTI. Phase I will result in an HLA variant of the commercial game which will be suitable for use by the DoD for tank simulation and training. Phase II will result in a sequel to Spearhead which will be sold commercially, and fielded on the Internet with the new HLA-enabled, general purpose Lobby Server. At the end of Phase I, a Real-Time RTI desing document will exist, enabling developers to immediately proceed to a lightweight real-time RTI implementation during Phase II.

PERCEPTRONICS, INC.
21010 Erwin Street
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 884-7470
Andreas Kemkes
OSD 97-003
Title:Development of a Commercial FOM for 3D Interactive Entertainment Applications
Abstract:Perceptronics and its team members, Litton Guidance & Control Systems and Infinity Multimedia, will demonstrate that the High Level Architecture (HLA) provides a viable approach for multi-participant entertainment applications and implement an HLA federation and a Federation Object Model (FOM) for this domain. A simple tennis-like game with both 2D and 3D visualization will be used as representative for the general application class. Its design demonstrates the need to address three key issues for the class of multi-participant entertainment applications: transfer of ownership, viewpoint sharing, and multiple level of detail viewing. Solutions for these issues will be developed within the HLA architecture using specific FOM classes, HLA Ownership Management, and HLA Data Distribution Management. The design of our federationwill support the emerging technology of autostereoscopic 3D-displays. Viewing is greatly enhanced by this technology. The impact on the device-independent abstractions used in the FOM for viewpoint sharing and multiple level of detail viewing will be a focus of our resarch.

SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY SOLUTIONS, INC.
122 4th Ave.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Deborah Hevstek
OSD 97-003
Title:Simulation and Analysis of Fire Evacuation (SAFE)
Abstract:Unlocking the vast resources represented by models and the domain knowledge they contain, and facilitating greater reuse of simulations based on those models, is of paramount importance to the DoD. The DoD has proposed the High Level Architecture (HLA) as a means to achieve reuse by enabling the federation of disparate simulations. To demonstrate the broader value of the HLA, SPS is proposing an innovative federation of DoD and commercial domain simulations. The federation, called Simulation and Analysis of Fire Evacuation (SAFE), includes two simulation federates, an existing Government-developed RTI, and an innovative tool for scenario specification. In Phase I, SPS will define a set of scenarios using the scenario specification tool, develop SOMs for the two federates, create a FOM to support each scenario, and specify a complete HLA-compliant system architecture for the Phase II demonstration of the SAFE. Phase I will also result in a plan for the FOM implementation.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7770
Leland J. Tankersley
OSD 97-003
Title:HLA-ENHANCED DISTRIBUTED GAMING ENVIRONMENT
Abstract:The High Level Architecture (HLA) for Modeling and Simulation is evolving into the DoD standard paradigm for developing distribution simulation environments through the integration of disparate simulations ("federates"). HLA also has significant potential to provide similar benefits to the commercial software industry in general, and the online distributed entertainment industry in particular. HLA's ready support for integrating federates with widely-varying scopes will facilitate the rapid and effective production of distributed virtual worlds offering users a wide variety of entertainment options. The development of an HLA-Enhanced Distributed Gaming Environment (HEDGE) will provide users with ready access to many different popular game genres, and will also constitute an important resource to existing game developers desiring to link their products together into a single integrated gaming environment.

ACUSOFT, INC.
12249 Science Drive, Suite 130
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 658-9888
Jesse:Liu
OSD 97-004
Title:Research and Development of a Synthetic Environment RTI
Abstract:AcuSoft proposes to research and develop a Synthetic Environment RTI (SE-RTI). The SEDRIS initiative has established a new programming paradigm that provides lossless transmission of synthetic environment objects. The HLA has been designed to support interoperability and reuse of DoD simulations, and SEDRIS is a major component of HLA. Currently, the SEDRIS data model, APIs and format are primarily designed to support data exchange in a non-realtime application environment. AcuSoft proposes to research for a solution to bridge the gap between SEDRIS and HLA Runtime Infrastructure. As part of Phase I effort, we will prototype a small extension to RTI that will allow simulations to "subcribe" synthetic environment objects from SEDRIS Server. We will demonstrate multiple entities, air and ground interacting through RTI, exercising on a composite terrain that served from the SEDRIS server using data from two different source formats. We will apply the knowledge to Phase II development of SEDRIS real-time extension to RTI that can meet to RTI that can meet real-time frame rate requirement.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 668-2567
Hugo Feugen
OSD 97-004
Title:Commercial Game Development Using HLA and SEDRIS
Abstract:Significant similarities exist between DoD simulation applications and networked simulation games developed for entertainment. To date, however, there has been no compelling reason for commercial game developers to adopt DoD methods and standards. Interestingly, HLA compares favorably to current commercial solutions like Microsoft's DirectPlay. There is clear benefit to DoD if HLA is embraced by the gaming world as the de facto standard for architecting distributed simulations. Widespread commercial development reduces acquisition costs for HLA compliant simulations and provides for a richer set of tools, technologies, and developers. The objective of this research effort is to assess HLA as a commercially viable alternative for implementing networked games, and finding solutions to the distributed database design problem. This shall be one by developing a civil aviation flight simulation game. A primary objective shall be evaluation of the SEDRIS data model within this commercial software. Phase I shall define requirements for such a product, map these requirements into suitable Federation and Simulation Object Models, and assess performance using the RTI for WindowsNT. Leveraging simulation capabilities and expertise already present at Cybernet, this effort shall include a demonstration of the resulting federation prototype.

