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444 Phase I Selections from the 98.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1160 Pepsi Place
Chrlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 973-1215
David G. Ward
AF 98-001
Title:Tactile Cueing for PIO Avoidance in Manned and Unmanner Air Vehicles
Abstract:Flight test experience shows that for highly-agile controllers, pilots who do not "self olimit" their commands are likely to encounter pilot-induced oscillations (PIOs) due to actuator rate limits and other system lags. The problem is further exacerbated in remotely-piloted vehicles where pilots lack the physical cues that assist in self-limiting. Recent research has developed techniques for anticipating and avoiding actuator saturation by limiting pilot commands. While automated command-limiting prevents multivariable integrator windup, it does not change the response perceived by the pilot and may not eliminate PIO. Recent piloted-simulation experiments conducted by the U.S. Army and BAI in the Verticle Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Laboratory, demonstrated that the combination of a computational means for anticipating limits and tactile pilot cueing via stick-force feedback or stick shaking resulted in pilots being able to accomplish difficult maneuvers more aggressively, with less pilot workload, and less time spent operating at limit conditions. In the proposed Phase I SBIR program, BAI shall investigate the extent to which automatically-computed command limits can be fed back to the pilot via force-reflecting input devices for the mitigation of saturation-induced PIO for both piloted and remotely-piloted vehicles.

BIODYNAMIC RESEARCH CORP.
9901 IH 10 West
San Antonio, TX 78230
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 692-0281
John B. Bomar, Jr, PhD
AF 98-001
Title:A Computer Model for Lung Pressure Transient Prediction
Abstract:Biodynamic Research Corp (BRC) proposes to conduct a research study aimed at measuring and modeling dynamic gas flows and pressures in the human lung in response to rapid decompression. The program would produce new research on flow-pressure response (impedance) of the human lung to dynamic overpressure at ground level and altitude, both with and without imposed breathing resistance; attempt to estimate the human tolerance to dynamic overpressure and relate it to the design of the oxygen system so that the design ensures aircrew safety during inadvertent sudden aircraft decompression; and provide comprehensive fluid dynamic models of modern tactile aircraft breathing systems during normal operation and during rapid decompression. Phase I would establish the feasibility of the experimental program, its theoretical basis, and create a prototype computer model. The Phase II research would collect the data necessary to create a valid computer simulation of lung pressures and flows during rapid decompression. The ultimate goal of the project would be to create a computer simulation of the lung and various breathing systems, which could guide design choices to ensure aircrew safety and survivability in high-altitude aircraft flight where rapid decompression is a risk.

DAKOTA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2201-A 12th Street N.
Fargo, ND 58102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(701) 237-4908
Gregory Gillispie
AF 98-001
Title:Real-Time Fuel Leak Detector
Abstract:During Phase I Dakota Technologies, Inc. (DTI) will demonstrate a fuel leak detection system that is vastly superior to the costly, manpower-intensive techniques currently used in repair, overhaul, and production facilities. The technique uses resonance enhabced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy to test the airspace outside the tank for the presence of certain hydrocarbon constituents of all common fuels; thus, it is not necessary to add tracers to the tank, remove its contents, or otherwise change conditions in order to test for leaks. Owing to the method's extremely high sensitivity, it can easily pinpoint leaks which are so small that only vapor is escaping. The real-time response and very high spatial resolution will enable leaks to be detected in a matter of seconds. The extremely high commercial potential is enhanced by numerous spin-off applications for pipeline leak detection, environmental monitoring, and occupational health/indoor air quality assessments. DTI and North Dakota State University have already published several papers resulting from our collaborative reasearch on leak detection. We therefore propose to build an engineering prototype and demonstrate it at an actual aircraft maintenance facility in Phase I, thereby moving well beyond the goal stated in the solicitation of demonstrating the technology on fuel cell test cubes or small scale tanks in Phase II.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Z. Jason Geng
AF 98-001
Title:A High Resolution Volumetric 3D Display Systemfor Pilot Training
Abstract:Flight trajectories of airplanes are three dimensional in nature. Conventional displays used in pilot training facilities can only show two-dimensional sections of the trajectory. This makes the learning of spatial awareness a very difficult problem in pilot training because the operator must mentally visualize a 3D environment by reading and interpreting 2D displays. Furthermore, when the display does not show the third spatial dimension as readily apparent as the other two, pilots tend to solve conflict avoidance problems in the displayed two directions more often than in the three dimensions. For conflict resolution, this implies that a 2D display based training may bias pilots' solution to planar maneuvers. A high resolution true volumetric 3D display device would literally (and figuratively) add a new dimension to the pilot training, advanced human/computer interface, flight trajectory visualization and many other applications in the AF. The volumetric 3D display capability reduces the workload on both pilots and air traffic controllers, resulting in faster recognition and improved situational awareness. This can improve safety and efficiency. The 3D spatial relationship is natural and intuitive, more easily seen and more quickly identified, allowing pilots to make more efficient decisions, to be able to identify conflicts more quickly. The primary objective of this Phase I SBIR program is to investigate the feasibility of a novel volumetric 3D display concept that can provide true 3D, full-color, authosterographic and high spatial resolution 3D images that can be viewed by multiple viewers without using any eyeweat. The second objective of this effort is to develop strategies of synergistically integrating the volumetric 3D display in AF pilot training systems and other 3D visualization systems.

IMPACT MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES
875 D Airport Road
Monterey, CA 93940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 626-1296
Shreve M. Archer MD
AF 98-001
Title:Low Lift, Lightweight, Low Cost Aviator Helmet
Abstract:Design and build a lightweight comfortable helmet that does not produce high lift loads that are transmitted to the neck upon high speed ejection. Such helmet must remain on the head when exposed to the windblast and high G forces so as to provide good impact protection to the aviator's head. To be useable in jet aircraft, the helmet must be capable of using the current visor, mask, earcup, COMBAT EDGE equipment and it must be able to mount night vision goggles and the planned JOINT HELMET MOUNTED CUEING SYSTEM (JHMCS). The helmet should be comfortable to wear; it should not produce 'hot spots' and should allow for ventilation. The helmet should not slip or move about the head during aircraft maneuvering, high G forces, or with fast movements of the head.

LASER POWER CORP.
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 755-0700
Robert A. Bergstedt
AF 98-001
Title:Microlaser Illumination for Helmet Mounted Displays
Abstract:Helmet and Head Mounted Displays (HMD) offer pilots a significant advantage in warfighting capability. Howver, displays to date have been limited in brightness, resolution, and chromaticity. Recent developments with AMLCD technology, based upon subtractive color promise high brightness, high resolution, and full color HMD's, suitable for operational environments. Laser Power Corporation has identified red, green and blue microlasers as ideal illumination sources for the HMD. Microlasers offer several advantages over are lamps as the illumination source, related to9 the spectral purity of the laser light and the near diffraction limited beam which makes the lasers will suited for use as a light source with LCD's. Therefore, LPC is proposing the development of red and green lasers coupled with the fiber optic delivery bundle. During Phase I, LPC will develop the laser configuration and demonstrate key technologies. This will lead to a design for an integrated laser illumination system which will be delivered as part of the Phase II program. This package will then be ready for full-scale engineering and MIL qualification, leading to production of a rugged microlaser system.

LME, INC.
P.O. Box 6637
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 687-1658
Walter R. Peck
AF 98-001
Title:High Energy Absorbing Troop Seat Study
Abstract:During a crash of a troop-carrying fixed wing aircraft or helicopter the troop seats have been designed to withstand the specification force levels without regard for any protection of the seat occupant's spine. A recent troop seat redesign program has resulted in a seat design that provides some increased energy absorption in the vertical (spinal) direction. This proposed Phase I study will investigate the feasibility of having energy absorption provided by appropriate rip stitching of Dacron and/or Kevlar materials. A major problem to be solved is the provision of appropriate energy absorption for both the twenty-four inch seat spacing for equipped paratroopers and the twenty inch seat spacing for troops/passengers. The proposed six month effort is divided into nine tasks as follows. 1) Fabric requirements definition. 2) Development of force versus distance for the EA stroke. 3) Spreader Bar redesign/placement. 4) Front Tube redesign. 5) Front Leg redesign. 6) Seat Back redesign. 7) Seat Bottom fabric energy absorption design. 8) Sample seat assembly 9) Documentation and reporting.

LME, INC.
P.O. Box 6637
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 687-1658
Walter R. Peck
AF 98-001
Title:Study of the Spinal Preloading Piston for the CKU-5/A Rocket Catapult
Abstract:Small, light weight, female pilots have been introduced into the AF and Navy pilot population in recent years. The increased spinal loading of light weight ejectees during the catapult stroke, with its attendant increased probability of spinal injusy, that occurs in an ejection is well known. It has also been shown that any upward acceleration of the aircraft during an ejection can appreciably increased the spinal loading with a drastic increase in the probability of spinal injury. Recent studies have shown that a separate short stroke piston that provides preloading of the spine can result in a much reduced spinal loading with some increase in the catapult separation velocity. This proposal is for an eight month study of the possible application of such a spinal preloading piston to the CKU-5/A rocket catapult used in the ACES-II open ejection seat escape system. This study is believed to be critical importance to all AF pilots, and especially to the light weight female pilots, who will be ejecting with the ACES-II ejection seat for many more years into the future.

MONOPOLE RESEARCH
739 Calle Sequoia
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 375-0318
Thomas Jaorszewica
AF 98-001
Title:Fast & Accrate Software for Sim of Electromagnetic Radation Effects in Biological Media
Abstract: Abstract not available...

REYNOLD'S INDUSTRIES, INC.
5005 McConnell Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 823-5491
Tom Clark
AF 98-001
Title:An Integrated Sensor Approach to Helmet Position and Orientation Measurement
Abstract:We propose to develop a helmet tracker, based on the use of two sensor technologies. The first of these will be an Ultra-sonic Helmet Position Sensor. This device will procide the data needed to determine the position of the pilot's helmet within the crew station. The second portion of the tracker system will involve the use of a Micro Inertial Measurement Unit. This device will provide the orientation and line of sight data source for the helmet tracker. These technologies will be combined to manufacture a truly miniature helmet mounted tracker, that is immune to the problems associated with the present magnetic devices. Full mechanical sensor and electricalcircuit design in addition to mechanical structure prototypes will verify feasibility. The objectives of the first phase will be to determine the number and type of transducers required, the electronic interface requirements and to demonstrate the feasibility of the system by prototyping a bench top system.

ADROIT SYSTEMS, INC.
209 Madison Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 698-8900
Glenn J. Larsen
AF 98-002
Title:Intelligent Tutor Development for Information Operations
Abstract:Adroit Systems Inc. (ASI), in association with Klein Associates Inc., proposes to develop an Intelligent Computer Aided Instruction (ICAI) training system for information operations personnel to maximize mission effectiveness and achieve Information Superiority. Training objectives will focus on Crew Resource Management (CRM) principles. Those principles necessitate a comprehensive system tailored to organization-specific mission requirements enabling optimum indivudual and crew performance. Consequently, the training must be interactive and based on "real-world" conditions. Joint Vision 2010 identifies Information Superiority as a keystone requirement underpinning four operational concepts: Precision Engagement, Dominant Maneuver, Focused Logistics, and Full Dimensional Protection. The outcome is Full Spectrum Dominance. Given the revolutionary development in information technologies, the side that effectively exploits these assets will gain tremendous competitive advantage. The innovative utilization and training of personnel who employ these technologies will promote synergy and performance at their maximum potential. The objective of Phase I is to identify methods and objectives for simulation-based ICAI teaching CRM skills to personnel operating in the information superirotiy arena, and provide a sample block of instruction. Phase II will develop a prototype simulation-based, ICAI training system for personnel performing a specific information superority mission, as well as a plan for evaluating its training effectiveness.

CHA CORP.
372 W. Lyon Street
Laramie, WY 82072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(307) 742-2829
Chang Yul Cha
AF 98-003
Title:Microwave New Emission Control Technology for Hydrazine Fuels
Abstract:The proposed program has the potential to completely eliminate water-borne hydrazine using a new and novel approach. Currently, wet air oxidation is the most popular method used. This novel approach uses 2450 MHz microwave energy to decompose hydrazine and related compounds in a water solution. We have discovered that microwave energy couples directly to hydrazine in water solution resulting in complete selective decomposition of the hydrazine to harmless hydrogen and nitrogen. This direct decomposition takes place at ambient conditions, thereby significantly reducing the capital and operating costs. The CHA process can be added onto existing water scrubbers and produces no additional waste material. The process is based on the use of carbon adsorbents to capture both the contaminants from the water phase and microwave energy. The hydrogen product is oxidized to water before being vented to he air. In Phase I of the proposed approach, the CHA Corporation will demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the process. Phase II will be devoted to developing and implementing the proposed approach. We will design and construct a full scale operational prototype and will demonstrate the effectiveness of the process with Hydrazine, Mono-methyl Hydrazine, and Unsymmetrical Di-Methyl Hydrazine.

AMERICAN RESEARCH CORP. OF VA
1509 Fourth Street
Radford, VA 24143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 731-0655
Mr. Howard Groger
AF 98-004
Title:Aqueous Non-Chromate Conversion Coatings for Aluminum Alloys
Abstract:Chromate conversion coatings are presently applied to military aircraft to increase the operational life of structural components fabricated from aluminum alloys. Coasts of applying these coatings have increased with increasing concerns about the health and environmental effects of hexavalent chromium. American Research Corporation of Virginia has worked to extend a trivalent chromium conversion coating (tccc) process to approach the corrosion resistance imparted by chromate conversion coatings without the health and environmental effects of hexavalent chromium. Optimal compositions of the tccc were found to be more effective in protecting 7000 series aluminum alloys that 2000 series and performed better when immersion coated that spray coated. To develop coatings more suited to Air Force needs, this proposal suggests the use of solid-solution film-forming compounds to modify tccc solutions to provide large area protection for series 2000 aluminum alloys. This program is innovative in combining film-forming materials known to achieve high levels of aluminum alloy protection with a proven tccc approach. Phase I Technical Objectives include a evaluation of solid-solution film-forming thin films, acquisition of families of test data, and optimization of coating compositions in preparation for the Phase II proof-of-concept system.

F&S, INC.
PO Box 11704
Blacksburg, VA 24062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4267
Michael Miller
AF 98-004
Title:Multi-Layer Thin-Film Coatings for Aluminum Alloy Components
Abstract:F&S Inc. proposes to develop advanced electrostatically self-assembled, multi-layer mixed media thin-film coatings to improve the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy components and other material systems. To produce such corrosion resistive coatings, we will fabricate high performance polymers and inorganic oxide particles using unique chemical processing techniques, and then form them into thick multi-layer thin-film coatings. F&S and their two subcontractors have demonstrated both of these methods through prior research programs. Judicious selection of inorganic oxide and noble metal particle species, precise control of particle size and orientation, and multi-layer formation allows graded tailoring of the surface hardness and corrosion resistance of the coated surface. The proposed self-assembly process allows the rapid multi-layer thick-film build-up to thousands of individual layers and micros of total thickness at room temperature and pressure, and totally avoids use of volatile organic compounds. During the Phase I program, F & S will design coating properties, select nanoparticles, self-assemble designed coatings, and evaluate properties with respect to design goals. Litton and Virginia Tech will assist with corrosion test article evaluation and analysis of production upscaling methods. Commercialization cost-sharing by F&S is pledged.

DEPOSITION RESEARCH LAB
530 Little Hills Blvd
St. Charles, MO 63301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 341-4986
Paul Ki-Souk Nam
AF 98-005
Title:Chemical Chara and Monitoring System (PMCMS)
Abstract:This proposal describes Phase I of a research and development program to develop and commercialize a compact, affordable Particulate Matter on-line, Real-time, Physical and Chemical Characterization and Monitoring System (PMCMS), that will quickly and accurately analyze the chemical constituents and size distribution of particulate emissions from Air Force Operations. The PMCMS will provide size related chemical speciation for all particulates within the size range 0.003 - 30 microns with a 1Hz sample rate, a particulate sensitivity of 0.1 particle/cc for particle diameters > 0.003 micron, and a chemical sensitivity >ppb. The spacial resolution is 3 dimensional and >0.02m. The proposed objectives for Phase I are: the laboratory-based coupling of a mass-spectrometric chemical composition function to a state of the art particulate characterization system; the performance assessment of the laboratory-based PMCMS with respect to sample rate. Specificity, spacial resolution and sensitivity; a comparison of the laboratory-based system with data gathered by current practices; the development of a conceptual design of a field deployable commercialized version of the PMCMS; a field demonstration with an engineering model and the presentation of a technical report describing the Phase I activities and including plans for continued experimental development in Phase II.

APPLIED ORDNANCE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
103 Paul Mellon Court
Waldorf, MO 20602
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 843-4045
Robert Thompson
AF 98-006
Title:ADVANCED ROCKET PROPULSION TECHNOLOGIES
Abstract:Satellite builders indicate that electric propulsion for stationkeeping and orbit transfer is needed. An unprecedented demand is expected for low power thruster modules, with emphasis placed on low mass, high power density, compactness, power expandability, and reduced cost for system components. The work in this proposal will demonstrate the feasibility of an ultra-compact, high power density, and low cost PPU for the100w class HET, with built-in expandability for a broad power range. SPI proposes a modular concept, employing high power density DC-to-DC converters, which will allow for miniature PPU construction featuring redundancy, expandability and short time-to-market. A radiation hard space qualified high power density DC-to-DC converter is needed for this approach. Existing suppliers of DC-to-DC converters do not produce this type of converter, but Spacer Power Inc. is developing a space qualified, module based on a commercial version. During Phase I, Space Power Inc. will design, build, and quality a breadboard PPU for low power HETs. The Discharge Power Supply mass is anticipated to be less than 400 grams with 2N redundancy and the mass of the PPU system will be assessed by the operational modes of the thruster, which will be determined in the course of the work. A Development and Validation Plan to build and qualify an Engineering Model PPU into Phase II will be defined in Phase I

ELTRON RESERACH, INC.
5660 Airport Blvd
Boulder, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 440-8008
Shane Roark
AF 98-006
Title:Heterogeneous Catalysts for Near-Ambient Temp Destruction of Volatile Organic Compounds
Abstract:The objective of this program is to develop a heterogeneous catalyst for the destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low concentrations and near-ambient temperatures, under oxygen-rich conditions. The catalyst will be Pt and/or Pd supported on a multi-component metal oxide based on the Ce1-xZrXO2 defect-fluorite structure, where 0 < x < 1. At low dopant concentrations, it is expected that the flourite structure will be sustained. However, at high dopant concentrations, it is likely that the structure will be perovskite-type metal oxide with the general structure (A1-xA"x)1-y(B1-xB'x)yO2-x, where A = Ce or Zr; A'=Gd, La, Sc or Sr;B = Cu, Ag or Au; B' = Mn, Fe or Co;0

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2849 East Elvira Rd
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
Jim Dong
AF 98-006
Title:Nanostructual Photocatalyst for VOC Mineralization
Abstract:Air pollution by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been a major environmental problem. Existing technologies for the control of VOC emission, such as thermal catalytic conversion, incineration and adsorption suffer from high energy cost and secondary pollution. An innovative nano-structured photocatalyst is proposed for the destruction/mineralization of VOCs in air at standard temperature and pressure. The nano-structured photocatalyst is anticipated to be highly efficient and flexible to a variety effluent conditions.

MCNAMEE, PORTER & SEELEY, INC.
3131 S. State Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 665-6000
Erik Petroskis
AF 98-007
Title:Test Methods to Determine the Presence of Halorespring Subsuface Bacteria
Abstract:Chlorinated solvents, such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) are common ground water pollutants. Natural attenuation or the stimulation of halorespiring microorganisms are potentially the most promising and cost-effective technologies for remediating sites contaminated with chlorinated compounds. Central to the successful implementation of these bioremediation technologies is the determination of the presence of halorespiring organisms at the site and of the extent of dechlorination. Halo-respiration is an energy-producing metabolic process and is characterized by (i) high dechlorination rates. (ii) fe values in the range of 0.6-0.7, (iii) hydrogen threshold values below 0.5ppmv. This process is carried out by several diverse groups of bacteria and stimulated by different substrates. Hence, measures of the process , and not of organisms or genera, are currently the only approaches that reliably measure halorespiration. Our primary approach, therefore, is to determine these parameters to establish the presence and activity of halorespriring organisms. These measurements can be performed in microcosms containing solids, and a time consuming enrichment procedure for halorespiring organisms is not required. The research is aimed towards the development of a protocol with general applicability for the evaluation of sediment and aquifer materials for the presence of halorespiring organisms. In addition to the evaluation for the intrinsic bioremediation potential of a certain site, this protocol will also provide valuable information about possible biostimulation strategies.

CONTINUUM DYNAMICS, INC.
P.O. Box 3073
Princeton, NJ 08543
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 734-9282
Alexander H. Boschitsch
AF 98-008
Title:Sonic Boom Penetration Modeling Via Computational Aeroacoustics
Abstract:Continuum Dynamics, Inc. (CDI) proposes to develop an advanced modeling capability to assess the environmental impact of sonic boom penetration and its effect upon marine mammals. The approach will utilize Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) numerical techniques which allow the generation and propagation of sound to be directly calculated from the fundamental governing equations. The proposed effort will be the first use of such techniques in water and will include bubble entrainment and choppy ocean effects. The surface of the ocean will be modeled as a stochastic process with spatial and temporal correlations which can be prescribed at will, a major improvement over previous deterministic studies of sonic boom penetration. Any sonic boom shape may be imposed as a time-dependent boundary condition on any realization of this randomly described surface. The resulting pressure pulse propagating into the ocean will then be calculated by CAA techniques from the governing Euler equations with due account for body forces (e.g. gravity) and bubble entrainment effects. The numerical results can be displayed either as instantaneous ("snapshot") pressure contours within the ocean or as the time dependent pressure time history at specified observer locations to facilitate assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft or missile operations

MARINE ACOUSTICS, INC.
Marine Acoustics, Inc.
Middletown, RI 02842
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 848-2995
William T. Ellison
AF 98-008
Title:Advanced Analytic Sonic Boom Underwater Propagation Analysis
Abstract:Federal regulations require that USAF supersonic, subsonic and launch vehicle flight operations be assessed as to possible effects to the near-shore environment. Current modeling capability for this topic is lacking in key areas: reliability of results, environmental assessment requirements, field validation, biological nature of the receiver, and accounting for the key interface boundary conditions that must be satisfied for realistic results. Marine Acoustics, Inc. teamed with Cambridge Acoustical Associates, Inc. proposes a major review of the current state of sonic boom penetration models for realistic ocean environments, and the development of a test plan for experimental verification of the recommended analytic approach. Current analytical models and predictions of subsea sonic boom penetration will be reviewed with a focus on their underlying assumptions and functional dependence on physical parameters. This review will include the supporting database. Subsequent to this review, test requirements for measuring airborne sonic boom penetration into subsurface ocean waters as a function of depth, environmental acoustic parameters and underwater boundary (surface, bottom and volume) conditions will be established. A state-of-the-art review of required instrumentation to meet the requirements will be completed, and a comprehensive test plan for execution under Phase II will be developed.

DELLA ENTERPRISES, INC.
3425 North County Road 3
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 686-6898
Dr. Chris Wieland
AF 98-009
Title:PLIN-A Programmable Laboratory Incubator
Abstract:Della Enterprises, Inc. will develop a programmable laboratory incubator or PLIN which is capable of autonomously carrying out complex in-vitro cell culture studies. This incubator design supports the following innovations: 1) vastly increased capabilities for tissue plate storage due to a compact method of storage and retrieval, 2) automated access to multiple stock solutions and dosing sources, 3) the ability to add or dispose of fluids to/from cellular cultures, 4) the ability to add or remove new supplies like tiuuse culture plates and pipettes without interrupting ongoing experiments, 5) automated monitoring of cellular status and integration of this information into the protocol, 6) the ability to run complete experiments, or large portions of them in a completely enclosed and aseptic environment, 7) an intuitive graphical user interface that allows simple construction of complete assays and 8) 3D simulation of all operations to confirm proper programming of experimental procedures.

USABILITY, INC.
625 Utica Ave
Boulder, CO 80304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 499-3664
Darrell Laham
AF 98-010
Title:Intelligent Agent for Matching Occupations, Personnel and Trng Materials
Abstract:Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is a machine learning method that extracts contextual meaning similarities among words and passages by analysis of large bodies of natural text. We will test the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating LSA into a web-based search agent that can compare the conceptual content of: (a) textual training materials, (b) descriptions of personnel competency requirements, (c) descriptions of civilian occupations, (d) descriptions of individual training, experience, or test performance. The experimental system will provide platform-independent access to a multimodal web-pager interface for entering descriptions and displaying relevance ranked results. As proofs-of-concept, we will use the agent to: (a) identify and rank the whole and each paragraph of principal textual materials for at least 30 AF courses according to the relevance of their content to the competencies required by a selected military system, and (b) produce a ranked list of the conceptual similarity of each of at least 30 AF occupations to the 20 most similar civilian occupations described in the Department of Labor Occupational Network. We will assess the validity of the LSA measure in both applications by comparison with judgments by subject matter experts with respect to a sample of cases.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 S. Amphlett Blvd
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-8242
Richard H. Stottler
AF 98-011
Title:An Intelligent Multi User Simulation Environment (MUSE) for Use over the Internet
Abstract:In Phase I, SHAI will investgate, design, and implement a prototype of an intelligent Multi User Simulation Environment (MUSE) which operates across the Internet. This MUSE would be used to run tactical scenarios with geographically distributed team players. The most difficult aspect of this problem deals with the need to intelligently control all the tactical platforms in the scenario. We will develop a general schema for military warfare tactics representation and execution in MUSE using Artificial Intelligence (AI), Expert System and graphical techniques to capture the human decision processes. Since the representation and automatic execution of tactics is a complex problem we will take an integrated approach using a variety of paradigms, including tactical diagrams and drawings, transition diagrams, constraint satisfaction, scripts, intelligent entities, case-based reasoning, planning and scheduling, and knowledge-based representations (rules, objects), techniques we have used with much success in previous projects. Foremost, we will devise a general distributed tactical simulation capability which includes intelligent platform control and a representation schema for military tactics. We will devise methods for real-time Internet communication and coordination of the distributed tactical simulation. We will absolutely prove the feasibility of our ideas through the development of a limited, proof-of-concept prototype.

RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
2875 Towerview Road
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 904-1808
John Leddo
AF 98-012
Title:Internet-based Distributed Team Performance Assessment Technology
Abstract:The empasis on measuring team performance and effectiveness is higher than ever before. With declining military budgets and increased requirements, technology offers a cost-effective means of providing timely, accurate, team assessment feedback. The Internet offers world-wide access to this technology. Developing quality distributed Internet-based, team assessment technology requires integration of several technologies: research on team performance, state-of-the-art performance assessment, and Internet-based delivery systems. Research Development Corporation and subcontractor LNK Corporation propose to develop team assessment technology that integrates and enhances existing technologies. These include automated performance assessment technology developed under contract to Armstrong Labs, distributed intelligent tutoring system technology for measuring shared mental models of teams, and Internet delivery technology. The heart of our approach is RDC's validated assessment model that is currently being used by a NJ school district. In Phase I, we will develop a proof-of-concept team assessment tool, deliverable over the Internet, and demonstrate is validity in four test beds. In Phase II we will develop knowledge engineering and assessment authoring tools to allow the AF to develop and validate team performance assessment for domains of its choosing.

PLS INTERNATIONAL
11325 Seven Locks Road
Potomac, MD 20854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 083-8508
Donna Sullivan
AF 98-013
Title:Java Tools for Developing and Delivering Distributed Training Over the Internet
Abstract:Solutions must be found to reduce the cost of delivering training. A primary cost is the travel expenses to transport, house, and feed students. One potential solution is to deliver adaptive instruction over the Internet. There are many issues facing those who use the Internet to design, develop, and deliver training, ranging from instructional design and security issues to platform compatibility, accessbo;otu. amd aitjpromg tpp;s ossies/ Tje [rppf=pf=cpmce[t tpp;s fpr tjos effprt wo;; omtegrate respirce based ;earmomg. ;pst cpst cp;;abpratopm tecjmoqies. registration and monitoring techniques, computer-managed instruction techniques, the functionality of a simulation/synthetic environment, and the more difficult adaptive functionality to demonstrate the technical feasibility and the pedagogical effectiveness of the Internet as a distributed learning environment. The overall objective is to create a library of Java tools and techniques to enable adaptive, distributed training over the Internet and address some of the issues stated. The key to enhancing learning through the development of new applications via the Internet with measureable ROI is the creation of tools that are intuitive, assist in the creation of asynchronous and synchronous online learning functionality, provide registrar and feedback capabilities, and adapt to the students' inputs. The proposed tools will demonstrate this functionality.

APPLIED HUMAN FACTORS, INC.
P.O. Box 781076
San Antonio, TX 78278
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 408-0098
James E. Schroeder
AF 98-014
Title:Instructor's Associate for Rating Aircrew Teamwork
Abstract:Effective aircrew teamwork is critical for insuring mission success and reducing accidents. There is a requirement for a tool that helps aircrew trainers conduct standardized evaluations of teamwork performance. In the proposed research, a portable Instructor's Associate will be designed and constructed to help standardize the measurement process and provide assistance to the instructor. A variety of optional user interfaces will be available. Speech synthesis can be used to solicit ratings and other input from the instructor. Speech recognition can be used both to control sequencesand store an instructor's prompted and unsolicited comments in a standard database for later analysis. An artificial intelligence component will monitor instructor ratings and provide queries or prompts when unusual patterns are detected. A GUI authoring system will allow intuitive creation and modification of flight or simulator scenarios. In Phase I, an aircrew teamwork scenario will be selected and a task analysis conducted. Functional characteristics of the system will be identified and used to select the hardware and software features. A prototype system will be constructed and demonstrated to show feasibility. The Phase II system will be extended to provide a more generic tool for a variety of military and civilian applications.

INTERSCIENCE AMERICA, INC.
312 East Market Street
Leesburg, VA 20176
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 779-8090
Robert W. Swezey
AF 98-014
Title:Instructor's Associate for Rating Teamwork Skills
Abstract:The proposed effort will develop a prototype of a hand-held, device for use by rates in assessing teamwork skills. The device, termed an Instructor's Associate, will support standardization of instructor ratings of aircrew teamwork skills and behaviors. Current methods for capturing instructor ratings of aircrew performance require either that instructors divert attention from observing on-going behaviors to make ratings on a paper form, or make ratings after completion of a flight or simulation based on recollection. The Instructor's Associate will take advantage of computer technology to develop a hand-held input-output device that is portable and convenient to use. The device will record observations through an interface that facilitates the task of making ratings while minimizing demands on the instructor's attention. The device will function as a passive recording device and as an intelligent associate that uses artificial intelligence technology to support performance rating. This SBIR Phase I effort will result in a prototype hardware interface and software for the Instructor's Associate, as well as the system architecture for a Phase II full-scale development version that incorporates both passive and intelligent modes of data collection.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
582 E. Dayton-Yellow Springs R
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Dr. Gary Klein
AF 98-014
Title:Technology and Expertise: A Dual Approach to Aiding Aircrew Instructors
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project will test the feasibility of developing an Aircrew Assessment and Instruction Tool (AAIT) designed to aid instructors in delivering key elements of aircrew training. In the Phase I project, we propose to: use Cognitive Task Analysis to document the critical assessment, evaluation, and feedback processes of highly skilled instructors; identify key elements of the aircrew instructional process; and explore a range of tools and technologies to support the instructional task. We will develop system recommendations and electronic storyboards that demonstrate interface and data input elements. The storyboards will be produced in an interactive version, to provide a "look and feel" prototype that can be evaluated as a proof-of-concept. We will work with skilled aircrew instructors throughout the project in order to build to the operational Users' needs and goals. The outcome of the Phase I project will be a working prototype version of the AAIT that can be examied and critiqued by potential users. The full-scale AAIT will offer a range of support for observation and data-gathering tasks, evaluation, and feedback delivery. It will also support objective, standardized, real-time evaluation of aircrew skills and performance, by providing a common framework across aircrew instructors.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
PO BOX 162487
Austin, TX 78716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 306-1100
William R. Taggart
AF 98-014
Title:Instructor's Associate for Rating Teamwork Skills
Abstract:Systems and Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes to develop a handheld input-output device that supports objective, standardized real-time instructor rating of aircrew teamwork skills and behaviors. The quality of aircrew teamwork and use of resources has been cited as critical to both aviation safety and mission success. Traditional technical training curriculums have historically emphasized "stick and rudder" skills, and it is these skills that instructors tend to test and evaluate. To rate teamwork skills and behaviors, instructors need a realiable and useful support system that will assist and enable them to collect information on the performance being observed. Paper and pencil methods for collecting this information are seen as cumbersome and not user-friendly. This SBIR proposes the research and development of an intelligent electronic "assistant or associate" to the instructor who is observing a simulation or an actual mission. To accomplish this proposal, observable behaviors and skills will be collected by a handheld device that will prompt the instructor when needed to enter or to record by voice additional information. Data can also be collected and combined with other sources to provide system feedback to improve training effectiveness.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOC.
40 Lloyd Avenue
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 987-0600
Jeffrey R. Sachs
AF 98-015
Title:Noise-Robust Speech Recognition to Support Maintenance Activities
Abstract:Recent advances in computer recognition of human speech have made it possible to perform reliable recognition of the content (words) in continuous speech. We propose to use these technological advancements, together with the expertise we have gained from developing a number of reliable, easy to use DOD systems that automatically respond to natural, spoken human commands. These systems reduce required human effort, improve performance, and increase the timeliness of information delivery. Specifically, we will adapt to the aircraft maintenance application several of our existing and emerging systems, including our system for speech recognition in noisy environments currently under development for the U.S. Army. In particular, we will apply a combination of proven and novel analysis techniques to filter out band-limited, broad-spectrum, and impulse noise. Our objectives will be to:. Design a flexible, highly accurate speech recognition system that is usable in high noise environments to support aircraft maintenance repair activities. Adapt and implement noise reduction algorithms resulting in relatively noise-immune speech recognition. Evaluate these noise reduction algorithms and the resulting speech recognition performance; and . Demonstrate an early prototype system.

KELLEY'S LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEMS
282 Bellaire Drive
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 878-3406
Steven Powers
AF 98-015
Title:Advanced Voice Recognition Technologies - Collecting Maintenance Data from FM Net
Abstract:Through the use of voice recognition technology, logistics FM radio nets could be electronically monitored. The system would recognize pertinent logistics information, capture it, and feed it to the appropriate legacy systems. Maintenance personnel rely on the FM radio to stay aware of current status. All key supervisors have radios and relay key maintenance status and location information to each other and the Maintenance Operations Centers. Normally, each squadron will have its own net, as well as specialist, Aerospace Ground Equipment and munitions. When an aircraft aborts or some other critical maintenance action occurs, all pertinent data is relayed across this net. KLSS recommends a project to evaluate the possibility of capturing aircraft maintenance status and failure edata by using voice recognition technology to monitor the FM Net(s). Voice recognition products are now available that are accurate and support continuous speech recognition.

TERI RESEARCH, INC.
16 Wildhedge Lane
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 219-0020
Benjamin Tirabassi
AF 98-015
Title:Advanced Speech Recognition Technologies
Abstract:Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) used with voice input can support hands-free maintenance with technical information being available at all times. Speech recognition is the preferred method for documenting maintenance activities performed, and for quickly accessing technical information required for a specific maintenance task. The maintenance support system will benefit from a multimedia interface with the flight-line technician. The adaptation of multiple noise abatement and speaker voice tracking technologies is proposed in the system together with TERI Research Inc. (TRI) state-of-the-art speech Natural Language Speech (NLS) recognition, synthesis and HMD interfaces. These technologies include: Parabolic noise canceling microphones, Dynamic noise canceling filters, Random noise canceling algorithms, Stationary noise feature set extraction, Word and Context tracking, Speaker Tracking and Beamforming techniques. The combination of these emerging technologies are expected to be very resistant to accuracy degradation caused by both continuous and impulse noises present in military platforms and on flight-lines, as well as in the presence of other voices. An integrated micro-miniature system will be designed that is able to accurately interpret spoken statements and speak responses in dialog fashing, effectively controlling maintenance technical information and displaying it on the HMD. Unique to this research is the approach that will maintain high accuracy speech recognition in the presence of changing and variable high noise environments without having to change the speech corpus or user profiles. The TRI developed state-of-the-art speaker independent speech recognition and synthesis software will perform speech recognition and voice response in real-time, maintaining speech recognition and transcription accuracy in a high noise environment.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
716 N. Bethlehem Pike
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
William J. Weiland
AF 98-016
Title:LoCO: A Low-Cost Oculometer for Head-mounted Wearable Computer Displays
Abstract:A concept for a Low-Cost Oculometer (LoCO) is proposed as a technology to provide hands-free eye-control for wearable computers with head-mounted displays (HMD's). LoCO builds on ongoing research performed by the proposed research team which demonstrates versatile discrete and continuous control by eye. LoCO addresses the deficiencies of existing commercial oculometers as they relate to wearable computing and other user interaction applications, specifically with regard to cost, weight, size, robustness, and ease of use. An approach is presented for adapting standard eye tracking technologies to minimize special-purpose hardware, relying instread on the capabilities of current-generation computing hardware. Based on published reports, recent experience, and emerging commercial products, it is argued that this approach is viable. The proposed Phase I effort will culminate in a proof-of-concept demonstration that will show eye interaction running fully resident on a wearable computer and HMD.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Robert J. Kline-Schoder
AF 98-017
Title:Feedforward Active Noise Reduction for Effective Audio Communication Systems
Abstract:Creare proposes an innovative design for audio command, control, and communication systems. The Creare auditory system employs active noise reduction (ANR) that will reduce the harmful effects of high noise levels on personnel while simultaneously enhancing the speech intelligibility of electronic messages. Currently available off-ths-shelf ANR audio systems only provide between 10-20 dB of noise reduction for frequencies between 0.1 and 1 kHz and the feedback algorithm they employ attenuates injected electronic messages as well as unwanted environmental noise. The Creare innovation uses a feedforward controller which provides the ability to inject electronic messages that are unaffected by the ANR algorithm. This approach will result in a greater level of noise reduction and bandwidth than is possible with feedback algorithms, thereby enhancing audio command and communication systems. In Phase I, we will conduct a system engineering analysis of the design, develop the feedforward controller, and fabricate a laboratory system for testing. The key outcome of this effort will be demonstration hardware and preliminary data. In Phase II, we will optimize the design, fabricate prototypes of the optimized design, and perform laboratory and field tests of the prototype units to verify compliance with desired specifications.

DEFENSE GROUP, INC.
307 Annandale Road
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 394-8599
Dr. Morgan Grover
AF 98-017
Title:Advanced Audio Interfaces
Abstract:We will demonstrate an advanced audio interface for reliable automatic speech recognition (ASR) and other speech systems in dynamic, noisy environments. Our approach uses an innovative, high performance, multi-stage noise removal front-end, that can be integrated with a variety of final speech applications. We will demonstrate end-to-end performance from integrating this processing with multiple commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) ASR systems. Our noise removal processing will include adaptive noise cancellation, adaptive noise power estimation coupled with nonlinear noise prefiltering, cancellation, adaptive noise power estimation coupled with nonlinear noise prefiltering, and a high performance artificial neural network (ANN) noise removal post-filter. Equalization of channel transfer variations will also be included. Our ANN processing has already been shown to give much greater gains in ASR noise resistance than any other approach to date. From prior results, we can expect greater than a 30 dB gain in ASR resistance to background noise, even in highly dynamic noise environments. Performance will be demonstrated on aircraft maintenance and repair ASR applications in dynamic, high-level, flight line noise environments. Phase I will develop and demonstrate the basic methods and their end-to-end ASR performance. In Phase II a complete real-time system, with documentation and training, will be delivered for USAF testing and retention.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
2545 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Ilya Agurok, Ph.D
AF 98-018
Title:Automatic Focusing Night Vision Goggles
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop automatically focusing night vision goggles for night or low illumination operations of military and civil personnel. The proposed device will be supplied with a new type of interferometric range finder, based on lateral shear interferometry principles. The executive mechanism for focusing will be a special SLM device. This mechanical free focusing method will be reliable and fast. All proposed elements will be available in mass production, so the goggles will be low cost and reliable.

CARNEGIE GROUP, INC.
5 PPG Place
Pittsburgh, PA 15222
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 642-6900
Dr. Scott S. Potter
AF 98-019
Title:Coordinated Team Performance in Complex Opertional Systems
Abstract:The focus of this SBIR effort will be on developing a design and analysis tool to be applicable in a wide variety of military C2 and Decision Support System (DSS) applications comprising complex team-machine systems wherein success depends heavily on the team's ability to efficiently collaborate in a fast-paced,multi-paces, multi-person, digitized environment. Given this focus, the objective of this Phase I proposal is to demonstrate the utility of a robust, decision-centered, Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) methodology as a powerful approach to analyze team collaboration in a complex military domain. Specifically, the focus of Phase I will be to extend the state-of-the-art in CTA by applying a function-based Cognitive Task Analysis (Roth and Mumaw, 1995) to a complex, dynamic, military C2 domain. This function-based CTA will develop an explicit representation of critical goals, supporting processes, as well as critical information and collaboration requirements. This representation will form the critical underlying framework for an assessment of team decision making effectiveness, modifications to crew structure, information transfer requirements, as well as the development of revolutionary human-system interface design technologies to dramactically improve team decision making performance. Phase II, then, will focus on building this design and analysis team CTA tool. This will take the form of two distince levels of effort. First, the proposed CTA tool will be applied to another team domain to explore its applicability to other complex military collaborative environments, since the results of a function-based CTA are entrenched in the semantics and complexities of the target domain. Second, the development effort will focus on addressing the critical needs for this team CTA tool to be used as means for supporting the design of human-machine interfaces to support team collaboration. This is expected to include issues such as scenario generation, collaboration requirements, team decision support/HCI innovations, and training for skill acquisition.

APPLIED VISIONS, INC.
6 Bayview Ave
Northport, NY 11768
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 754-4920
Ken Doris
AF 98-021
Title:Air Tasking Order Viosualization-Application of VR to AOCs
Abstract:AVI proposes to develop a software tool that will greatly improve the efficiency of Air Operations Center (AOC) activities. The software will provide an interactive, navigable, 3D model of Air Tasking Orders (ATOs) as they are generated. It will transform the textual data into structures compatible with the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) standard, then feed them into a real-time viewing engine, similar in functionality to current web browsers. The complex tasking and coordination aspects of the ATO can then be viewed in a virtual world environment, allowing the operator to visualize not only the data structures themselves, but to comprehend the information in a more instinctive and natural way. The main goal of the proposed Phase I effort will be to demonstrate the ability of such a system to improve the ease and speed of ATO production and review. During the project, interface software will be developed to translate MIL-STD-5040 Air Tasking Order data components into VRML scene elements. Intuitive visual metaphors will be developed to illustrate ATO information content and interaction. The results will be demonstrated using a VRML testbed developed under a prior Air Force SBIR project.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Patrick J. Magari, PhD
AF 98-022
Title:Ceramic Oxygen Generating Sys(COGS) for Aircraft Breathing Oxy Supplies
Abstract:The team of Creare, Litton Life Support, and UCLA will develop and construct a Ceramic Oxygen Generation System (COGS). The system constructed during Phase I will be capable of generating 2 LPM of 99.9% purity oxygen using exclusively electrical power. Creare has considerable experience in thermal management and control systems. This experience will be utilized to analyze the thermal characteristics of the ceramic oxygen generator system during Phase I. The results of this analysis will be incorporated into the design of a 15 LPM Phase II system. The Creare team will manufacture a ceramic generator core. The core for the Phase I system will demonstrate proprietary manifold, seal, and electrical interconnection design using well known and proven electrolyte and electrode materials. We are also developing a novel ceramic oxygen conducting electrolyte. This material exhibits a significantly high oxygen conductivity than other known ceramic materials below 500C. During Phase I, we will investigate the suitability of this material for ceramic oxygen generator applications. The materials will be incorporated in the development of a high-efficiency Phase II system.

CRYSTALS & CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6131 W. 80th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(317) 850-1278
Krishna M. Choudhary, PhD
AF 98-022
Title:Thin Ceria-Based Electrolytes and Composite Sealants for Electrochemical Oxygen Generators
Abstract:There is a great need for pure oxygen generators for chemical and biological defense. Crystals & Ceramic Technology, Inc., proposes to investigate electromechanical generators with thin (dense) ceria-based electrolytes. The thin ceria-based electrolytes will be deposited on palladium-conductive manganite electrodes supported on porous alumina tubes by organometallic chemical vapor deposition. Furthermore, gold/conductive perovskite-type oxide composite sealants will be used for device fabrication. The electrode, porous support tube, solid electrolytes and sealants have been selected by proper material selection so that the thermal stresses in the device structure are reduced. The electro-chemical oxygen generator is expected to have an operating temperature in the 500-600 deg. C range. Performance of the electrochemical oxygen generators will be characterized by measurements of oxygen flux and determination of the purity of oxygen. The devices will be packaged for use as breathing equipment, and for application to generate pure oxygen from air in sealed enclosures.

LOTEC, INC.
181 W. 1700 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84115
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 483-3100
Santosh Y. Limaye
AF 98-022
Title:High Efficiency, Compact, On-Board Oxygen Generator
Abstract:Due to the limited availability of space onboard the AF jets, it is necessary to miniaturize all the components. Oxygen generation devices are very bulky. Especially, pressure-swing adsorption (PSA) units that yield relatively pure (90+%) oxygen, occupy large space, contain moving parts and are very inefficient. The development of lightweight, compact, energy-efficient, high-purity (99.9+%) on-board oxygen generator has been an elusive and difficult goal to attain. The use of ceramic membranes for oxygen generation/separation is an attractive solution to this problem. During the oxygen generation using ceramic membranes, oxygen ions are conducted across the membrane from ambient air-side to pure oxygen-side; this process occurs at high temperatures. As a result, there are several technical challenges which need practical solutions. These challenges insclude thermal expansion mismatch between various components, membrane seals, thermal management, module optimization, and others. LoTEC, Inc. has developed a unique design to address these challenges. Based on this design, LoTEC, in cooperation with its subcontractor, NexTech, proposes to develop an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) which is compact, efficient, and free of several technical hurdles.

SAM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
101 Spear Street, #203
San Francisco, CA 94105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 227-4900
Alan Gevins
AF 98-023
Title:WALKSCAN: A Wearable System for Operator State Monitoring
Abstract:Operations of complex systems can become inefficient because of mental overload, fatigue, boredom and lapses in situational awareness, drugs, illness, and other factors; a practical means of monitoring operator state is thus important for many Air Force missions. In the laboratory, physiological measures such as brain waves, eye blinks and movements, cardiac activity, respiration, and skin conductance, have been frequently demonstrated to provide information about operator state. Unfortunately, current technology is not adequate to support routine acquisition and timely analysis of physiological measures in naturalistic environments. To service this need, our R&D program has focused on developing the component technologies required for non-invasively monitoring the mental state of human operators. These include rugged and portable recording electronics, quick application electrodes and headsets, and EEG signal processing algorithms and analysis software for extracting physiological signals from artifact contaminated data and using them to characterize changes in mental activity. We propose to integrate these technologies to developd WALKSCAN, a self-contained ambulatory recorder/signal processing system, that will use physiological data to provide continuous estimates of operator state in real-world environments. In Phase I we will design WALKSCAN and implement a limited-functionality laboratory prototype. In Phase II it will be fully implemented and field-tested.

PSYCHOMETRIX ASSOC., INC.
8 Silver Hill Rd.
Lincoln, MA 01773
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 259-4088
Eva Hudlicka
AF 98-025
Title:ABAIS: Affect and Belief Adaptive Interface System
Abstract:Currently, the majority of decision-support systems assume normative performance and fail to adapt to individual differences. This is particularly true with respect to affective states and individual beliefs, which can have profound impact on performance, particularly in complex, crisis situations. We propose to develop an Affect and Belief Adaptive Interface System (ABAIS) capable of compensating for performance biases caused by users' affective states and active beliefs. The ABAIS architecture implements an adaptive methodology consisting of four steps: sensing/inferring user affective state and performance-relevant beliefs; identifying their potential impact on performance; selecting a compensatory strategy; and implementing this strategy in terms of specific GUI adaptations. ABAIS provides a generic adaptive framework for exploring a variety of user state assessment methods (e.g., knowledge-based, self-reports, diagnositc tasks, physiological sensing), and GUI adaptation strategies (e.g., content- and format-based). The ABAIS performance bias prediction is based on existing empirical findings from emotion research and knowledge of specific task requirements. We propose to develop ABAIS using COTS software and an existing decision-support pilot-aiding system GUI, and demonstrate its functionality in the context of an Air Force combat ask, which is particularly susceptible to anxiety-induced biases.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Jacqueline A. Haynes
AF 98-026
Title:An Automated Cognitive Science Advisor for Instructional Systems Designers
Abstract:IAI will research, design, and develop an automated, intelligent development aid to support instructional systems courseware authors. Through a DLL-based Application Programmers Interface (API), this aid will dynamically supply the following expert support to an author who is using any courseware developing tool across Win95TM platform: (1) observe the authoring process and provide timely advice regarding instructional opportunities and/or pitfalls in the current context; (2) answer structured queries regarding cognitive learning principles, pedagogy, and relevant examples of instructional intervention; and (3) enable the author to save, load, and edit portable curriculum plans. This "Cognitive Science Advisor" complements the ISD process by providing advice from an extensible knowledge base containing cognitive principles, especially in the areas of skill acquisition/development in human task performance and problem solving; the process of novice-to-expert progression; and their applications in training and instruction. This system will be useful in all contexts of instructional design, including K-12 eduction adult education, distance learning courseware development, and technical training. As increasing amounts of courseware are published on the World Wide Web, issues of quality are increasingly important. This product will also enhance the ability to review this courseware for quality, by informing the reviewer of relevant knowledge, including new findings, in cognitive science that are related to specific courseware.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
1720 Randolph Road SE
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7647
Mr. David A. Wardwell
AF 98-027
Title:Integration of In-Situ, Real-Time Commercial, Soil and Groundwater Sensor Tech with E-SMART
Abstract:More than half of DOD contaminated sites will require long-term environmental monitoring. Using traditional methods, the cost of monitoring could exceed the cost of remediation. We propose to integrate E-SMART with commercially available, in situ, real-time, remote, environmental sensors capable of detecting BTEX, oxygen, hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, and other VOC compounds in vapor and water, in situ, three-dimensional groundwater velocity, groundwater levels, and water quality parameters which include: dissolved oxygen (DO), potential for hydrogen (pH), low ionic strength pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), oxidation reduction potential (ORP), temperature, resistivity, turbidity, conductivity, specific conductance, ammonium/ammonia, nitrate, chloride, and salinity. The purpose of this sensor integration is to supply the Air Force with environmental sensors which meet Air Force environmental needs with statistically significant data. We propose integration of commercially available sensors that provide legally-defensible data with regulatory verification. Phase I will involve the integration of one of the sensors discussed in this proposal with laboratory testing using the E-SMART system. Data collected during this laboratory experiment will include sample rate, specificity, spatial resolution, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, range, sensor specifications and requirements, and a final cost comparison with traditional monitoring techniques. Conceptual design for sensor field utilization will also be completed.

NOMADICS, INC.
PO Box 2496
Stillwater, OK 74076
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 372-9535
Brian Strecker
AF 98-027
Title:E-SMART Enabled Sensor Development
Abstract:The E-SMART network provides a standard means for interconnecting sensors and actuators for a variety of uses, but was specifically developed for environmental applications. Nomadics proposes to develop a generic hardware and software interface to allow existing sensor technologies to be rapidly adapted to operate as E-SMART nodes. Using this enabling technology, Nomadics will implement a suite of environmental sensors as E-SMART nodes. The sensors selected for E-SMART implementation have particular significance for use in environmental applications. The initial node with incorporate standard water quality instrumentation including pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and temperature, implemented in a configuration that allows subsurface measurements to be made. Other E-SMART nodes to be implemented include a MEMs-based volatile organic compound sensor, and a microspectrometer.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
530 E. Montecito St., Ste 202
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 777-7007
Dr. Thomas L. Murdock
AF 98-028
Title:Species Identification Software
Abstract:This proposal addresses the detection, identification and measurement of the concentration of molecular species in remote sensing data, from ground-based, aircraft-based or space-based sensors. The serial combination of standard analysis tools increases the sensitivity of the detection and allows detection of molecular emission at low concentration. This technique will have wide application in any ordered datasets wherein the signature of the desired quantity is known. In Phase I, we will 1) prove the feasibility of the Species Identification Software using a) calculations against a series of concentrations of specific molecular species in ambient air, and b) an agreed upon set of test spectroscopic data provided by the government, and 2) do a market survey of the potential military and commercial users of this technique with the intent of forming partnerships in the later phases of the SBIR effort. In Phase II, we will write a Commercialization Plan, develop software specifications, develop and test, against a wider variety of test cases, multiple generations of prototype software, and install the latest versions on Air Force computer systems. In Phase III, we will place the software with customers that we have developed over the course of the Phase II effort.

SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
22 High St.
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 395-2344
Robert Kerr
AF 98-028
Title:High Throughput Spectrometer to Detect Elemental Metals in Rocket Effluent
Abstract:This project develops a high resolution, high throughput spectrometer that can detect trace metallic elements in effluent of rocket propelled craft. This system is optimized to reject the background from both the Rayleigh scattered solar radiation and the blackbody emission from the rocket engine. Dual liquid crystal Fabry-Perot etalons form the basis of this spectrometer. The high throughput of etalons is exploited to produce a spectrometer that has a resolution greater than that of a grating system, yet it is smaller and lighter. In the first phase of the project a ground-based, small field instrument is built and designs are established for an airborne, wide field system to be built in phase II.

SCION ASSOC.
140 Durazno Way
Portola Valley, CA 94028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 854-7521
Robert C. Livingston
AF 98-028
Title:Innovative Receiver/Data System for Radio Science Applications
Abstract:We present an innovative receiver/data system design that is adaptable to many aspects of observational radio science. It is a high performance, modularized system that is agile in operation and application, yet is relatively inexpensive to replicate. This is achieved by taking advantage of the recent advances in computer speed, network technology and sophisticated commodity electronics. All system control is RS232-based, and data are output through a generalized interface. An advanced web browser/Java interface provides platform independent, remote user control and telescience capabilities over the network.In our modular design we have also attempted to address the issue of system obsolescence, which is a constant problem with electronic equipment. The system functionality is divided in such a way that chip components and control sfotware, aplicable now, can be upgraded as more capable devices and tools emerge. This will help to ensure the longevity of the design, and thus have a minimum impact on continued radio science observations.

SOUTHWEST SCIENCES, INC.
1570 Pacheco St., Ste E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 272-1323
David C. Hovde
AF 98-029
Title:Range Resolved HCL Detector
Abstract:The use of solid fuel rockets generates HCL and other pollutants that must be monitored remotely. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) permits the remote, spatially resolved measurement of many trace atmospheric gases. This proposal describes a novel method for measuring lidar signals that promises tremendous reductions in the size, weight, and complexity of lidar instruments for measuring HCL. The experimental program will test the signal recovery method, identify the factors that influence its range and accuracy, and investigate a promising laser amplifier medium. The concurrent theoretical effort will develop a model that will permit the evaluation of the performance of a fully engineered DIAL system for automated measurement of HCL at rocket test and launch sites. The proposed technique can be applied to the detection of many other species, including a variety of important pollutants.

VISIDYNE, INC.
10 Corporate Pl.
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-2820
Dr. Patrick McNicholl
AF 98-029
Title:Intensity Modulated CW Lidar for UAV and Ceilometry Applications
Abstract:We propose to critically evaluate by measurement, analysis, and an engineering study the potential for adaptation of Visidyne's intensity modulated diode laser technology to the construction of 1) a quasi-cw lidar suitable for UAV mounting and with sufficient sensitivity to remotely detect evaluated particle scatter from plumes and 2) a new generation of sensitive optical ceilometers. Our preliminary analysis of these applications indicate that they stand to gain from the combination of the intensity modulation technique and the use of lightweight and efficient laser diode technology. Since these applications are not marginal in terms of signal to noise ratio, the packaging, reliability, cost, and maintenance advantages of diode lasers will make them preferred over alternate technologies, e.g., lidars employing pulsed solid state lasers.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey St.
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Fei Wang
AF 98-030
Title:High Specificity Conducting Polymer CBS Detector Badge
Abstract:As the threat of chemical and biological weapons and terrorism increases, innovative sensors are becoming critical for protection of military and civilian personnel in a variety of situations. To address this threat, we propose to develop mass producible credit-card sized chemical sensors based on catalytically modified conducting polymers. The polymers will be further mixed or overcoated with one or more layers that selectively adsorb or react with the agent/analyte. The change in conductivity is elicited by an effective change in work function or oxidation/reduction (redox) level associated with adsorption of the analyte or analyte product on the underlying conducting polymer surface. The conductometric element will be based on an array structure shown previously at EIC to give an exceptional dynamic range. Using this approach, it is anticipated that highly specific and sensitive individual vapor sensors will be possible for a wide range of chemical agents. Phase I will entail demonstration of the concept for sensing organophosphorous compounds, addressing issues of selectivity, sensitivity and stability. Phase II will extend the devices to a broad range of possible agents, including extensive testing at a surety facility, and will address issues of scale-up and manufacturing.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Cntr.
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Mitchell R. Zakin
AF 98-030
Title:Polymer Microsensor System for Chemical Agent Detection
Abstract:While the threat of chemical and biological weapon deployment has increased alarmingly in recent years, the sensitive and specific detection of chemical warfare (CW) agents remains a significant challenge. To achieve maximum effectiveness, small inexpensive sensors are required for deployment in a user-wearable badge format. Satisfying these demanding requirements necessitates a novel approach to CW agent sensing. A particularly attractive approach is to exploit the powerful detection capabilities of conductive polymers, plastic materials whose electrical properties can be engineered to change in a sensitive and controlled manner upon exposure to specific chemical species. Chemical specificity is achieved by constructing an array of polymer sensors whose composite response provides a unique "fingerprint" for each agent. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a simple, inexpensive microsensor system for ultrasensitive, specific detection of CW agents. The system consists of a replaceable array of conductive polymer sensors coupled to a readout device. The microsensor will be credit card-sized, and ruggedized for battlefield deployment.In Phase I a prototype microsensor system will be constructed to demonstrate detection of agent simulants in the presence of battlefield interferents. The Phase I results will be utilized to complete a preliminary design of the Phase II system.

RADEX, INC.
Three Preston Ct.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6767
William J. McNeil
AF 98-032
Title:Modeling of Meteoric Influx and Studies of Atmospheric Ramifications
Abstract:Radex, Inc. proposes to develop a comprehensive model of the influx of meteors and cosmic dust to the Earth's atmosphere which will be sufficiently general for use in visual and radar observations as well as for driving models of the ionospheric and neutral metal layers. The model will draw upon meteor observation data which will be analysed and consolidated into software for prediction of the total influx including the distribution of masses, velocities and angles of incidence for an observer at an arbitrary point on the Earth. The first objective of the Phase I effort is to develop and validate the model. The second objective is to use this model in conjunction with dynamical models previously developed by Radex to define and quantify the effects of showers on the background ionosphere, on communications systems due to ionospheric modifications and on background contamination of visible and UV systems due to solar scattering from the metals. This will lead us to Phase II in which the models will be generalized and effects found to be significant in Phase I will be incorporated into existing models of the ionosphere, communications and the Earth's radiance.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 N. Creek Parkway South
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. David Shannon
AF 98-033
Title:High Brightness, Multi-Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers
Abstract:Improving the optical beam brightness of diode laser bars and optically pumped semiconductors is essential for many Air Force and commercial applications. In this proposed work Aculight will build and test a MIT/LL optical approach for decreasing the angular divergence of diode laser bars by a factor of at least 80. The MIT/LL approach will be implemented using Aculight's newly developed optical/laser manufacturing techniques that provide an exceptionally stable, compact and inexpensive platform suitable for use on high performance jet aircraft and helicopters. The demonstration proposed here will be carried out with cw diode laser bars operating at 808nm. In future work this enhanced beam brightness technique will be extended to optically pumped semiconductor lasers operating in the mid-IR near 4 microns.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Dr.
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Mark W. Phillips
AF 98-033
Title:High Efficiency 0.5J, 20Hz Two Micron Laser
Abstract:Coherent Technologies Inc. (CTI) proposes to design a 0.5J, 20Hz, single frequency Q-switched two micron laser, with high wall plug efficiency. With passive cooling, the unit will operate with a wall-plug power efficiency of 5-6%, meeting the performance requirements for practical deployment of a Doppler lidar on a free-flying satellite for space-based remote sensing. When used in a coherent laser radar system this system will have the capability to measure: 1) hard target range and velocity (including precision microDoppler) to ranges up to 500 km from a space-borne or airborne platform, 2) atmospheric winds globally from a space-borne platform, and 3) atmospheric winds to heights and ranges beyond 20 km from a ground-based platform. The improvement in performance over previous two micron lasers will be accomplished by achieving super-mode operation and elimination of thermal birefringence loss and spatial hole burning in the injection-seeded laser. Also, the proposed effort will integrate a dual temperature refrigeration unit into the laser design, for an efficient and practical means of cooling both the pump laser diodes and the laser rod, as needed for airborne or ground based deployment of a lidar system based on this laser.

