---------- BMDO ----------

187 Phase I Selections from the 98.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ADELPHI TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2181 Park Blvd.
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 328-7337
Melvin A. Piestrup
BMDO 98-001
Title:Refractive X-ray Lenses for Directed-Energy Applications
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop refractive x-ray lenses for medical, industrial, scientific, and directed-energy applications. Previously, ordinary optical refractive lenses were assumed to not work at x-ray wavelengths because refractive effects were very small. Reflective and grazing angle techniques are usually limited to the soft x-ray region of the spectrum. Recently, multiple small cylindrical holes acting as quasi-lenses have been shown by Adelphi and a another group to focus moderate x-ray energies (8-14 keV). These quasi-lenses have reduced apertures because of the cylindrical shape and x-ray absorption at their thickest parts. We propose to develop a compound refractive lens (CRL) with larger effective apertures capable of operating at harder x-ray wavelengths where medical, industrial and directed energy applications abound. To improve the CRL's gain and achieve shorter focal length CRLs and two-dimensional focusing, we will investigate optimum materials and hole parameters for the lens array and achieve an ideal lens' surface curvature. These refractive optics will have the advantages of small size, in-line operation, better cooling efficiency and fewer perturbations due to surface roughness than conventional grazing-angle x-ray optics.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L. C.
12978 NW 90th St.
Whitewater, KS 67154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(316) 799-2763
Dr. Jon R. Mayes
BMDO 98-001
Title:Electro-magnetic Flak for Cruise and Sea Skimming Missile Defense
Abstract:The electromagnetic directed energy method (lasers, particle beams, and high power microwaves) of defending against missiles relies on generating a large amount of energy at the defense site, locating the target, and then transporting a large fraction of that energy to the target along a line of sight at the speed of light, to either destroy or destabilize the threat at as long range as possible. Cruise and sea skimming missiles are the most difficult target to intercept at long range with line of sight weapons, such as lasers, beam weapons, and high power microwaves because of the near earth operation. Practical concerns require a hard kill, that is obvious destruction or destabilization of the target, rather than a soft target kill in which the guidance electronics or memory may be impaired, but invisible to the defense system. This proposal addresses these problems by establishing a long range defensive perimeter through delivery of a defensive package to a point near the path of the target missile where the defensive package then generates a repetitive, high power, ultra-wideband, electromagnetic impulse or EM-UWB. The EM generation package can be delivered to the target via inexpensive missile, projectile, or via a UAV. This approach can be termed electro-magnetic flak or EM-Flak and greatly reduces the difficulties in targeting, and in covering a large defensive perimeter and can serve as the first line of defense. These PROPRIETARY, compact Marx circuits can also be installed permanently to form a long range EM-Flak fence around military installations. Therefore, this proposal defines a PROPRIETARY, innovative, compact, relatively inexpensive embodiment of a Marx circuit that has the power to deliver several hundred megawatts of impulse power at tens of kilohertz pulse rate. The same Marx unit can be used as a defensive weapon on fighter aircraft, a jammer on UAV or as the pollution treatment source of corona in modern automobiles.

ASTROTERRA CORPORATION
11526 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite A
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 792-8501
Eric Korevaar
BMDO 98-001
Title:Diode-Pumped Atomic Vapor Laser
Abstract:The diode-pumped atomic vapor laser is a novel type of laser which takes advantage of the efficiencies of semiconductor lasers to provide a compact, efficient laser source capable of high power at blue and ultraviolet wavelengths, as well as red and infrared. In this laser, two semiconductor lasers at different wavelengths are used to excite atoms in a vapor cell to a high energy state. Photons are emitted when the atoms return to a lower state. Placing the cell in an optical resonant cavity produces a laser. The primary objective of this research is to demonstrate the principle of a diode-pumped atomic vapor laser by building a 761 nm laser using a cesium vapor cell with 852 nm and 794 nm semiconductor lasers for pumping. Measurements will be made of peak power, efficiency, and beam quality. After initial measurements are made, further tuning and measurements will be done to optimize the results. Once this is successful, preliminary work will begin on modifying the setup to produce a blue, UV, or mid-infrared laser.

ENERGY SCIENCE LABORATORIES, INC.
6888 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 552-2034
Timothy R. Knowles
BMDO 98-001
Title:Lightweight Beam Dump
Abstract:Beam dumps are necessary for absorbing excess power clipped from the beam for shaping it or for protecting structural components. Beam dumps used for megawatt-class lasers are large and can weigh tons. Current government programs aim to demonstrate high power laser operation in airborne and space-based platforms, where weight reduction of all components, including beam dumps, is critical. This project develops lightweight and compact beam dumps that are suited for flight as well as for terrestrial applications where dumps are rapidly moved into the beam. The design concept uses an innovative absorber coating that reduces the need for bulky cavities. High enthalpy materials are used for passive thermal control to eliminate the need for active cooling. Faster thermal recovery is anticipated. Phase l will fabricate and test materials coupons to investigate concept feasibility, materials will be offered for high power testing at outside laboratories, and a subscale demonstration component will be fabricated. Phase 2 would further develop the concept and fabricate prototype beam dump hardware for qualification and use in technology demonstrator programs.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Everett G. Farr
BMDO 98-001
Title:High-Voltage, High Rep-Rate UWB Source with Ferroelectric Trigger
Abstract:We propose here a ferroelectric trigger for a UWB source with high voltages and operated at high rep rate. This trigger will be simpler and more reliable than existing designs, and will be implemented at lower cost. In addition, this trigger will allow operation at much higher rep rates than existing designs. Finally, the proposed switch will have a lower jitter than competing designs. During Phase I we will carry out an experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of the trigger design. These experiments will be carried out at lower voltages and gas pressures than the final design, but they will be sufficient to demonstrate the principle. We will also design a suitable antenna to radiate the field, and we will estimate the field radiated from the combination source and antenna. The final product with be an integrated source and antenna with characteristics superior to those currently available.

HY-TECH RESEARCH CORPORATION
104 Centre Court
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 639-4019
Edward J. Yadlowsky, PhD
BMDO 98-001
Title:Development of a Soft X-ray Laser At 45 A Using A Z-Pinch Discharge To Photopump A1 XII With Si XIII
Abstract:The broad applicability of soft x-ray lasers to metallurgy, dense plasma diagnostics, nano/micro lithography, study of biological cells, and directed energy weapons has prompted a widespread search for lasing media. Gain has been demonstrated in plasma Droduced by large high Dower optical laser systems and pulse power Z pinch systems or in smaller capillary discharges which have a limited energy output. The resonant photo excitation of helium like A1 ions by helium like Si ions is proposed to generate soft x-rays at 45 A. A novel technique will be used to generate the required two component plasma using a pulse power discharge. A coaxial geometry will be used to efficiently pump the A1 lasant surrounding the Si pump. This geometry is expected to reduce requirements on the pulse power system making low cost soft x-ray lasers possible.

IONIC SYSTEMS INC.
1400 N. Shoreline Blvd. Bldg. A-4
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 961-4800
Ronald M. Kubacki
BMDO 98-001
Title:Plasma Deposited Photo-Oxidated Organosilicon Polymer to Produce Etch-Free, On-Chip, Low Loss, High Density, Optical Waveguides
Abstract:Research indicates that optical losses with current waveguides are several times worse than fiber optical cables. Development of an on chip waveguide is hampered by evidence that etch generated sidewall damage causes interface scattering and is a major factor in reduced signal propogation. On-chip waveguides must integrate with a variety of device types and process conditions. For example, gallium arsenide based opto-electronic devices are sensitive to heat and plasma or dry etching. When process and device issues, such as building coupling structures, are viewed together, it is evident that the major hurtles to optical interconnect are practical process/material integration issues. Ionic Systems has over five years experience with room temperature plasma deposited low cost, organosilicon photo-oxidated compounds. We propose to take advantage of the index of refraction changes in the exposed and unexposed material to fabricate on-chip waveguides with no subsequent etching. This method of on-chip optical fabrication provides potential elimination of multiple deposition and patterning steps, and the waveguide thus generated will have excellent optical boundaries eliminating or drastically reducing losses during optical propagation. The terms high performance, low loss, and etch free are inseparable for this process. The variable index of refraction makes a new class of optical devices possible for integration of optical components such as prisms or gratings in the beam waveguide itself.

KESTREL CORPORATION
6624 Gulton Court NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
Dr. L. John Otten III
BMDO 98-001
Title:Atmospheric Turbulence Measurement System
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR a totally new, non intrusive optical method for making fundamental atmospheric turbulence measurements will be investigated. A correlation between the movement of a pair of thin beams is used to define the inner and outer scale size independent of any assumed turbulence model and to calculate the index of refraction coefficient. During the effort, extensions will be made to the underlying theory to adapt it to upper atmosphere ambient conditions and to determine the effect of a moving measurement platform. Once completed the models will be exercised to define the usable operating envelope. A set of laboratory experiments will then be accomplished that demonstrate the application of the technique to a moving platform and to demonstrate its use as a three dimensional measurement tool. From these results two conceptual designs for a dual thin beam atmospheric turbulence measurement system will be completed; one will operate from a balloon platform, the other from an aircraft.

LICOM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
200 Innovation Blvd. Suite 236
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 234-4012
Edward J. Novitsky
BMDO 98-001
Title:Polarization Rotator Based on Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystals Utilizing Electroclinic Effect
Abstract:The use of fast switching liquid crystals will be used to make an electrically controlled polarization rotator capable of rotating input polarized light by as much as 90 degrees. The principle of operation is based on an electrically controlled liquid crystal element that behaves essentially as a rotatable half wave plate. The focus of the work will be on characterizing the effectiveness of the electroclinic effect in chiral smectic liquid crystals with respect to its switching speed and polarization capabilities. The targeted goal would be to make a reliable liquid crystal component that can be used as a stand alone device or as a building block for more complex optical systems.

REYTECH, INC.
63140 Britta Street, C-100
Bend, OR 97701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 330-2370
Thomas A. Reynolds
BMDO 98-001
Title:A New Family of Optical Materials for High Power Optical Frequency Conversion
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research project aims to develop a novel and highly versatile family of NLO crystals that may overcome the limitations of conventional technology. These materials are multifunctional and exhibit a number of unique properties that include, high nonlinearities, high damage thresholds, wide transparency range, are non-hygroscopic, and melt congruently. The unique structure type affords broad crystal engineering capabilities for tuning properties such as acceptance angles, birefringence, damage thresholds, and temperature bandwidths. In Phase I, ReyTech, Inc., will demonstrate feasibility by preparing small optical quality crystals and evaluate their optical properties. The most promising of these materials will be optimized in Phase II, in preparation for Phase III commercialization. The need for new optical materials is clearly evident from the substantial amount of time and money being devoted to this research by industry and government agencies. Although many NLO materials have been developed for specific applications, emerging technologies require new optical materials with specific properties. Essential to the growth of the photonics industry is the development of new laser materials and nonlinear optical (NLO) materials.

SPECTRAGEN, INC.
1700 S. Mount Prospect Road #636B
Des Plaines, IL 60018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 699-5850
Richard Jarman
BMDO 98-001
Title:Low-Loss, Transition-Metal Doped Zinc Chalcogenide Crystals for Near- and Mid-Infrared Solid-State Lasers
Abstract:This proposal seeks to grow crystals of Cr:ZnSe and Co:ZnSe which will have low optical loss, using commercially available ZnSe substrates and thermal indiffusion of the dopant ions. Currently, there are no commercial suppliers of these-crystals which are excellent candidates for direct near-IR and mid-IR tunable, compact, diode-pumpable laser sources; of which, there are none currently available. The specific objectives are: 1, establish reaction conditions necessary for growth of low-loss Cr:ZnSe; 2, optimize dopant concentration by spectroscopic analysis, and characterize laser performance; 3, establish reaction conditions necessary for growth of Co:ZnSe; 4, Characterize spectroscopy of Co2+ in this material. Commercially available ZnSe single crystals will be used as starting materials, into which Cr2+ and Co2+ ions will be doped by thermal indiffusion from sources of Cr and Co in sealed vessels. Reaction variables such as temperature and time will be manipulated to determine the optimum conditions. Fluorescence spectra will be used to establish optimum doping levels. Laser operation will be demonstrated in the Cr:ZnSe using an existing pump source and cavity optics which were developed specifically for these materials.

TAMEK HITECH. INC.
1001 Fourth Avenue Plaza, Suite 3200
Seattle, WA 98154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 853-5852
Alexander M. Tolopa
BMDO 98-001
Title:High-Power Metal Ion Beam Source
Abstract:The novel technique for metal (from Me^1+ to W^6+, Ta^6+) High-Power Ion Beam (HPIB) generation at accelerating voltages U=10-120 kV, ion currents I=5-20 kA, and pulse duration t=0.5-10 s with the surface energy input dW=1-100 J/cm^2 will be designed during Phase I. In the reversed voltage mode such source generates an electron beam with currents I<60 kA. The compact (~1 m^3) source will generate HPIB with large spot-area (10-2000 cm^2). Metal HPIB generation, propagation and steering, charge neutralization, interaction with materials will be investigated, and lower HPIB energies required for surface modification will be determined in Phase II. Low voltage sources will be more convenient for industrial application. After HPIB irradiation metal microhardness can be increased in layers up to 150 m thick with the rest target bulk keeping cold. Simultaneously, surface wear, erosion and corrosion resistance are improved also. Especially important that metal HPIB may be applied for treatment of small size and precision tools, e.g. blades, drills, dies, cutters with diameter smaller than 1-3 mm which are difficult to treat by other techniques. Main application of this program is to improve critical surface parts of space and missile structures. This technique may be also used for simulation of the EMP irradiation on the electronic devices, X-ray generation, even it may be placed at the airplanes and spacecraft for different experiments.

VANGUARD RESEARCH, INC.
10400 Eaton Place, Suite 450
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 998-1920
Robert D. Sears
BMDO 98-001
Title:Directed Energy Concepts and Components
Abstract:This proposal addresses the problem of utilizing spatial -hyperspectral imaging capabilities of space-borne sensors to detect and characterize regions of atmospheric turbulence and cirrus cloud clutter which may impact employment and/or performance of space based laser and airborne high energy laser weapons systems. Our concept for worldwide detection, characterization and mapping of atmospheric turbulence and cirrus clouds includes spectral and hyperspectral imagers operated in the W to MWIR spectral range in a virtual triangulation geometry. Spectral and hyperspectral imagery allows altitude sounding of atmospheric clutter from turbulence and cirrus clouds. Triangulation geometry allows precise altitude selection by cross correlation of the backscatter signals. The combination of altitude and Fourier-space background spectral discrimination will provide an altitude resolved measurement of atmospheric clutter from clear air turbulence and from cirrus clouds, both of which may affect performance of the SBL (Space Based Laser) and the Airborne Laser (ABL) systems.

APT AEROSPACE, INC.
3850 Topsail Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80918
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-7537
Ronald W. Humble
BMDO 98-002
Title:Advanced Composite Structures Using a Dicyclopentadiene Based Polymer Resin System
Abstract:BMDO has identified a need for high performance structures and propellant tanks for use in Kinetic Energy Kill (KEK) vehicles. APT Aerospace, Inc. has developed a unique system for polymerizing DiCycloPentaDiene (DCPD) monomer into a robust polymer suitable for many aerospace applications. This polymer has many excellent properties, including: high strength, amenable to fiber reinforcement, high impact strength and toughness, corrosion resistance, surface treatment with halogens, low monomer viscosity, low cost and good availability of the monomer, low outgassing, and is readily machineable. In addition, we propose to develop a new fiber reinforcement approach using Vapor Grown Carbon Fibers (VGCF). These fibers are micron sized, are extremely strong, and have high thermal conductivity. Because they can be easily mixed with polyDCPD, manufacturing can be simplified as compared with conventional fiber reinforced manufacturing. The high thermal conductivity means that composite parts will be very useful for high temperature and ablative structural applications such as for heat shields and rocket nozzles.

KB SCIENCES, INC.
3850 Topsail Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80918
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-7537
Ronald W. Humble
BMDO 98-002
Title:Advanced, Non-Toxic, Bipropellant Rocket Engines Using Hypergolic Miscible Propellants
Abstract:The DOD needs new rocket systems to support Kinetic-Energy-Kill Vehicle development, primarily in the areas of vehicle-divert and vehicle-boost. Conventional rocket approaches use solid propellants or hydrazine based systems. Solid rocket based systems are very inefficient and have extreme technical challenges in the area of hot-gas valving. Developing new hydrazine systems is becoming very difficult and expensive because of environmental/toxicity concerns. As an alternative, rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) and an hypergolic fuel, using conventional non-toxic hypergolic miscible fuels (i.e. alcohols and ketones) with a homogenous catalyst, gives higher performance than solids, equivalent performance with hydrazine bipropellants and avoids the many technical and environmental difficulties of both conventional alternatives. In fact, the combustion temperature of these propellants is substantially lower than hydrazine bipropellants, making development and fabrication simpler. We propose looking at the development of a family of engine systems using these propellants. We have a good approach for doing this development. In particular, we will look at injector, cooling, and manufacturing issues.

MOUNTAIN AIRCRAFT COMPANY
1252 #B Poplar Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 720-1181
James Grote
BMDO 98-002
Title:Hydrogen Peroxide-Alcohol/Catalyst Bipropellant Rocket Engine
Abstract:Mountain Aircraft Company proposes to design, develop and test a 150 Ibf hypergolic rocket engine which uses hydrogen peroxide oxidizer and non-toxic homogeneous miscible (alcohol based) fuel. The purpose of the tests will be to characterize the engine design, the performance and thermal properties of the engine using propellants and catalysts developed by and supplied by personnel from the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (NAWCWD), China Lake. This test program will build on the successful initial tests done using this propellant on small, subscale (15 Ibf) engines at the HMX Corporation test facility in Mojave CA, under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the NAWCWD and HMX Corp., and will serve to characterize and establish the basic design approach for a larger, 1000 - 1500 Ibf engine to be developed in Phase II.

PRAGMATIC RESEARCH
688 N. Hedgecock Sq.
Satellite Beach, FL 32937
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 777-3444
George R. Legters, Ph. D.
BMDO 98-002
Title:Cluster Image Tracker for Spinning Focal-Plane
Abstract:Given current gate array and/or microcontroller technologies, design a hardware processor which converts scanned focal plane target cluster images into a target track-file. The processor should handle target clusters as seen by a 480 Hz field rate focal plane rotating at 30 Hz. This processor should eventually fit onto a custom ASIC chip, if current single chip microcontrollers are not up to the task. A computer simulation will be developed to validate the multiple area-of-interest Kalman filter tracking algorithm. If time permits, hardware will be constructed and tested using simulated rotating target images displayed on a computer monitor.

X-L SPACE SYSTEMS
P.O. Box 607
Grimes, IA 50111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 986-4321
Michael J. Carden
BMDO 98-002
Title:Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide by Ambient Evaporation
Abstract:X-L Space Systems proposes to build a new type of hydrogen peroxide concentrator for shipboard processing of dilute hydrogen peroxide into High Test Peroxide, suitable for use in the Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) system, subsurface propulsion, and Coherent Oxygen-Iodine (COIL) Laser applications. This new process has been proven to work in a proof-of-concept device. The basic design of this evaporative device lends itself to simple operation and maint-enance. The unit automatically draws dilute hydrogen peroxide, processes it, and pumps it to a concentrate tank all without operator intervention or monitoring. This in direct contrast with cur t methods of peroxide concentrating, which require a heavy operator workload.

ASTROTERRA CORPORATION
11526 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite A
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 792-8501
Ron Stieger
BMDO 98-003
Title:Photon Counting Communication Sensor
Abstract:The objective of this research is to investigate the use of photon-counting avalanche photodiodes as a laser communication sensor. This detector technology allows reduction of the received optical power. The system will also incorporate a cesium atomic line filter to eliminate background light and a wavelength locked communication laser matched to the atomic line filter. This configuration will enable use of the extremely high gain of photon-counting avalanche photodiodes by reducing noise generated by background light. Conventional avalanche photodiodes utilize a lower gain and higher signal levels to provide an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio. The proposed detector will also require an innovative signal processing system to recover the received data. The photon-counting APD will output a pulse if a single photon is detected, if multiple photons are detected, or if a dark count event occurs, when no photons were detected. For this reason, the signal pulse will need to be divided into "bins," and the state of the input will be determined by how many bins contained detected photons. By contrast, conventional APDs have an analog output signal, and the decision process is based on the relative level of the output signal. This design is expected to produce an additional 12 dB of sensitivity over conventional avalanche photodiode technologies.

ASTROTERRA CORPORATION
11526 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite A
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 792-8501
Scott Bloom
BMDO 98-003
Title:Picocellular Hybris Optical/RF Communications System
Abstract:The ultimate objective of this research is to develop a low cost, high bandwidth, quickly deployable communications system. The system relies on 10-20 Mbps RF communications within a 100 m diameter cell size. The cells are interconnected with 622, Mbps optical crosslinks. The critical technology in making these cross links feasible with low installation cost is that they be self-aligning. In this Phase I SBIR we will demonstrate that we can design and build a self-aligning, reliable, all weather 100 m optical crosslink at low cost. In order to make the links self-aligning we will use a high peak power, low duty cycle infrared pulsed diode laser for a beacon signal. The detection will be performed with a simple quad cell tracker. Investigations of the optimal scanning algorithms will be performed. In addition, since the beacon laser is pulsed, range information for each base station node can be determined. We will investigate using this information along with encoder angle pointing information to permit very rapid alignment of new base station nodes into an existing mesh of base stations.

BREWER SCIENCE, INC.
2401 Brewer Drive, P.O. Box GG
Rolla, MO 65401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 364-0300
Dr. Douglas Guerrero
BMDO 98-003
Title:Development of Uncooled Microbolometer Arrays for IR Imaging
Abstract:Ion-implanted, thin polymer films exhibit a large temperature coefficient of resistance which suggests their application in microbolometer arrays used for infrared ( IR) imaging and temperature mapping. Compared to current microbolometer designs which require a series of difficult deposition steps, an ion-implanted polymer-based device requires only a single layer which can be applied by spin coating and then, after ion implantation, can be easily patterned by plasma etching. Freestanding microbolometers can be prepared by simple sacrificial layer processes to increase thermal isolation and improve device sensitivity. In Phase I, we will fabricate planar microbolometer arrays using an ion--implanted polymer film as the active device material. The arrays will be characterized against specific physical and electrical design criteria with a goal of optimizing a test structure that can be use in a prototype IR imaging device. Two key electrical parameters, resistivity and TCR, Will be optimized to ultimately provide high sensitivity, response, resolution, and stability. Ion-implanted polymer microbolometers potentially offer greater sensitivity than current designs because of their low thermal mass and superior heat capacity and thermal conductivity properties. These features combined with the simple fabrication requirements open the possibility for producing low cost, uncooled IR focal plane detector arrays for a variety of military and civilian applications.

CLEVELAND CRYSTALS, INC.
19306 Redwood Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 461-1384
Jon R. Leist
BMDO 98-003
Title:CdSe - - A Broadband Nuclear Detector Material
Abstract:CdSe, a wide bandgap semiconductor, combining high resistivity, good carrier trans-port properties, and large average Z number is ideal for use as a room-temperature x-ray and y-ray detector. In the x-ray regime, the large bandgap (-1.7 eV) of GdSe eliminates the need to cool the crystal in order to reduce thermal noise. Si and Ge detectors must be cryogenically cooled, which precludes their use in portable systems. CdSe is a promising alternative to CdTe and HgI2 y-ray detectors. CdSe detectors exhibit no polari-zation under bias in contrast to the high resistivity Cl-doped CdTe; they are also superior to HgI2 in terms of carrier mobilities as well as thermal. chemical, and mechanical stability. However, the presence of electron traps in CdSe due to Cu and Ag impurities is the limiting factor responsible for preventing its use as a room-temperature nuclear radiation detector. During Phase I, improved purity and resistivity CdSe would be grown. The goal would be at least two orders of magnitude improvement in these properties. The resistivity, mobility-lifetime products, and impurity levels of the material would be characterized for use in nuclear radiation detectors. Detectors would be fabricated and evaluated in terms of energy resolution and counting efficiency. Phase II would target continued material improvements along with contacting and fabrication issues unique to CdSe.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Dr.
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Robert C. Stoneman
BMDO 98-003
Title:Multi-Function Eyesafe Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser Source
Abstract:Coherent Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop an eyesafe diode-pumped solid-state laser source with multi-functional capabilities and significantly reduced weight, volume, and prime power requirements compared with existing systems. The low weight, small size, and high efficiency of the system, resulting from a novel design with dramatically reduced cooling requirements compared with existing eyesafe transmitters, make it suitable for airborne and spaceborne applications and other environments for which compactness is required. The laser transmitter, operating in the eyesafe band with excellent atmospheric transmission, delivers Q-switched pulses with an average optical power of 10 W while consuming only 200 W of prime power (i.e. 5 % wallplug efficiency). Multi-functional operation, with hard target range and microdoppler (vibration) measurement capabilities, is made possible by the low intrinsic heat load in the laser medium. The low heat load allows variation of the laser pulse repetition frequency over wide ranges, including operation at 50 mJ pulse energy at a pulse repetition frequency of 200 Hz, and single-shot "pulse-on-demand" operation. In contrast to existing eyesafe laser systems, the reduced cooling requirement in the proposed system eliminates the need for liquid coolants. The modular, fiber-pumped, low heat-load design results in a compact low-weight laser head.

CREARE, INC.
Etna Road, P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Michael G. Izenson
BMDO 98-003
Title:Compact, Reliable Compressor For Closed-Cycle JT Cryocoolers
Abstract:Cryogenically cooled, infrared sensors are a vital component in military targeting and guidance systems. Existing coolers cannot meet the needs of future systems, particularly in applications where high reliability, continuous cooling, and rapid cooldown are essential. We propose an innovative compressor that will enable closed cycle Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers to operate reliably and efficiently while providing fast cooling for IR sensors. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of the compressor by building and testing a prototypical drive system, demonstrating the compression performance, and identifying by test the optimal refrigerant for the JT cycle. In Phase II we will build a complete prototype compressor and demonstrate its operation as part of a cryogenic cooling system.