CREARE, INC.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Robert J. Kline-Schoder
OSD 97-005
Title:Haptic Display Software for Hiqh Level Architecture Simulations
Abstract:Future High Level Architecture (HLA) simulations will incorporate non-visual stimuli. One such stimulus will be force feedback that is provided using haptic displays. Force feedback will be instrumental in o btaining high fidelity information exchange between the simulation and the user. However, one significant problem with providing force feedback between a simulation and a user is that time delays associated with computational requirements or finite bandwidth communication links between the haptic display and distributed simulation processors and databaases can cause instability. Creare's innovation is to convert the kinematic information that is typically transferred between the haptic display and simulations into the mathematical equivalent of a transmission line. We will demonstrate that this results in a system that is guaranteed to be stable, regardless of the length or structure of the time delay. This results because transmission lines can be shown to be passive and passive systems, by definition, are guaranteed to be stable. During Phase I, Creare will incorporate our algorighm into a federated object model and demonstrate a real-time implementation. During Phase II, we will build and demonstrate multiple federated object models and provide real-time haptic feedback while interacting with a distributed simulation and database.

MYSTECH ASSOC., INC.
5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1200
Falls Church, VA 22041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 671-8680
M. J. Lyell
OSD 97-005
Title:Representation and Transmission of Non-Visual Stimuli Using the HLA
Abstract:This effort will develop an HLA compliant representation of non-visual stimuli with the intention of utilizing the models developed in Phase I effort to provide data for "human" mannequin stimulation in Phase II. The Phase II goal is to have the mannequin respon in a physiologically realistic manner to the non-visual stimuli data that will be passed to it over a network and via an interface. Such mannequins could then be used in training or simulation scenarios. In the fundamental efforts of Phase I, an object oriented approach is planned. In addition to representation of the non-visual stimuli, object model representation of key human physiological systems will be developed, as well as relevant interactions.

SYSTRAN CORP.
4126 Linden Ave
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-5601
George J. Valentino
OSD 97-005
Title:Implementing 3-D Audio into the HLA/RTI Structure
Abstract:SYSTRAN, and our partner Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. (BATC) - an experienced HLA user and member of the HLA Protofederation activity - will design and selectively demonstrate (in Phase I), and develop and significantly demonstrate (in Phase II) a series of techniques and processes that will allow users of idstributed simulations the ability to incorporate audio signatures, audio transmissions, and the reception of these transmissions within their Federates. The techniques will apply to audio whether generated from weapons or people. Weapon audio outputs include the audio from engines, movement, and activity within a modeled environment (i.e., one including terrain and weather), plus the actual audio due to the detonations of the munitions. The audio output of people-in-the-loop will be actual speech, while models of people within constructive simulations will output text that must be converted to speech at the receiving site. The models and techniques we propose will be compatible with all HLA and RTI rules; they will utilize the existing techniques developed for Data Distribution Management using multidimensional routing spaces. The generation of sound at the receiving end will be compatible with COTS PC hardware and sophisticated digital signal processing systems for immersive 3-dimension sound presentation.

LIONHEARTH TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
25401 Spanish Ranch Rd.
Los Gatos, CA 95033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 357-5536
Mark Morgenthaler
OSD 97-006
Title:HLA-Virtual Command Post
Abstract:Many simulations require tactical intelligence information and audio communication. This topic's thrust is to develop commercial applications that use the current C4I HLA constructs. A Virtual Command Post (VCP) has been desigend and build in response to an earlier solicitation and is being delivered as a proof-of-concept for CECOM's future battlefield visualization, planning and radio communication efforts. This VCP runs a distributed simulation of a battlefield TOC inside a Commander's VR helmet in order to provide operational, fully portable, mobile, battlefield C4I capabilities. This project proposes to port the VCP to HLA using MRCI components wherever possible and to develp alternate simulations (such as virtual classrooms, virtual sales centers and virtual service and support centers) which would be suitable for both military and commercial use.

MYSTECH ASSOC., INC.
5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1200
Falls Church, VA 22041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 671-8680
Maria Shugars
OSD 97-006
Title:Commercialization of C4I Simulation Components for Disaster Planning and Recovery Using HLA
Abstract:Federal, state, local, and military missions for Disaster Relief, Emergency Action, and Humanitarian Assistance (DREAHA) require all of the traditional command, control, communications, computer and intelligence (C4I) functions used by military units for traditional warfare. New civilian systems that leverage and reuse military C4I systems to plan, prepare, identify, vector, monitor, and recover from man-made and natuarl disasters are starting to become viable while the military takeson increasingly larger roles in non-traditional warfare. both communities and missions are converging on requirements for mission rehearsals and training that focus on a broad range of simulations and model fidelity, scalability, and robustness. Mystech proposes to develop information flow models and Reference Federation Object Model (Reference FOM) as a precursor to building a proto-federation for disaster planning and recovery analysis, mission rehearsal and training, to conduct a survey of existing simulations and models in the domain, and to develop a mini-prototype of a system based on the Reference FOM that validates a design approach.