INTERSCIENCE, INC.
105 Jordan Rd.
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 283-7500
Dr. Mikhail Gutin
AF 98-033
Title:Tunable Diode Laser with Fast Line Selection
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR proposal is to develop a digitally tunable diode laser capable of fast switching over a predefined set of spectral lines of desired wavelengths. An important application for such a laser is in optical spectroscopy for chemical sensing where the availability of several wavelengths that can be varied can significantly enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of the instrument. The optical arrangement is based on classical physics and can be demonstrated with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components available from advances in Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The Phase I effort is to provide bench top demonstration of the concept using COTS components. Specific efforts shall include charcterization of the diode laser and the specific MEMS and other optical components, and their integration to achieve the desired results. The Phase I results shall serve as the basis for the implementation of a stand-alone unit to be completed in Phase II for eventual commercialization.

INTRALASE CORP.
2217 Vinewood
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 461-3320
Tibor Juhasz
AF 98-033
Title:Compact, Directly Diode-Pumped Sub-Picosecond Amplified Laser Source for Dual Use Applications
Abstract:The feasibility of novel refractive surgeries has been demonstrated using sub-picosecond laser pulses. However, the introduction of these techniques depends on the development of low cost, reliable, compact laser devices. We propose to design, construct and test a directly diode-pumped Nd:Glass laser system consisting of a prismless oscillator, a single transmission grating stretcher-compressor, and an end-pumped regenerative amplifier. The fully solid-state laser will have an approximately 8"x14" footprint and will deliver 500 fs pulses with energies up to 50 mJ at repetition rates of 3 kHz. Corneal surgical procedures with the laser will be evaluated and the results used to guide laser design specifications for a commercial prototype, to be developed during Phase II. If the proposed device satisfies clinical and commercial requirements, surgical correction of a wide variety of refractive errors may become more effective, safe and affordable. By eliminating the need for eyeglasses and other corrective devices, the pool of potential military personnel can be increased, while the capabilities of current personnel can be strengthened. Since the new laser device is designed to run on a simple car battery, dual use applications, such as high precision military ranging and remote sensing of air pollutants are also possible.

LIGHTWAVE ELECTRONICS CORP.
1161 San Antonio Rd
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 526-1281
Lawrence E. Myers
AF 98-033
Title:Efficient Third-Harmonic-Generation Laser Sources
Abstract:Third-harmonic generation (THG) of cw-diode-pumped solid-state lasers can be used to reach important wavelengths in the visible and ultraviolet. Because THG is implemented with two cascaded processes of second-harmonic generation (SGH) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) and the peak power of cw-diode-pumped solid-state lasers is low, efficient THG is difficult with conventional nonlinear materials. The emerging technology of periodic poling provides high nonlinearity and no walk-off so large nonlinear drive can be attained even with relatively low-peak-power lasers. Using the flexible design properties possible in periodically poled materials, a monolithic crystal can be fabricated that combines both the SHG and SFG processes in a single crystal. This has the advantage of reducing the number of surfaces which lowers the loss. By placing a crystal of this type in a resonant cavity, efficient THG of cw-diode-pumped solid-state lasers is made practical.This Phase I research will demonstrate a monolithic THG crystal using periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) and efficient THG of a cw-diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser. In addition, we will investigate low-absorption material which will enhance the conversion efficiency and power handling of THG devices. We will characterize the absorption of different samples of congruent and stoichiometric lithium niobate, and investigate the suitability of these materials for periodic poling.

PC PHOTONICS CORP.
64 Windward Way
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 443-4356
Peter K. Cheo
AF 98-033
Title:Dual Use Development of Laser Technology
Abstract:Recent advances in multi-kilowatt semiconductor laser arrays have pushed solid-state laser output power into the KW range. Unfortunately, the output beam quality of diode-pumped solid-state lasers using Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG bulk crystals degrades with increasing pump power and is basically limited by the thermal induced effects inside the non-linear lasing rods. To some extent, good beam quality can be maintained by distributing the pump power uniformly inside the crystal. Even then thermal lensing or self- focusing could still occur, initiating from localized inhomogeneities. To eliminate this serious problem, this proposal introduces a novel concept for establishing a uniform distribution of pump power by using a multicore fiber bundle from which phase-locking can be obtained to emit a single central beam spot with very high brightness as a result of a strong coupling of the evanescent waves inside the cladding.Recently, the output power in the range from 30 to 50W has been achieved by diode-pumping of a single core Nd-doped or Yb-doped fiber laser. To increase the power delivery from these fiber lasers, this proposal describes a laser system consisting of a 2-D phase-locked fiber bundle, uniquely configured in a 2-D staggered array in a common cladding with a specified intercore spacing between two adjacent fibers, so that the multicore system is phase-locked in unit-phase to emit the desired fundamental supermode. By using co-doping technology, very high power in excess of one kilowatt can be achieved with Yb:Er codoped multicore fiber bundle emitting at an eye-safe wavelength. In Phase I, an in-depth study will be conducted to assess potential dual-use of the selected laser technology. Also, a detailed design analysis will be conducted to determine critical parameters required to fabricate the selected laser. In addition, a novel packaging concept for the multicore fiber bundle will be attempted and experimentally verified. The results will be used as the basic guideline for developing a prototype to be demonstrated in Phase II.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Ct
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Dr. Vernon Shrauger
AF 98-034
Title:Monolithic On-Chip Wavefront Correction System
Abstract:We propose to explore the feasibility of a novel concept for a low-cost, lightweight, rugged integrated adaptive-optics wavefront corrector system. These features are achieved by integrating a deformable mirror array onto the front surface of a custom VLSI wavefront processor chip and a wavefront sensor onto the back surface. The chosed processor chip structure is integral to the wavefront correction algorithm, and the proposed concept offers the potential for extremely high actuator density. We will conduct a feasibility analysis to determine those commercial applications that may have significant markets for our compact, low-cost, high-performance, and then design and model the novel wavefront corrector (custom VLSI and special membrane mirror with piston-only correction). These devices will be tested separately to verify the desired performance characteristics. The Phase II will scale-up the actuator density to a 256 x 256 array and demonstrate high-resolution wavefront correction with a prototype system optimized for application in military seekers, FLIRS, and commercial imaging systemssuch as amateur telescopes. The VLSI-membrane mirror wavefront corrector will offer isolated actuators, hundreds of nanosecond response time, and at least 16 pi radians of phase correction at visible wavelengths using achromatic illumination.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Rt. 1
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-0610
Dr. Gregory H. Olsen
AF 98-035
Title:High Power Linear Arrays of 1.9um Laser Diodes
Abstract:The broadened waveguide (BW) concept has yielded record output powers for quantum well lasers between 0.8 and 1.55 um. The imporvement is attributed to larger mode size and lower optical loss from free-carrier absorption in the quantum wells and cladding regions. We propose to demonstrate high power single aperture InGaAsP/InP laser diodes at 1.9 um and to fabricate linear-arrays with substantially higher powers than available today. During Phase I we will use gas-source moleculear beam epitaxy (GSMBE) to grow loss-loss, high efficiency, BW laser structures. The thickness and bandgap of the waveguide layer will be optimized for low internal loss, low threshold current and high internal efficiency. High power 200 um aperture single and a 1x5 linear array will be delivered. In Phase II, BW lasers with strain compensated active regions, will be fabricated. These designs will reduce the temperature sensitivity, increase the wavelength to 2 um and yield higher powers. Linear arrays with high-efficiency, temperature insensitive lasers will be fabricated. Prof. S.R. Forrest and Chris Dreis of Princeton University will consult.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Jeffery Pierce
AF 98-036
Title:Advanced Diode Pumped Laser Packaging
Abstract:High power lasers are needed for many airborne applications. These lasers must be compact, reliable in high vibration environments, and must also have a low per unit cost. Aculight proposes to develop a high repetition rate laser with average power of 10-20 watts using novel packaging designs and manufacturing methods. When fully developed, this technology will provide flight-worthy lasers at an unprecedented low cost.

SCHWARTZ ELECTRO-OPTICS, INC.
135 South Rd.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
John H. Flint
AF 98-036
Title:Compact Packaging of Diode-Pumped Lasers
Abstract:Diode-pumped solid-state lasers are often described as being "compact and efficient", and they are when compared to gas lasers. However, when the power supplies and cooling apparatus are included, they are not nearly as compact and efficient as many applications require. The objective of this Phase I SBIR proposal is to develop packaging and power supply concepts to produce truly compact and efficient lasers. We will allow the laser crystal and the diodes to operate at relatively high temperatures using only passive cooling. The resonator structure will be designed to dissipate the waste heat while simultaneously keeping the laser aligned. We will evaluate Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and Nd:YVO(4) laser materials, and we will consider end-pumped rods, side-pumped slabs, and side-pumped rods for the laser configuration. In the power supply only the diode-laser will be kept relatively cool while the other components will be allowed to heat up, minimizing the size and weight of their heat sinks. We will also perform a market analysis to determine the commercial potential of such a laser, and we will conclude this effort with a preliminary design targeted at one application. This design will be refined, and the laser constructed during a follow-on Phase II effort.

LSA, INC.
1215 Jefferson Davis Hwy.
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
Jesse W. Booker
AF 98-037
Title:Wavefront Detection with a Wide Dynamic Range
Abstract:We propose to design and build a tunable, non-contact optical figure-measurement system to measure surface aberrations on a large membrane or segmented mirror. Our approach uses novel electro-optic devices to vary the resolution of the system over four orders of magnitude. Our concept also incorporates algorithms to interface with the mirror-actuator system so that the aberrations in the mirror's surface can be reduced.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE, Ste 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Daniel R. Eastman
AF 98-037
Title:Adaptive Dynamic Range Wavefront Sensor
Abstract:For a number of years the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has investigated the fabrication of large optics to support space based sensing and weapons applications. One promising technology is the construction of large membrane mirrors. This class of mirror has significant advantages including the potential of very area-to-weight ratios, low f-numbers, and the ability to launch within tight packaging constraints and then deploy and align in space. The metrology requirements for membrane mirrors are unique. The initial mirror figure and radius of curvature have large departures from the final required shape and for multi-meter size the errors may consist of thousands of waves of higher order spherical aberration. These large errors must be measured so that an actuation system can be used to reduce the error to within at least tens of waves of the desired surface. This proposal presents a novel approach to provide an adaptive technique to adjest the dynamic range of the wavefront sensor while maintaining the spatial resolution and accuracy required.

SCHAFER CORP.
321 Billerica Rd
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 242-9992
Marc R. Hallada
AF 98-038
Title:Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser for Environmental Remediation
Abstract:The development plan described in this proposal is for a modular, transportable COIL device, adapted for long run times, and employing a fiber-optic beam delivery system. Fiber-optic delivery will allow for remote manual and robotic cutting or welding of thick metal objects, with various compositions and geometries, and in areas with restricted access. These attributes make such a system attractive for environmental applications in the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) of nuclear reactor and weapon facilities and individual weapons.

PD-LD, INC.
243 Wall St.
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 924-7979
Dr. Vladimir S. Ban
AF 98-039
Title:4.6 Watt Eye-Safe 1500 nm Laser Diode with Low Linewidth Enhancement Factor
Abstract:This proposal is based on high-power, high-efficiency, low threshold current, broadened waveguide (BW) separate confinement heterostructure (SCH) laser diodes recently demonstrated by Professor Forrest's group at Princeton University (1,2,3). These lasers achieved extraordinarily high power outputs:4.6W in CW operation from a 200um aperture BW-SCH 1500nm InGaAsP/InP laser diodes:13.3W in quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) operation and 6.8W in CW operation from a 100 micron aperture BW-SCH 980nm InGaAs/(In)GaAs(p)/InGaP laser diodes.The BW-SCH devices employ comprehensive strain multi-quantum well (MQW) structures known to reduce the linewidth enhancement factor (4.5). Furthermore these devices achieve high power output power at relatively narrow aperture, thus producing a high quality, non-filamentary beam, suitable for collimation and/or fiber coupling (2). We plan to produce a fully packaged prototype device emitting several watts of power in a well collimated beam.We thus believe that this proposal matches very well the objective of the solicitation AF98-039, which is stated as "Develop high-power diffraction-limited laser diodes at eyesafe wavelengths by designing and using structures that have reduced linewidth enhancement factor (Alpha).

QUANTUM PHOTONICS, INC.
P.O. Box 49
College Park, MD 20741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 706-5941
Peter J. S. Heim
AF 98-039
Title:High Power Eye-Safe Laser Diodes with Low Alpha Structure
Abstract:In this program, we propose to advance the state of the art in the generation of high power (many watts), diffraction- limited optical output from a tapered semiconductor laser. A single mode waveguide section monolithically integrated with a tapered power section will be used to spatially filter the optical power. Low linewidth enhancement factor active regions with large optical mode will be developed to overcome the optical beam filamentation problem that currently limits the realization of high-power diffraction-limited laser diode sources. This work will be carried out at 1.55 - 1.9 microns, a wavelength range considered to be in the eye safe spectral region.

LSA, INC.
1215 Jefferson Davis Hwy
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
Dr. Robert T. Carlson
AF 98-040
Title:Eye-Safe, Infrared Laser Communicator
Abstract:Laser communications can provide transmission security and low probability of detection for covert links where intercepted radio transmissions and RF direction finding could compromise the mission and put participant's lives at risk. Other advantages include the lack of spectral congestion and assigned frequencies and immunity to electromagnetic interference and collocated RF transmitters and jammers.LSA will design and fabricate a pair of 1550 nm hand-held eyesafe laser communicators. These transceivers will be fully functional prototype devices. This effort builds on LSA's expertise in laser communications and our commercial lasercom product line for digital laser and video applications. We will use the transceivers to provide confirmation of the covert transmission aspects of a 1550 nm lasercom link. We will perform additional technology trade-offs and conceptual system designs of sophisticated man-portable, eyesafe, covert, laser communicator systems for a network of users. This work will include evaluation of link acquisition and tracking schemes and omnidirectional receivers. It will also address the transfer of data, imagery, and video at much higher data rates than voice.

SENSOR PLUS, INC.
4250 Ridge Leas
Amherst, NY 14226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 831-0091
John Puckhaber
AF 98-040
Title:Eye-Safe Infrared Laser Communicator
Abstract:This proposal describes a highly advanced laser-based personal communicator designed for military personnel. Our team proposes to develop a general purpose, helmet mounted laser diode-based transmitter and receiver establishing a secure communication "channel" between speaker and listner. Alow profile array of detectors is capable of receiving the signal from any direction. The transceiver will be detachable, small and rugged. Laser diodes at 1550 nm are eyesafe and invisible to the eye and all but the most advanced night vivion technology. The devices will deliver enough output power when properly focused to enable communication as far as 2 km without extraordinary alignment procedures. Challenges to implementing this technology stem from the ergonomic reality that helmet lasers can only be crudely aligned; expanding the beam has the effect of reducing the signal to noise ratio necessitating the use of more powerful, expensive, energy consuming lasers. A major part of this proposal addresses the laser detector, and electronics that together yield a practical solution. Phase I will conclude with: (1) delivery of two helmet mounted transmitter/receiver prototypes sufficient for the Air Force's field tests, (2) our own measurements of performance specifications and (3) a complete cost analysis.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4046
Dr. Sunet Chadha
AF 98-041
Title:Wide Area Infrared Chemical Imager
Abstract:Autonomous standoff detection of lethal or narcotic chemical agents and chemical emissions has long been a major concern. While significant advances have recently been accomplished in remote spectral sensing using regged FTIRs with point detectors, efforts towards spatial chemical discrimination and low-cost portable devices have been lacking.Foster-Miller, Inc. (FMI) together with Boeing/Rockwell Electro-Optic Center proposes to design and demonstrate a radically different infrared imaging spectrometer for standoff chemical detection. This no moving parts device will: Be readily incorporated into existing or planned FLIRs and thermal imaging cameras to add chemical recognition functionality. Eliminate the cost, complexity, reliability and bandwidth resolution problems associated with either Fabry Perot or Michelson Interferometer based approaches currently under consideration. Given the small size and performance insensitivity to on-board vibration, high EMI, thermal variations, the proposed optic would easily adapt to field deployable requirements.The Phase I effort will develop a theoretical model for identified application, determine spectral and spatial resolution needed and trade off active with passive modalities to leverage low-cost micro-bolometer arrays. Our team partner, Boeing/Rockwell Electro-Optical Center will provide input on detector selection and integration support to demonstrate the feasibility of our design approach. The Phase I will provide the basis for the creation of a conceptual of an integrated thermal and chemical imager for development during Phase II.

PACIFIC-SIERRA RESEARCH CORP.
2901 28th St. Sut. 300
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 314-2384
Charles S. Kaufman
AF 98-041
Title:Spectral Imaging
Abstract:Pacific-Sierra Research Corp. (PSR) will define and develop the design for a feasible man-portable multispectral imaging video system from a proof-of-concept based on modeling and analysis of various hyperspectral exploitation approaches. This portable unit will utilize a high-sensitivity, visible near-through mid-wave IR (VNIR-MWIR) COTS InSb camera operated at a high frame rate, using PSR expertise in VNIR-MWIR multispectral (common aperture) sensor systems. Data rate will be sufficient to generate a real-time false color image. A proposed baseline concept of operation is the pre-selection of 3 spectral band prior to a mission. During utilization, the portable spectral imaging system will operate as a point-and-shoot device, with a small hand-held remote camera head providing optically stabilized color multispectral image on a COTS head mount display unit. PSR will define the requirements for a prototype system. PSR will then develop a lightweight optical, electronics and mechanical packaging concept that can provide an easily assembled imaging sensor with the required spectral imagery and performance capability while remaining inexpensive. Based on the results of this Phase I preliminary design, critical components (i.e., focal plane assembly, bandpass filter) will be defined and the predicted performance evaluated.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Dr.
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Glenn T. Bennett
AF 98-042
Title:Frequency Agile Chemical and Biological Hazard Transceiver
Abstract:Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) proposes a simple, compact and efficient man-portable laser source for remote detection of chemical and biological hazards. The source consists of a low-risk Nd:YAG drive laser pumping a frequency-agile optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The transmitter will simultaneously output eyesafe radiation at 1.56 um and at other wavelengths over the entire 1.75 to 14 um spectral region. This will allow concurrent Differential Absorption Lidar detection of chemical effluents, elastic backscatter profiling of bioaerosol clouds and active imaging. The source incorporates a novel laser tuning and linewidth control architecture that permits shot-to-shot control of the OPO output frequency over the entire tuning range, with linewidths less than 0.25cm (-1). In Phase I, CTI will demonstrate laser source efficiency, tuning and linewidth control. In Phase II a man-portable, battery-powered, air cooled brassboard sensor will be built. CTI believes that this approach provides a low risk path towards development of an optical and mechanical architecture that will satisfy all Phase II mission requirements. This integrated systems approach to remote sensing problems is a hallmark of CTI products.

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
4032 Blackburn Ln.
Burtonsville, MD 20866
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 989-1896
Dr. Coorg R. Prasad
AF 98-042
Title:Compact, Frequency Agile, Broadly Tunable, IR Differential Absorption Lidar for Remote Sensing
Abstract:Remote sensing of chemical emissions from concealed sources, such as concealed chemical manufacturing plants, or internal combustion engines, from airborne and ground based mobile platforms is a high defense priority. We propose to develop an innovative, miniature, rugged, rapidly tuned, differential absorption lidar for detecting low concentrations of chemical species with sufficient sensitivity (100ppb) and accuracy (10%), for a 5-10km range. The crucial component for this lidar is a high repetition rate (<1kHz), frequency agile, widely tunable (1.5-5.5 um), 1mJ/pulse quasi phase-matched optical parametric oscillator (OPO), pumped by a diode-pumped Yb:YAG tunable laser. This laser systems provides both the on- and off-line lidar pulses. High laser efficiency (>60%) is obtained by employing Yb:YAG which has the smallest quantum deficit between the pump (940nm) and lase wavelenths (1.02-1.06um). Compactness, frequency agility, and broad IR tuning range are obtained by utilizing a fixed PPRTA (poling period =31um)) OPOand rapidly tuning the pump wavelength. Atmospheric and topographical backscattered signals collected by a 35cm aperture telescope are detected by a cooled HgCdTe detector. In Phase I a comprehensice design of the lidar will be performed besides feasibilty demonstration with a broad-band lidar. In Phase II, chemical specie measurements will be demonstrated with a prototype lidar.

SVS R&D SYSTEMS, INC.
6207 Pan American Freeway NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4600
Steven A. Baugh
AF 98-043
Title:Development of Small Inertial Attitude Reference System
Abstract:This effort will develop the design for a small and inexpensive inertial attitude system that will provide a two-axis optical inertial reference for a variety of optical pointing and tracking system applications. The unit, which will use all COTS components will have a volume of <3 inches on a side and be suitable for mounting on the secondary mirror of a beam expanding telescope. Linear accelerometers (3-axis) will be included in the design to measure the base motion disturbance environment and to allow the same package to be used in an (optional) inertial navigation system. Applications include beam path stabilization for laser pointing systems, image stabilization for airborne and ground imaging sensors, and airborne lasercom systems.

ENTROPIC SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 397
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 938-7588
Dr. Robert Kaiser
AF 98-044
Title:Ground Operations and Storage Contamination Control System for Space-Based Optical System
Abstract:Spacecraft flying optical payloads, and the optical sensors in particular, are exceptionally sensitive to contamination. To minimize such contamination, control measures must be incorporated during system fabrication and carried through testing, integration and storage until the sensor system is deployed. Past measures used to prevent contamination during storage, testing and integration prior to launch, have not always been effective; sometimes leading to costly delays that would effectively cripple access to space if stored assetts were required to be launched on demand. In the proposed Phase I program, it is planned to:1. Determine the initial cleanliness levels needed to meet end-of-life performance requirements on spacecraft based optical sensors.2. Develop innovative concepts for preventing and monitoring particulate and molecular accumulation during all phases of (post fabrication) system groung handling.3. Provide demonstration of prototype prevention/monitoring device operation at surface cleanliness levels better than level 300.4. Develop a preliminary design of a full scale contamination control system.

ADVANCED PROJECTS RESEARCH, INC.
1925 McKinley Avenue
LaVerne, CA 91750
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 392-3151
Dr. Thomas H. Sobota
AF 98-045
Title:Development of a Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel System for Pulse Detonation Engines
Abstract:The Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) is an intermittent combustion engine that relies on traveling detonation waves for the combustion and compression elements of the prosulsive cycle. This engine may be used as a low cost propulsion system in defense flight vehicle system applications or as the low speed cycle for a high Mach number combined cycle engine system. The mechanical simplicity of this engine provides for low cost and high reliability permitting use in low cost vehicles. The simple geometry naturally provides for integration into a new combined cycle engine with ramjets. To date, APRI has focused on using highly reactive and detonable fuels in the development of PDE systems and subsystems. Specifically, APRI has focused on the use of hydrogen fuel, for use in multi-mode PDE-ramjet-scramjet combined cycle systems. However, the use of storable liquid hydrocarbon fuels that are of this engine in defense systems such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), cruise missiles, and target drones. Hence this proposal describes the conceptual design for a practical low-cost PDE and a development path for the use of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in PDE's.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Dr. V, Hruby
AF 98-045
Title:High Power Hall Thruster Development
Abstract:The electric power capacity of military and commercial satellites, especially those intended for communication is rapidly increasing. Transponder power requirements and ever increasing number of channels drives commercial satellite designs to 20 kw levels with higher power designs to come. The beneficiary of this trend is electric propulsion, in particular Hall thrusters, who's role is expanding from station keeping to orbit transfer and even orbit raising. The need for high power Hall Thruster has also been identified by the recent USAF Scientific Advisory Board. Stemming from the experience of the Gulf conflict, the Board recommended the development of fast repositioning capability which was recognized by the recent Air Force IHPRPT program focused on 3 to 10 kw Hall thruster technology development. To satisfy these needs, Busek proposes the development of a novel 8 kw Hall Thruster capable of effficient operation over a broad range of Isp and thrust to satisfy the conflicting requirements for high Isp station keeping and high thrust orbit repositioning/raising. In Phase I, a laboratory model 8 kw thruster will be designed, built and tested in our existing facilities. In Phase II, advanced prototype will be built and tested at Busek and at the Air Force Research Laboratory that has expressed strong interest in a collabortive testing program using advanced diagnostic techniques.

CONCEPTS ETI, INC.
4 Billings Farm Road
White River Junct, VT 05001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 296-2321
Mr. Nicholas C. D'Orsi
AF 98-045
Title:High-Head, Hydrogen Turbopump System
Abstract:Hydrogen pumping system discharge pressures of 6,000 to13,000 psi are required to meet Phase II and III IHPRPT initiative goals for both upper stage and booster engines. There is a conflict between developing high hydrogen system discharge pressure and managing low hydrogen system inlet pressure and cavitation. A second conflict is the relationship between rotational speed, specific speed, and head coefficient (i.e. stage loading limits). A third conflict is rotational speed limitations. A key innovation of the proposed work is to further develop and combine high stage loading, compact diffuser/continuous crossover, and advanced bearing technologies to overcome these three conflicts. The Phase I project goal is to select a highly-loaded turbopump best suited to meet Phase II IHPRPT goals for a selected engine cycle. A multitude of differrent potential turbopump configurations will be considered by performing iterative turbopump scoping and engine cycle calculations. This will establish trade-off factors for single and multistage highly-loaded turbopumps. This work will be focused on determining the optimum liquid hydrogen pumping system for the selected engine cycle and specifying the preferred high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump. Phase II plans include designing the preferred components, and manufacturing and rig-testing demonstration hardware.

MAROTTA SCIENTIFIC CONTROLS, INC.
78 Boonton Avenue
Montville, NJ 07045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 334-7800
Michael Mullaney
AF 98-045
Title:Advanced Rocket Propulsion Technologies
Abstract:Electromechanically Actuated (EMA) valves are generally defined as valves operated by electornically controlled motor drive systems, rather than by valved hydraulic or pneumatic systems. Marotta Scientific Controls reviewed the current state-of-the-art for EMA ball valves in the cryogenic rocket propulsion industry and performed a trade study comparing these valves to a new and innovative valve design which significantly reduces the operating power. The trade study focused on valve attributes such as envelope, weight, power, torque loads, reliability, producibility, cost and leakage. A sample specification was used to baseline each of the various types of valves so that a one-to-one trade could be successfully completed. Learning from the shortcomings of the present state-of-the-art, the innovative electromagnetically actuated (EMA) cryogenic valve innovation has been designed to provide high performance and reliable, long life operation in a unique simplified, lower cost configuration. This unique EMA valve concept has been specially designed to eliminate or reduce considerably several of the major loading torques (e.g. Bearing Friction Torque, Seat Scrubbing Friction Torque, Stem Seal Friction Torque, Aerodymanic Torque, Pressure Unbalance, Spring Loads). Reducing the torques facilitates the design of a lower power EMA.

PYRODYNE, INC.
11280 Panorama Drive
New Market, MD 21774
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 607-6108
Frederick S. Billig
AF 98-045
Title:Engine Selection Code and Technology Program for RBCC
Abstract:The proposed program comprises two tasks: (1) the development of a user friendly PC/Work Station code that generates a technical assessment to provide (a) the rationale for selection of the optimal propulsion system to meet a particular mission requirement, and (b) a basis for identifying and prioritizing key technical deficiencies requiring resolution to ensure a successful development program; (2) the design of a large scale RBCC test facility and experimental apparatus and the planning of an experimental/analytical effort to resolve the key technical deficiencies. Phase I of this generalized methodology will focus on the particular issue of the selection of a rocket based or a rocket-dual mode ram-scramjet propulsion system (RBCC) for the first stage of a two stage space access vehicle and the resolution of the underlying technical isues that would impact a development program.

REFRACTORY COMPOSITES, INC.
107 North Langley Road
Glen Burnie, MD 21060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 768-2490
Frederick S. Lauten, Ph.D
AF 98-045
Title:Ceramic Composites Regeneratively Cooled Rocket Engine Components
Abstract:Recently Refractory Composites, Inc. (RCI) successfully demonstrated a new class of materials, actively cooled ceramic composites. RCI proposes to extend this technology to Refeneratively Cooded C/SiC composites for rocket engine hot section components such as combusters and nozzles. In order to contain the high combustion pressures, 2500 psi and higher, in high performance engines, RCI will develop a hybrid composite material system having high strength and low gas permeabilities. The regeneratively cooled ceramic composite operating at hot surface temperatures greter than 2500 degrees F has large pay-offs as a result of a significant weight reductions due to decreases in component mass and descreased wet fraction associated with higher operating temperatures. Furthermore, with wall temperatures of 2500 degrees F for C/SiC as opposed to 800 degrees F, there is a reduction in total hydrogen cooling mass required per unit time, thus reduced turbo pump engine cycle losses. The primary goal of the Phase I program will be to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of regeneratively cooled C/SiC body of revolution rocket components operating at combustion pressures above 2500 psi. In Phase I material and thrust chamber testing will be performed. Pratt & Whitney will assist in materials characterization, component design and, during the Phase II program, larger scale component testing.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
99 South Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Steven Adler-Golden
AF 98-046
Title:A Correlated-k Plume Radiative Transfer Code
Abstract:Accurate modeling of radiation from rocket plumes is critical for remote sensing simulations and assessing vehicle base heating. Current computer models use approximate radiative transfer and computational methods that were developed 20-30 years ago. A unified, general, and accurate approach for rocket plume radiation is needed that takes advantage of rapid advances in computer speed and parallel processing and in radiative transfer modeling. Spectral Sciences, Inc. proposes to develop a new code for plume radiation using recently developed techniques implemented in state-of-the-art atmospheric radiation models. The objectives are to handle the IR through UV spectrum, altutides from ground to space, two-phase and scattering effects, LTE and non-LTE conditions, and 3D geometries. The code will use an innovative Correlated-k approach for treating molecular absorption. Advantages include the ability to handle large temperature and pressure gradients and adherence to Beer's law for proper treatment of scattering. Phase I will demonstrate this approach in the IR wavelength region for 3D gaseous plumes. In Phase II the method will be extended to the UV-visible region, the scattering algorithm will be fully implemented, user and flowfield interfaces will be developed, and the code will be delivered.

SOUTHWEST SCIENCES, INC.
1570 Pacheco Street
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Dr. David S. Bomse
AF 98-048
Title:A Novel Mass Spectrometer for Energetic Materials Decomposition Chemistry
Abstract:Decomposition studies of energetic materials require rapid (microsecond resulution), highly sensitive detection of a plethora of reaction intermediates and products. The detection system must be able to distinguish among numerous compounds in real time without using traditional methods of chromatographic separation. The proposing company, Southwest Sciences, has invented an improved mass spectrometer that will be particularly useful for studying decomposition of energetic materials. The approach, called ionization energy modulated mass spectrometry (IEMMS), combines conventional mass spectral data with information about the appearance potentials of the ions to generate a two-dimensional spectrum in order to identify the difference species produced. Microsecond time resolution is possible. IEMMS should provide complementary information to the diagnostic techniques (primarily step-scanned Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) now used in mechanistic and kenetic studies of energetic material decomposition chemistry. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the usefulness of IEMMS by analyzing binary mixtures of key compounds that cannot usually be distinguished by conventional mass spectrometry and/or cannot be detected readily using optical spectroscopy. The Phase II project will culminate in the construction, testing, and delivery to the Air Force Research Laboratory of an ionization energy modulated mass spectrometer configured with a pulsed pyrolysis source.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
500 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 971-7026
James P. Paxton
AF 98-049
Title:Remote Quality Measurement of Deployable Collectors and Structures
Abstract:Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP) is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to chemical propulsion upperstage. The STP technologies are nearing the flight experiment stage of development. During a STP flight experiment, it will be desirable to evaluate the accuracy of the deployment and quality of the solar concentrator(s). This proposal describes a measurement system based on digital photogrammetry that will be designed to meet these objectives. In Phase I, a baseline system will be modified to operate remotely in the vacuum environment of the AFRL SPEF chamber at Edwards AFB. The system will be capable of measuring the position and orientation of an inflatable solar concentrator and its support structure with respect to the desired focal plane. The system will also be capable of measuring the shape error of the collector directly; and through a conversion algorithm and optical ray trace code, the slope error of the collector will be determined. The system will be demonstrated during a deployment test of STP hardware in the SPEF chamber. In Phase II, the system built in Phase I will be used as the baseline for a flight design of a measurement system to be used on an upcoming Spartan bus STP flight experiment.

EXCITON, INC.
P.O. Box 31126
Dayton, OH 45437
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 821-6949
Paul A. Cahill
AF 98-053
Title:Demonstration of a Scalable Quadricyclane Production Process
Abstract:Propose a continuous process for the triplet-sensitized photochemical conversion of norbornadiene to quadricyclane for the purpose of (1) demonstrating process technology and (2) determining the scaling and cost factors needed for the design of a pilot plant facility in a Phase II project. The process is based on non-obvious improvements to both the process (batch continuous) and chemistry (improved sensitization). The proposed Phase I process is designed to provide multigrams of quadricyclane per hour at >99% purity for a demonstration of the technology and will include the production of samples for further testing and evaluation by the DoD. The process will (1) utilize a sensitizer with an absorption band that more optimally matches the emission from a high efficiency UV source than sensitizers previously used, and (2) will implement a system that efficiently shifts short wavelength UV light for optimal throughput and efficiency. A continuous-flow purification process will yield high final product purity at the lowest possible cost. The proposed reactor is a scaled version of a pilot plant design that would produce 1-2 pounds of quadricyclane per hour per stage. Variables to be optimized include pump speed, sensitizer concentration, energy transfer agents, and cooling capacity.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Ave NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Kenneth G. Blemel
AF 98-055
Title:Advanced Integrated Instruments for Space
Abstract:This SBIR project research will lead to development of revolutionary miniature application specific modules based on the exciting Advanced Instrument Controller (AIC) technology being developed for the Joint Strike Fighter prognostics and health management team. This project will perform research and prototype development leading to a revolutionary new breed of ultra-reliable, multi-purpose, reconfigurable micro-electronic modules. The technology will be based on government off the shelf (GOTS) space rated advanced instrument controller technology that accurately measures, computes, and manages. The half ounce, low power modules will combine the functionality of several devices weighing several kilograms. The devices will have an IEEE standard data interface tosend navigation information via a message passing interface. The modules will combine the AIC with commercial off the shelf (COTS) micro-machined electro-mechanical sensors and ancillary electronics such as amplifiers and signal conditioners. In Phase I, we will perform research to identify the best choice for using the modules in space missions.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4368
Peter A. Warren, Ph.D
AF 98-056
Title:Super Precision Integral Folding Hinge Structure
Abstract:Future, large aperture observation spacecraft will require large mirrors and structures to be deployed with optical precision. Current technologies require complex drive, joint and latch mechanisms that have intricate contact mechanics that make the structures less accurate and difficult to analyze. Operational experience and laboratory testing have shown the mechanisms cause sudden changes in shape that make deployed optics inaccurate and difficult to control.The proposed innovation is a continuously braided structure in which the folding joints that allow for stowing and deployment are integral to the structure. By utilizing unique braiding techniques to form locking joints from the same composite fibers that comprise the truss tubes, the truss deploys to form a rigid structure with no moving parts. Since ther are only flexing parts, the structure has no contact interfaces that can produce nonlinear dynamics. Since the structure is braided from continuous fibers, electrical and optical conductors can be bonded within the fibers; eliminating the nonlinear contribution of traditional cable bundles.the monolithic structure will have nanometer deployment repeatability and stability. The proposed innovative structural concept will enable the deployment of large aperture optical instruments and structures at a greatly reduced cost; power and launch mass.

STARSYS RESEARCH, INC.
4909 Nautilus Court North
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-1925
Scott Christiansen
AF 98-056
Title:Part-Per-Million Latching Actuator
Abstract:This will develop an alternative technology for precision actuation and latching. A linear actuator based on paraffin expansion will be coupled with an innovative latching mechanism that allows the actuator to hold position when power is turned off. The paraffin actuator is a simple, reliable device with abundant flight heritage. It has potential for ectremely accurate positioning control. It will provide prescise linear actuation with ample stroke and high output force using low power in a compact, lightweight, reliable package that is easy to control. The latching mechanism is both unique and innovative. It is fundamentally different from other latching concepts because it does not rely on the mechanical contact of two mating surfaces. Instead it utilizes a low melting point alloy to freeze and hold the actuator output shaft in the desired position. This latching concept can be applied to other types of actuators and latches (both linear and rotary) including high bandwidth piezo actuators. The combined device will have the following capabilities:1. stroke: 1 millimeter 2. accuracy: <0.1 micron 3. mass: < 40 grams 4. overall length: < 6 cm (2.3 in) 5. zero power latching 6. output force: 150 N (35 lbf) 7. actuation rate: 10 microns/sec A proof of concept prototype will be designed, manufacturing and functionally tested in Phase I. In Phase II the concept will be refined, thoroughly tested and integrated into actuations mechanisms specifically designed for the ULTRALITE project at Phillips Laboratory.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Rd.
Eden Praire, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 829-9217
Robert A. Sinclair
AF 98-058
Title:Mechanically Hard, Event Recorder with Nonvolatile Memory
Abstract:A data recording system will be designed that will be smaller than the recorders presently available and contain high speed nonvolatile memory to guard against data loss when power fails. Various nonvolatile memory technologies will be investigated including a new memory technology called MRAM (magnetoresistive random access memory) which has all the characteristics required including fast write times, no wear out mechanisms, no loss of data when the battery fails, high shock tolerance, wide temperature range and low power. A 32k x 8 MRAM chip using NVEs proprietary GMR material which is currently being developed for Eglin AFB will be evaluated to determine its suitability to the needs of this program. Commercial high density packaging techniques will be evaluatedwhich can survive 100k g and samples of the selected technology will be tested with NVE's in-house High G Tester (HGT). Experience gained during a Phase I program for Eglin AFB will be used as a basis for this investigation. A data recorder, using high density nonvolatile memory components, high shock MCM technology, and a new miniature lithium battery technology will be designed to fit within a volume of 1 cubic inch and survive shocks over 100,000 g's.

SYSTEM EXCELERATOR, INC.
PO Box 617501
Orlando, FL 32861
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 290-6148
Martin Tanenhaus
AF 98-058
Title:G Hardened Miniaturized Event Recorder with Nonvolatile Memory
Abstract:System Excelerator Inc. (SEI) proposes to implement the first phase of a two phase development effort to create a G-hardened miniaturized event recorder. In this first phase SEI will develop a design for a recorder that will allow sensors to be triggered by an event, manually or periodically, and store the data in nonvolatile memory. The proposed architecture for transient data capture is capable of capturing and processing up to eight channels of sensor data simultaneously from one or two analog to digital converters, analyzing and summarizing the captured data, and storing the data in flash memory until needed. The modular nature of the design allows for different types of single or multi-axis sensor modulars to be used with different g sensitivity thresholds. To implement data recovery, a standard serial connection and command set used to connect the recorder to a PC.

AEROSPACE RECOVERY SYSTEMS, INC.
1381 Rounds Ave.
Grants Pass, OR 97527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 479-5956
Robert Kendall, Sr.
AF 98-059
Title:Inflatable Decelerator/Descent & Recovery Systems for Space, Suborbital & Near-Space Payloads & Manned Spacecraft
Abstract:One objective is to develop reliable ways and means other than parachutes/parawings to decelerate, descend and revover payloads lost during pre-orbit launch failures, improper orbit insertion and spacecraft operational failure in space, suborbital and near-space applications. Another objective is to eliminate uncontrolled payload free-fall trajectory into restricted or populated areas, and use proprietary means to precision guide and soft-land the descending vehicle and payload to within a 300 meter diameter circle. Use of patented and proven, stowed, then inflatable, cone shaped decelerators with a high degree of packaging flexibility to envelop and protect a wide variety of payloads during atmospheric and space descent, and impact on water without immersion, or, on land to recover valuable payloads for reuse is proposed. Use of rapid descent, deflatable impact attenuators to dissipate and minimize impact forces during rapid final descent and landing is proposed. Dual and multiple use applications include deployment of Inflatable Recovery Vehicles to safely return aborted unmanned/manned commercial expendable launch vehicles,personnel, components, and spacecraft; capture and deorbit of orbital debris, microgravity payloads; threat shielding of on-orbit spacecraft. Derivative applications include aircraft crew escape/recovery, airborne payload deployment during hostile conflicts, floods, earthquakes and other disasters.

TEXSAR
6777 Camp Bowie Blvd., Ste 331
Fort Worth, TX 76116
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 735-9502
Murl R. Richardson
AF 98-059
Title:Precision-Guided High Altitude Payload Recovery
Abstract:The opportunity exists to develop a reliable, precision-guided descent and recovery system for high altitude payloads. Government agencies launching space, sub-orbital, and near-space payloads desire the ability to safely recover these payloads without the risk of landing in restricted, inaccessible or populated areas. Payloads of particular interest are those involved with aborted launches, improper orbit insertions, and spacecraft operational failures. To assure safe payload returns - a controllable sub-sonic recovery device must be incorporated with a functional hypersonic deceleration device. Autonomous parafoil systems using GPS guidance are the obvious choice for sub-sonic precision recovery. Low-surface-loading, inflatable, hypersonic drag devices can achieve sufficiently low ballistic coefficients to allow parafoil deployment. Once a payload has been decelerated to sub-sonic velocity and a parafoil can be deployed - the parafoil guidance can steer the payload to one of many pre-programmed landing sites. Phase I of the proposed SBIR effort will concentrate on the feasibility of decelerating high altitude, space payloads to velocities that will permit deployment of an autonomous, GPS guided parafoil recovery device. The design will examine uncontrolled reentry payloads such as those encountered with launch failures, sub-orbital flights, and high altitude scientific balloons.

ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERTS, INC.
215 First St.
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 577-0700
Dr. Ronald Spangler
AF 98-060
Title:Smart, Adaptive Packages for Vibration Suppression
Abstract:In many structures with vibration problems, the nature of the problem is uncertain, or varies over time. Thus it is not possible 'a priori to design a linear, time-invariant, (LTI) feedback control law which is guaranteed to meet performance, or possibly even stability requirements over the entire operating range. These applications require an intelligent control system which can adapt to the changes in its environment.ACX proposes to develop an adaptive, compact, integrated SmartPack for vibration reduction in systems with time-varying harmonic disturbances or uncertain time-invariant dynamics. Each package would include actuators and sensors, drive and signal conditioning electronics as well as complex, intelligent controllers to yield a self-standing solution to a wide range of vibration problems. The packaging will provide a protective skin offering electrical isolation, and a means for integration of sensors, signal conditioning and control electronics. The ability of the adaptive SmartPack to reduce vibration levels or perform structural control tasks in a time-varying disturbance environment will be evaluated during testing and characterization. The Phase II effort would refine the design of the device, produce a manufacturing plan for high volume production, and isolate a target commercial application.

ADAPTIVE SENSORS, INC.
216 Pico Blvd., Ste 8
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 396-9488
Harold M. Finn
AF 98-060
Title:Development of a Space-Time Adaptive Processing SBR Capable of Performing the Detection and Track Missions for Both Ground Moving Targets & Airborne..
Abstract:Potential cost effective proprietary solutions to a number of outstanding problems involved in achieving an SBR capable of meeting military surveillance and reconnaissance requirement for the detection and track of both ground and airborne moving targets are proposed to be further developed and "fold-into" the design of a robust and cost effective space-time adaptive processing SBR. Performance evaluations will be made with a 3-D broadband simulation model. The problem with proposed design measure solutions, include the difficulty in meeting the minimum detectable velocity (MDV) requirement in the GMTI mode due to the large platform velocity; the relatively high cost of time delay steering of the E-scan antenna or hybrid phase-time delay steering, and which also do not satisfactorily address the antenna dispersion problem; the need for reliable SBR operation over a long time period (7 to 10 years); the performance degradation due to distortions of the planar array antenna (warping and twisting); the susceptibility to certain interference environments; range walk degradation; the potential need for a shared aperture two-band antenna; and the potential need for an effective frame-time reduction mode.

CPU TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4900 Hopyard Rd., Ste 300
Pleasanton, CA 94588
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 224-9920
Gail Walters
AF 98-060
Title:Repeatable, Low-Risk Process-Independent Methodology for Translating Commercial Processor Designs to Radiation-Hardened Foundry Libraries
Abstract:Phase I is an experiment to demonstrate the feasibility of a radiation/hardened Processor Development Methodolgy (RH-PDM) for translating commercial processor designs to radiation-hardened (rad-hard) doundry libraries. The proposed methodology is very low-risk, repeatable, and foundry process independent. The work effort for this experiment consists of translating a commercial processor design to a rad-hard library, and then proving that the results of the methodology are manufacturable, and that the rad-hard and commercial processors are functionally identical. Phase I objectives are: 1) Program CPU Technology tools ro accomodate rad-hard libraries, 2) Synthesize a commercial processor, utilizing the methodology, to rad-hard libraries, 3) Verify commercial-to-rad-hard translated design functionality, 4) Prove process-independence of the methodology by demonstrating manufacturability of the rad-hard design in two independent foundries, and 5) Re-synthesize rad-hard design to commercial design language and execute to verify identical functionality. The foundry analysis will be the ultimate determinant of manufacturability. In Phase II, a government selected processor type will be taken through the entire Processor Development Methodology, beginning with Instruction Set Architecture development.

FEDERAL FABRICS-FIBERS, INC.
51 Middlesex St.
N. Chelmsford, MA 01863
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 470-1859
Fred W. Geurts
AF 98-060
Title:Light Weight Space Support Structures
Abstract:Depending on the load bearing requirements of a structure, a simple thin film may not be adequate. Since fibers have at least an order of magnitude more strength, and very low elongation, along their axis than fil materials a fiber reinforced structure is necessary in situations which involve heavy loads exposed to gravity, or massive loads undergoing accelerations or decelerations.For space applications, an "optimized structure" is desired which is defined as "the lightest weight structure that can support the design load". Depending on the load requirements two components are needed for an optimized structure. A thin film, which serves as a vapor/gas impermeable inflation layer and an outer fiber based restraining layer.Federal Fabrics-Fibers, Inc. (FFF) produces all sorts of shaped and sized inflatable structures. FFF makes seamless tubes with diameters from 4 to 54 inches and lengths up to 100m. These tubes are woven unsing a proprietary CAD/CAM method. FFF can also produce seamless spheres, arches, circular and elliptic torus and coils. With slight alterations complex surfaces such as parabolas can be produced. Rigid and semi rigid components may be employed to link individual components together to produce complex structures. The structures can be used as booms, solar-array, sun shade, solar concentrator, planar array and reflector antenna supports. Finally these structures are versatile in that they can be used in terrestrial, vacuum, lunar or Martian applications.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
1720 Randolph Rd. SE
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7709
Jeffrey D. Black
AF 98-060
Title:DRAM for Space Computing
Abstract:Future military and commercial space systems require increased computing resources including volatile random access memory. COTS memory devices hold significant density advantages over radiation hardened memory devices. However, the space environment, especially high energy ions, make the implementation of COTS hardware difficult and this will continue to worsen as COTS memory densities continue to increase. Our Phase I proposal makes use of the COTS memory devices and commercial processes to enable the use of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) in space computers. To accomplish this we propose a two-pronged effort: the development of a COTS radiation tolerant memory module and the concept of a radiation hardened DRAM device for a commercial foundry. These Phase I efforts will lead to Phase II prototype lot fabrications and testing at an expense much lower than a traditional radiation hardened device development.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Rd.
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison K. Brown
AF 98-060
Title:Space Systems Technology Development of GPS Denial and Augmentation from Space
Abstract:A key national security issue is maximizing the military benefits of GPS while minimizing the risks. The denial of GPS to enemies during conflicts without denying GPS to friendly forces is required to assure dominance. The most effective method of protecting GPS from jamming is through providing a high power GPS signal; e.g. from a geostationary augmentation. Similarly, the most effective of denying GPS C/A code is through jamming the GPS signal with a high poer broadband noise or CW source at Ll (1575.42 MHz). However, the power required to continuously transmit a jamming signal over an interdicted area limits the application of long duration high altitude UAVs or space-based resources as jammer platforms.In this proposal, a low power method of selective denial is proposed that is suitable for use by space systems or high altitude UAV platforms. Under this effort, NAVSYS proposes to develop a preliminary space system architecture and design for a GPS augmentation system to provide both protection and selective denial from space.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Rd.
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 829-9217
Erik Lange
AF 98-060
Title:High Speed Spin Valve Magnetoresistive Isolated Signal Transceiver
Abstract:The challenge of reliable, high speed data transfer between subsystems on spacecraft can be more easily met when subsystems are elctrically isolated. This program will show the feasibility of a high speed, low power isolated digital transceiver device based on spin valve magnetoresistive isolation technology. Commercially available isolated transceiver modules require upwards of sixty discrete components. The spin valve isolator technology will enable a device with equivalent functionality but with an order of magnitude lower parts count and a significantly higher switching speed capability. During this program, existing spin valve isolators will be integrated with bi-directional data transmission at speeds greater than fourty megabits per second. Additional integration including a monolithic dc-dc converter will be investigated in a Phase II effort to yield an ultra-low power isolated transceiver multi-chip module capable of digital data transmission rates greater than one hundred megabits per second. This device will provide high speed operation while offering size and power advantages relative to existing technologies to free-up valuable board space, weight and power for other systems. Also, silicon on insulator technology will be used for improved radiation hardness.

SPACE ELECTRONICS, INC.
4031 Sorrento Valley Blvd.
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 452-4167
Dr. Michael Featherby
AF 98-060
Title:Low Cost Space Hardened Power MOSFET
Abstract:This cross-cutting technology provides a truly innovative, cost effective approach to space hardened power MOSFETs based on commerical-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology. The problem to be solved is the development of a simple technique to harden power MOSFETs to Single Event Gate Rupture (SEGR) while not compromisong and perhaps improving their hardness to total ionizing radiation exposure.At the same time, minor structural modifications would be implemented to reduce Single Event Burnout (SEB) susceptibility. All changes are implementable in a commercial power MOSFET process and fabrication facility. This accomplishment would allow the fabrication of power MOSFETs for application in spaceborne electronics at reduced production costs. The availability of this class of power MOSFETs based on minor modifications of COTS technologies, would decrease system costs and at the same time increase system reliability.This innovate concept will demonstrate the feasibility of using a modified gate oxide structure consisting of a silicon oxide/silicon nitride/ silicon oxide sandwich as a simple technique to harden Vertical Double MOSFETs to SEGR while maintaining their hardness to total ionizing radiation exposure.Phase I will thoroughly explore the parameter of the proposed process modification. An optimal silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide layered structure as the gate oxide will be designed.

TRUAX ENGINEERING, INC.
1125 Adele Lane
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 480-0986
R. C. (Bob) Truax
AF 98-060
Title:Space Systems Technology Development
Abstract:Truax Engineering Inc. (TEI) is seeking SBIR Phase I funding to complete the initial configuration of a simple, low cost, 75,000 lb thrust, pressure fed, lattice injector, liquid rocket engine Model No. RCT-75K-097 R-1. The engine contains the following innovations aimed at lowering launch costs:A) A lattice injector design based on entirely new and different injection principle never attempted before. (Design, fabrication, and test plan details are proprietary.)B) A combustion concept that carries the possibility for suppression of combustion instability, allows reliable ignition and re-ignition, minimizes afterburning, and has the potntial for high and predictable efficiency (C*) at any scale.Project objectives:The objectives of the Phase I work are to complete the 75k engine pre-burner hydraulic proof testing, conduct water flow tests, and complete the planning for hot firing of the pre-burner at the New Mexico Tech, Energetic Materials Research Test Center (EMRTC), Rocket Test Stand (RTS), in Socorro, New Mexico.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
12401 West 49th Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 420-1141
Robert R. Hanson
AF 98-061
Title:Flexible, Roll-Up MFS Blanket for Phased-Array Antennas
Abstract:ITN proposes herein a revolutionary new flexible phased-array antenna blanket which promises significant mass savings over previous antenna designs, and may provide critical the breakthrough needed for a feasible, affordable SBR system.Out concept is to assemble SBR's 22m x 6m aperture using twelve 11m x 1m subarrays. Each subarray is highly integrated MFS with the following major elements:1. One-piece 11m x 1m x 0.010in composite MFS substrate.2. Nadir-side flex-circuit with radiator patches and groundplane.3. Anti-nadir-side flex-circuit with active antenna electronics.The flex-circuits are bonded to the MFS substrate, and electrical leads from the radiators pass through the substrate and interconnect to the active electronics. The resulting antenna blanket is thin, flexible and very lightweight. In addition, the entire blanket can be stowed as a roll for launch. This design offers both low-level modularity (flex-circuits) and high level modularity (subarrays), which is key to achieving the production rates and throughput required for a cost-effective SBR constellation.In this Phase I, we will address key technical issues with each MFS element, explore feasibility in the subarray integration approach, and quantify the system-level benefit of the proposed flexible, rolled-up antenna blanket.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Jacobus
AF 98-062
Title:Behavior Recognition System for Identifying and Monitoring Human Activities
Abstract:Differentiating between normal human activity and suspicious behavior is a difficult task, wether performed by a sensing device or a human observer. Such a human observer would find such a task tedious and costly to perform. Fortunately, a sensing system is not bothered by tedious tasks. Such a system could be implemented to prume out obviously normal behavior, and tag human activities which could be suspicious and would therefor need more attention by a human operator. However, such behavior recognition systems have not been developed due to the difficulty of identifying and classifying such motions. We propose the development of a system which not only identifies humans in the environment and their location, but can also classify and identify their activity, providing a threat assessment. The heuristics needed involve recognition of information bearing features in the environment and the determination of how those features relate to each other over time. This is gesture recognition. This proposal addresses the technology development necessary to create a gesture recognition sensor system, enhancing it to create a behavior recognition, which would perform the dual task of classifying objects in terms of threats as well as determining the behavior (state) of objects in motion.

KITWARE, INC.
6 Equinox Ct.
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 393-2142
Dr. William J. Schroeder
AF 98-063
Title:Graphical Visualization Framework for Representing Uncertainty in Dynamic 3-Dimensional Data
Abstract:Although visualization is a provent technology for communicating complex and/or voluminous information, one significant problem is its inability to display information describing data uncertainty. This deficiency has negative on analyzing or assessing data, since the integrity or quality of data is vital for good decision making. There is a need to develop good visualization technologies capable of representing, processing, and displaying uncertainty. Such technology would improve the overall decision making process because the quality of data would be taken into account, not just its expected value.The objective of this proposal is to develop a flexible, general system and set of components from which to build specialized vusualization applications with the ability to visualize data uncertainty. The system is adaptable to a variety of data sources, supports the creation of novel techniques and algorithms, and enables combinations of these techniques to create new displays and applications. Such a framework is necessary to support the variety of data encountered in general application and to allow custom applications to be constructed from the components of the system.

EAGLE EYE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
950 Herndon Pkwy, Ste 230
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 478-3340
Eric Eng
AF 98-064
Title:Remote Tracking with SpaceTRAC
Abstract:Tracking of and data communications with individual people has been a pressing need for years. Eagle Eye will develop a wrist-watch size tracking device with a two-way digital messaging capability for military personnel. Eagle Eye has developed a patent pending accurate satellite tracking technique and has designed a system to implement the tracking unit. Eagle Eye proposes to develop a thin unit using existing technology with the specific goals of global operation via communication satellites, long battery life, in-building operation, tracking accuracy to better than 100 meters, and low unit recurring cost. During Phase I the detailed requirements and design for an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for the RF Front-end will be developed. This ASIC will be incorporated into a new DSP ASIC currently under development to create the wrist-watch unit. During Phase II the prototype will be fabricated and tested via low Earth orbiting satellite.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4368
Peter Warren
AF 98-065
Title:Nanometer Accuracy Positionally Stable Latch
Abstract:Future large aperture space observation missions will require large mirrors and structures to be deployed with optical precision. Current technologies require latches that have high friction contact mechanisms that have experimentally shown to make the structures unstable at the mission level and their behavioe difficult to predict, Many Air Force optical platforms have the additional requirement that they are capable of recovering from large-scale slew maneuvers in less than one second. Such maneuvers are typical of the disturbances that trigger uncontrollable nonlinear dynamics.Foster-Miller is proposing to develop a latch that is based on the innovative combination of precision ball bearing contacts. The latch is specifically designed to provide smooth closure and nanometer level repeatibility. Sets linear bearings are used to tailor the load paths so that no energy can be stored through internal contact friction. Since the latch is incapable of internally storing energy, it cannot shoe the "micro-lurch" behavior that has limited previous deployable structures.The monolithic, nanometer stability latch would provide future Air Force deployed optical instruments with a reliable, high accuracy latch component that would have nanometer level performance, be completely ground verifiable, and maintain its position and linearity under anticipated vibrational loading.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
7923 Jones Branch Dr.
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(601) 863-0007
John Walrod
AF 98-066
Title:Distributed Neural Network for Smart Structures Applications
Abstract:Neural control algorithms have been the subject of intensive study and development over the last ten years. Their chief advantages are their potntial to control many sensors and actuators in a distributed fashion, thus relieving the burden levied on each computational unit; and their ability to optimize their own performance based on measured data, reducing or eliminating their dependence on highly questionable and complex models of the system to be controlled. Both of these advantages are crucial to the success of future missions, but their realization depends absolutely on the existence of a neural network that is low-cost and efficient, both in terms of its impact on system resources such as weight, size and power and in terms of development costs.Planning Systems Inc. (PSI) proposes an innovative approach which leverages COTS local area network technology to provide a fas, modular neural network. The proposed system will enable algorithm designers to develop and implement high spped algorithms in an efficient, high-level software environment.

S&K ELECTRONICS
53347 Hwy 93
Ronan, MT 59864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 461-3890
Larry C. Li
AF 98-066
Title:Fault-Tolerant Parallel Distributed Neural Network Processing System for Adaptive Control and System Identification
Abstract:S&K Electronics (SKE) proposes a fault-tolerant, parallel distributed processing (FTPDP) system capable of implementing a variety of neural network paradigms for system identification and control applications. The proposed FTPDP system offers a scalable and modular hardware architecture that interconnects small, low-cost neural processors with fault-tolerant high-speed serial buses. The neural processors will have onboard analog or digital I/Os for local data collection and control. Firmware onboard the processors will handle the dynamic resource allocation and configuration, neural network algorithm execution, including on-line learning, inter-processor communication and fault isolation. A host software package will be developed to support application development and provide flexibility ti implement various neural network paradigms. The host software will also enable users to perform on-line load balancing by reassigning neurons to different physical neural processors as well as monitoring the status of the network.The proposed FTPDP system is well suited for current and future spacecraft missions requiring accurate pointing and structural stability, e.g. the Hubble Space Telescope, the Orbiting Stellar Interferometer, and the Precision Orbiting Interferometer in Space (POINTS).