DATA FUSION CORPORATION
9035 Wadsworth Parkway, Suite 1260
Westminster, CO 80021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 421-7994
Dr. Wolfgang Kober
BMDO 98-003
Title:Sensors (Microwave)
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) and Technology Service Corporation (TSC) propose to develop a novel, cost-effective solution to building radar systems. This system uses multiple cheaper, lower-PRF transmitters to create the equivalent of a more expensive higher-PRF system. In addition to achieving the cost advantages of not requiring the more expensive Gridded Traveling Wave Tubes (GTWTs) to achieve higher-PRFs, the proposed transmitter system will also reap the porcessing ambiguity--related benefits of both lower-PRF and higher-PRF systems simultaneously.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, Suite 500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 571-5191
Dr. Z. Jason Geng
BMDO 98-003
Title:A High-Speed Full Frame Laser 3D Imager
Abstract:High-speed three-dimensional (3D) imaging of objects and targets is a very important functionality of advanced sensor systems in both military and civilian applications. This capability can provide many BMDO systems with a leapfrog performance advance in target detection, identification, classification, tracking, and kill determination. The 3D imaging techniques also have enormous commercial market, ranging from 3D TV, virtual reality, 3D modeling and simulation, Internet, industrial inspection, vehicle navigation, robotics and teleoperation, to medical imaging, dental measurement, appeal and footwear industries. Although many 3D imaging techniques have been developed in the past, most of them can only provide 3D measurement of single point or single line on objects, in one measurement. None of 3D imaging systems currently available on the market can provide "snap-shot" full-frame ID images in real-time at a video rate. These systems therefore can not be used in high-speed 3D imaging applications. This proposed SBIR effort-seeks to provide a leapfrog advance for scanning laser based 3D imaging technology. The approach we proposed, dubbed as the Double Flash 3D (DF3D) Imager, is able to acquire full-frame 3D images of objects in a scene at CCD camera's frame rate (30 fps or faster), a capability that no other 3D imaging sensor can provide presently.

INNOVATIVE RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY
843 Yale Street
Santa Monica, CA 90403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 828-4538
Dr. W. A. Peebles
BMDO 98-003
Title:Sparse Array Radiometric Imaging (SARI) using an Electronic Mirror
Abstract:A high resolution, millimeter-wave radiometric imaging system with the ability to penetrate obscurants (rain, clouds, dust, sand and smoke) is a highly attractive surveillance tool with broad application to satellite, uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) and other military and commercial platforms. Achievement of such a system through application of conventional interferometric or sparse aperture techniques has been shown impractical for many potential applications. This is due to the inherent difficulty of simultaneously satisfying field of view (FOV) and image quality requirements while also maintaining acceptable weight, power and computational limits - this is especially true for satellites and UAV platforms. In response, IR&T has developed an innovative solution to this severe limitation through the use of an "electronic mirror". The Phase I/II Program will demonstrate, for the first time, the new concept of a beam-steerable, sparse array imaging interferometer for application to millimeter-wave radiometric imaging. The electronic mirror allows fewer, higher gain elements thereby reducing the overall antenna weight, power consumption and data analysis complexity. The electronic mirror provides the necessary control to increase the FOV while also providing flexibility to optimize image acquisition and quality in varying weather and tactical situations. The electronic mirror consists of an array of monolithic, solid-state, varactor diodes together with antennas and bias lines. The incident electromagnetic wave is steered through a progressive phase shift introduced across the array through a simple bias voltage. Monolithic fabrication results in the low-cost, high reliability essential for both the proposed military as well as commercial applications.

LIGHTWAVE ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
1161 San Antonio Road
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 526-1281
Lawrence E. Myers
BMDO 98-003
Title:Solid-state UV/Visible Laser Sources Using PPLT
Abstract:Frequency up-conversion of diode-pumped solid-state lasers is an important means of ultraviolet and visible light generation. Efficient conversion of these low-peak-power lasers in the IR and visible range has been significantly improved by the emerging material periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). However, PPLN is not transparent below 350 nm. In this Phase 1 program, we will develop the material periodically poled lithium tantalate (PPLT). This material is similar to PPLN but it has transparency down to <280 nm. This material will combine the high gain, engineerable properties, and substrate quality found in PPLN with operation in the important spectral around 300-350 nm. The long-range goal is to develop sources in the 260-360 nm range with power levels around 100 mW and packaging suitable for inclusion in sensor systems and other commercial instruments. The specific demonstration undertaken in this Phase I effort will involve frequency conversion of diode-pumped solid-state Nd:crystal lasers. The approach is also compatible with direct frequency conversion of diode lasers. These W sources will have the capability to replace existing gas laser technologies with substantial improvements in efficiency, compactness, reliability, and cost resulting in improved performance and utility of biomedical instruments.

M & D TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
9 Renfro Road
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 271-9090
Shaohua Liang
BMDO 98-003
Title:Smart Sensors for Imaging Applications
Abstract:ZnO material is a wide bandgap semiconductor and a piezoelectric material as well. ZnO is compatible with current Si process technology. Large area, high quality ZnO films can be deposited by MOCVD technique on various substrates, such as sapphire and Si at low growth temperature. We propose to develop a new smart sensor technology by integration of multifunctional ZnO sensors with Si IC for imaging applications. In this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project, we propose to grow high quality, epitaxial ZnO films on sapphire substrates using advanced MOCVD technique at low growth temperature. ZnO MSM and Schottky type of photodetectors and photodetector arrays will be fabricated and characterized. P-type doping of ZnO films using N ions will be investigated as well in proposed Phase I program. Our Phase II efforts will be focused on the smart sensors by integration of the ZnO sensor with Si IC. We plan to commercialize the ZnO smart sensors in Phase III. Low power, portable, compact, multifunctional, monolithic ZnO smart sensor arrays (integrated with Si IC) are the optimum goal of the proposed work. The success of the project will enhance US defense capability and broaden sensor commercial market.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2929 Eskridge Road, P-1, Eskridge Center
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
M.S. Krupashankara
BMDO 98-003
Title:Rapid Near Net Shape Processing of Transparent ALON Windows and Domes
Abstract:Infrared transparent domes for missiles require a multi-mode system of electromagnetic guidance. In recent-years efforts have been concentrated on maximizing the resolution of such detector materials and provide sensor guidance systems between the W. visible and the mid IR ranges. With a higher thermal shock resistance than any available optical material, sapphire is the material of choice, but displays optical anisotropy, which leads to significant scatter. Aluminum oxy-nitride based optical materials are its ideal replacement, since it has a cubic symmetry, which results in isotropic properties and displays ~>80% in line transmission in the visible and near infrared regions (0.3um - 5.0um). Unfortunately, AlON suffers from compositional inhomogeneity due to incomplete reactive sintering, and unstable mechanical properties resulting from catastrophic grain growth owing to high sintering times (20-100 hours). In this Phase I effort MMI proposes to synthesize gamnsa-AlON and consolidate near net shapes to full densities in less than 5 minutes. The consolidated part will further be polished to a roughness of

MITCHELL/STIRLING
151 Alvarado Rd.
Berkeley, CA 94705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 845-2528
Matthew P. Mitchell
BMDO 98-003
Title:Dynamic Heat Exchanger for Pulse Tube Cryocooler
Abstract:Pulse tube cryocoolers are the cutting edge of regenerative cryocooler development. A series of recent improvements (the orifice, various bypass arrangements) have brought pulse tube cooler performance into the range of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon coolers. A bi-directional Ranque/Hilsch vortex tube performs the functions of both heat-rejecting heat exchanger and orifice, offering further improvement in pulse tube performance. The bi-directional double Ranque/Hilsch vortex tube uses work that otherwise would be wasted in the pulse tube cooler's orifice to refrigerate the warm end of the pulse tube. The resulting temperature drop translates to an improvement in cooler capacity, efficiency and attainable no-load temperature. This novel device is simple, rugged and inexpensive; it has no moving parts. Preliminary experimental work demonstrates that a bi-directional Ranque/Hilsch vortex tube can be fabricated. Computer modeling shows that reduction of the heat -rejection temperature at the warm end of a pulse tube improves cooler performance, with greater improvement under higher load conditions. The technical challenge is to understand and optimize the relationship between vortex tube component dimensions and fluid flow requirements of a pulse tube cooler so as to achieve maximum performance improvement.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORPORATION
2849 East Elvira Rd
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
Tapesh Yadav, Ph.D.
BMDO 98-003
Title:Band-gap Engineered Visible Radiation Sensors
Abstract:Visible radiation detectors are enabling technology and are the basis for many military and commercial applications either in use or as proposed. Conventional sensors based on properties of Il-VI compounds are unfortunately temperature sensitive, time varying, and slow. This program seeks to overcome these limitations by developing visible radiation sensors from proprietary nanostructured materials. During Phase I, Nanomaterials Research Corporation (NRC) will demonstrate the proof-of--concept. Phase 11 will develop, optimize and field test prototype visible radiation sensors. Phase 111 will commercialize the technology.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION
8-A, Gill St.
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-0300
Dr. Long De Zhu
BMDO 98-003
Title:Integrated Focal Plane Imaging Sensors Sensitive in 200-300 nm UV Band
Abstract:An approach exploring a new novel wide bandgap semiconductor instead of AlGaN for solar blind UV detectors and imaging sensors sensitive in 200-300 nm wavelengths is proposed. The excellent properties of the new material such as bandgap cut-off wavelength of 281 nm, tunability of the bandgap, high resistivity and transparency in visible spectrum hold promise for successful fabrication of UV detectors. Al-free nature of the crystal could alleviates the problems associated with Al0,5GaO,5N. Growth of the novel crystal on Si(l 11) substrate via an intermediate 3C-SiC(l 11) offers advantages in terms of low cost, large area as well as the prospect of monolithic integration of the sensors with Si IC and SiC devices. The exact lattice match of the new material with SiC promises growth of detector quality material. Availability of n- and p-type conducting p-SiC film on silicon permits design of the sensors with vertical configuration. In Phase I, attention will be focused on growth of the new crystal on 3C-SiC(lll)/Si(lll) substrate and estimation of the feasibility of the UV detectors.

OPTICAL E.T.C., INC.
3077-K Leeman Ferry Rd.
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 880-8207
R. Barry Johnson
BMDO 98-003
Title:Affordable, High-Performance Infrared Resistive Array Technology for the Stimualtion of Infrared Targets and Scenes in a Test and Evaluation Environme
Abstract:For over two decades, researchers have investigated a wide variety of technologies for use as a real-time infrared scene generator. The key element necessary to develop a practical and cost effective infrared scene projector for test and evaluation of infrared sensors and seekers is a real-time thermal infrared scene generation device. During the past several years, the most promising technology to meet the myriad of infrared scene projection applications appears to be the silicon micromachined resistive -array approach where each thermal pixel is created by a micro-scale resistor. The principal objectives of this proposed effort by Optical E.T.C., Inc. (OETC) are to (I) investigate alternative technologies that could lead to the fabrication of affordable, rugged, uniform, and efficient high-performance emissive resistive thermal pixel arrays (TPA) and (2) begin exploring the potential for joining together multiple TPAs to produce a larger format TPA. The baseline TPA architecture to be considered will be based upon planar silicon micromachined CMOS technology. This research is relevant to the development of TPA technology for inclusion in a cost-effective high-fidelity, real-time infrared scene projector as an element of infrared sensor/seeker test and evaluation at Government and various commercial facilities.

OPTIVISION, INC.
3450 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94394
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 855-0225
Dr. Richard A. Hill
BMDO 98-003
Title:High Dynamic Range, Wide Bandwith Photodetectors
Abstract:Wide bandwidth, high dynamic range photodetectors are required for a variety of military and commercial applications, including high dynamic range optical links and photonically controlled phased array radar antennas. To meet this need, Optivision proposes to design and develop photodetectors capable of high speed, high power operation. These detectors will be capable of delivering several watts of RF power without the need for external microwave amplifiers and the associated complexities. In addition, the development of a linear, high speed, high power photodetector will greatly increase the achievable dynamic range of photonic analog links. The approach utilized to realize these devices relies on the combination of multiple high speed detectors and a suitable network following the detectors to effectively sum the individual photocurrents or detected power without affecting the high speed performance of the devices. This approach allows the use of conventional high speed detectors and avoids saturation effects by distributing the incident optical power over multiple devices. During the Phase I effort Optivision will: (1) investigate government and commercial applications requirements, (2) theoretically model various device architectures, (3) compare the feasibility of different design approaches, (4) fabricate and test a prototype device, and (5) perform a high level design for a device to be built during the Phase II effort.

PHYSICS INNOVATIONS, INC.
P.O. Box 2171
Inver Grove Heigh, MN 55076
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 455-0565
Cornell S.L. Chun
BMDO 98-003
Title:Microscale waveplates for infrared imaging
Abstract:When light radiates from the surface of a man-made object, the radiation is often polarized. The polarization components contain information about the spatial orientation of the surface elements. The polarization components may also reveal the material and surface roughness of the surface elements. Researchers have recognized the potential usefulness of imaging polarization data for target detection and identification. However, only recently has the imaging of polarization data in real time been practical. Physics Innovations Inc. has developed a thermal imaging sensor which images intensity and linear polarization data. In the proposed project, we will develop novel microscale waveplates and sensors which will image, in real time, circular polarization data. Circular polarization imaging is complementary to linear polarization imaging. When radiation, from the smooth surface of a man-made object, is primarily thermal emission, then linear polarization is significant. When the radiation is primarily reflection off the surface, then circular polarization is expected to be significant. The proposed sensor can be compact and would be suitable for use for target discrimination in ballistic missile defense systems. This sensor also has applications in synthetic vision for aircraft and automobiles, remote sensing, and quality inspection in circuit board manufacturing.

POULOS TECHNICAL SERVICES INC.
7 Waterbury Court
Allentown, NJ 08501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 758-8898
Arthur T. Poulos
BMDO 98-003
Title:Tunable Mid-Infrared Filters Based on Lithographically Fabricated Metal Meshes
Abstract:Development of a high performance electronically tunable optical filter for the mid-infrared "fingerprint" region would be a breakthrough enabling technology for spectral imaging, chemical vapor sensing and numerous other remote sensing applications. Tunable Fabry-Perot (F-P) filters have desirable features of high throughput (much needed in the mid-IR region where detectors are of low sensitivity), high resolution, fast-scanning capability, and applicability to 2-D scene spectral imaging. However, F-P filters are difficult to fabricate for the mid-IR region. Homogeneous metal films cannot be used due to high absorptivity, and multi-layer dielectric films are difficult to fabricate, are limited by available materials, and may not exhibit sufficiently high reflectance for desired high finesse. This project offers a novel approach to the development of tunable F-P filters for the mid-IR spectral range. The properties of the proposed F-P are essentially independent of fabrication material, but are instead dependent on the geometrical pattern and its dimensions. Furthermore, the proposed fabrication technique uses standard lithographic methods, which impart cost efficiency and excellent quality control. In Phase I, test filter elements will be fabricated and transmission properties of a breadboard tunable filter will be measured and compared to theoretical expectations. This technology will enable fabrication of low cost/high performance tunable infrared filters for the addition of spectral selectivity to numerous sensing platforms.

PROCESS INSTRUMENTS, INC.
825 North 300 West, Suite 225
Salt Lake City, UT 84103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 322-1235
Lee M. Smith, Ph. D.
BMDO 98-003
Title:High-Power, Frequency-Stabilized Diode Laser for Raman Spectroscopy
Abstract:We propose to develop intermediate to high power (.1 to 4 W), frequency- stable diode lasers with high modulation capability and long life. Our approach can provide fixed-frequency radiation sources for 1 pace-based ballistic missile defense applications. To demonstrate the technology we will develop a compact, lightweight, relatively inexpensive, proprietary external-cavity-stabilized diode laser array with high power that can be used for Raman spectroscopy. Our approach offers a simple, reliable laser source with no moving parts for reduced maintenance and good stability and, most importantly, that is affordable for many military and industrial applications. Since our external-cavity technology can be used with any existing high power diode array, the technology offers a large wavelength selection. Research with lower power (

RADIANT RESEARCH INC.
9430 Research Blvd., Echelon IV,Suite 305
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 338-4670
Suning Tang, Ph.D.
BMDO 98-003
Title:Ultra Long Compact Polymer-Based Waveguide Circuits for Multi-link Optical True-Time-Delay Lines Using WDM Technique
Abstract:Photonic phased array antenna (PPA) represents one of the most critical technologies for both ballistic missile defense and civilian wireless communications. In this program, Radiant Research, Inc. (RRI) proposes a novel high packaging density true-time-delay (TTD) module for a wideband phased array antenna up to 100 GHz. The proposed photolithographically defined ultra-low-loss polymeric waveguides provide us the only solution for achieving ultra long delay time over tens of nsec with ultra fine resolution of less than 1 ps. Such a monolithic integrated module not only reduces the cost associated with optoelectronic packaging, but also reduces the system payload with an improved reliability. The two-dimensionally distributed polymer waveguide holograms tap the optically-encoded microwave signal with an appropriate delay time equal to the time of flight along the waveguide. Multiple simultaneous communication links can be simply provided by employing multiple directly modulated laser diodes in the same waveguide delay line based on wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) technique. The proposed TTD module is expected to have an significantly improved performance at a reduced cost, weight, payload and power consumption in a compact integrated structure, which is highly desired for airborne and space-borne applications. All these unique features will be demonstrated by the end of Phase I.

RADIANT RESEARCH, INC.
9430 Research Blvd., Echelon IV,Suite 305
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 338-4521
Jeffery J. Maki
BMDO 98-003
Title:Molecular-Chirality Sensor using an Electro-Optic-Polymer-Based Circular-Polarization Modulator
Abstract:The proposed innovation is a miniaturized circular-polarization-state (CPS) modulator for producing a laser beam that alternates in time between left- and right-hand-circular (LHC/RHC) states of polarization, which would replace bulky photoelastic, liquid-crystal, and inorganic-crystal polarization modulators. Innovative is its use of a single-mode polymer waveguide with a controllable amount of birefringence, via the electro-optic effect, to adjust the polarization state of a laser beam. It has a very small mass, low power consumption, and very compact size. Other desirable attributes are its use of no moving parts, no expensive birefringent crystals (e.g., calcite), low voltages (~10 V), and a single high-speed driving-voltage source. Furthermore, it can operate at arbitrary speeds up to 101s of GHz and has an adjustable wavelength of operation (i.e., 700-1600 nm). The innovation will form the central portion of sensors for detecting chirality. A signature of chirality is natural optical activity, where light passing through chiral materials exhibits circular dichroism and optical rotatory dispersion. Related effects can also occur in reflected light, where for instance the magnitude of the reflectivity can be different for LHC and RHC light. Most biological material is chiral. Thus the proposed modulator would aid in target recognition, since a remote sensor based upon it would be able to discern biological materials from typically achiral man-made materials used in camouflage. Key to detecting chirality is a source of both LHC and RHC light of high purity, which the proposed innovation provides.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02172
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-1167
Kanai S. Shah
BMDO 98-003
Title:New Imaging X-Ray Sensor Technology for Real-Time Nondestructive Testing
Abstract:X-ray imaging is an important technique which is used in variety of applications such as general radiology in medicine, astronomical observations, non-destructive testing, X-ray diffraction for materials studies and others. The ability of X-rays to penetrate deep in to matter allows investigation of interior components with possibility of real-time dynamic studies. However, while significant advances have been made in X-ray sources as well as image processing steps, the X-ray detectors remain a limiting step in many of applications Important requirements for the X-ray detectors used in such applications include large area (z 20 cm x 20 cm), high resolution (100-200 1lm), wide dynamic range (104), high sensitivity, and low cost. Ability to provide real-time images is an additional requirement in some applications. To address this, we propose to develop a solid state, large area, high resolution imaging detector by combining the semiconductor film (lead iodide, PbI2) technology being developed at RMD with the large format amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) readout technology which has been developed by our collaborators at OIS in Troy, Michigan. The detectors are expected to be useful in both static as well dynamic (or real-time) X-ray imaging applications and thus will have far reaching utility in advancing X-ray imaging.

RAMAR CORPORATION
71 Lyman Street
Northborough, MA 01532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 393-4225
Amaresh Mahapatra
BMDO 98-003
Title:Sensors - IR(>0.9 microns)
Abstract:We propose the use of poled silics fibers with electrooptic constant of the order of 10 to 20 pm/V for use in distributed optical sensors and communication applications. Recent work has shown that thermal poling of silica optical fibers exhibits second order nonlinearities. This fiber phenomena promises to have far reaching impact on all aspects of fiber communications. such as in-line modulators, second harmonic generation, distributes sensors, tunable fiber gratings and wavelength division multiplexing devices with the advantage of low loss and long interaction length. However, several problems need to be addressed before this phenomena can be harnessed for commercial applications. Therefore, we propose methods for, enhancing the electrooptic constant, stabilization of the built-in dipole moment with time and temperature, demonstration of a novel modulator concept which does not require a reference fiber, and a novel method of reproducibly side polishing a fiber to within a micron of the core which is essential for effective poling.

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
4032 Blackburn Ln.
Burtonsville, MD 20866
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 989-1896
Dr. Coorg R. Prasad
BMDO 98-003
Title:A High Efficiency, Compact, Broadly Tunable, Frequency Agile mid-Infrared Laser Source
Abstract:Frequency agile infrared lasers are required in many defense applications, where compactness and energy efficiency are of overriding importance, for wide deployment in the field. We propose to develop an innovative, simple and compact, pump-tuned, frequency agile infrared laser that is based on a quasi phase-matched periodically poled RTA (PPRTA) optical parametric oscillator pumped by a diode-pumped tunable solid state Yb:YAG laser. High laser efficiency (>608) is obtained by utilizing Yb:YAG, for which the quantum deficit between the pump diode (968nm) and laser output wavelength is the smallest among solid state laser materials. Furthermore it is moderately tunable (1.02-1.07ym). Frequency agility and a broad IR OPO tuning range (1.5-5ym) are obtained by utilizing a PPRTA OPO with poling periods of 35-40pm and rapidly tuning the pump wavelength between 1.02-1.06ym. Both the laser and OPO allow convenient energy scaling, and our goal is to obtain a moderate energy 1-2mJ/pulse in the infrared at lkHz with a wall plug efficiency exceeding 2t. In Phase I a comprehensive design of the frequency agile laser will be performed in addition to feasibility demonstration with a bread-board system. In Phase II, a prototype compact IR laser with operating at lkHz will be built and demonstrated.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION
210 Brook Village Road, Suite 38
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 465-5686
Dr. Prabha Tedrow
BMDO 98-003
Title:Uncooled LWIR Thermal Imaging Using Schottky Diodes
Abstract:Solid State Scientific Corporation (SSSC) has developed the theory of operation for the Thermonic Thermal Detector (TTD) for uncooled infrared sensing of 8 to 14 um radiation based on a schottky diode sensing element. In addition, SSSC has fabricated sample detectors with electrical characteristics that correspond to an NEDT of 6 mK, if integrated with a state of the art microbolometer multiplexer. The predicted NEDT of the TTD is thus 7 times more sensitive than the current state of the art VOx microbolometer. The thermionic thermal detector is a new type of device whose operation is not related to classic photoemissive Schottky diode photon detectors. The TTD operates uncooled with the individual elements thermally isolated (as in a microbolometer), and uses a reverse bias Schottky diode as the sensing element. For a fixed bias voltage and Schottky barrier height, the magnitude of the reverse bias current from the diode is a measure of the diode temperature. Since the reverse bias current is a Schottky diode is exponentially dependent on the temperature of the detector, it has a high temperature coefficient.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Rd.
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Holger Luther
BMDO 98-003
Title:Micro Attitude Star Tracking (MAST) Sensor
Abstract:Conventional attitude sensing consists of a two step approach where a low bandwidth star sensor provides inertial attitude updates to a high bandwidth gyro. This approach has 4 major drawbacks: (expense, mass, power and limited bandwidth). SSG is proposing a revolutionary approach to attitude measurement that capitalizes on our extensive optics and precision mechanism experience. This Micro Attitude Star Tracking (MAST) sensor overcomes the disadvantages of the current attitude measurement approach with the possibility of providing accurate (1's of arc-sec), high bandwidth attitude data (1000's of HzA) with a low mass (1's of kg) low power (10's of W) and Low cost ($100k's) in a small package.

SUNDYE
7 Willow Dr.
Townsend, MA 01469
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 597-5146
Harry Clark
BMDO 98-003
Title:A Paradigm Shift in Infrared Imaging
Abstract:Progress made in infrared imaging systems in recent years has been remarkable. Despite the high cost and limited size, systems based on materials such as silicon germanium or antimonides have produced adequate quantum efficiencies, dark current, full well capacity and frame rates such that military systems as well as commercial products are now available. Unfortunately high cost and limited size are inherent parameters in these devices. This is due to the high cost and limited surface area available of single crystal epitaxial wafers. These carrier substrates are limited to the diameter of the bulk crystal boule from which they are cut. Raw materials and processing costs for these wafers are extremely expensive and cost reduction cannot be viewed as realistic in these systems. We propose an entirely new approach to imaging in the infrared range whose raw materials cost will be an order of magnitude lower than conventional systems. We expect quantum efficiencies rivaling or exceeding these traditional systems. Inherent in our approach is the ability to produce imaging systems that are not constrained by the size of a single crystal wafer but instead are scaleable to dimensions that can be measured in square feet. Using our approach detection out to 3 microns and beyond is expected.