OPTIMETRICS, INC.
3115 Professional Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 973-1177
Fredrick G. Smith
OSD 97-007
Title:Data Analysis Tools for HLA Simulations
Abstract:OptiMetrics, Inc. proposes to develop real-time monitoring and after action review tools specifically designed to function in advanced HLA simulation environments. The development approach will include: Tailoring tools to user requirements; A highly object-oriented design; A layered design to interface between our software and the external interfaces (e.g., HLA/RTI); A preference for COTS or GOTS software components; Object-oriented data structures designed to match simulation data requirements; Sequential software builds to develop, demonstrate, test and then improve the tools. Unique features to be included in the tools would be: Efficient and distributed data acquisistion within the HLA environment, including storage of audio, video and command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (CI) data; Real-time display and monitoring of selected exercise parameters; After action analysis of C3Idata as wella s physical exercise results; The ability to correlate C3I data with exercise outcomes.

VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY CORP.
8996 Fern Park Drive
Burke, VA 22015
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 978-2211
Kevin Bair
OSD 97-007
Title:DATA MANAGEMENT/ANALYSIS TOOLS
Abstract:The Defense Modeling & Simulation Office (DMSO) is in the process of defining a common technical framework for modeling and simulation to promote interoperability and reuse, and has established the High-Level Architecture (HLA) to which all DoD simulation must conform. This decree has led to the need for a modular data management system capable of passively collecting data from an HLA federation and providing a rapid reduction and analyiss capability of federate and federation data. Virtual Technology Corporation (VCT) proposes to meet these needs by designing a component based suite of data collection and analysis tools. The componenets include an extensible object oriented data management framework, template based FOM parser, standard database independent interfaces, and tools for information analysis. These tools will allow for the reconstruction of an entire federation exercise, synthesize distributed recorded data, and provide the decomposition of the data into significant activities for replay and analysis.

EMPIRICAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
P.O. Box 8175
Charlottesville, VA 22906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 296-7000
Martin C. Baruch, Ph.D.
OSD 97-008
Title:Liquid Crystal-Based Underwater Imager
Abstract:The contractor proposes a new approach to underwater imaging that directly converts a two-dimmensional acoustic pressure wave into an electronic requirements fo convential piezo-element arrays. The imager relies on the piezo-birefringent properties of a nematic liquid crystal panel that serves as both sensor and display. The capability of nematic liquid crystals has been established and published by the authors and others. Pressure waves established by acoustic transducers are reflected by the target, focused by an acoustic lens system, and converted into a visible image for target identification. A compact device with a volume of 1-2 ft3 for diver-held applications at ranges of about 5 meters, as well as larger versions for increased distances, are feasible. In Phase I liquid crystal panels will be constructed and tested for maximum resolution using the contractor's diffraction-limited acoustic lens system. The engineering specifications applicable to the design of field prototype, to be built under Phase II, will be determined.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 103
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Sanjay Tripathi, Ph.D.
OSD 97-008
Title:Underwater Acousto-Optical Imaging System
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an innovative high Resolution Acousto-optic Imaging Sensor (RAIS) device based on limitations of existing technologies for underwater imaging. The compactly packaged RAIS device comprises an AOLCD, ultrasound generator, acoustic lens, and CCD camera. The acoustic ultrasound transducers produce ultrasonic waves. The acoustic waves propagating through the liquid crystal produce compression and shear deformations. The elastic deformations result in a destabilizing torque, and because of the low viscosity of the liquid crystal material the torque propagates into its bulk and causes molecular reorientation -- and hence birefringence. Since the optical structural transofrmation can be detected by optical methods. Integration of this concept with ultrasonic probing techniques yields a unique imaging method that produces a fast, accurate image allowing for in-depth imaging of hard-to-reach areas. The basic device is hand held, and can be modified for use outside of subsurface and surface craft.

SANTEC SYSTEMS, INC.
716 S. Milwaukee Ave.
Wheeling, IL 60090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 215-8884
Jaswinder S. Sandhu
OSD 97-008
Title:A New Liquid Crystal Detector for Underwater Acoustic/Optical Imaging
Abstract:A new liquid crystal based detector (acousto-optic sensor) will be developed for operation at frequencies below 500kHkz. The superior acoustic detection sensitivity of the sensor will be demonstrated and its feasibility for providing efficient and cost-effective means of acousto-optic image conversion in underwater acoustic imaging systems will be established.

IMAGE ACOUSTICS, INC.
97 Elm St.
Cohasset, MA 02025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 383-2002
Dr. John L. Butler
OSD 97-009
Title:High Efficiency, Broadband, Acoustic Transucer/Arrays for Various Underwater Applications
Abstract:An innovative deep submergence low frequency, broadband transducer forefficient operation is presented. The transducer uses a multiport concept (U.S. Patent 5, 184, 332) which allows back radiation to arrive in phase with the forward radiation and allows broadband depth independent operation. Because the system utilizes Helmholtz resonators, low frequency operation can be achieved. A number of possible configurations are considered as well as a number of possible drive mechanisms. A transducer operating in the 500 to 1000 Hz frequency range is proposed as a scale model for the intended 50 to 100 Hz operation. The scheme of operation allows multiple combinations for an unlimited operating band if desired. The device would be environmentally suitable as an expendable source.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First St
Cambridge, MA 01242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0816
Michael J. Gerver, Ph.D.
OSD 97-009
Title:Composite Terfenol-D Transducers for Underwater Arrays
Abstract:Oriented composites of PZT and polymer can have properties superior to ordinary PZT as drivers for sonar transducers and hydrophones because they have a lower Poisson ratio, and a lower dielectric constant. Terfenol-D is superior to ordinary PZT because it has larger maximum strains and higher energy density, and is not subject to fatigue or depoling. For these reasons, composite Terfenol-D should be superior to both composite PZT and ordinary Terfenol-D. This is especially true at high frequencies, since the brittleness of ordinary Terfenol-D makes laminating it expensive and does not allow very thin laminations. SatCon proposes to investigate the hydrostatic magnetostrictie properities of an improved composite Terfenol-D recently developed by Prof. G. Carman's group at UCLA. It is the hydrostatic properties that are relevant for underwater sonar transducers with dimensions that are small compared to a wavelength, as would be true of a small transducer used in an array. In collaboration with the UCLA group, we will develop Terfenol composites that are optimized for sonar and hydrophone use (e.g., reducing the Poisson ration). A small composite Terfenol-D transducer, operating in the 1kHz to 20kHz range, will be designed and built in Phase I, and a full array will be built and demonstrated in Phase II.