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2850 West Bayshore Rd.
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 494-7351
Joseph R. Maly
AF 98-067
Title:Lightweight Composite Launch Vehicle Fairings with Integrated Damping
Abstract:Payloads are subjected to an extreme acoustic environment during launch. Much of this environment is due to sound radiated from the fairing structure, which encloses and protects the payload while providing a smooth aerodynamic surface for interaction with the atmosphere during launch. The severe acoustics cause structural vibrations of the payload that can damage components and threaten mission success. The proposed program will demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating passive, viscoelastic material damping into composite payload-fairing structures while maintaining their strength and stiffness. The work will focus on design and manufacturing methods, including co-curing of viscoelastic with composite material, to greatly reduce costs and improve performance compared to existing fairings. Finite elmeent analysis will be used to determine candidate configurations. Proof of concept panels will be fabricated and tested. Measurement will be used with a combined finite-element/boundary-element acoustic analysis to predict performance of a fairing built with this technology. The long-term objective is a manufacturing capability for a highly damped payload fairing.

PATTERNED FIBER COMPOSITES, INC.
1184 East 830 South
Pleasant Grove, UT 84062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 785-7102
William F. Pratt
AF 98-067
Title:Lightweight Composite Launch Fairings with Integrated Damping
Abstract:The objective of the "Lightweight Composite Launch Fairings With Integrated Damping," SBIR proposal is to develop technologies and procedures that merge damping materials with a patent pending wavy composite system, and create lightweight aerospace structures that meet or exceed specified strength, stiffness, damping, and acoustic requirements. Traditional passive noise and vibration control methods for these structures are heavy, bulky and perform only marginally. Based on a design of experiments, panels of highly damped wavy composites will be constructed, staticallu, modally, and acoustically tested and analyzed. Optimized "proof" panels will be built using the results of the experiment and will exceed requirements for weight, stiffness, strength, and damping. Unprecedented improvements in these panel parameters are expected from Phase I funding. This will lead to the design and manufacture of new highly damped space launch vehicle components that exhibit stiffness and strength many times greater than steel at half the weight of aluminum but over 30 times its damping. This research program combines the expertise of aerospace, materials and engineering firms and a university to deliver new methodologies and material systems for the manufacture of improved aerospace vehicles and components.

I-KINETICS, INC.
17 New England Executive Pk
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 270-1300
Bruce Cottman
AF 98-068
Title:Real-Time Heterogeneous Data Fusion and Display Factory
Abstract:The key barrier to realizing new capabilities in real-time data fusion and display systems is integrating current research & development software assets from academia, commercial and military. In practice, almost 100% of real-time data fusion and display systems are custom software driven by domain and often task-specific requirements. In the domain of military data fusion and display systems, mission changes result in requirements change and thus integration of new capabilities is the most significant problem. The innovation leverages distributed object-based technology for advancing Data Fusion and Display software components. The promise of component-based applications is to enable developers and end-users to "snap together" new applications by mixing and matching prefabricated software components. With Air Force guidance, a selected set of Data Fusion and Display software, libraries and data will be transformed into components. Users will be able to assemble custom applications from components located anywhere on the network while developers continue to add new components. Reusable components will result in significant reductions in the cost of Data Fusion and Display application system development, test, and upgrade. The result is the ability to adapt quickly to different user and mission demands, while achieving reliability through the reuse of verified components.

ADVANCED MODULAR POWER SYSTEMS, INC.
4667 Freedom Dr.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 677-4260
Dr. Terry J. Hendricks, P
AF 98-069
Title:Radiation-Tolerant, Eclipse-Compatible Solar AMTEC System
Abstract:Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converters (AMTEC) convert heat to electricity at high efficiency without moving parts at temperatures compatible with current solar receiver technology. A Phase I program is proposed which will deliver an integrated, high-temperature thermal storage/high-efficiency AMTEC cell system concepts and a small-scale thermal energy storage (TES) test article for materials compatibility testing. This will begin demonstrating a radiation-tolerant, eclipse-compatible solar AMTEC power systems for medium-earth and geosynchronous orbits. Solar AMTEC systems have the inherent advantage of tolerance to the high-energy radiation environments encountered in MEO and GEO. This Phase I work is directed toward development of high power solar AMTEC systems for future US Air Force (USAF) spacecraft missions using advanced multi-tube AMTEC cells. Successful development will provide AMTEC power systems for USAF missions, such as Space-Based Radar and Integrated Solar Upper Stage, requiring system power output of 10-50 kW, conversion efficiencies over 30%, cell specific powers over 100 W/kg, and system specific powers of 12-14 We/kg in medium-earth and geosynchronous orbits. This program will begin developing the efficient thermal energy storage systems, through basic materials compatibility research, which allow solar AMTEC systems to operate through eclipse phases of various MEO and GEO environments.

APPLIED MATERIAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3611 South Harbor Blvd.
Santa Ana, CA 92704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 545-8825
Sung S. Suh
AF 98-069
Title:Polar Woven Flywheel Resin Film Infiltrated
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project will develop a low-cost resin film infusion approach to fabricating a polar woven (hoop and radial direction reinforced), lightweight composite material rotor for flywheel energy storage (FES) systems. The application of this device will be for an integrated replacement of chemical batteries and attitude control actuators in spacecraft. The tasks of design, fabrication, and testing of a FES advanced rotor design for energy storage with combined attitude control system (ACS) involves many challenges. High priority design issues are long term durability (fatigue life), dynamic stability (balance), and fail-safe operation. Foremost, long-term durability must be adequately accommodated, failure to do so will lead to dynamic on-board disturbances (self-emitted vibrations) and non-safe operating conditions. During an anticipated ten year service, a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) communication satellite is expected to undergo 50,000 cycles (charge/discharge) while supplying 3 to 5 kW-hr of usable energy. The depth-of-discharge of a mechanical (flywheel) energy storage is up towards 90%. Such a high number of cycles and depth-of-discharge presents a major concern for fatigue failure, especially due to radial stresses where the stress and strain capability of a composite material is limited. A polar woven architecture offers radial stiffness and strength support to the rotor design compared to a uni-directional all-hoop winding architecture.

SVS R&D SYSTEMS, INC.
6207 Pan American Freeway NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4600
Paul H. Merritt
AF 98-070
Title:Development of Advanced Pointing and Tracking Concepts
Abstract:This effort will develop tracking algorithms and design tracking system compensations to operate under atmospheric scintillation. In September of 1997 a series of evaluation tests for three basic algorithms were conducted at Lincoln Laboratory over a range atmospherically scaled to the Airborne Laser scenario. The data showed that two major problems existed with the tracking algorithms, these were (1)scintillation was making calculation of tilt very difficult, and (2) the false tilt due to scintillation was being coupled back into system via the track loop control of the steering mirror. The test series at Lincoln Laboratories provide a large library of imaging data taken under scaled conditions of turbulence and scintillation. This project will use that data and develop new tracking algorithms and track loop designs to work under scintillated conditions. Several algorithms will be developed and completed, these are (1) spatial and temporal averaging routines, (2) a Kalman filter tracking algorithm, and (3) correlation algorithms. The best performing of the algorithms will be evaluated using a wave optics simulation.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2850 W. Bayshore Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 494-7351
Roger Glaese
AF 98-071
Title:Active Acoustic Jitter Suppression for the Airborne Laser
Abstract:The Airborne Laser (ABL) system has extremely tight jitter requirements. Acoustic disturbances, such as those caused by the pressure recovery system of the high power laser, are a significant jitter source. At present, plans for acoustic mitigation rely on passive approaches. There is, however, some uncertainty whether these approaches will provide sufficient attenuation. CSA Engineering proposes to develop active acoustic jitter suppression technologies for application to elements of the ABL optical train. The suitability of the numerous acoustic suppression techniques will be assessed. Conceptual designs using the most promising of these suppression techniques will be performed for several ABL components and subassemblies. Structural-acoustic simulations of the optical elements integrated with models of the host aircraft will be used to evaluate performance levels of these acoustic suppression designs. The predicted attenuation levels, and the physical practicality and modularity of the designs will be used in an overall ranking. At least one design will be selected for further evaluation in a hardware demonstration. In the demonstration, a mockup of the optical element will be constructed and tested for acoustically induced jitter. The measured jitter reduction with the acoustic suppression applied will provide an indication of levels of improvement that are realistically achievable.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2850 West Bayshore Rd.
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 494-7351
Paul S. Wilke
AF 98-072
Title:Adapter for Isolation of Multiple Spacecraft (AIMS)
Abstract:An innovative adapter design for mounting multiple spacecraft to a single launch vehicle is proposed. This adapter is designed such that it cleanly integrates the three primary functions of 1) mounting multiple spacecraft, 2) providing vibration isolation for each spacecraft, and 3) releasing each spacecraft with low-shock separation systems. While multiple spacecraft have been launched on a single launch vehicle on many occasions, neither vibration isolation nor low-shock spacecraft separation has been included. This program will propose and investigate the feasibility of several adapter designs. Advanced passive vibration isolation devices, advanced composite structures, and advanced low-shock spacecraft release mechanisms will be employed in all designs. System-level coupled-loads analyses will be done using complete launch vehicle and spacecraft models to assess each design concept and optimize the vibration isolation design. It is anticipated that this program will result in a multi-spacecraft vibration-isolating adapter design that reduces spacecraft responses due to structure-borne launch vehicle vibrations by a factor of three or more. This will allow the spacecraft designer to design primarily for mission performance rather than launch survivability. Each of the multiple spacecraft being launched in this reduced-vibration environment can be designed with less primary structure and more fuel or more science instruments resulting in expanded mission and cost savings.

OCTANT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
158 Commercial, Ste. B
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 245-6554
Dr. John Farazian
AF 98-073
Title:Autonomous Satellite Technologies
Abstract:Technological advances in satellite design including a reduced electronics cost compounded with larger networks of satellites indicate the need for orbital autonomy. Our approach allows for the graceful migration of ground-based advisor software to an active remote agent in the orbital vehicle. We introduce other technologies to economically produce high-quality model-based expert system engines.Our approach evaluates the performance and economic advantages with this technology. We leverage an existing USAF/PL satellite program's existing simulator, ground station and engineering model flight computer to produce a high fidelity evaluation system. We compare various expert systems architectures with actual vehicle telemetry and mission tasking logs to estimate performance benefits.

PRINCETON SATELLITE SYSTEMS
33 Witherspoon St.
Princeton, NJ 08542
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 279-9606
Michael Paluszek
AF 98-073
Title:Object Agent System Architecture for Autonomous Spacecraft
Abstract:Reduction of the cost and improving the reliability of spacecraft operations is a goal of many organizations, including the Department of Defense, NASA, and commercial satellite operators. This proposal describes the innovative ObjectAgent _ system architectures that can provide greatly enhanced ease-of-use and nearly any level of autonomy for a satellite system. The system uses a combination of intelligent agents and object oriented design to create a system that is easy to implement and can be customized at any stage of development, even after launch, without rebuilding any of the code. It also allows for the implementation of very complex autonomous tasks through an interface that can be used by the satellite end users, without the support of technical specialists.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
12210 Fairfax Towne Ctr.
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 631-9324
Quang M. Lam
AF 98-074
Title:Robust GPS/INS Solution to Launch Vehicle Guidance, Navigation, and Range Safety Systems
Abstract:An integrated MEMS GPS/INS design architecture is proposed for the launch vehicle (LV) navigation solution and range safety applications. The proposed concept consists of three major elements: 1) GPS/INS hardware architecture, 2) GPS/INS software architecture, and 3) robust filtering scheme. The hardware architecture design will be evaluated and down-selected from three major MEMS vendors using our high fidelity simulation environment while the software design architecture is selected implemented in such a way that it optimally provides the right data format and accuracy to meet range safety minimum requirements for the LV GPS receiver Data for the Space Lift Range System. The robust filtering scheme consists of three key features: i) multiple model estimation scheme, ii) the adaptation of the noise statistics via an effective noise identification scheme, and iii) the estimation of both gyro and accelerometer bias vector by using the GPS receiver data as an external aiding sensor to in-flight calibrate the IMU. GPS/INS tightly couples architecture is selected to provide robust navigation solution against poor satellite tracking, data latency, GPS dropout, etc. The proposed concept is capable of 1) correcting the GPS errors via noise identification mechanism and 2) aiding the GPS to reduce acquisition times and velocity errors.

WELCH ENGINEERING, LTD.
15200 Shady Grove Rd., Ste 450
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 947-5160
Raymond V. Welch
AF 98-074
Title:GPS Aided INS Using Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology
Abstract:The Welch Engineering and Hughes Space and Communications (WE/HSC) team is pleased to propose a GPS aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) enabled by Microelectromechnical Systems (MEMS) technology. We will leverage Welch Engineering's expertise in inertial navigation system software design for space and ground applications and HSC's extensive internal MEMS R&D and several of its MEMS research partnerships for the launcher INS applications. We will also leverage off our on-going DARPA SBIR for MEMS tactical INS development. With our relevant expertise, we will define requirements and identify MEMS sensors from proven single-crystal-silicon designs that have the hallmarks of navigation grade inertial sensors. We will also work with GPS vendors to achieve a miniature GPS design. Custom low-power digital CMOS for sensor compensation, control and I/O will complement this high performance MEMS and is also key to our compact universal design. GPS aiding of the MEMS-based IMU will further optimize the navigation solution. Overall compensation will be architected for maximum reuse and plus-and-play utility for future component interchangeability. The Phase I success will set the stage for building a breadboard of the universal INS using a COTS PC product development system in Phase II along with demonstration of the integrated breadboard GPS/INS.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-9741
Terri Franklin
AF 98-075
Title:Variable-Resolution Simulation Techniques within the Spacecraft Simulation Toolkit
Abstract:The ability to define, develop, and execute simulation models within the same framework at various levels of resolution using standard modeling techniques is critical in meeting Department of Defense (DoD) objectives of simulation repeatability, correction, and interoperability, and reducing cost and redundancy. Ideally, a simulation user can select a level of simulation resolution and response time that varies in range, from within the same simulation framework. The range could vary from a detailed, high resolution model that supports the design and engineering of a hardware component to an abstract, low resolution model that supports the simulation of a theater level conflict. Variable-resolution techniques that can provide this capability would support the end-to-end simulation of the system acquisition cycle.This effort identifies and prototypes variable-resolution techniques to provide a multi-level simulation modeling capability for spacecraft within the Spacecraft Simulation Toolkit (SST) framework. The SST is an advanced, flexible, development environment for the modeling and simulation of spacecraft. it is being developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory. It is an object-oriented system consisting of software objects which simulate the various systems and subsystems of the physical spacecraft.

PRAGATI SYNERGETIC RESEARCH, INC.
145 Stonelake Ct
Yorktown, VA 23693
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 865-7080
Mala Mehrotra
AF 98-076
Title:MVP-CA Technology for Mission Rule Set Development and Case-Based Retrieval
Abstract:In spacecraft telemetry, expert systems technology is being used to manage the complexity generated by the greater number of complex measurands. However, an uncontrolled proliferation of rules in an expert system can lead to maintenance, management and retrieval problems of the rulesets. A semi-automated tool, such as Pragati's MVP-CA (Multi-ViewPoint Clustering Analysis) tool, can provide a valuable aid for comprehension, maintenance, integration and evolution of these expert systems by structuring a large knowledge base in various meaningful ways. In this proposal, we seek to determine the feasibility of applying this technology to large, complex spacecraft mission expert systems so as to allow reliable software maintenance and management on them as well as study how these rule sets generated through the MVP-CA tool could be retrieved easily and efficiently through case-based reasoning techniques. Our focus in this project will be to provide relevant information for retrieval maintenance and management of the rule stets through cluster interface definitions which in turn will form the bridge between the MVP-CA tool and case-based reasoning tools. The latter will be used for rule set retrieval for reuse, maintenance and management of the telemetry expert systems.

VIRGINIA POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
PO Box 253
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 231-2327
Dr. Ming Chen
AF 98-080
Title:Space Qualified, High Efficiency, High Current, Modular Power Converter Using Multi-Layer High Density Packaging
Abstract:VPT proposes to design an innovative high-efficiency, low voltage power converter using new radiation resistant silicon synchronous rectifiers. To meet the demanding performance requirements, a high frequency, multi-module, phase interleaved, approach will be employed. The design will also incorporate several VPT-developed technologies. These include a new integrated magnetic power circuit topology, a technique for reliably self-driving synchronous rectifiers, a new feedback control technique, and a multi-layer hybrid packaging technique. VPT's integrated magnetic circuit minimizes the number of interconnects on the transformer secondary and was specifically developed for low voltage, high current applications. The self-driven synchronous rectifier approach recovers energy stored in the device capacitance, yet unlike prior art, allows reliable parallel module operation down to very low output voltages. The feedback control technique allows high bandwidth performance with complete isolation yet does not use an opto-coupler. To achieve high density packaging, a multi-layer hybrid construction technique will be compared against surface mount technology. The converter will be compatible with the requirements of several popular new high-voltage regulated satellite buses including Space Systems Loral, +100Vdc, Hughes, +50Vdc, and Lockheed-Martin, +70Vdc.

COMPOSITE OPTICS, INC.
9617 Distribution Ave.
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 621-5390
E. Mark Jahn
AF 98-081
Title:Development of Ultralightweight, Dimensionally Stable, Rigid Panels for Space-Based Radar Antenna
Abstract:The purpose of this SBIR is to develop multifunctional structural panels incorporating TRAM technology, and pretensioned array deployment and support methods, yet, providing improved surface metrology and capability for greater thermal and structural stability. COI proposes to utilize its extensive experience with polymer matrix graphite fiber reinforced composites to develop ultralightweight and dimensionally stable panels for space-based radar antenna applications.Innovative panel designs using triaxial weave composites will be evaluated. These designs will include rigid fixed thickness panels and rigid expanded thickness panels. The rigid expanded thickness being proposed for more efficient stowage of the antenna array. Other ideas will be generated during the conduction of this research program and will be evaluated with those presented herein.As part of this SBIR, the compression member and/or deployment arm for the array will be designed for CTE matching of the panels. A composite of graphite and boron fibers will be used to minimize CTE mismatch with panels and maximize stiffness.This research will consist of material property testing, panel design and characterization, trade studies (including "rigid fixed" and "rigid-expanded" thickness panels), recommendations and work plan for Phase II research.

HD ASSOC., INC.
2200 Powell St. Suite 845
Emeryville, CA 94608
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 597-3633
Scott Owen Peck
AF 98-081
Title:One-Piece Deployable Composite Reflector
Abstract:We propose a novel alternative scheme for achieving low stowed volumes of solid surface antenna reflectors using a single one-piece reflector surface. The advantages are a continuous surface for the deployed reflector with no gaps or seams, an accurate curved surface profile, simple deployment, and compact stowage that bends but does not stretch the surface. Our scheme is ideal for low thermal expansion carbon-fiber composite construction to provide the requisite level of high pointing accuracy with low mass.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
12401 W. 49th Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 420-1141
Robert R. Hanson
AF 98-082
Title:MFS Using Thin-Film Lithium Battery as Honeycomb Core
Abstract:In its on-going pursuit of lightweight, low-cost systems, the space industry has made significant investments in "high payoff" technologies such as composite structures and high energy-density batteries. These individual technologies are now "mature", and are "standard" for most new spacecraft designs. Additional investment in these areas would yield only a few percent improvement over current performance. Faced with these "diminishing returns", it is clear that future progress demands revolutionary new concepts for spacecraft subsystems.ITN Energy Systems believes that this challenge can best be met using Multifunctional Structures, and to this end proposes herein the "LiBaCore Panel". "LiBaCore" stands for Lithium Battery CORE, and consists of the following: 1. Thin-Film Solid-State Lithium Battery with High Energy Densy and Long Life 2. Thin-Film Battery Formed into "Honeycomb" ration, and Used as Structural Core in Composite Sandwich Panel. attery Terminals Connect to Flex-Circuit on MFS Composite Facesheets Our concept is for a lightweight, high energy-density power storage device which doubles as structural core in a composite sandwich panel. LaBaCore is particularly compatible with the Air Force's "Cableless Spacecraft" initiative, and represents an exciting and promising new approach to achieving significant reductions in mass and volume.

ESSENTIAL RESEARCH, INC.
23811 Chagrin Blvd., Ste 220
Cleveland, OH 44122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 433-5586
Navid S. Fatemi
AF 98-083
Title:40% Efficiency Concentrator Space Solar Cell
Abstract:Currently, tandem solar cells are used for high-performance space power generation and achieve conversion efficiencies approaching 25%. Relative to single-cell technology, the higher production costs of tandem cells are more than offset by their higher efficiency, and consequential reduction in array size and weight. The traditional tandem cell design is far from optimal, however. The bandgaps for the top and bottom cells are chosen to avoid growing lattice-mismatched epitaxial layers, instead of for achieving ultimate conversion efficiencies. We have demonstrated a buffer-layer scheme that enables InGaAs mismatched layers to be grown on GaAs without electrical degradation. By so doing, we can for the first time, grow dislocation-free tandem cells with optimized bandgaps. We propose the development of an ultra-high efficiency triple-junction concentrator cell. The structure of this new tandem solar cell will be: InAlP top cell, InGaP middle cell, and InGaAs bottom cell. It will be a monolithic, two terminal device fabricated on an inexpensive and rugged Ge substrate. The AMO efficiency of this cell under 10-100X ratios is projected to be approximately 40%. Because the growth and fabrication procedures for this cell will be identical to the commercially available InGaP2/GaAs-on-Ge tandem cells, it will be a commercially viable product.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
12401 W. 49th Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 420-1141
Peter V. Meyers
AF 98-083
Title:Advanced Flexible Solar Array
Abstract:Achieving a high specific power value for solar arrays is critical for military and commercial spacecraft, especially considering the trend toward small spacecraft with the same or increased power requirements. During the Air Force/Phillips Laboratory Lightweight Solar Array (LWSA) project, it was established that a 100 W/kg solar array can be achieved by integrating an 8-percent efficient single junction thin film Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselinide (CIGS) photovoltaic cells into a lightweight picture frame type structure. ITN Energy Systems is proposing an ultra-lightweight concept for an advanced, flexible solar array system that can provide a specific power of 200 W/kg or greater. The key technologies which enable the proposed concepts are:1. The development of a high efficiency (>20 percent) multi-junction photovoltaic cell on a thin flexible substrate.2. A unique lightweight pantographic support structure.The increase in specific power of the PV module is achieved through development of multijunction PV cells employing CIGS, CIS and CdTe absorber layers. Through appropriate choice of absorber bandgaps, multijunction cells can achieve higher conversion efficiency than is possible with single junction devices.

INNOVATIVE DYNAMICS, INC.
2560 N. Triphammer Rd.
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-0533
William G. Brooks
AF 98-085
Title:Large Area Network for On-Line Health Monitoring
Abstract:Innovative Dynamics, Inc. (IDI) proposes to develop the POWERLAN network-a digital communications network that runs over existing DC power lines. Many aircraft/spacecraft systems have bandwidth limitations on their communications buses such as ARINC 429, ARINC 629, and/or MIL-STD-1553. While emerging fiber-optic buses such as MIL-STD-1773 could meet this need, retrofitting such networks to existing vehicles will be expensive because of infrastructure changes required to accommodate high speed serial communications. Moreover, these high-speed networks are overkill for systems not directly involved in time-critical vehicles control. Suitable examples include sub-system health monitors, damage detection sensor, and payload status monitors. These systems could be more inexpensively controlled or monitored over a network running on the existing powerbus wiring. The POWERLAN network would allow any number of sub-systems network access, limited only by signal strength and addressing limitations imposed by the selected software link protocol. Phase I will develop a prototype network and demonstrate feasibility on simulated DC powerlines. This effort will lead to a full scale implementation and installation of the system on a suitable testbed vehicle for field testing during Phase II.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOC.
40 Lloyd Ave. Ste. 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 987-0600
Patrick A. Worfolk
AF 98-086
Title:Message Routing Algorithms for Satellite Constellations
Abstract:Hundreds of satellites will soon be orbiting the Earth forming new global communication networks. Messages will be routed through these networks via intersatellite links and an efficient routing is necessary for high data throughput and low latency. The topologies (connectivity) of these communication networks will change in time due to the motion of the satellites and due to failures in both the satellites and the links. These networks will require dynamic message routing algorithms that determine routing based on the network topology and the network load.The general routing problem is related to the "traveling salesman problem" and is NP-complete, meaning that it is computationally expensive to find the optimal solution. An effective routing algorithm would route packets in a near-optimal way with limited load and connectivity knowledge. This project if focused on the design, evaluation and simulation of such algorithms.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 E. Foothill Blvd.
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
TBD
AF 98-088
Title:Low Cost Rad-Hard CMOS Gate Arrays for Low Power Analog and Mixed Signal Applications
Abstract:Many spaceborne electronic systems sensors are used to collect data on the environment or to determine whether an action is required. While computation is always performed with digital circuits, the sensor interface generally requires analog signal conditioning. Size, weight, and power consumption could be minimized (and performance could be increased) by integrating both the analog and digital circuitry on the same die, but it is prohibitively expensive to make such mixed-signal devices rad-hard, especially in small to medium quantities. Tanner Research is proposing to develop a manufacturing technology and system that can produce rad-hard analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs) that are affordable in any volume. Furthermore, our process will be fast, delivering fabricated devices within three weeks from physical design signoff. We have already developed and demonstrated all but two of the key components for this process. We are currently enhancing and refining one of these two remaining technologies, and we are herein proposing to develop and demonstrate the remaining technology in Phase I.

AIREX CORP.
Route 108
Dover, NH 03820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 742-3703
David J. Carroll
AF 98-089
Title:Long Life, Fault Tolerant, Spacecraft Sensor Gimbal/Bearing System
Abstract:Current DoD sensor systems employ mechanical bearings in their gimbals to provide slow scan functionality. Mechanical bearings inherently possess a finite life and commonly suffer decreased reliability due to mechanical wear, excessive vibration and inadequate lubrication. The vacuum and temperature extremes of space provide significant technical challenges to these devices in life and pointing accuracy requirements due to stiction and non-repeatable runouts. Furthermore, they are completely unable to provide any vibration isolation to sensitive payloads.Recent advances in electromagnetic suspension and drive technology clearly lend themselves to application for significant improvement in gimbal mounting, promising greater gimbal life, lower weight and power, fault tolerance and vibration isolation. In particular, Airex Corporation, in a previous Phase I effort, has recently demonstrated the viability of two axis pointing using an electromagnetic suspension and integral motor bearing technology. Further, Airex has shown that integral motor-bearings, which use a single electromagnetic actuator to perform both the bearing and rotary pointing (motoring) functions, point the way to new gimbals that are highly reliable, low power, lubricant free, and long life. Such functional sophistication from a novel technology can expand performance in space-borne platforms from commercial or military spacecraft in communications, pointing or optical links.

INNOVATIVE DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY
3716 Chancellor Way
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 494-5658
David A. Nickel
AF 98-090
Title:Micro-Sensor for In-Situ Rolling Element Bearing Temperature and/or Pressure Measurement
Abstract:The overall objectives of the proposed program are to develop non-invasive, wear resistant, light weight sensors and instrumentation for in-situ monitoring of temperature and vapor pressure for space and land based anti-friction rolling element bearings. This will be achieved by depositing thin films of appropriate materials on the raceways of rolling element bearings using RF-sputter coating and patterning the coatings into micro-sensors using photolithography. RF-sputter coating allows deposition of coatings at temperatures less than 180 degrees C. Maintaining low temperatures is essential in assuring that the hardened bearing steel is not tempered. Zirconium and nichrome will be used for development of micro-temperature and pressure sensors respectively. In Phase I micro-temperature and pressure sensors will be fabricated and evaluated in a bearing simulator rig allowing rolling and sliding conditions. Sliding increases surface heating and shear stress and tests the durability of micro-sensors. These micro-sensors can be used with minor modifications to monitor lubricated contacts in aerospace and automotive applications (e.g. gears, journal bearings, seals, etc.). A thermal balance formed using a thermocouple junction both as a sensor and heating block will be used to measure vapor pressure. The vapor pressure and quartz micro-balance sensors will be used to monitor lubricant losses.

PHD RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
PO Box 248433
Coral Gables, FL 33124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 665-7415
Dr. Sanjay K. Roy
AF 98-091
Title:Heat Sink System for High Performance Electronics
Abstract:This proposal describes a research and development project to develop a heat spreader/heat sink that can be used as a cold plate or "thermal core" for high power electronic systems. The performance of the device is expected to be significantly better than current state-of-the-art heat spreaders made of the diamonds or composites such as TC1050. At the same time, the cost of the proposed system is expected to be well below those of TC1050-based systems. During the Phase I studies, experimental studies will be done to fabricate and test the performance of a prototype device in order to verify the concept. In addition, work will be done to identify interface requirements, manufacturing, cost and related issues. Based on the results, designs will be developed for long-term applications.

SPACE COMPUTER CORP.
2800 Olympic Blvd, Ste 104
Santa Monica, CA 90404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 829-7733
Nicholas J. Teneketges
AF 98-091
Title:High Thermal Conductivity 3-D Multichip Module Stack Technology
Abstract:We propose to introduce the use of recently-developed thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG) material to dramatically reduce the thermal resistance of low-cost, three-dimensional multichip module (MCM) stacking technology. A planar thermal conductivity of greater than 1700 W/m-K makes TPG nearly as conductive as pure diamond, at a small fraction of the cost. By comparison, most common electronic materials used for heat distribution provide thermal conductivities between 100 and 300 W/m-K. When reinforced with an encapsulation for greater strength and stiffness, the composite is usable for structural elements within the 3-D stack. Temperature rise within the 3-D stack may be reduced by factors of 5 or more if certain elements of the 3-D stack structure are replaced with TPG-based components. This type of reduction in temperature will have an enormous benefit on electronic circuit reliability , as well as extend the application of 3-D stack technology to systems required to operate over wide temperature ranges.

ELO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3205 Ocean Park Blvd.
Santa Monic, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 452-6688
Mike Sickmiller
AF 98-092
Title:Epitaxial Liftoff for Low Power Reduced Parasitics Multi-Chip Modules
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop ultra-low power semiconductor packaging techniques for Multi-Chip Modules. Substrate parasitics contribute to excess power consumption of semiconductor devices. Through substrate removal techniques, capacitance can be lowered and operating power can be significantly reduced. By thinning the semiconductor chip to the thickness of the device only, with no substrate, we can both eliminate stray substrate parasitics and reduce interconnect parasitics therefore reducing total power consumption.As semiconductor device frequencies climb, so, proportionally, does substrate parasitic power consumption. Through ELO, parasitics to the semiconductor substrate are completely eliminated. As an added benefit, the devices can be mounted directly to the heat sink without the thermally insulting substrate impeding heat sinking. Through epitaxial liftoff for MCMs, we can reduce semiconductor power consumption, reduce package interconnect power consumption, and improve heat sink efficiency all at the same time.

ASHWIN-USHAS CORP., INC.
206 Ticonderoga Blvd.
Freehold, NJ 07728
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 462-1270
Dr. P. Chandrasekhar
AF 98-093
Title:Conducting Polymer Based Actively IR Modulating Electrochromics
Abstract:In recent and ongoing work, this firm has developed, for a classified IR-counter-measures applications, large area, active electrochromic flat panel displays (FPDs), based on unique Conducting Polymer (CP) systems and a unique device design. These are very thin (less than 3 mm) and flexible, and exhibit high contrast in the mid/-far-IR (up to 93% Diffuse Reflectance range at 10 microns). Switching times of less than 1 sec, cyclabilities to 10**5 cycles, and charge capacities of 0.7 mC/cm**2 have been demonstrated, with seamless larger areas easily constructible. The present project will adapt and further develop this technology for active space-craft thermal control. Emissivity and absorptance characteristics will be measured and modeled, with special emphasis on adaptation to spacecraft thermal control requirements.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey St.
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Stuart F. Cogan
AF 98-093
Title:Variable Emittance Coatings for Satellite Thermal Control
Abstract:The development of thin-film electrochromic coatings for emittance control in the 5-25 um range is proposed. The coatings would be used on satellites and other space structures for modulating radiant heat transfer. They are intended to replace conventional mechanical louvers and provide a new capability to integrate thermal control functions onto a variety of external and internal spacecraft surfaces. The emittance switching is based on electrochromic reactions in thin-films of crystalline WO3 which undergo an infrared transmitting to reflecting modulation when electrochemically reduced to LixWO3. An all-thin-film electrochromic structure is proposed to provide a high degree of space environment stability. The objective of the Phase I program is to demonstrate the fabrication and performance of a thin-film variable emittance tile that would be used as a building block for integration into spacecraft hardware in a Phase Ii effort. The tiles developed in Phase I would have a total emittance modulation of >0.4 and an optically static solar absorptance of <0.18.

TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.
5495 Arapahoe Ave, Suite 204
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-2262
Scott Willen
AF 98-094
Title:Cryocooler Interface System
Abstract:For most cryogenically cooled systems, it is necessary to locate the cryocooler in close proximity to the cooled assemblies. This places highly demanding requirements on the cryocooler, its integration into the spacecraft, and subjects the cooled assembly to unwanted disturbances. Since the spacecraft radiator is usually remote from the cooled assemblies, a heavy conductive strap or heat pipe is required to transfer cryocooler heat dissipation, which added weight and decreases the cryocooler efficiency and reliability.Technology Applications, Inc. has defined a unique cryocooler interface system in which the cryocooler is located remote from the cooled elements. This Interface System greatly simplifies the cooling system integration and virtually eliminates all cryocooler disturbances. It also provides contract temperature cooling under variable loads, cooling large area and/or distributed elements, will accommodate cooling across a gimbal axis, is insensitive to gravity level, offers ease of redundancy, and interfaces with most types of cryocoolers.The Interface System requirements and their flowdown to the component level will be established. A preliminary design will be generated and optimized through system level parametric and detailed component analyses. The concept feasibility will then be demonstrated by testing of a brad-board model.

THERMACORE, INC.
780 Eden Road
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 969-6551
Nelson Gernert
AF 98-094
Title:Affordable Composite Material Heat Pipes
Abstract:The objective of the program is to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating the development of affordable, lightweight heat pipes that are made entirely from composite material. Composite material heat pipe technology will help to maintain spacecraft thermal control and will be compatible with attaching to the composite structural panels.The Phase I program has five technical tasks oriented towards demonstrating the feasibility of fabricating polymer composite material into the proper axial groove heat pipe geometry. Task 1 involved establishing the heat pipe thermal and structural requirements. Tasks 2 and 3 are associated to fabricating the desired axial groove geometry in small test segments and measuring material properties such as thermal conductivity, tensile strength, modulus, weight and the coefficient of thermal expansion. Tasks 4 and 5 will demonstrate composite heat pipe fabrication and verify its pressure strength through proof and burst testing.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2850 West Bayshore Rd.
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 494-7351
Conor D. Johnson
AF 98-095
Title:Vibration Isolation of Launch Vehicle Payloads
Abstract:Launch dynamics are a major design driver in structural design of spacecraft and their components. Launch survival is often a more difficult design problem than is insuring operational performance in orbit. The development of a multi-functional spacecraft adapter for an EELV (Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle) which integrates the three functions of spacecraft attachment, whole-spacecraft vibration isolation, and spacecraft release is proposed. Simultaneous design and integration of the isolation system, release mechanism, and adapter will lead to an optimized system. Reducing the dynamic loads on the spacecraft by whole-spacecraft isolation will allow lighter weight systems, greatly reduce the risk that the spacecraft and its instruments will be damaged from vibration during their ascent into orbit, and will also allow more sensitive equipment to be included in missions. As the severe launch environment also accounts for much of the expense of designing, qualifying, and testing spacecraft components, significant cost can also be saved if loads are reduced. Phase I will develop the concepts and design the isolation system. Low-shock release mechanisms will be designed into the system. System-level coupled-loads analyses will be performed using complete launch vehicle and spacecraft models. As the EELV is currently being developed, now is the ideal time to introduce whole-spacecraft isolation for this launch vehicle.

OMNITEK RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, INC.
1121 Walt Whitman Rd.
Melville, NY 11747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 351-0815
Ronald Rothchild
AF 98-095
Title:Semi-Active Isolation of Launch Vehicle Payloads with Very Low Transmissibility
Abstract:Payloads in a launch vehicle are mounted on standard payload attachment fittings which provide no vibration isolation, imposing severe requirements on payload design. There is a need for inexpensive and effective means to isolate the payload from vehicle vibration. Complications include conflicting requirements for compactness, high static strength, widely varying static load, secure tiedown, low dynamic spring rate and little or no interaction with launch vehicle control dynamics.OmniTek proposes to address this need with a passive/active hybrid (semi-active) system in which the mechanism of isolation is passive and parameters of the mechanical system are automatically adjusted for varying launch conditions. With the inclusion of a novel structural characteristic, the system can meet all the requirements without compromise.The objectives of Phase I are:1. Analyze and characterize the launch environment and equipment to develop design specifications, guides and priorities.2. Develop a number of alternative systems to the conceptual design stage for comparative evaluation.3. Compare and rate the design alternatives against specifications and select one concept for development to the prototype stage.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State St.
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 339-6500
Dr. Richard S. Smith III
AF 98-097
Title:TWHA: Tunable, Wide-Bandwidth, High-Average-Power, RF Amplifier
Abstract:MRC will develop a tunable, wide-bandwidth, high-average-power rf amplifier (TWHA) to meet DOD and industrial applications. Using a novel mechanical tuning approach, we will show feasibility of a tunable, UHF-amplitron design based on the fixed-frequency, S-band, super-power amplitron (QK1224) which MRC and Litton have shown can be scaled to lower frequencies. The amplitron's high efficiency allows a compact tube capable of delivering high-average-powers (~ 1 MW, comparable to the average power of a 1 -GW, 1 us, 1 -kHz rf source). A key program feature is the involvement of a major tube manufacturer (Litton) and an industrial partner (DuPont). Litton has sufficient interst in the commercial development of this technology to provide, at no cost, engineering manhours and facilities during Phase I. MRC will team with Litton in Phase II to build and demonstrate the operation of the TWHA. The DuPont collaboration assures the TWHA will meet their requirements for commercial applications. Discussions with industry have identified heat-treatment applications and plasma processing as commercial uses for the TWHA. DOD applications include: DEW, radar, and EW. The broad tuning range (~15%) and instantaneous bandwidth (~5%) allow radar to acquire more information with greater immunity to jamming EW a greater ability to jam.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH
15262 Pipeline Ln.
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 373-5509
Lee W. Olson
AF 98-097
Title:METRRA Shielded Cable Connector Tester (SCCT)
Abstract:Shielded cables are used as a primary hardness feature in nearly all EM hardened systems. In certain cases, such as High Intensity RF (HIRF) hardened commercial aircraft, shielded cables are the only hardening feature relied ypon. Therefore, if the cable shield is degraded, then the hardness of the entire system may be jeopardized. A number of test techniques and products have been developed and are available for the purpose of testing and evaluating the shielding effectiveness of shielded cables. However, none offer a practical and cost effective solution for rapid evaluation of a large number of shielded cables during system maintenance. The proposed project will demonstrate the feasibility of using non-linear effects in conjunction with wideband processing techniques to provide a non-invasive shielded cable transfer impedence measurement technique.

FERRITE COMPONENTS, INC.
24 Flagstone Dr.
Hudson, NH 03051
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 881-5234
William J. Alton
AF 98-098
Title:Vacuum High-Power Microwave Load
Abstract:A high power load is proposed in TM01 circular waveguide, which utilizes a low Curie Temperature ferrite (garnet material). The specially designed garnet materials would absorb by means of magnetic loss and would be limited to a temperature rise of less than 50 degree C as the magnetic loss would substantially disappear with this temperature rise. Techniques exist for attachment lossy ferrite into waveguide suitable for high vacuum, and are described in: Ultra-High Vacuum RF Load, Final Report Phase I, STTR Grant No. DE-FG02-96ER86049, W. J. Alton and E. P. Chojnacki. Previous activity related to a spinel ferrite which has substantial porosity. Garnet type ferrite materials have a superior microstructure. For this program garnet materials will be manufacturing and subjected to a secondary processing of hot isostatic pressing to achieve 100% density. Surface coating will also be used to maximize electric field capability. To eliminate heating considerations and thereby only test the survivibility in the presence of very high rf electric fields a test section will be fabricated for testing by the sponsor which will consist of a similar garnet composition but one which has essentially no rf magnetic or dielectric loss.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State St.
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 339-6500
Dr. John Pasour
AF 98-098
Title:Vacuum High-Power Microwave Load
Abstract:With the latest high-power microwave source developments, high-power microwave loads are needed that can operate in ultra-high vacuum environments at power levels in excess of 3 gigawatts and pulse durations of at least 1 microsecond. There are no commercially available microwave loads that can operate at the required power, energy and vacuum levels, and prototype or specially designed loads that have been developed for high power microwave sources have not yet been able to operate at these levels. MRC proposes to develop a highly absorptive, high-vacuum-compatable load for this application using innovative materials and geometry. A version of this load tailored to existing and planned Phillips Laboratory high-power microwave sources will be designed and developed, and applications of this new technology to a much broader range of microwave shielding problems will be addressed. Commercialization issues will be facilitated by MRC's collaboration with industrial partners that have unique materials processing capabilities and that have agreed to support this effort.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Everett G. Farr
AF 98-099
Title:High-Voltage, High Rep-Rate UWB Source with Ferroelectric Trigger
Abstract:We propose a ferroelectric trigger for a UWB source with high voltages and operated at high rep rate. The trigger will be simpler and more reliable than existing designs, and will be implemented at lower cost. In addition, the trigger will allow operation at much higher rep rates than existing designs. Finally, the proposed switch will have a lower jitter than competing designs. During Phase I we will carry out an experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of the trigger design. These experiments will carried out at lower voltages and gas pressures than the final design, but they will be sufficient to demonstrate the principle. We will also design a suitable antenna to radiate the field, and we will estimate the field radiated from the sombination source and antenna. The final product will be an integrated source and antenna with characteristics superior to those currently available.

PRO-TECH
47 Lafayette Circle #364
Lafayette, CA 94549
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 254-6651
Dr. David V. Giri
AF 98-099
Title:High-Power Triggered Gas Switches
Abstract:Examples of UWB sources that have used self-closing spark-gap type of gas switches are: 1)H-series systems at AFRL, 2)Sniper and EMBL at Sandia, and 3)Prototype IRA pulser built by Pro-Tech and PSI. There are several reasons for developing triggered versions of the basic high-voltage spark-gap. They include synchronization with an external event, timed-array antenna application for steering directed energy systms etc. We are proposing to design a short-pulse testbed facility in Phase I. The system will be fabricated and delivered in Phase II. This facility will be modular and flexible to permit studying different typer of electrical and laser triggers, gas mixes, electrode geometries etc. In Phase I, we will also design an appropriate dunny load and a candidate antenna array. Initially, a linear timed-array antenna will be considered and evaluated in Phase I. The dummy load and linear array will be fabricated in Phase II.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
500 Discovery Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 971-7836
Hill Roberts
AF 98-100
Title:Demo of Lethality of a Hot Isomeric Transitions Warhead Concept & Related Commercial Applications
Abstract:SRS Technologies proposes to define the isomer radiation requirements for biological lethality to implement a warhead concept for use in biological storage bunker sterilization and ballistic missile defense applications. We propose to develop a demonstration experiment to show that the radiation from a 178Hf isomer would be suitable to neutralize lethal biological materials. We also propose to show how isomer-produced gamma radiation could be useful to other defense and commercial applications in eight ares, including:1. high energy lasers2. communications 3. industrial gamma radiation sources 4. food preparation (sterilization) 5. medical irradiation 6. power & energy applications 7. environmental cleanup 8. defense applications

PULSE POWER PHYSICS, INC.
1039 Red Oaks Lp NE
Albuquerque, NM 87122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 856-1708
Charles A. Frost
AF 98-102
Title:Solid State Switched Array Impulse Source
Abstract:Powerful ultra-wideband impulse sources are currently developed for application to high resolution impulse radar, material penetrating radar, susceptibility testing, ECM, high power jammers, and covert communications. One approach to radiating the narrow impulses uses laser controlled photoconductive solid state switching (PCSS) to coherently drive arrays of multiple radiating antennas. Because the laser controlled switches can be triggered with low jitter, this modular approach allows efficient beam forming and steering.For some applications alternative low jitter triggered switches which are small, inexpensive, and have very long lifetimes are needed. For example, a compact array powered by miniature synchronized pulsers could be used for ground surveillance radar, as a covert communications link, and also as a convenient source for RCS measurements and antenna calibration. We will develop a solid-state switched array impulse source for these applications.The solid-state switched array impulse sources could also be used as lightweight impulse radar transmitters for airborne radar systems for detecting and identifying surface or sub-surface UXO and land mines and for military target discrimination at long range. The triggered solid-state switches could be used directly as Pockels cell drivers, laser drivers, and for laboratory pulse generators.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2849 East Elvira Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
Dr. Clint Bickmore
AF 98-103
Title:Electromagnetic Nanopowders for Rapid Neutralization of Airborne Chemicals
Abstract:There is an acute need for improved and reliable technology for capturing and neutralizing airborne chemicals for both military and civilian applications given the increasing threat of chemical warfare by terrorists or accidental release of airborne chemicals. Of particular concern are scenarios where a large plume of chemical agent is already airborne. Nanomaterials Research Corp (NRC) will during Phase I, demonstrate the proof-of-concept of a technology that could potentially contain and neutralize airborne chemicals. Phase II will further develop, optimize and test the technology. Phase III will commercialize this technology.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH
15262 Pipeline Ln.
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 373-5509
Jay B. Cleckler
AF 98-103
Title:Neutralization of Airborne Chemical by Sonic Beam Flocculation
Abstract:The international proliferation of chemical weapons of mass destruction agents has become a very serious threat to national security.. A critical need exists to neutralize airborne chemical agents, in the event of their deliberate, collateral or accidental release. Sonic flocculation is a proven technique that rapidly and efficiently settles airborne droplets, dust and smoke. Intense high frequency sonic fields induce the rapid agglomeration of suspended particulates. The resulting heavier particles rapidly settle from the air to the ground. During Phase I, SARA will perform critical experiments to quantify the sonic frequency and intensity levels required to rapidly (under 30 sec) neutralize airborne fogs and dusts. Simulant materials will be chosen to provide particle sizes and densities comparable to actual specified chemical or biological warfare agents. To achieve sonic flocculation of large air volumes, high energy sources are required (>10's of Kilowatts). SARA's High energy acoustic beam weapon technology can significantly exceed these acoustic powers. Our Phase II experiments will be used to design the Phase II test device for critical outdoor (field demonstations). In addition to military application, sonic flocculation can be applied to anti-terrorist missions as well as control of accidental (industrial) releases of hazardous materials.

GEOPHEX, LTD.
605 Mercury St.
Raleigh, NC 27603
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 839-8515
Dr. I. J. Won
AF 98-104
Title:Broadband Electromagnetic Sensing for Weapons Detection
Abstract:The interest in detecting hand-carried weapons has significantly increased due to the recent trend toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws. In 1995, the Justice Dept launched a 2.15 million dollar initiative to develop and field-test several concealed weapons detection technologies. The methods being studied include low-frequency electromagnetic detection, passive milimeter wave imaging, magnetic radiation, low level x-rays, radar and ultrasound, and low frequency magnetic imaging. We propose a new innovative low-frequency electromagnetic induction method that measures the characteristic canonical resonance spectra of a suite of known weapons and matches the measured spectrum from a hidden weapon with those stored in computer memory. We have accumulated evidence that the broadband resonance characteristics can detect and usiquely identify a weapon (eventually and hopefully by its maker and model name). We will utilize an existing in-house broadband, prototype EM sensor (called GEM-3) that is capable of measuring time - or frequency-domain data. Through our frequency-domain processing , we will address the relationship between the poles in the rational-polynomial approximation to the model frequencies. Through our time-domain processing, we will address the analgous problem of estimating the numbe of resonant modes excited. The unique feature that our prototype sensor allows is the simultaneous generation of frequency- and time-domain data. In the course of this proposed program, we will systematically study the relative merits of processing time- and frequency-domain data and the method of fusing the two response characteristics.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Everett G. Farr
AF 98-105
Title:Ultra-Wideband Radar System for Locating Plastic Mines
Abstract:The problem of mine detection and location is particularly difficult when the mines are built from a plastic or dielectric material. Metal detectors are able to detect metal mines, but plastic mines blend in very well with the background soil and rocks. A promising approach for detecting plastic mines is the use of Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radar. In this project we will explore and develop methods to identify the location of a mine, and to discriminate it from its background. Ther are two methods one might use to identify and locate plastic mines. First, when excited by a UWB pulse, a mine will resonate at one or more of its characteristic frequencies. These radiated characteristic frequencies can be extracted from the scattered field using the matrix pencil technique. Second, one can use polarization diversity to discriminate between rocks and mines. It has been shown that regularly shaped objects such as mines can radiate no cross-polarized signal. In contrast, various natural objects such as rocksare asymmetrical, and will in fact radiate a cross-polarized signal. By employing one or both of these techniques one can hope to solve the most difficult problems in mine location.During Phase I we will design a UWB radar system that will capable of locating and identifying a plastic mine. We will set up a simple system using low voltage electronics and available equipment. We will extract poles using the matrix pencil technique and we will compare the extracted poles to existing theory. We will explore polarization diversity, by considering measuring both polarizations.

AVTEC SYSTEMS, INC.
10530 Rosehaven Street
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 273-2211
Thomas T. Griffith
AF 98-106
Title:Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS) Integration into Satellite Operations Infrastructures
Abstract:Three government agencies are working collectively to define and implement SCPS for the Federal Government. In addition, commercial industry is attempting to expand their product line support of Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS) and other Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) specifications to support current and existing customer requirements. The Air Force is currently identifying, isolating, and mitigating risks associated with the integration of, and migration to, SCPS within their space communications and management networks, such as the Air Force Space Control Network (AFSCN). Phase I activities will include investigating existing architectures and configurations, operational and security procedures, and newer technology-based commercial offerings to evaluate the impacts and benefits to the existing and future AFSCN infrastructure. Areas of investigation include experienced latencies, delay variations, acknowledgment strategies, bandwidth utilization factors, and error effects. Avtec will use its space communications ground system products as a foundation for the experiments and incorporate additional Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products and advanced tools to emulate the AFSCN environment, including necessary DOD security mechanisms. The results of this investigation will identify candidate equipment architectures for the AFSCN environment which will be further investigated and tested under Phase II.

PRINCETON MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3 Nami Lane
Mercerville, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 586-8140
Sarjit S. Bharj
AF 98-107
Title:Affordable Array Antennas for Multiple Satellite Links
Abstract:For tactical communication systems parabolic antennas can acquire a single satellite but requires complex mechanical structure and control systems. For multiple satellite links, separate antennas are necessary. This consumes valuable area on the ship, and requires more hardware and resources. With the availability of a mature monolithic microwave based Transmit/Receive modules it is now possible to look at alternative concepts. The availability of the T/R modules alone is not sufficient if a low cost shared aperture antenna is to be realized. Innovative front end partitioning and use of other technologies, such as multilayer printed circuit microwave technology or low temperature co-fired ceramics needs to be incorporated. For an antenna to acquire two simultaneous satellite links in the X-band, C-band, and KU-band requires an innovative concept that will compete with the single parabolic concept. It is important to realize that the signal to noise ratio at the input of the antenna, based on a constant power radiated from a distant satellite, is determined by the aperature of the antenna. Any elements introduced behind the antenna aperature, such as filters or amplifiers with a known loss or noise figure, will degrade the subsequent signal to noise ratio. Active phase array radars require solid state T/R modules with high output poster, low noise figure, high third order intercept, and sufficient gain. The T/R module cost is typically 40% of the antenna cost and, therefore, it is important to realize that an innovative concept with an architecture that requires a milumum number of the active components. The Multibeam Array approach proposed under this Phase I SBIR can be utilized for either the narrow or wideband arrays. The capability for changing the array excitation, amplitude, and phase distribution across a particular aperture requires a control circuit, a Sideband power splitter or feed network, and a wideband antenna element. The specific technical objectives of the Phase I SBIR proposed herein examines the critical issues that will make a Multibeam aperature phase array antenna a practical technology. The requirement to operate several systems simultaneously from a conunon aperature can be achieved by using a control circuit at each element. The control circuit consists of an arrangement of a multiplexer, an attenuator, and a phase shifter. The multiplexer is used to partition the aperature into several simultaneously operating antennas. The attenuato

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 859-9161
Jim Durkin
AF 98-108
Title:Military Space Ground Link Interface Unit
Abstract:As satellite usage increases, several efforts have been initiated to develop new payload delivery protocols, though existing payload protocols must also continue to be supported. Similarly, the migration of end users to new WAN protocols has resulted in requirements to seamlessly support both existing and new formats. A modular Space Ground Link Interface Unit is needed to provide translation between the various satellite payloads and end user protocols. SRC proposes an innovative, comprehensive, and efficient solution to achieve the goals of the Space Ground Link Interface Unit. By developing a Common Payload Format, SRC will reduce the required number of unique interfaces resulting in simplified development, improved scalability, and reduces cost. Routing and switching between two different protocols is not a straightforward task, however SRC specifies solutions to maintain routing tables and address mapping for various operational requirements. Most importantly, SRC has previously developed a modular architecture, designed expressly to bridge network protocols to wireless channels, that will readily support the Space Ground Link Interface Unit requirements. Using existing IP and ATM modules, SRC will demonstrate the "plug and use" configuration to develop a proof of concept prototype to be used as the basis for continuing development.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison K. Brown
AF 98-109
Title:Jammer and Spoofer Detection, Direction Finding, and Location Technology
Abstract:A GPS Integrated Rammer and Spoofer Location (GIJLoc) determination system is proposed Conventional jammer locating equipment consists of dedicated electronic intelligence gathering platforms, which are practical against a relatively small number of high power, high value jammers, but are not practical against the expected GPS jamming three GPS jamming is likely to be ubiquitous, covering the battlefield with a large number o relatively low power jammers. More data is required to locate a large number of jammez than can be collected by a small number of dedicated platforms. Additional dedicated platforms are not practical. Future anti-jam GPS receivers will contain the equipment and information needed to act as data gathering platforms for locating Hammers and spoofers. Because such receivers will already be in the field, they are an ideal source for collecting the necessary data. A system architecture will be developed that collects data from future anti-jam GPS receivers and communicates that data to a central location where the location of jammers and spoofers are determined.

MITECH, INC.
8484 Georgia Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 563-3000
Klaus Schug
AF 98-111
Title:An Interoperable, Resource Efficient, High Throughput Satellite Data Link Protocol
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to design an interoperable, resource efficient, high throughput satellite data link protocol, SCPS-DL, that interoperates with military and commercial standard (TCP/IP) networking and link layer protocols. Analyses and simulation will also be performed to compare satellite resource use when the newly defined data link control protocol is used with the SCPS upper layer protocols versus the use of standard data link and networking protocols. Because one of the primary design goals of a data link control protocol for satellite systems is interoperability with existing protocols and standards, an SCPS-DL protocol is the most interoperable and standards based design starting point. The use of the CCSDS specifications provide a large step towards a low cost, low risk, and short implementation schedule for the satellite data link control protocol. The resulting design specification will be proposed to the CCSDS, ISO, and IEEE standardization committees as a satellite and space link data link layer protocol.

ALPHA OMEGA ELECTROMAGNETICS
24 CADCADE ROAD
ARNOLD, MD 21012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 626-7052
ROBERT G SCHMIER
AF 98-112
Title:LOW INTERFERENCE CROSS POLARIZATION PHASED ARRAY RADIATING ELEMENTS
Abstract:Phased arrays are becoming increasingly desired in communication applications because of their high performance capability and relative ease of installation into mobile platforms. However, present-day phased arrays cannot maintain pure polarization characteristics over a large scan column. This polarization degradation with scan leads to cross-polarization interference in operating in an array environment. Alpha Omega Electromagnetics (AOE) will conduct a systematic and rigorous EM-simulation based investigation of array effects (including the use of WAIMs) on the polarization of radiating elements. This information will then be applied to the design of AOE's proposed dual-polarized high-cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) radiating element candidates. AOE wil employ proprietary finite element and moment method electromagnetic simulation software to accurately predict the element's scanning and polarization performance. This state-of-the-art software has been extensively validated and has led to numerous advanced technology radar aperture designs over the past decade. In Phase I, AOE will evaluate the viability of it's proposed radiating element configurations as solutions to the hgh XPD wide-scanning radiating element problem. From this investigation, AOE will produce a fundamental and credible design which will be demonstrated by hardware in Phase II of the effort.

RANDLE, INC.
P. O. Box 1010
Great Falls, VA 22066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 759-5257
Ted W. Frison
AF 98-114
Title:NLM Secure Satellite Communications
Abstract:We have, and will demonstrate, an operational radio frequency digital nonlinear communications transceiver that uses a chaotic signal generator for signal encoding. This system solves the problem of synchronizing remote chaotic oscillators in noisy environments while utilizing the entire bandwidth for information transmission. The encoding scheme has been shown to be an NP complete solution to information encryption, which means that an exhaustive search is the only technical means for breaking the encoding. The waveform has a Gaussian distribution, which makes hostile interception difficult. The hardware is inexpensive and can easily be integrated into existing digital communications architectures. The Phase I project will define an optimum multistable chaotic transceiver system encoder/decoder suitable for satellite communications, build an engineering prototype, and test it for noise and channel distortion robustness. Thus, we have already met most of the major requirements of the solicitation for Phase I as well as some of the Phase II objectives.

GMA INDUSTRIES, INC.
2530 Riva Road
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 571-0300
R. Glenn Wright
AF 98-115
Title:Lossless Parallel Adaptive Compression for Satellite Networks
Abstract:Traffic on today's communications networks of interconnected Local and Wide Area Networks is limited mainly by the bandwidth of the communication channel. Increasing bandwidth to accommodate the high data rate of multi-tactic transmissions is necessary. One way to balance the situation is to harness available local processing power to compress data before it is transmitted. We propose an alternative system in which the compression process is offloaded to a dedicated processor to allow real time compression while minimizing the impact on local system performance. Digital signal processing techniques are used to implement real time adaptive compression algorithms to reduce the volume of data to be transmitted. Multiple algorithms for entropy encoding are run in parallel to produce results from which the best compression of a stream of data may be selected. The networking of computers via satellite systems introduces a particular subset of problems that must be considered for real time compression of transmitted data. To produce a robust lossless compression system, the interaction of various elements of the communication system such that transmission protocols, protocol headers, data encryption, and timing delays, are investigated.

STAR COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2213 Abbotsford Drive
Vienna, VA 22181
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 255-2388
Mike Smisko
AF 98-116
Title:Security and Robustness Enhancement Techniques for Commercial SATCOM
Abstract:Techniques to enhance the security and survivability of commercial Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) systems are needed, which are technically innovative in one or more of three areas. First, signal processing techniques to reduce LPI/LPD and increase resistance to jamming and geolocation are needed which are effective while still maintaining compatibility and interoperability of the mobile user terminal with the MSS satellite, gateway, and other operational elements. Second, satellite network signaling, control, and key management techniques are needed that will reduce vulnerability to traffic analysis, and support introduction of existing, highly capable cryptographic algorithms while maintaining interoperability with existing and emerging commercial MSS. Third, terminal design enhancements in antenna, A/J, and other areas are needed capable of reducing the circular equivalent vulnerability radius of small mobile terminals, while again maintaining MSS interoperability. Together, these design innovations will enable offloading oversubscribed military satellite capacity by allowing military use of commercial MSS assets, which are undergoing a period of rapid expansion. The goal of this research is to determine how low vulnerability of existing and emerging commercial MSS can be driven, and to validate the achievability of vulnerability reduction sufficient to allow widespread, effective use of commercial MSS by the U.S. military.