SVT ASSOCIATES, INC.
7620 Executive Dr.
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
James M. Van Hove
BMDO 98-003
Title:AlGaN Solar Blind UV Focal Plane Arrays (UVFPA)
Abstract:This proposal addresses the significant need for high power and high temperature transistors. A major innovation is needed to produce power devices which can operate at high temperatures (400 C), withstand high voltages (> 500 V) and operate at high current levels without special cooling. SVT Associates proposes to meet this need with a heterojunction bipolar junction transistor (HBT) fabricated from Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN). The basic electrical and thermal properties of Nitride materials are ideal for this application. The quality of existing P type GaN, however, is insufficient to make low leakage, low on resistance, high breakdown voltage GaN PN junctions. We propose to demonstrate improved quality P type GaN for these applications using an unique doping source in atomic nitrogen molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). If successful, the process will be used in Phase II to fabricate 1) GaN PN rectifiers and 2) AlGaN Heterojunction Bipolar transistors (HBT) for high power applications.

TACAN CORPORATION
2330 Faraday Ave.
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Charles M. Morrison
BMDO 98-003
Title:Multispectral Sensor/Focal Plane Array Composed of Stacked Thin Film Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors
Abstract:Epitaxial liftoff and grafting technologies offer excellent opportunities for new compact designs of multispectral optical sensing devices covering simultaneously two or more bands across the visible and the near-, mid-, and long-wavelength infrared regimes. Epitaxial liftoff technology can be used to separate the thin epitaxial semiconductor layers containing metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector devices from their epitaxial growth substrates. These thin films (less than 1 mm thick) can then be stacked by grafting techniques onto host substrates in a variety of ways to provide increased functionality without the impediments of lattice mismatches between the membranes. Thus, photodetectors from different materials systems, each tailored for specific wavelength sensing, can be aligned and laminated over each other creating efficient multispectral sensors which collect spectral and spacial data simultaneously. Each semiconductor membrane layer can have its own amplifier/processor, and be individually accessible. This concept can be easily extended to focal-plane array applications. Already at TACAN Corporation, thin film membranes of various semiconductors containing arrays of more than 100 active photodetector devices have been grafted onto a variety of host substrates. By using transparent polyimide separators, independent operation of each level of stacked thin film arrays of photodetectors can provide simultaneous multispectral images.

WAVEBAND CORPORATION
375 Van Ness Avenue, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Dr. Lev. Sadovnik
BMDO 98-003
Title:Fabrication of Millimeter Wave Integrated Circuits Using Photonic Band Gap Confinement
Abstract:This project is aimed at the design and eventual fabrication (in Phase II) of microwave and millimeter-wave components utilizing Photonic Band Gap Structures. Current trends in device miniaturization and integration, especially in the development of microwave monolithic integrated circuits, calls for flexible, arbitrarily shaped and curved interconnects. Standard dielectric waveguides and microstrip lines, when bent, are subject to prohibitive losses. To address this problem, WaveBand Corporation proposes to confine the wave guiding path in a substrate with a Photonic Band Gap structure in a manner that will result in the guided mode being localized within the band gap. The Phase I research will center on theoretical investigation of the smallest attainable losses in a bent waveguide with Photonic Band Gap Confinement as compared to a standard waveguide. The best suitable structure will be analyzed and preliminary waveguide confinement experiments will be conducted at a millimeter wave (MMW) frequency in order to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed approach.

AET CRYOGENICS
155-B New Boston Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 932-3221
James F. Maguire
BMDO 98-005
Title:Proposal for the Development of a Pulse Tube Refrigerator for Cooling High Power RF Arrays
Abstract:The need for a higher power radar system has been developing over the past several years and it has become apparent that cooled power conversion systems will provide significant benefits in system size, weight, and transportability. This proposal addresses a electronics cooling system for the power electronics specifically tailored to the temperature, power, and environmental requirements of such radar systems. The cooling system design and sub-scale proof of principle will be accomplished in phase 1. High power density, high efficiency power conversion electronics are currently under construction by American Superconductor under an existing contract. Phase 11 of the proposed program will provide a cooling system directly applicable to these electronics.

AMERICAN SUPERCONDUCTOR CORPORATION
2 Technology Drive
Westborough, MA 01581
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 836-4200
Dr. C.L.H. Thieme
BMDO 98-005
Title:Oxidation Resistant, Non-Magnetic Substrates for YBCO Coated Conductors
Abstract:This DOE SBIR proposal explores cost effective production of non-magnetic substrates which will have a major role in the production of YBCO coated conductors. Deformation textured substrates offer a cost-effective way of texturing. The substrate will be produced using inexpensive raw materials and processing. A novel feature is the production of a solid solution alloy with an excellent cube texture and oxidation resistance. This substrate will be used for the deposition of YBCO by means of an inexpensive solution process. The achievement of program goals can lead to a much sought scaleable method for producing long lengths of YBCO high-temperature superconductor wire that enables commercial development of a host of applications. The proposed process can effect commercially viable conductor that is both inexpensive to manufacture and inexpensive to operate because it maintains high current density in high magnetic fields, allowing utilization of dramatically cheaper cooling techniques in the 50 to 77K range. The Proposal is directed towards the production of long lengths of wide non-magnetic metallic substrates in foil form with composite buffer layers, suitable for YBCO deposition using a cheap MOD process. It uses industrial scale processing, and aims at a deformation process that can be directly used for large scale YBCO coated conductor production.

APPLIED SCIENCES, INC.
P.O. Box 164284
Austin, TX 78716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 766-2020
Ronald L. Jacobsen
BMDO 98-005
Title:High Temperature Solar Cell Contacts
Abstract:Inexpensive solar cell contacts can be made using silicone or epoxy materials with carbon nanostructure additives to improve electrical conductivity at high temperature. This overcomes the problems associated with metal-additive silicones and epoxies, which tend to lose their electrical conductivity enhancements as the temperature increases, thereby diminishing; their usefulness as a solar cell electrical conduct. Because highly conductive carbon fib r can be fabricated with an extremely high aspect ratio (L/D > 5000), bonding material incorporating this fiber will have an internal conductive network within it, assuring that electrical contact will be maintained as the material expands thermally.

APPLIED THIN FILMS, INC.
1840 Oak Avenue, Suite 102
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 491-7805
Paul DeLuca
BMDO 98-005
Title:A Novel Sputtering Technique for Deposition of Robust Buffer Layers Suitable for HTS Technology
Abstract:The objective of this proposed effort is to identify and develop new and robust buffer layer materials for the recently developed metal-coated YBCO superconducting tape technology. While the current choice of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and cerium oxide as buffer layers has been appropriate for demonstration of coated tapes with current densities over 106 A/cm2, they may not serve all the required functions and are probably not suitable for production of tapes in long lengths. Hence, we believe, alternate buffer layers with suitable "engineering" properties will be needed for practical implementation in advanced power sources and power conditioning devices. The phase I effort will involve deposition of biaxially-oriented buffer layers on non-textured Hastelloy substrates using a novel dual magnetron oblique sputtering (DMOS). Suitably thick YBCO layers (up to a micron) will be overgrown on buffer-coated metal tapes using pulsed laser deposition. Material characterization of the coated specimens will be done using SEM, x-ray diffraction (pole figure analysis & phi-scans), and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic susceptibility measurements will be carried out on the YBCO-coated specimens for testing their current.

CERAMPHYSICS, INC.
921 Eastwind Drive, Suite 110
Westerville, OH 43081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 882-2231
Dr. Willliam N. Lawless
BMDO 98-005
Title:Ceramic Dielectric Compositons For Capacitor Applications In The 120-240 K Range
Abstract:A six-month, $91,305 Phase I SBIR program is proposed to perform ceramic-composition R&D aimed at cryogenic capacitors for the 120 - 240 K temperature range. Candidate compositions from three families of ceramics will be made under subcontract by NexTech Mat'ls Ltd and measured by CeramPhysics, 120 - 240 K (dielectric constant, loss tangent, frequency dependence, electric-field dependence, dielectric relaxation time). All compositions studied can be manufactured into multilayer ceramic capacitors. The measured database will be analyzed according to a Figure of Merit to downselect four to six optimum compos-itions. These compositions will be recommended for manufacturing development in a Phase II program in collaboration with an identified manufacturer of multilayer ceramic capacitors.

EIKOS, LLC
89 Richmond Street
Raynham, MA 02767
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 880-0007
Dr. Paul Winsor, IV
BMDO 98-005
Title:High Energy Density Capacitors using Phosphine Oxide Dielectrics and Chemical Graft Electrodes
Abstract:Eikos has proposed to develop a high energy density pulse power capacitor based on use of Polyphosphine Oxide Arylene Ether polymers. The ultra-high energy density will be achieved not only by the high dielectric constant of the polymer but also by development of a novel chemical graft polymer Zgapless" electrode. Enhancements in electrode stability, power density, and stored energy density are potential results of incorporation of a chemically grafted conducting polymer as an electrode. These capacitor dielectric and electrode developments are expected to result in dramatic increases of dielectric energy storage to greater than 20 J/cc for high voltage energy discharge capacitors.

ENERGEN, INC.
7 Riverside Avenue
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 671-5400
Chad H. Joshi
BMDO 98-005
Title:A Cryogenic Refrigeration System for Superconducting Generators
Abstract:Superconducting rotating machinery has been proposed as a means of achieving greater efficiency in electrical power generation and utilization. Furthermore, superconducting generators and motors have the potential to be more compact thereby increasing the flexibility of system designs as well as potentially reducing manufacturing costs. However, commercialization of this technology is gated by the availability of affordable, reliable cooling systems needed to maintain the superconductor at low temperatures. Energen, Inc. proposes to design and demonstrate a Stirling cycle cryocooler that can be shaft-mounted to provide cooling to the rotating field windings of synchronous generators and motors. The single-stage cryocooler will provide 10 W cooling capacity at 77 K and use many off-the-shelf components to maintain affordability.

EPITAXIAL LABORATORY, INC.
25 East Loop Road
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 444-6114
W.-Y. Hwang
BMDO 98-005
Title:High Performance 2.5 Micron InGaAs/InP TPV Cells Based on Novel Buffer Technology
Abstract:Due to a mature material growth and processing technology of InP and InGaAs, lattice-mismatched 2.5 um(0.55 ev )InGaAs/InP is identified as the most promising Thermophotovoltaic(TPV) material system for the next generation of monolithic interconnected modules(MIMs). Compared to GaSb and quaternary InGaAsSb, InP and InGaAs offer many critical advantages; (l)the existence of semi-insulating InP substrate enabling MIMs development(GaSb does not have semi-insulating form), and (2)proven high temperature reliability of InGaAs. The reliability of the meta-stable quaternaly InGaAsSb at high TPV operating environment is a concern, due to a large miscibility gap, and the ability to use InGaAsSb/GaSb materials in the MIMs is not proven yet. However, the performance of 0.55 ev InGaAs/InP TPV cell is still inferior than dislocation free 0.74 ev lattice-matched InGaAs/lnP cell due to the high density of mismatch generated threading dislocations. ELI proposes a novel approach to incorporate a new composition graded buffer layer (CGBL) to reduce/eliminate the threading dislocation and dramatically improve the performance of 0.55 ev InGaAs/InP TPV cells and MIMs. In phase I, design and growth of the novel buffers will be carried out, and improved TPV will be demonstrated. The optimization of CGBL and high performance TPV will be realized in phase II.

FRACTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
14200 Carlson Circle
Tampa, FL 33626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 854-4332
Dr. Mahmoud Aldissi
BMDO 98-005
Title:Advanced Capacitors For Miniaturized Munition Fuzing
Abstract:In the proposed program, thin-film capacitors will be developed based on low-cost transition metal nitrides for miniaturized munition fuzing as well as several other applications with high power and voltage requirements With transition metal nitrides having conductivity values similar to their corresponding metal and an unprecedented high surface area that will be achieved through our approach, high power as well as high energy densities are likely to be achieved. The combination of high surface area thin-film electrodes with an aqueous alkaline electrolyte will result in a low ESR. Our approach should also result in strong adhesion between the electrode film and the current collector. As a result of having robust electrode assembly, the cycle life shall be improved compared to electrodes fabricated using conventional techniques. During Phase I, we will develop the electrode growth technique on metallic and conductive polymer substrates. The materials will be characterized using microscopy, transport and electrochemical techniques, including testing in capacitors. The Phase It program will expand on the materials fabrication to reach optimal characteristics for our application. Extensive capacitor assembly (symmetric and hybrid) and characterization will take place during this Phase in collaboration with Evans Capacitor Co., who will be marketing the technology.

INORGANIC SPECIALISTS
P.O. Box 181
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-4491
David W. Firsich
BMDO 98-005
Title:Carbon Foam and Pseudocapacitance Technology
Abstract:Electrochemical capacitors (supercapacitors) are rechargeable devices which deliver high powers for limited periods. The objective of this proposal is to provide new, low-cost approaches for significantly increasing the power and energy storage of carbon supercapacitors. We do this in two ways: A) We improve power by preparing carbon in the form of a contiguous, conductive foam structure. This is done with novel technology: a polymer powder is simply pressed into a compact and carbonized. B) We improve energy by modifying the carbon surface with groups which undergo redox reactions (i.e., they provide pseudocapacitance). One proprietary surface modification from our lab has been shown to increase carbon's energy storage by as much as 100% in aqueous electrolytes. The Phase I work consists of: a) Enhancing the power properties of our carbon foam by tailoring its pore size distribution. b) Determining the feasibility of mass-producing carbon foam in thin wafer form. c) Preparation and testing of an aqueous prototype. D) Testing a new surface modification concept designed to provide pseudocapacitance in organic electrolytes.

INTERFACE STUDIES
27 East Mountain
Katonah, NY 10536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 242-2042
John L. Freeouf
BMDO 98-005
Title:Suppression of Step Bunching During High Temperature Anneals of SiC
Abstract:Many approaches to realizing the full potential of the Power Electronic Building Block rely upon the remarkable electronic properties of SiC. Almost all of these involve high temperature treatment of SiC, whether for growth, oxidation, or implant activation anneal. Unfortunately, under high temperature processing this material has demonstrated the occurrence of step bunching. This surface/interface roughness of course leads to increased carrier scattering, thereby degrading device performance. In general, the technique of reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy is sensitive to reduced symmetry at the surface, including steps; increased signal at some critical points has been found to be associated with step-like surface structures. However, the critical points for SiC occur for hvo 6eV, which is inaccessible to normal spectrometers. We therefore propose to develop a new means to characterize this surface/interface. This tool, Far Ultraviolet Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy, offers promise of improved characterization of SiC surfaces, as well as those of other wide bandgap semiconductors such as GaN. This technique permits us to characterize step bunching as it occurs, as it is a non-contact optical technique permitting remote access.

K TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 426-0320
Mark J. Montesano
BMDO 98-005
Title:Thermal Management Material Development for High Density Electric Batteries
Abstract:Charging and discharging inefficiencies of spaceborne and airborne battery cell designs result in significant heat dissipation. A closely packed battery of these cells poses a heat removal problem. The efficient removal of this energy is critical in maintaining target operation temperatures. Thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG) is a highly aligned crystalline graphite with an in-plane thermal conductivity of 1700 W/mK. Encapsulating TPG within a carbon fiber encapsulant results in a high conductivity (> 1000 W/mK), low mass density (< 2.0 g/cm3) material system. The isotropic in-plane conductivity of the TPG will increase the composite thermal performance by 300% over typical K1100/Polymer composites. In addition to high specific conductivity, the proposed material system can have tailored thermal expansion and stiffness properties. The objective of this Phase I program is to determine the feasibility of using the carbon fiber encapsulated TPG material in airborne and spaceborne battery structure designs through the development and evaluation of material samples. The program will establish, through sample evaluation, key design, fabrication, and performance characteristics.

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3610 Cresswell Court
Missouri City, TX 77459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 848-4450
Dr. M. Z. A. Munshi
BMDO 98-005
Title:Very Thin Film Rechargeable Batteries
Abstract:The objective of this Phase 1 program is to perform research and development on new designs of lithium solid state batteries, specifically lithium polymer electrolyte battery (including novel methods of fabrication) with useful levels of specific power and specific energy, high reliability, very high cycle life and low cost, when compared with presently available lithium batteries. This can be achieved by designing very thin film electrode and electrolyte structures which will overcome kinetic constraints on the specific power, cycling efficiency and capacity utilization. The proposed work addresses surface modifications of the electrode structures preventing dendritic growths and changes in electrode surface area. The results of this investigation will help assess the utility of the very thin film ionically conducting lithium polymer electrolytes and very thin film cathodes in mass manufacture/cost-effective practical batteries.

PC KRAUSE AND ASSOCIATES, INC.
3016 Covington St.
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 494-3434
Steven F. Glover
BMDO 98-005
Title:Cyrogenic System Stability
Abstract:Cryogenic components are being proposed for a ground-transportable radar (GTR) systems. Incorporating low-loss components into power-electronic based systems is a concern from the standpoint of system stability due to the inherent low resistance of the cryogenic components which may tend to destabilize the system due to reduced damping. The purpose of the work proposed herein is first to investigate the stability of this type of GTR system. This is to be accomplished by first defining a baseline GRT system configuration and then determining the parameters, and the variation thereof, in order to approximate the operating characteristics of the proposed cryogenic GTR. The overall goal, however, is to conduct a first-look into optimizing performance, weight, and cost of a GTR system in regard to system stability. Optimization studies will focus first on small-disturbance stability and then on large-excursion stability with a pulsed load present. During this research, a new and innovative means of eliminating negative- impedance instability, which has recently been shown to be effective on a noncryogenic power- electronic based system, will be considered as a means of reducing the weight requirements by decreasing the number and size of the system capacitors for a low-loss GTR system. The possible use of this stabilizer control in a pulsed-load environment has not been investigated. Moreover, the possible interaction of the various system controllers, including the stabilizer control, will be investigated with a focus on achieving optimum system performance through appropriate coordination or modification of the system controllers.

TAITECH INC.
2372 Lakeview Drive, Suite H
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-4141
Dr. Samhita Dasgupta
BMDO 98-005
Title:Optically Activated Power Switch for Electric Actuator Control Applications
Abstract:Silicon carbide power electronics will figure into a variety of Air Force missions such as enabling the development of more electric aircraft and advancing the development of supersonic and hypersonic aerospace vehicles, which require advanced control electronics and sensors. A true FBL(Fly-by-light)/PBW(Power-By-wire) system will require a simple light weight interface where an optical signal, will provide control signal to the power electronics of the electrical actuator and the feedback from the actuator and the motor control. With the present technology, the gap still lies in the immaturity of the optical technology in controlling the high power switches. Here we are proposing to develop a light activated IGBT device which would control the acturate and measure the output device position for feedback. Advantage of the light activation is the high tolerance to electro rnagnetic interference(ES) and the complete isolation of the gate circuit to load circuit. In the Phase I portion of the research program, we will fabricate the IGBT device and switching properties of the device will be demonstrated using optical triggering. A typical transistor characteristic of drain current as a function of gate voltage for both dark current and for avalanche gain will be measured. The result obtained from such device will enable the present technology to aim for higher breakdown voltage, switching frequencies, lower on state voltage drops and faster turn on and isolation from load and also triggering with the least optical energy. In Phase II of the program, performance of this device in controlling an actuator will be demonstrated.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4437
Kirk M. Slenes, M.S.
BMDO 98-005
Title:High Energy Density Capacitor Development
Abstract:The development of high energy storage systems with reduced size and weight are important for tactical and strategic pulsed power applications such as: electric armor, electric guns, high power microwave sources and ballistic missile applications. The dielectric energy storage density of pulsed power materials must be increased to provide feasibility or improve performance of these systems. TPL has developed a dielectric polymer capable of an energy density of 7.5 J/cc. This performance represents a factor of four over that of state-of-the-art capacitor materials. Based on measured properties of TPL's polymer film in its current configuration it is expected that capacitors can be fabricated with energy densities in excess of 4.0 J/cc. TPL proposes a Phase I effort to demonstrate the performance of their recently developed dielectric film in a rolled capacitor configuration. TPL will work in collaboration with Aerovox Corp. to develop fabrication processes for capacitor construction utilizing TPL's film and will establish a full range of device performance characteristics. It is anticipated that this program will establish the high energy density capabilities of TPL's film in a capacitor and provide the groundwork for development of prototype devices in a number of pulsed power systems.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Rd
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-6940
Dr. Rama Nekkanti
BMDO 98-005
Title:Development of Buffer Layers for high Temperature Coated Superconductors on Textured Nickel Alloy Substrates
Abstract:Surface-coated YBCO on textured polycrystalline metal conductors have been shown to carry high current densities in high magnetic fields-at 77 K. While nickel substrates have shown promise, they suffer from poor strength and oxidation resistance, which act as barriers towards development of long length conductors. UES along with its team partner Intermagnetics is developing alternate substrate materials based on nickel alloys that are strong, oxidation resistant and non-magnetic. Suitable buffer layers will be deposited on the newly developed nickel alloy substrates to demonstrate the improvements in the quality of the buffer layers due to improved oxidation resistance of the new alloy substrates. The program will also examine the technological issues related to the processing of the buffer layers on the new alternate substrates. The success of the proposed program would result in a high performance HTS that would also be cost effective.

BUSEK COMPANY INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Dr. W. Guss
BMDO 98-006
Title:Xenon Production by Iodine Transmutation
Abstract:Electrostatic thrusters are the likely choice for station keeping of the new generation of small communication satellites. Xenon is the fuel of choice for these thrusters because of its high mass and low ionization potential. Existing worldwide xenon production will not permit fueling of more than a small fraction of the projected satellite population unless significant price increase of Xe is realized to justify higher production capacity. A convenient alternative to Xe production through air liquefaction is a proprietary technique proposed herein. Xenon produced in this manner can generate extremely high purity xenon. The Phase I program provides a conceptual design of a large-scale facility and a proof-of-principle experiment. Comparison will be made between cryogenically produced xenon and bulk production by the proposed method.

ELECTROFORMED NICKEL, INC.
785 Martin Road
Huntsville, AL 35824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 461-1998
Glenn Malone
BMDO 98-006
Title:Innovative Fabrication Techniques for Aerospace Propellant and Pressurant Tanks
Abstract:To be economically attractive, weight and performance for small earth-to-orbit launch systems and station keeping space vehicles must be improved at significantly lower costs, while maintaining required payloads. A major weight and cost factor in any of these devices is the tankage for propellants and pressurant gases. Innovative and proven manufacturing technologies such as electroforming have been overlooked as means meeting these needs. It offers the means to fabricate seamless tanks with no property degrading welds. In conjunction with filament winding, electroforming can produce improved tanks in greatly reduced time frams because it can produce the mat-erial and the net shape simultaneously. Nickel-low cobalt alloys are currently avail-able through electroforming with yield strengths in the 100 to 150 ksi range. Efforts to develop titanium electroforming are expected to enhance the competitiveness of electroforming to produce much lighter tankage by virtue of the low density of this metal. Capability to electrodeposit bonded liners in filament wound outer shells will provide further fabrication innovations for the tank designer.

ENIGMATICS, INC.
3011 Ordway Street, NW, P.O. Box 39111
Washington, DC 20008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 244-4392
David L. Book
BMDO 98-006
Title:Small Vector Thrust Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine (VTPDRE) for EKV and Low-Mass Interceptors
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal is aimed at development of propulsion systems for EKV and divert. propulsion systems for low-mass interceptors that will use Vector Thrust Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine (VTPDRE) technology. Use of PDRE will increase power density, enhance modularity, and reduce cost. Further improvements will be realized by introducing configurations with multiple PDREs and non-mechanical thrust vectoring, which wilt lead to improved engine maneuverability, reliability, and efficiency. The proposed propulsion system is based on a new engine concept that provides higher specific impulse than rockets or turbojets. It is more efficient than conventional engines because of its constant-volume, nonsteady operating cycle and has no moving parts in the power production section. In PDREs a detonation wave is initiated-in a mixture o oxidizer and fuel and propagates axially in the detonation chamber. Thrust is generated when the wave impinges on the thrust wall. The use of multiple chambers allows thrust vectoring and enhances maneuverability, engine reliability, and efficiency. PDREs avoid the power density limitations of electric power generation and the low specific impulse of solid propellants. We will develop and demonstrate a low-cost propulsion system that can be used for existing systems and adapted to future advanced programs.

HYPER-THERM HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES,
18411 Gothard Street, Units B&C
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 375-4085
Robert J. ShinavskiI, Ph.
BMDO 98-006
Title:Miniature, Axisymmetric Nanolayered Ceramic Composite Liquid Rocket Thruster
Abstract:Low-cost microspacecraft systems being considered for future development will require a variety of mini- to micro-sized liquid propellant rocket engines for orbit insertion, planetary descent and ascent, reaction control, and precision station-keeping. Currently proposed miniature and micropropulsion devices are prime candidates for the application of "cutting-edge" nanostructural composite materials to satisfy the increased performance requirements gained from energetic, high specific impulse propellant mixtures without the need for active cooling. Recent advances in the development of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) nanolayered composites and fabrication techniques offer promise to increase micro-device performance beyond that achievable with currently proposed materials and fabrication techniques. The objective of this Phase I program is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing miniature, axisymmetric liquid bi-propellant rocket thrusters from nanolayered ceramic composites in an effort to overcome the limitations of existing designs, materials and fabrication techniques. CVD-based SiC is selected as the primary material constituent because of its low thermal expansivity, high thermal conductivity, and outstanding high-temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Minor nanolayering constituents will be selected for empirical evaluation based on their: (1) known ability to effectively interrupt the SiC deposition epitaxy, thereby increasing strength and thermal shock resistance by controlling grain refinement; and (2) propensity to provide beneficial elastic modulus mismatch, thereby further increasing strength and fracture toughness by limiting dislocation motion. Following the development of a viable composite system, miniature thrusters with integral impinging-stream injectors will be fabricated and delivered to BMDO for further evaluation.