SENSORTEX, INC.
P.O. Box 644
Unionville, PA 19375
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 444-2383
Dr. William J. Biter
OSD 97-009
Title:Novel Matrix Addressable Sonar Transducer
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I will fabricate a new transducer element, which is matrix addressable, conformable and low cost. It is based on the use of a composite magnetoelectric film fabricated as a hollow cylinder. This cylinder contains both the sensing elements and the matrix-forming element. This approach builds on previous work on a composite laminar maggetoelectric material that measures applied stress and will result in a new and unique sonar transducer. During this Phase I program, the composite material will be fabricatedin the form of a hollow cylinder that contains a layer of a magnetostrictive film and a layer of piezoelectric film with a conductive coating. An individual transducer element is defined by an intersection with a second conductor. The low cost and small size will allow fabrication of a large dense array of such transducers.

WEBB RESEARCH CORP.
82 Technology Park Dr.
E. Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 548-2077
Douglass Webb
OSD 97-009
Title:A High Efficiency, Wide Band Sound Projector for Acoustic Tomography and Global Ocean Monitoring
Abstract:An acoustic projector suitable for long range signaling in the ocean is described. The design employs a novel approach, which could result in projectors of high performance, high efficiency, operation at any depth, and substantially reduced cost. Resolution of short pulses fundamentally requires acoustic energy spread over a broad band. Traditionally this has been done with projectors that perform well over the band of interest; however, this has led to costly designs for frequencies <= 250 Hz. A projector designed for a specific family of codes isdescribed. Starting with a simple, high efficiency, narrow band design, the system of energy storage in the projector is slowly and controllably changed, permitting an FM sweep over a broad band, that is, the required broad band is achieved by controlled and continuous tuning of a high efficiency narrow band projector. A prototype of the basic projector, without tuning, has been built and the performance is measured. A program for adding the tunable capability is proposed for Phase I as well as a digital simulation of the projector equivalent circuit to verify input/output amplitude and phase tracking.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 684-4364
Dan Deguire
OSD 97-010
Title:MiniMOP (Miniature Multipurpose Optical Pod)
Abstract:The following proposal describes an affordable modular sensor system which can be used for tactical oceanography. The system, referred to as MiniMOP (Miniature Multipurpose Optical Pod) is teh integrated sensor package capable of measures fluorometry, luminometry, transmissiometer, salinity, tempature and water depth. The sensor package will remain module for mounting in any small AUV but developed and tested with the Lemmings bottom crawler vehicle. The MiniMOP program will leverage off the Lemmings success in the sensor, coverage and mobility technologies. No other small amphibious vehicle can operate as effectively offer tremendous advantages in clandestine performance. This proposed phase will address the integrated optical and physical sensor development by proof of concept demonstration. Initial emphasis will be on single sensor/Lemming operation however later extensions can be used for mapping large areas with multiple vehicles in a very cost effective surveys needed to construct accurate coastal models.

RD INSTRUMENTS
9855 Businesspark Ave.
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 693-1178
Joel Young
OSD 97-010
Title:Multiple Acoustic Sensor Technology (MAST) System for AUVs
Abstract:RD Instruments has several acoustic sensor technologies which are on the threshold of achieving the affordability, low-power, robustness, and miniaturization needed for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) applications. We manufacture Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), Doppler Velcoity Logs (DVLs), and Correlation Velocity Logs (CVLs). We are also developing a phased array sonar in which the multiple transmit and receive beams required by the ADCP are formed by a single aperture using electronic beamforming. These technologies can be combined to provide a Multiple Acoustic Sensor Technology (MAST) System suitable for use on a small diameter AUV. The quantities which can be measured include altitude, current profiles, water turbulence, bottom track Doppler navigation, multi-beam bottom bathymetry, and volume backscatter intensity measurement which includes applications such as fish and zooplankton biomass and particulate concentration. Water turbulence can be measured in several ways using either Doppler or correlation techniques. We have also recently demonstrated the ability to determine ocean wave directional spectra from upward looking ADCP beams, and we are in investigating the feasibility of measuring temperature profiles by accoustics techniques. Thus, there is a great potential available for making a wide variety of interesting oceanographic measurements from a flexible acoustic sensor on an AUV.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Dr.
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Marshall K. Quick
OSD 97-011
Title:Extensible Beamformer for Portable Imaging Sonar
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop a unizue, lower-power, low-cost beamformer for portable imaging sonars. The original two chip set will form 100 beams from 100 input channels. A 0.3 cm2 BiCMOS chip comprises a low noise amplifier (LNA), a time-gain control (TGC), an apodizer and a Delta-Signma modulation (ADC) for each channel. A 0.66 cm2 CMOS chip accepts 100 digital input channels and produces 100 digital beams demodulated to baseband. The two chip set is estimated to dissipate a total of 650 mW or 6.5 mW channel when operating with a 500 KHZ carrier. The chip set is extensible to sonar arrays which use 10,000 elements to generate 10,000 beams without additional glue logic or processors. Q-DOT, SonaTech, and Messrs. Freeman and O'Donnell in close cooperation with the Navy, will assess the feasibility of relaizing an extensible beamformer suitable for imaging sonars during Phase I. The same team will realize a functional 100 channel/100 beam chip set in Phase II and evaluate it at a Government facility.