LINCOM CORP.
300 West Main Street
Northboro, MA 01532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 393-6959
Ronald Lapinski
AF 98-117
Title:Simulation Toolkits for Switching Satellite Communications Systems
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I effort is to define a core model of a packet/circuit switched satellite system, based on a commercial modeling and simulation tool, which can be leveraged in future simulation efforts. The functions to be simulated in the future and the metrics to be obtained in these simulations will be determined and prioritized so that the core model contains the appropriate detail and is easily adaptable to a variety of future applications. In addition to defining the core model, key portions of the model will be implemented and demonstrated to prove the feasibility of this concept. Finally, a users manual will be developed to provide an understanding of the core model and guidance on how to adapt the model to support a variety of simulations. The Phase II effort will build on Phase I by completing the implementation of the core model. This model will be exercised to verify and validate the model. Finally, this model will be demonstrated and delivered with documentation to provide guidance on using the core model as the basis for future models and simulations.

SYNECTICS CORP.
111 East Chestnut Street
Rome, NY 13440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 337-3510
Joseph Riolo
AF 98-118
Title:Object-Oriented Satellite Communications Management
Abstract:The objective of this proposed program is to design an object-oriented architecture for satellite communications management using world wide web (WWW) technology. The design will be an object oriented three-tier data base architecture based on the Java language. The architecture will consist of four parts: The monitoring subsystem, the coordination subsystem, the simulation subsystem, and the user interface subsystem. They will interact with each other as well as with the Automated Communications Management System (ACMS). The developed system will utilize the ACMS data base as its primary source of information. Two prototypes will emerge from Phase I, the coordination management system and the simulati tool. Each prototype will benefit military as well as future commercial satellite communica management systems.

Q-DOT
1069 ELDTON DRIVE
COLORADO SPRINGS, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
MARC A MORIN
AF 98-119
Title:RF DELTA-SIGMA DIGITAL BEAMFORMER
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop an innovative digital beamformer suitable for satellite payloads for the Air Force. Based on bandpass delta-sigma data conversion technology, wideband radio frequency (RF) signals are sampled at a high intermediate frequency (IF) within a transmit/receive (T/R) module. Digital beamforming is performed directly on the one-bit delta-sigma data output from the T/R module thus saving significant size and power over competing digital beamformer architectures. Multi-beam applications are also supported. The high-speed requirements of the delta-sigma modulator and large scale integration of the digital signal processing will be met with custom integrated circuit (IC) design on an advanced SiGe HBT/CMOS process. Q-DOT is on the cutting edge of high-speed delta-sigma modulator IC development for digital beamformers in radar, communications, ultrasound, and sonar applications.During Phase I system specifications will be determined for the satellite digital beamformer. Preliminary topologies for the T/R module and beamformer will be investigated. A testbed architecture will also be developed. During Phase II, a prototype digital beamformer and/or test-bed will be built targeting specific governement and commercial applications. Substantial interest expressed in the proposed RF delta=sigma beamformer by government and commercial customers promises rapid deployment of Phase III products.

RADIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
329 N BERNARDO AVENUE
MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 988-4700
BRADLEY J BAZUIN PHD
AF 98-119
Title:FLEXIBLE ALL-DIGITAL MULTI-BEAM TRANSPONDER FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal defines and architects an all-digital, multi-beam transponder for satellite communications, the ADMBT. The transponder architecture consists of flexible, digital processing components to perform all required signal processing operations.The ADMBT architecture receives satellite channels using a multiple antenna array and downconverts the channels to intermediate frequencies for high-rate, wide bandwidth digitization. The digitized data is channelized to a comon bandwidth and then partial bandwidth synthesized to the bandwidths needed for each of the signals-of-interest across multiple antennas. The SOI antenna vectors are then independently processed using either fixed or adaptive beamforming algorithms to produce the desired baseband SOIs. Post-beamforming, an on-board baseband processor is available to retune, reformat, or restructure the incoming SOIs for retransmission. The output SOIs are spatially beamformed for transmission using a-priori, conjugate, or otimal retro-directive beamforming weights. The multi-antenna spatial SOI data is then partial bandwidth channelized, combined with other overlapping and non-overlapping SOI cells, and synthesized into appropriate digital IF channels. To complete the process, the wide bandwidth digital IF channels are converted to analog, upconverted to the transmission frequency, and amplified for transmission.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-5530
Mr. Claudio S. Marino
AF 98-120
Title:Multi-Algorithm Satellite Reconfigurable Architecture in Order to Counter Intelligent Jamming
Abstract:The recent explosion in satellite communications has propelled a concurrent effort in flexible satellite communications systems architectural design. Satellite constraints and other pressures have led developers to seek new architectures for more robust application-specific adaptive signal processing that can be housed in more compact form factors, has lower power and weight requirements, has more processing capacity, and is cost-effective and flexible. Here, ORINCON proposes a novel approach that consists of a number of interconnected processors operating in pipelined and parallel modes to support several types of adaptive nulling algorithms. The design will comprise a mixed architecture with Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Field Programmable Interface Connections for programmable interconnects for programmable logic, ASIC's; such as DSP chips for the floating point operations, and CORDIC processors for coordinate rotations to triangularize matrices. Innovative hardware platforms, such as the novel architecture mentioned above, blur the traditional boundaries that exist between hardware and software bringing out the best features of both environments. Configware systems that allow for field reprogrammability as in the proposed satellite architecture are fundamentally defined by their ability to adapt or completely reconfigure themselves, making them suitable for a host of traditional adaptive nulling algorithms.

LINCOM CORP.
727 23rd Street South
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 979-5360
Louis J. Sparace
AF 98-121
Title:EHF/SHF/Ka Communications Link Attenuation and Availability Model
Abstract:This proposal describes how LinCom will develop a windows based computer program to estimate earth-space rain attenuation and link availability at the EHF, Ka, and SHF frequency bands. This SBIR will improve the present rain models by developing a weather database to be used for estimating rain statistics and effective slant range for any given site on the earth. Given this data, rain attenuation and link availability for a given link margin can be predicted more accurately. In Phase I, LinCom will implement a number of the existing rain models including the NASA LeRC-SLAM model for selected locations. Results will be verified using published ACTS measurements and other published reference material as required for verification. During this phase, global weather data collection will begin as a prerequisite for Phase II where a global weather database will be developed. A system requirements review will also be performed to preview the Satcom tool. For Phase II, LinCom will develop a window based software package leveraging off existing Satcom tools LinCom has developed for the EHF community. The software will allow the operator to examine a specific earth-space link or simply allow the user to point beams and generate beam link availability contours.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 RESEARCH PLACE SUITE 202
ROCKVILLE, MA 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
JIANHONG CAI
AF 98-122
Title:AN OPTOELECTRONIC THYRISTOR BASED ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER
Abstract:A unique thyristor laser implements a high performance Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) in a monolithic FET GaAs integrated circuit. In the curent high speed FLASH ADC, the comparator circuit performs in the sampling on the input analog signal by comparing it to a voltage reference tree and the outputs are converted to binary form via a decimal to binary (DTB) algorithm stored in a ROM. To achieve substantial increases in ADC accuracy, speed and circuit density, we propose a comparator based on an optoelectronic thyristor which is electrically switched and provides laser ouput as a VCSEL in the on state. We introduce an elegant new architecture to implement the ADC function which merges the roles of the quantization, the DTB conversion and the O/E conversion within a simple integrated circuit. One thyristor and one Differential amplifier are required per binary digit. This new approach reduces the number of devices required for a 12 bit ADC from 100,000 to 70 and reduces the ADC delay from 50ns to 0.5ns. The power is correspondingly reduced and the output is a digital optical signal in serial or parallel format. The voltage resolution is in the 5mV range limited only by the dark current noise in the switch. This approach provides a quantum leap in an N bit ADC speed because the output is obtained optically in the time that it takes the analog signal to ripple through N stages at 40ps/stage. This technique promises to revolutionize the art of ADC and to provide the basis for very high speed image transfer for the future all digital network. In addition to this novel conversion we also provide the integrated technology to realize the VCSEL thyristor, the FET amplifier and CCD sensor simultaneously.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS
55 Wheeler Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Subrata K. Das
AF 98-124
Title:ILIA: Intelligent and Learning Interface Agent
Abstract:We propose to deploy our commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology Learn Sesame to develop a generic Intelligent and Learning Interface Agent (ILIA) to empower application developers to design interfaces that adapt themselves to the habits and preferences of users through learning. The agent interprets sequences of events that are generated from user interactions and then produces facts that represent relationships between the user behavior patterns with associated uncertainty into a cognitive model of the user. The learned facts are then used to provide assistance in customizing interfaces to fit the user needs through non-intrusive tutoring. The proposed agent will operate as a common support application, part of the Defense Information Infrastructure (DII) Common Operating Environment (COE), and therefore be embeddable within various complex applications such as combat support, tactical, and strategic mission. Our proposed agent architecture will be fully compliant with DII COE requirements in the areas of runtime environment, style guide, architectural compatibility, and software quality.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 S. Amphlett Blvd.
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Terrance Goan
AF 98-124
Title:A General Framework for Incorporating Intelligent Agents into User Interfaces
Abstract:We propose an innovative combination of modern artificial intelligence (AI) and human-computer interaction (HCI) techniques in the design of an adaptive interface agent architecture. By drawing on our experience developing software agents, machine learning, and plan recognition techniques we have devised an eclectic approach to the incorporation of intelligence in a wide variety of user interfaces. Specifically, the proposed generalized intelligent interface framework (GIIF) will offer significant improvements in operational effectiveness by working collaboratively with the user to streamline tasks, automate repetitive procedures, and otherwise adapt the user interface to reduce complexity and increase user effectiveness. In this endeavor, we will take advantage of a natural synergy between "programming by demonstration," decision process modeling, and new plan recognition techniques in order to develop a set of generic tools that can be used to integrate intelligent interface agents into present and future Common Operating Environment (COE) applications. The GIIF will also provide the capability to assist less-experienced users of the applications by offering in-situ advice. We will prove the feasibility of our approach by developing and demonstrating a proof-of-concept prototype in Phase I.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
27 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Charles J. Jacobus, PhD
AF 98-125
Title:Data Object-Oriented Middleware from Object Descriptions
Abstract:This proposal suggests that a basic data collection, management, and fusion framework is ideally suited for integrating distributed data from multiple heterogeneous source systems and making it available on a multi-point basis to other combat systems for analysis, viewing, and C**4I applications. The basic framework proposed was built (and is currently under ongoing development) to support object-oriented, temporally consistent multi-point data collection, archival, and query. This environment is structured into three major C++ software components: (1) the Data Interchange Library, (2) the Data Collection Environment, and the (3) Data Viewing, Analysis, and Management Environment. This environment is supported on Win 32 platforms (i.e. Windows 95 and NT), Posix Platforms (i.e. Unix derivatives), and embedded system (DSPs, MS-DOS machines, and other microcontrollers). Our goal in this project is provide an interface from IDEF object definitions and the object oriented data collection, management, and fusion framework.

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21311 Hawthorne Boulevard
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-5433
Dr. C. Michael Dube
AF 98-126
Title:ISR Modeling and Simulation Interfaces to Support C4I Decision Aids and Force Analysis
Abstract:Dynamics Technology Inc. (DTI) and Simulation Support Inc. (SimSupport) will develop improved C41 modeling and simulation (M&S) interfaces to support rapid command evaluation/alternatives, force structure analysis and training. Specific emphasis will be on interfacing advanced intel/surveillance/reconnaissance (ISR) performance prediction models with relevant legacy models that form the core of current Air Force C41 M&S (e.g. THUNDER, EADSIM, SPAM, OPUS, CFAM). This work supports efforts at ESC/DIS MSTPAD, AFSAA and other offices to integrate the effects of advanced C41 components into high fidelity models, linked to military effectiveness simulations. The approach builds on an Air Force sponsored, DTI-developed suite of ISR system performance models that convert technology specifications into the measures of performance (probability of detection and false alarm) required by mission/campaign level simulations and force allocation programs. These models extend the limited ISR performance database and enable the user to evaluate novel technology options, nonstandard system configurations and new operating modes. In Phase 1, we will: (1 ) refine the functional configuration and features outlined in the proposal, (2) develop software requirements for stand-alone and HLA links to legacy codes, (3) develop a representative prototype interface to illustrate the concept and demonstrate feasibility, and (4) develop Phase 11 implementation requirements.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Darrin Taylor
AF 98-126
Title:A Suite of HLA Multi-Federation Tools
Abstract:HLA provides the opportunity to maximize the reuse, interoperability, and utility of modeling and simulation components. However, it is up to simulation developers and tool manufacturers to create components that take advantage of these powerful HLA features. MaK, the leading supplier of HLA tools, proposes to address this need with a suite of flexible tools that can be used by the Air Force in different simulation domains and in multi-level exercises. MaK proposes the development of a set of HLA multi-federation tools that support multiple simulation domains, as well as multiple levels of simulation. The tool suite will be built on a flexible VR-Link-based interface that provides network functionality, access to the RTI's services, and federation-specific utilities. By leveraging existing COTS tools, applying their knowledge of HLA, and capitalizing on the commonality among the tools, MaK can provide a low-cost, low-risk solution that meets the functional and technical requirements. MaK's flexible HLA interface will support multiple FOMs and provide access to federate-specific functionality. MaK will work closely with both the MASC and the CUBE to ensure that the resulting interface meets federation-specific requirements, specifically those dealing with C2. As a test case, the resulting design will be used to re-architect MaK's current HLA Stealth into an HLA multi-federation Stealth. MaK is the ideal candidate to provide the Air Force with the next generation HLA tool suite because of their extensive knowledge of HLA, their ability to leverage existing commercial HLA Tools, and their direct experience developing multi-level simulation tools, such as a Stealth that can be used for both entity-level and aggregate-level visualization.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
3085 Woodman Drive
Dayton, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 299-5999
Mary Lou Fricke
AF 98-126
Title:Collaborative Legacy Re-Engineering through Componentization of Tools and Resources (COLECTR)
Abstract:The consolidation of Air Force Laboratories into the single Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) integrates organizations in New York with organizations in Ohio. This consolidation, coupled with declining defense budgets and personnel, increases the urgency of implementing the AFRL Collaborative Engineering Environment to support collaboration on C4I research. In order for the CEE to support mission requirements, the CEE must be integrated with existing research models and simulations (M&S) and analysis tools. S*R proposes to develop the COLECTR tool set to automate much of the task to integrate legacy applications with the CEE Core Processing System (CPS). Integration with the CEE will be supported by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation (Ball); as Ball is developing the CEE infrastructure. COLECTR will incorporate a set of software re-engineering tools in a CEE compliant agent called the Legacy Introspection Agent (LIA). LIA will seamless integrate with the CPS to support integrating legacy applications. In Phase I, S*R will integrate a prototype of COLECTR and integrate it as an external CEE application to demonstrate the system functional capabilities. The LIA will then be designed and implementation of Java tools to support Phase II implementation will continue during the last six months of Phase I.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 524-6263
Dr.Christopher Donohue
AF 98-127
Title:ISR Strategy Optimizer
Abstract:This research effort will develop technology for optimizing strategy selection for a set of airborne intelligence collection platforms. This problem is important because of the need to maintain precise situational awareness of the battlespace given limited assets of different types/capabilities. Developing, analyzing, and comparing multiple strategies is difficult because of the large number of strategy dependent variables and the overwhelming complexity of the collection planning problem. To optimize strategy selection, we cast the collection planning problem as a grid-based network program and extend that formulation to include strategic variables (e.g., bed down locations, number/type of assets) and additional restrictions (e.g., threat zones). Solving this network program will provide important strategic direction concerning the optimal mix of assets, optimal bed down locations, and sensitivity to problem parameters such as threat zones; as well as provide a rapid estimate of the expected collection performance. Phase I will demonstrate a methodology for optimizing strategy selection based upon large-scale combinatorial optimization. We will implement a capability to view multiple strategies including tradeoffs of strategic variables with a graphical display of the results. Phase II will implement a more comprehensive solution methodology and develop a plan for insertion into theater-level collection management systems.

ANDRO CONSULTING SERVICES
P. O. Box 543
Rome, NY 13440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 337-4396
A. L. Drozd
AF 98-127
Title:Innovatiive C4I Technologies - ANDRO's Collaborative Engineering Environment System (CEESys) - An IPT Tool
Abstract: Abstract not available...

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
P. O. Box 24344
Minneapolis, MN 55424
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 935-2035
Dr. John R. Budenski
AF 98-127
Title:Agent-Based Planning Execution and Monitoring
Abstract:Superior information over one's adversary allows control of the battlespace, and ultimately provides opportunities to tales advantage of me adversary's vulnerability. C4I planning is critical to shape and control the pace and phasing of battlespace engagements, and requires direct access to battlespace information in order to utilize it effectively. Effective C4I planning requires the ability to seek out relevant information sources; connect them into the plan where their information flow contributes; monitor the information flow to determine changes to the battlespace; and reacting to those changes. In Phase I, an Agent-Based Planning, Execution, and Monitoring Architecture will be designed that provides dynamic, distributed, and interleaved planning and execution across C4I systems. Our goal is not to recreate planning technology, but to extend it with plan execution and monitoring techniques. In our approach informational-need is used to plan out high level goals, and then configure feedback-control, data-flow networks from information sources to those goals. During execution, data-flows are monitored and the plan network is reconfigured as the battlespace changes or as goals are achieved/failed. Thus, the data-flow provides feedback control to react to small permutations in the battlespace, and the data-flow monitoring provides reaction and replanning-triggers to large permutations.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOC.
40 Lloyd Avenue
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. C. Allen Butler
AF 98-127
Title:Innovative C4I Technologies
Abstract:This research will focus on improving the situational awareness of AWACS operators to enhance mission performance through the introduction of "Level-2" data fusion capabilities. Level 2 fusion refers to information processing techniques that relate contact data to tactical situations described at a higher level. The basic approaches are to model competing hypotheses of track behavior at the level of tactical intent, and then to create motion and location track trajectories that correspond to those hypotheses. The algorithms then compare detections and non-detections to these models and recompute the relative likelihoods of the various trajectories. These trajectory likelihoods can then be used to reassess the likelihoods of the tactical intentions. Phase I will investigate the requirements by direct contact with AWACS operators and design a set of demonstrations for Phase II prototype installation at the Boeing AWACS Simulator Facility.

DERIVATION SYSTEMS, INC.
5963 La Place Court
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 431-1400
Dr. Bhaskar Bose
AF 98-127
Title:Secure JAVA Reconfigurable Computing Platform
Abstract:Derivation Systems, Inc. proposes to architect a secure JAVA based low-cost, high-performance, high assurance, scalable reconfigurable computing platforrn. Advanced research in this methodology is fundamental to the development of secure configurable hardware systems with executable content over the Internet, advancements to design methodology, and has broad impact on Global Information Exchange, telecommunications, banking transportation control, and military capability while having immediate use in the commercial market. The proposed platform would consist of a JAVA microprocessor and scalable array of reconfigurable computing elements in a co-processor architecture. The operational concept is to execute encrypted JAVA byte-code and encrypt traffic to and from memory. In addition, the secure reconfigurable array would require the configuration bitstream be encrypted and will be decrypted by the chip internally. In either case, there is never an un-encrypted version of the program outside the processor. All architectural elements, including the JAVA microprocessor, encryption algorithms, and memory management unit will be in hardware providing additional level of secunty against intrusion. The main goal of the hardware platform will be to provide a universal, secure computing module that interfaces directly to the Internet and provides high-perforrnance in a low-cost, scalable package.

LSA, INC.
1215 Jefferson Davis Highway
Arlington, V 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
Dr. Kevin M. Flood
AF 98-127
Title:Innnovative C4I Technologies: Wideband Communication Link for UAVs
Abstract:Communication is a critical element of any C4I mission, and one of the leading technical challenges for modern C4I systems is devising the means to communicate information from state-of-the-art intelligence sources in a timely and secure way. In this proposal, we address an important challenge of this type - namely, a wideband, secure data link for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Recent advances in UAV technology opens up a new arsenal of intelligence-gathering tools for the modern warfighter. However, these tools can only achieve their full effectiveness through proper dissemination of their intelligence information. Our approach is directed toward creating communication links between UAVs and air-based or space-based relay nodes. The design takes advantage or existing component technology and supports the existing communication infrastructure while providing significantly higher throughput capacity.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-5530
Dr. William Wright
AF 98-127
Title:Securing Agent-Based Security Systems
Abstract:This effort advances agent reliability by addressing the problem of information security (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) in multi-agent systems. ORINCON proposes to demonstrate new technologies that are widely applicable and independent of particular agent control strategies. Our solution is to build cryptographic security shells around the agents and their communication channels, and to control access to resources where most conflicts occur. We will design an integrated environment in which security and conflict management features can be synthesized and distributed efficiently, with capability for creation of robust agent software specifically designed to protect networked agent-based systems. Protection will be achieved through an integrated approach: (1) multiple layers of security assurance, capable of evolving with time, (2) unique measures tailored to specific subversion methodologies, (3) real-time conflict management, and (4) security system self-protection. The architecture will balance additional computational burdens against current policy, scope of threat, and resource conflict potential. ORINCON brings extensive experience as a developer of agent-based systems and distributed agent security systems for Information Warfare. Initially we will design experiments to demonstrate this technology in a controlled environment. In Phase II we will implement the technology in an agent-based Information Warfare security system to clearly show its operational utility.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 859-9161
Keith Gammon
AF 98-127
Title:Innovative C4I Technologies - Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Services Over PCS
Abstract:Recently, there has been a trend in the military to utilize ATM as a backbone for the delivery of multimedia digital services and to extend these services to the mobile tactical user. Concurrently, there has also been an active effort to reduce the cost of wireless mobile communications by applying commercial cellular and personal communications services (PCS) to the military arena. An opportunity exists to merge these two technologies to create a product which will extend to her tactical user, the multimedia services offered by ATM using the low cost commercial infrastructure of PCS. SRC, a leading researcher and developer of wireless ATM technology, supported by TWS, a provider of engineering services to commercial PCS operators, proposes to thoroughly investigate all issues surrounding the transport of ATM services over commercial PCS networks. Based on this investigation, SRC will propose a detailed architecture of the protocols and equipment required to provide this capability. The proposed architecture will be based on the use of current and pending standards in both the ATM and PCS communities facilitating interoperability with other commercial off-the-shelf products. This product would apply to both the military and commercial markets by allowing the distribution of digital voice, video, and data services to the mobile PCS user.

STIEFVATER CONSULTANTS
10002 HILLSIDE TERRACE
MARCY, NY 13403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 733-4725
DR TZETA TSAO
AF 98-127
Title:INNOVATIVE C4I TECHNOLOGIES
Abstract:Airborne bistatic radar has been drawing great interest in recent years. A major portion of the attention is drawn to its potential in an airborne configuration, where, for example, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is used as a passive receiver, and interest in space-based systems is also likely to be high in the future. Adequacy of the exisitng space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithms in such settings is of great concern. The proposed effort considers the effects of the bistatic geometry on space=time adaptive processing. The goal is both to characterize a parametric model for the received bistatic waveform and to develop a MATLAB based signal processing/evaluation tool. The result is a means to describe and assess how the characteristics of the received signal depend on platform motion, beam profile, internal clutter motion, and the three-dimensional bistatic geometry. This work will be necessary when evaluating a large inventory of STAP algortihms specific for bistatic space-based radars. There are four tasks to be accomplished. First, we will implement formulas for the bistatic geometry relationships (these are described in detail in section d). Second, a bistatic equivalent of the constant Gamma model for out-of-plane scattering. Those results are then combined to produce a MATLAB based for the purpose of generating simulated bistatic received waveforms. This data generation capability provides an input process for the parametric evaluation of the STAP algorithms. Finally, verificaiton using measured bistatic data will be performed, and the issues of extending the results to the space-based bistatic systems will be investigated.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 S. Amphlett Boulevard
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Terrance Goann
AF 98-127
Title:PROPHETEER: Predictive Planning for Real World Adversarial Domains
Abstract:We propose an innovative combination of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in the design of a predictive planning and preemption (PPP) system. Specifically, we propose to enhance military planning processes by exploiting predictive battlespace knowledge to shape the future actions of the enemy to the benefit of friendly forces. By drawing on our experience in planning, machine learning, and behavior modeling and recognition, we have devised an eclectic approach to predictive planning that is applicable to real world military domains. We propose to integrate recent advances in plan recognition and data mining with modern planning and execution systems to form a unique means for proactive and dynamic warfare planning. Additionally, we will incorporate mobility, communications, logistics, information warfare, and other non hard kill weapons based operations into the planning process. The tight integration of simulation and modeling capabilities with this extended planning process will greatly improve the ability of the US military to control the pace and phasing of military operations and substantially decrease the risk of surprise. We will prove the feasibility of our approach by developing and demonstrating a proof-of-concept prototype in Phase I.

TEXTWISE, LLC
2-121 Ctr for Science & Tech
Syracuse, NY 13244
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 443-1989
Dr. Elizabeth D. Liddy
AF 98-128
Title:EMMA: Evolving and Messaging Decision Making Agents
Abstract:We propose to develop a system of mobile, autonomous, evolving agents for collaborative decision making, called EMMA. EMMA will be a neuro-genetic hybrid multi-agent collaborative decision making system based on an evolutionary control strategy for coordinating decision making agents. The system architecture will be two-layers, consisting of a central control agent and a distributed set of mobile collaborating decision making agents. The control strategy will use a neuro-genetic hybrid (NGH) approach to training and evolving autonomous decision making agents. The system will find information, evaluate it, and combine multiple results to offer recommendations and alternatives for action. Phase I will deliver a feasibility study and working prototype with one agent. It will prove the concept and establish the necessary architecture. Phase II will add multiple and mobile agents, and create a working collaborative multi-agent system. Design issues for EMMA include: mechanisms for inter-agent communication and coordination of problem solving; optimum implementations for a polling mechanism and for the genetic algorithm including selection mechanism and reproduction process and development of agent fitness measures; and incorporation of feedback from the user into the learning process.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8302 Lincoln Lane
Mclean, VA 22012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-7564
Sherry Marcus
AF 98-130
Title:Dynamic Data Mining for Information Exploitation
Abstract:Sucessful completion of Phase I efforts shall provide the Air Force with an intelligent dynamic data mining architecture and demonstration prototype. We shall develop the concept of a profile that shall be used as a basis for identification and linking of relationships based on a rough sketch or profile of the situation. The use of profiles shall be used in enhancing existing case-based and association data mining modules. Additional data mining tools in the area of estimation analysis, sequence based analysis, and clustering shall be investigated. Change Monitoring and Action Triggering Modules shall automatically detect and notify users or agents of new information as it enters the system. We shall heavily leverage off of COTS technologies including Oracle, Objectspace's Voyager, and MAVIS, 21st Century Technologies Inc. data integration tool.

EXPERT DECISIONS, INC.
613 Henning Court
Naperville, IL 60540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(773) 525-5896
Lucian Russell
AF 98-130
Title:Dynamic Data Mining
Abstract:The goal of the project is to produce an innovative information software architecture for intelligent, dynamic data mining; one providing direct support for intelligent agents and scalable to very large data/knowledge bases. The objectives are to develop a new technology, deductive data mining, and use it to harness necessary extensions of inductive data mining technology needed to address video, fax, graphics, images/ voice, and textual data. The focus of the effort is providing advanced data structures that support innovative ways to both access and store various forms of data/knowledge. Specifically, the technology provides intelligent ways to coordinate various forms of raw data, including restructuring, to discover information. This is done by providing adaptable transformation techniques to structure knowledge so that it can be managed more efficiently, and so that information can be automatically filtered, manipulated, and summarized. The result is an evolvable data/knowledge base configuration for scalable information aggregation/ processing. The initial phase investigates development of techniques for designing, developing, and integrating large-scale active information systems using massive multi-source data rich repositories.

PBB SYSTEMS, INC.
Route 31
Canastota, NY 13032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 697-9573
P. Bruce Berra
AF 98-130
Title:Dynamic Data Mining Using an Electro-Optical Data Warehouse
Abstract:Ultra large user-oriented distributed multimedia information systems that manage terabytes of data must provide rich functionality so that interesting new applications can be addressed. Since a wealth of data, information, and knowledge are resident within these vast repositories; a variety of data mining techniques have developed. These techniques are very computationally intensive and require the movement of large amounts of data. In the search for new approaches, optics may be able to help since photons have the very attractive properties of high speed, non-interference, and parallelism. Optical systems can accommodate a large number of parallel, high-bandwidth channels, and optical storage devices have very high storage densities. In this proposed program we will postulate an electro-optical computer architecture and examine the feasibility of executing a number of data mining and knowledge discovery algorithms on ultra large multimedia data/knowledge bases with the express purpose of increasing performance and functionality. Electro-optical special purpose architecture enhancements and advanced adaptable memory design/configurations will be investigated in order to postulate an innovative electro-optical computer architecture. Alphanumeric and image data mining and knowledge discovery algorithms will be selected and evaluated on the electro-optical computer architecture. In addition, the feasibility of interfacing with intelligent agents on the web and with mobile hand-held computing devices will be investigated.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Ronald Chaney
AF 98-131
Title:Adaptive Data Fusion Technology
Abstract:The prodigious amount of information provided by surveillance systems and other information sources has created unprecedented opportunities for achieving situation awareness. However, due to the fact that Air Force missions are constantly evolving and specific user information needs are not predictable in advance, it is necessary to devise fusion control strategies that are adaptive to user needs and the context of each mission. However, the optimal control problem arising from the desired adaptive control capabilities is enormously complex. We propose to develop a methodology, called Neuro-Dynamic Programming, that combines elements of dynamic programming, simulation-based reinforcement learning, and statistical inference techniques to address the complex adaptive fusion control problem. The principal advantage of the Neuro-Dynamic Programming methodology is that the cost-to-go function that drives the optimal control strategy is not required to be computed analytically. Rather, the system learns the cost-to-go function via simulation-based reinforcement learning. In related work, Neuro-Dynamic Programming controllers have been shown to provide near-optimal control of complex systems with modest amounts of simulation-based training. Extending Neuro-Dynamic Programming for adaptive fusion control holds the promise of providing fusion capabilities that are responsive to user needs and sensitive to context dependencies of the performance of underlying fusion processes.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-5530
Mr. Dale M. Klamer
AF 98-131
Title:Dynamic Adaption of Data Fusion Algorithms
Abstract:The ORINCON team's proposed research and development addresses the application of adaptive data fusion to the surveillance problem of high-density targets in a cluttered environment; our effort focuses on robust data fusion for surveillance through algorithmic adaptation. Our overall goals are to (1) extend, develop, and control the fuzzy controller for the adaptive data fusion problem; and (2) develop and evaluate alternative architectures for adaptive fusion systems. We propose to extend the development of a fuzzy controller to include time constraints for the solution based on the rate of incoming reports. By monitoring surveillance problem characteristics, such as number of targets, and assignment problem matrices (number of targets and contention), the controller selects either an MHT or an ND approach and specifies algorithm parameters. Thus, the controller adapts to the problem at hand and selects the best fusion approach given the characteristics of the problem. In addition, we intend to focus our research and development toward the automated selection of alternative fusion algorithms.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS COMPANY, INC.
500 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Raman Mehra/B. Ravichandr
AF 98-131
Title:Unified Generalized Bayesian Adaptive Data Fusion Technology
Abstract:Real-time fusion algorithms are often patchworks of loosely integrated sub-algorithms, each of which addresses a separate fusion objective and each of which may process only one kind of evidence. Because these objectives are often in conflict, adaptive methods (e.g. internal monitoring and feedback control to dynamically reconfigure algorithms) are often necessary to ensure more optimal performance. The proposed project offers a "cut the Gordian knot" approach to adaptive fusion. Explicit algorithm reconfiguration is largely unnecessary because conflicting objectives are simultaneously resolved within a self-reconfiguring, optimally integrated algorithm. This algorithm is ultimately capable of filtering all major evidence types: random point data, images, ambiguous features, natural-language statements, and rules. The approach, which we call Bayesian multisource, multi-target, multi-evidence filtering or Bayesian multi-filtering for short, is based on a direct generalization of recursive Bayes-Markov nonlinear filtering (WOLF) theory. It generalizes NLF to: (1) multiple targets of unknown number, identity, and kinematics, observed by multiple sensors; including (2) sensors which collect image data; and (3) sources which collect ambiguous observations. Specific Phase I tasks are: (1) Develop or acquire simulated multi-source data for multi-sensor sources; (2) Develop multi-source, multi-target, and multi-evidence unified evidence accrual algorithms; (3) Test and evaluate the novel evidence accrual algorithms; (4) Statistically characterize the performance error of the novel algorithms; and (5) Final report and Phase II recommendations. Phase II will further develop the chosen data fusion paradigm and evaluate it using appropriate metrics. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin and Dr. Anuj Srivastava, both originators of Bayesian multi-filtering algorithms. Lockheed Martin will provide technical and commercialization support in the application of Bayesian multi-filtering.

GENERAL REALITY CORP.
124 Race Street
San Jose, CA 95126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 289-8340
Esfandiar Bandari, Ph.D.
AF 98-132
Title:Automated Video Camera Acquisition & Modeling (AVCAM)
Abstract:Automated extraction of 3D objects from video sequences represents a key 21st Century enabling technology for DOD applications, ranging from interactive C3 systems to virtual reality mission rehearsal. While dozens of researchers have demonstrated underlying theory, significant development issues remain which have prevented introduction of any relevant systems. General Reality Corporation (GRC) proposes to attack this bottleneck by advancing the state-of-the-art in structure-from-motion (SFM) algorithms, through integration of edge extraction and aggregation for improved depth mapping, meshing, and object segmentation. Driven by a Phase II goal of automatically populating the New World Vistas Global Awareness Virtual Test Bed (NWV GA VTB) using video source data, GRC will establish Phase I feasibility by 1) developing a real-time capable, edge-assisted breadboard of its unique "scene to simulator" processing pipeline, 2) demonstrating its potential performance in a NWV GA VTB visualization, and 3) developing a complete system design for Phase II maturation and delivery. The proposed effort will utilize and extend GRC's strong technology base, which includes a DARPA-sponsored controlled imagery acquisition system and a Marine Corps-sponsored SFM architecture for semi-automatic video model generation.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 359-6226
Scott Thomas
AF 98-133
Title:A Heterogeneous Multimedia Toolkit for Desktop Collaboration
Abstract:The Internet and related technologies have enabled collaboration between remote users across heterogeneous computing environments. However, the first generation of these collaboration tools, including electronic mail, file transfer, and remote login provide only the most primitive of collaboration tools. Recent advancements in technology have enabled video teleconferencing (VTC) applications to provide multimedia to the desktop. However, most current collaboration tools are monolithic in nature, and only support multimedia between users across a homogeneous computing environment. There are still many obstacles that must be overcome before the vision of a truly integrated collaboration environment is realized. In this proposed project, we plan to implement a Heterogeneous Multimedia Toolkit (HMT), which is based upon the MASH framework developed at University of California, Berkeley. The MASH framework incorporates the popular MBone video conferencing tools, and provides an extensible architecture that allows for new and innovative tools and techniques to be integrated into the framework. HMT provides desktop collaboration capabilities across heterogeneous platforms, including UNIX, Windows, and MacOS operating systems. Additionally, HMT empowers network-aware applications to take advantage of ATM networks which offer guaranteed bandwidth and QoS. In short, HMT pushes the state of the art in desktop collaboration.

RELIABLE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES
21515 Ridgetop Circle
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 404-9293
Dr. Gary McGraw
AF 98-134
Title:Adaptive Vulverability Analysis for JAVA as a Defensive Information Warfare Technology
Abstract:We propose to investigate the use of Adaptive Vulnerability Analysis (being developed under DARPA contract number F30602-95-C-0282) for analysis of Java applets and applications. Java - a platform-independent, Internet-savvy programming language - has found widespread acceptance and has been adopted for use in critical defense information systems such as the GCCS. It is essential to develop and extend security assessment techniques, including AVA, to counter information warfare threats. AVA has been successfully implemented in the Fault Injection Security Tool (FIST) prototype for C and C++ source code. FIST employs software fault injection to force anomalous program states during the execution of software and to observe their corresponding effects on system security. If insecure behavior is detected, the perturbed location that resulted in a violation is isolated for further analysis and possible retrofitting with fault-tolerant mechanisms. Extending AVA to handle Java code will require significant research investigating the effects that differences between C/C++ and Java have on fault injection analysis. One such difference is Java's memory management system which uses garbage collection and array bounds checking. Another is Java's use of exceptions. Phase I of the project we propose includes developing a Java JDK 1.2 parsing capability for FIST and undertaking a feasibility study for a complete Java-capable version.

SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY SOLUTIONS, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Michael Winburn
AF 98-134
Title:Forensic Analysis and Collection System (FACS)
Abstract:Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. (SPS) proposes an innovative approach - called the Forensic Analysis and Collection System (FACS) - to provide an unprecedented level of accuracy, ease-of-use, and overall effectiveness in collecting, recovering ,and analyzing computer forensic data. Our effort will investigate, define, and develop methods and supporting tools for collecting and analyzing forensic evidence. These methods and tools will be combined into a documented process that guides the user through the task of gathering and analyzing computer forensic data from an intrusion/crime scene without worry of destroying or contaminating important evidence. Our post-mortem forensic methods and tools will assist the user in determining: 1) how an intrusion was accomplished, 2) what computing resources and data were affected, 3) what damage was done to the computing environment, and 4) what must be done to recover from the event. We will leverage recovery work done by SPS, George Mason University, and other IWT Recovery IPT members by defining a logical flow from computer forensic analysis to recovery using techniques developed by the IPT.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
6515 MAIN STREET
TRUMBULL, CT 06611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
LAWRENCE ADZIMA
AF 98-135
Title:ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT FOR AIRBORNE EARLY EARNING RADAR
Abstract:The detection of low velocity targets by a high PRF surveillance radar such as the E-3 AWASCS is exacerbated by the two different clutter return phenomena: the J-Hook return and the Horseshoe return. The J-Hook return is observed primarily when the antenna points downward. In these geometries the clutter screen below the antenna may not adequately suppress the elevation sidelobe return, which allows the J-Hook return to become strong.The Horseshoe return, which is viturally always present, is believed to be caused by reflections from the AWACS radome. The Horseshoe return tends to track near the aircraft's nadir point.The proposed research will provide greater insight into the causes of these two clutter returns. Also, the algorithms that will be investigated to mitigate these effects are described. The algorithms, which vary considerably in complexity operate at various levels including: 1) censoring the clutter retruns in the CFAR map, 2) multiple slant adaptive processing and 3) both single and multiple channel adaptive antenna processing.

AZIMA ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3409 Morgan Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 497-3330
M. Farrukh Khan
AF 98-136
Title:Design and Development of a Video Database With Automated Indexing Mechanisms
Abstract:We propose to develop automated video indexing and retrieval mechanisms based on comprehensive representations of video data, and efficient processing for automated in-dexing. Content-based video data retrieval has enormous potential in defense, industry and the government. However, a number of stubborn problems have impeded progress in developing fully automated video database systems. These problems include difficulty of specification of video queries and huge computational requirements. Our effort will focus on developing viable solutions for these two problems and utilizing the solutions in building an automated video database indexing and management system. We plan to employ wavelet-based multiresolution pattern matching techniques for recognition of video objects. The precision of object modeling and recognition can be tuned to the level of available computational resources and time constraints thus allowing trade-offs between levels of computation and accuracy of pattern matching. We will develop pragmatic knowledge-based models of video data to capture complex video semantics. These models will provide efficient Indexing and retrieval mechanisms for a variety of scenarios. Two models, based on object motion trajectories and spatio-temporal logic will be developed for this purpose. The system will provide a graphic user-interface for the users to formulated complex video queries.

BELTRAN, INC.
1133 East 35 Street
Brooklyn, NY 11210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(718) 377-0227
Dr. Alexander M. Tishin
AF 98-137
Title:Optical Memories
Abstract:The main objectives of this project are: 1) the development and investigation of novel nanostructures and low dimensional systems to substantially increase storage capacities; and 2) the development of new advanced technological materials for ultimately small digital and analogous devices and functional elements. The technology of fabrication of cluster-containing thin films and polymer matrix as well as more complicated nanostructures will be developed new types of rare-earth and transition metals containing clusters fixed in a polymer matrix will be synthesized and studied. The project will contribute to the understanding of physical and chemical properties of nanosystems, which is important for the development of technologies involving nano-scale functional elements (high density memory devices, single-electron tunnel systems, etc.).

RADIANT RESEARCH, INC.
9430 Research Blvd.
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 338-4670
Suning Tang (Ph.D.)
AF 98-138
Title:Throughput-Enhanced Multi-Wavelength Guidedwave Optical Interconnects for High-Density Holographic Memory
Abstract:New developments in the three-dimensional memory devices have created demand for high-speed and large-volume data handling interconnects between memory devices and processing elements. Electrical interconnects fail to keep up with this new demand due to their basic limitations. Optical interconnects and devices inherently offer large bandwidth and hence high-speed and ultra-high-density data capacities. Radiant Research, Inc., proposes to construct a parallel-to-serial interconnect module using guided-wave technology in conjunction with VCSELs, Photodiodes, wavelength division demultiplexing (WDDM) device and multimode fibers. Employment of the WDDM device significantly increases the aggregate bandwidth well above 10 Gb/sec, while minimizing the latency of data transfer. Inherently parallel memory using serial optical network can be realized without compromising the performance. 3D-holographic memory system provided by Holoplex (HM-100) will be employed for the system demonstration. Experimental result shows that each WDDM wavelength channel can provide 2500 Gb/sec in a parallel-to-serial format. As a result, the projected target (Fig.2) will be achieved. Important benefits of this approach are significantly improved device performance in the context of data transfer for 3D memory, relaxed fabrication tolerance, and reduced cost. The proposed technology has tremendous commercial value in the optoelectronic interconnect industry.

I-KINETICS, INC.
17 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 270-1300
Bruce Cottman
AF 98-139
Title:Monitoring and Management Services for Distributed Object Systems
Abstract:As computer architectures evolve away from monolithic applications towards distributed, cooperating sets of objects of higher and higher granularity it becomes increasingly vital to have sophisticated distributed monitoring and management services. Systems containing tens of thousands of objects deployed over thousands of nodes will be deployed. The monitoring and management requirements for different groups of objects will vary widely. Traditional approaches to monitoring and management are inadequate to address these widely varying needs as they typically operate at the level of a platform node or a system rather than the object process. Ongoing work in the CORBA community and OMG CORBA Facilites Task Force will provide a basis for system-level management service for this proposed work. The innovation of the Phase I approach is that individual objects are responsible for certain aspects of their own monitoring and management. These objects possess behaviors which can be invoked from well-defined interfaces. The objects will be able to delegate certain functions to system-level management services, which would possess the breadth of information necessary to make appropriate decisions and take action. This is a multi-level management model where the granularity of the architecture matches exactly the requisite granularity for large-scale object systems.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 COURT STREET
UTICA, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 798-1377
WALTER E SZCZEPANSKI
AF 98-141
Title:SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR) ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES
Abstract:There is a critical need for an all weather capability to detect and classify military targets using high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In many applications major difficulties arise because of the radio frequency interference (RFI) sources which can inadvertently or intentionally interfere with the operation of the SAR. Homogeneous processor architectures currently used to accomplish the real time SAR processing are ill equipped for the RFI mitigation function. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and block floating point (BFP) devices have demonstrated substantial throughput (up by a factor of 10), size, weight, and power advantages over central processing units (CPU) such as the Power PC while maintaining wide dynamic range (>120dB). Combining these specialized processing devices with general purpose CPUs into a heterogeneous processor has been shown to be feasible. Therefore, Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI) proposes to design an efficient COTS based heterogeneous parallel processor architecture and processing element optimized for real-time RFI detection and rejection. Representative hardware components, such as SHARP's BDSP 9124 block floating point device and special purpose field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), will provide the basis of the proposed processing element.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
6615 MAIN STREET
TRUMBULL, CT 06611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
STEVEN JAROSZEWSKI
AF 98-141
Title:SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR) ENHANCING TECHNIQUES
Abstract:SAR is a critical technology for obtaining military and economic intelligence, terrain height and cover information, and a variety of other data. Because of its long coherent integration times and wide bandwidth, SAR is extremely vulnerable to RF interference, intentional noise jamming and coherent repeater jamming. The proposed research will identify the sources of interference that affect SARs operating in different frequency bands, quantify the effects of this interference on the SAR image and develop (to a first level) concepts that can negate the intereference. The techniques for rejecting the interference include space-time adaptive processing, adaptive time gating and frequency domain nulling, coherent signal subtraction and monopulse processing/cell censoring. Also investigated will be interpolation techniques to restore the portions of the signal lost due to the gating and filtering of the interference.A matrix will be generated that summarizes the impact of each interference source on the SAR's performance, the interference rejection required, the ability of the jammer negation techniques to achieve these requistite levels and the cost of incorporating each negation concept. This matrix will help to identify the most critical threats and the optimal rejection techniques for a Phase II development and demonstration program.

STIEFVATER CONSULTANTS
10002 Hillside Terr.
Marcy, NY 13403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 733-4725
Dr. Mohamed Adel Slamani
AF 98-142
Title:Innovated Special Operations Technologies
Abstract:This proposal addresses the primary signal processing issues associated with the performance improvement and data interpretation of sensors used for through-the-wall surveillance (TWS) applications. A number of technologies are currently under development for TWS, and use of the appropriate signal processing techniques will be key to the success of such sensors in practical applications. It is proposed to analyze the problems associated with the collection of data by different TWS sensors, to determine the distortions caused by the different problems, and to identify the type of signal/image processing tools to be applied for solving the different distortions. Amongst the sensors to be analyzed are 3D Radar, Millimeter-wave, RF, and Acoustic for both civilian and military applications of law enforcement and corrections. It is also proposed to determine the advantages and weaknesses of each type of sensor in order to be able to decide how and which sensors should be used conjointly in a fusion process to enhance the data interpretation capabilities. Finally, it is proposed to search ways of implementing or green-yellow-red automation process for easy identification of danger in a TWS scene.

OPTIVISION, INC.
3450 HILLVIEW AVENUE
PALO ALTO, CA 94304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 855-1776
DR MATTHEW DERSTINE
AF 98-144
Title:MONOLITHIC OPTICS FOR HIGHLY PARALLEL OPTICAL BACKPLANE
Abstract:Emerging weapon system's need for high performance processor with large addressable memory will continue to increase, Airborne systems (e.g. Joint STARS, JSF, and AWACS) will have processing needs approaching Tera-ops packaged in a single chasis and rack. Continued evolution of digital CMOS technology processors can provide the basis for supporting these requirements; Giga-op single chip processing devices will be available in the near future. However this increase in processing power will not necessarily result in higher performance embedded military processing systems. This is because the electrical interconnect fabric is not scaleable with digital signal processing technology. This proposal describes a plan to develop key optical elements for a parallel optical backplane system that will address this interconnection bottleneck. We propose the use of injection molding to create a monolithic optical assembly with precise mounting fixtures will reduce the cost of the fabrication, assembly and maintenance on the modules used to implement the backpalne. During the Phase I we will define, design, fabricate and test the optical component. The performance objective for the part are >1000 interconnects per centimeter of board edge. In Phase II this element will be integrated with the VCSEL-based optoelectronics.

ANALYTIC DESINGS, INC.
245 EAST GAY ST
COLUMBUS, OH 43215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 224-9078
ALLEN K DOMINEK
AF 98-145
Title:RF, PLANE WAVE SCATTERING CHARACTERIZATION OF A JET ENGINE THROUGH NEAR-FIELD SCANNING
Abstract:One current automatic target recognition (ATR) approach utilizes synthetic radar data. The success of this approach is highly dependent upon the quality of this synthetic data. It is known that the radar scattering from jet aircraft can have a significant engine contribution. Current numerical techniques to predict the jet engine scattering do not yet provide the desired accuracy. As an alternate approach to numerical prediction, a measurement technique is proposed.Analytic Designs, Incorporated (ADI) will develop a novel near-field measurement technique to provide the plane wave scattering characterization for an engine configuration. This technique will utilize time domain measurements to collect the necessary broad frequency domain information. Transmit and receive probes will be positionally controlled through a specially designed polar scanner designed to facilitate the data acquisition. Unique signal processing techniques will also be employed to minimize the measured samples, thus reducing the acquisition time as well. Once the complete, bistatic aperture distribution has been obtained, any far-field, bistatic plane wave scattering coefficient can be obtained. The commercial ability to perform near-field, bistatic scanning would result in a unique and advanced capability to determine the scattering characteristics of other structures which can not be detached and measured with a traditional compact range approach. This capability has applicability for component evaluation on flight ready aircraft.

HYPERCOMP, INC.
537 MEADOW GROVE LANE
THOUSAND OAKS, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 494-8749
DR VIJAYA SHANKAR
AF 98-145
Title:SYNTHETIC DATA PREDICTION AND VALIDATION TECHNIQUES FOR AUTOMATIC TARGET RECOGNITION(ATR)
Abstract:Recent advances in full wave solutions to time-domain Maxwell's equations employing high order space and time, finite-element-like unstructured grid-based integration procedures, and parallel scalable code architectures, now make it very attractive and cost-effective to consider such solutions for a myraid of complex electromagnetic applications including radar cross section (RCS) scattering studies for full fighter targets, antenna radiation problems, and synthetic data prediction for automatic target recognition (ATR). While the current trend is to employ high frequency techniques for ATR studies, various aspects of electromagnetic physics, such as traveling waves, dispersive and other material characterization, interaction between electrically small and large components of an LO target (small fins on a long missile body), and low frequency (50 MHz to 2 GHz) modeling, require more exact solutions based on time-domain Maxwell's equations. The parallel, unstructured grid-based, time-domain CEM code, UPRCS, developed under the PACESETTER contract, will complement ongoing high frequency ATR applications.The key attributes of the time-domain UPRCS code are (1) pulse mode for broad band response, (2) complex geometry modeling using unstructured surface and volume gridding including material treatment, (3) highly scalable parallel code architecture, and (4) GUI for user friendly enviornment. While advances in the time-domain are being made in all fronts, the primary focus of this SBIR Phase I proposal is to develop the necessary procedures and validate the time-domain technology for ATR applications and extend the technology to X-band frequency range.

ORORA DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1510 Teg Drive
Iowa City, IA 52246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(319) 341-9674
C.J. Richard Shi, PhD
AF 98-146
Title:Genetic Optimization and Programming for Analog/RF Modeling and Synthesis
Abstract:We propose to develop a CAD tool for the automated synthesis of analog/RF device models and analog/RF circuits. In the Phase I of the project, we will focus on parameter optimization. To achieve the desirable optimization performance using a reasonable amount of CPU time, the proposed tool will combine the genetic algorithm with local search techniques. VHDL-AMS language will be exploited as a unified means to specify both models and circuits. During the Phase I of the project, we will explore genetic programming for automated model creation and circuit synthesis. The same tool will apply to the optimization and synthesis of behavioral models for analog and RF subcircuits, and is useful for full system verification and prototyping.

FARADAY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
315 HULS DR
CLAYTON, OH 45315
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 836-7749
E JENNINGS TAYLOR PHD
AF 98-147
Title:COPPER ELECTROCHEMICAL PLANARIZATION FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL ADVANCED IC MULTICHIP MODULE AND INTERCONNECT APPLICATIONS
Abstract:The objective of the program is to develop and commercialize an electrochemical copper planarization process for three-dimensional advanced IC applications (multichip modules and interconnects) based on a modulated reverse electrochemical planarization (MREF-ECP) process. The Phase I program will demonstrate the MREF-ECP process using damascene architecture with trenches of 1 to 0.25 microns and aspect ratios of 1:1 to 3:1. These dimensional features are not currently attained using state-of-the art fabrication techniques. Further, the proposed MREF-ECP process will (1) improve through-put due to the elimination of the time consuming electropolishing step, (2) reduce capital investment with less processing sequences, and (3) minimize or eliminate the waste stream volume. The proposed MREF-ECP process is a key enabling technology for three-dimensional IC applications required by the U.S. Air Force to reduce the power, weight, volume, and cost of aircraft microelectronics.

MACAULAY BROWN, INC.
4023 EXECUTIVE DRIVE
DAYTON, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-3421
RODGER L SOUTHWORTH
AF 98-148
Title:ELECTRONIC COUNTERMEASURES (ECM) AND ELECTRONIC COUNTER-COUNTERMEASURES (ECCM) ANALYSIS FOR GPS APPLICATIONS
Abstract:The ability of GPS to counter electronic attack (jamming) and unintentional interfering signals is critical to the success of future military operations, and many activities of civilian life. Innovative testing approaches and well-equipped, affordable simulation and test facilities are required to analyze the effects of jamming/interference on GPS and to evaluate anti-jam techniques, such as adaptive antennas. This capability is essential for developing ECCMs against jamming and devising effective ECMs against enemy GPS systems.The objectives of this research are twofold: (1) to upgrade the capabilities of the AFRL EW Anechoic Chamber (EWAC) infrastructure for conducting tests of GPS systems in realistic jamming environments, and (2) to perform the evaluation and analysis of GPS ECM/ECCM techniques. This proposed Phase I will be an assessment of EWAC capabilities, test plans and procedures, and a facility upgrade design including the simulation hardware/software, instrumentation, and chamber modifications needed to meet GPS ECM/ECCM testing requirements. The requirements of the GPS Joint Program Office (JPO) for the "GPS Antenna Systems Test Infrastructure" will be used for guidance on this program.

TECOLOTE RESEARCH, INC.
5290 OVERPASS RD BLDG D
SANTA BARBARA, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 964-6963
RICHARD A NORDSIECK
AF 98-149
Title:REVOLUTIONARY AVIONICS PAYLOAD COST ESTIMATING FOR UNINHIBITED AIR VEHICLES (UAVs): THE ADVANCED AVIONICS PAYLOAD COST (AAPCO) MODEL
Abstract:Government and industry are being challenged to develop revolutionary avionics technologies, architectures, and payload packages for uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) as these vehicles are proposed to meet an expanding array of military missions. In today's budget conscious world, the affordability of these avionics payloads has become equal in importance with their size, weight, and performance as determinants for their selection. Accordingly, there is a pressing need for an advanced avionics cost estimating model to operate in concert with engineering design and performance evaluation tools starting at concept definition, and continuing forward through the system development and acquisition process. Tecolote Research proposes to develop the innovative Advanced Avionics Payload Cost (AAPCO) model to meet these challenges for future UAVs. The AAPCO model will include comprehensive libraries of baseline technical information for a wide range of UAV missions and avionics functions; will be flexible to encompass both traditional and advanced architectures and technologies; will provide a user friendly interface for problem definition, whether characterized by high-level inputs during concept definition, or more detailed descriptors; and, most importantly, the AAPCO model will employ advanced numerical methods to enable cost as an independent variable, and to guide the user toward cost effective solutions.

CLEVELAND CRYSTALS, INC.
19306 REDWOOD AVENUE
CLEVELAND, OH 44110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 461-1384
GARY C CATELLA
AF 98-150
Title:Cr:CdSe A NOVEL COMBINED LASER/NONLINEAR OPTICAL CRYSTAL FOR MID-IR APPLICATIONS
Abstract:Many nonlinear optics (NLO) applications are frustrated by lack of suitable crystals. Chromium-doped Cadmium Selenide (Cr2+:CdSe) is an example of a laser host which is also the NLO crystal. This crystal is not available in suitable size or quality. However, it is potentially a very useful material for laser systems. Cr2+:CdSe, diode-pumped at 1.9um and possibly 0.88um infrared (IR) region. CdSe has excellent thermal and optical properties. Diode-pumped Cr2+:CdSe could provide broadly tunable or selectable-fixed-frequency IR radiation suitable for the many DOD and commercial uses detailed below. A method for incorporating the desired level of Cr2+ in CdSe crystals must be developed. Cleveland Crystals has used two techniques to produce samples of Cr2+:CdSe. Bridgman growth with Cr doping and diffusion of Cr into previously grown CdSe crystals. During Phase I, we would optimize the diffusion technique to produce Cr2":CdSe with the desired Cr2+ concentration. Development risk is reduced because CdSe single-crystals of high quality are now commercially available and supported by our infrastructure. Phase II would be aimed at optimizing crystals for particular pump lasers, increasing crystal size and improving production processes. The goal would be commercial production of Cr2+:CdSe bars for laser/NLO applications.

AERODYNE RESEARCH, INC.
45 MANNING ROAD
BILLERICA, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 663-9500
DR EDWARD J NIPLE
AF 98-151
Title:DISTRIBUTED APERTURE E-O SYSTEM FOR TRACKING AND DESIGNATION
Abstract:A small number of conformal E-O sensors distributed over the surface of an aircraft can provide field of view coverage for Missile Warning, IRST and FLIR viewing. An innovative technique (Spatial Modulation) is used to allow a low density IR focal plane array to provide the necessary high resolution over a wide field of view. The Spatial Modulation sensor has an intermediate focal plane that is used to interface the sensor to a laser distribution system for active designation and tracking.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 ASPEN RIDEGE DRIVE
LAFAYETTE, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
DR DUANE D SMITH
AF 98-151
Title:MULTIAPERTURE TRACKING AND DESIGNATION SYSTME
Abstract:Distributed aperture ladar systems with centralized transmitters and receivers promise increased functionality with reduced cost, weight and volume. Such multiaperture architectures are anticipated to provide 4(pi) steradian coverage with unprecedented capabilities on airborne platforms. However, two primary technical hurdles prevent realization of a first-generation system. One is finding an acceptable means of delivering high energy (0.1 to 10 J) 10-ns class laser pulses to the remote ports with near-diffraction limited wavefronts. The other is to provide rapid, precision pointing of the laser and receiver fields-of-view. To meet these challenges, CTI proposes to implement an innovative beam transport, forming and control network. This "optical backbone" utilizes linear and nonlinear optical devices coupled to unconventional flexible waveguides. The novel beam transport system offers higher power handling capabilities over a wider wavelength ranges than optical fibers. The linear and nonlinear beam control devices are based upon innovative applications of existing technologies. Quantitiative analyses and laboratory measurements of the components will be performed in Phase I. A design for Phase II hardware will be generated taking into account top-level system specifications and the requirement for an upward-compatible, open architecutre. Coupling this optical backbone to CTI's flight-worthy systems expertise will ensure technical feasibility in Phase II.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4141 Colonel Glenn Highway
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Samuel Boykin
AF 98-152
Title:Avionics Collabortive Engineering An Automated Methodology for Affordability Evaluations
Abstract:Technical planners are required to prioritize the development of technologies for new systems relative to user needs. Designs for these new systems or technologies typically only exist at the conceptual or preliminary design level, yet trade studies must be performed to assess cost and effectiveness, as well as overall affordability. Collaborative Engineering is being implemented within Air Force Materiel Command to improve the quantity and quality of information available to the designer/planner to make the necessary design trades. Designers require a methodology and tool-set which provide concept cost and affordability estimation based on industry standards for development and production costs, and accurate system operating costs. Objectives of this SBIR are to modify an existing methodology and cost tool set to operate within the Collaborative Engineering Environment. The new tool set will estimate total system life-cycle affordability considering cost as an independent variable. The Phase I program will demonstrate feasibility of the proposed approach and provide a limited functionality prototype of a PC-based software tool. The Phase II program would fully develop the System Affordability Tool.