NEW ENGLAND SPACE WORKS, INC.
24 Swift Road
Framingham, MA 01702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 626-0467
Lynn B. Olson
BMDO 98-006
Title:A More Efficient RF Plasma Electric Thruster
Abstract:New England Space Works proposes a more efficient RF plasma electric thruster. RF plasma thrusters have many advantages over other electric propulsion types. Specific impulse is higher than for electrothermal thrusters. There are no electrodes or grids in contact with the plasma, so thruster lifetime should be better than other schemes. The simple plasma geometry leads to easy scaling to larger or smaller thrusters. Power densities can be much higher than for electrostatic ion thrusters (greater than a factor of 100) because there is no space charge limit on density. In spite of these advantages, RF plasma thrusters have not come into use in electric propulsion because of poor measured efficiency in tests. New England Space Works proposes an innovation to the RF plasma thruster which should greatly increase its efficiency.

SPACE POWER, INCORPORATED
621 River Oaks Parkway
San Jose, CA 95134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 434-9500
Dr. Christian Lazarovici
BMDO 98-006
Title:Ultra-Compact, High Power Density Power Processing for Small Hall Effect Thrusters
Abstract:Satellite builders indicate that electric propulsion for stationkeeping and orbit transfer is needed. An unprecedented demand is expected for low power thruster modules, with emphasis placed on low mass, high power density, compactness, power expandability, and reduced cost for system components. The work in this proposal will demonstrate the feasibility of an ultra-compact, high power density, and low cost PPU for the 100W class HET, with built-in expandability for a broad power range. SPI proposes a modular concept, employing high power density DC-to-DC converters, which will allow for miniature PPU construction featuring redundancy, expandability and short time-to-market. A radiation hard space qualified high power density DC-to-DC converter is needed for this approach. Existing suppliers of DC-to-DC converters do not produce this type of converter, but SPI is developing a space qualified module based on a commercial version. During Phase I, SPI will design, build, and qualify a breadboard PPU for low power HETs. The Discharge Power Supply mass is anticipated to be less than 400 grams with 2N redundancy and the mass of the PPU system will be assessed by the operational modes of the thruster, which will be determined in the course of the work. A Development and Validation Plan to build and qualify an Engineering Model PPU into Phase II will be defined in Phase I.

CAPITAL TECHNOLOGIES MANAGEMENT, INC.
2575 Cobb International Blvd., Suite A
Kennesaw, GA 30152
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 499-7503
Dr. Tom Mahefkey
BMDO 98-007
Title:Novel Solid State Heat Pipe
Abstract:This proposal addresses development and characterization of a novel multi-layer solid state heat pipe. Prototypes of the device have already demonstrated radial and axial heat fluxes and transport limits comparable to conventional state-of-the-art heat pipes. The anticipated benefits of the device as compared to conventional heat pipes are substantial. It is relatively easy and inexpensive to manufacture, operates over a broad temperature range with a single low vapor pressure working medium, and appears to be both reliable and long- lived. The theory of operation and limits of performance of this device are incomplete at this time, and represent two of the technical goals to be pursued under this Phase I effort.

DYNATHERM CORPORATION
1 Beaver Court, P.O. Box 398
Hunt Valley, MD 21030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 584-7500
Michael N. Nikitkin
BMDO 98-007
Title:Cascaded Cryogenic Flexible Loop Heat Pipes (P12-2511)
Abstract:Future spacecraft will require efficient heat transport at 60K Or lower, and will require flexible and thermal diode features. Cryogenic flexible heat pipes and capillary pumped loops have been developed, but are not capable of adverse tilt operation and rapid, autonomous startup. Loop heat pipes with advanced fine pore evaporator wicks show promise for meeting future needs, provided that rapid, autonomous startup can be achieved. It is proposed to develop a cascaded loop heat pipe that will operate autonomously between ambient and 65K in Phase 1. The Phase II work effort will extend the range of operation to between 15K and 25K. In Phase 1, a propylene loop heat pipe will be integrated with an oxygen or nitrogen loop heat pipe into a cascaded array for reliable, rapid startup. This approach has been demonstrated for conventional heat pipes but has not been explored for loop heat pipes. This device will function as a heat pipe continuously between 65K and 300K or greater and will operate as a thermal diode and provide a flexible transport section.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC. (MMCC
101 Clematis Ave, #1
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
James Cornie, PhD
BMDO 98-007
Title:Graphite Fiber Reinforced Al and Cu Alloys for Replacement of W/Cu in Electronic Thermal Mangement -
Abstract:Graphite/Al phased array antenna rnodules will reduce rnodule launch mass from 154 kg (for W/Cu modules) to 19.7 kg. At $40,000/kg launch rnass, savings would be $5,400,000/launch. A team of users, graphite suppliers, casting house, and evaluation/analytical organizations, will develop and bring to commerical readiness Gr/Al and Gr/Cu composites for electronic thermal management applications. Technical objectives are: 1) Reduce launch mass of antenna modules by a factor of 7. 2) Increase the thermal conductivity by 40%. 3) Engineer the coefficient of thermal expansion to match the die, PCB, or ceramic substrate. 4) Reduce processing costs by half. MMCC's Advanced Pressure Infiltration Casting process (APICTM ) will be used to cast prototypes and evaluation coupons. MMCC's new low cost carbon matrix composite tooling will slash tooling materials processing cost by a factor of 10 and lead to commercialization. Micromechanical models will be applied toward materials design and definition of matrix alloys and heat treatment schedules to provide dimensional stability during processing and thermal cycling. Prototype modules for MILSATCOM phased array antenna will be manufactured to demonstrate the Gr/Al technology. A major electronic packaging house will specify a Gr/Cu prototype component for an application requiring high temperature brazing to ceramic substrates.

ORMET CORPORATION
2236 Rutherford Road, Suite 109
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 931-7067
Xiaomei Xi
BMDO 98-007
Title:Compact, High Performance Thermelectric Modules for Thermal Management of Electronic Packaging
Abstract:As electronic devices become smaller, faster and more complex, their need for high heat dissipation turns into a pressing concern. Cumbersome cooling systems such as large heat sinks, forced air cooling and fluid cooling are impractical and need to be replaced by alternative, small size, light weight thermal management techniques. Particularly promising in this respect are thermoelectric modules due to their relatively light weight and potential for high heat dissipation. However, up to now, conventional thermoelectric materials and fabrication techniques have been costly and incapable of producing small size, high efficiency thermoelectric modules. This proposal suggests a novel set of composite thermoelectric materials as well as suitable designs that can be used to fabricate compact, high performance, light weight thermoelectric modules. The advantages of these novel thermoelectric materials are low cost, high productivity, low temperature process and capable of producing small size, high efficiency thermoelectric modules. These modules can be fabricated as individual thermoelectric modules as well as integrated into the electronic or other component that requires cooling to gain maximum effectiveness with minimum additional space. The fabrication techniques that will be used to fabricate high performance, compact thermoelectric modules are already established and will be modified for this application.

THERMACORE, INC.
780 Eden Rd.
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 569-6551
Dmitry Khrustalev
BMDO 98-007
Title:Miniature High Flux Heat Pipes for Cooling of Electronics
Abstract:Modern electronic devices dissipate significant amounts of thermal energy at comparatively high heat fluxes up to 200 W/cm2 . Thermal management of power electronics will be very important not only for existing and future DOD applications but also for the success of the electric car, more efficient electric power distribution systems, etc. Heat pipes have been successfully used for cooling of various electric components. Thermacore manufactures miniature heat pipes that can withstand heat fluxes up to 50 W/cm2 on the evaporator wall. However, miniature heat pipes with higher heat fluxes, capable of operating at any orientation in gravity field are yet to be developed. The proposed program will develop innovative high heat flux miniature heat pipes tolerant to accelerations and vibrations, using combined capillary structures with porous metal elements. Prototype miniature heat pipes will be fabricated. Additional benefit of this Phase I program will be the initiation of mathematical modeling of major heat and mass transfer mechanisms in high heat flux two-phase systems, which will be continued and used in the Phase 11 work for optimization of performance characteristics of high heat flux heat pipes.

APPLIED SCIENCES, INC.
P.O. Box 164284
Austin, TX 78716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 766-2020
Ronald L. Jacobsen
BMDO 98-008
Title:Obscurant Coatings
Abstract:A very lightweight, low-outgasing coating is proposed for obscuration of radar and other electromagnetic signatures. The result is a low-cost method which can greatly reduce observable signatures of space based assets.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2792 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Dr. Patrick J. Hood
BMDO 98-008
Title:High-Performance Glassy Liquid Crystal Optical Filters for Laser Protection
Abstract:Glassy liquid crystals (GLCI represent a new emerging class of advanced organic materials which have significant potential for being readily processed into uniform optical quality thin films. In this proposal, we propose to develop high-performance optical filter and polarizer technology specifically for laser protection applications. The proposed GLC-based optical filters are specifically well suited to fill the technology need for a high-performance, near-infrared rejection filter. Some of the attractive characteristics of GLC-based optical filter technology include: ease of processing, low-cost, large area coverage, potentially durable against cryogenic cycling, high optical densities in the designed rejection band, and excellent transparency at other wavelengths. In the program we propose to investigate the materials and processing technology necessary to fabricate high-performance optical filters. Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. has teamed with the University of Rochester to bring the technology to fruition.

FULL CIRCLE RESEARCH, INC.
P.O. Box 4010
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 431-5622
James P. Spratt
BMDO 98-008
Title:An Ionizing Dose Hardness Assurance Technique for CMOS Ics
Abstract:ull Circle Research, Inc. (FCR) proposes a SBIR program to develop a proprietary concept, invented at FCR, which will permit non-destructive 100% screening of digital CMOS integrated circuits for total dose (TD) hardness. This technique will permit radiation tolerant ICs to be binned into groups of differing total dose hardness, rather than being specified at he lowest hardness level in the distribution. Similarly, it would permit a wide variety of commercial (COTS) ICs to be used in both commercial and military space systems in environments in which ionizing radiation would otherwise prevent their use. (The technique was originally proposed in 1995, but was not selected for funding. Since then, experimental data, presented in this proposal, has been obtained that has led FCR to re-submit the concept for consideration as a Phase I program.) The technique does not require that lot traceability be maintained (which is difficult in the commercial world), does not require special test chips ( which may not be available from commercial IC lines), does not degrade he r liability of the device, and is compatible with accepted Hardness Assurance methods.

FULL CIRCLE RESEARCH, INC.
P.O. Box 4010
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 431-5622
James P. Spratt
BMDO 98-008
Title:Single Event Latchup Suppression in Radiation Tolerant Ics
Abstract:CR proposes a prog am of research to develop a new technique for suppressing single event latchup (SEL) in ICs that would be adequately radiation tolerant, except for their susceptibility to single event induced latchup. SEL suppression has, up till now, required the use of wafer preparation technologies such as SOI, SOS, etc., which are not used by mainstream IC manufacturers. The technique proposed herein would greatly enhance the ability to upgrade COTS ICs to rad-tolerant (Rt) chips through non-intrusive modifcations to commercial fabrication processess. Using this technique, space systems manufacturers could procure a much wider range of part types from a wider range of suppliers, and by conducting some additional post-manufacturing operations, make them immune to SEL.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORPORATION
2849 East Elvira Rd
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
William Leigh
BMDO 98-008
Title:Nanocomposite Materials for Low-frequency EM Shielding Applications
Abstract:The increasingly complex electromagnetic systems in military and commercial devices require novel and unique approaches to control EMI radiation environments. Of particular interest are technologies that can provide lightweight, low bulk, reliable shielding of EM. This effort seeks to develop nanocomposite materials that can provide the needed breakthrough. Phase I will establish the proof-of-concept, Phase II will optimize and produce prototype product, while Phase III will commercialize the technology.

SURFACE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
207 Big Springs Avenue, P.O. Box 370
Tullahoma, TN 37388
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 666-6080
Michael A. Riley
BMDO 98-008
Title:Technique for Passive Hardening Against Natural and Induced Environments
Abstract:A newly demonstrated technology (patent pending) offers unique solutions to some of the problems presented. The process is called Laser Induced Surface Improvement (LISI). Two years of laboratory development/testing have demonstrated its ability to produce surface alloys with interesting characteristics. Surfaces are composed of a nonequilibrium alloy of the substrate and selected precursor materials, are nonporous and crack-free, have controlled thickness from 10 to 1000 microns, and have a molecular bond that will not separate with physical abuse or thermal variations. Thus it is feasible to produce a protective surface OA a substrate material (e.g., aluminum) that provides protection from atomic oxygen, micrometeorites/debris and ballistic impact, and is tolerant to mechanical and thermal impulses. The choice of precursor material mixtures is endless and the manufacturing process has been adaptable to a wide variety of alloys and refractories. The LISI process is environmentally friendly, requires little or AO cleaning of the substrate material, needs AO special environment for application, and is relatively inexpensive. Phase I will optimize the LISI process for selected material Combinations and produce samples suitable for analysis and testing. Phase II will move to the treatment and evaluation of actual hardware and its testing in a realistic environment.

TOP-VU TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2650 -14th Street N.W.
Saint Paul, MN 55112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 633-5925
Chi H. Nguyen
BMDO 98-008
Title:High Performance Readout Electronics For BMDO Infrared Sensors
Abstract:This proposal responds to the solicitation BMDO 98-008 on Survivability Technology where it states that a key ballistic defense area is sensor subsystems, the components of which (focal plane arrays, readout electronics, and preprocessing) must survive the laser, nuclear, IR, and natural environments. The trend in microelectronics and photonics devices is toward higher levels of integration density, higher speeds, higher circuit complexity, lower voltage and power, and larger die size and radiation tolerance. This project proposes to develop radiation tolerant readout electronics for BMDO infrared sensors using gallium arsenide (GaAs) complementary heterostructure field effect transistor (CHFET) technology. The main advantages of GaAs CHFET readout electronics are high speed, low power, high radiation resistance, and low temperature operation. The objective of this project is to develop complementary heterostructure field effect transistor (CHFET) readout electronics for BMDO infrared focal plane arrays. The technical objectives of Phase I project are to develop: a) Specifications, b) Multiplexer architecture and c) Readout circuits.

AMERICAN GNC CORPORATION
9131 Mason Ave
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin, Ph.D.
BMDO 98-010
Title:Advanced Decision Aid Systems
Abstract:A decision aid system is a computer application that solves complicated problems that would otherwise require extensive human expertise. To do so, it simulates the human reasoning process by applying specific knowledge and inferences. The highly demanding requirements of the newer and future all-source decision aid system can be met by the integration of various decision making approaches. The primary objective of this Phase I project is to develop intelligent decision aid system by integrating Dempster-Shafer (D-S) method and Quasi Axiomatic Theory (QAT), and provide a comprehensive and adaptive situation analysis decision aid. The D-S method provides a means to account explicitly for unknown possible causes of observational data. The QAT method employs the adaptive mechanism, in which new hypotheses are formed in the presence of conflicting data. The knowledge base that exists in the machine and the knowledge engineering used to capture the expert's skill is explained. A prototyping system will be designed to be user-friendly and easy to use through employing state-of-the art window and object-oriented programming techniques. Thus the operator can interact with the adaptive algorithms to create and assess hypotheses.

COMPUTER SCIENCE INNOVATIONS, INC. (CSI,
1235 Evans Road
Melbourne, FL 32904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 676-2923
Monte F. Hancock
BMDO 98-010
Title:The Collection Of Homogeneous cOperating contRollers Toolkit (COHORT)
Abstract:From a control theory perspective, ballistic missile defense requires a distributed dynamic non-linear control system. The conventional approach to coordinating the allocation and use of components that are geographically dispersed and functionally diverse is through a central management function that contains missile defense system and element control law. This central manager has to deal with the complexity of each of the cooperating missile defense elements, their operational characteristics and control methods. A centralized system controller design adversely affects reliability, survivability, and maintainability. As an alternative, a collection of less complex neural controllers, each of which controls a mutually exclusive subset of the missile defense elements and is cognizant of overall system need, will be investigated. The Collection Of Homogeneous cOoperating contRollers Toolkit (COHORT) will support the creation of intelligent, adaptive, and cooperating controllers. Distribution of the system-level management and control design has the potential to reduce complexity and improve system reliability and survivability. Phase I will derive the distributed neural controller framework and define the tool set required to support its implementation. Development of the tool set and its application to a ballistic missile defense scenario will occur in Phase II.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOCIATES, INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 938-2032
David P. Kierstead
BMDO 98-010
Title:Data Fusion for Ballistic Missile Defense
Abstract:This project will address two, interrelated problems: developing advanced fusion technology, and demonstrating data-fusion's importance to the National and Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) missions. Using primarily internal funds, we have implemented an experimental version of an innovative approach to BMD data-fusion. The program, called the Data Fusion Correlation Algorithm (DFCA), is installed in the SHIELD spaces of the Joint National Test Facility at Falcon Air Force Base, Colorado. It has been demonstrated in four NMD flight tests. We believe that the DFCA's innovative approach to sensor-fusion represents a quantum improvement over traditional approaches, but that the approach cannot be properly demonstrated with a laboratory model thrust prematurely into an operational setting. We propose, during Phase I, to design and implement algorithm enhancements which are critical for the environment in which the DFCA is being asked to perform, and then to demonstrate the enhanced capabilities using data from previous flight tests. In Phase II, we would continue enhancing the DFCA to meet operational requirements, and demonstrate its performance, in a wider variety of scenarios, during live tests and demonstrations.

DATAMAT SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
8260 Greensboro Dr., Suite 255
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 917-0880
Jerzy Bala
BMDO 98-010
Title:Development of a Distributed Collaborative Decision Support Tool for Command Post of the Future
Abstract:The ability to provide an accurate and integrated picture of the battle-space in order to support command level decision making is a crucial component of the modem advanced warfare management system. This ability can be significantly improved through the introduction of collaborative decision support tools. In this proposal Datamat Systems Research, Inc. (Datamat) presents the development of a class of such tools to support command post of the future. The proposed approach is based on (i) an application of distributed, hierarchical decision-making nodes, (ii) a mechanism for information abstraction/generalization, and (iii) a voting scheme for decision-making predictions. The implemented system is expected to be extremely effective in the new, information age nature of warfare domains where information sources are vastly dispersed in space and time. It directly supports pattern of operations defined in the Army/Joint vision 2010.

DATAMAT SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
8260 Greensboro Dr., Suite 255
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 917-0880
Helen Vafaie
BMDO 98-010
Title:An Adapative Mulit-Agent Architecture for Collaborative Problem Solving in Command Post of the Future
Abstract:The intelligent data processing tools of the command posts of the future must be able to take full advantage of the huge amount of available information by having a mechanism for the fusion of disparate types of data. The fusion of data can yield some information which may not be obtainable when the data are interpreted separately. The proposed work focuses on providing a general architecture for the fusion of real time heterogeneous data. This architecture is general enough to be used with different fusion algorithms. It allows for the addition of new fusion algorithms and new data types. The architecture also allows for adaptation to real time changes in the data. Two popular areas of Al are utilized: intelligent software agents and genetic algorithms. The independent nature of intelligent agents in a multi-agent environment allows them to work independently and in parallel on heterogeneous databases. The results can then be integrated through a collaborative schema. Genetic algorithms are utilized because of their efficiency in searching large data spaces and their adaptability to real time change. To increase human comprehensibility, advanced graphical visualization techniques are used to display the outputs of various modules of the system.

DOMINION TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7528 Dolce Drive
Annandale, VA 22003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 698-8807
Mark C. Sullivan
BMDO 98-010
Title:Computer Architectures, Algorithms, and Models/Simulations
Abstract:Dominion Technology proposes to reformulate common digital signal processing algorithms in a form particularly well suited to implementation using a reconfigurable computer based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Such techniques offer improvements in throughput of an order of magnitude or more compared to conventional algorithms implemented on programmable DSP chips as software. Dominion further proposes to formulate a design methodology that allows the designer to implement complex signal processing systems using these techniques without requiring any knowledge of the underlying hardware. Software design tools based on these methods would revolutionize DSP hardware design and greatly shorten design cycles.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East, One KBSI Place
College Station, TX 11840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 260-5274
Dr. Dursun Delen
BMDO 98-010
Title:Integrated Data Experimentation and Fusion System (IDEFS)
Abstract:Adaptive data fusion techniques offer widespread potential for application in defense and space arena, ranging from computer vision based target recognition, coastal ocean sensing to geographical information systems. In an intuitive level, data fusion reflects human perception and decision-making capability in taking more than-one source of information into account. A unified approach for designing decision support systems that support data fusion can make an enormous difference in the ease and efficiency of the decision making. The proposed approach for this SBIR effort involves the development of an intelligent adaptive data fusion system using soft computing paradigms including neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. The key components of this approach involves in developing (i) a unified data representation scheme, (ii) a set of "data translators widgets" that help translate the raw data into the representation scheme, (iii) methodologies to iteratively develop intelligent data fusion systems based upon soft-computing approaches, (iv) methodologies to extract qualitative and quantitative knowledge out of the soft computing models, (v) methods that support multiple model integration, and (vi) experimentation and design rationale capture mechanisms.

NEW DIMENSION RESEARCH & INSTRUMENT, INC
60 South Bedford Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-1165
Dr. Jim Hang
BMDO 98-010
Title:Fast Optical Compact Disk Drive
Abstract:New dimension Research and Instruments proposed to develop an innovative optical CD drive, which allows simultaneously reading sixty-four bits at any given time. Different from any commercial available optical CD reader and writer (only one laser and one detector for reading one bit at any given time), there are at least 64 laser and detector pairs in our proposed the CD driver, which are built at same chip. It dramatically increases data processing time. The goal of the proposed phase I program is to demonstrate the feasibility to design and make a optical CD driver with a novel LDA chip. The major issue that must be resolved in the phase I program is to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed parallel read and write. The technical issues that must be resolved in the Phase I program are: 1. Determine optimum configuration for parallel read 32 bits from a rotating disk. 2. Determine optical parameters of VCSEL laser power, mode, f/number, and detector quantum efficiency, the laser and detector pitch for CD optical driver 3. Determine the optical parameters for focusing lens, tracking system Determine the optical disk formats for the parallel reading and writing.

NEW LIGHT INDUSTRIES, LTD.
9713 W. Sunset Hwy.
Spokane, WA 99224
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 456-8321
Stephen P. McGrew
BMDO 98-010
Title:A New Reconfigurable, Compact, Fault-Tolerant, Very High-Speed, FGPA-based Image Processing Architecture
Abstract:The newest generation of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have up to half a million logic gates, connectable in arbitrary ways by down-loading a binary configuration file. These FPGA's, coupled to CCD arrays and trained using evolutionary techniques, offer a new and powerful approach to high speed, compact image processing systems. The proposed Phase I effort will develop a robust, reconfigurable, compact, fault-tolerant image processing and classification architecture as a new and innovative application of existing commercial off-the-shelf technology. The specific target application is a universal reader of holograms and other optically variable devices (OVDs) used internationally for anti-counterfeit/security on currency, credit cards, passports and identifica-tion cards. In addition to substantial commercial applications in the anticounterfeit/security industry, the resulting image processing archi-tecture will have potential applications of interest to the Department of Defense in missile interceptor guidance, multiple target tracking, and autonomous vehicle guidance. The potential market for a universal OVD (optical variable device) reader; is hundreds of millions of dollars per year. New Light Industries, Ltd., will both manufacture the readers and license the technology to other manufacturers.

REIFER CONSULTANTS, INC.
P.O. Box 4046
Torrance, CA 90510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-4493
Donald J. Reifer
BMDO 98-010
Title:Intrusion Detection and Recovery from Information Warfare Attacks
Abstract:The ability to detect and recover from information warfare attacks is becoming more and more important as the use of networks proliferates within both government and the commercial sector. To counter identified threats, the contractor proposes to perform a vulnerability analysis using patterns of system architectures to identify weaknesses. Then, effective recovery methods will be mapped to the threat using game theory so that a time ordered sequence of events can be planned as the attack unfolds. Finally, a spreadsheet-like tool will be prepared to demonstrate the feasibility of using the approach to counter threats to critical systems that have damaging effects. The contactor will also conduct a market survey and examine the potential commercial market for products and services that can be generated using the detection and recovery methodology during Phase II should the feasibility demo be successful.

TIMESYS CORPORATION
4516 Henry Street #202
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 681-6899
Ramakrishnan Srinivasan
BMDO 98-010
Title:A Visual Environment for the Design & Integration of Object-Oriented RealTime Systems
Abstract:We propose to investigate, design and prototype capabilities of a visual and friendly workbench environment called TimeBench for designing, modeling, analyzing, reusing and integrating object-oriented real-time systems. Class hierarchies and timing information of real-time and embedded systems will be represented visually and consistently. Object hierarchies and specified timing constraints will be used to generate code for specific targets and programming languages. Subsystems can be coded incrementally while retaining the timing behavior of the final workload. Any custom code added will be parsed to re-generate visual and semantic information automatically. A catalogue facility will enable COTS and custom components/classes to be reused consistently. Class hierarchies will be represented using real-time extensions to UML (Unified Modeling Language) resulting in RT-UML, which captures timing, scheduling and concurrency information in addition to relationships between subsystems, modules and classes. RT-UML representation will be tightly integrated with the timing analysis capabilities of TimeWiz, a tool which applies rate-monotonic analysis techniques. TimeBench will support a very large number of components and also be open and extensible, allowing software modules with new analysis techniques to be added as plug-and-play units.