TERATECH CORP.
223A Middlesex Turnpike
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 270-4143
Alice M. Chiang
OSD 97-011
Title:Small, Low-Power, Low-Cost 2D Beamformer for Portable Imaging Sonar
Abstract:The need for multiple, cost-effective deployments of undersea acoustic mine-field reconnaisance and mine hunting systems requires the development of light-weight, low-power, low-cost, high-resolution sonars. These imaging sonars should be portable enough for use in a diver's hands, in a remote imaging sonar on an unmanned undersea vehicle or with a small surface-craft sonar. To achieve these goals, a beamformer capable of forming 100 simultaneous beams on a single low-cost, low-power chip is proposed here. A 100 element two-dimensional array, when used with the proposed beamformer, would produce a real-time 10 by 10 or 100-pixel image. In this way, a detailed image could be formed to search for mine like objects. Obstacles in the vehicles path could be detected and a path to circumnavigate obstacles determined. Areas of interest could be discriminated from clutter in littoral waters. The proposed 2D beamform chip is implemented based on our proprietary CDP technology. The computation power offered by this technology allows a 2D computing algorithm to be efficiently mapped onto a single-chip device. As a result, the chip can support a continuous throughput rate of 14 billion multiply/accumlate operations per second with an estimated power dissipation less than 2 Watts. Compared with a state-of-the-art DSP, Analog Devices' SHARC processor, the proposed 2D-beamforming device provides more than two-orders-of-magnitude power and weight savings when compared to the conventional imprlementation.

ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERTS, INC.
215 First St.
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 577-0700
Erik Saarmaa
OSD 97-012
Title:High Performance Piezoceramic Coatings for Ultrasound Applications
Abstract:ACX proposes an innovative new process for the manufacture of smart structures using a High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. This simple, multi-step process will be capable of depositing electroded piezoceramic coatings. The coatings will be poled while still hot, reducing poling times and voltages while increasing poling efficiency. Process times will be extremely short. The process will also eliminate the need for sintering, vastly reducing manufacturing costs. The resulting Thermally Sprayed Piezoceramic Coatings (TSPCs) will have higher bond strengths than conventional adhesives and will be conformable to any surface. By applying the coatings directly to the structure to be actuated, bond layers will be eliminated, improving the effectiveness of the actuation. TSPCs will increase the performance of smart material actuators through improved bonding and poling efficiencies, while reducing the cost of manufacturing and increasing their commercial marketability. This proposed project will provide OSD with a superior and inexpensive process for the manufacture of these structures. ACX will work with Hobart-Tafa of Concord, NH to modify their thermal spray process to accomodate PZT powders and electrode materials. At the conclusion of Phase I ACX will have demonstrated the feasibility of the process through fabrication, modeling, and detailed testing.

CERAMARE CORP.
262 Lincoln Avenue
Highland Park, NJ 08904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 445-2724
Dr. Larry E. McCandlish
OSD 97-012
Title:Ultra-Textured Active polymer (UTAP) Composite for High-Performance Intelligent Acoustic Transducers
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project seeks to combine the enhanced piezoelectric properties of single crystal perovskite ferroelectrics, recently discovered at Pennsylvania State University, with the electrostrictive properties of polyurethane to make a new class of "smart" materials for acoustic transducers. A tape casting process is used to form composite sheets compromising highly oriented platelets of hydrothermally grown single-crystal lead texture, so achieved, greatly enhance poling efficiency. Composite sheets are combined with polyurethane sheets to form a transducer plate. By using an electromechanically active polyurethane matrix we not only improve the acoustic impedance match between the composite material and water, but also improve signal/noise ratio and acoustic projection power. Furthermore, since piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials are the enabling component in "smart" actuator/sensor systems for adaptive control, the electrostrictive response of the polyurethane can be used in an actuator mode, independent of the piezoelectric response of the crystal phase, to make an adaptive acoustic transducer. Thus, the polymer matrix can distort itself in controlled ways for the purpose of beam steering or to suppress unwanted resonances.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2849 E. Elvira Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
Zhonglin Wu, Ph.D.
OSD 97-012
Title:Core/Shell Structured Piezoelectric-Polymer Composites for Enhanced Performance Acoustic Transducers
Abstract:Acoustic transducers have found wide applications ranging from Navy sonar systems to civilian underwater imaging. Piezoelectric materials perform an essential role of electromechanical energy conversion in such devices. Current piezoelectric materials can not satisfy the increasing requirement of the sensitivities of acoustic transducers for both military and civillian applications. This program seeks to focus on demonstrating a technology that significantly increases the hydrostatic piezoelectric strain coefficient as well as hydrostatic piezoeletric voltage coefficient, leading to high performance acoustic transducers. The effort will demonstrate the developed piezoelectric materials that are sensitive, robust, durable, low-cost and can be integrated readily for various applications. During Phase I, NRC will demonstrate the proof-of-concept. Phase II will optimize, build prototypes, and field test the technology. Phase III will commercialize the technology.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 689-0003
Peter E. Nebolsine
OSD 97-013
Title:Automated Sound Velocity Profiling System
Abstract:The development of an innovative, affordable and automated system for near-surface, real-time, remote sound velocity profiler to measure the velocity of a transmitted acoustic pulse as a function of depth is proposed. Alternative technologies for environmental sampling will be explored and a tradeoff study to determine the most promising approach will be conducted. A design concept study to determine the feasibility of implementing the selected approach will be performed. The design concept study shall present options which define ship impacts and the integration of device ouput with a combat system necessary to achieve goals of reduced workload and increased mission performance. A detailed design of the device which implements the recommended technology will be provided. A breadboar test will be conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of approach. The proper implementation of a Laser Doppler Sound Velocity Profiler (LDSVP) (U.S. Patent 5,379,270) or a fiberoptic/electrical cable technique will enable the optimization of active sonar performance on surface combatants to maximize detection ranges and search rates by environmental adaptation in the highly variable, adverse, shallow water environments of littoral areas.