SYMVIONICS, INC.
3280 E. Foothill Blvd.
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-4504
Paul W. Salchak
AF 98-152
Title:Remote Access Flight Test (RAFT) Smart Product Model (SPM) and Demonstration
Abstract:The government is faced with critical problems in the development and use of high performance computing environments and electronic systems. Increasingly complex systems are required to interact with other increasingly complex systems to meet the demands of sophisticated and multi-variate mission operating environments. Such systems are being acquired, designed, developed, and delivered by geographically and topologically dispersed teams. Meeting these challenges is the vision of the Collaborative Enterprise Environment. There has been significant industry and government investment in developing standards, business models, technical approaches, and tools to address the practical needs of engineers and managers in these emergent environments. We propose to leverage this environment to develop, test, and demonstrate an innovative capability to provide a Remote Access Flight Test (RAFT) capability between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC). The resultant set of process and product models for planning, executing, and anayzing flight tests would immediately benefit a variety of DOD and commercial programs which require such testing. These capabilities will give the Air Force a unique asset to optimize for cost effective utility and UTILIZATION of their flight test resources.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 W OLYMPIC BLVD STE 300
LOS ANGELES, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
MR J SALZMAN
AF 98-153
Title:ELECTRONIC PROTECTION (EP) FOR ELECTRONICALLY STEERED ANTENNAS (ESAs)
Abstract:The rapid beam agility and wide bandwidth achievable with modern electronically scanned antennas (ESAs), and particularly active ESAs (AESAs), provide airborne radars with a means for electronic protection (EP) against electronic attack (EA) threats in a hostile environment.TSC proposes an EP technique that explits the beam agility characteristics of the ESA to mitigate the deleterious effects of deception jammers (particularly DRFM-based) such as multiple false targets in range and Doppler, and pull off deceptions such as RGPO, BGPO, and coordinated RGPO/VGPO. Combined with off-boresight tracking, the technique can also reject angle-deception jammers such as cross-eye, cross polarizaiton, blinking, and terrain bounce. The simultaneous use of frequency agility will further enhance the EP technique. The technique, denoted Beam-Agility Target Modulation and Discrimination (BATMAD), exploits the rapid beam switiching capability of the modern ESA to modulate target and jammer signals. Using unique jammer discrimination processing in the sum and difference channels, the signals are sorted and classified. Target signals are processed, while jammer signals are rejected.In Phase I, TSC will investigate the feasibility of the BATMAD concept, with the support of Raytheon Systems Company. The technique will be demonstrated in Phase II using simulations and bench-test radar hardware.

KOPIN CORP.
695 MYLES STANDISH BOULEVARD
TAUNTON, MA 02780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 824-6696
NOREN PAN
AF 98-154
Title:HIGH POWER InGaP PHEMT
Abstract:The feasibility of InGaP PHEMT for high power amplifiers in the millimeter wave region will be investigated. InGaP has numerous inherent material properties which are potentially superior to AlGAAs based PHEMT's. The areas to be investigated include the optimization of the transport properties for both single sided and double sided doped PHEMT devices. Large and sub-micron FET devices will be fabricated and compared to conventional AlGAAs PHEMT devices. The key advantages of InGaP for high power amplifiers will be assessed in Phase I. Phase II will follow with emphasis on high power amplifier demonstration and reliability studies. Phase III would involve the large scale commercialization of this device for numerous low and millimeter wave applications.

SPIRE CORP.
ONE PATRIOTS PARK
BEDFORD, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6000
STANLEY M VERNON
AF 98-154
Title:HETEROJUNCTION BIOLAR TRANSISTORS USING STRIAN-FREE GaAsN ALLOYS
Abstract:Heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) performance would be improved by use of a new material which is closely lattice matched to GaAs, and has a low enough bandgap so that a GaAs emitter can be used; this eliminates the need for AlGaAs or GaInP, whose interface with GaAs is often hard to control. The alloy proposed is gallium arsenide nitirde, GaAs(1-x) N(x), with a few percent nitrogen, which is closely matched to the GaAs lattice and has a bandgap which can be adjusted from 1.45 eV to less than 1.0 eV. This material will be grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) to be highly p-type (by carbon incorporation) without the use of external dopants; this makes it ideal for the base layer in a GaAs-GaAs(1-x)N(x) HBT. Use of this GaN-related alloy should lead to improved operation at high temperature, and improved reliability.In Phase I, we will design a GaAsN HBT structure, develop growth of GAAsN, characterize material properties, and calibrate growth parameters to obtain high P+ doping. The Phase I optional task will be for growth of GaAs-GaAs(1-x)N(X) heterojunctions, and fabrication and testing of n/P+ diodes. Phase II efforts will include optimizing HBT design (using measured GaAsN data), optimizing GaAsN growth and doping control, studying strain relief by addition of indium or antimony, developing graded collector-based heterointerfaces, and finally growing, fabricating, and testing HBT devices.

HYPERTECH
4 DICKENS COURT
IRVINE, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 448-9532
DR DAVID SLATER
AF 98-155
Title:INTRINSIC FEATURES FOR AUTOMATED TARGET MODELING AND TRACKING USING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY
Abstract:In this project, we will develop and demonstrate new feature-based algorithms for target modeling and tracing across hyperspectral imagery acquired at different times under unknown condition. The problems addressed by this project are more general than traditional ATR problems in the sense that target properties are initially assumed to be unknown. The algorithms are derived from recently developed physics-based invariants of hyperspectral data that do not depend on the illumination environment or atmospheric conditions. These invariants reduce the high dimensionality associated with a hyperspectral data that do not depend on the illumination environment or atmospheric conditions. These invariants reduce the high dimensionality associated with a hyperspectral target signature to a low dimensionality intrinsic representation. The information contained in hyperspectral data enables the algorithms to discriminate similar materials as well as camouflaged objects from background. Hyperspectral data also enables local apporaches to be used for ATR making the algorithms relatively insensitive to partial obscuration. Since hyperspectral data is complementary to several other sensing modalities, we will investigate the fusion of information obtained from the hyperspectral algorithms with information obtained from other sensors. The performance of the new algorithms will be quantified relative to traditional approaches using imagery containing military vehicles and other objects under different illumination and atmospheric conditions with varying degrees of bacdground clutter and object obscuration.

ANSOFT CORP.
669 RIVER DRIVE SUITE 200
ELMWOOD PARK, NJ 07407
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 796-2003
MR JASON GERBER
AF 98-156
Title:AUTOMATED DEVICE MODEL EXTRACTION
Abstract:Accurate modeling of active RF devices is a critical component in circuit and system design. In the past the generated model's accuracy depended heavily on the expertise of the scientist who was performing the model extraction. This proposal develops algorithms and scripting planning for reducing this labor intensive device model extraction process to a PC based automated system. The user, through a powerful graphical interface, has the ability to exercise as much or as little control over the process as is warranted.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RES
7960 S. KOLB ROAD
TUCSON, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
DR W. KOWBEL
AF 98-157
Title:AFFORDABLE OXIDATION INHIBITED CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITES FOR 1200 DEGREE F APPLICATION
Abstract:Affordable/low cost carbon-carbon (C-C) composites are enabling to a number of defense, aerospace and commercial applications. However, in addition to cost, their limitation is carbon gasification in oxidative environments above about 750oF (=400oC). An inhibited carbon matrix that reduces oxidation rate by a factor of 200 with up to double the strength of uninhibited composites which could be produced for <$50/lb., would revolutionize the applications of C-C composites. A team of MER/Southern Research Institute (SRI) has demonstrated, in separate investigations, that low cost inhibited C-C composites can be produced with exceptional oxidation resistance and mechanical properties. This program will define and optimize molecular base additives that significantly inhibit C-C composites oxidation rate while enhancing mechanical properties. Low cost near net shape components will be demonstrated using the optimized inhibited formulation and translated into current commercialization applications.

RADIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
329 N. BERNARDO AVENUE
MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 988-4700
BRADLEY J. BAZUIN, PHD
AF 98-157
Title:FREQUENCY HOPPING (FH) SIGNAL PREDICTION AND COUNTERMEASURES
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal will investigate and develop techniques for detecting, identifying, tracing, predicting, and jamming Frequency Hopping (FH) signals. The techniques will be architected and tailored for hosting on an existing Radix Technologies demonstration unit, called Bumble Bee, that performs the detection, tracking, deinterleaving, and copy of FH emitters and requires only a single 19" rack-mounted chassis and a lap-top computer HMI. The Phase II activities will entail the constrcution of a new, upgraded Jamming Bumble Bee (J-BBee) system with the integration of the techniques defined in Phase I and the addition of a signal generator and power amplifier for transmission of the jamming waveform.The Jamming Bumble Bee capitalizes on a number of technical advances that Radix has developed to exploit the emerging spread spectrum communications threat. This effort is uniquely positioned to expand upon an existing electronic support (ES) FH system, quickly demonstrates an electronic attack (EA) capability for FH signals, and it will provide a demonstration and countermeasure application as they are developed.

ROBERT GOLD ASSOC.
10665 LA GRANGE AVENUE
LOS ANGELES, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 470-3570
ROBERT GOLD
AF 98-157
Title:FREQUENCY HOPPING (FH) SIGNAM PREDICTION AND COUNTERMEASURES
Abstract:The objective of this study will be the exploitation of newly developed analytical concepts and algortihms for the design, development and software implementaton of a frequency hopping identification system. The hop identification capability of the system will be achieved by identifying the binary code being used by the hostile target. These identification techniques make use of real time measurements by the monitor of the times of arrival of relatively few transmissions of a single frequency among themany over which the target radio hops.The successful implementation of these techniques will allow the monitor to identify, track, demodulate or disrupt the frequency hopping communications link by constructing a frequency hopper which is equivalent to and synchronized to the one whose frequency hopping pattern is being observed. It is anticipated that the results of this program will lead to the development of a system which will be an effective complement to the current suite of US Airforce Electronic Countermeasure tools.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4141 COLONEL GLENN HIGHWAY
BEAVERCREEK, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
TERRY KELLER
AF 98-158
Title:COMBAT IDENTIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES
Abstract:Frontier Technology, Inc. and our Consultants Dr. Marvin Cohen (GTRI) and Dr. Steven Gustafson (UDRI) will develop several new Combat Identification and sensing concepts useful for combat air-air and air-ground identification. The sensing technique proposed is related to SAR and is called High Range Resolution Radar Low-Order-Tomography (HRRR-LOT). HRRR-LOT provides a way to extend the useful information content gathered by HRRR sensors by combining, either coherently or noncoherently, a limited number of pulses. The tactical advantage this affords is three-fold. It should provide stronger identification performance than standard HRRR and it will decrease the risky flight trajectory constraints required by SAR system in combat scenario. It gives SAR system another mode to use to ID moving targets. We will employ existing data from the DARPA MSTAR program to evaluate HRRR-LOT potential in Phase I. This will lay the ground work for Phase II where the goals are for additional development of a prototype system with Phase III support from JSF. Sensing is only one side of Combat ID technology. The other is identification algorithm technology. For this, we intend to investigate Dr. Gustafson's "Parsimonious Roughness Invoking Minimal Error" (PRIME) processing concept.

SOFTTHOUGHT, INC.
PO BOX 714
CHICKASHA, OK 73023
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 222-2253
JOHN K JOHNSON
AF 98-158
Title:A NEUROLOGICALLY-INSPIRED MODEL FOR COMBAT TARGET IDENTIFICATION
Abstract:SoftThought, Inc. proposes to continue the development of our Advanced Cerebral Emulator (ACE) which models image input as loosely organized shapes. The model is neurologically inspired and reflects the information processing techniques thought to be involved in the human brain. We use our shape analysis system, the Blob Descriptor Language (BDL) to convert salient features of an image into reduced elements for a self-managed database. We then use a convergent neural network for processing this information, behavioral and functionality components which influence the decision-making processes and neural plates which store information about objects in the environment, actions that are available to the model and cause and effect relationsips between the neural plates. When combined with our object image processing, Fast Identification and Tracking (FIT) system , we will be able to identify individual objects in any orientation, with small databases of salient features rapidly in real-time with a microprocessor. We believe that this is tanamount in the preparation for the autonomous exploration of space. This appraoch will explore the use of autonomous vehicles in Phase II with our FIT system onboard to identify targets and will produce a general set of paradigms for fast, accurate and unique image processing.

ION OPTICS, INC.
411 WAVERLEY OAKS ROAD
WALTHAM, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 788-8777
W ANDREW BODKIN
AF 98-159
Title:HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGER FOR INFRARED REOMOTE SENSING
Abstract:The Air Force needs a long range infrared imaging sensor suitable for tactical and reconnaissance applications in day and night. Ion Optics, Inc. has recently developed a hyperspectral infrared imaging system for use in detection chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents. We propose to adapt the existing design to the identification of concealed, camouflaged, and deception (CC&D) targets. The resulting system would provide a finely resolved image of the subject which would be viewed through an infrared filter (etalon) whose bandpass can be electronically controlled. This unique capability would enable real time identification of CC&D targets by their infrared signatures regardless of their cloaking in the visible spectrum. And as the original system was designed for use in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) it is lightweight, portable, and draws minimal power.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 MALL ROAD
BURLINGTON, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
DR. ALAN CHAO
AF 98-160
Title:REFERENCE SYSTEM AND IMAGER RERGISTRATION PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR MULTI-PLATFORM OPERATIONS
Abstract:We propose a comprehensive program for analyzing the performance of multi-source georegistration systems needed to support theater-wide sharing and fusing of information for Air Force platforms and missions. We have designed our program to build upon the work done under AFRL's Theater-wide Reference Information Management (TRIM) program. While TRIM has analyzed the accuracy of multi-source fusion for point features as a function of reference-system errors, a key assumption has been that the feature-correlation problem can be solved perfectly. We relax this assumption by replacing the idealized perfect correlator with a multi-source feature-matching image stages: (i) a geo-coding stage, through which reference-system errors propagate to yield geo-coding error, and (ii) an image-registration stage, through which geo-coding errors propagate to yield overall system errors. Because TRIM has already quantified the first-stage performance, we focus on quantifying the second-stage performance and on combining the performance. By this means, we assess current georegistration capabilities and identify potential enhancements to reference-system technology that could produce significant gains to fusion performance.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
119 N. El Camino Real
Encinitas, CA 92024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 793-3889
Robert McGraw
AF 98-161
Title:Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) Models for Backplane Open System
Abstract:Because of the large costs associated with developing state-of-the-art systems, today's military has turned toward developing systems based on backplane open architecture standards. Developing systems based on such standards allows for the inclusion of commercial off-the-shelf components in the development of military systems. However, existing models which promote the top-down design and analysis of such systems are lacking, if not non-existent. The Phase I effort will lay the groundwork for the development of hardware models to support top-down development of backplane open system architectures. This effort will define the types of modeling paradigms, modeling targets, and bus protocols which will be required to support backplane open architecture design at various levels of design detail.

SDV, INC.
9 Trafalgar Square
Nashua, NH 03063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 889-1144
Bernard Deadman
AF 98-162
Title:Enhanced Test Creation for Re-Engineering of Legacy Avionics Systems
Abstract:SDV proposes to investigate the development of productivity enhancing tools for the comparison of re-engineered "clone" VHDL models with Legacy Avionics Hardware modules. This would be accomplished by the semi-automatic generation of additional functional test vectors. The proposed tool would identify VHDL constructs that have not been exercised during functional simulation. Additional test vectors would be created to exercise these constructs, as well as to propagate the response from these vectors to the module boundary. The response of the Legacy Hardware to these additional test vectors would be learnt and an enhanced VHDL testbench would be constructed which would be applied to the VHDL model to ensure its functional accuracy. The proposed tool would aim to substantially reduce rather than eliminate the requirement for skilled VHDL professionals during this clone validation process. Phase I objectives are to assess the feasibility of this approach and to assess the productivity enhancements to be derived from use of this solution.

CLIFTON LABS, INC.
3678 Fawnrun Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45241
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 563-0383
Darryl Dieckman
AF 98-163
Title:DISCOE: DIstributed Simulatiion COllaborative Environment
Abstract:Clifton Labs, Inc. proposes to develop a web-based hardvare/softvare co-design, distributed library, and distributed co-simulation environment, called DISCOE. The environment will use the SUAVE extensions to VHDL for design capture (specification) of hardvare/softvare systems. The SUAVE extensions seamlessly integrate with the current VHDL language standard and are necessary for effective software specification in a VHDL-based co-design/co-analysis environment. The DISCOE design environment will be web-based and will support distributed libraries and distributed co-simulation for distributed component development and intellectual property protection. DISCOE is the enabling technology needed to support distributed collaborative engineering and analysis of avionic hardvare/software systems and components. It enables the maintenance and use of online, distributed parts libraries to support competitive access to reusable parts and efficient component search capabilities to reduce the impact of electronic parts obsolescence. The Phase I objectives are to (1) establish the technical and commercialization feasibility of DISCOE, (2) produce preliminary design concepts and prototypes for the distributed design environment, and (3) evaluate OMI, VSI, AIRE, or alternative solutions in constructing the distributed, intellectual property preserving, component libraries.

RADIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
329 N. BERNARDO AVENUE
MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 988-4700
BRADLEY J. BAZUIM, PHD
AF 98-164
Title:ALL-DIGITAL, ANTI-JAM, WIDE-BANDWIDTH, OPEN
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will define and architect on all-digital, Anti-Jam, Wide-Bandwidth, Open Architecture GPS Receiver (AJ-WOAGR) for detailed design and implementation during Phase II SBIR activities. The receiver design will focus on a flexible, open architecture design that can be used both as a developmental tool and as a stepping stone toward new generation of high density, low-cost GPS receivers with the appropriate mix of capabilities. As a development tool, the AJ-WOAGR will provide an open architecture for the analysis, test and demonstration of the new link-military (Lm) signal performance, the performance of various GPS jamming and spoofing techniques, the definition and performance analysis of various temporal, multi-antenna spatial, and combined temporal-spatial anti-jam techniques, and the detction, direction-fidning (DF) and geolocation of inadvertent or intentional GPS jammers and spoofers. Follow-on developments will allow the appropriate mixture of open-architecture components to be reduced using MCM, ASIC, and novel packaging technologies to small , high-density, low-cost components and entire receivers for both the military and commercial marketplace.

ZC&H DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, INC.
5608 MUSTER COURT
AUSTIN, TX 78731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 749-2804
JAMES CHAFFEE
AF 98-164
Title:FREQUENCY DOMAIN AIDING MODULE AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN RECEIVER FOR FAST ACQUISITION HIGH ACCELERATION AND JAM RESISTANCE
Abstract:The design and development of a digital signal processing based module to pre-process raw GPS data is proposed. Using frequency domain techniques to aid tracing loop, conventional receiver could maintain lock with narrow bandwidth at 90 g of acceleration and 90 g/s of jerk or more, as well as rapidly acquire the P(Y)-code directly. This technology has been studied and tested since the mid 1980s and is now ready for implementation as the next innovation in digital GPS. This approach also provides the ability to suppress jamming.This technology is also directly applicable to develoing a fully DSP-based frequency domain GPS receiver for high dynamcis and fast acquistion in jamming environments. Prototype receivers have been developed and tested for high dynamic tracking, and there was a frequency domain receiver for use on missiles developed and manufactured by a foreign nation. Frequency domain methods are also beginning t find there into new GPS receivers for fast, direct P(Y)-code acquisition in a jamming environment. However, there is a not single receiver that combines all these properties into a single unit, and this is proposed here as a follow on to the preprocessor, which would be a module the full receiver.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS COMPANY, INC.
500 WEST CUMMINGS PARK
WOBURN, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
B RAVICHANDRAN
AF 98-165
Title:UNIFIED GENERALIZED BAYESIAL ACCRUAL OF EVIDENCE FOR DATA FUSION
Abstract:The lack of a solid foundation for filtering and fusing "ambiguous" observations (e.g. features, natural-language statements, rules) has produced such a proliferation of techniques that current-generation evidence accrual suffers from the YARC ("Yet Another Rule fo Combination") syndrome. The proposed project addresses this problem by developing a unified, theoretically defensible, and computationally tractable paradigm that will ultimately permit the simultaneous estimation of target numbers, identities, and kinematics based on the systematic accrual of all types of evidence, including: random point data, ambiguous obseravations, and image data. Our approach, which we call Bayesian Multisource, Multi-target, Multi-evidence Filtering (or Bayesian multi-filtering (BMF) for short), is a direct generalization of recursive Bayes-Markov nonlinear filtering (NLF) theory. BMF generalized NLF to: (1) multiple targets of unknown number, identity, and kinematics, observed by multiple sensors, including (2) sensors which collect image data; and (3) sources which collect ambiguous observations. Specific Phase I tasks are: (1) Develop or acquire simulated multi-source data for multi sensor sources. (2) Develop multi-source, multi-target, multi-evidene unified evidence accrual algortihms. (3) Test and evaluate the novel evidence accrual algorithms. (4) Statistically characterize the performance error of the novel algorithms. (5) Final report and Phase II recommendations. Phase II will further develop the chosen evidence accrual paradigm and evaluate it using appropriate metrics. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin and Dr. Anuj Srivastava, both originators of BMF algorithms. Lockheed Martin will provde technical and commercialization support in the application of BMF.

SYSTRAN CORP.
4126 Linden Avenue
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-5601
Dr. Joseph A. Fernando
AF 98-166
Title:VHDL Models for ATM Protocol Stack
Abstract:Systran Corporation, a product development company with four product lines that are marketed worldwide, and EDAptive, are proposing to handle the task of developing models for the ATM protocol stack. We are proposing to develop all parameterized models that are required to meet the needs of a ATM systems designer. These parameterized models will be such that all the quality of service parameters can be computed easily for a given set of resources. Conversely, when the quality of service parameters are given, the resources that are required to sustain the quality of service can be computed. Special effort would be given to verify and validate the implemented models.

LINCOM CORP.
5110 W. Goldleaf Circle
Los Angeles, CA 90056
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(213) 293-3001
Philip S. Kossin
AF 98-167
Title:An Optimized Turbo Codec
Abstract:LinCom proposes the design of a codec (encoder-decoder) VLSI product using the Turbo codes which will overcome the latency and BER floors which have been associated with these codes. We are proposing a new innovative technique which will hopefully provide performance comparable to Turbo codes but without the delay and complexity penalties. The resulting product would provide BER's below 10-9 with modest latency and complexity and high coding gain. The Phase I effort will consist of: a) performing a trade study of possible codes designs; b) select a limited number of candidate designs based on BER performance, data throughput, and latency; and c) select the candidate design which is most suitable for implementation in VLSI hardware. Some of the areas to be investigated include the Turbo Interleaver size and type, the types of CC's and their code rates, serial vs parallel concatenation, puncturing method, and the structure of the interleavers. Also to be investigated will be the complexity of the implementation, the required computational speed, and gate count.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS, INC.
7 COMMERCE DRIVE
DANBURY, CT 06810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 794-1100
ROBERT P VAUDO
AF 98-168
Title:LOW DEFECT DENSITY GaN PHOTODIODE
Abstract:GaN-based p-i-n photodiodes are in ideal choice for the Air Force's UV radiation measurements needs since these solid-state detectors are compact, light, and have low power consumption. However, current GaN photodiodes have much larger dark currents than expected. This Phase I program seeks to dramatically improve the current state of GaN photodiodes by employing low dislocation density epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) substrates. The ELO substrates will be produced by hydride vapor phase epitaxy which provides a growth rate approximately 50 times faster than conventional growth techniques and will enable uniformly low dislocation density over large areas. High quality p-i-n diodes will be fabricated on the ELO substrates and on sapphire to detemine the effect of dislocation density of detector performance. In Phase II, we will optimize the structure for increased responsivity and response time, shift the wavelength cutoff to shorter wavelengths by using AlGaN, and identify a commercial partner to package the detectors for high-volume sale of UV detectos.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING GROUP, INC.
11020 SOLWAY SCHOOL RD
KNOXVILLE, TN 37931
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 927-3717
MR JAMES G CARTER
AF 98-168
Title:NOVEL INFRARED PHOTON DETECTOR
Abstract:We propose to develop a new kind of photon detectors based on the photo-induced stress in semiconductor microcantilevers. We will measure the photo-induced stress for various semiconductor materials as a function of a number of parameters such as microcantilever geometry (length, width, thickness), input radiant power, and modulation frequency of input radiant power. This information will allow us to demonstrate the ability of microcantilever photon detectors to sense IR radiation with high sensitivity (D* > 10(11) cm Hz(1/2) W(-1)) and fast response times (<10(-6) s) based on the novel concept described in this proposal. The proposed IR photon detector has the following benefits compared to other IR detectors: (i) no cryogenic cooling, (ii) fast response times, (iii) high sensitivity, (iv) no need for thermal isolation, and (v) low cost due to established monolithic IC fabrication compatibility.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 SECOND AVE
WALTHAM, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4165
DR MOSHE OREN
AF 98-168
Title:INNOVATIVE ELECTRO-OPTIC DEVICE TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY UNIQUE DEVICES
Abstract:Packaging of optoelectronic devices and circuits represents a substantial portion of the cost of photonic systems and provides a major obstacle to their widespread use. A new approach to significantly increase the level of monolithic integration of optoelectronic systems is the subject of this proposed development. Foster-Miller, working in close collaboration with Professor Stephen Forrest's group in the Center for Photonics and Optoelectronic Materials (POEM) at Princeton University, proposes to develop an InP based multifunctional, photonic integrated circuit platform technology which is capable of a very broad range of system applications. The proposed OEIC's technology uses a modified twin waveguide laser design which allows for fault tolerant fabrication, and capable of integrating on the same substrate an arbitrary number of lasers, waveguides, semiconductor optical amplifiers and modulators. Both growth processing, and packaging of the platform structure are simple and robust, allowing for large-scale integration of optical and electronic devices. The proposed approach will enable the rapid introduction into the commercial and military markets of emerging high performance photonic systems, optically controlled RF phase arrays systems, parallel optical interconnects, and EO switching.

SCHWARTZ ELECTRO-OPTICS, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 99010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Kevin J. Snell
AF 98-169
Title:Solid State Laser Projector Demonstration Employing an OPO-based RGB Source
Abstract:The key element in realizing compact and rugged laser projectors is an efficient and reliable, diode-pumped solid-state RGB laser source. In this work, we proposed to develop an efficient diode-pumped RGB laser source based on a green-pumped OPO. The OPO signal wavelength is around 940 nm and the idler wavelength is around 1230nm. The signal and idler outputs are then frequency-doubled to produce blue light around 470 nm and red light around 615 nm.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4900 University Square
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 859-1886
Dr. Peter S. Erbach
AF 98-170
Title:Full-Complex Wavefront Generation for 3-D Volumetric Holographic Displays
Abstract:High-speed computer and high resolution display technology have advanced to the point that two dimensional (2-D) display technologies present more information than can be efficiently used. Advanced computer and display technologies have been combined with advances in spatial light modulation (SLM) technology to provide the user 3-D image cues. SY Technology proposes an innovative technique to demonstrate 3-D "volumetric" display technology by generating full-complex amplitude optical wavefronts using 2-D SLMs. SY technology will accomplish this by combining two specialized high-speed 2-D pixelated devices (LCD), each separately modulating amplitude or phase, into an architecture generating the full-complex amplitude of an optical wavefront. Users can then combine an object's shape and complex reflectivity to determine the optical complex wavefront reflected from an object. In related DARPA supported work, SY Tech. is constructing a phase-only diffractive projection television using rapid computation algorithms to convert video data into equivalent diffraction patterns. These patterns are then displayed on and demonstrate generation of calculated full-complex amplitude wavefronts. We will also analyze methods of extending the SLM technology to support future commercialization of this innovative approach.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5339 HUBERVILLE AVENUE
DAYTON, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 254-3655
RALPH NIETER
AF 98-171
Title:NEW FALSE ALARM REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR INFRARED MISSILE WARNING SYSTEMS
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop a low cost infrared countermeasures sytem to protect commercial aircraft from shoulder launched, infrared guided missiles. DRA proposes to harness leading edge technologies to detect, track and counter these lethal threats. The proposed concept incorporates low cost visual technologies for detection and tracking of missiles and a minin-gimbal technology for the pointing of low cost semiconductor lasers. Candidate sensor are evaluated for the ability to address this probelm. Critical sensor parameters to be considered include the detection range, backgrond clutter, detection envelope, processing time and detection reliability. Selected candidate sensors will be taken to the field for collection of raw signature and background data. The operational requirements will be exhaustively scrubbed though the iterative application of a structured dialog with the User community. A top level system design and a defining system specification for a low cost infrared countermeasures system are the two key products.

TRITON SERVICES, INC.
4027 COLONEL GLENN HIGHWAY
DAYTON, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4264
JAMES UTT
AF 98-171
Title:NEW FALSE ALARM REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR IRMWS
Abstract:The classical methods for rejecting false targets in airborne infrared missile warning sytems, include spatial, spectral, temporal and angle tracking techniques, have been explored on numerous development programs are currently inherent in operational IR missile warning systems such as the AN/AAR-44. However, flight tests have shown that there are still a number of ground sources that will create false alarms in the sytem. Furthermore, the use of amplitude growth in target signal has not proven to be reliable method of determining if the detected source is an approaching missle. The proposed effort will evaluate the use of a class of unique spatio tempora algorithms called Optical Flow to distinguish real threats from false alarms. It takes advantage of the difference in characteristics between a source that is moving in the MWS field of view as the aircraft flies toward it and a missile that is approaching the aircraft at a much faster rate than the ground source. The OFA algorithm proposed will also take advantage of the chagnes in range and range rate of the missile and not rely on the change in amplitude as the potential threat approaches. The proposed program will evaluate the OFA on a UNIX workstation using the data recorded during the flight test of the SNJW IR MWS testbed. This testbed employs a Galileo 256x 256 insb digital sensor and provides a credible model for future IR MWS sensors using 2DFPAs. Should the OFA technique prove effective against current data, it is proposed in Phase II to conduct field and flight trials using the SNJW testbed. This will result in a live fire test plan to be implemented in Phase III. Since this sensor may be integrated into the LIFE laser IRCM program, the successful implementation of the OFA will also benefit that program. The purpose of Phase III will be to develop a preproduction model of an IR MWS employing the OFA, that has the resolution and sensitivity needed to detect modern threats at ranges sufficient for engagement by a direct energy countermeasures system such as that being developed on the LIFE program.

AZTEX, INC.
303 BEAR HILL ROAD
WALTHAM, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5529
JOHN HARRIS
AF 98-172
Title:Enabling Criteria for Flaw Tolerant Composite Design
Abstract:The implementation of composites in the aerospace industry has been limited because of the inherent unpredictability of composite structure failures. Typically, very conservative designs are saddled with requirements for fail safe fasteners resulting in heavy and expensive structures. Many recent designs such as F-22 began with large percentages of composite structures, but eventually became primarily metallic designs because of these considerations. To fully realize the benefits of composites on high performance aircraft, more flaw tolerant joints must be implemented. Z-Fiber and 3D weaving technologies represent a fundamentally new way to produce large, unitized composite structures. Using Z-Fiber, co-cured joints can be manufactured which are inherently flaw tolerant and do not require additional fail-safe measures to be taken. However, to date, the implementation of Z-Fiber technology has been hobbled by the current industry design criteria that were developed for 2D composites. With the advent of the new Joint Service Structures Specification, a clear set of enabling criteria have been developed which delineate the requirements for co-cured and co-bonded structures on military aircraft. These criteria now provide a clear path to developing the data necessary to implement Z-Fiber and other 3D technologies. The purpose of this program is to begin the process of gathering data to demonstrate that Z-Fiber reinforcement provides a flaw and damage tolerant joint that meets the requirements of the Joint Service Structures Specification.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN, INC.
1024 E. LANCASTER AVE.
ROSEMONT, PA 19010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 526-9541
DR. BRIAN J. SULLIVAN
AF 98-172
Title:Enabling Criteria Development for Unitized Composite Structure Joints Containing Textile Reinfored Inserts
Abstract:The proposed Phase I effort is aimed at the development of damage tolerant design and failure criteria for joints containing 3-D weave reinforced inserts in composite structures. Recent work involving the use of textile reinforced inserts in the contraction of typical airframe joints well beyond the load at which damage is initiated. Current design practices are conservative and do not allow joints to be loaded beyond first cracking loads. The ultimate goal of this effort is to generate new damage tolerant design guidelines for joints of this type which utilize their strength reserves. This will allow the overall weight of airframes constructed using these joints to be significantly reduced. A combined analytical and experimental program is proposed here. The analytical portion will be performed by MR&D using technically mature micromechanical tools and public domain finite element stress analysis codes. Existing experimental data on joints with textile reinforced inserts available from the AFRL/VAS program entitled, "Robust Composite Sandwich Structures," will be used extensively to benchmark predicted results. Additional sub-element joint testing will be performed as required to supplement the database. Albany International Research Company will weave 3-D reinforced inserts and fabricate the sub-element joints. Boeing (St Louis) will assist in identifying design requirements and geometry for two Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) applications, designing composite joint test specimens representative of JSF structural applications, identifying test specimens loading requirements, and in the evaluation of test results.

CREARE, INC.
PO BOX 71
HANOVER, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
DR. MICHAEL G. IZENSON
AF 98-173
Title:Hybrid Convector/Radiator for High Altitude UAVs
Abstract:The objective of this project is to enable unmanned aircraft to fly at higher altitudes with larger payloads for longer-duration missions using turbocharged, internal combustion engines. Heat rejection typically limits the performance of these aircraft. We propose to develop a compact, lightweight heat rejection system that provides intercooling for the multi-stage turbocharging system and engine cooling. Innovative heat exchangers and optical coatings enable the aircraft to make optimal use of thermal radiation and ram-air for heat rejection. In Phase I we prove the feasibility of this system through design and analysis of the system components.

THERMACORE, INC.
780 EDEN RD
LANCASTER, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 569-6551
ALFRED L. PHILLIPS
AF 98-173
Title:Hybrid LHP/Composite Heat Rejection Panels for UAV
Abstract:Ongoing work should lead to a flight test of a Loop Heat Pipe based anti icing system in late 1998 or early 1999 aboard the Global Hawk UAV. The Loop Heat Pipe condenser tubing will be integrated into the composite skin of the engine inlet cowl. This essentially turns the composite skin into a radiator panel. The proposed program will address and quantify the use of these panels as heat rejection radiators. Such radiator panels can be applied to most of the upper surface of the aircraft and are equally suited for convective or radiative heat rejection. The concept supports a self-contained by-pass system which will autonomously switch in additional panels as the system temperature rises in response to diminished convective heat loss with altitude so the system will passively maintain operating temperature limits. The avionics compartment of the Global Hawk is presently cooled by pumping fuel through the compartment. The proposed system will keep the fuel out of the avionics compartment and also increase operating margins for end-of-mission conditions.

AEROSOFT, INC.
1872 PRATT DR
BLACKSBURG, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 231-8117
DR. ANDREW G. GODFREY
AF 98-174
Title:Multi-Variable Sensitivity Technology for Enhancing Future Aircraft
Abstract:Recent advancements in both computational efficiency and physical-modeling capabilities have increased the utility of computational fluid dynamics in the vehicle-design process. However, beyond knowing the aerodynamic characteristics of a fixed configuration, the vehicle designer is interested in how to change the design to improve speed and maneuverability. Recent research into the sensitivity-equation approach has demonstrated the ability to efficiently predict flow tendencies and determine stability derivatives in the framework of a high-order aerodynamic optimization. The procedure numerically solves linear partial differential equations for the sensitivities themselves instead of differentiating the discretized fluid-dynamic equations. However, to date, no commercial software is available which solves these valuable and insightful equations for viscous, compressible, chemically reacting flow.We propose a stand-alone software package that solves the sensitivity equations with direct application to analysis of unconventional aircraft. The proposed sensitivity software can be used with any CFD flow solver: Commercial, public domain, or research-level.

AEROVIRONMENT, INC.
222 EAST HUNTINGTON DR.
MONROVIA, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 357-9983
DR. PAUL B. MACCREADY
AF 98-174
Title:Skytote: An Innovative Aircraft with Unique Performance Capabilities
Abstract:The Skytote concept has emerged from a system analysis seeking a remotely/ autonomously controlled air vehicle for transporting materials -- a vehicle system that emphasizes simplicity, economy, and versatility. In one version it is envisioned as a "virtual convertiplane" (weighing less than 250 lbs) that does not require any physical conversion of configuration going from vertical takeoff to high speed cruise and back with a payload exceeding 400 lbs. It is propeller driven, but no cyclic pitch is needed, and, in the most preferred embodiment, the propeller has fixed pitch. With a wing spanning 20 feet or less, it operates even in fog (but not icing conditions) from a ship or a tiny clearing on shore.

HIGH TECHNOLOGY CORP.
28 RESEARCH DRIVE
HAMPTON, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 865-0818
MUJEEB R. MALIK
AF 98-174
Title:A Novel Computational Tool for Transition Prediction over Hypersonic Vehicles
Abstract:Laminar to turbulent transition phenomenon in hypersonic flows remains poorly understood although it has a profound impact on the thermal protection system weight, vehicle drag and air-breathing engine performance. Transition location uncertainty forces designers to be conservative by adding weight and reducing thrust. Accurate prediction techniques are needed since existing applicable transition databases are insufficient and validated arbitrary configuration prediction codes are non-existent. It is proposed to develop a novel computational tool for hypersonic transition prediction which can account for environmental effects. The computational tool can not only capture the complex physical phenomenon, but also is computationally efficient and, therefore, has the potential of becoming a design tool for aerospace vehicles of the 21st century.

HIGH TECHNOLOGY CORP.
28 RESEARCH DRIVE
HAMPTON, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 865-0818
LOUIS N. CATTAFESTA, III
AF 98-174
Title:Advanced Actuator Systems for Separation Control
Abstract:The development of actuators suitable for boundary-layer separation control is proposed. The Phase I effort focuses on the analysis, design, fabrication, and benchtop testing of prototype systems. The actuators will generate disturbances that are large enough to significantly influence the performance of a high-lift system but will be energy efficient and small enough so that multiple actuators can be imbedded in an airfoil. A follow-on Phase II study will incorporat the best actuators into a high-lift airfoil system for detailed wind tunnel tests. The significance of this modular actuator subsystem is that it has the potential to be incorporated into the design of high-lift systems, ultimately leading to real-time separation control. Recent research has shown that various actuator types are capable of successfully achieving boundary-layer control, yet such actuators are currently impractical for larger-scale implementation. The approach here is innovative in the application of advanced piezoelectric technology. The proposed system may be applied to the design of virtually any fluid system that endeavors to either prevent separation or promote mixing, such as airfoils, nozzles, and diffusers.

BIHRLE APPLIED RESEARCH, INC.
18 RESEARCH DR.
HAMPTON, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 766-2416
DAVID R. GINGRAS
AF 98-175
Title:A Compreshensive Approach to the Development of Multivehicle Aerodynamics Simulation Models
Abstract: Abstract not available...

DYNAMIC CONTROLS, INC.
7060 CLIFFWOOD PL
DAYTON, OH 45424
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-4050
MR. BRUCE RAYMOND
AF 98-175
Title:In-Service Health Monitoring of Flight Control Actuators
Abstract:The ability to monitor the operating characteristics of flight control actuators with embedded microprocessors is now feasible and cost effective. Although central computers can be used for the purpose, there are significant advantages in using a health monitoring system incorporated in the flight control actuators. The advantages include reducing the communication load with the central computer and retaining the performance history with the actuator.This proposal establishes a methodology for implementing a health monitoring system for hydraulic and electrical flight actuators.

ETREMA PRODUCTS, INC.
2500 NORTH LOOK DRIVE
AMES, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 296-7999
CHARLES B. BRIGHT
AF 98-175
Title:Integrated Electric Actuator Application to Flight Control Technology
Abstract:For current aircraft, hydraulic power is the preferred method of gaining mechanical advantage. Due to its distributed nature and system redundancy requirements, the power comes with the penalty of high weight, cost, and maintenance. ETREMA proposes to develop a magnetostrictive TERFENOL-D driven pump element and active flow control valves to power an electrohydraulic actuator packaged as a self-contained, unitized device, for remote location at the point of actuation. Unique features include bi-directional flow control, elimination of servovalves, and no rotating inertial dynamics. In building such an actuator, a critcal task is matching fluid and TERFENOL-D impedance characteristics which in turn determine pump chamber and TERFENOL-D transducer geometry. The proposed research will define the preliminary pump concept, determine its feasibility, and define its requirements including the environment in which it must perform. An integrated numerical model of the TERFENOL-D transducers, pump, valves, and fluid volumes will be developed to predict performance. A successful effort will ultimately yield a concept for an affordable miniature actuator capable of locally actuating high response changes such as fighter/attack aircraft control surfaces.

SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
13766 S.HAWTHORNE BLVD.
HAWTHORNE, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 679-2281
DAVID H. KLYDE
AF 98-175
Title:Development of a Pilot Assessment Software System
Abstract:Pilots come from varying backgrounds in terms of training, experience, and aircraft flown. Researchers often classify pilots as "high gain" or "low gain" based on a demonstrated level of aggressiveness in a common task. These simple classifications, however, do not begin to explain the variability often encountered in piloted evaluations. The objective of the proposed SBIR is to provide real time assessment metrics to gauge the ratings assigned by pilots. Frequency domain techniques will be applied to relevant pilot inputs to estimate the significant parameters that influence pilot ratings when performing high gain, closed-loop tasks. Specific techniques include the fast-Fourier transform that will be used to generate real time power spectral densities (PSD) of the pilot's input. The PSD will then be used to estimate relevant parameters including pilot gain, crossover and cutoff frequency, and pilot lead. This effort will lead to software and testing techniques that will integrate with existing simulators and flight test facilities, remotely-piloted vehicle ground stations, and future uninhabited combat air vehicle operator stations. The resulting Pilot Assessment Software System or PASS will allow researchers to make on-line adjustments to their experimental design as pilot ratings are compared to quantitative results at the end of each evaluation.

UNISTRY ASSOC., INC.
1901 DARBY RD
HAVERTOWN, PA 19083
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 851-1313
DR. RONALD L. HINRICHSEN
AF 98-176
Title:Characterizing Aeroacoustic/Combustion Loads on Aging Aircraft
Abstract:A program is proposed that will estimate aerodynamic flow induced and unsteady pressure oscillations in flight that will provide the dynamic loads for structural vibration response to aging aircraft. The engineering prediction technique, which is based on first principals, provides for a close-form solution and has been validated for subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows subject to attached and separated flow conditions. The methodology correctly describes the acoustic power intensity and spectra required for fatigue analysis and structural response for aging aircraft repair/maintenance while providing specifications for structural requirements for new platform designs.The focus of the research is to develop a database of attached and separated flows generated by control surface interactions, cavities, engine inlet/combustion/nozzle, and exhaust plume (screech). The database will be formatted into a CD-ROM for application to the aging aircraft community. The CD-ROM will include analysis, database, tables of design parameters to execute the analysis, example cases and user guide. Support of this program will be provided by Boeing-St Louis. It is further proposed to reach a large segment of the aging aircraft community through the Internet to allow collection of data, dissemination of data, and to provide a vehicle for feedback on aging aircraft problems.

GENEVA AEROSPACE, INC.
PO Box 613018
Dallas, TX 75261
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 317-3124
David A. Felio
AF 98-177
Title:Examination of an Integrated Autopilot Design for Simplified UAV Flight Control
Abstract:In order to be truly versatile, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Systems must be usable to individuals who's training is more focused on the requirements of a given mission or on the usability of the payload, rather than on the aviation of the air vehicle. This suggests that flight control systems must respond to higher level, more intuitive remote commands such as "go left", "go right", "climb", or "dive". Modern embedded guidance and control processing methods such as those used for autonomously guided cruise missiles or advanced military aircraft demonstrate that low-level stick-and-rudder commands can be eliminated as a requirement on the remote operator. In addition to a more intuitive command-response autopilot, Geneva Aerospace has developed a design which allows the integration of intuitive "mission-level" remote commands into the guidance system, significantly reducing the work-load on the operator as it pertains to the aviation of the UAV. The guidance system is evaluated on the Freewing Tilt-Body airframe, which provides unique inherent acamera stabilization and "Extremely" Short Take-off and Landing properties. The integrated guidance design and systems engineering approach proposed provides a modular core structure that can easily be upgraded and can grow with increasing technology.

M. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
440 HORSHAM RD, SUITE 1
HORSHAM, PA 19006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 322-3057
ROGER M. BIRKBECK
AF 98-178
Title:Active Pitch Copntrol for Improved Weapon Separation Characteristics
Abstract:A new class of miniaturized munitions will play a key role in future warfighting scenarios by providing precision strikes to an array of high-value targets. To meet this need, weapons such as the Small Bomb System (SBS), Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (LOCAAS) and Miniature Air Launched Decoy (MALD) represent a new generation of small, low-cost weapon systems currently under development. Deployment of these weapons from internal weapon bays of advanced tactical aircraft, such as the F-22, F-117A, and JSF poses new engineering challenges and drives the need to further the science of weapons carriage and release. A change in the "brute-force" ejection paradigm is needed in order to provide safe separation of these new weapon systems from internal weapons bays. Understanding and controlling how weapons will react to the flow within the weapons bay environment is essential in providing a high confidence of safe separation. This proposal demonstrates a concept that will provide the desired result of improved safe separation. Active Pitch Control utilizes real-time aircraft data to predict flow characteristics, particularly the turbulent shear layer. Based on this prediction, the system reacts to provide an optimum pitch attitude to the weapon during ejection. Alignment of the weapon with the shear layer will significantly minimize adverse aerodynamic moments and thus providing the weapon with significantly improved separation characteristics.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
11000 CEDAR AVE STE 461
CLEVELAND, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 791-6749
FREDERICK LISY, PH.D
AF 98-178
Title:Smart Surface for Flow Control
Abstract:A smart surface, containing microelectromechanical devices (MEMS), able to enhance the performance capabilities of weapons systems, will be designed, fabricated and tested. The prototype smart surface will consist of an adaptive/predictive controller, an integrated array of microsensors and Deployable Micro-Vortex Generators (DMVGs). The smart surface will be tested on an airfoil where sensors will be able to discern flow conditions indicative of flow separation and deploy the DMVGs. In response, the DMVGs will generate vortices into the freestream, energizing the boundary layer. The DMVGs will make the flow less susceptible to separate from the surface of the airfoil, inhibiting stall and providing additional lift for the aircraft. The smart surface will be able to retract the DMVGs, subtracting the drag caused by the passive vortex generators during normal cruise flight.The engineering prototype will be tested in Phase I at the subsonic wind tunnel at the Ohio State University. The control strategy used to prevent separation will be determined. During this program, the controller will demonstrate its ability to actuate the DMVGs in response to sensor inputs regarding flow conditions incipient to surface flow separation. The ability to control the flow will be determined by flow visualization techniques utilizing laser sheets and time-averaged surface pressure measurements on the airfoil.

INNOVATIVE MACHINE DESIGN
9391 QUAIL RIDGE RUN
BRIGHTON, MI 48114
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(810) 229-5946
Anjan Sabbani
AF 98-180
Title:Adaptive Compliant Wing
Abstract:Traditionally, engineered artifacts are designed to be strong and stiff. Designs in nature are strong but not stiff - they are compliant. Although nature thrives on use of compliance, the engineering world has traditionally limited itself to rigid structures and mechanisms. Practical solutions can be developed by exploiting preferred effects of compliance. Majority of current research in adaptive structures embraces the traditional notion of deploying a plethora of actuators (distributed actuation) within a stiff structure to simulate compliant behavior in an adaptive airfoil. Scalability and reliability of such distributed actuation methods is questionable. If the underlying structure is designed to be inherently compliant, then the resulting design will require fewer actuators and simpler controls.The proposed Adaptive Compliant Wind (ACW) concept relies on distributed compliance rather than distributed actuation. The ACW potentially offers significant advantages in terms of unitized light-weight construction actuated by a single conventional electric motor, high strain and force capabilities, low power requirements, excellent packaging efficiency, no heat generation, excellent dynamic response, low hysteresis and can be tailored for force or displacement amplification. The ACW concept is a new approach and a scaleable solution to the problem of achieving desired shape changes in airfoils. The ACW eliminates discrete control surfaces since the mechanism is contained within the airfoil.

VERICON, INC.
2257 SOUTH 1000 EAST
SALT LAKE CITY, UT 84106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 485-4991
OWEN D. BRIMHALL
AF 98-180
Title:Adaptive Wing Actuators
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop new electrically conductive phase-change polymer actuators for shape control of aircraft structures and active aerodynamics. Phase I will develop new large deflection, modular actuator concepts applicable to adaptive plate structures. New electrically conductive thermopolymers are inexpensive, nonbrittle, lightweight and provide large volume change. Unlike piezoceramic devices, the thermopolymer material can freely fill complex shapes. This project will study biomimetic configurations arrayed with micro-voids or channels filled with thermoactuating polymer to induce strain. The technology will be compatible with surface bonded application and embedded composite structures. Prototype actuator concepts will be modeled, designed, fabricated, and tested in Phase I. New concepts developed in Phase I will be compared with existing shape memory, piezoelectric, and magnetostrictive technologies.

ZONA TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7430 E. STETSON DRIVE
SCOTTSDALE, AZ 85251
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 945-9198
PING CHIH CHEN
AF 98-180
Title:A Variable Stiffness Spar (VSS) Approach for Aircraft Maneuver Enhancement
Abstract: Abstract not available...

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 SECOND AVE.
WALTHAM, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4047
DR. PAUL O. HAUGSJAA
AF 98-181
Title:Optical Flight Actuator Control
Abstract:An innovative concept for the photonic control of electrical flight control actuators is proposed for this Phase I development. Telecommunications-style dense WDM (wavelength division multiplexing) demultiplexers are utilized to provide separate control for multiple semiconductor electrical switches to control the 270 VDC power to the actuators in a way that dramitically increases circuit immunity to EMI.

OZ ELECTRO-OPTICS, INC.
2043 DE MAYO RD.
DEL MAR, CA 92014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 481-0218
OVED ZUCKER
AF 98-181
Title:Advanced Fly-By-Light Control of Electric Flight Control Actuator
Abstract:We propose a high speed bipolar power semiconductor whose on/off operation is directly controlled by fiber coupled laser pulses for driving flight control motors. The direct light activation results in a) an increase in the switching power and speed of the device over the IGBT, which will reduce the size and weight of the motor control system, b) in a virtually noise immune motor control system. Control light pulses are delivered through fibers traveling in alternate paths through the structure to control the on - off operation of the power semiconductor in a logic or function directly. Thus, the presence of a signal from any or all of the fibers will cause the same switching action, thereby providing battle hardened configurations without additional signal processing.

ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERTS, INC.
215 FIRST STREET
CAMBRIDGE, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 577-0700
SHOKO YOSHIKAWA
AF 98-184
Title:Electronically Shunted Smart Material Damper Packages for Extreme Environments
Abstract:ACX proposes an alternate approach to damping for extreme environments, which uses an electrically shunted, surface mounted, smart material. This shunting approach has been most widely used in less extreme environments in conjunction with piezoceramic materials. The smart material is bonded to the surface of the target structure, in this case a part inside an aircraft engine. Stress on the part is transferred to the piezoelectric. This in turn produces an electrical potential at the electrodes. By discharging the voltage through an electrical network, damping can be accomplished. For the resistive-inductive (RL) network, the result is the electrical equivalent of a tuned mass damper.The frequency selectivity of an electrically shunted smart material can be tailored to the specific application needs through the selection of the electronic shunt components. Robust, broad band or dramatic narrow band reduction be achieved. The advantages of such a proposed shunted smart material damping system include the flexibility to place it in a range of rotating and non-rotating environments, its ability to withstand large stresses with limited creep, the robustness of ceramic materials at high temperature, and its frequency selectivity.Phase I will design, fabricate and test an electronically shunted smart material damper package for extreme environments based on ACX's QuickPack technology, which encapsulates the piezoceramics in a protective skin.

DAMPING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
12970 MCKINLEY HIGHWAY UNIT IX
MISHAWAKA, IN 46545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 779-2237
MR.TOM LEWIS
AF 98-184
Title:Investigation of Air Film Damping
Abstract:This project will conduct experiments and perform analyses to determine the feasibility and methods for reducing or eliminating high cycle fatigue failures in gas turbine engine turbine blades and other components through the employment of air film damping techniques. Specifically, this project will investigate the efforts of air film damping on the dynamic behavior and modal damping of flat cantilever beams and plates. The effects of several plate and air film parameters on damping performance will be examined. The project will also evaluate the effectivenes of plate fabrication methods, such as bonding, brazing or welding, on airfilm damping performance.

GASL, INC.
77 RAYNOR AVE
RONKONKOMA, NY 11779
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 737-6100
DR. WALLACE CHINITZ
AF 98-185
Title:Fire Suppression by the Selective Excitation of Critical Species
Abstract:A unique, innovative concept is proposed to suppress fires, which does not involve the use of any deleterious material whatever. This concept, when developed into a portable device used in accordance with a protocol to be developed as part of the proposed program, results in an increase in the ignition delay time of hydrocarbon-based flames by many orders-of-magnitude, effectively self-extinguishing the flame or permitting the use of innocuous, conventional flame-extinguishing methods. The approach is based on the fact that the kinetic chain mechanism describing the finite-rate oxidation of hydrocarbon-air mixtures can be diverted into slow-reacting side chains by the introduction of water dissociation products, coupled with the use of selective laser radiation to excite the species that divert the kinetic mechanism into the side chains. As a result, halon 1301 can be replaced by a method involving nothing more than the introduction of water and laser irradiation, perhaps followed by a conventional smothering technique to ensure that no re-ignition of the fire occurs.

M.L. ENERGIA, INC.
PO BOX 470
PRINCETON, NJ 08542
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 799-7970
DR. MOSHE LAVID
AF 98-185
Title:Fire Suppression by Spectrally Selective Light Radiation
Abstract:The continuous search for alternatives to halons as fire suppressants, necessitated by the Montreal Protocol ban on ozone depleting substances, has yielded a few potential replacements. However, these chemically acting agents still pose unresolved toxicity questions and/or are not as effective as halons.This Phase I proposal offers a revolutionary approach to suppress fire by exposure to spectrally selective light. To meet this objective, a four-task work plan is proposed. It includes: (1) Prospective light wavelength(s) for fire suppression will be identified from spectroscopic investigation of light emission from a corona discharge induced by electromagnetic pulse which has already exhibited fire extinction capabilities; (2) Computer modeling will be utilized to assist in the selection of the most promising wavelength(s); (3) Hydrocarbon flames established over a Bunsen burner and/or a counterflow apparatus will be exposed to laser light at the selected wavelengths. Fire suppression will be quantified in terms of reduction is burning velocity (Bunsen) and/or stain rate (counterflow); and (4) A conceptional design of a fire suppression prototype will be rendered based on the experimental and modeling results.Successful demonstration of the principle along with a fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms for fire suppression by light will provide a technical foundation for a comprehensive Phase II R&D, leading to a design and construction of a prototype for field demonstration.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
William R. Baschnagel
AF 98-187
Title:Low Cost Precision Forming of Discontinuously Reinforced Metal Matrix Composite Aerospace Components
Abstract:This project will demonstrate the feasibility of netshape forming complex multifeatured precision aluminum matrix composite aerospace components at a fraction of the cost of current techniques. The Creare superplastic compression forming technology combines the cost and production rate advantages of stamping or forging with the geometric flexibility and precision normally achievable only with computer controlled machining centers. During Phase I we will verify the feasibility of compression forming aluminum metal matrix composites while preserving their unique material characteristics and develop the basic process parameters. During Phase II we will develop production quality tooling and demonstrate the ability to form fully functional discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composite engine and structural components in quantity at low cost.

DWA ALUMINUM COMPOSITES
21130 Superior Street
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 998-1504
Timothy A. Loftin
AF 98-187
Title:Deformation Process Modeling of DRA Extrusions
Abstract:The lack of fully developed extrusion design tools for Discontinuously Reinforced Aluminum (DRA) such as finite element simulation codes will continue to impede market penetration of this promising aerospace material. There is limited motivation on the part of the aluminum extrusion industry to develop finite element codes given the low cost of aluminum and the use of common tool steels for extrusion dies. The design tools this proposal seeks to establish will reduce the lead-time and cost of developing DRA extrusions, expand the manufacturing infrastructure, and grow the market for DRA. The objectives of Phase I are, 1)documentation of critical extrusion process parameters such as ram velocity, extrusion pressure, billet and container pre-heat temperatures, and extrusion die temperatures through the use of thermocoupled tooling and extrusion equipment, 2)a verified finite element simulation model for DRA shear face die extrusions based on DEFORM software, 3) an initial DRA property database specific to deformation processing composed of compression flow stress data that will aid not only the modeling of extrusion but any bulk fabrication process such as rolling, forging, etc., and 4)Preliminary "process window" diagrams for DRA extrusion, as well as preliminary guidelines for die bearing land lengeh.

BRIMROSE CORP. OF AMERICA
5024 Campbell Blvd
Baltimore, MD 21236
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 668-5800
Dr. G.V. Jagannathan
AF 98-188
Title:Low Temperature Homo and Hetero-Epitaxial Growth of SiC on 4H-C and Hexagonal Nb2C Substrates by Plasma
Abstract:Brimrose Corporation's Phase I technical objective is to optimize the Brimrose Corporation's `ECR' Plasma Enhanced CVD processing method for growing homoepitaxially high quality SiC layers on semi-insulating 4H-SiC and heteroepitaxially on closely lattice matched and highly conducting Nb2C substrates (advantageous for fabricating vertical SiC power devices). Lowering of growth temperature will be achieved by using thermally less stable Disilane, injected down stream, and using thermally less stable and reactive alkene precursor/s such as acetylene or ethylene or propylene in the form of a Argon + alkene plasma mixture generated upstream in the CVD Reactor. Preliminary doping studies using dimethyl Aluminum Hydride and Tertiarybutyl Phosphine will be carried out. Phase II will involve optimization of n- and p-type doping, growth and full characterization of material device structures of interest to the Air Force and modeling of plasma enhanced CVD growth for single and multiwafer processing. Samples of doped and undoped epitaxial SiC films grown on 4H-SiC and Nb2C substrates and fully characterized will be delivered to the Air Force at the end of Phase I research.

STERLING SEMICONDUCTOR
22660 Executive Drive
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 834-7535
Dr. Larry Rowland
AF 98-188
Title:Novel, Thick SiC Epitaxial Growth for Next-Generation Power Devices
Abstract:Sterling Semiconductor will develop technology for superthick 4H-SiC epitaxial layers of up to 300 microns thick. Epitaxial layers of SiC of this thickness will satisfy needs in motor drive, transportation, power distribution and power transmission markets that cannot be satisfied with silicon. These layers will be formed with high purity, high minority carrier lifetime, and will be useful for blocking voltages of up to 30kV.

AVXM PARTNERSHIP
5375 Oakvista Place
Kettering, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 436-3531
Dr. Allen Jackson
AF 98-190
Title:Thin Film Growth Simulation Using Cellular Automata, State Space, and Neural Nets Methods
Abstract:Simulation of thin film growth is an essential aspect of developing new materials engineered to specific properties and defining the processing sequence required to produce the film. Software available to simulate such growth requires high end computer performance, and the programs are designed for use by experts in thin film growth who are interested in studying the mechanisms of nucleation and growth. Identifying processing parameters and control parameters suited to producing films is not a focus of these computer programs. Thus, the first issue is reducing the computational burden in simulation. The second issue is ease of use and suitability of display of the simulation in a timely manner for the user. AvXm proposes to demonstrate that the NanoModeler system as a thin film simulation system is suitable for enhancing the design of engineered materials and for developing process sequences for manufacturing the films. Important aspects of the NanoModeler system are the visual display, simple user interface, substrate design capability, archiving capability of simulations, and reduction of computational complexity. The unique combination of methods we have created represents a new approach to simulation not available presently on desktop level computers.

IMAGINATION ENGINES, INC.
12906 Autumn View Dr
St. Louis, MO 63146
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 576-1617
Stephen Thaler
AF 98-190
Title:Integrated Substrate and Thin-film Design Methods
Abstract:A recently patented connectionist paradigm, called the "Creativity Machine", is naturally suited to all process design problems, including those of thin film growth and removal. Trained by exposure to cumulative experimental data, this paradigm may autonomously compute processing routes toward specifically targeted end goals. In the case of thin film growth and removal, the Creativity Machine may readily experiment with alternative processing routes, finally recommending all growth and/or etching paths that lead to desired stoichiometric and crystallographic film properties. Furthermore, it may design any thin film process within the constraints imposed by environmental compliance regulations.Until now, a significant difficulty in applying this technique to `real world' thin film growth/removal problems has been the sheer size of the data files normally encountered. Typically, thousands of data points, taken across multiple process parameters, must be converted to `neural newtwork digestible' form before the paradigm may be applied. Herein, we propose the development of a novel signal compression technique that will enable the Creativity Machine paradigm to solve difficult and complex materials processing problems. We then propose how this combined process compression and discovery technique may be appled to varied problems in thin film growth and removal.