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-1194
Dr. Ligui Zhou
BMDO 98-011
Title:UV Imageable Thermosetting Polymers for Opticla Waveguides
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to create new, low-cost, UV-imageable/thermosetting polymers for optical waveguides printed circuits that can be fabricated using conventional printed wire board fabrication processes. Benefits of these new polymers are (a) adjustable refractive in-dices. (b) high optical transparency with low optical losses, (c) exceptional thermal and me-chanical properties, (d) high chemical resistance, (e) no gas or water evolution during proc-essing, and (e) low cost. The proposed resin is a novel solventless, UV-imageable resin comprised of epoxy, bismaleimide, and cyanate ester, named CBE (Co-cured Bismaleimide-Epoxy). This new CBE resin forms a hardened, high-density polymer. The superior properties of this resin result from a novel, hybrid cyanate multifunctional curing agent, causing the cured resin to have exceptionally high cross-link density. The resins are also low cost and easily processable using conventional manufacturing equipment.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2792 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Dr. Patrick J. Hood
BMDO 98-011
Title:High-Speed, Bistable Optical Switch
Abstract:Optical switches are fundamental components of survivable fiber network architectures. They are required to enhance the performance of fiber optic networks through load shifting and to provide disaster recovery when communication links are lost. Optical networks will likely be employed in the next generation of military air- and spacecraft (e.g. JAF) to provide communication links between avionic components. Optical switches are an enabling technology for system recovery from battle-damage and black-box failure. The ability for an asset to automatically recover from a system failure or lost communication link without human intervention is especially important for military space-based vehicles. This program will employ a new class of liquid crystalline material, which is stable in multiple states, and existing high-speed electrooptic materials to fabricate a high-speed latching solid-state optical switch. The proposed device will be robust and operate over a wide temperature range (cryogenic to ~50C). In Phase I of this program novel drive electronics will be developed to optimally utilize this new bistable materials technology. Currently, no bistable optical switch technology has been demonstrated which can meet the demands of military environments (especially space-environments). The technology proposed in this program can.

DENSENET CORP.
333 Ravenswood Avenue
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 859-4032
Yu Sheng Bai
BMDO 98-011
Title:High Speed / High Density Optical Storage Devices
Abstract:DenseNet proposes to develop an innovative high density, non-volatile parallel access read/write memory using a proprietary two-photon effect in lithium niobate and other ferroelectric crystals. Our memory technology solves an important long-standing technical problem that has impeded the development of a practical optical read/write random access memory. All previous approaches, including conventional photorefractive holographic recording suffer from the volatility of the stored information upon readout. This volatility precludes the development of a read/write memory. Our proprietary approach will allow us to develop a non-volatile, read write memory with random access capabilities. Because the storage is non-volatile, the readout rate can be increased considerably. Because the recording of our proposed memory is via a two photon two-color effect, recording can be achieved not only holographically but also in a three-dimensional, non-holographic layer by layer recording. The goal of the Phase I effort will be to determine the technical feasibility of the two-photon concept as applied to appropriate recording techniques. Another goal of this study will be to identify the most cost effective technique for data storage applications. This study will serve as an input for the Phase II memory device design and development program.

E-LITE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
134 Benton Street
Stratford, CT 06497
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 380-8517
Douglas A. George
BMDO 98-011
Title:Electroluminescent Nanocrystal/Quantum Dot Based Phosphors
Abstract:This proposal aims to develop quantum-dot based nanophosphors, using cladded and doped nanocrystals. These high-efficiency and fast response (nanoseconds) phosphors will be utilized in Phase II for the fabrication of full color, flexible, flat panel displays and illuminators, utilizing self-assembly techniques. Doped nanocrystals have demonstrated enhanced photolurninescence (e.g. quantum efficiency rlq>l8% for <35 A diarneter ZnS:Mn) and dramatic reduction in response time (few nanoseconds rather than milliseconds for bulk). The proposed research will not only enable the development of faster and brighter electroluminescent (EL) structures but will also reduce the operating voltage from 200 Volts to ~5-lOVolts. E-Lite Technologies produces and markets uniform, low cost/large area flexible plastic illuminators for applications ranging from "Indigo" type watch-faces, up to 27" wide and up to 750 ft. long E-Lume lamps (see Figure 1). In collaboration with the University of Connecticut team, we are developing improved EL products, such as low voltage (9-28Volts) transparent lamps and supramolecular self-assemblies to realize efficient device structures. The BMDO's support through this SBIR Phase-I initiative will enable us to develop quantum-dot based EL technology, which in turn will enable us to penetrate a wider illuminator market that also extends in low information content flexible pixelated displays.

EAGLE OPTOELECTRONICS, INC.
223 Powderhorn Trail
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 492-6707
Heinz Willebrand
BMDO 98-011
Title:A Robust Miniature, Multi-function, Dense WDM Demultiplexer/Receiver
Abstract:This effort may be viewed as attempting to find the lowest technology, and thus, first commercializable use of meso-optics devices. These devices exploit wavelength-scale complex geometries and precision fabrication techniques to achieve their functionality. One of the conceptually simplest and most powerful devices is a high-resolution WDM demultiplexer. This proposal intends to extend research results in several ways of special benefit to a commercial device, and add a new active processing capability not yet demonstrated. In addition to its guided-wave, physically robust implementation and miniature chip-scale size, other potential advantages for optical communication systems are:-easy integration with conventional electronics on the same substrate -nanosecond tuning -low insertion loss -transparency to unselected wavelengths conserving optical power and facilitating simplified network architectures The proposal seeks to identify and begin development of techniques to enable: -low cost manufacture -integration into a highly-functional WDM receiver with minimal technological new development Because Eagle Optoelectronics holds the patent on a WDM receiver design that can make optimal use of such a meso optic demultiplexer, and because the initial developers of the research devices are also partners, this effort is well positioned to achieve success.

EAGLE OPTOELECTRONICS, INC.
223 Powderhorn Trail
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 492-6707
Heinz Willebrand
BMDO 98-011
Title:Adaptive, High Performance Wireless Multiwavelength, Hybrid Terrestrial Laser Communication Network
Abstract:Eagle Optoelectronics, LLC proposes to develop a wireless terrestrial laser communi-cation network for eyesafe operation in the 1.5 um wavelength range. The system uses an innovative low cost double-cladding Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) technology which is currently under development at the Naval Research Laboratory. Because of the operation in the 1.5 um wavelength band, the wireless part of the network will be wavelength compatible with long haul fiber optic networks. This should allow the building of a fully integrated hybrid fiber/wireless communica-tion network which receives information from a fiber based network, sends it through free space and routes it back into a fiber backbone without any electro-optical conversion. Among others, the system will have at least a 100 times higher link margin than commercially available laser communication systems; can be integrated seamless into optical fiber based backbones; will be eyesafe; will be able to carry "wireless" WDM traffic and will include an all-optical repeater station to enable wireless communication in non-line-of-sight environments. The Phase I approach will include component testing and evaluation, optical, design, building of a simple demonstrator, link evaluation and system studies.

ELSICON INCORPORATED
3521 Silverside Road
Wilmington, DE 19810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 478-2680
Dr. Brian P. McGinnis
BMDO 98-011
Title:An Ultrahigh Speed Demultiplexer for Optical Communication Systems
Abstract:Elsicon Incorporated proposes to develop an optical demultiplexer appropriate for use in high bandwidth fiber-optic communication systems. The demultiplexer will be capable of reducing an optical input bit stream with an aggregate bit rate of greater than 100 Gbits/sec down to a 1 Gbit/sec baseband rate. Therefore, by distributing the full serial data stream among an array of these devices, ultrahigh bandwidth data can be read in parallel using conventional electronics. The key to this demultiplexer will be Elsicon's innovative and proprietary optical switch design. This design will use readily available commercial components along with well-known concepts in linear and nonlinear optics to produce a device that functions as an ultrafast optical gate. We will fabricate a prototype optical demultiplexer based on low-cost commercially available components. The optical demultiplexer's response will be characterized for switching speed, on-off contrast, clock energy, throughput, and sensitivity. The results of this Phase I proposal will be used in Phase II to fabricate packaged demultiplexers ready for incorporation into optical communications systems.

HOULTON PHOTONICS
55 Main Street, #3
Houlton, ME 04730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 521-0190
Alfred J. Negri
BMDO 98-011
Title:Terabit Optoelectronic Matrix Array and Photonics Submount for Optoelectonics-Based Computing and Signal Processing
Abstract:Electronic-based interconnections, whether chip-to-chip or between systems, are interently hierarchical. As these interconnects become large so does the total interconnect cross-sectional area. This leads to the formation of information bottlenecks. The future of computer systems will depend on the elimination of these bottlenecks and without question these systems will rely upon the use of photonics-based components. Fiber optic technology has the intrinsically high bandwidth needed to meet the future demands for high performance information processing. However, practical use of high-bandwidth photonics-based computers, and signal processors, will depend on the availability and acceptance of low-cost, high performance optoelectronics-based components. These components are necessary to fully develop the following key technology areas that are needed to make the transition from electronics to optoelectronics. The key technology areas are: hgih-speed optical memory to buffer data, optical header recognition and high-speed switching. The proposed research is to develop a novel, ultra-fast (Terabit/Photodetector), two dimensional photodetector matrtix array building block for "Photonics Information Processing." This matrix array is based on a novel Metal Semiconductor-Metal photodetector technology and a novel polymer waveguide-based photonic submount.

IN-DEPTH IMAGING
4729 Shadwell Place
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 793-8230
Dr. James Thomas
BMDO 98-011
Title:Real-time 3-D quantitative imaging by a slit-scan chromatic confocal microscopy
Abstract:We propose to develop a precision 3-D quantitative imaging technique using a slit chromatic confocal microscope. In contrast to the existing 3-D imaging methods, the proposed technique is capable of acquiring a depth-section image in a single shot, and then scanning through the remaining lateral direction for complete 3-D object information. The advantages of the proposed system over conventional techniques include the ability of the novel method to perform a single-shot measurement of a surface cross-section, a simpler and therefore less expensive optical system design, and simplified signal and image processing that can be realized with an inexpensive computing system. These advantages make our novel technique suitable for performing on-line 3-D imaging/measurement in a realistic manufacturing system and even possibly in a severe manufacturing environment. The main goal of phase I of this project will be to perform a detailed design of the proposed 3-D quantitative imaging system, construction and testing of the initial system prototype, characterization of system functionality and performance, and development of computer software for data acquisition, signal and image processing. The work will set stage for phase II, of which the objective is to build a commercial viable prototype in coordination with industry standards.

INTELLIGENT FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS (IFOS)
1778 Fordham Way
Mountain View, CA 94040
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 967-4107
Dr. Behzad Moslehi
BMDO 98-011
Title:All-fiber Ultra-High-Speed Add-Drop Multiplexer for Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed Photonic Networks
Abstract:Drop Multiplexers are crucial for advanced multi-wavelength optical communication and sensor systems. IFOS has a new approach for in-line, all-fiber, compact, low-cost Add-Drop-Multiplexers (ADMs) for selecting, adding, dropping and ultra-high-speed switching of wavelength channels in such systems. This proprietary four-port ADM design is based on a novel combination of leading-edge technologies: (1) special wavelength-selective field access fiber substrates utilizing side-removed fibers containing gratings and (2) an active-optical-polymer thin films. The gratings provide wavelength selectivity. The polymer provides grating wavelength tuning and wavelength channel switching. The side-removed-fiber couples grating and polymer to the system' s main fiber bus with low insertion loss. With a strong multi-disciplinary team, our Phase I objectives are to: (1) model and optimize the IFOS ADM design including electrode geometry, (2) fabricate the fiber substrates, (3) deposit and pole polymer thin-film variable-index overlays, (4) construct and test active 4-port ADMs employing controlled inter-fiber coupling. First generation IFOS ADMs will enable optical network signal selection/routing with minimal local optical power.

LASER POWER CORPORATION
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 755-0700
Timothy L. Boyd
BMDO 98-011
Title:300 Gbit/Sec Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) Transmitter
Abstract:Very high data rate optical communications technologies are required by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and by the telecommunications industry for integration into future networks and autonomous systems. Laser Power Corporation (LPC) offers a unique diode laser pumped solid state laser technology that enables maximum possible system information rates at the highly desired 1.5 um wavelength band utilizing dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM). This laser technology allows production of monolithic high data rate transmitter modules with higher power, lower noise and narrower linewidth than competing semiconductor systems. In addition to all of the advantages offered by solid state lasers, the LPC 1.5 um lasers have chirping capability (self-frequency modulation) which allows the suppression of nonlinear propagation effects such as stimulated Brilliuon scattering (SBS) in long fiber runs.

LIGHTWAVE MICROSYSTEMS CORP.
2950 Scott Blvd
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 748-6276
Dr. John Kennedy
BMDO 98-011
Title:Low Cost WDM Component Technology for Bit-Parallel Fiber Optic Computer Networks
Abstract:The bit-parallel fiber optic computing network is based on sending all bits in a word on parallel wavelength channels. A high-powered shepherd pulse launched with the signal wavelengths exploits the nonlinear response of the optical fiber to cancel dispersion and thus prevent temporal dephasing of synchronous signal bits. In this Phase I proposal, Lightwave Microsystems will design and fabricate integrated optoelectronic components related to the bit-parallel network. These elements include a 2x2 optical switch and 1:8 splitter based on directional couplers, and a 4-channel multiplexer/demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide grating technology operating at 1550 nm. Samples of these three devices will be delivered to Dr. Larry Bergman at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where they will be tested. The tests will determine the devices' applicability to the bit-parallel network, and how the shepherd pulse interacts with the optical devices. At the conclusion of this Phase I proposal, a preliminary design will be created for integrating the switch, splitter, and multiplexer to create 6x6 switching node for the bit-parallel network.

NOMADICS INC.
PO Box 2496
Stillwater, OK 74076
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 372-9535
Joel Roark
BMDO 98-011
Title:High Faraday Rotation Optical Waveguides for Application in Optical Circulators for Telecommunications
Abstract:The fabrication of highly efficient Faraday-active optical waveguide structures is proposed. Faraday-active waveguides are presently of great interest as their development is the critical enabling technology associated with the demonstration of an all-fiber optical circulator. Such devices, which may be characterized as multiport nonreciprocal polarization rotators, provide a means by which the telecommunications rate may be immediately doubled on existing optical fiber carrier infrastructure. Successful implementation will lead to full-duplex operation over "long haul" fiber carriers. The suggested circulator approach is passive, and does not therefore require external clocking controls. Separation of the signals is based only upon propagation direction; no additional losses are imposed on transmitted signals, as in the case of conventional directional couplers. We propose the use of advanced thin film techniques in the development of optical fiber segments that exhibit Faraday rotation through the introduction of high Verdet constant materials. The proposed technology will replace conventional bulk optics technologies, as waveguide structures with dramatically- improved figures of merit will be developed and characterized during the initial Phase I period. The Phase I program also includes the advancement of fiber fabrication methods and a design assessment for optical circulator prototype development.

NP PHOTONIC TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
5507 North Paseo Ventoso
Tucson, AZ 85715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 577-1147
Tao Luo
BMDO 98-011
Title:Novel ER3+ Glass Fiber Amplifiers with Extremely High Gain Coefficient
Abstract:We propose to develop novel Er3+-doped glass fiber amplifiers for the lossless beam splitter of the 1.54 um optical communication networks . This special glass fiber will exhibit both ultra high gain coefficient and extremely low cost, less than 1% of today's price. Our goal is to demonstrate a gain coefficient greater than 5dB/cm in this special glass fiber . Therefore, the length of the Er3+--doped fiber for amplifiers will be as short as 5cm. Such a unique short fiber amplifier is the ideai choice to construct an integrated, compact, and rugged lossless beam splitter, which is one of the key devices to realize Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH). The demonstration of this technology will pave the way for the emerging ultrahigh speed optical networks using dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) .

NP PHOTONIC TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
5507 North Paseo Ventoso
Tucson, AZ 85715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 577-1147
Tao Luo
BMDO 98-011
Title:Large-scale manufacturing of photorefractive polymers by precision injection molding
Abstract:Photorefractive polymers have emerged as a powerful class of real-time and reconfigurable holographic recording materials. This project will focus on the development of thermoplastic photorefractive polymers that can be fabricated into various films and shapes by precision injection molding and/or by extrusion. This effort will lead to large-scale manufacturing of low cost and reliable organic photorefractive devices. Numerous fields of applications for photorefractive materials including holographic storage, optical correlation, phase conjugation, non-destructive evaluation, and imaging will benefit from the first commercial availability of a new generation of photorefractive polymers.

NP PHOTONIC TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
5507 North Paseo Ventoso
Tucson, AZ 85715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 577-1147
Nina Nordman
BMDO 98-011
Title:Heterogeneous VCSEL Array Integration with Silicon Substrate
Abstract:We propose to heterogeneously integrate a large array (64x64) of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a silicon substrate. This work takes advantage of the recently developed applique technique that quasi-monolithically integrates VCSELs with foundry processed CMOS chips. This development work will concentrate on obtaining yields of 100% for VCSELs in the array while maintaining the compatibility of the applique process to the heterogeneous integration with CMOS drive circuitry.

PICOLIGHT INCORPORATED
4622 Sunshine Canyon Dr.
Boulder, CO 80302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 546-0567
Jack L. Jewell
BMDO 98-011
Title:Passively Aligned Single-Mode VCSEL Transceivers
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research proposal aims to develop a revolutionary single-mode optical sub-assembly (SMOSA), i.e. a laser or detector having external electrical connections and which has efficient optical coupling with a single-mode fiber. The proposed SMOSA is distinguished from existing single-mode technology in that it: 1) is based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs); 2) does not require the laser or detector to be activated for alignment (i.e. it is passively aligned); and 3) should have an overall cost which is drastically lower. Other advantages of the SMOSA are detailed in the proposal, which also distinguish it from existing technology. The Phase I program will first perform rigorous simulations to evaluate tolerances to translational and angular alignments and to beam, fiber and other imperfections. The simulations will be carried out for both transmit and receive ends of the fiber. Experiments will then be performed to evaluate the ability to package VCSELs and detectors within the tolerances using only passive alignment. Results of all these activities will be combined with other practical evaluations to determine the feasibility of manufacturing single-mode transceivers by the proposed method. Ruggedness and reliability tests will be performed in the Phase II development.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Michael E. Harrell
BMDO 98-011
Title:A 5 Terabit/Second EO Transceiver (Q-DOT Research Proposal 9551)
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop a small, light weight, low-power, multi-channel EO trans-ceiver capable of 10 Gbit/second/channel to support emerging high-speed processors. Currently, the performance of both ground-based and missile-borne processors is constrained by slow data links. As processors continue to increase in speed and complexity, the need for a high speed data link will become acute. The proposed transceiver will simultaneously transmit 256 channels of data while it receives 256 channels of data. The combined data rate exceeds 5 Terabit/second. The transceiver will mount on an RF board in a 15 mm x 15 mm (0.6" x 0.6") space. Data moves optically from board to board over a 5 mm x 5 mm (0.2" x 0.2") optical fiber bundle over a distance of at least 3 M (10'). Sanders will support the transceiver development with its optical expertise and has already demonstrated suitable optical components. Phase I will focus on designing SiGe BiCMOS driver/receiver chips and transmission line interfaces. A single-channel demonstration at 10 Gbit/second is proposed as a Phase I option. A 512 channel EO transceiver will be realized in Phase II. Q-DOT will work with Sanders to commercialize the 5 Tbit/second E0 transceiver in Phase III.

RADIANT RESEARCH INC.
9430 Research Blvd., Echelon IV,Suite 305
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 338-4942
Dr. Brian M. Davies
BMDO 98-011
Title:Single-mode Wavelength Division Demultiplexer for Bit-Parallel Fiber Optic Networks
Abstract:Electrical interconnections have failed to provide gigabit/sec speeds when interconnection distances extend beyond 10 meters. Employment of optical interconnections becomes necessary to solve this problem. For this program, Radiant Research, Inc. proposes a single-mode wavelength division demultiplexer (WDDM) that can support an aggregate bandwidth of up to 1000 Gbits/sec'2hd operates with the wavelength separations needed for the JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) bit-parallel (BP) network architecture. Such a device is pivotal not only for the BMDO/JPL-BP network but also for optical sensor and telecommunications applications. Based on our previous work on multimode WDDMs, the new device proposed herein will be a natural continuation of our work on multi-wavelength--based optical interconnects. Several unique features are provided through the proposed idea. The bouncing distance adjustability offers a wide tunability of wavelength separation of the WDDM, ranging from sub-nanometer to tens of nanometers, which covers all the WDDM protocols, including the JPL BP specifications and the International Telecommunications Union standards. The use of volume holograms as the dispersive elements significantly increases the diffraction efficiency (up to 100%), reducing system insertion loss and yielding a better power budget.

RAMAR CORPORATION
71 Lyman Street
Northborough, MA 01532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 393-4225
Anantha Narayanan Subrama
BMDO 98-011
Title:A high bit rate optical analog to digital converter
Abstract:High speed optical computing and optical signal processing has produced considerable interest in the development of high resolution, high sampling rate optical analog to digital converters. High speed ADCs that utilize integrated optical waveguide technology play an important role in the development of these systems. Ramar Corp. proposes a novel optical A/D converter design which replaces the standard Mach-Zehnder interferometer design. This design is more efficient, smaller in size, achieve higher bandwidth and have better insertion loss than Mach-Zehnder design. Incorporating the Symmetric Number System technique with the proposed design, reduces the number of interferometers required, there by increasing the resolution to more than one bit per interferometer.

TACAN CORPORATION
2330 Faraday Ave.
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Yongqiang Shi
BMDO 98-011
Title:Electro-optic polymer modulator arrays for bit-parallel wavelength division multiplexed networks
Abstract:An unconventional and novel technology of integrating fiber-optic half blocks and epitaxial lift-off semiconductor layers is proposed for the fabrication of rugged in-line electro-optic modulators with ultralow insertion loss. The proposed in-line electro-optic modulator has many advantages over other modulator technologies. The self-pigtailed fiber-optic half block provides low-loss, high throughput input/output coupling to the network, and the ELO semiconductor thin c film provide an efficient, stable electro-optic modulation of the optical beam. The in-line modulator employs a continuous optical fiber with a partially exposed propagation mode. The epilayer is bonded to the fiber half block by Van der Waals force. Because there is no fiber breakage, no epoxy, and no organic materials : used in packaging, the modulator will have a maximum mechanical stability which will be particularly useful in aviation and space applications. This effort will investigate the feasibility of using the proposed technologies to fabricate a family of high performance and high stability in-line modulators with insertion loss down to ~t dB. In Phase I, the modulator design, fabrication technology, and package issues will be studied and an experimental in-line modulator will be fabricated for initial testing.

ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERTS, INC.
215 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 577-0700
Mr. Jeffrey Moore
BMDO 98-012
Title:Hybrid Vibration Control Actuator Systems
Abstract:Active Control eXperts, (ACX) Inc. proposes to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a novel hybrid vibration ccntrol actuator system capable of very precise, controllable motion. This system will combine the advantages of a capacitive actuator with feedback control capability. This system will possess the force and stroke characteristics of a small hydraulic device and the bandwidth of electric motors. Capacitive devices such as piezoceramic actuators exhibit much more desirable mechanical and electrical characteristics. They have a very efficient coupling of energy from applied charge to mechanical strain which results in a high bandwidth and large force output with negligible resistive heating. The actuator system proposed will utilize piezoceramics with a mechanical advantage to magnify the piezoceramic actuation strain. The mechanical advantage will be accomplished by a flexural mechanical lever stage which is displaced by the piezoceramic motion. The actuator will be instrumented to provide position feedback under this proposed program. This internal servo loop will be implemented to ensure a high degree of accuracy to commanded displacements or forces. This accuracy is needed for actively controlled mounting systems and positioning devices.

KAZAK COMPOSITES INCORPORATED
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Jerome P. Fanucci
BMDO 98-012
Title:Low Cost and Ultralightweight Active Vibration Control Structures Utilizing Pultruded Piezoelectric Fibers
Abstract:This program describes development of an advanced product called Smart Elements for application to spaceborne BMDO systems subject to severe weight constraints coupled with dimensional control and stability requirements. Smart Elements are low cost, continuously-produced pultruded composite lineal shapes (such as a rod) which combine three elements of smart or active control structure - the composite structural element, a continuously distributed piezoelectric actuator, and the electrode structure to energize the actuator. With the addition of sensor and control electronics, a complete "smart" or active structure is created. This provides one to two orders of magnitude improvement in vibration control through the use of active damping and embedded shape control, all at very significant weight and costs savings compared with traditional spacecraft design practice. Smart Elements are possible through two recent developments - availability of piezoelectric materials such as PZT in fiber form and advances in state-of-the-art for the pultrusion process which can accommodate such brittle fiber forms. KaZaK and its Principal Investigator are experienced in this field, having produced the first pultruded composite with an embedded piezoceramic actuator in 1991 very similar to the smart structure now commercially used in the ski industry.

MS TECHNOLOGY
7922 Avenida Kirjah
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 558-6293
Dr. Saeid Ghamaty
BMDO 98-012
Title:Low Cost Components Manufacturing
Abstract:The transition of the defense oriented technologies into the commercial market is needed to maintain a strong advanced materials industry. Cost is the primary consideration in the commercial market. Therefore, manufacturing processes are needed to fabricate components from advanced materials that are affordable and competitive on a cost basis with current materials. MS Technology (MST) proposes to combine defense technologies to manufacture advanced ceramic matrix composites at affordable costs. A new laminar ceramic matrix composite (CMC) of a ceria-zirconia matrix reinforced with layers of CeO2-ZrO2 and Al203 ceramics has been developed by defense industries. These layered composites have the potential for fracture toughness as high as some tool steels, up to 40 MPa-m1/2. Currently, this new CMC cannot be made into practical and inexpensive, commercial components. In view of this, MST has started its own project to develop a desktop manufacturing system for structural monolithic ceramics using a laminated object manufacturing (LOM) technique. The LOM technique is uniquely suited to manufacture layered CMCs. The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing layered CMCs using the LOM technique. Another objective will be to develop the equipment and processes so that layered composites can be manufactured for ballistic missile defense or other commercial applications at reasonable costs.