SCIENTIFIC FISHERY SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 242065
Anchorage, AK 99524
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(907) 563-3474
Gerald F. Denny
OSD 97-013
Title:Automated Broadband Acoustic Sound Velocity Profiler
Abstract:Scientific Fishery Systems, Inc. (SciFish) recently completed a Phase I SBIR that used neural networks to learn the relationship between temperature and the spectra of broadband returns for a fixed location during a fixed time of the year. This approach relaxes the assumption of the consistency of backscatterers: now we will assume that the backscatter will be consistent at the same location at the same time of year. Using data collected at various locations in Alaska during the spring and winter, SciFish demonstrated the ability to estimate the temperature profile with less than .5 C mean error in any depth cell. Using the results, a ship-mounted sonar system was designed for use in the fisheries. Unfortunately, the Phase I funding was supplied by the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), and future funding for the entire TRP program was canceled, leaving no Phase II funding opportunity. As such, SciFish proposes to build upon the results of this earlier work, with an emphasis on modeling and improved data collection and a re-alignment of the design toward Navy missions. SciFish will expand upon its initial automated broadband sonar temperature estimation approach by developing an acoustic model for comparative evaluations, modifying the existing broadband sonar system and collecting better data for performance evaluations, and developing a Navy-specific design that can be built and tested during Phase II.

EIKOS, L.L.C.
89 Richmond St.
Raynham, MA 02767
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 880-0007
Mr Joseph Piche
OSD 97-014
Title:TOS Enhanced Phthalonitrile Resins with MDC Composite Stitching Technology
Abstract:Eikos LLC will modify and enhance the chemistry of the NRL developed phthalonitrile resin to meet the 700F TOS requirements of high temperature RTM and RFI aerospace composites. Eikos is intimately familiar with the chemistry of the phthalonitrile resin because of our efforts to scale the production of the current bases resin from the laboratory to the pilot plant. Eikos has teamed with McConnell Douglas to evaluate three phthalonitrile based resins against the MDC proprietary stitching technology, the state-of-the-art in Damage Tolerance Improvement. Combining the TOS enhanced phthalonitrile with the MDC stitching technology will provide the most advanced high performance aerospace composites system available for advanced aircraft.

MAVERICK CORP.
1776 Mentor Ave
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-9919
Robert A. Gary
OSD 97-014
Title:Resin Transfer Molding of High Temperature Composites
Abstract:Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) offers the opportunity for significant cost savings in the fabrication of polymer matrix composite structures. However, the realization of this cost savings has been limited to lower temperature (e.g. epoxy) matrix composites. The main reason for this has been that available high temperature (e.g. polymide) composites have not possessed the characteristics which make them amenable to the RTM process. Newer systems have been developed (e.g. Phthalonitrile) but their use as high temperature RTM systems have not been proven. In addition, the exploration of novel (lower molecular weight) polymide resin formulations for RTM application has not yet been attempted. The overall goal of the proposed program is to develop resin transfer moldable high-temperature (550F-700F) resin systems and processes. A two pronged approach involving both materials adn process engineering will be utilized to reach this objective; 1) newe high-temperature resins will be screened via conventional RTM tooling and equipment will be screened vai conventional RTM processing, and 2) unique RTM tooling and equipment will be screened via study "novel" high-melt flow polyimide oligomeric polymers. A 6-month Phase I SBIR effort is proposed.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
114 Turnpike Road, Unit 1
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 250-4200
John D. Lennhoff, Ph.D
OSD 97-015
Title:Poly Arylene Ether (PAE) Based, High Performance, Solvent Free Procesing of Aircraft Canopies
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc will demonstrate a new method to produce a low melt viscosity PolyArylene Ether (PAE) macrocyclic oligomer that will be resin transfer molded (RTM) into optically transparent aircraft canopies. A ring opening polymerization converts the macrocyclic oligomer to an optically transparent PAE polymer with a high glass transition temperature. The PAE macrocycle is processable without the use of a solvent because of its low viscosity at moderate temperatures (polyarylene ether ketone is 1-100 poise@250C). Thermal treatment of the PAE macrocycles in the presence of an initiator causes a "ring-opening" polymerization to form a conventional high molecular weight PAE polymer. The synthesis and processing of PolyArylene Ether (PAE) materials will be the focus of this study because of their high optical transparency, glass transition temperatures in the 250-350C range, and Triton Systems expertise with these types of polymers. The Phase I program will lead to a solvent free synthetic and processing method for a range of high temperature and optically transparent PAE compositions. This process optimizes low operating cost and rapid cycle with high use temperature PAE materials.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
3591 Apple Grove Dr.
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 643-0007
Dr. Seng C. Tan
OSD 97-015
Title:Processing of High Tg Polymers for Aircraft Canopies using a Supermicrocellular Foaming Technique
Abstract:Current fighter canopy systems are fabricated using acrylics and polycarbonates which have low use temperatures, up to 220F and 300F, respectively. Wind tunnel testing of aircraft windshield showed that the transparency surface temperatures varied from 200F to 500F. Therefore, high Tg canopy systems are needed to fully utilize advanced weapon systems. Conventional processing techniques for high Tg polymers have encountered a coloration problem as the specimen become thicker. We propose a supermicrocellular foaming technique using the principle thermodynamic instability to process aircraft canopy system. The cell size of a supermicrocellular foram (submicrons) is smaller than the wavelength of visible light (0.4-0.7) so the majority of light will be transmitted through the material without being deflected.