MFG INSTRUMENTATION CONSULTANT CO.
2762 Berkshire Road
Cleveland Heights, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 321-7127
Massood Tabib-Azar
AF 98-191
Title:Near Real-Time Monitoring of Thin-Film Materials and Their Interfaces Using Evanescent Microwave Probes
Abstract:We propose a phase I feasibility investigation of the merits of a new microwave-based method for near real-time monitoring of thin-film material growth and etching with high spatial resolutions. The method we propose to develop here is based on monitoring the microwave resistivity of the film and the material during its processing (growth or etching) using a spatially confined microwave probe. Material quality, structure, stoichiometry, and impurity content all affect its microwave resistivity and can be detected the probe. Our main objective in this study is to design and develop a prototype probe that can be used in actual deposition chambers to monitor film growth in-situ and in real-time. Such a probe will be invaluable in providing a feedback on the growth conditions to control of the process. Our preliminary studies indicate that the evanescent microwave probe is capable of performing such a task. Furthermore, we will investigate possibility of using multi-frequency probes as a method to investigate hierarchy of properties encountered in multi-layered structures. Depth variation as well as information regarding the gradient of properties will be obtained and monitored to control the deposition process. The proposed work will be performed over a period of 9 months at MICC.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER
133 Defense Highway
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 261-8373
Dr. David Palaith
AF 98-191
Title:X-Ray Sensors for Real Time Control of Thin Film Deposition
Abstract:Intelligent materials processing requires sensors that can assess materials properties in situ and in real time at the microscopic level. Data from these sensors would be used to control processing in near real time, to accelerate development of new materials systems, and to enable the development of a virtual materials processing environment, a goal that will greatly reduce both the cost and time needed to develop new materials systems. Few sensors currently exist that can provide the kind of information needed. X-ray sensors offer a vast improvement over current in situ sensor techniques. Recent advances in high energy high resolution x-ray generators coupled with modern advanced photo detecting systems have made real-time data acquisition during Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) a laboratory reality.During Phase I effort, the feasibility of x-ray sensors for in situ, real-time process control of magnetron sputter deposition of thin films will be demonstrated. This will be achieved by delineating relationships between microscopic film properties and deposition conditions. In addition, one design will be prepared to adapt appropriate sensors for measuring x-ray reflectivity and fluorescence to in situ measurements, and a second design for a heated sample stage and goniomete will be developed.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Stuart F. Cogan
AF 98-192
Title:Corrosion Protection Coatings for Aluminum Aircraft Alloys
Abstract:The development of corrosion protection coatings for aluminum aircraft alloys is proposed. The coatings are based on polyaniline and other conducting polymers that are incorporated into anodized coatings by oxidative electropolymerization during the anodization process. The coatings will have a two-phase structure with the conducting polymer in the pore volume of the anodic coating. The anodic coating provides a mechanically robust structure that protects the conducting polymer from abrasion while providing a suitable surface for topcoating. A corrosion inhibition mechanism based on adsorption and mobility of the conductive polymers is also proposed for the protection of A1 alloys as well as electrochemial stabilization of the Al oxide surface. To enhance transport and adsorption, and thus corrosion inhibition, the development of a series of modified polyaniline-based polymers and oligomers is proposed. These polyaniline derivatives would be used in Phase I to identify the predominant corrosion inhibition mechanisms and incorporated as polymerizable monomers or oligomers into an acid-based anodization solution. The effect of anodization conditions, conductive polymer doping, and post anodization sealing will be investigated using Al 2024-T3 coupons. Corrosion resistance will be evaluated by DC polarization measurements, zero-resistance-ammeter galvanic coupling experiments, and salt spray exposure of scribed and unscribed anodized coupons.

RDA RESEACH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2302
Dr Ronald L. Cook
AF 98-192
Title:A Multifunctinal Coupling Layer for an Advacned Coating System
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force has identified a need for advanced protective coating systems for its aging aircraft. Durable (30+years) chromate-free coatings are needed to extend the retirement dates of the aging aircraft. A chromate-free coating is needed to avoid the costs of handling of chromate containing hazardous wastes. Unfortunately, in a recent study of chromate-free conversion coatings, all the tested coatings failed to meet the necessary coating requirements (i.e. MilC-81706 Class 1A). According to a Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel assembled by the U.S. Air Force, current coating materials are not likely to meet provide the required 30+ year chromate-free coating.In Phase I we will develop a chromate-free coupling layer for aluminum substrates that will form the first layer of an integrated chromate-free 30+ year protective coating system. We will prepare a multifunctional coupling layer that provides strong covalent bonds between the aluminum alloys and the epoxy primer and in addition also provides excellent corrosion resistance. The phase I efforts will provide basis for a Phase II project where an integrated advanced coating system will be developed.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Rd
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Mr Francis L. Keohan
AF 98-193
Title:New Thermoplastic Elastomer Matrix Resins for Advanced Aircraft Sealants
Abstract:Military aircraft require conductive sealants around fuel tanks and structural gaps to prevent fuel leaks, water ingress, corrosion and to provide electrical continuity. Limitations of conventional polyether and polysulfide-based sealants include: the slowness of cure below room temperature, solvent thinning and degradation at elevated temperature. A novel gap sealant based on conductive particle-filled, highly flexibilized thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) is proposed for this application. The rigid blocks have high polarity for fuel resistance, high temperature stability and metallic particle compatibility. The flexible soft blocks are selected from rubber precursors having inherent resistance to aviation fuel and glass transition temperatures below the proposed lower use temperature range. The novelty of the approach would stem from the mode of chemically linking the TPE components to achieve the desired property profile. The proposed sealant system should effectively protect aircraft structures from environmental damage and exhibit high electrical conductivity. TPE's will be formulated with electrically conductive fillers and rheological modifiers and tested for adhesion to aluminum and composites, electrical conductivity, fuel and water barrier properties, resistance to thermal and chemical degradation, and corrosion inhibiting properties. The physical performance will be compared to commercial sealants meeting MIL-S-81733.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 BeeCaves Rd
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Michael Dingus
AF 98-193
Title:Matrix Materials for High Performacne High Adhesion Sealants and Gap Fillers
Abstract:A durable one component conductive gap filler/sealant is proposed as a new material for aircraft the employ low observable (LO) technologies. This material will combine the durability of a polysulfide with the ease of use of a one component system. No mixing will be required and waste will be minimized. Conductive fillers will be investigated for incorporation into the matrix resins. Various conductive loading levels will be considered. In the proposed heat activated system, the gap-filler material is briefly heated prior to application. This initial heat activation liberates a latent curing agent, which will remain active after delivery to the substrate. Cure will continue after application to the substrate, and complete cure will be achieved in approximately 5 minutes to 24 hours depending on catalyst concentration. Density of the gap-fillers will be minimized in order to achieve weight savings on aircraft. Additionally, the functionality of the proposed system is expected to have improved bond strength to aluminum and epoxy/carbon fiber composites. Characterization of conductivity and radar observability will be determined for the candidate products.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Rd
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Mr Francis L. Keohan
AF 98-194
Title:Polymer-Modified Ceramics for Composite Airframe with Improved Ballistic Resistance
Abstract:A new type of ceramic-thermoplastic material is proposed for fabricating composite armor. The proposed research explores the feasibility of modifying sukucate-based ceramics with thermoplastic toughening agents to produce a new class of composite matrix resins. The novel gradient morphologies predicted for these hybrid systems will be used to improve matrix-reinforcement compatibility and overall composite ballistic resistance. The outer layers of the matrix resin will exhibit the hardness of inorganic glass while the inner layers will provide compliance to maximize shock wave propagation throughout the reinforcing fabric plies. The proposed matrix resin system can potentially be used in resin transfer molding (RTM). State-of-the-art polyaramide textile reinforcements will be used with these matrix resins to fabricate high-impact resistant composites. The ultimate objective is to develop an easily processed composite with high strength and hardness, low density, and the impact resistance required to survive a variety of ballistic threats. In the proposed study, the methodology for preparing these novel ceramic hybrids will be developed an structure-property profiles determined. The resulting material property relationships will be used in the design and fabrication of new composite-based airframes with high survivability.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4114
Dr. Robert Kovar
AF 98-195
Title:Shelf-Stable, Low-Temperature Cure Epoxy Film Adhesive for On-Aircraft Bonded Repair
Abstract:Epoxy film adhesives used for on-aircraft bonded repairs require refrigerated storage and have relatively short shelf-lives. Adhesives that are storage-stable at ambient temperature for one to two years but process and cure at low temperatures are needed to economically utilize bonded repair technology on aircraft. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a shelf-stable epoxy film adhesive (SSEFA) that can be stored for one year at 43C (110F) without loss in processibility or performance and then undergo rapid cure upon heating to 200F. The cured adhesive will meet MIL-A-25463B requirements and will have lower life cycle costs compared to currently available film adhesives. In Phase I, we will examine two approaches to producing a one-part, shelf-stable, 200F cure epoxy film adhesive that is ideal for on-aircraft bonded repair. The one part adhesive developed in the proposed program will require no metering or mixing, a desirable feature that will eliminate problems associated with improperly formulated adhesives. In Phase I, we will demonstrate feasibility of achieving target adhesive shelf-stability, reactivity and performance using an epoxy paste adhesive. The Technology will be extended to film type adhesives in Phase II> The SSEFA will find wide application as an adhesive for aircraft, spacecraft, automobiles, ships, and industrial structures. We have assembled teaming partners who are leaders in the key enabling technologies to work with us in the Phase I and Phase II programs.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Mary Chan-Park
AF 98-195
Title:UV Activated, Thermally Cured Film Adhesive for On-Aircraft Bonded Repairs
Abstract:A need currently exists for a structural adhesive which is long term storable, low temperature curable, vacuum processable, and good for 180 degrees F service. This new film adhesive is needed for on-aircraft repair of the Air Force's aircraft fleet. State-of-the-art 180 degreeF service adhesives for repair bonding of aluminum alloy surfaces are typically one-part nitrile epoxy cured with dicyanodiamide and aromatic amines. However, none of the currently available catalysts allows long term storage at room temperature or elevated storage temperatures of 90 degrees F or 120 degrees F, and also allows curing at 180 degrees F using vacuum in less than 4 hours. Active research has been conducted in this area, and quasimechanical means for segregating the epoxy from the curing agent curative by such techniques as microenscapsulation or zeolite molecular sieves have been proposed. However, these quasimechanical methods do not prevent premature gelling due to the closeness of the required long term storage temperatures of 90 degrees or 120 degrees to the allowable processing temperature of 180 degrees F. Triton proposes to use photoactivable but thermally curable compositions. Recent developments in radiation chemistry have led to photochemically latent catalysts which required UV for activation and heat for subsequent curing. Such compositions have been demonstrated on steel substrates. In this proposal, aluminum substrates and further optimization shall be done.

METSS CORP.
720 G Lakeview Plaza Blvd
Columbus, OH 43085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6600
Dennis Miller
AF 98-196
Title:High Temperature, Long Service-Life Fuel Cell Bladder Materials
Abstract:Fuel bladders are flexible rubber containers that are used to store fuel within aircraft structures. Higher performance aircraft use the fuel as a circulating cooling fluid which results in heated fuel being returned to the bladder. Accelerated aging of the bladder and failure of the bladders in being observed in the field as a result of the elevated temperature of the fuels being returned. Temperatures of over 200 degrees F have been observed in the field and higher temperatures are predicted in future designs. The current fuel bladder material technology cannot be modified to withstand these temperature requirements. Under the proposed program, METSS Corporation will develop improved formulations of bladder materials suitable for service with fuels up to temperatures of 250 degrees F. Development efforts will focus on exploiting fluorinated urethanes, highly saturated nitrile rubbers, improved nitrile formulations, and epichlorohydrin rubbers. A focused failure analysis effort will be conducted during the program and the results used direct program development efforts..

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. Michael Dingus
AF 98-196
Title:High Temperature, Long Service-Life Fuel Cell Bladder Materials
Abstract:A hybrid polythiourethane elastomer is proposed as a new material for high temperature jet fuel cell bladder inner liners. A commercial source of this type of material is not currently available. This material will combine the durability of polysulfides with the processing flexibility of urethanes. This will allow the development of materials that have curing characteristics that allow flexibility during manufacture and that possess outstanding fuel resistance.During the Phase I effort, a number of candidate fuel cell bladder formulations will be evaluated. The most promising formulation will be presented to the sponsor at the end of the effort. The Phase I work encompasses the development of a durable fuel cell bladder material for use on aircraft. The goal is development of fuel cell bladder products that have good retention of mechanical properties after 200 degree F jet fuel exposure and low volume swell in jet fuel. These products will also meet all environmental regulations for volatile organic compounds emission. A more durable fuel bladder will lead to improved performance and safety on aircraft and will therefore reduce maintenance and replacement costs.

CCVD, INC.
3901 Green Industrial Way
Chamblee, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 457-7767
Dr. Shara Shoup
AF 98-197
Title:Low Cost, High Performance Superconducting Cable via CCVD
Abstract:For the past eleven years, researchers have been investigating possible applications of high temperature superconductors and working to solve the problems that must be overcome to yield practical superconductor technology. One area of interest is the coated superconductor cable which consists of a flexible metal substrate, a protective buffer layer, and the superconducting layer. Short lengths of these coated conductors have been made yielding critical current densities (Jc) of 1MA/cm2, but the problem arises when trying to scale the conventional deposition processes up to accommodate long lengths of wire. Also, low interaction with magnetic fields is needed for many applications down to 77K.Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a low-cost, open atmosphere deposition that has the potential of depositing buffer layers and the superconductor YBCO onto metal substrates in continuous reel-to-reel production. CCVD does not use costly vacuum systems required by conventional techniques, while the coating quality rivals and even exceeds that of conventional methods. CCVD coatings can be smooth, dense, and epitaxial. In Phase I, we will investigate CCVD deposition of ~50nm textured buffer layers, such as CeO2 and SYZ, onto textured reduced magnetic substrates provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory,. These buffers are key component layers of coated superconductor technology. We will demonstrate the quality and performance of Phase I CCVD buffer layers through subsequent CCVD deposition of YBCO superconductor layers. The optimized CCVD process will be demonstrated in a reel-to-reel production mode, using polycrystalline substrates. The most promising Phase I textured coated conductor samples will be sent to ORNL for testing and evaluation.

EPION CORP.
4R Alfred Circle
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3703
David Fenner, Ph.D.
AF 98-197
Title:Improved Buffers and Processing for Oriented YBCO on Biaxial Metal Tape
Abstract:This SBIR Phase-1 project will develop much needed alternatives and improvements for oruebted-buffer layers with high-critical-current YBCO films on metal-tape substrates. At present YBCO films on metal tapes are limited in superconducting quality largely due to unsatisfactory crystal structural quality caused by imperfections in the metal surface and buffer-film crystallinestructure and surfaces. Buffers of yttria-stabilized zirconia in combination with ceria have been successfully used by this P.I. in a collaboration with the subcontractor to demonstrate good-quality YBCO films on their biaxially-oriented nickel tape. The proposed program will leverage this skill of the principals and the considerable commercial advantages of an independent route to substrate fabrication and teaming with a major manufacturer of superconducting wire and devices. The program will utilize improved technology for very large-area pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of films and novel ion-beam methods for surface smoothing prior to film deposition. New buffer-film materials and multilayer combinations will be explored, including certain possibilities for fabricating conducting buffers that would have considerable advantage in the targeted applications area.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
R. David Rauh
AF 98-198
Title:Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Optical Limiting Coatings
Abstract:Optical limiting materials are needed for eye and sensor protection against laser damage. One promising approach for broadband optical limiting in the visible-near infrared band is to employ filters containing reverse saturable absorbents (RSA). Effective RSA materials absorb weakly in the protected band, but become strongly attenuating when optically excited due to efficient population of highly absorbing excited states. We propose here to design polymers that can be electrostatically self-assembled (ESA) into supramolecular multilayer stacks that provide optical limiting characteristics tailored for laser hardening. The key materials technology on which we will build is that of phase homogeneous RSA-containing polyelectrolytes. This class of compounds will be designed in anionid and cationic forms to provide building locks for electrostatic self-assembly of thin RSA films onto optical substrates. They will further be designed with elastomeric backbones to enhance their thermal dissipation and laser damage threshold. In Phase I we will synthesize two candidate polymers (a metalloporpyrin and metallophthalocyanine anionic polyelectrolyte), demonstrate assembly of robust thin film multilayers on glass, and evaluate their optical limiting and laser damage threshold characteristics.Optical limiting materials are needed for eye and sensor protection against laser damage. One promising approach for broadband optical limiting in the visible-near infrared band is to employ filters containing reverse saturable absorbents (RSA). Effective RSA materials absorb weakly in the protected band, but become strongly attenuating when optically excited due to efficient population of highly absorbing excited states. We propose here to design polymers that can be electrostatically self-assembled (ESA) into supramolecular multilayer stacks that provide optical limiting characteristics tailored for laser hardening. The key materials technology on which we will build is that of phase homogeneous RSA-containing polyelectrolytes. This class of compounds will be designed in anionid and cationic forms to provide building locks for electrostatic self-assembly of thin RSA films onto optical substrates. They will further be designed with elastomeric backbones to enhance their thermal dissipation and laser damage threshold. In Phase I we will synthesize two candidate polymers (a metalloporpyrin and metallophthalocyanine anionic polyelectrolyte), demonstrate assembly of robust thin film mul

NANOSONIC, INC.
509 Rose Ave
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Yanjing Liu
AF 98-198
Title:Electrostatic Self-Assembly Processes for Linear and Nonlinear Optical Thin-Film Materials and Devices
Abstract:This SBIR Phase-1 project will develop much needed alternatives and improvements for oruebted-buffer layers with high-critical-current YBCO films on metal-tape substrates. At present YBCO films on metal tapes are limited in superconducting quality largely due to unsatisfactory crystal structural quality caused by imperfections in the metal surface and buffer-film crystallinestructure and surfaces. Buffers of yttria-stabilized zirconia in combination with ceria have been successfully used by this P.I. in a collaboration with the subcontractor to demonstrate good-quality YBCO films on their biaxially-oriented nickel tape. The proposed program will leverage this skill of the principals and the considerable commercial advantages of an independent route to substrate fabrication and teaming with a major manufacturer of superconducting wire and devices. The program will utilize improved technology for very large-area pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of films and novel ion-beam methods for surface smoothing prior to film deposition. New buffer-film materials and multilayer combinations will be explored, including certain possibilities for fabricating conducting buffers that would have considerable advantage in the targeted applications area.

CLEVELAND CRYSTALS, INC.
19306 Redwood Ave
Cleveland, OH 44100
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 461-1384
Gary Catella
AF 98-199
Title:Growth and Testing of AgGa(1-X)InxSe2 for High Average Power Nonlinear Optics
Abstract:AgGa(1-x)InsSe2 is a unique nonlinear crystal suitable for a wide range of 3-wave mixing applications, including co2 laser NCPM SHG and THG. It combines strong nonlinear coupling with phase-matching across a wide (0.8-13um) transmission range. These properties also provide the basis for near-IR pumped OPO and DFG systems generating tunable laser radiation from ~2.0 to 13 um. When combined with demonstrated SFG techniques, the range of available wavelengths is extended to the eye safe region. In addition to CO2 lasers for SHG/THG, solid state 2 and 3um lasers may be used for OPO and DFG systems. CCI has grown low absorption AgGa(1-x)InxSe2 using AgGaS2 and AgGaSe2growth-technology. However, material must be grown with a variety of In concentrations and in sufficient volume to allow material characterization and to establish production parameters. The goal would be to establish preliminary production of low (0.005-0-0.15cm1) bulk absorption crystals, similar to the current range of production AgGaSe2. During Phase I, low absorption/scatter crystals would be grown and processed for testing. Emphasis would be placed on obtaining uniform doping levels at x~40%. Phase II would include continued analysis of crystal characteristics and development of a standardized production process. The goal would be to attain routine production of low absorption/scatter AgGa(1-x)InxSe2 at the desired In concentration.

SPECTRAGEN, INC.
1700 S. Mount Propspect Rd
Des Plaines, IL 60018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 699-5850
Richard Jarman
AF 98-199
Title:Bulk Periodically-poled Potassium Niobate Crystals for Mid-IR Opo Applications
Abstract:This proposal seeks to fabricate bulk crystals of KNb03 which contain periodic domain structures using electric field poling of single-domain crystals which have photolithographically defined electrode patterns. Periodically-poled KNb03 crystals have the potential for widespread application for efficient generation in the wavelength range 3 -5 um using optical parametric iscillators. The specific objectives are: 1. Establish conditions of electric field and temperature required to obtain periodic domain reversal in KNb03 crystals.Poled, single-domain wafers of KNb03 will be prepared, upon which metal electrode patterns will be defined using photolithography. Conditions of domain reversal in these crystals will then be established using electric-field poling. The optical properties and domain structure of these poled crystals will be examined using microscopy. Performance as an OPO crystal will be initiated.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 693-0017
Jinseong Kim
AF 98-200
Title:A Novel NDE Corrosion Rate Measuring Sys for Airframe Structural Integrity
Abstract:Due to the reduction in the resources available for replacement along with changes in the USAF mission, a half of military aircraft, already over 20 years old, are expected to be in service for much longer than they were designed to last. One of the major problems found in operations with aging aircraft is the cost associated with corrosion. A reliable corrosion rate measurement system can control corrosion maintenance, reduce the maintenance cost, and predict the residual life of a corroded aircraft part. There are a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect corrosion damages of aging aircraft structures; however, those techniques currently in use cannot measure corrosion rate of the structures. New innovative methods to measure corrosion rate in aircraft structures are needed. Lynntech, Inc. will design and develop a novel advanced NDE corrosion rate measurement system for aging aircraft structures based on electrochemical impedance (EI). The proposed NDE system, to be completely developed in the Phase II, will be simple, portable, inexpensive, highly reliable, and very sensitive to small corrosion defects in the aircraft structures. During the Phase I, a lab mode of the corrosion rate measuring system will be developed, and the proof of concept will be demonstrated.

COMPOSITE OPTICS, INC.
9617 Distribution Ave
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 621-5325
Steve Butner
AF 98-201
Title:Affordable Composite Matrix Composites (CMCs)
Abstract:Ceramic matrix composites are an emerging class of materials that hold great promise in high temperature environments. To date, however, affordable CMC materials that can withstand long-term exposure to 1200 degree C. simply do not exist. Composite Optics Inc. proposes the development of a microporous oxide matrix that can be combined with commercially available fibers to produce a damage tolerant ceramic matrix composite that remains stable long term at 1200 degrees C. COI has demonstrated the ability to produce low cost CMC's with excellent strength and toughness characteristics that are stable long term at 1100 degrees C. This class of microporous oxide matrix composites meet the requirements of variety of hot structural environments from combustion chamber liners, to insulation structures, to nozzle and nose cap structures. Extending the long term temperature capability of this type of system will provide a low cost alternative for applications now dependent on carbon-carbon or the costly materials that require elaborate and costly coating processes and material fabrication processes.

COMPUTHERM, LLC
437 South Yellowstone Drive
Madison, WI 53719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 274-1414
Shuang-Lin Chen
AF 98-201
Title:WinChem: A Tool for Evaluation of High-Temperature Structural Material Stability in Extreme Environments
Abstract:CompuTherm, LLC proposes to develop WinChem, an innovative and user-friendly computer program integrated with a thermodynamic database, to provide a significant new capability to rapidly determine chemical equilibrium necessary to evaluate the stability of high-temperature structural materials under corrosive (generally oxidative) conditions. The lack of this capability has been an obstacle to the rapid assessment of the stability of these materials in a hostile gaseous environment. The traditional approach, simultaneously solving all competing chemical reactions by hand, is only feasible for simple systems. Current computer programs for calculating chemical equilibrium are inefficient and difficult to use, requiring user-input initial values and expert knowledge of the system under consideration. Moreover, these programs fail to obtain the stable chemical equilibrium under extreme conditions. By contrast, WinChem will utilize novel computational methods to avoid these problems, allowing materials scientists/engineers to rapidly obtain complex chemical equilibrium required for high-performance materials development. In Phase I, CompuTherm, LLC proposes to demonstrate WinChem's capability with systems containing up to three components, followed in Phase II by the expansion of that capability to the calculation of chemical equilibrium in systems with any number of components.

TAL MATERIALS, INC.
1375 Folkstone Ct
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 763-5274
Dr Anthony C. Sutorik
AF 98-201
Title:Low Cost, Yttrium Doped Alumina (YA1) Fibers by Continuous Extrusion and Pyrolysis of Metal Carboxylate Precursors
Abstract:CompuTherm, LLC proposes to develop WinChem, an innovative and user-friendly computer program integrated with a thermodynamic database, to provide a significant new capability to rapidly determine chemical equilibrium necessary to evaluate the stability of high-temperature structural materials under corrosive (generally oxidative) conditions. The lack of this capability has been an obstacle to the rapid assessment of the stability of these materials in a hostile gaseous environment. The traditional approach, simultaneously solving all competing chemical reactions by hand, is only feasible for simple systems. Current computer programs for calculating chemical equilibrium are inefficient and difficult to use, requiring user-input initial values and expert knowledge of the system under consideration. Moreover, these programs fail to obtain the stable chemical equilibrium under extreme conditions. By contrast, WinChem will utilize novel computational methods to avoid these problems, allowing materials scientists/engineers to rapidly obtain complex chemical equilibrium required for high-performance materials development. In Phase I, CompuTherm, LLC proposes to demonstrate WinChem's capability with systems containing up to three components, followed in Phase II by the expansion of that capability to the calculation of chemical equilibrium in systems with any number of components.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS, INC.
3006 Research Drive
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 235-0606
Paul Moran
AF 98-202
Title:Advanced Field-Use Instrument for Nondestructive Fatigue Damage Assesment and Remaining Service Life Prediction for Aging Aerospace Systems
Abstract:During Phase I, we will develop the technology for a field use instrument to determine the residual stress, fatigue damage and remaining service life for aging metal structures. The technology will be based on a state-of -the-art wide-angle x-ray detector recently developed at ATMI. The life span estimation will use the measured micro-defect density to compare to a paramedic life span map based on the alloy composition, residual stress and loading conditions. The map will be based on the structural change of diffraction peaks form multiple individual grains during the course of fatigue life. We will demonstrate the feasibility of rapid fatigue damage determination for representative materials by testing representative samples of the three most common crystal cell structures for engineering metals, making the technology applicable for steels, aluminum, nickel and titanium alloys The samples will undergo high circle teensy/compression, bending and corosion loading. Validation of the life span map will be accomplished by interrupting high cycle fatigue tests, predicting remaining life, and subsequently cycling the sample to failure. Successful completion of the Phase I effort will culminate in the production of a field use instrument to be built and delivered at the completion of the Phase II program.

ANALATOM, INC.
540 Weddell Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 734-9392
Akbar Sultan
AF 98-202
Title:Micro-Eletro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Abstract:The problem addressed is through-life, non-destructive monitoring of adhesively bonded structures. The concept presented is to produce a "smart material" consisting of a number of small independent wireless Micro-electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) bond degradation sensors positioned in the adhesive bond-line. These MEMS sensors consist of two critical components: 1)the chemical sensor and 2)the CMOS circuitry required for the sensor to be autonomous. The sensors can be applicable to both metal/adhesive and composite/adhesive bonding systems. Adhesive bond line can be as thin as 80 micron. The autonomous sensors will be fabricated to be less than 80 micron thick. This is achieved by internal control circuitry, CMOS for low power requirements, fabricated on wafers that can be backthinned to produces less that 80 micron thick devices. The effect on the bond strength will be minimal since the area that will be taken up by the sensors will be insignificant compared with the total area of the bonded repair or component.The "smart material" can be installed during repair and in particular when the specific platform goes through a complete tear down during the Life Extension Program (LEP). The small independent, wireless sensors form a condition Based Maintenance (CBM) health monitoring system. The sensors are permanently installed and can be permanently monitored. The monitoring system will indicate and select the damage location area which will have to be inspected and repaired.

AUTOCRAWLER, LLC.
2320 North 196 Street
Seattle, WA 98133
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 367-8163
Henry Seeman
AF 98-202
Title:Novel Nondestructive Evaluation Technology for Aerospace Components Systems
Abstract: Abstract not available...

TOUCHTONE RESEARCH LAB, LTD.
The Millennium Centre
Triadelphia, WV 26059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 547-5800
G.S. Murty
AF 98-203
Title:Brazed Aluminum Ribbon Composites Materials for Cryogenic Tanks
Abstract:A material which is stronger than conventional aluminum, less permeable to liquid hydrogen than polymer matrix composites (PMCs), less flammable that PMCs in the presence of liquid oxygen, and can be made into large, complex shapes without an autoclave, would have a significant advantage over current cryogenic tank materials. Touchstone Research Laboratory proposes its "Brazed Aluminum Ribbon Composite Material" as the solution to this problem. This material would have several advantages of PMCs and conventional aluminum for cryogenic tanks: material would reduces the tank weight without adding the flammability and permeability problems associated with PMCs. Also it does not need an autoclave for processing.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague St
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Jerry W. Brockmeyer
AF 98-203
Title:Lightweight, Low Thermal Conductivity Thermal Protection System for Military Space Plane
Abstract:The temperature constraints of current thermal protection system (TPS) materials limit the flight path and thus the mission flexibility of existing and new hypersonic and spacecraft reentry vehicles, such as the Military Space Plane (MSP). Lightweight materials with increased TPS operational temperature to over 3000 degreeF and improved surface durability and erosion resistance will create numerous opportunities for these applications. The shortcomings of current insulating materials (e.g. AETB, FRCI, SIRCA) include lack of structural stability at temperatures below=2800degrees F, high density (=12-20 lb/ft3/), and high cost (+$2.50-3.00/in3). The innovative TPS proposed in this project will provide an unequaled combination of structural and thermal properties, including temperature capability to >4500 degree F with outstanding erosion resistance. This TPS will combine Ultramet's lightweight, low-cost, low thermal conductivity (low-k) reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foam with aerogel insulation to reduce high temperature thermal conductivity and a frontside facesheet coating of refractory Ultra2000 TM, Ultramet's patented hafnium carbide/silicon carbide (HfC/SiC) coating system. Previous work has shown that the low-k RVC foam has comparable thermal conductivity to the current best insulators (AETB-12 and FRCI-12) with twice the compressive strength at temperatures of <1830degress F. At higher temperatures, radiative heat transfer within the foam results in rapid increases in thermal conductivity. The addition of low-density, low radiative heat transfer aerogels produced by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory presents a novel approach to reducing radiative heat transfer with minimal increase in density and conductive heat transfer. In the proposed project, aerogels with be integrated with foam structures, and high temperature thermal conductivity will be measured to assess the feasibility of this novel concept.

WILSON COMPOSITE GROUP, INC.
1004 River Rock Dr.
Folsom, CA 95630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 989-4812
BRIAN WILSON
AF 98-203
Title:Lightweight Tankage Materials for Military Space Applications
Abstract:The current status of the technology being developed for linerless cryogenic storage tanks by the Wilson Composite Group, inc. utilizes a toughened epoxy resin. This resin requires pressure application during the cure cycle and use of an autoclave. Since large size autoclaves are limited in availability, this program will select and test under cryogenic conditions alternate materials which do not require autoclave pressure curing. These materials will be selected from available candidates from composites industry suppliers. Permeability/leakage tests will be conducted on composite coupons, using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. In addition to evaluating the cryogenic capability of these resin systems, the compatibility of the resins with potential manufacturing processes, primarily filament winding, for linerless tankage will be evaluated. The result of the program will be a selection of at least three potential materials for use in linerless tankage technology. Selected test samples will be manufactured for evaluation to confirm the coupon tests for selected materials.

SIMMETRIX, INC.
1223 Peoples Ave
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-2729
Mark Beall
AF 98-204
Title:Multiscale Modeling Including Micromechanical Failure Prediction
Abstract:The temperature constraints of current thermal protection system (TPS) materials limit the flight path and thus the mission flexibility of existing and new hypersonic and spacecraft reentry vehicles, such as the Military Space Plane (MSP). Lightweight materials with increased TPS operational temperature to over 3000 degreeF and improved surface durability and erosion resistance will create numerous opportunities for these applications. The shortcomings of current insulating materials (e.g. AETB, FRCI, SIRCA) include lack of structural stability at temperatures below=2800degrees F, high density (=12-20 lb/ft3/), and high cost (+$2.50-3.00/in3). The innovative TPS proposed in this project will provide an unequaled combination of structural and thermal properties, including temperature capability to >4500 degree F with outstanding erosion resistance. This TPS will combine Ultramet's lightweight, low-cost, low thermal conductivity (low-k) reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foam with aerogel insulation to reduce high temperature thermal conductivity and a frontside facesheet coating of refractory Ultra2000 TM, Ultramet's patented hafnium carbide/silicon carbide (HfC/SiC) coating system. Previous work has shown that the low-k RVC foam has comparable thermal conductivity to the current best insulators (AETB-12 and FRCI-12) with twice the compressive strength at temperatures of <1830degress F. At higher temperatures, radiative heat transfer within the foam results in rapid increases in thermal conductivity. The addition of low-density, low radiative heat transfer aerogels produced by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory presents a novel approach to reducing radiative heat transfer with minimal increase in density and conductive heat transfer. In the proposed project, aerogels with be integrated with foam structures, and high temperature thermal conductivity will be measured to assess the feasibility of this novel concept.

F&S, INC.
PO Box 11704
Blacksburg, VA 24062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4282
Paige Furrow
AF 98-205
Title:Novel Composite Materials for the Mfg of Functionally Graded Structures
Abstract:Due to increasing quality demands place on military and civilian structures, novel materials such as composites are finding increased use in high performance applications. A rapid growth area for composite materials is for the next generation of missile systems where composites provide significant advantages. Lightweight, high-strength composite structures provide increased velocity and enhanced maneuverability. Composites respond less violently to hazardous stimuli, and thus pose less risk in transportation and storage. However, the use of composite materials has not come without both processing difficulties and cost. To overcome these deficiencies, R&S, in conjunction with Virginia Tech, proposes to design, analyze, fabricate, and test novel, low-cost functionally graded composite structures for a multitude of applications. Researchers at Virginia Tech have developed novel processing methods using thermoplastic liquid crystal polymer (TLCP)reinforcement fibers that enable extrusion of composite fiber in a simple, rapid fabrication approach. Processes have been developed for generating both layered materials which have different functionalities and microcomposite materials based on thermoplastics reinforced with micron size TLCP fibrils (1). F&S and Dr. Donald Baird at the Chemical Engineering Department of Virginia Tech propose a comprehensive plan to commercialize a novel thermoplastic composite approach for fabricating functionally graded components.

UTRON, INC.
8506 Wellington Rd
Manassas, VA 20109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-5552
Dr. Arul Mozhi
AF 98-205
Title:Functionally-Graded Thermoplastic Tubes Fabricated via Pulsed Spray Forming
Abstract:The Air Force seeks a processing technology capable of producing functionally-graded thermoplastic tubes with advantageous cross-sectional property distributions. UTRON proposes to develop a new puled spray forming technique to fabricate such tubes. This technique is versatile and can be applied to fabricate a wide variety of multi-layered and functionally-graded polymer components. Pulsed Spray forming will 1)provide fine control of the thickness of layers to optimize performance, and 2) reduce heating and remelting of inner polymer layers due to its pulsed nature. This technology can be extended as a rapid prototyping technology by integration with a computer aided design (CAD) system. This technique can produce the desired two-layer thermoplastic tube, and can be adapted to produce multiple layer tubes. During PhaseI, we propose to:1. Experimentally fabricate a two layer functionally-graded thermoplastic tube using the pulsed spray forming technique.2. Perform a conceptual design of an engineering prototype capable of fabricating large scale liquid rocket ducts. Anticipated Phase II objectives will be to: 1.) build an engineering prototype and fabricate large scale liquid rocket ducts, and 2) Integrate a CAD system with the pulsed spray forming system to establish rapid prototyping capability.

ADCOM SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
Peabody Office Building
Peabody, MA 01960
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 899-5905
Dr. Elie J. Baghdady
AF 98-206
Title:Jam Resistant GPS Reception
Abstract:A unique approach is proposed for the effective rejection of cochannel, but otherwise arbitrary, jamming and other interference in GPS reception. The approach is based on a method of processing a multiplicity of signals sharing the same time-frequency and polarization space, in such a way as to favor a bona fide GPS signal over the others present (jamming, spoofing, multipath, atmospherics or other cochannel signals/noise.)A Phase I effort/program is proposed herein to investigate analytically, with the aid of computer simulations, the effects on wideband signals of the unique signal processing operations performed in the proposed approach. Wideband signals represent sentative of those received from GPS satellites will be the focus of the proposed investigations to determine quantitatively how their code waveforms. The necessity for compensatory measures, and how best to implement such, to be undertaken in the receiver front end to counter likely distortions of the GPS signal, will also be determined. A program will be evolved for validating and demonstrating experimentally the results of Phase I analyses in a follow-on Phase II effort, by means of actual GPS satellite signals derived in the laboratory either as generated internally to a Miniature Airborne GPS Receiver (MAGR); or by actual reception from GPS satellites, with retrofits to a MAGR using adaptations of hardware designs already successfully proven to function as required, plus other circuits or software to be defined in Phase I. Anticipated benefits, both military and commercial, center on the absolute necessity of totally immunizing GPS receivers against cochannel interference/jamming/spoofing, in all situations of GPS-aided navigation and/or rescue location.

OCEANIT LABORATORIES, INC.
1100 Alakea Street
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Dr. Ken C. K. Cheung
AF 98-207
Title:Active Forebody Vortex Control Using Retractable Miniature Nose-Tip Devices
Abstract:A pointed slender body at high angle of attack will generate two symmetric vortices resulting from the separation of flow on the leeward side of the body. At critical angles of attack, the vortex shedding becomes asymmetric due to micro-imperfections present at the nose of the body. This asymmetric vortex shedding can result inside forces that may exceed the control capability of the vehicle, and this may cause the body to tumble out of control. The research effort will investigate the effectiveness of introducing retractable miniature flow devices at the nose of a tangent ogive forebody to fix separation points and force the vortex shedding to become symmetric, thus alleviating excessive side forces. Micro-/mini-strakes and miniature perturbations caused by flush-mounted piezo-electric film will be tested to determine their ability to induce symmetric vortex shedding at critical angle-of-attack regimes. The miniature nose attachments will be designed to be deployed/activated by a feedback control system that will monitor side forces due to symmetric vortex shedding. Experimental investigations will be conducted to examine the effectiveness of the concepts.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
11000 Cedar Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 791-6749
Dr. Frederick Lisy
AF 98-207
Title:MEMS Actuated Deployable Strakes for Slender Bodies
Abstract:Several deployable flow control devices which utilize various MEMs actuators will be designed to enhance the performance capabilities of slender cylindrical bodies with 3:1 ratio tangent ogive nose cone at high angles of attack. The flow control devices will be integrated with a feedback/predictive controller and an integrated array of pressure sensors. The controller will deploy the flow control devices inducing boundary layer transition. The influences of the controlled deployment of the flow control devices on unsteady vortex shedding will be evaluated. The goal of the flow control strategies are to create symmetrical vortex shedding around the nose cone, thus reducing pressure differentials and the resulting yaw forces which cause significant instabilities for missiles (and aircraft) at high angles of attack. The engineer prototype will be tested in a wind tunnel at The Ohio State University. Several flow control strategies will be tested. At least for flow control devices and five MEMs actuators will be evaluated. During this program , the controller will demonstrate its ability to respond to pressure sensor inputs. The ability to control boundary layer transition and vortex shedding will be determined by flow visualization, photogrammetric techniques and static port pressure measurements.

AMTEC CORP.
500 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 772-7200
Norman O. Speakman
AF 98-208
Title:Neural Network Based Aerodynamic Flight Simulation
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop a neural network-based aerodynamic prediction model of an existing weapon systems and integrate this model into a PC-based six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) simulation of the weapon. Two extensive sets of wind tunnel data have been used to demonstrate the potential of using Artificial Neural Network programs as limited aerodynamic prediction codes. The algorithm used in this preliminary work is a feed-forward, back propagation network with special techniques implemented to aid the convergence to minimum error. The wind tunnel data sets used in the present training process contained several orientation/environmental variables, several geometric variables and, of course, the normal aerodynamic coefficients as outputs. The assessment of the accuracy of the neural network algorithm shows the predicted coefficient values to be in very good agreement with actual wind tunnel data with an average mean square error for each coefficient to be less than one part in one thousand for most of the data. Comparison with Missile Datcom for some of the configurations clearly demonstrate the potential of developing a generic aerodynamic prediction code suitable for use in a flight simulation.

RICE SYSTEMS, INC.
1150 Main Street
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 553-8768
Dr. Colleen Fitzpatrick
AF 98-209
Title:Integrated Optics Inertial Navigation Sensor (IOINS)
Abstract:In this proposal, we present a design for an Integrated Optics Inertial Navigation Sensor (IOINS) for use in a penetrating weapon. The proposed IOINS is based on a robust integrated optics glass-on-silicon waveguide architecture, hence it presents a more rugged, compact alternative to other technologies. Unlike other inertial navigation devices such as silicon micromachined inertial components, the IOINS enjoys the distinct advantage of continuous operation under high g forces without saturation. Thus, the IOINS can continue to navigate during extremely high impulse penetration. Moreover it is lightweight, compact, consumes a minimum of electrical power, and is potentially much more sensitive over a wider dynamic range than micromachined components. Its signal processing is simplified since it requires no crystal oscillator. In addition, the IOINS can be easily mass-produced at low cost to meet the performance specifications of a military inertial navigator. The outcome of this project will be a set of design specifications for the construction in Phase II of a prototype IOINS capable of inertial navigation in penetrating munitions.

OPTIMAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
2825 West 1700 North
Idaho Falls, ID 83402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 524-0673
Mark Landon
AF 98-210
Title:Efficient CFD-Based Aerodynamic Shape Optimization
Abstract:The overall objective of this work is to develop a general-purpose CFD-based, shape optimization tool for robust and efficient aerodynamic shape optimization. Shape optimization is a technology where design optimization algorithms are coupled with geometry/shape deformation tools and engineering analysis codes such as computational fluid dynamics and structural analysis. The optimization algorithms search for value of arbitrary shape deformation design variables to improve the object function (i.e. maximize lift, minimize drag, maximize lift-to-drag, etc.) While satisfying design constraints (i.e. limits on stability, mass properties, etc.). the shape optimization tool can be used to find optimal designs for aerodynamic shapes of aircraft, missiles, submarines, etc. A graphical user interface will be developed To allow the user to read in a CFD input file, define an arbitrary shape deformation control volume, pose the desired shape optimization problem to be solved, perform the optimization of the aerodynamic shape, and visualize the results via animation and post processing. Advanced arbitrary shape deformation tools will be developed. Powerful and efficient optimization methodologies will be employed. Data translators will allow practically any CFD code to be incorporated with this tool.

DIGITAL OPTICS CORP.
5900 Northwoods Business Pkwy
Charlotte, NC 28269
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 599-9191
Dr. Thomas Suleski
AF 98-211
Title:Diffractive Optics for LADAR Scanning
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project builds upon Digital Optics Corporation's experience in the design, fabrications, and integration of diffractive optics with lasers and electronics to provide an innovative laser beam steering approach for laser radar systems. The proposed method uses a spatial light modulator in conjunction with specially designed diffractive optical elements to provide a laser beam steering system containing no moving parts. Use of the proposed methods offer potential size and performance advantages over current techniques. This Phase I effort will demonstrate the application of specialty diffractive optics to the problem of laser beam steering. Both analytical and experimental work will be performed to verify the objectiveness of the proposed project.

MILLITECH CORP.
South Deerfield Research Park
South Deerfield, MA 01373
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 665-8551
Doc Ewen
AF 98-211
Title:A Simultaneous Radar-Radiometer Imaging Mode (Radarometer)
Abstract:The proposed millimeter wave sensor alleviates the data fusion problem by incorporating both active as well as passive operating odes in a single sensor, such that they can be operated either individually, in time sequence, or simultaneously. A unique feature is the use of a common high-speed, mechanically scanned antenna capable of generating active and passive millimeter wave images simultaneously. As the antenna beam is scanned across the scene, the passive and active sensors simultaneously measure the passive antenna temperature and the radar reflectivity associated with each pixel. The passive (radiometric) image of the scene is displayed on a common time base with the active (radar) image of the scene. The antenna scanning geometry is identical for both images. Both are obtained and displayed, frame by frame, in real time on a common time base.

OPTICS 1, INC.
3050 Hillcrest Drive
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 432-2148
Michael E. Couture
AF 98-211
Title:Infrared Scene Simulation Projector for Extremely Wide Angle IR Imagers
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project builds upon Digital Optics Corporation's experience in the design, fabrications, and integration of diffractive optics with lasers and electronics to provide an innovative laser beam steering approach for laser radar systems. Scene simulation projectors, both visible and infrared, are increasingly being used to test and validate imagining systems performance against a variety of scenarios. The cost of transporting hardware and personnel to field sites is avoided using this hardware. Imager applications such as fuzes or surveillance systems typically image over very large fields of view and no such simulation hardware is currently available to conduct this type of testing. OPTICS 1, Inc. proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of a scene simulator appropriate for testing extremely wide angle imaging. Design forms will be shown that meet requirements of wide-angle imaging systems and impart minimal influence to the image quality of the system under test. Point design will be demonstrated in this proposal sufficient to operate with two-dimensional emitter arrays or scanned laser diode bars as the scene projection source.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Dr. Thomas J. Bartolac
AF 98-212
Title:Motion-Detecting Imager Based on Insect Vision for Autonomous Seeker Applications
Abstract:Tanner Research is proposing to develop analog VLSI circuitry for a motion-detecting imager based on the biological paradigm of insect vision, for application to a new class of seekers for autonomous guided weapons.Our hardware development is proposed in the context of eventual application in a "swarm" scenario, in which a relatively large number of simple, cheap autonomous weapons of limited capability are simultaneously deployed in such a way as to insure high probability of mission success. To this end, groundwork for model-building and simulation of autonomous "swarms" will also be laid during the execution of the project. By adopting such an innovative strategic approach, we shall overcome the technical issues that have thwarted the practical application of on-focal-plan motion-sensing imagers in previous experimental implementations.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Avenue
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Dr. Barnabas Takacs
AF 98-212
Title:Human Vision Model for Advanced Autonomous Seekers
Abstract:WaveBand Corporation proposes to develop a novel, biological vision model that improves autonomous seeker performance by performing multi-resolution feature extraction at the sensor level, and integrating these extracted features into a consistent representation of the combat scene using a parallel attention model of the Human Visual Systems (HVS). The method, which incorporates our present understanding of the early stages of the HVS, was specifically designed to encode the optimal sets of target features that best characterize any particular class while creating a well separable recognition space that is robust to large variations in viewing/imaging conditions and noise. Specifically, it employs a novel feature extraction process (including light adaptation mechanism) integrated into a multi-resolution attention scheme. The subsequent recognition systems uses parallel visual streams to implement evidence accumulation, pattern completion and recognition, and temporal processing. Based on the proposed biological vision model Waveband will build a robust ATR engine using simulated target data or data provided by the sponsor. The Phase I & II efforts will focus on developing a test bed prototype which will be used to evaluate the system's performance in the context of autonomous seeker technology and real-world target recognition scenarios.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS
One Alewife Center
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Magnus S. Snorrason
AF 98-213
Title:Situation Assessment-Based Search Agent
Abstract:We propose to design and prototype a search agent for smart munitions that exploits multiple information sources to aid an automatic target recognition (ATR) system's target acquisition capability. Smart munitions that rely on preprogrammed search paths (the weapon's flight path over the search area) ignore the dynamic nature of a battleground and fail to exploit important information that can be monitored in-flight but cannot be foreseen at launch. For example, unexpected weather events such as sandstorms or blizzards can greatly degrade an ATR sensor's fidelity, but weapons following preprogrammed paths cannot "decide" to avoid such weather problems. Our proposed search agent develops an assessment of the current situation by monitoring events from dynamic onboard data sources such as ATR output and flight performance parameters, and correlating them with static sources such as mission planing data and digital elevation maps. If the resulting situation calls for a new search path, a trajectory optimizer generates a new path (subject to constraints such as know friendly positions) that improves the probability of accomplishing mission objectives. When path choice depends on the enemy's course-of-action, a separate course-of-action prediction module contributes constraints based on identified avenues of mobility and knowledge of the enemy's military organization.

RAYTECH SYSTEMS
968 Albany-Shaker Road
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 783-1722
John Tourtellott
AF 98-214
Title:Real-Time Particle Graphics for Accurate Rendering of Gaseous and Particulate Volumes
Abstract:Physically accurate, real-time image synthesis is critical for hardware-in-the-loop testing of advanced seeker systems. A major challenge is accurate rendering of gaseous and particulate volumes such as aircraft exhaust plumes and contrails. To advance the U.S. Air Force capabilities in this area, development of a generalized method other will compute and inject volume-based flow field imagery into mainstream (polygon-based) simulations is proposed. This method uses particle graphic to obtain very high image fidelity. Phase I will investigate two innovative approaches that will, for the first time, enable real-time performance in commercial graphic computing platforms. The first is a software solution that exploits the texture-mapping capabilities of low-cost graphics platforms. The second is an innovative hardware coprocessor capable of greater image speed an fidelity. The primary objective will be to determine the performance that can be realized used both approaches. This objective will be accomplished by implementing a software prototype that generate images from flow field data sets. Evaluation of the software prototype will provide the basis for developing a first-generation systems in Phase II.

MATHSOFT, INC.
1700 Westlake Avenue North
Seattle, WA 98109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 283-8802
Jill E. Goldschneider, Ph
AF 98-215
Title:Joint Target Detection and Lossy Compression of Tactical Sensor Data
Abstract:More reliance is being placed in autonomous platforms to collect sensory data which are then transmitted to central sites for further processing and analysis. Efficient transmission of image data is essential and often requires lossy compression, which introduces error into the original data. The effects on associated processing tasks, such as target detection and recognition, can be detrimental if significant target features are corrupted. W propose to investigate the fundamental links between statistical nonparametric detection methods and investigate the use of adaptive wavelet transform tools for automated target or region of interest detection. In particular, we will investigate the links between vector quantization and tree-structured statistical detection tools and between hierarchical zerotree wavelet codecs and wavelet-based statistical detection algorithms. Based on the results of the initial study, we will develop a hybrid algorithm which provides high compression ratios while preserving accurate target detection capabilities.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Duane D. Smith
AF 98-216
Title:Compact High Power Laser
Abstract:A missing key component in current laser systems for target tracking/identification and optical remote sensors is a compact, high repetition rate, moderate average power (10W) laser operating at eyesafe wavelengths. To meet this need, a diode-pumped solid state laser is proposed which utilizes an exceptionally small and robust package scheme for high efficiency systems. The design capitalizes on an innovative Solid State Raman Laser (SSRL) operating at 1,5 micron wavelength. When compared to other IR lasers and frequency converters, SSRLs offer significant advantages: (1) beam clean-up, where low beam quality pump lasers are converted to near diffraction-limited eyesafe output: (2) temporal pulse compression, which enhances range resolution; (3) higher nonlinear gain; (4) small physical layouts; (5) lower cost crystals. Moreover, SSRLs are not birefringent phase matched, as optional parametric oscillators are, so high power operation is not limited by thermally-induced dephasing and nonlinear crystal temperature control is not required, reduced package complexity and size. Coupling CTI's experience in SSRLs with its established capability in turnkey flight-worthy systems will facilitate new dual-use lasers. Phase I will: (1) design and analyze the Phase II delivery system, (2) perform thermal; analysis of all components to ensure technical feasibility and, (3) validate the SSRL component in laboratory demonstrations.

MAXIOS LASER CORP.
6551 Sierra Lane
Dublin, CA 94568
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 833-1969
Helmuth E. Meissner
AF 98-216
Title:Compact Slab Waveguide Laser
Abstract:Maxios Laser Corporation proposes to design and build Phase 1, a prototype Yb:YAG waveguide laser capable of generating greater than 10W of cw output power, and to develop a detailed energetic model benchmarking the performance of this cw Yb:YAG systems. The detailed design for a 10 W class, passively Q-switched Yb3+, Cr4+: YAG waveguide laser capable of delivering 1 nsec long pulses at a repetition orate of 10's of kHz. A recent demonstration of high numerical aperture waveguides has provided a basis for a new design approach to compact medium power DPSSL systems. The two principal features of this technology which Maxios Laser plans to exploit in Phase 1 are: (a) A cavity design compatible with using commercially available laser diode arrays as pump beams without employing focusing or coupling optics between the diode bar and the gain medium. (b) The high gain, which a waveguide configuration offers, enables a range of optical resonator designs that are conducive to producing diffraction limited output beams. After constructing a prototype cs laser in Phase 1, we will construct a compact modular passively q-switched laser system in Phase 2.

J.J.W. CONSULTING, INC.
122 Hidden Pond Circle
Smithtown, NY 11787
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 366-0921
Dr. Richard Augeri
AF 98-217
Title:Very Low Cost Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging
Abstract:The JJW/AIL System, Inc. team has proposed three MMW receiver architectures that result in a very low cost imagining system by utilizing wafer scale MMIC mixers and amplifiers. The first approach uses direct detection. A 95 Ghz Image Intensifier and a special bolometric FPA obtain passive images at 94 Ghz and in the IR spectral region (8-12 mm). The image intensifier uses an amplifier array with a gain of only 26.8 dB as compared to 40 dB required on existing systems. The bolometric array is fabricated via low cost thin film processes. The second approach uses a single quasi-optically injected LO on an array of Schottky mixers and IF amplifiers. The mixer array and IF amplifier array are fabricated using MMIC technology. The single LO greatly reduces the cost of the heterodyne receiver array. The third receiver employs a CW illuminator and the special bolometric FPA to enhance the image scene at 94 Ghz. This system is capable of both MMW and IR imaging. All three approaches provide greater than 10 x 15 degree FOR at 16msec frame rates and a NETD of 1K or less. The proposed Imaging Systems will cost about $10,000 in production quantities.

APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4300 San Mateo Blvd NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 883-3636
William L. Hacker
AF 98-218
Title:Analysis of Alternatives (AOA) Study Tools
Abstract:This work will investigate the feasibility of performing integrated cost/effectiveness analysis for Analysis of Alternatives (AOA) studies. The Modular Effectiveness/Vulnerability Assessment (MEVA) architecture will be adapted to support the various analysis elements required in AOA studies. The Phase I work will define the data types, data flow, and flow control required, along with the analysis modules necessary. From this deviation, a limited prototype will be developed. If shown to be feasible, a development plan to guide the Phase II work will also be produced.

DE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3620 Horizon Drive
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 270-9700
Dr. William Flis
AF 98-218
Title:Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Explosives
Abstract:The mechanical properties of explosives control directly their sensitivity due to shock and impact stimuli. The understanding and measurement of these properties are essential for developing insensitive explosives, and in designing hard-target-penetrating munitions. These properties include the strength under high pressure (pressure hardening) and the strength under dynamic loading (strain-rate hardening). Under a recent program support by the HERD at Eglin, we demonstrated the feasibility of a simple method of measuring these critical properties. This method utilizes a copper sleeve to encase the explosive specimen to provide a confining pressure during static or dynamic testing. In static tests, the sleeved specimen is compressed by a standard testing machine. In dynamic test, the sleeved specimen is projected against a stationary anvil, which is equivalent to a reversed Taylor impact test. Preliminary results have shown this method is feasible. In the proposed program, this method will be developed for practical applications.

EXPLOSIVE PULSED POWER INDUSTRIES
PO Box 4697
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 672-1781
Robert F. Hoeberling
AF 98-218
Title:Pulsed Power Generators with Dynamic Connectors
Abstract:EPPI proposes to develop a test plan and design an experimental hardware testbed for discharging a cascaded Flux Compression Generator (FAG) pulser system in conjunction with explosively formed dynamic electrical connectors into an electrical load that meets the Munition Directorate's (AFRL/MN) requirements. Initial designs for compact seed and megajoule output FCGs are now being developed through a Phase II (contract F08630-97-C-0013) and will form the basis for this effort. The FCG designs previously developed will be modified to closely match into the electrical load defined by the dynamic connector's electrical parameters and the load as defined by AFRL/MN. The close matching of the FCG design can significantly increase the FCG performance. The connector design will be developed jointly by EPPI and a subcontractor to determine the space and time characteristics of the connector along with an estimate of the electrical parameters of the connector at various lengths. This effort builds on the FCG designs of the previously awarded Phase II and incorporates an entirely new aspect relating to the connectors and special requirements for coupling current onto the explosive dynamic electrical connector. EPPI will subcontract to Alliant Techsystms, a company with expertise in connector technology.

FREESTYLE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4152 Aldrich Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55409
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 968-7727
Donald Kennedy
AF 98-218
Title:Rapid Direct Connection Technology
Abstract:As pulsed power devices mature a requirement emerges for the efficient coupling of the power source of remote locations. For certain applications this coupling can take the form of existing high power switch/conditioning technology coupled with a suitable transmission line. For mobile, remote or harsh environments standard connection techniques are too bulky and require too much set-up time to be viable. Freestyle Technologies, Inc. proposes several innovative techniques to rapidly generate a conductive path between the pulsed power source and a remote point.

PULSE POWER PHYSICS, INC.
1039 Red Oaks Loop NE
Albuquerque, NM 87122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 856-1708
Charles A. Frost
AF 98-219
Title:Electromagnetic Media Sensor
Abstract:Earth penetrators are now extremely effective in passing through layers of earth, sand, concrete, and reinforced material to reach hard targets. The penetrating munitions would be even more effective against hardened targets such as underground bunkers if the high explosive charge could be detonated at the optimum location inside the bunker. We propose to develop and test a simple electromagnetic (EM) sensor to control detonation of the high explosive charge. The EM sensor will measure the local dielectric constant (er ) of the surrounding material using a resonant antenna. For said, soil, concrete, and other terrestrial and construction materials, er is much higher than for air so detection of voids will be robust. In addition, the EM sensor will give an analog output signal which allows identification of various media types. An oscillator circuit generates RF energy which is radiated by the antenna. Variations in er modify the antenna resonant frequency, pulling the oscillator frequency or causing variations in reflected power which are measured as the sensor output. Proof of concept experiments will be performed with a realistic electronic package in a model penetrator body.

ANDERSEN LABORATORIES, INC.
23 North Division Street
Auburn, NY 13021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 286-9090
Mr. Ray Sawin
AF 98-220
Title:A Shock Hardened Precision Timer
Abstract:Precision time bases capable to withstanding high shock application have been difficult to achieve due to the inherent sensitivity of stable, frequency control component to vibration and inertial loading. These limitations are due substantially to packaging requirements of the components, e.g. hermetic, non-surface-contracting enclosures. The assembled component and its package could not be rigidly mounted to meet shock requirements. This project addresses these limitations through the use of a precision resonator device mounted and potted directly on the oscillator circuit board. The resonator structure will be based on the STW (Surface Transverse Wave) resonator. Various resonator designs will be evaluated for compatibility with encapsulation. Prototype oscillators will be assembled and tested using resonators potted in situ.