POWDERMET, INC.
9960 Glenoaks Blvd., Unit A
Sun Valley, CA 91352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 768-6420
Mr. Asit Biswas
BMDO 98-012
Title:High Volume Reinforced Low Cost CMC's
Abstract:The proposed Phase I SBIR program will result in the development of an innovative, net shape processing technique which enables nanolevel control over composite compositions combined with independent rnacrolevel control over microstructures to achieve improved ceramic matrix composite materials The program will result in higher strength and modulus, lighter-weight, more environmentally resistant, and lower cost composite materials that can be fabricated net shape using traditional pressure assisted sintering techniques Specifically, Powdermet will demonstrate the fabrication of 30-60 v% SiC reinforced alumina composites showing improved strength, modulus, reliability, and durability Cost improvement over alternate materials will be demonstrated through an unique processing approach enabling very high reinforcement contents, combined with low cost net shape fabrication techniques.

SPECIALIZED ANALYSIS ENGINEERING
2909 12th Ave South
Nashville, TN 37204
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 292-7022
Dr. Clay Carter
BMDO 98-012
Title:Remotely Detecting Damage in Critical Structural Bolted Joints
Abstract: novel remote non-destructive inspection and evaluation (N I&E) method for detecting and quantifying damage in critical bolted joints on military and commercial structures is proposed. The NDI&E method utilizes remotely located impedance sensor to periodically monitor changes in the structural stiffness, mass and damping. Damage to the joint fasteners or connection materials causes direct changes in the overall joint stiffness and damping. Mass changes also occur but are usually of lower order significance. The impedance sensors consist of small piezoelectric patches that are used to directly measure the structure's dynamic response. Because the sensors are very lightweight, robust, and inexpensive, they can be readily located at critical inspection points over an entire structure. With the sensors in place, the structural integrity can be inspected [remotely from outside the structure, and the resulting signals can be integrated into control systems. Recent advances in signal processing techniques may yield additional concise information pertaining to the nature of the damage. The method can potentially save millions of dollars on inspection and operation costs over the life of a structure.

UTRON, INC.
8506 Wellington Rd, Suite 200
Manassas, VA 20109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-5552
Arul Mozhi
BMDO 98-012
Title:Discontinuously Reinforced Aluminum Composite Structures by Pulsed Spray Forming
Abstract:BMDO seeks innovative fabrication approaches to cut structure cost and innovative use of advanced materials to minimize structure weight. UTRON proposes to develop a new pulsed spray forming technique to establish a new means of fabricating DRA composites. The pulsed nature of the device will enable it to selectively use a high momentum flux medium to atomize molten aluminum droplets and spray ceramic powders, thus tailoring the microstructure of a spray formed DRA composite. In addition, this spray forming technique can be integrated with Rapid Prototyping technology. The proposed technique will allow the fabrication of finished DRA component parts with 1) fine microstructure, 2) excellent uniformity, 3) tailor made composition, and 4) desired material properties. During Phase I, UTRON proposes to: 1) Perform analysis to establish point design requirements and experimental parameters to spray form DRA composite structures. 2) Design a prototype device to spray form a 1/4" thick DRA composite sample of 12" x 12" area. Anticipated Phase II objectives will be to: 1) Build an engineering prototype and fabricate a large scale DRA composite structure, and 2) Integrate a CAD system with the pulsed spray forming system to establish rapid prototyping capability.

CCVD, INC., DBA MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIE
3901 Green Industrial Way
Chamblee, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 457-7767
Subu Shanmugham
BMDO 98-013
Title:Low Cost CCVD Mullite and Alumina-Titania Interface Coatings for Ceramic Matrix Composites
Abstract:Nicalon fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites owe their good mechanical properties at room temperature to either C or BN interfaces, which provide a weak interfacial bond. However, C and BN interfaces encounter oxidation problems at elevated temperatures in oxidizing environments resulting in degradation of mechanical properties. Recent efforts to replace C and BN interfaces have identified alumina-titania and mullite as potential interface materials. However, the sol-gel deposition of alumina-titania and mullite coatings directly on Nicalon fibers degrade the fibers and result in Nicalon/SiC composites with low strength and toughness in the as-processed condition. Hence, there is a need to deposit these oxide coatings by alternative low cost approaches without degrading Nicalon fibers to obtain Nicalon/SiC composites with desired strength and toughness. The Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVDsm) technique can quickly apply uniform, high quality, dense thin films of metals and oxides in a continuous manner at atmospheric pressure. The high quality CCVD process is low cost and versatile. It does not require a reaction chamber or furnace, yet the thin films produced are comparable in quality to CVD films, and CCVD technology allows substrates to be continuously passed through a deposition zone for production line or large area coatings. In this Phase I effort, alumina-titania and mullite films will be deposited by CCVD initially on flat substrates, such as LaAlO3, YSZ, and SiC. Subsequently, the deposition of alumina-titania and mullite coatings ( if necessary thin fugitive C coatings) will be carried out on Nicalon fibers and the morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the coated fibers will be determined as a function of deposition conditions. A series of run studies will be performed to optimize the process, then a final run series will be performed to demonstrate reproducibility. This research will demonstrate the capability of CCVD to inexpensively deposit high quality, dense, smooth thin films of alumina-titania and mullite on to Nicalon without degradation of fiber strength for composite a

KARTA TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1892 Grandstand
San Antonio, TX 78238
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 681-9102
Dr. Madhav Rao Govindaraj
BMDO 98-013
Title:Development of Laser Fusion Coatings for Improving Oxidation Resistance of C/C Composites
Abstract:Spacecraft structural components operate under extreme temperatures, and stresses. These harsh operating conditions and the necessity of using materials with high strength-to-weight ratio requires the use of advanced materials such as carbon-carbon (C/C) composites. Poor oxidation resistance is a major problem for C/C composites which limits their use to inert atmospheres or applications requiring short-term exposure to air. The most common methods to apply the surface coatings are by chemical vapor deposition and slurry coatings. However, these methods involve the use of vacuum which will not permit these techniques to be used on large scale structures. Hence, there exists a need to develop a surface coating technology to improve the service life of C/C composites above their current capabilities. Karta proposes to develop an innovative coating technology using lasers for forming complex phase coatings on C/C composites to improve their oxidation resistance. The technique involves preparation of a complex composition salt paste, placement of the paste on the composite substrate, and irradiation of the paste and the substrate with a laser. The microstructure and oxidation resistance coated samples will be evaluated. The inherent advantages of laser processing makes this approach very promising and has the capability to meet the industrial needs in enhancing the performance of composites.

KAZAK COMPOSITES INCORPORATED
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5668
James J. Gorman
BMDO 98-013
Title:Precision Manufacturing of Co-Axially Hybridized Composite Rods for High Performance Deployable Space Structure
Abstract:Large coilable booms are used to deploy sensors, antennas and other hardware from satellites. These booms are truss-like structures, often 100 feet or more long, constructed from small diameter S-glass/epoxy rods. Booms are designed to be tightly packed for launch. This places severe demands on the structural materials. Rods are currently made by the pultrusion process. KCI proposes to investigate several significant design and manufacturing process advances that could improve boom performance. First, we will investigate use of liquid metal or other non-solid tooling in place of conventional steel dies for consolidation and cure during the processing of rods. Second, we will investigate benefits of material hybridization in specially-controlled geometries to greatly increase the weight-specific axial and bending rigidity of pultruded rods for boom application. Coilable boom performance is closely tied to these structural properties. Finally, we will investigate the possibility of using fiber hybridization to achieve an arbitrary coefficient of thermal expansion in a pultruded composite structure. We will work with AEC, a major fabricator of coilable booms for spacecraft, to estimate performance improvements in typical masts that could be attained by application of KCI's hybrid composite rod technology.

MAXDEM INCORPORATED
140 E. Arrow Highway
San Dimas, CA 91773
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 394-0644
Mark S. Trimmer
BMDO 98-013
Title:Thermosetting Polyarylene Matrix Resins
Abstract:Current and future aerospace systems require new cost-effective, high-temperature composite matrix resins without chemical functional groups that are susceptible to hydrolysis (e.g., imides). Maxdem has developed novel rigid-rod polyparaphenylenes, designated Poly-X(TM) resins, with unique combinations of processability, mechanical strength and stiffness, hardness, toughness, moisture and chemical resistance, thermal stability, and competitive cost. High compressive strength thermoplastic composites have been fabricated with Poly-X(TM) matrix resins, but softening temperatures are too low for many aerospace applications. However, preliminary results suggest that related thermoset polyarylene formulations can be made that show little or no moisture uptake, contain no hydrolyzable chemical moieties, and have high softening temperatures after cure. During the proposed Phase I effort, initial thermosetting polyarylene compositions will be prepared and demonstrated to be useful as matrix resins for high-temperature structural composites. Key Phase I objectives include verification of the high-temperature utility, hygrothermal stability, and practical processability and curing chemistry of the proposed polyarylene formulations. If successful, the results will support additional resin optimization studies and fabrication of the most promising candidate resins into prepregs and composite test coupons for more detailed mechanical and thermal evaluation during Phase II efforts.

MONTEC ASSOCIATES, INC
P.O. Box 4182
Butte, MT 59702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 494-5555
David P. Haack
BMDO 98-013
Title:Cold Electrostatic Deposition of Materials on Heat Sensitive and Other Substrates
Abstract:The proposed process will provide the capability to deposit metal coatings onto heat sensitive composite substrates. The process eliminates problems associated with thermal spray technologies, including oxidation, contamination and overheating of the coating and substrate materials. This process enables dense, adherent coatings to be applied to low temperature composite materials for wear, corrosion and temperature resistant surfaces. The innovation employs a proprietary method to propel molten metallic and other powders to a substrate where they are deposited to form protective coatings. The process significantly reduces the heat imparted to the substrate surface compared to conventional thermal spray technologies. Phase I will examine the feasibility of the process to coat temperature sensitive materials with metallic materials, and will evaluate the strength and adhesion properties of the deposited coating. A prototype system will be constructed and tested. Phase II R/R&D will examine the application of desirable coatings and their properties, and will develop systems capable of coating large structures at remote sites. Phase 111 will implement a commercialization plan to market and sell coating systems to composite and equipment manufacturers.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Hartmut H. Legner
BMDO 98-013
Title:Lightweight Structural Composites
Abstract:Space structures and high-speed interceptor technology can be significantly enhanced if lighter weight composite structural materials that possess inherently high-strength damage-resistant properties can be developed on a cost-effective basis. A novel laminated sandwich composite concept is proposed that has the potential to significantly improve upon stiffened composites in use today. Current stiffened composites such as honeycomb cored laminates have limited high-temperature applications for advanced space and ground systems and generally are costly to fabricate and maintain. Innovative composite material concepts are proposed which offer significant potential improvement in service durability as well as lost cost of fabrication. The concepts consist of laminated face plates with foamed cores. The concepts utilize the addition of fibers into the foam core to provide increased shear strength. Through-the-thickness--oriented-reinforcement of the face plate provides additional impact resistance due to its crack arresting qualities.

QUANTUM MAGNETICS, INC.
7740 Kenamar Ct.
San Diego, CA 92126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 566-9200
Dr. Stephanie Vierkotter
BMDO 98-013
Title:Non-Destructive Evaluation of Fiber-Reinforced Composites for In-Service Maintenance and Fabrication Control via Embedded NQR Strain Sensors
Abstract:Fiber-reinforced composites are lightweight, high-performance materials that play a critical role in the design of space structures, surface launched interceptors and other ground and space based systems. Quality control in-service and during fabrication is of paramount importance to maximizing the capability of advanced composites and to increase cost effectiveness. What is needed is a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method to easily monitor the condition of the composite during its entire lifetime, preferably with embedded sensors which must not perturb the properties of the composite. Quantum Magnetics is proposing a novel nondestructive strain sensor for this application. By measuring internal and surface strains, flaws in the composite structure can be detected at their onset. Early flaw detection will prevent catastrophic failures, costly repairs and serve as quality control during fabrication. No external stress needs to be applied to the tested structure. The proposed strain gage is based on the principle of Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR). 1-5wt% of crystalline additives is blended into the resin during fabrication of the composite structure. For testing, the composite is irradiated with radio frequencies to evoke an NQR response from the embedded crystals, which is a linear function of strain.

SURFACE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
207 Big Springs Avenue, P.O. Box 370
Tullahoma, TN 37388
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 666-6080
Michael A. Riley
BMDO 98-013
Title:Laser Induced Surface Modification of Metals for Low-cost Manaufacturing of Improved Wear Surfaces
Abstract:Surface Treatment Technologies, Inc., proposes the application of Laser Induced Surface Improvement (LISI) technology for the high-throughput, low-cost modification of metal surfaces to promote enhanced wear and impact resistance. The LISI approach involves the application of laser energy to a small spot and inducing a shallow (< lmm) melt-pool on the surface of a base metal. Included in this melt-pool are powder master-alloying additions of metals, ceramics, or compounding additives. As the laser is rapidly scanned over a surface, the top lmm of the base metal is transformed into a new alloy with pre-selected material properties and protective surfaces (wear, corrosion, thermal transient, impact, atomic oxygen, etc.). Because of the method of formation in which the surface is grown from the base alloy, a LISI modification has excellent chemical and mechanical bonding to the substrate - it is not a coating in the traditional sense. Further, the LISI manufacturing process has proven to be environmentally friendly and relatively inexpensive. This effort shall focus on the design and evaluation of LISI surfaces on lightweight materials for wear and other potential applications. Master alloying additions, laser optics, laser energy, tracking speed, and zone overlap will all be addressed.

SYSCOM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2880 Wynneleaf Street
Hilliard, OH 43026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-9125
Jar-Wha Lee
BMDO 98-013
Title:Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Polymers for Extreme Temperature Structural Applications
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I program will test a solution processing scheme for fabricating shaped structural components, such as sheets and tubes, from a class of rigid-chain lyotropic liquid crystalline polymers. This class of polymers includes rigid-rod polymers such as poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBZT) and extended-chain polymers such as poly(p-phenylene terephthalarnide) (PPTA). These polymers usually do not melt upon heating to their degradation temperature at approximately 500C. Therefore, normally, they are extruded and coagulated from their liquid crystalline solutions into high-strength, high-modulus fibers. In this Phase I research program, the rigid-chain lyotropic liquid crystalline polymers will be processed into monolithic, shaped structural components via a thermally reversible phase transformation of their concentrated solutions. The thermal formation of the structural components can be carried out by conventional extrusion and molding techniques used for thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. The highly anisotropic liquid crystalline solutions allow the shaped structural components to be processed with significant molecular orientation, giving rise to self-reinforcing mechanical properties. These structural components are expected to have the essential thermal and mechanical properties for stringent applications at both cryogenic and elevated temperatures.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway #212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 261-8373
Dr. Tony Ying
BMDO 98-013
Title:Quasicrystalline Lubricants for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:Moving mechanisms for satellites as well as missile propulsion and space power require significant improvements in the temperature capabilities of lubricant materials and lubrication systems. The Wear Sciences and Coatings Group of TA&T, Inc. is pleased to propose a significant state-of-the-art advance in wide temperature range solid lubrication. Using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering, unique Al-Cu-Fe-Cr and Al-Co-Fe-Cr quasicrystalline coatings offer the potential for both low friction and low wear from ambient up to as high as 900C plus. Scratch adhesion, nanoindentation hardness, braile indentation, room and high temperature friction and wear tests will be used for comparing the physical and tribo-characteristics of the experimental films. Inconel 718 will be coated with the most promising coatings and tested under start-up and touch-down conditions indicative of foil bearings. These tests and post test analyses will provide the basis for coating refinements, foil bearing, rolling element bearing, fretting and abradable seal testing in Phase II.

UTRON, INC.
8506 Wellington Rd, Suite 200
Manassas, VA 20109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-5552
Arul Mozhi
BMDO 98-013
Title:Processing Bulk Nanostructured Materials Using Controlled Detonation Waves
Abstract:BMDO seeks development of advanced techniques and processes for major improvements in materials properties and cost effectiveness. Nanostructured materials constitute a new frontier in materials science. Materials exhibit remarkable properties when their grain size is refined to 100's of nm. The proposed technique utilizes the energy from a detonation wave to impart severe plastic deformation to refine the material's grains to 100's of nm. This technique is innovative because 1) high temperatures and dynamic loads can be applied in short time frames with resultant small heat transfer, 2) fully-dense bulk materials can be economically processed, 3) there are no moving mechanical parts, complex electromagnetic circuits, or large electrical discharges, 4) the process will use readily available fuel gases, 5) it is adaptable to the processing of large and varied shape components. UTRON will: (1) develop a methodology for controlled and repeatable detonation of various gaseous propellants/fuels, (2) analyze different material loading configurations, and (3) develop a design of a prototype device for Phase II experiments. The Phase II objectives will be to demonstrate repetitive and controlled detonation of gaseous propellants and demonstrate the technique for processing bulk nanostructured light metallic (A1, Ti, Mg) based alloys and composites.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS, INC.
7 Commerce Drive
Danbury, CT 06810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 794-1100
Barbara Landini
BMDO 98-014
Title:Vandium Precursors for Semi-Insulating SiC Epilayers
Abstract:Silicon carbide (SiC) is an ideal semiconductor material for high temperature, high frequency, and high power electronic devices. A SiC technology analogous to silicon - on -insulator (SOI) will be feasible if a suitable dopant precursor and epitaxial growth technique to produce semi-insulating SiC can be developed. Vanadium is an attractive dopant for the formation of semi-insulating SiC. In Phase I, Advanced Technology Materials, Inc. (ATMI) will synthesize and characterize vanadium precursors for use as in-situ dopants to produce semi-insulating SiC epilayers. In-situ vanadium doped SiC epitaxial films will be grown using three different downselected precursors. Correlations between the vanadium concentration, growth conditions, and the structural and electrical properties, will be made for films grown using the precursors. The optimal vanadium precursor material and growth conditions will be identified. In Phase II, the vanadium precursor synthesis will be refined. The V-doping process will also be optimized, and prototype SOI structures will be developed and grown. Devices employing vanadium doped insulating layers will be grown, fabricated, and tested. Phase III will focus on commercialization of vanadium precursors and vanadium doped SI SiC epilayers and device structures.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS, INC.
7 Commerce Drive
Danbury, CT 06810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 794-1100
Ing-Shin Chen
BMDO 98-014
Title:Radiation hard, nonvolatile, NRDO memory elements
Abstract:Metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor field effect transistors (MFS-FETs) have a can be used as nonvolatile memory devices. The primary ferroelectric materials for these devices are perovskite oxides such as lead zirconium titanate (PZT) and strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT). These materials contain highly mobile elements (Pb and Bi) that can interact with silicon at process temperatures and lead to a high density of mobile charge traps at the interface. An additional oxide layer between the ferroelectric and silicon has been proposed to serve as a diffusion barrier. In practice, deposition of this barrier oxide typically involves introduction of oxygen at heated silicon wafer surface and an unwanted low permittivity silicon oxide layer is formed on the silicon surface. We recently developed a process that offers the opportunity to produce an interface with minimal formation of interfacial oxide. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of this novel process in suppressing parasitic oxide formation. MIS and MFIS capacitors will be fabricated using PZT and SrTiO3 as the ferroelectric and the barrier materials. Phase II will result in an optimized process for MFIS-FET transistors for nonvolatile memory applications, to be fabricated in collaboration with an industrial partner that will be identified in Phase I.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORPORATION
2235 Polvorosa Avenue, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Dr. Rahul R. Prasad
BMDO 98-014
Title:Optically Controlled, High Repetition Rate, High Power Diamond Switches
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) proposes to develop a new type of trigger for a high voltage, high repetition rate diamond switch. AASC has previously developed diamond switches with electron beam triggers. These switches handle 10-20 kV voltage pulses with <50 ns rise/fall times and switch 10-100 A at temperatures up to 375 C with on-state properties comparable to Si and SiC devices. The electron beam triggered switches require 100-300 keV electron sources to trigger switches handling 5-25 kV. If it is possible to replace the high voltage electron beam trigger with a W trigger, overall system architecture would be greatly simplified. In Phase I a set of experiments will be carried out that will show operation at ~100 MHz frequencies with closing and opening times <10 ns, using W radiation as the trigger. In Phase II, the knowledge gained in the Phase I research would be applied to the manufacture and demonstration of prototype W triggered diamond switches designed to switch both high current and high voltage at high frequencies. AASC will establish a product line of devices for several defense and commercial applications immediately following the proposed SBIR funded effort.

BREWER SCIENCE, INC.
2401 Brewer Drive, P.O. Box GG
Rolla, MO 65401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 364-0300
Jim D. Meador
BMDO 98-014
Title:Bottom Anti-Reflective Coatings (BARCs) for 193 nm Lithography
Abstract:A long-standing trend in the integrated circuit industry is to reduce pattern geometries on semiconductor substrates. To continue this trend, the next exposure wavelength after on-going deep-ultraviolet (248 nm) will be 193 nm. This SBIR Phase I program will identify and develop thermosetting bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARCs) meeting requirements for use with 193 nm unilayer resists. A series of hydroxy-functional, dye-attached polymers designed specifically for 193 nm BARC usage will be synthesized in virtually rote reactions. Subsequent formulation with a thermal crosslinker and catalyst in safe solvent solutions will provide thermosetting products, thus assuring insolubility of the cured film in photoresist solvents. Comparable work has already provided commercial 248 nm BARCs. BARC properties considered necessary for compatibility with unilayer 193 nm resists will be measured. An Olin/Lucent poly(cyclic olefin/maleic anhydride) 193 nm resist, that has already shown considerable promise with one of our thermoset BARCs, will be used for profile studies. A best-case BARC(s) will be selected from this Phase I study for scale-up and commercialization during the Phase II effort.

CCVD, INC., DBA MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIE
3901 Green Industrial Way
Chamblee, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 457-7767
Wen-yi Lin
BMDO 98-014
Title:Low Temperature CMOS Integratable Ferroelectric Thin Film Process
Abstract:Multi-component dielectric thin films suitable for solid state electronics have been deposited using various conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques, including organometallic CVD, plasma enhanced CVD, and low pressure CVD. However, these approaches are difficult to integrate with standard silicon IC processing of ferroelectric DRAM and NVFRAM attributed to high deposition temperatures, >600C, damaging the underlying transistor circuitry. In contrast, MicroCoating Technologies' (MCT) innovative, patented, open atmosphere Combustion CVD process can be used to deposit device grade ferroelectric films on wafers at <500C suitable for IC device processing. The CCVD process is described in detail herein. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has measured the electronic properties of test capacitors of 300 nm CCVD BST and SrTiO3 films deposited on Si/Ti/Pt wafers at ~400C substrate temperature. They display quality comparable to state-of-the-art CVD films, including uniformity, density, high permittivity, high dielectric breakdown strength, and low leakage current. MCT has also used the CCVD process to deposit epitaxial ferroelectric films on single crystal MgO substrates with great success. We propose to build on this initial achievement to apply the CCVD technique for commercially viable deposition of high performance dielectrics for integration with dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and non-volatile ferroelectric memory (NVFRAM) fabrication. Ba1-xSrxTiO3 (BST) and SrTiO3 (STO) will be the primary candidate materials for DRAM due to their high dielectric constants. Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) and SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) are valued for NVFRAM applications owing to their high switchable polarization. In Phase I, we will grow high quality thin films with desired substrate temperatures < 500C and evaluate their physical, chemical, and electronic properties. The CCVD process and materials will be optimized for integrated circuit applications and reproducibility will be demonstrated. This will lay a solid groundwork for Phases II in which we will scale up and automate the CCVD process for reliable, cost effective processing of semico

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
25 Cord Dr.
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-4015
Glen A. Slack
BMDO 98-014
Title:Preparation of Aluminum Nitride Substrates for Device Fabrication
Abstract:We propose to prepare AlN substrates from single-crystal boules of AlN. When properly prepared, these AlN substrates should be superior to all substrates currently available commercially. In particular, the AlN substrates have significantly superior chemical compatibility, lattice/crystal structure match, thermal expansion match, and thermal conductivity when compared to sapphire substrates that are currently being extensively used for eptixial growth. In addition, the higher thermal conductivity, larger band-gap energy and higher thermal stability of AlN will be attractive for many nitride applications. However, two key technical issues need to be overcome before AlN substrates can be used for epitaxial layer growth for device application. These key obstacles are: (1) the extreme hardness of the AlN makes it easy to propagate microscopic defects into the surface of the substrate when mechanical polishing is used; and (2) the removal of the oxide layer on the AlN surface prior to epitaxial growth. We will determine wafer grinding, polishing and chemical cleaning techniques that can be scaled up into an AlN wafer production facility.

EMCORE CORPORATION
394 Elizabeth Avenue
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 271-9090
Robert Karlicek
BMDO 98-014
Title:Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of GaN in Large Area MOCVD Reactors
Abstract:A successful large area ELO GaN process technology will lead to a low cost 'virtual substrate' for LED and high performance III-N based devices. We propose to investigate the application of this technique in large area III-Nitride MOCVD reactors, up to 42x2" and 12x4", using both sapphire and silicon substrates; the latter as a low cost alternative to sapphire for high volume/low cost devices. EMCORE will investigate the use of both SiOx and SiNx mask layers on sapphire and silicon substrates. In addition to process parameters such as V/III ratio and growth pressure, novel use of surfactants and SiNx based mask layers, will be investigated in order to optimize the ELO technique in EMCORE large area MOCVD reactors. Materials and devices grown by ELO will be characterized in order to quantify the effectiveness of the dislocation reduction in the structures. Special attention will be paid to characterization of InGaN MQW structures as well as p-GaN and p-AIGaN grown with ELO GaN as the virtual substrate on both sapphire and silicon. LED's from the U V to blue, as well as W photodetectors, with be fabricated on ELO GaN films and the device performance fully characterized.