CERAMIC COMPOSITES, INC.
1110 Benfield Blvd.
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Dr. Mark Patterson
OSD 97-016
Title:A Remarkable Material for Advanced CMC Propulsion Systems
Abstract:The development of a remarkable Ti3SiC2 material for use in ceramic matrix composite (CMC) fiber coatings and matrix laminates is proposed. This material possesses a myriad of favorable properties for high temperature structural applications - demonstrating machinability, strength, ductility, oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance never before observed in a single phase material. Property measurements on hot-pressed samples cited in a recent article "Synthesis and Characterization of a Remarkable Ceramic: Ti3SiC2", reflected a potential opportunity for ceramic Matrix Composites. In conjunction with Dr J. Lackey at the Georgia Technical Institute, CCI will demonstrate that Ti3SiC2 can mitigate two of the major limitations of Cf/SiC and SiCf/SiC CMCs for thermal protection and propulsion system applications; the lack of a tough. long life fiber matrix interface coating and particle impact susceptibility. In order to achieve the IHPRPT objectives, it will be essential to develop and integrate new and advanced materials such as Ti3SiC2 and to address the critical issues relating to CMC applications and fabrication.

WILSON COMPOSITE GROUP, INC.
6611 Folsom-Auburn Rd., Ste. C
Folsom, CA 95630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 989-4812
Brain Wilson
OSD 97-016
Title:Composite Preburner & Turbopump Housing Materials and Process
Abstract:Composite technology exists for application to cryogenic fluid storage without an interface liner. This technology is being applied to an LH2 storage pressure vessel under Air Force Contract F29601-C-0217. This proposal outlines a program to transfer the LH2 composite technology to liquid rocket engine components. This proposal will address requirements for feed system assemblies, such as preburners, gas generators and turbopumps. Segments of housings of these components will be selected for review, analysis and design. A material system review is described together with an investigation of manufacturing processes to integrate with the housing design and materials selection. The basic material system to support the program will be the Fiberite IM7/977-2 prepreg. Alternatives will be considered, including their interface with proposed manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes reviewed for these complex structures will be lay-up, filament winding and molding. Non-crimped fabric, unidirectional tape and chopped fiber reinforcement forms will be used. Hybrid methods will also be considered. Fabrication of prototype demonstration boss component will be performed for evaluation purposes. A selected material system and manufacturing method will be used. A Phase II program is planned to demonstrate the selected material and process with prototype hardware.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, N.E.
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4450
Patrick F. Fleig
OSD 97-017
Title:Porous Sol-Gel Derived Ceramic Release Agent
Abstract:Breathable release coatings that can withstand processing conditions up to 750F are needed for use on ceramic tooling. In situ removal of volatiles in solvent-based composite processing is a critical issue that will enable production of high quality parts at lower cost per part. Current release coatings meet neither the temperature nor the solvent transport requirements of solvent-based composite processing.TPL proposes to develop innovative sol-gel routes to produce a porous ceramic coating as a release agent which can function at temperatures of 750F. The addition of various organic functional groups can be used to tailor the release properties of sol-gel derived coatings. The coating will be compatible with solvents and materials used in composites processing, adhere strongly to the tool surface, and permit passage of volatiles.TPL will formulate coating solutions and apply them to catable ceramic tooling. The coating will be evaluated for release, thermal shock, thermal cycling, adhesion and porosity characteristics.TPL has extensive experience and resources in sol-gel technology, as well as composite processing and so is well qualified to execute the proposed research. The PI is experienced in sol-gel processing and characterization.

UTILITY DEVELOPMENT CORP.
112 Naylon Avenue
Livingston, NJ 07039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 994-4334
Harry S. Katz
OSD 97-017
Title:Breathable Release Coatings for Ceramic Tooling
Abstract:The main objective of this Phase I program will be to develop a release coating for use with ceramic tooling that will be capable of withstanding cure temperatures in excess of 700F and will have high solvent vapor permeability. The main approach will be to formulate a high temperature film forming silicone resin system by investigating improvements of silicone resins that will be modified with phenyl siloxanes, fluoropolymers, and polyimides. UDC will demonstrate the feasibility of a release coating capable of providing both release and volatile removal for solvent based advanced composite materials which process at temperatures up to 750F. UDC will evaluate the candidate material's resistance to thermal shock and its adhesion to castable ceramic tools. Additional tests will be conducted to evaluate permeability of the release coating materials. At the end of Phase I, we will provide a detailed report that will include all work performed, resultant data, a Phase II plan, schedule and cost estimate.