AVEKA, INC.
2045 Wooddale Drive
Woodbury, MN 55125
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 730-1729
Gary Pozarnsky, Ph. D.
AF 98-221
Title:Fluoropolymer Coating by In-Situ Polymerization on Dispersed Aluminum Nanoparticles
Abstract:Nanophase metal particles are becoming increasingly important in areas such as powder metallurgy, catalysis and energetic materials. One of the more important nanophase metals is aluminum . Although several promising routes for the production of this material exist, not one of these synthesis techniques have successfully addressed the issue of the oxidation of these same nanoparticles, which lead to the destruction of the benefits arising from their nanophase dimensions. AVEKA, Inc. proposes the use of their proprietary aspirator/dispersion technology in combination with a gas evaporative process in order to form a stable nanoparticle dispersion in an inert solvent. Standard polymerization techniques will then be used to form a protective fluoropolymer coating around the aluminum nanoparticles in-situ. After separation from the dispersion medium, a stable free-flowing nanopowder will be formed, which would be suitable for applications in energetic materials and metallurgy.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4442
Erik Luther
AF 98-221
Title:Nano-Particle Coating Technology -- Development and Modeling
Abstract:Research into the energetic reaction of aluminum and TeflonTM nanoparticles was initiated at the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate. A coating system to improve the handlability of nanosized aluminum powders and a model of the reaction mechanism was requested. The true thermodynamic nature of the reaction was not determined; however, the reaction rate of ~1 km/sec warrants further investigation. TPL's innovation is a material systems which incorporates aluminum nanoparticles passivated by a fluorinated polymer. The thickness of the coating will be alterable by simple procedures to tailor the reaction rate. Other chemical additives will be selected to alter the thermodynamic potential of the system. A physics based model will be developed. Dynamic tests will be performed to evaluate the powder and support model development. A fluorinated surfactant systems will be developed which adsorbs to aluminum nanoparticles. Polymerizable cosurfactants will be added to the system. The durability, oxygen permeability and thickness will be evaluated. A model will be developed to identify a deflagration or detonation reaction mechanism. TPL posses all the elements necessary for successful completion of the Phase I project, including knowledge of the synthesis, powder testing and explosives modeling. Several commercial opportunities for the energetic material have been identified.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECH.
174 North Main Street
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Neeraj Sinha
AF 98-222
Title:Modeling and Data Acquisition Research
Abstract:A three-phase Navier-Stlkes code (CRAFT) that has been applied to varied multi-phase combustion problems, including high explosive (HE) detonation, blast wave interactions with bulk liquid, particulate dispersion and entrainment by turbulence, etc., will be specialized to address the end-to-end CB agent neutralization scenario. This computational framework includes large eddy simulation (LES) methodology for transient turbulent simulation and multi-step decomposition/combustion of condensed (liquid and solid) phase, in additional to generalized gas phase kinetics. In Phase I, a prototype model will be demonstrated for the complete sequence of events occurring from the onset of CB container rupture to dispersion/entrainment of partially neutralized BC agent into neighboring rooms of the storage facility, and culminating in atmospheric dispersion. The requisite-coupled methodology has been derived from simulations of atmospheric dispersion of CB agents resulting from threat missile intercept. The model utility will be demonstrated by conducting simulations of varied neutralization concepts in an end-to-end mode. Assessment of modeling parameters having the dominant influence on systems parameters (toxicity concentrations, dispersion range of CB agents, etc.) will be performed, and, the steps towards developing a systems-oriented engineering model via lumped parameter simplifications to advanced Navier-Stokes methodology, will be identified.

FAAC, INC.
825 Victors Way
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 761-5836
Kurt Flosky
AF 98-222
Title:3-D Visualization Analyzer
Abstract:FAAC Incorporated proposes to develop a 3-D Visualization Analyzer to aid with evaluation of weapon systems. The tool will provide an integrated environment capable of improving understanding and efficiency. The 3-D Visualization Analyzer will utilize data information produced by off line engineering simulations (or other suitable sources) to provide meaningful depiction of real world engagements involving 6-degree of Freedom entities representing launchers, weapons, and targets. The visual scene will comprise of textured polygons, satellite imagery, and detailed entity models. Operator controls will be provided to position the eyepoint and control frame rate with VCR-like controls. The main goal of the Phase I effort is to demonstrate the applicability of a visualization tool in evaluating performance of weapon systems. Phase I will include delivery of a usable prototype system to appraise the merit of visualization and serve as a basis for formulating Phase II development.

APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4300 San Mateo Blvd NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 883-3636
Diane Verner
AF 98-223
Title:Smart Target Modeling Tool
Abstract: Abstract not available...

SIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4210 Beulah Drive
La Canada, CA 91011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 457-1674
Dr. Eduardo Repetto
AF 98-223
Title:Advanced Lagrangian Techniques for Complex Problem Analysis (Ground-Fixed Target Vulnerability Technology)
Abstract:Understanding the interaction between munition and target is necessary for the optimization of the performance of both the target and the penetrator. Commercially available technoUnderstanding the interaction between munition and target is necessary for the optimization of the performance of both the target and the penetrator. Commercially available technology for the numerical simulation of ballistic penetration and shaped charges falls short of being able to reliably simulate damage to armors, runways, surface and buried concrete bunkers and other hardened underground targets. Our Lagrangian finite element based approach, with continuous adaptive remeshing, gives us the possibility of accurately simulating problems involving large deformations and fragmentation. Thermomechancial coupled models of models of brittle and ductile materials, cohesive material interfaces for layered material and contact algorithms able to solve complex multi-body contact situations, e.g. in fragmentation, are key pieced in our simulation package for impact penetration. logy for the numerical simulation of ballistic penetration and shaped charges falls short of being able to reliably simulate damage to armors, runways, surface and buried concrete bunkers and other hardened underground targets. Our Lagrangian finite element based approach, with continuous adaptive remeshing, gives us the possibility of accurately simulating problems involving large deformations and fragmentation. Thermomechancial coupled models of models of brittle and ductile materials, cohesive material interfaces for layered material and contact algorithms able to solve complex multi-body contact situations, e.g. in fragmentation, are key pieced in our simulation package for impact penetration.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Charles L. Goldey
AF 98-224
Title:Multi-Pulsed Laser Illumination for Imaging
Abstract:The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Eglin AFB requires high temporal rate data from dynamic experiments in their effort to move to physics model from empirical based models. High resolution image data for fragment/target material dynamics and characterization is a key technology area that will facilitate this move but suitable illumination for use with high speed digital devices do not exist. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a high intensity illumination systems based on using a repetitively pulsed laser as the light source to fill this deficiency and meet the specific requirements of the solicitation. This Phase I program will address the high risk aspects of associated with developing a pulsed illumination system based on the repetitive Q-switching of a Nd:YAG laser which meets the requirements of the AFRL. Proof of principle experiments will be performed during this program and analysis will be conducted for the application of the device to high speed imaging. A Phase II contract award will result in a system being built and delivered to the AFRL where tests will be conducted to demonstrate the systems with digital camera and/or holographic cameras at the Advanced Warhead Evaluation facility or Ballistic Experiment Facility at Eglin AFB, FL.

SILICON MOUNTAIN DESIGN, INC.
5055 Corporate Plaza Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 599-7700
N. Eric Howard
AF 98-225
Title:Integrated High Speed Ballistics Imaging System with Remote Operation and Wireframe Extraction
Abstract:One of the challenges facing researchers who measure multiple fragment trajectories of modern weapons is the retrieval of useful data. Data is not simply a time record of two-dimensional images of the dynamic event. Useful data is, among others, the actual trajectory of those fragments. In order to acquire useful data, it is necessary to develop an interface between the time record of images and the desired data set. By making the interface as autonomous as possible, useful data can be gleaned from the images at a faster rate than can be acquired with a purely human interface. Furthermore, due to the tremendous amount of data that an be generated in a short period of time, and in hazardous environments, it is sometimes necessary to provide a hardware solution of transmitting the data from the hazardous environment to a safer one. Under the Phase I effort, SMD proposes to evaluate a total high-speed imaging system that can be remotely operated and controlled and is capable of 10,000,000 frames per second that can provide parameter extraction from a generated three-dimensional model.

COGNITION CORP.
209 Burlington Rd
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 612-0448
Chuck Higgins
AF 98-226
Title:Predictive Activity Based Cost Modeling Agent Network
Abstract:An Activity-Based Costing (ABC) model utilizing autonomous agents will be developed to predict costs of machined airframe components. This model will build upon experience gained from development of an existing ABC subsystem under development at Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems Company and will be integrated into Cognition Corporation's expert system-based product, Cost Advantage. We will: Create a knowlese of the rules used to cost each activity within the selected aerospace-manufacturing domain. Develop autonomous software agents thataccess and manipulate a activity based costing data. Demonstrate innovative cost forecasting capabilities that include agent-enabled model maintenance and documentation of assumptions, knowledge bases, and data used for each cost forecast/analysis.The innovative extensions will include: A new cost modeling technology that extends current paric (Weight-based) and detailed (process-based) cost estimating methods. The first use of agents to maintain the accuracy of cost modelspdated activity, materials, and support costs.A new capability in design and management support, using ABC and agents to provide timely and detailed notification of deviations in cost elements that may require alterations in design approach or project scope.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad Madni
AF 98-226
Title:Forecast/ABC: A Predictive Activity-Based Cost Modeling and Analysis Agent Network
Abstract:The Phase I SBIR effort is concerned with development an Activity-Based Cost (ABC) modeling and analysis tool based on autonomous agent technology to improve cost forecasting for complex manufacturing systems. Historically, ABC has been employed as a descriptive mechanism for understanding the sources of costs based on activities that generate the costs, and not on the traditional material-labor-overhead (MLO) categories. However, with recent advances in modeling, simulation and autonomous with recent advances in modeling, simulation and autonomous agent technologies, the ability to model and simulate complex systems using a collection of simple, autonomous software agents that can be deployed concurrently has become entirely feasible. The Phase I effort is directed to creating a system concept , implementation architecture, and Phase II implementation plan for an autonomous agent-based ABC forecasting tool. The payoffs of such a tool are dramatic reduction in manufacturing costs and cycle time through: (a) early detection of non-value-added activities and waste; and (b) various ABC streamlining optimization strategies. Above all, given the diagnostic and predictive nature of the tool, managers and executives will be able to: (a) gain better control of their processes through increased visibility into the sources of cost; and (b) maintain such control because of the diagnostic predictions made possible by the tool.

JAMCORP.
17 Jonspin Rd
wILMINGTON, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 988-0099
Mr Jon Priluck
AF 98-227
Title:Demonstration of the Manufacture of Lattice Block Materials as a Solid Freeform Fabrication Technique
Abstract:The objective of the proposed work is the demonstration of the feasibility of using Lattice Block Materials (LBMs) in the cost effective manufacturing of high performance structures for aerospace and commercial applications. Specifically JAMCORP proposes to demonstrate the manufacture of a representative sample of missile fin cores using LBM technology.Lattice Block Materials are a new class of materials which make use of proven and well-understood concepts and principles of trusses and space frames. These principles are applied at a size and scale previously thought to be impractical to implement from a manufacturing point of view. JAMCORP has successfully developed and demonstrated a manufacturing process to produce components having unusually high strength to weight rations. The physical properties of LBM, such as temperature resistance and hardness, closely reflect the physical properties of the parent or base material whether it is any metal alloy, plastic, or polymer.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 996-1629
Catherine A. Nordman
AF 98-228
Title:Damage Detection in Aircraft Using Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors and Remote Field Eddy Current Techniques
Abstract:We propose the development of an improved crack and corrosion detection system for hidden defects in multilayered metal structures typical of aircraft. Remote field eddy current (RFEC) techniques will be combined with an array of sensitive, broadband, giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors to detect damage deep within the structures. The system offers improved detection without the limitations of skin effects common to conventional eddy current methods, or the frequency limitations of commonly used induction coil sensors. In Phase I we will model and explore the advantages of the RFEC technique combined with an array of sensors. We also propose to develop a GMR sensor specifically suited to the detection requirements. In Phase II we would use the developmental studies to build a prototype system.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4475
Eric S. Boltz, PhD
AF 98-228
Title:A Magnetoresistive, Remote-Field Eddy-Current Probe for Use with the Boeing MAUS III Scanner
Abstract:Remote-field eddy-current techniques offer a powerful tool for the detection of deeply-buried damage in aging aircraft. Coil -based system, however, have poop sensitivity to the low frequencies used in remote-field measurements. What is needed is a remote field probe that utilizes a superior low-frequency magnetic field sensor.TPL, in collaboration with Boeing and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), will design, build and field test a remote-field probe based on a magnetoresistive detector. The prototype will be integrated with Boeing's MAUS III System for field evaluation. Prototype performance will be compared with both conventional coil-based sensors and with advanced magnetoresistive eddy-current sensors. The results of these comparisons will serve as a quantitative assessment of the new technique. TPL has pioneered the development of advanced magnetoresistive sensors for NDE applications and has a proven track-record in the commercialization of new technologies. By teaming with NIST and the Boeing Company, TPL can utilized the most advanced magnetic sensors and integrate this new technology with a proven, widely-used scanning system to assess its real-world performance potential. The inclusion of data from both conventional and emerging technologies will provide an objective assessment of both the fundamental and realizable sensitivity limits of this new technique.

UTILITY DEVELOPMENT CORP.
112 Naylon Ave
Livingston, NJ 07039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 994-4334
Harry S. Katz
AF 98-229
Title:Affordable, Improved Plastic Patterns for Percision Investment Castings
Abstract:Our main objective will be to investigate and develop an affordable injected plastic for pattern making of investment cast jet engine components. The developed plastic will have better "burn-out" characteristics than currently used pattern materials and will be readily moldable for fine details and good die fill. UDC will prove the feasibility and potential advantages of the new materials and modified processing methods during this Phase I program. UDC will develop an affordable approach to minimize the cost of the die as well as the pattern making process. The developed materials will be tested by the fabrication of small parts. The tests will include flowability, ease of molding, shrinkage and low temperature clean burn out. The developed materials and processing will be demonstrated by the fabrication and testing of small investment casting by the end users. At the end of Phase I, we will provide a report with results and conclusions, and a Phase II plan, schedule and cost estimate.

STEP TOOLS, INC.
1223 Peoples Ave
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-2848
Blair Downie
AF 98-230
Title:SESAME: STEP Entry for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
Abstract:During Phase I, we will develop the technology for a field use instrument to determine the residual stress, fatigue damage and remaining service life for aging metal structures. The technology will be based on a state-of -the-art wide-angle x-ray detector recently developed at ATMI. The life span estimation will use the measured micro-defect density to compare to a paramedic life span map based on the alloy composition, residual stress and loading conditions. The map will be based on the structural change of diffraction peaks form multiple individual grains during the course of fatigue life. We will demonstrate the feasibility of rapid fatigue damage determination for representative materials by testing representative samples of the three most common crystal cell structures for engineering metals, making the technology applicable for steels, aluminum, nickel and titanium alloys The samples will undergo high circle teensy/compression, bending and corosion loading. Validation of the life span map will be accomplished by interrupting high cycle fatigue tests, predicting remaining life, and subsequently cycling the sample to failure. Successful completion of the Phase I effort will culminate in the production of a field use instrument to be built and delivered at the completion of the Phase II program.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4141 Colonel Glenn Highway
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Sam Boykin
AF 98-231
Title:Weapon System Integrated Cost Model: An Automated Methodology for Affordability Evaluation
Abstract:Laboratory developers and planners are required to prioritize the development of technologies for new systems relative to user needs. Designs for these new systems typically only exist at the conceptual level, yet trade studies much be performed to assess cost and effectiveness, as well as overall affordability. Developers and planners require a methodology and tool-set which enable concept cost and affordability estimation based on industry standards for development and production costs, and accurate system operating costs.Objectives of this SBIR are to refine a methodology for estimating total system life-cycle affordability considering cost as an independent variable and based on performance and operational requirements. The Cost Estimating Model (CEM) developed during this research project will be based on an existing cost tool developed for the Air Force Materiel Command Technical Planning Integrated Product Teams. The CEM will be capable of operating as a separate model or as a functional element of a more detailed Weapon System Integrated Cost Model. The Phase I program will demonstrate feasibility of the proposed approach, develop the required top-level affordability relationships and provide a prototype. The Phase II program would fully develop the tool and integrate it into the comprehensive Weapon System Integrated Cost Model.

HJ FORD
1111 Jefferson Davis Highway
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-1300
Laurent J. Legault
AF 98-231
Title:Weapon Systems Integration Cost Model (WS-ICM)
Abstract:The Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate (AFRL/MLMS) has initiated a multi-phase project to produce a Weapon System Integrated Cost Model (WS-ICM). To support the requirements presented by rapidly changing weapons acquisition environments, WS_ICM's methodology is based on cost as an independent variable through the total life cycle. The model comprises three modules: the cost Estimating Model (CEM): the production cost Model (PCM); and the Operational and Support Model (OSM). The implementation of the WS-ICM will provide a reliable data base for program management decision-making consistent with Acquisition Reform.This SBIR Phase I results in a conceptual, computer-based OSM module design that integrates with the CEM and PCM modules forming a conceptual WS-ICM. The OCM can be used throughout the weapon's life-cycle to support both the Aeronautical System Center's program offices and Air Logistics Centers.The potential benefits include: 1)an integrated tool that enables complex logistics trade-off decisions-where none exists today; 2)linkage of existing analytical operational and support (O&S) tools with an O&S database to redefine this parametric data with actual O&S cost data as the system is fielded; and 3) accommodation of O&S programmatic decisions.

NOBLE SOLUTIONS
5705 Tibet Dr
Huber Heights, OH 45424
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 235-0843
Henry Noble
AF 98-231
Title:Weapon System Integrated Cost Model (WS-ICM) Task A With Context to CEM and OSM
Abstract: Abstract not available...

TECOLOTE RESEARCH, INC.
5290 Overpass Rd Bldg D
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-5300
Harmon T. Withee
AF 98-231
Title:A Weapon System - Integrated Cost Model for Aircraft: The Aircraft System Cost Estimating Tool (ASCET)
Abstract:Cost constraints can have a significant impact on the design, production, performance, and supportability of a weapons system. The USAF needs models and cost tools that accurately evaluate the tradeoffs among these requirements throughout a system's life cycle. No generally applicable cost models are available that effectively integrate all phases of a weapon system and actively trade-off cost, schedule, performance, and supportability factors on an equal basis. The Manufacturing Technology Division at WPAFB is coordinating the development and employment of a Weapon System Integrated Cost Modes (WS-ICM). The WS-ICM will estimate complete life cycle costs of a weapon system with tools designed for specific phases. A Production Cost Model is in development Models for the other two phases are needed. Tecolote Research has pioneered an innovative approach to objective cost estimating for advanced technology systems. Our Aircraft System Cost Estimating Tool (ASCET) (pronounced "asset) uses a hybrid estimating methodology that incorporates the best attributes of parametric and build cost estimating and provides a design based cost estimate from minimal inputs. ASCET can also iterate cost as an independent variable (CAIV) back through design tools to identify a feasible, preducible design that meets both operational and financial requirements.

ENIGMATICS, INC.
P.O. BOX 39111
WASHINGTON, DC 20016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 244-4392
DAAVID L. BOOK
AF 98-232
Title:Small Air Breathing Vector Thrust PDE (VTPDE) for UAV and Other Applications
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal is aimed at increasing power density, enhancing modularity, and reducing cost through the use of Pulse Detonation Engines (PDEs). The proposed propulsion system is based on a new engine concept that provides higher specific impulse than rockets or tubojets. It is more efficient than conventional engines because of its constant-volume, nonsteady operating cycle and has no moving parts in the power productin section. In PDEs a detonation wave is initiated in a mixture of aspirated air and fuel and propagates axially in the detonation chamber. Thurst is generated when the wave impinges on the thrust wall. The use of multiple chambers allows thrust vectoring and enhances engine reliability and efficiency. PDEs are more efficient than tubojets at small scale, require no exotic materials, and are less expensive to build. Their structural efficiency is greater than that of IC engines and they can operate at higher speeds. They avoid the power density limitations of electric power generation and the low specific impulse of solid propellants, and can incorporate thrust vectoring and thrust level control, which enhances maneuverability. We will develop and demonstrate a low-cost air-breathing propulsion system that can be used for existing systems and adapted to future advanced programs.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2786 INDIAN RIPPLE ROAD
DAYTON, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2706
LARRY P. GOSS
AF 98-232
Title:Advanced Sensors for High-Temperature and -Pressure Combustion Environments
Abstract:One of the major challenges of advanced propulsion systems is the extreme temperatures and pressures at which these devices will operate. In particular, temperatures in excess of 2700K and pressures in excess of 50 atm are likely to be encountered in the near future. Since current sensors used in aero-propulsion control and monitoring systems cannot withstand these harsh environments, novel sensor technologies must be developed for advanced propulsion systems. The principal objective of the proposed research program is to develop advanced sensors capable of withstanding the high-temperature and - presure environments of advanced propulsion systems. Novel sensors for both temperature and species concentration (emissions monitoring) are proposed. The sensors will be designed to improve accuracy and survivability in the hot section of future combustors. Three unique sensor developments efforts are proposed: 1) A fiberoptic-based thermometer, 2) A novel gas-sampling probe, and 3) A species-concentration measurement system based on absorption spectroscopy,

PC KRAUSE & ASSOC., INC.
3016 COVINGTON STREET
WEST LAFAYETTE, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 494-3343
BRIAN T. KUHN
AF 98-232
Title:Multi-Level Heterogeneous Modeling of F22 Electrical
Abstract:Recently, PCKA personnel developed a modeling technique that will revolutionize power/drive system simulation. Therein, a detailed state model is automatically developed from a circuit description of the power/drive system component. This approach, which is referred to as an automated state model generator (ASMG), markedly reduces the engineering time needed to implement a detailed simulation that is typically orders of magnitude faster than using other circuit-based approaches. In spite of these breakthroughs, the complexity of typical systems that are being considered by DoD agencies is such that it remains impractical to implement a detailed simulation of the entire system in a homogeneous computational environment on even the most powerful workstations using commercial simulation programs. The objective of the Phase I research is to determine the feasibility of an automated model interconnection algorithm for the F22 electrical power subsystem that selects component models of the appropriate detail, identifies potential model-order reductions, identifies computational subsystems to be implemented on parallel networked computers, and supplies the appropriate information to the server to synchronize the overall simulation. The research proposed herein is necessary to take full advantage of the capabilities provided by recent and anticipated commercial developments in heterogeneous network computing.

STRESS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1800 BRIGHTON-HENRIETTA TOWN
ROCHESTER, NY 00166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-2010
DR. MICHAEL J. ROMER
AF 98-232
Title:USAF Engine Maintenance Cost Analysis Based on Probabilistic
Abstract:To aid the USAF in meeting it's IHPTET maintenance cost reduction goals, Stress Technology Incorporated proposes a probabilistic engineering, risk-based economic assessment tool for analyzing maintenance cost reduction. The software tool will integrate state-of-the-art probabilistic engineering analysis, maintenance cost models, and an NPV-based (Net Present Value) economic assessment to assess how newly designed/refurbished engine components will impact base/depot level maintenance costs. The tool could eventually be utilized as an USAF "standard" for quantifying cost reductions from engine component suppliers and OEM's. In addition, the tool will also provide insight into optimum inspection and maintenance intervals based on the analysis results.During this Phase I effort, the probabilistic engineering/risk analysis and NPV-based economic cost analysis model will be developed to assess the cost benefits of new damage tolerant designs in terms of specified maintenance plans. Engineering information from several sources including; 1.) Historical and empircal component failure databases, 2.) Probabilstic FE (BLADE-GT) design analysis for HCF, LCF, and creep failure modes and 3.) Measured mission profiles from existing Engine Health Monitoring (EHM) systems will be utilized as multi-level engineering inputs to the program. By working directly with OEM's, in particular GEs COMPEAT$TM Cost Model Team, current maintenance cost analysis procedures and techniques for integrating probabilistic engineering design/analysis will be studied so that this program will remain consistent with current industry procedures. As a result of the Phase I effort, the maintenance cost comparison/optimization tool will accept the probabilistic engineering results/data from any of these levels to assess the maintenance cost benefits of new component designs or optimal replacement/refurbish/refurbishment intevals for specified components.The proposed program has genuine support from GE Aircraft Engines and Allison Advanced Development Company, both of which recognize, the benefits of a maintenance cost analysis program utilizing probabilistic component lifting and risk analysis programs and represents unparalleled value to the USAF.

AVEOX, INC.
331324 VIA COLINAS #103
WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 597-8915
DAVID PALOMBO
AF 98-234
Title:HIGH PERFORMANCE ELECTRIC MOTOR FOR UAV
Abstract:Electric-powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are becoming more prominent component of the militaries' arsenal. Brushless DC motors are the most efficient and lightest weight of all motor topologies, and is the most common type of motor used for propulsion. Aveox proposes to develop a state-of-the art brushless electric motor system for a high altitude UAV. This motor will drive a 6ft Dia. propeller without the use of a gear box. The basis for the design will be a continuation of the work that Aveox has been doing under a Joint Sponsored Research Project (JSR) with Boeing Aircraft, UCLA and NASA. The motor currently under development incorporates advanced materials and promises to set a new standard for power density and efficiency. Aveox proposes to further optimize the motor through three separate efforts: 1) Design a light-weight cooling system incorporating heat pipes, 2) Create an extremely light weight housing made from carbon fiber and 3) Further optimize the magnetic circuit via length and widing changes. the results of Aveox's efforts will be a motor system design suitable for flight tests inthe Phae II development.

AVEOX, INC.
31324 VIA COLINAS #103
WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 597-8915
DAVID PALOMBO
AF 98-234
Title:HIGH PERFORMANCE ELECTRIC MOTOR FOR UAV
Abstract:Electric-powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are becoming more prominent component of the militaries' arsenal. Brushless DC motors are the most efficient and lightest weight of all motor topologies, and is the most common types of motor used for propulsion. Aveox proposes to develop a state-of-the-art brushless electric motor system for a high altitude UAV. This motor will drive a 6 ft Dia. propeller without the use of a gear box. The basis for the design will be a continuation of the work that Aveox has been doing under a Joint Sponsored Research Project (JSR) with Boeing Aircraft, UCLA and NASA. The motor currently under development incorporated advanced materials and promises to set a new standard for power density and efficiency. Aveox proposes to further optimize the motor through three separate efforts: 1.) Design a light-weight cooling system incorporating heat pipes, 2.) Create an extremely light weight housing made from carbon fiber and 3.) Futher optimize the magnetic circuit via length and winding changes. The results of Aveox's efforts will be a motor system design suitable for flight tests in the Phase II development.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 NEW ENGLAND BUSINESS CENTER
ANDOVER, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
MICHAEL C. KIMBLE
AF 98-234
Title:REGENERATIVE MICRO-FUEL CELL FOR UAVS
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I Project develops a compact regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The design approach for this project is specific to the development of an electrolyzer and fuel cell unit giving an energy storage capability greater than 250 W-hr/kg. A modular arrangement of membrane and electrode assemblies gives a wide variety of fuel cell designs for variable power and voltage applications while maintaining low weights. The improved packaging design allows power densities much greater than 1 kW/liter to be obtained. Coupled with the innovative design, the electrochemical reactions for both anode and cathode are optimized to take advantage of the design approach. The major benefits of the proposed approach are a higher power density and specific energy density that are attainable independent of orientation, a feature that allows wider applicability and usage of the fuel cell and electrolyzer unit.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52ND AVE
WHEAT RIDGE, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2318
MR BRADEY L. HITCH
AF 98-235
Title:COMBUSTION INITIATORS FOR HIGH SPEED AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS
Abstract:The high air velocity and relatively low air temperature in the combustors of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet engines lead to long ignition delays, and problems with flame holding, combustion stability and heat release. These problems are particularly severe near the ram/scram mode transition. High internal air velocities and long ignition delays can require long combustor lengths to allow heat release from the fuel before it passes into the exhaust nozzle. Excessive combustor lengths and large flameholding recirculation zones cause large fuel heat loads and internal total pressure losses, hurting cycle performance and limiting the maximum flight speed. Use of a combustion initiator to improve the reactivity of the fuel and shorten the ignition delay could allow the combustor to be shortened and eliminate the draggy flameholding recirculation zones. This would substantially improve overall cycle performance, decrease the heat loads imposed on the fuel, decrease engine weight, and allow higher flight speeds. Metering of the initiator compound into the fuel could also allow control over the heat release profile within the engine.

BEAM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
110 N. CAYUGA
ITHACA, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-4367
GAL BERKOOZ, PHD
AF 98-236
Title:THE DERIVATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REDUCED KINETIC MODELS FOR PRACTICAL AVIATION FUELS
Abstract:Combustion chemistry has a key role in the design of low emission and high speed propulsion. The knowledge of the chemistry of relevant practical fuels has reached the point where design problems can in principle be addressed from a rigorous scientific perspective. However, the introduction of detailed chemical reaction mechanisms into complex design computations is not practical at the present time. Systematic reduction approaches have found general application in the area of combustion chemistry and it has been shown that large gains in computational efficiency may be achieved. Inevitable difficulties arise due to the numeric properties of heavily reduced mechanisms and the range of applicability of such mechanisms is often severely curtailed. Limitation of this type may be essentially removed through the use of in site adaptive tabulation techniques (ISAT) which permit consideration of a much larger number of species. Efficiency gains of about 1000 times, compared to the approach of direct integration of the corresponding rate equations, may be obtained. The technique is also ideally suited for use in conjunction with transported pdf calculations of reactive turbulent flows. The present proposal outlines the most promising route for the implementation of aviation fuel chemistry into design computations.

REACTION ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL
77 WEST 200 SOUTH
SALT LAKE CITY, UT 84101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 364-6925
DR. MARC A. CREMER
AF 98-236
Title:DEVELOPING REDUCED CHEMICAL MECHANISMS FOR AVIATION FUELS
Abstract:The proposed research involves the development of a strategy for simplifying detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms for aviation fuels. A detailed mechanism describing the combustion of practical aviation fuels has recently been developed, Due to the large size and complexity of this mechanism, incorporation into state of the art CFD codes for simulation of turbulent reacting flows is precluded. The proposed work investigates the use of two reduction strategies, namely reduced mechanism methods and low dimensional manifold methods. These particular methods were chosen due to their current state of development and degree of automation. The research involves the development of reduced descriptions of the detailed chemistry using both approaches along with work to validate the proposed reductions. Physical properties of importance are pollutant formation (NOx and soot), major species concentrations, radical concentrations, temperatuare, and ignition delay. Feasibility of both approaches will be determined and the best approach selected for implementation in Phase II. Near the completion of the Phase I work, techniques for tabulation of the reduced chemistry will be investigated.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2786 INDIAN RIPPLE ROAD
DAYTON, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2706
GREGORY J. FIECHTNER PHD
AF 98-237
Title:A PHASE SENSITIVE IMAGINE SYSTEM FOR COMBUSTION DIAGNOSTICS APPLICATIONS
Abstract:The proposed Phase I SBIR Program targets the development of a high-repetition rate phase-sensitive CCD. The camera will be used for quantitative concentration measurements using high-repetition rate (from 1kHz to 80 MHz) picosecond-pulsed lasers with coherent pump/probe multidimentional imaging. Development of the camera will be carried out during Phase I of the program initially using a commercially-available signal analysis software package, and will consider detectors, signal processing techniques, readout methods, filters, and A/D systems. The software model results will then be evaluated using discrete electronic elements on circuit boards, clocked using multiple output pulse generators. In particular, DC rejection will be examined using switched capacitor filtering, direct DSP filtering, and DSP-based matched filtering. One of these discrete element mock-ups will be evaluated in pump/probe experiment, followed by a test of a fast linear array imager. As part of this study, image storage and retrieval will be examined. Near the end of the Phase I project, we will design a camera system based on an existing CCD or design a new CCD chip to be developed during Phase II.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 EAST EVELYN AAVE
MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7772
DR. JAMES J. SCHERER
AF 98-237
Title:PLANAR FAR-INFRARED UPCONVERSION SPECTROSCOPY FOR COMBUSTIN IMAGING
Abstract:Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a new absorption based technique which allows two-dimensional chemically specific images of flames to be obtained on a rapid timescale. This new approach will allow species selective far-infrared absorption spectra to be obtained for both laminar as well as tubulent flames, in both cases yielding a two-dimensional image in real time. The system can operate continuously with a data update interval of less than one second. The new approach incorporates a unique spectral selection scheme for high resolution scanning of the far-infrared spectral region, which is achieved simply through adjustment of the signal processing electronics.

SADDLEBACK AEROSPACE
3611 262ND AVE SE
ISSAQUAH, WA 98029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 391-5667
JACK M. FRYERS
AF 98-238
Title:HIGH TEMPERATURE BLEED AIR/FUEL HEAT EXCHANGER DEVELOPMENT
Abstract:Advancing technology for aircraft turbine engines, as defined in the IHPTET initiative, will place increasingly severe thermal and structural demands on the components of the engine hot section. Materials technology is currently being developed with the goal of satisfying the demands of IHPTET Phase III and the future concepts engine. Although these materials will reduce the requirements for thermal management, some of the hot section components will still require cooling to lower temperatures than the available air streams, thus requiring that some of the engine cooling air be cooled to a lower temperature prior to use. The need for such "cooled cooling air" (CCA) defines a new thermal management requirement for future engine systems.Evaluation of resources to provide the required cooled cooling air indicate that the engine fuel is the most promising candidate to provide the necessary heat sink. To provide the necessary CCA using fuel as the primary coolant will require the use of fuel-air heat exchangers with enhanced capabilities, as compared to current conventional technology. Heat exchangers for this application must be capable of operating at high temperatures, with large temperature differences between the two streams, and must be designed to provide a very high level of system integrity, to avoid the safety hazards associated with leakage in fuel-air components.

ADVANCED MICROMACHINES, INC.
11000 CEDAR AVENUE
CLEVELAND, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 229-4636
CHRISTOPHER BANG
AF 98-239
Title:HIGH-PERFORMANE HEAT SINKS BASED ON MEMS TECHNOLOGY
Abstract:We propose high-performance heat sinks based on MEMS technology for cooling of advanced electronics. Our approach combines innovative designs, new microfabrication techniques, and high conductance materials resulting in extremely low thermal resistance and high heat load capacities in a compact and cost effective design, By using MEMS batch fabrication, the heat sinks can be made inexpensively, especially compared with complex forced liquid convention cooling systems made by conventional means. Furthermore, MEMS-based heat sinks will be smaller, lighter, and more amenable to incorporation into dense and space limited electronics systems than conventional heat sink technology. Opportunities exist for both passive and active cooling systems, in military and commercial electronics applications.

APPLIED SCIENCES, INC.
PO BOX 579
cEDARVILLE, OH 45314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
( 93) 776-2020
GERALD GLASGOW
AF 98-239
Title:LI-ION BATTERY WITH NANOFIBER CARBON COMPOSITE ANODE
Abstract:Low cost, high performance carbon fiber anodes to enable a new generation of high-power lithium-ion batteries is proposed. A vapor grown carbon fiber, called Pyrograf-IIITM carbon fiber, with size and morphology which can be varied over a wide range will be optimized for anode utilization. The relationship between the carbon fiber structural parameters and its electrochemical performance is addressed in the Phase I effort, with the objective of demonstrating substantial improvement over existing carbons used for this purpose. We will investigate effects of fiber crystallinity, degree of graphene plane orientation, surface morphology, aspect ratio, and density of edges L/L on the electrochemical performance of the carbon fibers in terms of capacity for lithium intercalation, rate of intercalation, first cycle irreversibility, and cycle life.

F&S, INC.
PO BOX 11704
BLACKSBURG, VA 24062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4290
WADE PULLIAM
AF 98-240
Title:EXTREMELY HIGH TEMPERATURE, MIROMACHINED, FIBER OPTIC PRESSURE AND SKIN FRICTION SENSORS FOR COMBUSTING FLOWS
Abstract:The technology now exists to construct a SiC micromachined, sapphire waveguide, skin friction and pressure sensor that can operate at the extremely high temperatures of ramjet/scramjet combustors. This design offers the ability to obtain measurements in flow regimes that have proven nearly impossible in the past. The data obtained by these senors will be invaluable for validation and development of CFD codes for combusting flows. This instrumentation is crucial to the development and operation of affordable, effective, and efficient 21st century aircraft and weapon systems. The accurate measurement of skin friction and pressure in fluid dynamic devices is important for understanding the basic fluid physics involved and assessing the performance of the device, leading to improvements in the design and operation of future high-speed transportation systems.An excellent, development team has been assembled including Proessor Joseph Schetz of Virginia Tech, a world leader in skin friction measurements, AeroSoft, a world leader in CFD software development, Litton Poly-Scientific, experts in micromachining technologies, TaiTech, experts in wind tunnel instrumentation, and F&S, a leader in fiber optic sensor development and commecialization. The F&S team is both qualified and motivated to build upon their combined demonstrated capabilities to accomplish this development and commercialization project.

MOHAWK INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
437 NEW KARNER RD
ALBANY, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4288
HOOSHANG HESHMAT
AF 98-241
Title:HIGH TEMPERATURE MAGNETI AUXILIARY BEARINGS
Abstract:Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs), with their ability to electronically manipulate rotor system dynamics, add damping as required and operate at high temperatures without lubricants, provide an attractive alternative to conventional oil lubricated bearing systems. Offsetting the many advantages of the AMB however, are it's sensitivity to transient shock events and the lack of a built in fail safe mechanism. Total magnetic/auxiliary bearing system weight must also be addressed for aerospace applications. To address this need, MiTi has conceived an auxiliary bearing that will provide the appropriate auxiliary rotor support in the event that either a bearing overload is encountered or complete system electrical failure occurs.The overall objective of this program is to develop a high-temperature, light-weight auxiliary bearing for magnetically supported gas turbine engine rotors. To achieve this goal, a preliminary high-temperature, light-weight design of a MiTi Zero Clearance Auxiliary Bearing (ZCAB), suitable for large gas turbine engine application, will be established. Specifically, 1) an existing MiTi low temperature ZCAB design will be modified to address high-load, high temperature operation in a flight worthy gas turbine engine configuration, 2) Assess the impact that ZCAB will have on total bearing system weight and size, and 3) Establish the dynamic test system plan for Phase II verification testing.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2786 INDIAN RIPPLE ROAD
DAYTON, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2706
SIVARAM P. GOGINENI PHD
AF 98-242
Title:OPTIMIZATION AND ACTIVE CONTROL OF FILM COOLING
Abstract:The proposed SBIR program targets the development of advanced concepts for film cooling of turbine airfoils. Through a combined experimental and computational effort, the proposed team will develop a CFD-based design-optimization tool that can be integrated into the existing turbine design loop and aid the designers in pursuing the optimal cooling geometry and strategy. The CFD program to facilitate such an optimization procedure is a well tested and constantly maintained finite-volume code. The entire design tool as well as its resulting optimal concepts will be validated by comparison with flow and hear-transfer data obtained from a series advanced optical measurement systems. The development of advanced instruments associated with these measurements alone can significantly benefit the general areas of turbine research and development. For practical implementation of the optimal designs and advanced concepts in real engines, the proposed team intends to make use of the emerging technology in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Active thermal and flow control on the coolant side and on part of the metal section of turbine airfoil using newly developed high-temperature, silicon-carbide-based microsensors and actuators has recently become possible. The proposed research will launch a feasibility study, followed by actual development of innovative sensors and actuators.

COFFINBERRY & ASSOC., INC.
8238 LAKE RIDGE DRIVE
WEST CHESTER, OH 45069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 777-7369
GEORGE COFFINBERRY
AF 98-243
Title:INDIRECT COOLING SYSTEM
Abstract:A Phase I analytical program is proposed for an indirect means of reducing the temperature of gas turbine engine hot-section cooling air. The Indirect Cooling System (ICS) uses engine fuel as the heat sink in a manner similar to work already accomplished by the USAF IHPTET program. ICS provides additional advantages in terms of fire safety, reduction in exposure time to fuel deposit formation, the ability to remove and maintain the fuel heat exchanger and the ability to optimize the design of the fuel heat exchanger for reduced deposit rates independent of the design of the air heat exchanger.The program includes preliminary design of all hardware relating to the ICS, steady-state and transient code analysis of key components and the overall system, and code prediction of fuel deposit formation rates and their performance effects. Comparison will be made between ICS and the current IHPTET direct heat transfer approach.The program also includes definition of a fuel deposit test program including the detail design of the test hardware. This test program would further advance USAF high temperature fuel technology by focusing on the deposit influence of heat exchanger geometry, surface coatings, and high Reynolds number.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52ND AVE
WHEAT RIDGE, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2350
DR. DAVID T. WICKHAM
AF 98-243
Title:ADDITIVES TO REDUCE COKING IN ENDOTHERMIC FUEL HEAT EXCHANGERS
Abstract:Aircraft designed for hypersonic flight use fuel to cool the ramjet/scramjet propulsion system. Sensible heating and endothermic reactions are used to provide cooling and may produce fuel temperatures that exceed 1200 degrees F. At these temperatures carbonaceous deposits (coke) form. These deposits can inhibit fuel flow, reduce heat transfer, and create hot spots. Coke deposits are known to form by three different mechanisms: 1) An oxidative mechanism involving dissolved oxygen, 2) a reaction between the fuel and metals in the flow path walls that produces carbon filaments, and 3) A gas phase mechanism in which high molecular weight hydrocarbons are formed from the products of thermal cracking reactions (condensation mechanism). Although methods are currently available for controlling the first two coke formation pathways, a means to control the third mechanism is needed.Thus, the objective of the proposed work is to identiy compounds that can be added to the fuel to inhibit the coke formed by the condensation mechanism. In Phase I, TDA will add candidate suppressants to fuel and measure their effect on coke deposition rates.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS, INC.
7 COMMERCE DRIVE
DANBURY, CT 06810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 794-1100
GREG STAUF
AF 98-244
Title:HIGH TEMPERATURE INTEGRATED CAPACITORS
Abstract:Next generation power electronic systems for military aircraft will require capacitors with reliable performance at temperatures from -55 up to 300 degrees C and beyond for filters, power converters and other control circuitry. Thin film integrated passive devices with lower dissipation and electrical leakage will also be needed, especially at high frequencies. Thin films have inherently high breakdown strengths, and high quality thin film dielectrics of barium strontium titanate (BST) have been shown to have superior charge storage density. Further, modification of BST of certain B-site dopants results in lower dissipation and reduced eletrical degradation at elevated temperature. A deposition technology to produce high quality films which is compatible with integrated technologies will be required for these devices. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) offers a unique combination of composition control, scalability, and the ability to produce extremely dense, low defect films. In Phase I, an MOCVD process to deposit B-site modified BST will be developed and the films will be characterized for capacitance, leakage, and loss at temperatures up to 300 degrees C. In Phase II, the process will be optimized based on electrical properties and long term reliability will be assessed at elevated temperature and electric field.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 DOWNEY STREET
NORWOOD, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
TRUNG H. NGUYEN
AF 98-244
Title:HYBRID AI/C ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITOR WITH HIGH ENERGY DENSITY
Abstract:The development of an all-solid-state hybrid A1/C electrochemical capacitor (EC) device incorporating electrodes consisting of high surface area carbon material coated with a film of anodized aluminum metal with dielectric oxide film on the surface and a high conductivity Polypyrole polymer electrolyte is proposed. The modeling of the energy density of new A1/C hybrid EC device based on actual cell data reported for carbon EC indicates that the practical energy density of the proposed hybrid A1/C EC device is about 33 Wh/1.The proposed solid-state hybrid A1/C EC device will have several attractive features:a) High cell voltage above 6 volts b) Practical energy density at 6 Volts to be 33 Wh/1 c) Operating temperature range between - 50 degree C and 200 degree C

EPOCH ENGINEERING, INC.
806 WEST DIAMOND AVE
GAITHERSBURG, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 670-6600
H. MICHAEL HOLLAND
AF 98-245
Title:INCIPIENT FLAW DETECTION ON AN OPERATING GAS TURBINE ENGINE WITH THE ROBUST LASER INTERFEROMETER
Abstract:Epoch Engineering Incorporated (EEI), the developer of the Robust Laser Interferometer (RLI) for non-contact vibration measurement, has identified a seeded fault test of a prototype gas turbine engine on which to demonstrate their RLI. The F100 engine, developed for the Joint Strike Fighter by Pratt & Whitney is to be tested in the late summer and fall of 1998 at the Pratt & Whitney facility in West Palm Beach, Florida.EEI will interrogate selected points on the F100 engine and, with the extremely wide bandwidth (0-256 KHz) and great dynamic range (155 dB, acceleration) made available, uniquely, by their RLI, will demonstrate the ability to detect the seeded faults introduced. In addition, because of the bandwidth made available by the RLI (note: most competing systems do not offer measurements above 20-30 KHz) EEI will demonstrate special procesing techniques to reveal such characateristics as torisional vibration changes and dirivative of acceleration -- "jerk."

TEST DEVICES, INC.
6 LORING ST
HUDSON, MA 01749
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 562-6017
PAUL COOPER
AF 98-245
Title:REAT-TIME TURBINE ENGINE FAULT DETECTION/CONDITION MONITORING SYSTEM (FADCoMS)
Abstract:This Phase I effort proposes to develop a real-time, turbine engine fault detection/condition monitoring system that can distinguish between synchronous and non-synchronous vibration in a complex assembly of rotating components, and detect the initiation and growth of a deformation, crack, or other mechanical anomoly. A system used for detecting cracks in spin pit has reliably detected cracks approximately 0.015" in size, and has consistently shown itself to be more sensitive than FPI. During Phase I Test Devices shall develop a specification and model for a Real Time Turbine Engine Fault Detection/Condition Monitoring System (FADCMS), and perform testing to characterize and determine the sensitivity of its current crack detection system. Phase II will develop the system to detect crack indications for a complete engine. In Phase II the system will be tested in a engine environment and its ability to detect cracks within the rotating assembly over its complete power range will be demonstrated. Phase III will consist of implementing crack detection systems on military and commercial aircraft, in civilian applications like stationary power turbine crack detection and in ground-based systems for testing engine parts in Retirement For Cause applications.

STRESS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1800 BRIHTON-HENRIETTA
ROCHESTER, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-2010
DR MICHAEL J. ROEMER
AF 98-246
Title:A PROBABILISTIC DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC SYSTEM (ProDaPS) FOR GAS TURBINE ENGINES
Abstract:Stress Technology Incorporated proposes a Probabilistic Diagnostic and Prognostic System (ProDaPS) capable of probabilistic assessment of engine sensor signals, mechnanical and performance diagnostics, and critical component prognostics. The ProDaPS system will perform real-time risk assessment of engine performance and mechanical faults so that catastrophic engine failures can be avoided. Also, costly inspection policies and premature component replacements can be averted by optimizing the maintenance activities based on this risk-cost relationship. The ProDaPS system will integrate refined stochastic modeling and risk assessment tools together with advanced engine health monitoring techniques using the latest sensor technology and advanced probabilistic fault classifiers. The proposed ProDaPS system will ultimately provide a real-time, predictive system with truly cognitive and reasoning capabilities.The ProDaPS system will be capable of real-time probabilistic risk assessment and accurate, early detection of engine performance/vibration faults while component failures can still be prevented. The implementation of state-of-the-art probabilistic, diagnostic and prognostic techniques will include; advanced stochastic map (random field) models used for pattern recognition, Bayesian belief analysis for updating statistical information from models/measurements, and the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion as a stochastic fault classifier. Component prognostics will assess thermomechanical fatigue and creep life in critical engine components utilizing efficient Monte Carlo simulation procedures and algorithms taking into account the interaction of LCF/HCF/creep failure modes. Remaining life predictions and probabilistic risk assessment will be based on the results from the real-time diagnostic/prognostic modules and corresponding economic and safety consequences.The proposed program has genuine support from GE Aircraft Engines and Rolls-Royce that is based on a strong working relationship that recently resulted in the successful completion of an advanced engine health monitoring system for the NAVY F405 engine and future development for the GE F101 engine.

CREE RESEARH, INC.
4600 SILICON DRIVE
DURHAM, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 361-5709
DR RANBIR SINGH
AF 98-247
Title:DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE 4H-SiC POWER ACCUFET
Abstract:4H-silicon carbide power devices are expected to have 3x higher current densities and 200x lower on-resistance, while still operating up to 350 degree C. This is because of an order of magnitude higher breakdown electric field and a 2-3x higher thermal conductivity of 4H-SiC as compared to Si. Recent advances in 4H-SiC crystal quality, low doped epitaxial uniformity, dopant ion implantation, reactive ion etching and high voltage edge termination at Cree presents tremendous opportunity to fabricate high power 4H-siC ACCUFET devices. In this Phase I research, 1000 V, 1 Amp ACCUFETs capable of operating up to 350 degree C. The experimental results from the fabricated devices will then be compared with those obtained in the simulation design and further optimization will be carried out in Phase II of the program. A simulation study of various structures possible with an accumulation mode FET will also be conducted.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 SECOND AVENUE
WALTHAM, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4202
BRUCE N. BARCK
AF 98-248
Title:MULTI-HASE FLOWMETER FOR SUPERCRITICAL FUEL SYSTEMS
Abstract:High heat sink fuel systems for advanced gas turbine engines are expected to involve fuel temperatures that vary over a broad range, including temperatures that could exceed 600 F. This is expected to produce flows that may be single-phase liquid or a two-phase mixture of liquid and vapor. Handling, monitoring, and controlling such flows is far more complicated than in single-phase flows at conventional temperatures, necessitating the development of special flow instrumentation. In the proposed program, we will pursue the development of an advanced flow measurement system that combines ultrasonic transit-time flow measurement for single-phase conditions with a Foster-Miller technology that uses the irregular dynamics of a sensor signal to determine both the liquid and vapor flows in two-phase flow conditions. The dynamical analysis method will use either active or passive measurements using the same ultrasonic transducers that are used for the single-phase transit-time measurement.Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the program concept through laboratory testing of the active and passive sensing approaches in fuel-air flows at room temperature. Based on the results obtained, Phase II will pursue the advanced development of a real-time instrument suitable for demonstration and use in high heat sink fuel systems.

TECHNOLOGY IN BLACKSBURG
1004 DOE RUN DRIVE
BLACKSBURG, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 231-8755
TOM LEITCH
AF 98-249
Title:USING MEMS-BASED MICROPUMPS FOR ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL IN HIGH-TURNING STATORS
Abstract:Technology in Blacksburg, Inc., is proposing to use Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) to reduce boundary-layer losses in the stators of highly-loaded transonic compressor stages. MEMS-based micropumps will bleed-off the low velocity fluid on the blade suction surface resulting from the boundary layer separation. The work added by the micropump to this low momentum fluid will re-energize the fluid so that it can be employed for trailing edge blowing from the stator. This "wake-filling" will further reduce losses and decrease blade row interactions, thus improving the stage efficiency along with the aeromechanical and noise characteristics. Active control will be implemented to optimize the performance of the micropumps for system consideration. A cooperative agreement is arranged with Allison Engine Company to participate in this research program. They will provide technical advice and geometry for engine hardware. In Phase I of this research program, the concept will be demonstrated in a transonic compressor cascade to document the benefit of blade suction-surface bleed and trailing-edge blowing. In Phase II the technique will be demonstrated in the Compressor Aero Research Lab at Wright Laboratories. In Phase III, Technology in Blacksburg, Inc. will team with an engine manufacturer to incorporate the technology in an actual engine.

HOOD TECHNOLOGY CORP.
1750 COUNTRY CLUB ROAD
HOOD RIVER, OR 97031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 387-2288
ANDREAS H. VONFLOTOW
AF 98-250
Title:SPIN PIT EXCITATION FOR HIGH CYCLE FATIGUE RESEARCH
Abstract:This project addresses the problem of exciting rotor blades of a rotor spinning in an evacuated spin pit. The excitation is periodic at a harmonic of the spin frequency.The proposal surveys preceding excitation methods and explains why each is unacceptable. The proposed method circumvents the shortcomings of these prior techniques.

PERFORMANCE DESIGNS, INC.
1300 E International Speedway
Deland, FL 32724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(904) 738-2224
Bill J. Coe
AF 98-251
Title:Square Canopy for ACES II Ejection Seat
Abstract:Performance Designs, Inc. proposes to determine the feasibility of developing a square (ram air type) canopy which will decrease impact injuries, often experienced by aircrewmen on landing, subsequent to an ejection. The square canopy developed in Phase II will be capable of surviving deployment speeds and suspended weights as specified (300 knots and 293-342 lbs.) In addition, the canopy developed will reduce the rate of descent from the current canopy (round type) in service, while conforming to the deployment modes and dimensions of the current ACES II headbox unit. The square canopy developed should not require any manipulation from the user in order to achieve the desired rate of descent (ROD) for landing.

PHOENIX SCIENTIFIC CORP.
151 Osigian Blvd.
Warner Robins, GA 31088
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(912) 956-1783
David W. Felker
AF 98-251
Title:RAM Parachurte Development for ACES II
Abstract:The development of a high performance canopy for the ACES II ejection seat requires a complete program of design, analysis, simulation, prototyping and full-wcale testing. These are two primary end-items projected for this effort. First and foremost is a validated and proven canopy for the ACES II ejection seat. The second is a validated methodology for the analysis and simulation of high performance, load bearing, aerodynamic textile structures. A complete development program is proposed, consisting of: tested hardware, a full computer simulation with structural and performance analysis, and a Level-2 data package. With a documented history in finite element, aeroelastic and aerodynamic analysis and simulations, Phoenix Scientific will apply this expertise, and the most recently available analysis methodologies, to the very difficult task of a non-linear, dynamic analysis of a high performance canopy. This analysis will be accomplished concurrent with the design, fabrication and testing necessary to develop the required canopy system.

HAMILTON SOFTWARE, INC.
2270 Northpoint Prky
Santa Rosa, CA 95407
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 542-2700
Amanda Jane Giarla
AF 98-252
Title:Aritificial Intelligence Exchange and service Tie to all Test Environments (AI-ESTATE) Implementation
Abstract:Diagnostic reasoning has become essential and critical to the mission of DoD Automatic Test Systems (ATS). ATS architectural approaches to date have been built on monolithic solutions of tightly coupled automatic test elements. These solutions tend to be proprietary, costly to procure, maintain and upgrade and are non-interoperable with ATS elements of other manufacture. An architectural approach that lowers ATS costs, provides for robust non-proprietary solutions and supports longer ATS life cycles is the open systems approach as defined in the DoD ATM Master Plan (1). This approach requires the de-coupling of ATS elements and reengineers that am interoperability components based in "commercial off the shelf" (COTS) products. We propose to research and develop an approach that integrates a fuzzy logic based diagnostic reasoner and a demonstration of component interaction. The demonstration will include UNIX based reasoner, a Windows-95 based Graphical User Interface (GUI) and a VXI Windows-NT based Labview and/or HPVee test controller connected to set of VXI instruments and a breadboard circuit that can be modified to introduce faults.

QUINCY STREET CORP.
2920 E. Camelback Rd
Phoenix, AZ 85016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 381-0096
Walter O. Bailey
AF 98-253
Title:A Bread Based Environment for Test (ABBET) Architecture Prototype
Abstract:The overall abjective of this proposed project is the development of detailed definitions for the interfaces defined by the ABBET architecture. Signal models wil developed based upon the C/ATLAS set of signal nouns. A Test Foundation Framework (TFF) will be implemented to demonstrate the ability of test program or test program component transfer across multiple test platforms. This phase also will identify and specify TFF interfaces and supporting business rules for implementaton in Phase II. The principle result of this work is to prove the test program or test component reuse concept.. The TFF is independent of test instrumentation and test equipment manufactures and is addressed to test program develops and test system integrators. Potential savings to commercial or military users are estimated in 40 - 60% range.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4283
Robert Lee Cardenas
AF 98-254
Title:Ergonomic Assist Device for Water Blast Gun Manipulation
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force is moving to water jet blasting for depainting operations at their air craft maintenance facilities. The water jet process produces a less hazardous waste stream by eliminating or greatly reducing the use of paint stripping chemicals. The move to water jet depainting operations has identified a need for an assist device that will support a manually operated system. A Phase I program is proposed for the developed of Ergonomic Assist Device for Water Blast Gun Manipulation.A manually operated portable system that can operate in an omnidirectional orientation will be developed. The Phase I program will define the user requirements with a detailed site and system analysis. A Phase I portotype will be developed and fabricated for user evaluation. The Phase I result will be a detailed Phase II design criteria based on site analysis and user feedback. Phase I will concentrate system function and user requirements.A Phase II development will involve the commercialization team member early in the program. This effort will continue to update function and user requirements and will also address weight, materials and manufacturing issues. Phase II efforts will produce a design ready for initial manufacturing and prototypes for continued evaluation.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Roger Jensen
AF 98-254
Title:Ergonomic Assist Device for Water Blast Gun Manipulation
Abstract:Traditional methods for aircraft paint stripping use compounds containing volatile organic compounds to loosen chemical bonds between coating materials. Recent tightening of air pollution regulations has made it impractical to continue using these compounds in the same way as in the past. A promising alternative for some aircraft is to blast the paint off using high pressure water spray. The method has proven effective for the top surfaces of wings, horizontal stabilizers, and the fuselage. However, the under-side surfaces of these structures, present an ergonomics problem -- the workers become excessively fatigued from using a water blast gun to spray upward. The proposed concept is for an ergonomic assist device to change the forces that cause the excessive fatigue into forces the workers can tolerate. During this Phase I project the concept will be critically examined and a prototype device will be designed, constructed and tested at an Air Force base. Testing will consider ease of use, worker fatigue, and mobility for reaching under-side surfaces of large aircraft.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey St
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Kevin M. Spencer
AF 98-255
Title:An On-Line Turbine Oil Raman Analyzer
Abstract:Lubrication breakdown in precise military equipment can have devastating results. To be able to monitor lubricants for breakdown and change these lubricants in a timely fashon, off-line physical properties testing and atomic emission spectroscopy for detection of metals in the oil itself is obtained. To monitor spectroscopically chemical changes within the oil is highly desirable. We propose here to use the technique(s) of Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy for real-time analytical monitoring of the synthetic turbine oil wear. We will perfrom a systematic analysis to optimize the Raman signals through judicious choice of laser wavelength(s) and spectral detection scheme for a polyolester based synthetic turbine oil. With the optimized system, we will determine the sensitivity and reproducibility of Raman spectroscopy for analysis of turbine oil composition. We will investigate the ablility to monitor contaminants, as well as thermal breakdown products. During the Phase II program, other turbine oils that may adhere to MIL-L-7808 standards but are not polyolester-based will also be investigated. A compact prototype will then be developed and optimized for analysis of all turbine oils of interest. The system will be capable of full automation for routine analyses and will have a complete library searching routine to allow rapid identification of thermal breakdown of the oils.

AURORA FLIGHT SCIENCES CORP.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-3633
Peter Bahniuk
AF 98-256
Title:Battery Reliability Prediction using Neural Network Methods
Abstract:The weak link in a standby battery pack emergency system is the battery's characteristic of wearing out, even when not in use. Battery failure can result in more than downtime in a flight situation: it can imperil the mission. The common method to determine battery health was to perform load test, time-consuming physical inspection, and maintenance logs examination. Although reliable, this method often is cumbersome, time consuming, expensive, and risky. The development of a sensor that will calculate in real time the short-term usability (amp-hour rating) as well as the long-term end-of-life reliability of the battery will greatly reduce maintenance costs and can reduce the possibility of a failure in a life-critical situation. The calculation of end-of-life prediction will require advancements in neural network software to linearize a highly non-linear function. Aurora proposes to develop a battery sensor that will calculate reliability in real time. The objective is to apply neural network prediction software in development and demonstrate an operational sensor. Using information about the battery's operational condition the sensor will calculate the battery's state of charge, current amp-hour rating (stationary hangar conditions), project amp-hour rating (under flight conditions), and predict the time of the battery's end of life.

INTERNATIONAL COMPUTER POWER
2620 Lee Ave
El Monte, CA 91733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 443-7557
Eugene J. Weaver
AF 98-257
Title:Robust Batteryless Power Back up for Critical Power Applications
Abstract:Today, lead-acid batteries are used extensively as the primary stored energy medium. Their performance capabilities have been well documented. When used as the primary energy storage device to support sensitive electronics until a standby generator system is online, batteries are the weak link in the emergency power system. Batteries must live in a controlled environment and require extensive maintenance; two major elements that are not always available.An alternative has been conceived to replace batteries as a stored energy system. This alternative, known as the JDUPS or Hybrid Dynamic Uninterruptible power System, uses a solid steel flywheel to store kinetic energy and provides a rectified DC output. Simple rules of physics govern the amount of stored energy, based upon flywheel diameter, face (thickness) and speed. The HDUPS is based upon a standard robust motor generator set platform which can operate in variable frequency drive and a rectifier. A prototype system in the 35 kVA range will be built to demonstrate a minimum 30 seconds of stored energy. This technology is applicable to any market where users will no longer accept battery failures.