EPION CORPORATION
4R Alfred Circle
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3703
Dr. David Fenner
BMDO 98-014
Title:Applicaiton of Nitrogen Gas Cluster Beams for Reacitve Formation of GaN Thin Films at Low Temperatures
Abstract:Nitride semiconductors have characteristics of interest for future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Improved thin film growth techniques for these materials will be required. Beams of energetic gas cluster ions comprised of hundreds or thousands of nitrogen molecules can be formed. Upon impact on solid surfaces, cluster ions are able to produce a number of effects which are not produced by monomer ions. It is believed that these effects can be employed for reactive growth of superior nitride materials at very low temperatures. The Phase I investigation will identify suitable cluster beam conditions for growth of GaN and will demonstrate preliminary GaN material.

EPITAXIAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC.
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5594
Dr. Olaleye Aina
BMDO 98-014
Title:Novel Auger Transistors
Abstract:Epitaxial Technologies proposes to develop innovative material structures for Auger transistors that can be used for millimeterwave oscillators. We will achieve this objective by performing device designs to determine suitable material structures and epitaxial growth processes. The primary goal of this proposed Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of Auger transistors by developing techniques for growing antimony and sulphide based heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and projecting the oscillator performance that can be realised from Auger transistors through material and device designs. In Phase II, we will further optimize the material structures and design and fabricate Auger transistors and millimeterwave oscillators based on them.

EPITAXIAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC.
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5594
Dr. Olaleye Aina
BMDO 98-014
Title:Linear Antimony-based HFETs for Microwave and Millimeter Wave Applications
Abstract:Epitaxial Technologies proposes to develop novel material and device tech, nologies using antimony-based active channels for highly linear microwave devices that can be used to simultaneously produce low noise and high power. To do this, we will perform materials and device design to determine suitable material structures and epitaxial growth processes. The main goal of this proposed Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of ultra high linearity HFETs by developing techniques for growing antimony based heterostructures using Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and demonstrating through material and device design the performance enhancements and cost reductions that can be expected from ultra linear HFET MMICs. In Phase II of the proposed project, we will further optimize the material structures and design and fabricate HFETs with higher output power and IP3, and lower noise performance than currently available FETs.

EPITRONICS CORP.
21002 North 19th Avenue, Suite 5
Phoenix, AZ 85027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 581-3663
John Redwing
BMDO 98-014
Title:Alternative Substrates for Materials Integration
Abstract:The recent demonstration of twist bonded GaAs substrates offers the potential to develop universally compliant substrates upon which almost any III-V or related semiconductor can be grown without lattice mismatch induced defect formation. Compliant substrates would rapidly expand and improve a number of device applications, such as Sb-based detectors and a wide range of InGaAlAsP devices, which are currently limited by lattice mismatching constraints. Initial demonstrations of twist bonded GaAs have been limited in area. In order to fully evaluate the potential of this technology within the context of standard device fabrication and testing protocol, full wafers (22' dia.) must be produced and evaluated. Wafer flatness and cleanliness are the key limitations to achieving atomic scale bonding over large areas. In order to achieve uniform bonding, it is necessary to develop an etch stop epitaxial structure that results in a clean, smooth epi surface and also enables efficient removal of the sacrificial GaAs substrate. In Phase I, Epitronics proposes to develop an optimum etch stop epitaxial structure that will enable the fabrication of large area twist bonded substrates. In Phase II, we will demonstrate large area twist bonded substrates suitable for epitaxial growth and device fabrication and testing.

FED CORPORATION
1580 Route 52
Hopewell Junction, NY 12533
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 892-1900
Warren J. Oldham, Jr.
BMDO 98-014
Title:Synthesis of New Conjugated Polymers for High Performance Optoelectronic Applications
Abstract:FED Corporation proposes to design and chemically synthesize a novel type of conjugated polymer for optoelectronic applications, including organic light emitting diodes (OLED), photovoltaics, and thin film solid state lasers. This new organic material is expected to outperform the current state-of-the-art organic optoelectronic materials by virtue of its unique molecular structure featuring a double chain design. This work is specifically undertaken to develop a highly robust, thermally and electronically stable organic material required to construct electrically pumped thin film solid state lasers and high brightness organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays. In this Phase 1 project we will develop appropriate synthetic methodology to prepare a novel conjugated organic polymer. The new material will be evaluated by integration into OLED test structures to measure I-V characteristics, luminance efficiency, and durability under high excitation conditions. During Phase 2 related derivatives of the new organic compound incorporating donor and acceptor groups along the polymer backbone will be developed to allow band gap control for color options.

GENUS, INC.
1139 Karlstad Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 747-7140
Thomas E. Seidel
BMDO 98-014
Title:Ultra-Thin Metal Barriers for Advanced Interconnects
Abstract:The SIA National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS) has defined a need for ultra-thin (<80angstrom) barrier materials, to enable full implementation of Cu interconnects. The NTRS says: "There is no known solution to meet these requirements." The objectives of the program provide an innovative but viable pathway to demonstrate ultra-thin metal barrier films using materials that are included in the industry's roadmap for implementation of Cu interconnects. The Phase 1 program will demonstrate the feasibility of a deposition process for ultra-thin metal barriers through the development of a process and tool capable of controlling atomic level reactions. The basic method employs advanced chemistry, and the applied surface science deals with the understanding and definition of layer growth initiation. The approach emphasizes attention to meeting the critical goals of uniformity control at the levels of atomic dimensions, film conformality in high aspect ratio structures, application to large wafers, and low deposition temperatures. The technology should serve the needs of the semiconductor industry through 2015. Genus, Inc. has developed capabilities and a partnering infrastructure to demonstrate proof of concept.

IBAR, INC.
4853 Farrell Road
SanFord, NC 27330
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 718-0165
Robert J. Markunas
BMDO 98-014
Title:High Fluence Plasma Source for MBE Applicaitons
Abstract:Technical Abstract (Limit your abstract to 200 words with no classified or proprietary information/data.) This program seeks to demonstrate a new generation, nitrogen plasma source that targets growth of GaN (and its m-v nitride alloys) using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The objective of this demonstration is to show the viability of producing a high atomic nitrogen flux (as achieved by a high, coupled power density) combined with no source erosion and contamination. Additionally, an integrated, close coupled power supply will be part of this design and plasma source demonstration.

IBAR, INC.
4853 Farrell Road
SanFord, NC 27330
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 718-0165
Robert J. Markunas
BMDO 98-014
Title:Ultra-Compact VHF Power Supply for Close-Coupled Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials
Abstract:This program seeks to demonstrate an innovative high power, ultra-compact, VHF plasma power supply. This power supply would be an essential component in new generation plasma processing tools, which may have DoD and commercial application elsewhere Anticipated Benefits/Potential Commercial Applications of the Research or Development. This program seeks to demonstrate an innovative high power, ultra-compact, VHF plasma power supply. This power supply would be an essential component in new generation plasma processing tools, which may have DoD and commercial application elsewhere

IMPLANT SCIENCES CORPORATION
107 Audubon Road, #5
Wakefield, MA 01880
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 246-0700
Stephen N. Bunker, Ph.D
BMDO 98-014
Title:High Gain, High Temperature, Radiation Tolerant, Solar Blind GaN Phototransitor Prepared by Ion Implantation
Abstract:Implant Sciences Corporation proposes to develop a novel high gain, high temperature solar blind phototransistor design based on ion implanted Gallium Nitride semiconductor material which will meet the demanding performance specifications required for advanced aircraft and space borne applications. The advantages of GaN in these applications are threefold: first, since the atomic bond in GaN is very strong, applications in radiation intensive environments allows for device survivability; second, GaN is a wide band gap material which allows devices to operate in high temperature environments; third/ it is highly sensitive to the W signature of missile propulsion emissions. Our lateral device design features a homoepitaxial GaN bipolar phototransistor with the base, emitter, and collector doped by ion implantation. Key to producing these devices is the p-doping of the base which Implant Sciences has just recently achieved with a proprietary implantation process. Ion implantation allows selective area doping which allows for cost reductions associated with device fabrication. Implanting donor ions in the emitter and collector will also the reduce series resistance associated with this device. Devices will be fabricated, tested, and compared with device results in the literature based on other semiconductor materials. In Phase II we shall optimize the device design and the implantation conditions to produce a device which can deliver highly sensitive solar-blind phototransistors.

INTEGRATED DATA SYSTEMS, INC.
6001 Chatam Center Drive, suite 300
Savannah, GA 31405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(912) 236-4374
Dr. Rona E. Belford
BMDO 98-014
Title:Mechanically Strained, High Mobility, Strained-Si Devices
Abstract:The aim of this effort is to inexpensively produce high performance strained-Si devices. The idea is to introduce strain into the Si lattice mechanically, and not via lattice mismatched, layered, heterostructures. Strain will be introduced by curving the ICs around a cylindrical packaging form. Using only standard fabrication techniques, integrated circuitry will be processed on thin single crystal Si membranes (20 - 50 microns thick). During the fabrication process, the membranes will be supported on standard Si wafer substrates and de-mounted afterwards. These flexible membranes can then be bent around cylindrical supports inducing uni-directional -tensile-strain. Enhanced electronic effects (mobility etc.) will be evident in devices which are appropriately aligned. Mechanically inducing the strain will circumvent the inherent problems in heterostructure fabrication. Initial calculations indicate the defect density will also be substantially reduced as the uni-directional-strain required for enhanced mobility is lower than that associated with dislocation formation. Mechanically straining the lattice after IC processing offers the possibility of a wide range of high speed devices in strained-Si, both unipolar and bipolar which are difficult to fabricate within the geometric confines of epitaxial device design. The applications are therefore in, inexpensive, high speed, strained-Si Devices.

MAXIOS LASER CORPORATION
6551 Sierra Lane
Dublin, CA 94568
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 833-1969
Helmuth E. Meissner
BMDO 98-014
Title:10W cw Class Er:YAG/ Sapphire Waveguide Laser
Abstract:Maxios Laser Corporation proposes to investigate in Phase 1 a laser diode pumped Er:YAG/ sapphire waveguide laser at 2.94 um as representative of a family of new laser systems which show potential to build more compact laser systems at high beam quality. We plan to design and start to build in Phase 1, a bench model Er:YAG waveguide laser/ amplifier chain capable of generating 10W--15W of cw output power, and to develop a detailed energetics model benchmarking the performance of this cw Er:YAG system. The benchmarked energetics code will in turn be used to generate a detailed design for further scaling Er:YAG waveguide lasers, and serve to design a TIR q-switch. The two principal features of this technology which Maxios Laser plans to exploit in Phase 1 are: (a) A cavity design compatible with using commercially available laser diode arrays as pump beams without employing focusing or coupling optics between the diode bar and the gain medium. (b) The high gain, which a waveguide configuration offers, enables a range of optical resonator designs that are conducive to producing diffraction limited output beams. After commencing construction of a laboratory cw laser in Phase 1, we will construct a compact modular q-switched laser system in Phase 2.

NANOCHEM RESEARCH, INC.
3740 Hawkins NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-1492
Daniel Skamser
BMDO 98-014
Title:Formation of Hollow Microspheres by Spray Pyrolysis
Abstract:Wireless portable communications is a multi-billion dollar industry that demands ever-faster and smaller cellular devices. The heart of theses devices is the multi-chip module (MCM) which connects the electrical communication components to another, and governs both the speed of communication signals between the components and the size of the portable device. Futrure generations of portable devices require smaller and faster MCMs to meet customer demands. However, the problem of crosstalk between metalization lines develops when the size of the MCM is decreased. This can be minimized by reducing the dielecric constant of the dielecric layers in the MCM substrate. The best way to reduce the dieelctric constant is by adding holllow microspheres which add controlled porosity to dielectric layers of the MCM. Nanochem has a process which can supply alumina microspheres with sizes ranging from 1 to 3 microns and have dense thin-walled shells which are impermeable to water and oil absorption. Optimum conditions will be determined to formt he hollow microspheres. These optimum microspheres will be tested in MCM devices and tested for dielectric properties.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORPORATION
2849 East Elvira Rd
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
Zhonglin Wu, Ph.D.
BMDO 98-014
Title:Nanostructured Polymer/Ceramic Composites for Electronic Packaging
Abstract:Advances in microelectronics not only require fast and reliable semiconductor chip but also an equally fast and reliable packaging. Low dielectric constant, high thermal conductivity, and desired thermal expansion coefficient are key requirements for high performance electronic packaging materials. Neither ceramics nor polymers can satisfy all these requirements simultaneously. Composites, if probably engineered, may provide unobtainable properties with ceramics or polymers alone. This effort seeks to develop nanostructured polymer-ceramic composites through compositional and microstructural design, which will provide unmatchable combination of dielectric constant, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and other properties. Phase I will systematically establish the proof-of-concept; Phase II will optimize, scale-up and qualify the novel approaches; Phase III will commercialize the technology.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORPORATION
2849 East Elvira Rd
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
Ming Au
BMDO 98-014
Title:Miniature, High Frequency PTC Electronic Components
Abstract:Existing PTC electronic components such as those used in degauss circuits are unsatisfactory for high power, high frequency, and small foot print requirements. These technology limitations can be addressed with components prepared from proprietary band-gap engineered materials. Nanomaterials Research Corporation (NRC), during Phase I, seeks to establish the proof-of-concept of commercially useful, band-gap engineered PTC components. Phase II effort will seek to optimize and produce prototypes in 1000s. Phase III will commercialize the technology.

NEW JERSEY MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
240 Maritn Luther King Blvd.
Newark, NJ 07102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 297-1450
Alex Usenko
BMDO 98-014
Title:Low Cost SOI Wafer Process for MEMS and VLSI Applications
Abstract:MicSOI (silicon-on-insulator) material is a most promising substrate for military and commercial applications. The SOI process based on hydrogen-implantation, wafer splitting, and wafer bonding is the newest and the cheapest approach to SOI fabrication. We propose to develop hydrogen-implanted SOI wafer process for production with a focus on improving the quality of SOI thus improving radiation hardness of the buried oxide in SOI-based devices. A problem for SOI material as related to radiation hard microelectronics is a positive charge trapping in buried SiO2 layer. The trapping sensitivity is 10 to 100 times higher than in conventional thermal oxide layer. This prevents the use of SOI as a mainstream starting material for military and commercial VLSI. We have already determined that implantation and bonding do not cause quality decreasing of the buried oxide. The charge trapping is caused by two neighboring and opposite internal Si/SiO2 interfaces. Our approach to solve the trapping problem is novel additional step in SOI wafer processing. This is high dose ionizing irradiation of wafers with subsequent annealing. This treatment decreases drastically internal stress in the SOI sandwich thus highly decreasing density of traps for holes in buried oxide and at both toD and bottom Si/SiO2 interfaces. New variations of SOI process also suggested to improve quality of SOI wafers.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Rd.
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 996-1608
Dexin Wang
BMDO 98-014
Title:High Temperature Spin-Dependent Tunneling Materials
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of making Spin-Dependent Tunneling (SDT) materials with high temperature durability. These SDT materials will withstand the temperatures encountered during chip packaging and in standard CMOS back end processing, and they will demonstrate long term stability at operating temperatures to 150 C. Nonvolatile Electronics, Inc. has demonstrated the functionality of SDT devices at wafer level using photolithography techniques. These SDT devices have the high sensitivity (3%/Oe), necessary for very low field applications, and have high impedance (1 to lOOM-Ohm um2), leading to very lower power consumption. However, they show relatively poor thermal stability, which will be an obstacle for making either discrete or integrated devices. A Phase II program will further optimize the materials/device properties and integrate SDT devices with standard CMOS semiconductor technology and standard chip packaging. Memory, logic, and sensor functions will be demonstrated in Phase II using these optimized structures. There are immediate commercial opportunities for magnetic field and current sensing devices, low power isolators, solid state relays, and magnetic random access memories.

RADIANT RESEARCH INC.
9430 Research Blvd., Echelon IV,Suite 305
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 338-4942
Dr. Brian M. Davies
BMDO 98-014
Title:Multiplexed Photopolymeric Holograms for Guided-Wave Optical Backplane Aimed at High Performance Computer Applications
Abstract:The major bottleneck to upgrade the system performance of a high performance computer is primarily at the backplane level where interconnect distance seriously jeopardizes the data rate. Both material and device research works are needed to further enhance the data rate at the backplane level. Radiant Research, Inc. (RRI), proposes photopolymer-based multiplexed waveguide holograms for optical backplane interconnection scheme that is capable of providing the equivalent interconnectivity and the architecture flexibility promised by the three-dimensional optical interconnects while maintaining the packaging reliability, low system insertion loss and cost-effectiveness. The total aggregate bandwidth is expected to be two orders of magnitude higher than a single-channel optical interconnection and three orders of magnitude higher than that of electrical interconnection. The guided wave optical backplane employed is a ~mm thick waveguiding plate in conjunction with multiplexed volume holograms based on photopolymeric materials. Two-dimensionally ( 2D) pixelated signals can be bidirectionally transmitted and received using the third dimension. As a result, the highest interconnectivity can be realized while maintaining the TEMoo optical signal mode profile which significantly simplifies the system packaging. The system insertion loss is therefore greatly reduced. The idea presented herein is a truly bidirectional optical backplane bus with broadcast capability that is equivalent to EEE standardized bus protocols for VMEbus, Futurebus+ and FASTBUS. In phase I, the three-dimensionality of the proposed system will be demonstrated using a two dimensional (2-D) VCSEL array in conjunction with 2-D photopolymer-based waveguide holograms.

SIMPEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
451 W. Lambert Road, Suite 211
Brea, CA 92821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 529-9407
Bernard K. Siu
BMDO 98-014
Title:Electronic Materials
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop a real-time, non-contact laser ultrasonic technology for detecting embedded voids (microns) and assessing bond integrity of joining materials at micro-level. This technology will be implemented to support process development and production of Silicon Carbide (SiC) semiconductor and devices. This new breed of SiC has been identified as the material of the future because of its superior properties to withstand harsh performance environments where traditional silicon and gallium arsenide (the semiconductor used in nearly all of today's electronics) cannot function. An example includes flameout detectors on uncooled aircraft engine operating in excess of 600 degrees C and beyond. Non of the traditional process control technologies is suitable nor efficient enough to support the fabrication of these SiC structures. Simpex Technologies' proposed technology consists of two independent lasers. The pulse laser is used as the source while the continuous wave laser is used as the detector. Simply, our technique represents an automation of the classical `tap test' in which the surface is struck in some fashion and an experienced listener determines the flaw and adhesion from the sound generated. This technique is much improved from the traditional contact type techniques. The object need not be contacted, the excitation is much gentler than that required in a contact test, and the whole approach lends itself to automation.

SKION CORP.
50 Harrison St.
Hoboken, NJ 07030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 963-5450
Dr. Catherine Rice
BMDO 98-014
Title:Direct Ga and N Ion Beam Epitaxy of GaN
Abstract:Ballistic missile defense applications of the future will require ever more powerful electronic devices, capable of operation at high frequencies and power and able to withstand high temperatures. Gallium nitride is one of the most promising materials for such applications. Although a number of devices such as light emitting diodes and junction field effect transistors have been fabricated using GaN, material quality remains a stumbling block to full utilization of its potential. SKION proposes to provide a breakthrough in GaN deposition using its patented metal ion beam technology. This process precisely controls the energy of the deposited species, enabling the production of thin films with precise crystalline phase control and high film quality at lower deposition temperatures than possible with the current state-of-the-art. In this Phase I program SKION will develop and demonstrate a novel Ga+ ion source based on a modification of its well-demonstrated and commercialized Cs+ ion beam technology. This new source will be used to deposit high-quality GaN thin films on silicon substrates. For this effort SKION will team with Arizona State University. The ASU group was the first to demonstrate that the Ga and N direct ion beam method is superior to thermal techniques. To combine ASU's experience in ion beam deposition of wide bandgap semiconductors with SKION's process and equipment expertise will ensure successful process development for heteroepitaxial GaN on Si. Program objectives include development of the new high area Ga+ ion source and demonstration of epitaxial GaN growth on 4" silicon wafers. This program is addressed to the expressed BMDO need for improved electronic materials, including exploitation of the unusual electronic properties of GaN.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION
210 Brook Village Road, Suite 38
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 456-5686
Dr. James E. Murguia
BMDO 98-014
Title:Band Gap Engineering Heterojunction Internal Photoemission Detector
Abstract:Infrared focal plane array detector fabrication on silicon substrates has many desirable features such as transparent substrates (no thinning), low cost large area wafers, robust mechanical properties, absence of thermal expansion mismatch between the detector and silicon readout, and option for monolithic construction. The use of silicon based Schottky barriers for infrared detection is well established. The performance of PtSi/p-Si based imagers is limited by the low photoresponse of the Schottky diodes. We propose to demonstrate a new heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) infrared detector structure that retains the silicon substrate advantages of a Schottky-barrier detector while providing significantly higher quantum efficiency. The silicide Schottky contact will be replaced with a III-V thin film narrow gap semiconductor (InAsSb) grown on a p-type silicon substrate. Band gap engineering of the semiconductive materials allows optimization of the detector parameters. Performance predictions of the HIP detector based on a model of photon absorption and carrier diffusion indicate a potential for more than an order of magnitude improvement in quantum efficiency over PtSi/p-Si detectors .

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES, INC.
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-5909
Dr. Gary S. Tompa
BMDO 98-014
Title:Non-Cryogenically Cooled BST Functionally Graded Enhanced Pyroelectric IR Detectors
Abstract:Development of economic non-crvogenicallv cooled mid-wavelength infrared imaging devices with (~20 mK resolution is important for a great variety of military and commercial markets. GM, using Graded Ferroelectric Device (GFD) material technology, has made great progress in producing such a material. However, GM does not have a scaleable production capability for such devices. SMI, GMR&D, and COVA have joined together to "pool technology" and develop pyroelectric IR imaging material and device production. SMI has implemented large scale oxide MOCVD systems technology that is readily adapted to functionally graded device production needs. COVA/Virginia Tech has invented a patented flash evaporation liquid delivery system (FELD) that is critically needed for commercial scale MOCVD manufacture of many oxide films (BST, PZT, SBT, and so on). SMI will integrate both the FELD and the MOCVD system to produce discrete and functionally graded oxides. The combined technologies will enable manufacturing of a host of oxide films and, specifically for this program, functionally graded pyroelectric detectors at GM. In Phase I, SMI will work with COVA and GMR&D to show proof-of-principle of a system designed specifically to produce GFD materials. GMR&D has committed. in cash. > $115.000 dollars to this SMI-led team project. In Phase II, GMR&D will work with us to operate the system and demonstrate scaled prototype manufacturing of materials and operational devices. The result of this effort will be threefold: (i) an improved commercial computer-controlled flash evaporation liquid delivery system will be available for general purchase at the end of Phase I, (ii) a proven computer-controlled liquid delivery sourced MOCVD system and non-cryogenically cooled prototype imaging devices will both be available at the end of Phase II, and (iii) end user device applications and system sales will constitute Phase III, including the need of GM to produce millions of units per year.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES, INC.
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-5909
Dr. Gary S. Tompa
BMDO 98-014
Title:Enhanced Contact Layer Organic Light Emitting Diodes
Abstract:Organic based light emitting diodes have made significant advances in the past few years. An important factor in device performance is the transparent conducting contact layer. Presently, indium tin oxide (ITO) is used because it is an accepted standard and has a great deal of invested development. However, for several reasons, including work function, physical stability, and band alignment to organics, ITO is not necessarily the ideal contact layer for a given organic LED. In Phase L we propose to produce a series of alternative transparent and conductive films, fabricate working organic devices and evaluate performance issues. The new transparent and conductive oxide films will be produced using our existing MOCVD equipment and established processing techniques. The organic LEDs will be fabricated by thermal evaporation of tris 8--hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq) and naphthyl-substituted benzidine (NPB) at The University of Rochester, with guidance by researchers at Eastman Kodak. Films and devices will be evaluated by all participants. In Phase II we will refine the contact layer film properties and optimize working OLEDs, transitioning our device improvements into manufactured products for Phase III.

TECHNOLOGIES AND DEVICES INTERNATIONAL,
8660 Dakota Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-4382
Vladimir A. Dmitriev
BMDO 98-014
Title:Development of AlGaN/SiC Epitaxial Wafers
Abstract:We propose to develop AlGaN/SiC epitaxial wafers to be used as substrates for III-V nitride homoepitaxy. Lack of GaN and AIN substrates for homoepitaxy limits the development of electronic devices based on III-V nitrides. TDI has demonstrated that thin (~0.5 Sun) high quality GaN layers can be grown on silicon carbide wafers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). These structures, consisting of a thin GaN layer on SiC wafers, are called GaN/SiC epitaxial wafers. It was shown that GaN/SiC epitaxial wafers are good substrates for subsequent GaN homoepitaxial growth. SiC, as initial substrate material, provides excellent heat removal from device structure, gives cleaving possibility, and allows one to develop electronic devices with vertical current-flow geometry. Recently, we applied HVPE technique to AIN and AlGaN growth on SiC wafers. These results open the opportunity to develop AlGaN/SiC epitaxial wafers with A1N concentration ranging from 0 to 100%. In this case, composition of AlGaN epitaxial wafer will be controlled to minimize stress in the desired device structure. Another breakthrough has been achieved on HVPE growth of insulating GaN. The goal of Phase I is to prove the concept and demonstrate GaN/SiC, AlN/SiC, and Al0.5GaO.5N/SiC epitaxial wafers. We will demonstrate both conducting GaN/SiC epitaxial wafers and GaN/SiC epitaxial wafers with highly resistive GaN grown on semi-insulating SiC substrates. Test samples will be delivered. In Phase II, we plan to develop a multi-wafer production process for 2-inch AlGaN/SiC epitaxial wafers with reduced dislocation density.