DAMONA SERVICE CO. & FASTENIX CORP.
10 Lincoln
Kansas City, KS 66103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 384-0777
David Linder
OSD 97-018
Title:Advanced Fasteners for Low Cost Airframe Assembly and Repair
Abstract:The Joint Venture of Damona Service Company and the Fastenix Corporation proposes to develop self-locking fasteners for airframe assembly and repair. The design concepts for these self-locking fasteners are well thought-out. A prototype fastener is made and proves the design concept works. In order to claim total success of the product, mathematics and stress models need to be developed to predict the fatique life cycle and stress distibution of the composite/fastener assembly. A series of shock and vibration tests need to be conducted to demonstrate fastener performances.The proposed self-locking fasteners have two major parts per set. These two parts lock each other in the assembly after the pre-determined torque is set. Under shock and vibration, the dynamic interlocking force is higher than the static locking force because of the unique design. In addition, a stopper design is incorporated to prevent the interlocking force from being too high in dynamic condition. The interlocking design ensures that the fastener stays intact even though the fastener may lose preload from the changes of composite thickness. Airframe composite thickness may change due to lightning strikes, thermal expansion, water absorption, etc.These invented fasteners allow for loose tolerance holes, and provide efficient interface for high load transfer. No special tools are required for assembly. Standard thread forms are used on the fasteners. For a self-locking nut design, a conventional bolt may be used. The proposed fasteners requires no special drill tooling or pre-assembly fixtures. All these features will save assembly cost significantly.

NAVMAR APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
65 West Streeet Road, Suite B-104
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 675-4900
Carl T. Calianno
OSD 97-018
Title:Advanced Fasteners for Low Cost Airframe Assembly and Repair
Abstract:This SBIR proposes the development of the 3/16 inch diameter "Wing-It" blind fastener. This effort will include fastening both aluminum and composite sheet material. The technical objective is to demonstrate a low-cost fastener for future aircraft as an alternative to production fasteners. The "Wing-It" fastener distributes the load in the joint over a much larger area than conventional fasteners. This loading characteristic minimizes the stresses at the hole in the joined material. The small tolerances for the fastener and hole dimensions, which are required to achieve fatigue life in current aircraft applications, and are costly to achieve, will not be required with the "Wing-It". In addition to saving money due to relaxed tolerances, fewer "Wing-It" fasteners will be required which will also save money. This task will include a structural analysis to help design test models. A series of tensile, shear, and fatique tests, in compliance with Navy Qualified Parts List qualification requirements and procedures, will be conducted to compare the performance of the "Wing-It" to qualified aluminum sleeve blind rivet, M7885/2-6-03. This fastener has potential application in military and commercial aviation, architectural, marine, and automotive industries.

EIKOS, L.L.C.
89 Richmond St.
Raynham, MA 02767
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 880-0007
Michael Tilleman
OSD 97-019
Title:Hand Held High Resolution Imagin Devices for Aircraft Substructures
Abstract:Eikos LLC will evaluate two approaches, millimeter waves and opto-acoustics, for locating edges and holes in substructure that are hidden under exterior panels and skins during aircraft assembly. These devices will work in a camera-like fashion to allow non-destructive remote imaging. Eikos has developed promising approaches to both techniques that have the potential to be low cost and easy to use tools during aircraft assembly. Both approaches will yield hand-held, high resolution, imaging devices based on inexpensive commercially available components. Both systems are based on innovative laser and nonlinear optical configurations designed by Eikos. Based on commercially available components, the Phase I prototypes will be easily assembled and tested. The most promising candidate system will be recommended for development in Phase II. This system will be further developed with the use of private-sector funding and the Fast Track Phase II program. The end of theis SBIR program will result in the delivery of a working prototype.

PACIFIC-SIERRA RESEARCH CORP.
2901 28th Street, Suite 300
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 314-2382
Arnold Daniels
OSD 97-019
Title:Detection of Hidden Substructure Edges and Holes
Abstract:Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation (PSR) proposes to develop a robotic alignment system for aircraft assembly using its non-contact thermographic technology. This automated robotic-thermographic positioning system will be capable of accurately locating and monitoring subsurface holes and edges under exterior panels or skins. The non-contact thermographic system will include a portable high-speed infrared camera with enough spatial resolution, thermal sensitivity, and modern image-processing tools to characterize hidden holes and edges in structural components. This methodology uses a photothermal xenon flashlamp pulse to generate a steep momentary temperature gradient in the material. Subsurface hole regions will restrain the passage of heat, causing the flaw areas to be contrasted against the surroundings when viewed with a thermal imager. The dependence of the transient response on hole and edge locations beneath the surface will be investigated. The temperature history of the surface temperature after the absorption of the short photothermal pulse is used to locate the subsurface holes of the aircraft panels under test. A graphical user interface windowing environment is used to display the entire inspection on a high-resolution monitor; the instrument then, automatically and accurately marks the hole locations with little operator intervention. This robotic-thermographic system will greatly reduce the time and cost associated with examining aircraft structures. A potential Phase III partner has been identified and contacted.