RAMS ENVIRONMENTAL, INC.
POB 1982
Ormond Beach, FL 32175
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(904) 676-7506
Robert C. Ahlert, Ph.D.,
AF 98-258
Title:Two-Step Bioremediation of PCBs in Soils
Abstract:Complex mixtures of polychlorinatedbiphenyls (PCBs) are common soil contaminants. Several hundred congeners, together with physical weathering and microbial dechlorination and oxication, add to the complexity of PCB mixtures found inthe environment. PCBs are hydrophobic and associate with soil, whether wet or dry. Excavation is disruptive and often leads to dispersion of fine particles carrying contaminants. Physical separation can concentrate but not destroy PCBs; further, separation is not a viable in-situ process. Purely anaerobic biodegradation is improbable; aerobic dechlorination, followed by mineralization, is possible but undemontrated. Destruction via fungal metabolism has been proposed but has not been demonstrated at full -scale.TWO-STEP MICROBIAL DEGRADATION, ANAEROBIC DECHLORINATION FOLLOWED BY OXIDATION, IS PROPOSED FOR IN-SITU REMEDIATION. Highly chlorinated congeners, i.e., three or more chlorine atoms on Biphenyl, are dechlorinated in place under anaerobic conditions. This process is site specific and requires injection of deaerated water amended with electron acceptor (nitrate), nutrients (if not present in adequate concentration) and a supplementary carbon source. Biodegradation is based on microbial communities present at the site. Dichlor-, monochlor- and base Biphenyl are mineralized microbially via oxidation in a subsequent aerobic process. Humidified air is injected into the soil system that has had anaerobic pretreatment.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Rd
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Mr. Francis L. Keohan
AF 98-259
Title:Dual-Cure Resins for Rapid Composite Repair and Fabrication
Abstract:A new family of dual-cure thermoset resins is proposed for formulating adhesives that can be processed at room temperature for bonding composite materials and metals. The proposed research explores the feasibility of modifying convertional thermoset resins such as polyepoxides with other compatible and complementary curing polymers to produce new classes of UV light initiated, ambient temperature curing adhesives. The ultimate objective is to develop an easily processed adhjesive with high adhesion to reinforcing fibers and cured composite materials, no cure sensitivity to oxygen, and the ability to be used in composite fabrication processes such as pultrusion. The proposed hybrid systems cure by a combination of chemical processes which take advantage of complementary reactions and thus result in faster cure rates than either conventional resin system alone. In the proposed study, the candidate materials for these resin blends will be identified, a new type of UV-activated curing agent synthesized, the compatibility of different resin components predicted by computer simulation, structure-property profiles determined and the ability to cure into useful materials by UV light initiation demonstrated. Adhesion properties of the candidate formulations and controls with metals and fiber-reinforced composites will be measured and compared.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5668
Mr. James J. Gorman
AF 98-259
Title:Production and Repair of Pultruded Glass and Graphite Composite Sandwich Panels Using UV - and E-Beam cured Resins
Abstract:Radiation-cured resins offer a number of potential advantages over the thermally-activated resins more commonly used in the fabrication of composite structures. KaZak Composites proposes a two-part program in which we will investigate the application of UV-and Electron-Beam cured resins to two different technologies related to composite ISO shelters.First, the team will develop and demonstrate technology required in a field repair kit for the damaged composite sandwich panels used to construct ISO shelters. One of our program partners, Science Research Lboratory, already makes resins and field repair kits for composite aircraft.Second, KCI will study and demonstrate the application of radiation-cured resins for the pultrusion of very wide (>10') composite sandwich panels. KCI is currently building an 8x8x20 foot composite ISO using the world's largest pultrusion machine, developed under a separate Phase II SBIR. We project major tooling cost savings by using radiation-cured resin. KCI will test both the demonstrated radiation-cured pultruded composite parts during the Phase I Option.During Phase II we plan to apply radiation cure for 10' wide panels, and to develop a fieldable repair kit based on the same resins.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Charles Wheeler
AF 98-260
Title:Complementary Microelectromechanical Systems (CMEMS) and their Applicability to Fault Sets for Bussed Components
Abstract:This proposal details an innovative new computer based on micro-electromechanical machines, and describes how this can be used in conventional systems to partially solve the problem of large ambiguity groups on bus-based electronics, or electronic systems with feedback loops. This technology is not based on semiconductors. It can be implemented on a wide variety of substrates. Its primary advantage over conventional computers is that it will function over an enormous range of temperatures, from very cold to near the melting point of the materials used in fabrication. It will also be impervious to radiation. In its standby mode, it will consume no power, and it is potentially less costly than conventional integrated electronics because the fabrication process is considerably simpler. Yet it will be able to implement a full range of computing devices, including combinatorial logic, static RAMs, and clocked logic such as shift registers. When used in conventional circuits, it has the potential to allow critical circuit connections to be made or broken without any control lines, or without any changes to the electronic circuit. The open circuit resistance will be very high, and the closed circuit resistance will be very low, with no non-linearities and no dependency on voltage or current.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4165
Dr. Moshe Oren
AF 98-261
Title:Multiplexed Real-TIme Opacity Monitor
Abstract:Foster Miller proposes to develop for the Air Force a novel multiplexed opacity monitoring system, which is low cost and EPA compliant. The system consists of multiple fiber optic probes used as the monitoring heads, and a central control and data acquisition unit. This approach will result in a robust, rugged, and easily expandable system which is readily adaptable to various stack monitoring applications. The use of bulk optics and wide band light source, as presently used by other systems, increases the complexity, maintenance, and cost of such systems. Impressive progress has been made in recent years in the area of fiber optics, miniaturized optical components, and fiber optics system assembly techniques. Foster-Miller, together with our commercialization partner. Air Instruments and Measurements, will apply its experience in the area of fiber optics probes and system integration for this opacity monitor application.Successful completion of the proposed research and development program will result in a unique opacity monitoring system that will dramatically reduce the cost to the Air Force for an EPA compliant, multiports emission monitoring system.

GMA INDUSTRIES, INC.
2530 Riva Rd Suite 203
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 571-0300
R. Glenn Wright
AF 98-262
Title:A Statistical Process Approach to Equipment Readiness Enhancement
Abstract:The underlying theme of the proposed research is that artificial intelligence and corollary methods can aid in the collection of more complete statistical data and models that can be applied using statistical process control techniques to improve equipment readiness. This is to be accomplished through the identification of variations within the process that can aid in the adjustment of test limits and other parameters to more closely reflect actual operational system performance over time. We deem this approach to be more effective in the large-scale testing of electronic equpment than adhering to original test requirements based upon design criteria that may or may not reflect actual system performance.The approach cited in this proposal promotes the design of an integrated system for the detection of trends in equipment performance based upon test parameter data. This is accomplished based upon the fusion of two independent system modules representing supplementary investigative techniques.

TOTAL QUALITY SYSTEMS, INC.
1307 West 2550 South
Ogden, UT 84401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 394-9565
Willard A. Hansen
AF 98-262
Title:Statistical Control Process Application to Test Failure Information
Abstract:Performance characteristics of weapon system components and the associated support equipment may change with age and other factors. Current test programs have no means to evaluate the effects of these changing factors on equipment performance tolerances. The poblem is exacerbated by the lack of archived performance data and diminishing sources of parts to repair legacy systems.The goal of this task is to investigate and apply statistical process control (SPC) and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies in combination to detect trends in failure data, capture and interpret the trends and then provide information for decision support. The proposed solution envisions a three layer model. The first layer being a management data base which accepts test failure data and organizes it for viewing, evaluation and archiving. The SPC layer interprets the failure data and creates performance characteristic patterns, which are then archived in the management layer. The AI layer utilizes an expert system (ES) shell to integrate the statistical interpretation of thest data from a unit under test with prior interpretations of historical data, thereby generating appropriate decision support information. By continually updating historical data, the system performance will improve with time.

DR. WILLIAM F. AVRIN
9598 Carroll Cyn. Rd #165
San Diego, CA 92126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 549-9431
Dr. William F. Avrin
AF 98-263
Title:Versatile Instrument for Non-Destructive Inspection of Subsurface Flaws around Fasteners
Abstract:One of the most important problems in the nondestructive inspection of aircraft is the detection of cracks and corrosion under fasteners, in the lower layers of lapped structures. Existing methods for inspecting such structures require either that the fastener be removed, or that the instrument be redsigned for each new inspection problem.I propose to remove these limitations with a new eddy-current sensing system which varies that applied-field distribution and sensor configuration to fit the gemometry of the inspection problem, thus maximizing the flaw signature and minimizing the background signals due to the fastener head and nearby structures. This new approach is possible in part because of new magnetic sensors which provide very low noise over a wide frequency range.The new instrument will detect cracks and corrosion around ferrous and nonferrous fasteners of varying size, in structures made of aluminum, titanium, or ferrous metals, at depths ranging from 1 mm or less to 10 mm or more. Its high sensitivity at low frequencies will enable the inspection of very thick structures, and its low noise will signicantly reduce inspection times.

SQM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
PO Box 2225
LaJolla, CA 92038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 481-7182
Walter Podney
AF 98-263
Title:Non-Destructive inspection (NDI) of Cracks, Corrosion, Etc. in second and third Layer materials around Fastener Holes
Abstract:One objective is to demonstrate the use and value of SQUID Magnetometry for locating fatigue cracks around fastener holes in multiple layered structures without disassembling the structure or removing the fasteners, in instances where the crack lies in an under layer of the structure and is therefore not directly accessible from the structure's outer surface. A second objective is to demonstrate the application of existing digital signal processing and data enhancement techniues, which have previously been applied to data outputs from various surveillance sensors, to data outputs from a point inspection Nondestructive Inspection sensor. The program involves making SQUID Magnetometry measurements from 3 samples of flawed structures relating to the C-141 aircraft wing, and processing this data into signal patterns from which cracks of prior known location and length can be identified and measured. Success will demonstrate the utility of SQUID Magnetometry in finding hidden fatigue cracks. An NDI method with this capability will prove useful both to the Air Force for inspecting its aging aircraft, and to commercial aviation which must inspect many of the same airframes used by the Air Force.

ARACOR
425 Lakeside Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 733-7780
Mathew Koshy
AF 98-264
Title:Surface Mapping of Complex Aircraft Components Using CT
Abstract:The creation of digital design information for the manufacture of existing parts is a critical need for maintaining part inventories and to ensure the reliable operation of critical equipment. Such parts, which are frequently found in aging military aircraft, pose an important challenge to the Air Force's resupply operations. Current methods for obtaining the surface geometry of parts do not adequately capture complex geometries or provide sufficient accuracy. Computed tomography (CT) is an emerging tool for non-destructively obtaining geometric information for complex parts, and promises to alleviate the above difficulties.The proposed work will develop innovative new algorithms to obtain uniformly accurate surface information for complex aircraft components using CT. The new algoritms will focus on obtaining high accuracy for the location of fine features, such as thin walls, gaps, channels, and undercuts. CT scans of a sample part obtained from the Air Force will be usd to demonstrate that the new algorithms can be used for the fast generation of accurate computer aided design (CAD) models. These models can serve as input to computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software to produce toolpaths for computerized numeric control (CNC) machines.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4432
Timothy C. Tiernan
AF 98-264
Title:High Performance, cost Effective Surface mapping System for Complex Components
Abstract:All of the critical elements for fast, inexpensive, 3-dimensional CT are sufficiently mature that a high performance surface mapping system for reverse engineering should now be feasible. TPL is developing a cone beam CT system based on a large, two dimensional detector array with 1900 x 1500 pixels each 127 m on a side. The active area is 8 x 11 inches with 12-bit dynamic range without cooling.In collaboration with Los Alamos Laboratory (LANL), TPL is participating in the development of advanced software for reconstructing cone beam CT data sets, and converting the positional information to CAD compatible files to produce machine paths for CNC systems.TPL proposes a program to integrate all the enabling technologies into a practical, automated system that can merge the CT measurement data with CAD/CAM software for rapid manufacturing. A prototype system based on cone beam CT technology and reverse engineering software will ber fabricated and tested during Phase I.The proposed CT based reverse engineering system represents the culmination of digital X-ray imaging work at TPL, software development at LANL, and the latest advancements in amorphous silicon pixel array technology by a consortium of companies including TLP.

ACI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
630 W. Germantown Pike
Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(317) 655-3673
Rajiv Shah
AF 98-266
Title:Conversion Process for Legacy Stable Based Printed Circuit Board Atrwork
Abstract:Master artwork for Air Force systems is traditionally delivered on polyester-based mylar film. This film tends to degrade over time, even when stored in climate-controlled facilities. In addition, drawings must be digitized before circuit boards can be manufactured, which is an expensive and time consuming step. A reliable and repeatable artwork conversion process is needed.This project will perform the research required to assemble a PCB artwork conversion system, which can digitize Mylar based drawings. The digital files created wil be in Gerber format, which is generally the format needed for printed circuit board manufacture. The system will utilize commercial off the shelf (COTS) components wherever possible. By using COTS components, system cost, maintenance, and upgrade costs will be minimized.Deliverables from this program will include an analysis of potential COTS hardware and software, which could be integrated to from an accurate, repeatable system for digitizing Mylar drawings. Sources for software and hardware, a comparison of each product's capabilities and limitations, and the tolerances for each potential configuration will be documented. Finally, each potential vendor will be sent a 'C' size Mylar drawing, and their generated Gerber files will be evaluated to determine the capability of each system.

CONTROL SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
PO Box 357
Crestview, FL 32536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 689-3284
Jessee R. Fowler
AF 98-267
Title:3-D GPS Visualization and Blanketing Tool for the ISF
Abstract:The Integrated Support Facility (ISF) at Robins AFB has the responsibility for providing enhancements and maintenance for the Global Positioning System (GPS) User Equipment (UE). The ISF must be capable of emulating the environment in which the user equipment operates. An enhancement required for the ISF is the capability of simulating the effect of terrain and/or host vehicle masking on RF signal sources (satellites, pseudolites, and jammers) which affect UE performance.The Phase I effort defines the requirements for the Phase II 3D Visualization and Blanketing Tool (3D VBT) prototype development. The Phase I effort identifies all hardware and software required for the prototype, determines the terrain database products (quality and sources) necessary for the prototype, and determines the interfaces between the scenario generator, satellite simulator, receiver, and the 3D VBT system. The Phase I effort will develop a system specification and system level test plan for the Phase II prototypes.Commercialization is most important for SBIR efforts. CSR and our teammate, Computer Applications Software Technology (CAST), will develop commercial applications from the Phase II prototype. CSR's approach enhances an existing commercial product, CAST's GPST, and maximized the probability of commercial product development.

MICROCOSM, INC.
2377 Crenshaw Boulevard, #350
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-0555
Jeff Cloots
AF 98-267
Title:GPS Masking and Visualization Tool
Abstract:Microcosm proposes to develop a GPS Masking and Visualization Tool (GMVT) to be incorporated in the GPS User Equipment Integrated Support Facility (ISF). The GMVT will determine GPS satellite visibility from a host vehicle taking into account signal masking due to vehicle structures and nearby terrain features. The information will be presented in a 3-D view incorporating a terrain display and using advanced spherical geometry techniques for displaying masking effects and GPS satellite positions. The informatioon will also be fed back to the existing ISF system for use in radio frequency (RF) testing of GPS units. The GMVT will be based on existing computational techniques and commercially available software with extensions to support specific GMVT functionality. Using the proposed tool will provide users with analytical information on GPS availability and solution quality, as well as an easily understood graphical representation. A prototype tool will be developed in Phase I and full functionality tool in Phase II.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4114
Dr. Robert F. Kovar
AF 98-268
Title:UV-Curable, No VOC Aircraft Repair Spray-Coating
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes a new class of spray-applied, enviromentally-compliant/economical aircraft repair coatings that meets/exceeds the performance of original, solovent-based, two-part polyurethane (PUR) repair coating. Our enviromentally-compliant aircraft repair coating (ECARC) topcoat for Phase I will replace single-component PUR aerosol spray cans used for convience which produce coatings of lower durability than the orginal. When applied as a low-viscosity, one-component spray-coating it will not release VOCs or ozone-depleting propellants. Although UV curing for general painting of Aircraft is not considered desirable by the Air Force, its several advantagesare available for repair painting without the disadvantages. The toughness of a coating produced by UV-cure may eliminate the need for conversion and primer painting. A portable UV source can be used to cure the coating completely within the minutes into a tough, tenacious topcoat that will match the original coating in properties and appearance. The one-part system for topcoat will be storage stable and require no metering or mixing prior to application. In Phase I, we will develop the ECARC topcoat formulation, produce repair coating test panels and analyze test panels for key performance properties. Our team includes experts in UV-curable coatings, polyurethanes and an aircraft coating manufacturer.

CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
19365 Business Center Drive #8
Northridge, CA 91324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 727-9786
Dr. Yuhong Huang
AF 98-269
Title:Solid Lubricant for Weapon System
Abstract:Currently used semi-fluid lubricants become completely fouled with sand after several days exposure, which causing the weapon malfunction. Telfon-based lubricant can be used in certain low speed applications. However, large quantity of telfon for high firing rate application attract large amount of sand. A new generation of lubricant system is needed. Considering an operation in a sand enviroments for DoD applications, solid lubricants coatings are attractive candidate. Their applications in gas engine, bearing and information storage have been developed with long endurance, low fraction and weaving. In general, they are not able to resupply in situ. We propose a novel solid lubricant firm with ability of in situ resupplying. This concept is based on world wide achievments on lubrication, sol-gel technique and hard coating. A layer of hard coating is firstly deposited on surface. A composite glass-ceramic coating is deposited on top to enhance lubrication. The top layer is able to be resupplied in situ.Sol-gel based process provide a possibility to easily resupply lubricant firm.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Rd
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900

AF 98-269
Title:Next Generation Lubricants for Weapon Systems
Abstract:The lubrication systems used in current weapon systems is outdated technology containing varying degrees of hazardous chemicals. Also, current semi-fluid lubricants do not function in sand enviroments. To meet the tribological requirements of future and current weapon systems, improved performance of lubrication systems is needed particularly in a sand enviroment. A considerable amount of progress has been made in developing solid lubricants and wear resistance coatings for aerospace and industrial applications. Some of these lubricants and coatings may be suitable for weapon systems. However, the selection of solid lubricants is critical to specific applications. The major objectives of the Phase I proposal are to identify critical lubrication requirements in weapon systems, particularly in helicoper guns. Based on these solid lubricants, materials and coatings will be selected and tribological tests will be conducted to determine their performance and rank them for final gun tests in Phase II.

GENERAL LASERTRONICS CORP.
541 Sinclair Frontage Rd
Milpitas, CA 95035
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 262-6060
James W. Thomas
AF 98-270
Title:Portable, non-damaging depaint system for removing coatings from small areas
Abstract:General LASERTONICS Corporation (GLC), Lockheed-Martin Skunk Works, and Acurex Enviromental Inc. will develop a portable laser-based small area decoating system. GLC will demonstrate their current portable system design at Robins AFB in Phase I, and will evaluate in Phase II. In conjunction with Stanford University's Non-liner Optical Materials Laboratory GLC will also demonstrate relevant future generation laser technology. Skunk Works will prepare stripping samples and evaluate stripping results for the design exercise in Phase I, and will support development of the prototype in Phase II. Acurex will assess waste stream subsystems performance and contribute design inputs in Phase I, and will assist in Phase II development of the subsystem. A functional specification for theoperational system will be developed in conjunction with the end user community in Phase I . Successful operation of the prototype system in Phase II will enhance production flow times and personnel safety, while reducing overall maintenance costs. The system will function on either commercial or military aircraft regardless of aircraft size and configuration, without change, and can be applied to a wide range of other operational and maintenance equipment.

PHOENIX SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, INC.
11 Inverness Rd
Arlington, MA 02174
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 646-1810
Dr. Raymond B. Schaefer
AF 98-270
Title:Portable Photolytic Depainter
Abstract:Protolytic paint stripping minimizes spent materials. Laser and flashlamp based depainters have been developed and operate in the field. Laser based systems, however, are relatively complicated, costly and large, and have reliability issues. The flashlamp based system, Flashjet, is less complicated and costly, and is reliable, but it unsuitable as a portable depainter because it requires an adjunct dry ice stream to cool the underlying substrate and to prevent residue from being left behind. We propose to use Surface Discharge lamp technology to demonstrate photolytic depainting without the dry ice system and, based on this, to demonstrate the feasibility of a portable photolytic depainting system.

CLEVELAND MEDICAL DEVICES, INC.
11000 Cedar Ave
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 790-7017
Farron Dacus
AF 98-271
Title:Cost Effective Airborne MicroRadio Telemetry System
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program is intended to provide a new and highly cost effective solution for Air Force local area flight test telemetry requirements. Intentionally designing for reuse of the technology for commercial applications maintains availability through periods of low ordering. It shall be designed as an extensive to Cleveland Medical Devices existing MircoRadio technology, allowing an extemely effecient design with a low per unit cost. Special designs allow the system to meet enviromental requirements by making maximum use of inexpensive COTS technology. Intended range is up to 50 miles, with data range of 100KB or greater, and an enviromental temperature range of -51 to +93 deg. C. The frequency band shall be 902 to 928, 2310 to 2360, or 2400 to 2483.5 MHz. The system consists of the MicroRadio Telemetry Transceiver and Sensor (MTTS) at the airborne end. The base station shall consist of a software controlled transceiver with RS-232 link for standard PC control and databasing.

VIASAT
2290 Cosmos Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
John Lane
AF 98-271
Title:Sub Miniature Telemetry Instrumentation
Abstract:This proposal describes an SBIR Phase I program to establish a producible low cost design that enables the implementation and use of Subminiature Telemetry instrumentation to support future Air Force test missions. The Subminiature Telemetry concept, initially developed and tested under DOD Test and Technology and Demonstration funding, has long been viewed as an attractive alternative method for instrumentation of munitions and/or fleet aircraft. Because the system and its key subsystem devises, the Integrated Telemetry Package (ITP) and Receiver Demodulator Unit ((RDU), have not migrated towards low cost, producible devices, the SMT concept has not provided the gains that could be realized with its use. This SBIR program takes advantage of the latest in commercial technology and low cost production to satisfy the requirements for SMT instrumentation. The SBIR effort focuses on determining the best approach for multiple access and frequency use, and provides for the determination of an approach to a fesible producible SMT.ViaSat has developed and demonstrated a very similar system, the Miniaturized Data Acquisition Transceiver (MiniDAT). This system encompasses the features of the SMT system, using a commercially oriented PC Card (PCMCIA Type II card) architecture. Using lessons learned from the development of the MiniDAT system, and ViaSat's knowledge of spread spectrum communications and PC Card technology and manufacturing, production design cost goals can be established and achieved for an SMT system.

A2Z TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
4556 Knollwood Ln.
Niceville, FL 32578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 974-1509
Mr. Mike Zari
AF 98-273
Title:A time difference of Arrival Blast Sensor
Abstract:The munitions evaluation community requires an accurate measurement technique to charactize not only pressure-Vs-time traces but the blast wavefront direction as well. A2Z Technologies Corporation proposes a unique time difference of arrival appoach which measures 1) the pressure-Vs-time data, 2) the 2-D angle-of-arrival of the blast front, and 3) the blast front velocity. Given the proposed system, non-spherical and/or non-center initiated blast waves are readily characterized . Basic components of the system are muliple sensor heads, electronics modules containing amplication and TDOA circuitry, and a IEEE-488 based network of digitizers, all of which is under local computer control. During Phase I, a breadboard system will be designed and tested, include live-fire testing at Eglin AFB. At the end of the Phase I effort, breadboard testing results and prototype system design will provide a low-risk, rapid transition into prototype system development.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Ctr
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Charles L. Goldey
AF 98-273
Title:system for Directional Blast Pressure Measurement
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop the capability for the Air Force Development Test Center (AFDTC), Eglin AFB to measure true blast wave pressure which meets the specific requirements of the solicitaion. PSI will show in this Phase I program the feasibility of making the measurements with a newly developed blast wave direction and magnitude measurement system based on fiber-optic sensing units. PSI believes that by coupling two different fiber-optic based sensors into a single unit the true blast wave pressure time history and vecotor direction data (dual axis) can be obtained. The objective is to measure the blast overpressure with a fast-response fiber-optic pressure sensor and the vector direction of the blast wave with a second fiber-optic based sensor. The two will be combined into a single integrated unti and can in such close proximity that they can be considered a single point measurement. During the proposed program PSI will define the hardware and software necessary to determine the true blast wave pressure-time and vector direction. During the Phase II program PSI will design and produce a prototype, and validate the system during actual live fire testing at Eglin AFB, culminating with the delivery of an integrated system.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Ave
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin, Ph.D.
AF 98-274
Title:Electromagnetic Field Generator for Compatibility Testing
Abstract:The objective of this project is to provide a comparative evaulation of six key techniques utilized for the generation of high electromagnetic (EM) fields useful for testing the susceptibilty of electronic systems to EM radiation. The techniques under comparative evaluation are: (1) reverberation; (2) T-line or coaxial; (3) mode stirred; (4) frequency stirred; (5) parallel plate T-line and (6) transverse electromagnetic mode cell. The relative strength and weaknesses of these different methods are to be established through analytical and numerical simulation techniques with the ultimate utilization medium being the anechoic chamber at Eglin AFB. Analytical characterizations provide an initial judgement framework. However, the complexity of realistic electromagnetic interation configurations dictate the complementation of such an analytical explanatory structure through a reinforcing simulation enviroment. We will use our extensive experiences in analysis and numercial computation techniques to ascertain that the analytical predictions as regards the electromagnetic field generation techniques do correlate with the particular materials and geometic details of the Eglin, AFB anechoic chamber.

GDP SPACE SYSTEMS
300 Welsh Rd
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 657-5270
Stephen J. Nicolo
AF 98-275
Title:Advanced Pc-Based Telemetry Prcessing and Display System
Abstract:This document is a Phase I SBIR technical and cost proposal submitted to the US Air Force by GDP Space Systems, a division of Delta Information Systems, Inc., in response to SBIR Solicitation Topic Number AF98-275. The purpose of this proposed program is to investigate appropriate technologies and define the hardware and software requirements for a state-of-the-art PC-based Advanced Telemetry Processing and Display System (ATPDS). This system will be flexible and expandable with low acquistion and life-cycle support costs. A series of defined tasks will be completed to identify and analyze system requirements, review alternative approaches and various potential system architectures, and develop a conceptual design of a PC-based Advanced Telemetry Processing and Display System. System hardware and software functions will be partitioned, and applicable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies considered for their applicability. Design trade-offs will be performed and presented along with the capabilities and any limitations of the recommended system architecture. The program will include the development of a validation test plan for the proposed system to be used in Phase II as the basis for a validation and qualification of the ATPD system.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-9741
Woodrow Wilson
AF 98-277
Title:lethality Test Instrumentation
Abstract:Live fire testing against realistic targets is essential to progress in munition design. Traditional lethality testing is labor intensive and expensive. Its evaluation is highly subjective, susceptible to the biases and expertise of the evaluators, and prone to errors of omission. A comprehensive suite of calibrated instruments is needed to allow the lethality test engineer to fully exploit these expensive tests. This program designs instrumentation suites with broad application to lethality testing. Phase I assesses novel and conventional measures of weapon damage. It matches the measurements with damage modes, and assesses the information content of the signal. Promising approaches are matched with classes of weapon/target pairs. These are the basis for concepts recommended for further exploration and development. Phase II prototypes the lethality instrumentation systems. Sensor suites are assembled, and preliminary integrating software is implemented. These systems are refined and validated in live fire tests performed by the Government. Lethality test support systems to be developed under Phase III are selected for their demonstrated utility. The proposed program will identify accessible battle damage assessment signals as a natural product of well instrumented lethality tests. Judicious fusion of selected signals should improve damage evaluation reliability.

DBC COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
40 Fort Hill Avenue
Gloucester, MA 01930
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 281-0244
Dr. Duncan B. Cox, Jr.
AF 98-278
Title:tightly Coupled GPS-INS Laboratory Test Capability
Abstract:An architecture is proposed for testing tightly-integrated GPS-inertial navigation systems in a laboratory enviroment. The architecture takes advantage of existing test equipment and provides for integration with avionics systems test beds such as the Navigation Test and Evaluation Laboratory (NavTEL) at the Air Force Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility (CIGTF). Certain specific sub-systems, involving simulation, interface, analysis, and presentation are proposed in order to complete the architecture. The proposed Phase-I effort is a feasibility study.

ARCON CORP.
260 Bear Hill Rd
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-3330
Teresa H. O'Donnell
AF 98-279
Title:Adaptive Antenna Array for Radar Cross Section (RCS) Measurement
Abstract:ARCON Corporation proposes a number of cost-effective improvements for measuring low RCS targets on the USAF RATSCAT RCS measurement ranges. These improvements include hardware modifications and intelligent adaptive software to improve measurement accuracy while controlling costs by keeping most of the present reflector systems. Specifically, we address the problem of pylon reflections, illumination of the range by high sidelobes on transmit, time varying clutter returns on receive, and backround drift in the natural range enviroment. The solutions include: (a) deterministic adaptive nulling for the reflectors on transmit with optional coherent sidelobe cancellation on receive; (b) a vertical reflector array for monopulse and adaptive nulling on receive; (c) active, analog cancellation of the pylon reflections; and (d) intelligent adaptation of backround measurements using neural networks and an expert system to optimize backround subtraction during enviroment or system drift.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
PO Drawer 719
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
Dr. Jeffery A. Bettie
AF 98-279
Title:Adpative Antenna Array for Radar Cross Section (RCS) measurements
Abstract:This research involves methods and hardware required to adaptively synthesize an optimized array pattern for performing RCS measurements at the RATSCAT ground-bounce radar range. By adaptively adjusting the array element weighting, shaping the illumination pattern throughout the target quiet zone is possible. This causes more incident field energy to illuminate the target, while less energy illuminates the target supports and other sources of clutter. Theoretical and computer modeling of the ground-bounce range shall be performed, simulating the effects of the array and aiding the optimization procedure.The optimization procedure involes both simulated clutter sources and field probe methods. The feasibility for practical application shall be investigated,with recommendations covering the hardware implementation of the adaptive array system at RATSCAT.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
PO Drawer 719
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 693-4149
Dr. Carl A. Mentzer
AF 98-280
Title:Affordable RCS Reduction for the T-38
Abstract:The Air Force has a requirement for a reduced signature airborne vehicle. Significant savings in time and cost would accrue if a manned aircraft could be used to simulate cruise missile fly-bys during radar system evaluations. This effort will define signature modifications for an AT-38 aircraft so that it will look like a cruise missile in the forward aspect regions. The viability of the program rests on how creatively the vehicle can be modified to the required levels - without significantly impacting flying qualities - without necessitating a major flight qualification program - without inducing major maintenance operations, and - without incurring retrofit costs beyond the funding limits of a Phase II SBIR. In this program MRC will 1) define requirements for a reduced signature AT-38 aircraft, 2) define modifications for major scatterers during preliminary design, 3) perform computer analyses of the vehicle system and major scatterers, 4) complete final designs of all modifications planned for Phase II, 5) perform an impact assessment relative to flight safety and system performance, 6) develop and deliver a final report documenting the results of the work done and recommendations for Phase II.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technology Division
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Freddie Lin
AF 98-281
Title:A Modular Telemetry Data Access Technique
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop unique communication end-equipment to provide cost-efficient switching of wide band telemetry data. Cost and bandwidth efficiency is the primary advantage of our solution. POC's approach will also be capable of real-time intra-/inter-range data transfer, broadcast and point-to-point connections, and high data rate transmission. Additional features of POC's solution include lossless data compression and two-level data control/monitoring. In Phase I, our objectives are to conduct a cost/technical analysis of the proposed approach, and to present a recommended Phase II full-scale system implementation plan.

OPHIR CORP.
10184 West Belleview Ave.
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 933-2200
Dr. Stuart P. Beaton
AF 98-282
Title:Range Atmospheric visibility Monitoring (RAVM)
Abstract:To fully characterize the "visibility" along a slant range, the atmosphere must be To fully characterize the "visibility" along a slant range, the atmosphere must be characterized for extinction factors leading to reduced contrast, as well as turbulence effects which reduce the image resolution of targets. The proposed system is a Rayleigh/Mie lidar (laser radar) system which measures molecular and aerosol backscattering to map out the range-resolved atmospheric extinction coefficient. The visual range and maximum image resolution are then calculated from these results. The system employes a narrow line width, frequency agile Cr:LiSAF/Raman-shifted laser transmitter capable of multiwavelength operations at all typical sensor wavelength (for example, visible, 850nm, 1.6um, and the 2-5um range). The detection system will use a novelfiltering scheme for separating the Rayleigh and Mie return signals. Future addons will make the lidar fully scanning to deliver 2-D or 3-D visibility information throughout the entire airspace.

PACIFIC-SIERRA RESEARCH CORP.
2901 28th St Suite 300
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 314-2380
Richard F. Lutomirski
AF 98-282
Title:Range Atmospheric Visibility Monitoring {RAVM)
Abstract:The atmosphere can limit the ability to detect or identify objects using visible-infared imaging sensors; when of sufficient serverity, the atmospheric induced degradations may render expensive test data useless. PSR proposes to design,develop, and demonstrate a compact, affordable, and easy to use set of sensors for monitoring the visibility of distant objects by multispectral imaging sensors;a base set of the RAVM sensor suite, using only single-ended instruments, will provide real-time monitoring of the effects of atmospheric molecules, aerosols, and turbulence along the imager-object line-of-sight on image quality, and remote sensors will provide advanced prediction of the image degradation.The PSR designed RAVM sensor will predict the ranges at which given objects can be detected or identified, as well as the resolution for a given range.

WADDAN SYSTEMS
8801 Encino Ave
Northridge, CA 91325
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 257-4172
Dr. Mahendra Singh
AF 98-283
Title:Low Cost Modular GPS/INS
Abstract:In Phase I of this program, the research on a Low Cost Modular GPS/INS will be performed. This effort encompasses development of a general computer simulation that can be used for analyzing various GPS/INS mechanizations. A trade-off analysis of the GPS and INS modules will include different types of hardware available and currently approaching maturity. The objective of the effort is demonstrate the feasibility of a system that will be Plug-and-Play compatible with the existing INS hardware in military aurcraft.

DIGCOM, INC.
44685 Country Club Dr.
El Macero, CA 95618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 753-0738
Kamilo Feher, Ph.D.
AF 98-284
Title:FQPSK-GMSK increased spectral efficiency, high performance - high speed 'dual use' telemetry system optimization
Abstract:Modulation-RF transceiver technology Research & Development for high performance optimized 'dual-use' cost and spectrum efficient military/commercial system deployments is proposed. Phase-1 work will contribute to more than doubling of the data rate transmission capability of RF band-width-constrained operational air-to-ground telemetry systems. Inventions,FQPSK-GMSK Feher patented [1] systems and publications/test results,which have demonstrated that FQPSK is the most spectral and RF power efficient technology, will be used. Simultaneous optimization of parameters,including robust BEP performance, integrated coded-modem/radio and RF power efficient-Non Linearly Amplified (NLA), transceiver spectral saving designs are proposed. Transceiver performance optimization for complex interference, large and fast dynamic RF multi-path propagation changing enviroments of telemetry systems will be undertaken. System architectures,algorithms/coefficients and optimized not-coded and coded modem, fast synchronization and adaptive equalization systems will be developed. A new cost efficient generation of high performance FQPSK bit rate and RF frequency agile systems will be designed. The proposed work will contribute to enhanced performance TIER-1 telemetry developments, required by year 1999. Phase-1 will also include preliminary studies of optimized higher-order modulated NLA sytems, including trellis-coded NLA-QAM, FQAM, F-Mod and CPM-FM. These will further increase spectral efficiencies and could have TIER-2 and TIER-3 applications to the year 2010 and beyond.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Dr
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 860-3456
Terrance J. Hill
AF 98-284
Title:High Performance Modulations for Telemetry (HYPERMOD)
Abstract:New airborne data systems, such as the Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS), can generate instrumentation data at rates up to 50 Mbps - this far exceeds the transmission capacities of current telemetry equipment. In effect, there is more information available than can be relayed to the ground. The "natural" solution to this problem, increasing the transmission bandwidth of the telemetry system, is no solution at all - the spectrum is already fully utilized. It is therefore imperative that more efficient transmission techniques be employed.There are several areas in which new technologies can be applied to increase telemetry system throughput. Data compression, forward error correction, high-order modulations, and dynamic multiple access techniques can make better use of the available spectrum. The proposed program, High performance Modulations for Telemetry (HYPERMOD), focuses on more efficient modulation techniques, and the hardware and software which implement the modulation. The HYPERMOD program meets the challenge of increasing telemetry data throughput by providing a system-level data throughput of at least 2 bps/Hz, accounting for multiple channels operating in a densely packed spectrum -Nova's design will result in detailed waveform specfications; subsequently,the system will be fully simulated to validate the proposed performance improvements.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 729-4494
Dr. Leo Kempel
AF 98-285
Title:Common Terrain Database Research
Abstract:Mission Research Corporation (MRC) and its subcontractor, Terrain Experts Inc. (TERREX) proposes the development of an integrated terrain database combining visual, microwave, and infrared sensor derived information. The goal is to provide the Government with the capability of simulating realistic flight conditions within fixed Government-owned resources such as the Benefield Anechoic Facility (BAF). Hence, with an integrated test facility, the Government has the ability to test electronic warefare and reconnaissance systems without actually flying the aircraft. The MRC/TERREX simulator will utilize radar reflectivity, infrared reflectance and virtual terrain simulations to provide the user with radar. infrared, and visual (out-of-the-cockpit) images as the system under test (SUT) is "flown" through the test scenario. The MRC/TERREX teams offers unique capabilities to provide this integrated simulation package due to MRC's experience in physical modeling, BAF-related system development, and Government program management along with TERREX's extensive experience in terrain visualization and real-time systems.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Dr
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-9741
Frederick C. Mertz
AF 98-285
Title:An Innovative Approach for the Development of Common Terrain Databases
Abstract:The derivation of spatially correlated high-fidelity Infrared (IR) and Radar (SAR) scenes from visual imagery texture maps used in visual simulators requires: 1.) the accurate, timely creation of Wavelength Independent Texture (WIT) map databases and 2.) a simulator capable of using these databases to produce simulated IR/Radar imagery. The primary obstacle to widespread use of IR/Radar with real-time out-the-window simulations is the low level of automation in the development of WIT maps. This Phase I effort will define, prototype and evaluate a system for the rapid production of WIT maps from visible imagery and numerous disparate data layers, including raw and processed NIMA, DTED and DFAD data and digital cartographic data. Neural networks will be trained on imagery to recognize the "signature" of materials given selected spectral and collateral inputs. The use of collateral inputs offers a vast improvment over previous neural networks material classification research which focuses solely on spectral characteristics of the data. The system will also accommodate the use of single-band imagery. In this effort PRA will prototype and evaluate a mapping system which is expected to improve the accuracy of WIT maps and reduce the develop-ment time for WIT maps from weeks to hours.

QUICK REACTION CORP.
2533 N. Carson St
Carson City, NV 89706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 784-6927
Dr. Randy Haupt
AF 98-286
Title:Radio Frequency (RF) Plane Wave Generator
Abstract:QRC submits this proposal in response to SBIR AF98-286 for a Plane Wave generator. The plane wave generator is required to generate a free space RF wave installed in the Benefield Anechoic Facility (BAF) to evaluate the various electromagnetic systems installed on the aircraft systems such as the B1B, F16, and C17. The generator must cover a wide frequency band in order to test the many different radiating systems on aircraft today. In addition, the generator requires polarization agility, so the polarization of the system on the aircraft and the generator match. The generator input power must be at least 100W and should be capable of detecting any desired signal. This generator must be mobile enough to place at various locations within the chamber or even removed when not in use. Beam steering allows the generator to cover a wider range of the chamber without the generator. The generator must have a low RCS, so scattering does not interfere with any test. A coporate feed is proposed. Amplitude and phase control of the signals allows the array to place the desired plane wave at various angles and distances within the chamber. Design variables of the array include the number of elements, phase and amplitude weighting at the elements, and location of the elements. This design does not preclude aperiodic array designs. We propose designing a planar phased array that can steer and focus the plane wave via phase and amplitude weighting of the signals at the elements. Our appoach uses a genetic algorithm to optimize the antenna design. Genetic algorithms are computer algorithms that optimize complex problems by modeling natural selection and genetics. These algorithms are superior to conventional methods because they can optimize a large number of parameters over a very complex output. One important characteristic of the plane wave is the depth of field or quiet zone. Although not listed as one of the technical requirements, the depth of field may prove to be an important design parameter and can be calculated easily using the proposed computer model. The depth of field is a parameter that can be modified by appropriate phase and amplitude tapers on the array.

VOSS SCIENTIFIC
418 WASHINGTON ST SE
ALBUQUERQUE, NM 87108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-4201
DR. CLIFTON C. COURTNEY
AF 98-286
Title:GENETIC ALGORITHM-CONFIGURED PLANEWAVE GENERATOR
Abstract:The need exists to generate high-quality electromagnetic planewave enviroments over large assets or extended volumes for testing avionics suites installed on full-size aircraft. Previously, these conditions were realized only be using farfield ranges or large compact range configurations. We propose to investigate a unique solution to the problem. Instead of trying to generate a planewave enviroment over the entire volume, we propose to design a system that creates an incident field that is planewave in nature only over local points on the SUT. The test engineer indentifies the locations on an asset where the apertures of interest are located, and the planewave generator produces a field distribution where the incident field only over these locations have planewave amplitude, phase, and polarization relationships- -the field is free to assume any value in other areas of the test volume and on the asset where no specific value is demanded (say at a midpoint between two apertures). By relaxing the requirement on the EM field in the entire test volume, we have greatly reduced the overall complexity and defined a tractable problem that has a potential engineering solution. The system will be comprised of a set (three or four) of transmitting stations, each an array of broadband elements with individual excitation vector (amplitude and phase) control. The exact aperture locations on the asset and the direction and polarization of the desired planewave are input to a genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm researches within the near infinite family of excitation vectors for one that produces a radiated field that meets the prescribed criteria, i.e. produces a field distribution with "local" planewave behavior over the asset's apertures. This excitation then drives the array elements to create the desired EM enviroment.

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
4039 Blackburn Ln
Burtonsville, MD 20866
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 989-1896
Dr. Coorg R. Prasad
AF 98-287
Title:A Mobile DIAL Lidar for Continuous Meaurement of the Concentration and Transport of Tropospheric Ozone
Abstract:Hig concentration of ground-level ozone is undesirable because it initiates photochemical smog formation, and is also detrimental to human health. Continuous monitoring of ozone is essential to measure its variability, its transport across regional boundaries, and the dynamic sources and sinks that control its production. We propose to develop a novel compact differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to continuously measure ozone concentration profiles with sufficient sensitivity (10ppb) and accuracy (10%), for 10km range with 500m resolution, for averaging under one hour. A high repetition rate (1kHz), tunable (280-295nm), 0.5mJ/pulse Ce:LiSAF laser, which is pumped by the fourth harmonic (266nm) diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser, will provide both on-and off-line pulses. The optimum on-and off-line laser wavelengths are chosen between 286 and 292nm. Atmospheric back scattered signals is collected by a 35cm aperture telescope that can be scanned to allow horizontal, vertical or slant path measurements. This ruggedized lidar will be housed in a small van for mobility, and provided with autonomous operation capability. In Phase I a comprehensivedesign of the ozone lidar will be performed together with a feasibility demonstration using a bread-board lidar. In Phase II, the prototype mobile ozone lidar will be built and used for ozone transport measurements.

AEROCHEM CORP.
7821 NW 51 Drive
Gainesville, FL 32653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 392-6740
James P. Hubner
AF 98-288
Title:Development of Advanced Capability Pressure Sensitive Paints
Abstract:AeroChem Corporation proposes to develop a new multi-luminophor pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) suitable for full-field surface measure-ments over pressure and temperature ranges of 200 to 2000 psf and 20 to 150 F, respectively. These paints will allow simultaneous measure-ment of pressure and temperature, eliminate requirements for wind-off references to compensate for nonuniform illumination, and providethe chemical and mechanical properties demanded for a variety of aerodynamic testing. Additionally, AeroChem will develop the hardware and software needed to properly decouple the emission characteristics of the various luminophors and to incorporate these new coatings into existing PSP measurement systems. The resulting product will be compatible with conventional emission integration and lifetime measurement systems and will meet the mandated measurement accuracy of1% for Phase I and 0.2% for Phase II. The new coating and system advancements will eliminate or minimize many difficulties associated with image registration and mapping. Two candiate dual-luminophor (pressure-temperature) coatings have already been developed by AeroChem- -both showing good emission band separation and measurement characteristics for atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressure measurements with temperatures ranging between 80 and 150 F (a temperature range surpassing the variation specified in the Phase I RFP).

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Research & Development Div.
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
Edgar Mendoza, Ph.D.
AF 98-288
Title:Temperature Compensated Sol-Gel Derived Pressure Sensitive Coating
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new pressure sensitive luminescent pain, based on fluorescence sol-gel (FluoroSol coatings, for surface aerodynamic flow field mapping in windtunnel tests. This proposal addresses the problem of accurately mapping aerodynamic flow fields on aerodynamic surfaces, with high resolution, fast response time, low photodegradation, large stokes shifts, and temperature compensation. Specifically in the Phase I program, POC will investigate the oxygen quenching properties of a variety of target fluorescence indicators in a unique sol-gel matrix with the goal of obtaining one or more candidates that will exhibit the desired engineering specifications for pressure sensitive paints. POC will also investigate a variety of temperature sensitive colorimetric indicators that can be combined in the same matrix with the pressure indicators to produce a temperture compensated flow field measurement. At the end of the Phase I pro-gram, POC will demonstrate a FluoroSol coating, applied on a metal surface, that will exhibit a pressure sensitivity in the range of 200 to 2000 psf with a 1% accuracy in the presence of 20F temperature variations.

AMAIN ELECTRONICS COMPANY, INC.
1875 Angus Ave., Unit C
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 577-0583
William Mandl
AF 98-289
Title:Extremely Linear High Contrast Digital Visible Light Camera
Abstract:Amain has developed and proposes a new electronic camera technology that digitally captures and converts at the pixel level. The approach, MOSAD,Multiplexed OverSample Analog to digital conversion is based on well proven oversample analog to digital conversion, A/D, processes. Oversample A/D at the pixel is accomplished using charge transfers, eliminating the need for precision or trimmed components to achieve high accuracy. Readout noise is filtered out to such an extent that transistor buffering at the pixel is not required as with active pixel sensors, APS. A randomly accessed monolithic silicon visible light digital sensor array can be built with pixel sizes smaller than 16 microns using low cost 1.2 micron charge well technology. A fill factor of better than 60% is also achieved without microlenses. MOSAD provides a sensing and conversion process that is inherently linear, well beyond the 0.01% that has been reported with other approaches. One of the benefits of this new approach is that the entire process of detection and conversion is contained in a simple monolithic chip. The effort involved will be to design and develop the sensor.

PHOTOBIT CORP.
135 N. Los Robles Ave.
Pasadena, CA 91101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 683-2200
Dr. Eric R. Fossum
AF 98-289
Title:CMOS APS Scientific Imaging Camera
Abstract:The problem to be addressed in this work is the development of a high resolution CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) digital camera for scientific imaging. The camera has to be high resolution both in terms of the number of pixels and the bit resolution of its analog-to-digital converter. The CMOS APS is a recently developed high performance CMOS image sensor technology compatible with the on-chip integration of CMOS circuits for signal processing and analog-to-digital conversion. This gives the CMOS APS unprecedented potential to combine high performance imaging with advanced signal processing circuits such as high resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADC). The availability of on-chip ADC with resolutions up to 16 bits will provide tremendous advantages to camera system designers by eliminating costly and difficult external 16 bit ADC circuits. This simplifies system design, reduces board space requirements and lower overall system power consumption. In Phase I, a monochrome digital APS camera will be developed. This camera will be based around a digital APS imager with 512x512-pixel resolution and on-chip 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. This camera will be capable of operating at 10Hz or better for the full array. In Phase III, marketable prototype camera will be developed with 1024x1024 resolution, 16-bit digital resolution, and 10 Hz or better frame rate.

APOLLO ENTERPRISE
18019 Sky Park Circle, St. F
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 756-3111
Gregory Gheen
AF 98-290
Title:A Highly Accurate, Non-intrusive Measuring Device for Model Attitude and Deformation Detection
Abstract:We propose to build a highly accurate data collection instrument that can be used to measure model attitude and model deformation (MAMD). The measurement system will be easily configured to accommodate a wide range wind tunnel sizes and model sizes. Current techniques for MAMD measurements have many limitations. The proposed approach is novel and unique, and has the ability to meet or exceed all of the AEDC's resolution and speed requirements. The system will have the capability of providing a measurement rate of greater than 200 Hz, and measuring the model roll pitch and yaw to a resolution of better than 0.01 degrees at a distance of 8 feet. Both the dynamic and steady surface deflections can be measured at a resolution up to 0.001 inches. The proposed system is both reliable and versatile, and can be constructed with proven, off-the-shelf technology leading to low cost. The proposed MAMD measurement system will be extremely valuable for flight test evaluation. It can be used to assess model loading and model vibration. It will also be a valuable tool in correlating the results from wind tunnel tests with the results from computational fluid dynamic models (CFD).

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
P.O. Box 162487
Austin, TX 78716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 306-1100
Byron G. Zollars, Ph.D.
AF 98-290
Title:Nonintrusive Measurement of Model Attitude and Deformation Under Aerodynamic Loads
Abstract:SPEC proposes to provide a non-scanning, non-contract instrument which will provide highly accurate absolute range measurements to a number of points on a wind tunnel model. These points will be defined by small reflective patches painted on the model surface. The instrument will direct a laser beam onto each of these points with the beam diameter adjusted to cover any expected variations in location of the reflective spot. The instrument will simultaneously measure the range of each of the strategically placed points and thereby determine the instantaneous pitch, roll, yaw and deformation of the model under test. The instrument set will be controlled from a central PC and, coupled with appropriate processing software, will provide a sensitive and versatile system for the determination of instantaneous model attitude and deformation. The time series of the data(.100Hz) will further provide a measure of model vibrations which can be correlated with wind tunnel parameters fed to the control PC.

SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY, INC.
15 Ward Street
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 547-1122
Peter Rostler
AF 98-291
Title:New Rapid Multipoint Optical Flow Monitor
Abstract:This SBIR program will develop a novel optical diagnostic for mapping as flows in a spatially localized, nonperturbing way. The new technique has high-frequency response and fine-scale resolution, and can be absolutely calibrated. The flow is illuminated with two or more laser beams that intersect within the flow. Medium refractive variations produce beam phase variations, which are converted to intensity variations, and a selected scale size component of these fluctuations is then measured by differencing two nearly equal light intensities. Proof-of-principle experiments have already validated the concept. In the proposed Phase I program, this new diagnostic will be optimized, characterized, and then extended to the monitoring of a flow at many points simultaneously. Data obtained during Phase I will allow fabrication and delivery of an instrument to an Air Force facility during Phase II.

MATERIALS & SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
1473 South Pioneer Road
Salt Lake City, UT 84104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 973-1199
Dr. Jan-FongJue
AF 98-292
Title:Highly Permeable and Selective Membranes for High-Flux Atomic Oxygen Generator
Abstract:This proposed project addresses the feasibility of using dual mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) and Ag membrane for high flux atomic oxygen generator. The high chemical reactivity of atomic oxygen flux has caused substantial degradation of materials on the Space Shuttle. An atomic oxygen generator which can be used in ground-based laboratories is desperately needed. Current techniques for forming atomic oxygen such as thermal dissociation, high-temperature electrical discharge, ion beams,laser breakdown, etc. have some combination of the following problems:low flux density, cost, numerous excited states of oxygen and other gases. In this proposed work, the combination of highly-oxygen permeable MIEC and thin Ag film is expected to generate very high flux of atomic oxygen. The atomic oxygen flux generated is believed to be at least four order of magnitude greater than that using Ag membrane. The use of highly oxygen-permeable MIEC also provides the possibility of directly using air as the source of oxygen. This dual membrane also gives the opportunity of using higher oxygen or air pressure on the upstream side to further enhance the flux of atomic oxygen. The simple concept and design of this proposed atomic oxygen generator will permit the design and construction of cost-effective, compact-sized, and high-flux atomic oxygen generator in Phase II.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 553-0688
Stefan R. Martin, Ph.D.
AF 98-293
Title:Hybrid Optical/Micro-Mechanical Shear Stress Sensors
Abstract:We propose to develop a new type of microfabricated sensor capable of measuring time-resolved shear stress inside turbulent boundary layers. Unlike existing micro-mechanical designs, the proposed sensor uses optical rather than electrical addressing. Optical addressing results in four important improvements: 1) More robust and rugged micro-mechanical sensors can be constructed by taking advantage of the high sensitivity of optical interferometry for the detection of small displacements, 2)optical addressing allows mutiple sensors to be placed on a single device, mitigating the effects of single sensor failure, 3) for research purposes,multiple sensors can easily be deployed over a test surface and suquentially addressed from outside the model, eliminating the need for electrical access behind the model, and 4) real-time full field analysis of shear stress will become possible by simultaneously addressing multiple sensors. The microfabricated sensor will be suitable for economical mass production and can be incorporated into both research and flight situations.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 553-0688
James D. Trolinger, Ph.D.
AF 98-294
Title:A Generalized Approach to Selecting, Designing, and Constructing Conformal, Optical Windows for Wind Tunnels
Abstract:Conventional wind tunnels are designed to provide test conditions for models while incorporating required diagnostics. As optical diagnostics become more sophisticated, the requirements on optical access become more demanding. Flat windows and their mountings on curved cell walls can adversely affect the flows in these tunnels, not only affecting the test conditions themselves but also complicating optical diagnostics. Problems include aberrations, losses, multiple reflections, window contamination, effects on the flow and boundary layer, and many others. Solutions to these problems vary widely. Conformal opticals can reduce effects on the flow, but curved optics introduce new problems such as high cost and aberrations. This proposal offers a generalized approach to the selection and production of conformal optical elements. The approach will be applicable to a wide variety of requirements imposed by different diagnostic techniques. An optics code will be selected and adapted for this application to provide specifications for the window optical characteristics which can be assessed imediately. A library of aberration correction procedures, materials, and mounting and mechancial options will be provided. Including refractive and diffractive optics. Specific cases of duct/test cell walls include both cylindrical and compound curvature.

FERMIONICS CORP.
4555 Runway Street
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0155
Dr. Muren Chu
AF 98-295
Title:Advanced Short, Mid and Long Wavelength Infrared Detector Material
Abstract:The goal of this three phase program is to develop a technology to produce Shortwave Infrared (SWIR), Midwave Infrared (MWIR), and Longwave Infrared (LWIR) Mecury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) materials and arrays for strategic applications. The major Phase I objective is to demonstrate a high yield technology for producing device quality HgCdTe Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) layers. In order to achieve this objective, our appoach is to minimize the defects in both ZnCdTe substrates and HgCdTe layers. Linear and area SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR arrays will be fabricated to validate this technology. During Phase I of this program, we will complete the study of the effect of ZnCdTe substrate quality on the properties of LWIR layers and diodes, and will continue the process of minimizing defects in HgCdTe epilayers. Three inch ZnCdTe crystals will be grown, HgCdTe epilayers will be produced, and HGCdTe detector arrays will be fabricated. P-on-n, 128x128 LWIR arrays and n-on-p linear arrays will be manufactured to validate our state-of-the-art technology. The 128x128 arrays will be hybridized to readout multiplexers and be extensively tested. In Phase II, we will further refine the above processes and will establish a pilot production line to produce ZnCdTe/CdTe crystals, HgCdTe LPE layers, and HgCdTe SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR arrays. During Phase III, the new advanced products will be commercialized.

ELECTROMAGNETIC TECHNIQUES, INC.

Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 495-0359
John Norgard
AF 98-296
Title:Microwave Holography Using Infrared Thermograms of Electromagnetic Fields For Testing Phased Array Radar Antennas
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a field-deployable infrared (IR) thermal-imaging system capable of determining the operational status (magnitude and phase) of each element in a large phased array radar antenna.A definitive indication of the radiation status of an array element of the antenna can be determined by placing a thin, low-loss, IR detector screen near or on the radiating element. If the element is radiating, the Joule heating of the lossy material in the screen can be detected using an IR scanning camera. The measured temperature of the screen can be correlated to the magnitude of the incident near-field radiation and will give an immediate indication of the radiation condition of the phase shifters. The phase of the incident near-field radiation can be measured using microwave holographic techniques to give an accurate indication of the actual phase of the phase shifter.The near-field magnitude and phase of the radiation can be transformed to the far field using standard Fourier Transformation techniques. In the far field, the gain of the array can be determined . If the far-field radiation pattern is then back-transformed to the aperture plane, the actual phase of each individual array element can also be determined.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
PO Drawer 719
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
Dr. Al Torres
AF 98-296
Title:Phased Array Radar Diagnostics and Imagine
Abstract:A unique and novel concept to quickly determine defects on phased array radar antenna systems is proposed. The concept is based on the hybridization of IR imaging techniques and the utilization of a miniature optical probe. The concept is independent of frequency, can handle full power and will provide the government with laboratory type measurement accuracies. The measurement concept is highly portable, lightweight (< 40 lbs) and easy to operate. It will meet all government enviromental and safety requirements.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 W Olympic Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Dr. Randy F. van Daalen W
AF 98-297
Title:Multi-Color Filter Development for Hardward-In-The-Loop Facility
Abstract:The Integrated Infrared Complex at the Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Hardware-In-The-Loop (HITL) facility in Fort Worth, Texas, simulates high fidelity IR signatures for realistic testing and evaluation of IR sensors and countermeasures; a current growth requirement is the capability to appropriately simulate the IR Band IV to IR Band I Color (radiance) ratio. The team of Technology Service Corporation (TSC) and Oriel Instruments (Oriel) proposes to develop and demonstrate a multi-color filter system that will meet this requirement. Candidate solutions such as anti-reflection and high-reflectance films, an innovative dual-polarizer filter approach, and others will be developed and evaluated. Tradeoff studies will address the filter performance, operating enviroment , cost, placement, and installation. Following selection of the best solution (to be coordinated with the Air Force), a multi-color filter demonstration system will be developed and demonstrated at AFEWES to show feasibility of the technical approach for developing the full multi-color filter system capability under a Phase II effort. Under Phase I, TSC will develop the filter system technical approach and design; the optical design and fabrication resources of Oriel will be used in support of TSC's design effort and to fabricate and test the demonstration system.

SIMWRIGHT, INC.
135 East John Sims Parkway
Niceville, FL 32578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 678-8040
Kerry Christopher
AF 98-298
Title:Rapid Database Generation and Reconfigurable Simulation Framework
Abstract:This research will define and demonstrate the appropriate technologies for AFDTC to establish a real time visual simulation capability. Careful review of existing government and commercial resources will serve as a basis for establishing a research and development path. This research will result in a capability that maximizes the use of visual simulation for test center support. This will be comprised of two main components.The first component is a method to rapidly transform stereo imagery into a digital terrain and cultural feature data base. The derived data base will be suitable for operations such as precision targeting, test even synchronization, virtual bomb drop debris fields and density level spheres. The data base generation process will be rapid, world wide, highly accurate and maximize operational utility. The second component establishes an optimal method for real time display. This display capability will be oriented towards test support functions including situational awareness, test control, engineering analysis and range safety. The display capability will be a reconfigurable, real time, open architcture that seamlessly accommodates visual,infrared and radar sensor scenes displayed on NT and Unix systems.