TECHNOLOGIES AND DEVICES INTERNATIONAL,
8660 Dakota Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 361-5709
Vladimir Dmitriev
BMDO 98-014
Title:Development of silicon carbide epitaxial wafers with reduced micropipe density
Abstract:In this project Technologies and Devices International, Inc. (TDI) proposes-to develop silicon carbide (SiC) substrate material with reduced micropipe density. Our recent testing has demonstrated that micr( pipe density in SiC commercial wafers can be significantly reduced by filling micropipe channels in these wafers using a new SiC epitaxial approach After filling the micropipe in the initial wafer, we will grow a SiC homoepitaxial layer on the top of this wafer, forming a SiC epitaxial wafer with reduced micropipe density Such epitaxial wafers can be used as substrates for subsequent device fabrication or as seeds for SiC bulk growth These results afford the opportunity to develop SiC substrate material for large area high-power SiC devices. The goal of the Phase I project is to prove this concept and demonstrate a 41 mm diameter 6H-SiC and 4H-SiC wafers with average micropipe density less than 5 per cm2. We will also investigate how to apply this technology for larger SiC wafers. Test samples will be delivered. In Phase II, we plan to develop a multi-wafer production process for 2-inch (and 3-inch, if commercially available) 6H-SiC and 4H-SiC epitaxial wafers with reduced micropipe density. Phase II research will focus on growth technology for providing SiC epitaxial wafers without micropipes

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4429
Kristen J. Law
BMDO 98-014
Title:High Performance Materials for Integrated Capacitance
Abstract:Current trends towards miniaturization and increased performance of consumer electronics are requiring higher component densities in printed circuit boards. Microprocessors speeds are currently limited by inefficiencies in interconnects between the processor and supporting discrete devices such as capacitors. Further improvements in speed will required the integration of capacitors into the PC board. Successful integration will require development of materials with high dielectric constant and uniform response over a broad frequency and temperature range. Deposition and processing techniques must also be compatible with current board manufacturing. A composite material is proposed to meet these challenges, and will be based upon epoxy copolymers and nanometer scale ceramics synthesized at TPL. The specific goal is to obtain a parallel capacitance of 25 nF/cm2 in a thin film which can be deposited directly onto current FR-4 boards. TPL has extensive experience in dielectric polymers and ceramics, including the development of doping methods to produce 50 nm dielectric powders with flattened frequency and temperature response. TPL is currently working with AlliedSignal Laminates to develop processing techniques for embedded capacitance layers based upon titanate ceramics. This industrial partnership will be used to develop the new composite material to meet military and commercial application specifications.

UHV TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
113B West Park Drive
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 608-0311
Dr. Nalin Kumar
BMDO 98-014
Title:A Multi-Layer Diamond Cathode for High Power Applications
Abstract:A multi-layer diamond thin film field-emission cathode is proposed for high power applications such as UV lasers, high power switches, vacuum electronic devices and high--energy accelerators. The proposed optimization of various layers enables us to take advantage of high thermal conductivity of diamond to increase the maximum current obtained from each emission site thereby increasing the total current density. The proposed diamond cold cathodes developed using an integrated deposition-testing system will potentially offer higher stability, larger emission site density, and much higher lifetime than existing cold cathodes. Diamond's higher thermal conductivity, higher thermal diffusivity and lower sputter yield discourages thermal evaporation of emission sites, and thus reduces the possibility of catastrophic failure. UHV has constructed an innovative system whereby the cathodes can be deposited and tested without exposing them to air, and we propose to use this system to understand and optimize the emission site behavior. UHV will work with Sarnoff Corporation and Sandia Labs to successfully fabricate and analyze high power cathodes. Phase II will involve development of larger area cathodes for implementation in high power systems.

WITECH (WIDEGAP TECHNOLOGY, LLC)
5655 Lindero Canyo Road, Suite 404
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 964-9419
David Kapolnek
BMDO 98-014
Title:Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of GaN for Electronic Devices
Abstract:WiTech proposes the development of ultra low dislocation density GaN wafers for very high performance electronic device applications using Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth (LEO) on lattice mismatched sapphire substrates. Dislocations in GaN are ubiquitous, a direct result of the lack of a lattice matched substrate for GaN thin films. Lateral Epitaxn'al Overgrowth is a process by which crystal growth is accomplished in directions parallel to the plane of the substrate. This innovative growth technique relieves strain between GaN films and the substrate and provides a means to terminate dislocation propagation in epitaxial films. Achieving device quality LEO material (very low dislocation density, very high electron mobility, high electronic quality insulating buffers) will be undertaken as the primary goal of the process development. During phase I we will initiate the development of LEO GaN wafers and evaluate the electrical and structural quality of the LEO material. At the end of phase II, WiTech will have prototype 2" LEO GaN wafers on sapphire substrates. Utilizing innovative device design, very high performance X-band GaN power HEMT devices with wide gate peripheries will be fabricated to demonstrate the significance of the improved LEO GaN material quality.

AMERICAN SUPERCONDUCTOR CORPORATION
2 Technology Drive
Westborough, MA 01581
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 836-4200
Dr. Alex Otto
BMDO 98-015
Title:Low Loss, High Temperature Superconducting Wire For Inductive Energy Storage
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase l project is proposed by American Superconductor Corporation (ASC) to establish the feasibility of hermetically manufacturing small-filament, high temperature superconducting (HTS) composite wires for use above 20 K in AC magnet applications such as inductive energy storage devices. HTS magnet wire applications will typically operate under fluctuating magnetic field conditions where inductive losses can dissipate significant energy at operating current levels that are well below the zero field DC critical current of the superconductor. A resistive barrier layer that electrically isolates the filaments is essential to reduce these losses. But this layer also limits oxygen exchange with the external gas environment during reactions that form the superconductor. To solve this critical problem, a concept is proposed for controlling oxygen activity inside the HTS filament by a novel sheath material, without the need for oxygen exchange with an external gas environment during superconducting oxide formation. The Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating Bi2223 composites with oxygen activity control provided at each filament without the need for oxygen contact with an external gas environment.

CONDUCTUS, INC.
969 West Maude Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 523-9448
Dr. Seva Kaplunenko
BMDO 98-015
Title:Instantaneous Clock Recovery with Multi-Bit-Rate Fucntionality for High-Speed Communication and Switching Applications
Abstract:The increased complexity of the modern electronics increases size. which reduces speed because of time delays in the interconnects. As a result. for frequencies above a few GHz, asynchronous communication between subsets of a complex system is unavoidable. The disadvantage of this approach is the need to recover the phase (clock) of the digital signal, which for semiconductor circuits requires a few thousand clock periods. Recovering the phase of multi-bit-rate signals is even more difficult. A clock recovery circuit with locking time of one bit has been developed at Conductus which makes it available for asynchronous communication even with multi-bit-rate signals. For Phase I of the project Conductus will develop and test the clock recovery circuit at frequencies up to 40 GHz. The chip will be fabricated using TRW niobium nitride (NbN) technology on a subcontract basis. and tested at Conductus. Conductus will also design the optimum architecture for the multi-bit-rate clock recovery system, which will have a frequency recognition unit with short detection time. For Phase II of the effort, Conductus will propose to develop a complete integrated clock recovery unit. operating at 10K. supporting multiple bit rates, and packaged in a closed-cycle refrigerator.

EURUS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2031 E. Paul Dirac Drive
Tallahassee, FL 32310
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 574-1800
Richard G. Hodges
BMDO 98-015
Title:Unique Processing Method for Rapid Texturing of Long-Length YBCO High-Temperature Superconductors
Abstract:For the manufacture of long length YBCO superconductors, there is a need for process that will rapidly produce c-axis texture in thick films. During this Phase I, we will investigate a manufacturing process that has the potential to provide rapid formation of c-axis texture on both textured and non textured flexible metal substrates. During the Phase I we will setup the manufacturing process, produce samples, and characterize the samples. During the Phase I we will identify the processing parameters and equipment for scale up in the Phase II effort. The results of this research will enable the development of a process to provide c-axis texture of long length YBCO superconductors on flexible metal substrates. This process will not be dependent on vapor deposition processes which typically have slow deposition rates.

NEOCERA, INC.
100 Jersey Avenue, Building D, Box D-12
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 210-1010
K. S. Harshavardhan
BMDO 98-015
Title:Bandwidth Stabilized, Magnetically Tunable Superconducting Filters
Abstract:Successful development of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tunable devices such as multipole band pass filters and demonstration of their high-Q performance will lead to significant enhancements in several military and commercial communications systems The primary objective of the present SBIR program is to develop magnetically tunable HTS filter technology, integrating the superconducting properties of the HTS prototype YBa2Cu307 (YBCo) with the ferrimagnetic properties of the Yttrium Iron Garnet layers on Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (YIG/GGG) substrates. Combining our expertise in device design and materials engineering, the Neocera-University of Maryland team proposes a novel device configuration by which the bandwidth of the filter is expected to remain fixed retaining the high-Q performance, as the filter's central frequency is tuned by an applied magnetic field. In this effort, HTS filters will be developed on YIG/GGG substrates and their frequency agile properties will be evaluated. Phase I effort will form the basis for fabricating frequency adaptive multipole HTS filters in a subsequent Phase II program.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
851 East 47th St
Tucson, AZ 85713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 792-2616
Greg E. Hilmas, Ph.D.
BMDO 98-016
Title:Fabrication of ZrC, HfC, TaC-based Fibrous Monolithic Ceramics for Rocket Propulsion Systems
Abstract:The goal of this program is to develop a low cost, flexible manufacturing method for the production of high temperature ceramic composites for rocket propulsion systems. The matrix materials selected for this program will be ZrC, HfC, and TaC. These-materials have good oxidation/corrosion and ablation resistance at elevated temperatures, but typically do not possess the thermal shock resistance and toughness necessary to survive in many propulsion applications. To enhance the thermal shock resistance and toughness of these materials, without compromising their ablation and corrosion response, this program will use a novel approach to fabricating ZrC-, HfC-, and TaC-based composites using the proven 'Fibrous Monolith' processing technology. The fibrous monolith process creates an interpenetrating microstructure of elongated polycrystalline cells of the matrix material, in this case high temperature carbides, separated by thin cell boundaries of a low shear strength refractory material, such as graphite or BN. This interpenetrating microstructure imparts toughness and thermal shock resistance to the material. The technology allows for the fabrication of complex composite architectures to be readily fabricated from inexpensive powders and polymers. Phase I success will allow future iterations to optimize these composites for DOD/NASA needs during Phases II and III.

ANVIK CORPORATION
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Carl Weisbecker
BMDO 98-016
Title:High-Output, Monodispersed Aerosol Particle Generation Using Microfabricated Nozzle Arrays
Abstract:Aerosol generation is an important leading edge technology with relevance to ballistic missile defense because of the importance of bioearosol generation technology in the development of countermeasures for defence against biological warfare. Aerosol delivery is also an important route for the transmission of naturally occurring particulate materials. The development of new technology for the efficient delivery of aerosols has important applications in agriculture, medicine, ecological science, and materials science. The physical, optical, aerodynamic, and biological properties of an aerosol are strongly linked to its particle size distribution; therefore, efficient high-output generation of monodispersed aerosols is an important capability. The proposed program by Anvik Corporation will develop an efficient, monodispersed aerosol particle generator which will function by pulsed mechanical extrusion of high surface tension liquids through a microfabricated array of holes. The particle size distribution will be controlled by the diameters of the holes in a microfabricated nozzle array. In the fully developed system the aerosol particle size distribution can be both controlled and tuned by the separate actuation of multiple nozzle arrays with different nozzle exit hole sizes in the generator.

APPLIED OPTOELECTRONICS INC.
242 Kingfisher
Sugar Land, TX 77478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 782-3855
Chih-Hsiang Lin
BMDO 98-016
Title:Multi-color Quantum Cascade Mid-Infrared Sources at 2.5 to 5 ym
Abstract:We propose to develop multi-color mid-infrared (IR) sources at 2.5 to 5 um based on InAs/InGaSb type-II quantum cascade (QC) structures. A compact mid-IR dual wavelength source could be extremely useful for the environmental gas and pollutant sensing, such as differential absorption lidar, where the light scattering has to be evaluated and compared at two different wavelengths. Recently, we have demonstrated room-temperature optically pumped lasers from 2.9 to 4.6 um based on InAs/InGaSb/AlSb type-II quantum wells. For 4.5-1lm devices, lasing was observed up to 310 K, and the peak output power per facet was more than 3 65 W at 160 K and about 360 mW at 280 K. For type-II QC lasers, lasing was observed up to 285 K at 3.5 pm, and a peak output power of 0.5 W/facet at 3.85 ,um was obtained with 1 ps current pulses at 80 K, with a differential quantum efficiency of 131%. The Phase I effort will be directed towards the demonstration of the CW operation of two-color light emitting diode at high temperature.

ASTROPOWER, INC.
Solar Park
Newark, DE 19716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 366-0400
Michael G. Mauk
BMDO 98-016
Title:Filament- and Wire-Based Semiconductor Devices for Large-Scale Implementaitons of Optoelectronics"
Abstract:This Phase I project seeks to assess the feasibility of a completely new topology and fabrication process for semiconductor devices, especially light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells, detectors, and thermophotovoltaic (TPVs) cells. Semiconductor optoelectronic devices will be made with a cylindrical shape by coating wire substrates with large-grain, (or recrystallized single-crystal) layered sheaths of silicon, germanium, and various III-V compounds. These structures can be fabricated into optoelectronic device structures with unique characteristics with regard to optical coupling and light trapping. For example, a nearly ten-fold increase LED optical power over commercial LEDs is expected due to improved external coupling efficiencies. Further, we make the case that these devices can be made much cheaper than conventional planar devices based on wafers. Several methods including melt growth, solution growth, and CVD for producing wire-substrate filament-shaped GaAs LEDs and silicon solar cells will be experimentally assessed and demonstrated in the Phase I program.

CENTRE CAPACITOR, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 237-0321
Dr. Wesley Hackenberger
BMDO 98-016
Title:Multilayer Capacitors Utilizing Large Dielectric Permittivity Polymers for High Energy Storage
Abstract:For this Phase I SBIR, high energy storage capacitors are proposed based on the breakthrough technology of large dielectric permittivity polymers. Based on the P(VDF-TrFE) systems, these polymers exhibit relaxor ferroelectric behavior when irradiated; that is, high dielectric permittivity (sr~l OO) over a broad diffused temperature region.With these high dielectric constant and low loss polymers, energy storage levels of greater than 25 Joules/cm3 are projected, nearly an order of a magnitude larger than existing polymer dielectrics. In this program, chemical engineering of P(VDF-TrFE) polymers, as well as processing and metallization methods to optimize key parameters relevant to pulse power operation will be investigated. Single layer polymer capacitors will be tested for energy storage capability including dielectric breakdown strength (DBS), discharge rate, dielectric loss under E-field, etc., to establish the potential of this new class of dielectrics for ultimate manufacturing of pulse power capacitors in Phase II.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING GROUP, INC.
11020 Solway School Rd. Suite 109
Knoxville, TN 37931
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 927-3717
Mr. James G. Carter
BMDO 98-016
Title:Platinum Silicide Micromechanical Infrared Photon Detector
Abstract:The proposed work is intended to lead to the development of a revolutionary class of photon detectors capable of operating at ambient temperatures with fast response times. Specific benefits of the proposed detector include: i) Low cost versions can readily be reduced-to-practice due to inherent simplicity of the sensing element compared to existing photon or thermal detectors, ii) there is no need for cooling the device to eliminate the thermal generated carriers, iii) The concept behind this device is inherently simple, iv) fast response times (< ,us) response times, faster than thermal detectors, v) more than one order of magnitude more sensitive than thermal detectors, vi) compatibility with IC fabrication techniques.

INTEGRATED MICROTRANSDUCER ELECTRONICS C
1214 Oxford Street
Berkeley, CA 94709
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 841-3585
Dr. Richard Spitzer
BMDO 98-016
Title:Magnetoresistive Trimming for an Ultrafast Nonvolatile RAM
Abstract:The conventional method of resistive trimming involves using a laser to burn individual resistors. It is expensive and uses a lot of valuable-real estate. The proposer, IMEC, has invented a method of trimming a thinfilm resistor to a specified value that takes up much less space than laser trimming and can be completely automated under computer control. The method is the functional equivalent in magnetoelectronics of laser trimming in semiconductor technology. The proposed program will demonstrate, by fabrication and-testing, that the required precision can be achieved. IMEC will then apply the method to a critical component of its fast, nonvolatile, random-accessmemory.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
247 Third St.
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 441-9207
Brett Masters
BMDO 98-016
Title:Magnetically Activated Shape Memory Actuator (MASMA)
Abstract:A Magnetically Activated Shape Memory Actuator (MASMA) is propiOsed. The MASMA c state-of-the-art materials technology with magnetic activation to supply a large s elevated bandwidth, actuator. MASM alloys have shown activated strains on the o 1.3% at room temperatures, for cm sized single crystals at frequencies up to an 400 Hz! The materials have also passively shown promise at cryogenic temperature of twin boundary motion and, as such, provide interesting possibilities for spa electromechanical systems. The material composition can be tailored for a wide temperatures. In the proposed work specific MASM alloy textured polycrystals, on the order of 10 cm, will be coupled with mechanical preload and field provide to yield a practical actuator for evaluation.

NP PHOTONIC TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
5507 North Paseo Ventoso
Tucson, AZ 85715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 577-1147
Ghassan E. Jabbour
BMDO 98-016
Title:Heterogeneous Integration of Organic Light-emitting Diodes with Planar Optical Waveguides
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop a novel self-aligned fabrication process to efficiently integrate organic light emitting diodes (OLED) with planar glass optical waveguides. The proposed innovative heterogeneous integration is potentially an extremely low cost technique to efficiently couple light from broad-band organic LEDs to optical waveguides, which has numerous applications in modern opto-electronics. The potential applications include optical interconnects and guided--wave absorption spectroscopy.

PACIFIC ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
1000 Edison Street, P.O. Box 359
Santa Ynez, CA 93460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 688-2088
Mark A. Massie
BMDO 98-016
Title:On-Fpa Aanalog Nonuniformity Correction
Abstract:Occasionally, a technology is developed which revolutionizes systems and permits an enabling advancement in an industry. This proposal describes an advancement which will have a profound impact on systems that the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization will use in the future. Infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) have historically required the post-processing operations of two-point spatial nonuniformity correction (NUC) to compensate for gain and offset variations between the thousands (or hundreds of thousands) of pixel channels on the device. Through the development of other on-FPA features which have been implemented in the analog domain in massively parallel implementations, Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has laid the groundwork for the application of a complete automatic two-point NUC operation which could be hosted directly on the FPA itself. Test structures which have been included on a recent PAT-designed silicon wafer produced with 0.5 micron CMOS technology at the Hewlett Packard MOSIS foundry will be available to this program with no investment of time or money. This program will characterize the performance of the existing CMOS test structures and produce the design for a complete NUC implementation for a highly integrated FPA of at least 256 x 256 pixels in size.

QUASAR
7047 Carroll Road
San Deigo, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 535-9680
Dr. Andrew D. Hibbs
BMDO 98-016
Title:New Type of Superconducting Low Noise Amplifier
Abstract:Approximately 12 months ago a new amplification effect of over 30 dB was obtained in, DC Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). The amplification is based on measuring the circulating current in the SQUID, instead of the induced voltage, which is the present practice. To achieve the high gain the SQUID must be biased into a regime in which in switches between internal flux states under the effect of thermal noise. A new high frequency amplifier is proposed that exploits this enhanced amplification effect. Based on the observed behavior of the switching state in the SQUID and the known characteristics of DC SQUIDs, a gain > 30 dB over a bandwidth potentially exceeding 50 GHz at a noise temperature of order 1 K may be possible for an optimized device. This performance exceeds that achieved in semiconductor technology for all three parameters. In Phase I we will draw up a mathematical model for the complete amplifier system including input coupling and output post amplification. Numerical simulations will be performed to predict the amplifier performance as a function of frequency. We will consider fabrication issues for implementation in low Tc and high Tc technology. The commercial potential for the amplifier will be assessed by considering a specific communications or instrumentation subsystem as a case study.

ROOM TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS INC.
301 A North Main Street
Sebastopol, CA 95473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 824-9280
Dr. Kevin Shambrook
BMDO 98-016
Title:Patterning of Highly Conductive Microstructures in Ultraconductor (TM) Polymer Films
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will demonstrate an advanced fabrication process for making patterned conducting paths, which are many orders of magnitude lower in resistance than metals, in films of a new class of conducting material, Ultraconductor polymers. The conductivity of these proprietary polymers exceeds 10 S/cm, at temperatures ranging from OK to 480K. Present Ultraconductor films carry in excess of 106 amps / cm2 without heating. Successful completion of the fabrication development will enable the application of Ultraconductor films to a range of high-value BMDO topic areas, such as fine pitch interconnects, and electromagnetic shielding. The proposed fabrication process has been experimentally demonstrated, and is an extension of successful fabrication processes. The technique utilizes applied fields for condensing and patterning the intrinsic conducting filaments in Ultraconducting films. The material, Ultraconductor polymer, is the product of 12 years published research, and 4 years proprietary development. Ultraconductors are presently being developed for a range of applications, in part under USAF and BMDO SBIR contracts. The follow-on Phase II project will optimize and develop the most successful technique, for scale-up to commercial production of the fabricated films, and their application to a range of product categories. Anticipated Benefits/Potential Commercial Applications of the Research or Development. The benefits of these exceptionally conductive, elastic, stable materials, in the proposed fabricated form, holds high commercial and strategic value for the country. The proposed fabrication process will enable UltraconductorE application to BMDO technical areas, including low resistance connectors, fine pitch interconnects, electromagnetic shielding, energy generation, storage, and electric propulsion.

SUNDYE
7 Willow Dr.
Townsend, MA 01469
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 597-5146
Harry Clark
BMDO 98-016
Title:A New Ultra Light Weight Power Source
Abstract:This program will produce a portable, efficient, lightweight, flexible, cost effective solar power source. Small area, prototype devices, weighing the equivalent of less than 100 grams per square meter have been reduced to practice. At even modest efficiencies our system will be capable of producing hundreds of watts per kilogram. If necessary our system can employ hardened components for harsh military environments. It is anticipated that this military hardened system will still be less than 0.45Okg (~1 lb) in weight for a one square meter system, at a cost of less than $200 per unit. The flexible nature of the power source makes it possible to carry it in rolled or folded shapes. Rapid deployment of the power source can be achieved by simply unfolding or unrolling the device. The color of the device can be user defined from brown to blackish-green allowing mission specific camouflage. By applying an adhesive backing, our device can be placed on a soldiers apparel. It can also be placed over the wings of an aircraft without compromising aerodynamic integrity. Our system will be an enabling technology to increase mission range and duration for such military systems as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) or remote field operations.

TECONE, INC.
1803 Sageway Drive
Tallahassee, FL 32303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 562-9789
Louis R. Testardi
BMDO 98-016
Title:Detection of Charged Particles and Their Velocities Using Monochromatic Radiation From Modulated Structures
Abstract:Charged particles passing through a modulated structure with time periodic crossing of its interfaces may emit photons of near monochromatic wavelength related to the particle velocity and the interface spacing of the modulated structure. The spatially dispersed photons will contain information on the velocity and the direction of the impinging particles, even though the impingement is localized and distant from the detector. This proposal describes a search for the near monochromatic radiation resulting from protons striking a thin firm modulated structure, to test this concept.

THORDIS CORPORATION
101 East Rembrandt Circle
Sandy, UT 84070
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 553-0360
Charles D. Baker
BMDO 98-016
Title:Solid State High Voltage Power Supply
Abstract:This project proposes to exploit the Giant Magnetostriction of Terfenol-D, along with the properties of piezoelectric ceramics to develop a new class of electric voltage transformer. The Magnetostrictive Piezoelectric Charge Pump (MPCP), when perfected, will provide a new option for the generation of high-voltage electricity. MPCP devices can be built in a wide range of configurations. The primary goal of this Phase I research is to define the factors that govern the design tradeoffs and limits of practical devices. The secondary objective of this Phase I project is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a small (sugar cube size), lkV device that can be driven and controlled with a 5 volt supply. These small devices should be able to be configured in series and/or parallel arrays to provide a wide range of high-voltage power supply options. Because of their anticipated small size and rugged design, the MPCP devices can be used in long term storage weapons such as mines and missile launch tubes. As the primary actuator is activated by application of an external magnetic field, firing of the mechanism can be accomplished without mechanical contact. Phase I work is expected to validate the contactless operation of the MPCP.

WITECH (WIDEGAP TECHNOLOGY, LLC)
5655 Lindero Canyo Road, Suite 404
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 967-9433
Bernd Keller
BMDO 98-016
Title:Hybrid Polymer - LED White Light Sources
Abstract:Widegap Technology, LLC (WITECH) proposes to develop a hybrid polymer/LED white lamp which utilizes a blue (450 nm) nitride-based light emitting diode (LED) in combination with a luminescent conjugated polymer to produce white light. The resulting lamp will provide a robust, compact, highly efficient alternative to conventional light sources, promising a significant-- improvement in efficiency compared to tungsten and compact fluorescent lighting schemes. Efficient, solid-state nitride-based LED/conjugated polymer lamps will be ideally suited for critical remote and mobile lighting applications such as interior lighting for military vehicles and naval vessels where power conservation, robustness, and low heat (infrared) output are essential. During Phase I we will demonstrate techniques for the growth and fabrication of large-area, high output blue LEDs, and show proof of concept by combining the large-area LED with a conjugated polymer to produce white light. The achievement of the Phase I goals will facilitate the Phase II development of optimized very high brightness LED/conjugated polymer white liqht sources.