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61 Phase I Selections from the 98.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
FEDERAL FABRICS - FIBERS, INC.
51 Middlesex St.
N. Chelmsford, MA 01863
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 470-1859
Zvi Horovitz
OSD 98-001
Title:Small Operating Unit (SOU) Tent
Abstract:The need to supply an effective shelter for Small Operation Units (SOU) or the single soldier remains a priority. A seamless and light weight SOU shelter that provides all the necessary shelter requirements including CB protection is feasible. The design and fabrication method of this SOU shelter can be optimized by employing a seamless tubular woven structure as the primary component of this shelter. The basic building block of this shelter is a seamless woven 54" diameter tubular fabric, single soldier shelter can be fabricated using a 33" diameter tube. The seamless woven breathable tube, can be laminated with a chemical barrier if desired. The tube is then laid out and cut using a simple predetermined pattern to yield a seamless light weight two person shelter. By employing seamless tubes fabricated using different materials shelters can be manufactured to provided shelter in various situations. A basic all weather, three and four season, shelter can be fabricated by employing two seamless tubes. The first (inner) smaller and breathable tube will provided an inner shelter allowing moisture to escape thus providing a dry environment for the occupants. While a second water proof seamless tube will be utilized as an outer layer providing protection from the elements and additional warmth to the occupants. Because the shelter is seamless it is ideally suited for use as a chemically protective barrier. Only minor modifications to the basic structure are necessary for interfacing

MATERIAL INNOVATION, INC.
130 Woodridge Place
Leonia, NJ 07605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 944-8160
Dr. Behrooz A. Khorramian
OSD 98-002
Title:Crosslinked Fire-Resistant Poly (ethylene terephthalate) for Batting Insulation
Abstract:There is a need for an inexpensive, lighter, effective nonhalogenated, and environmentally friendly fire-resistant (FR) textile material for batting insulation and shell fabrics to be used in ground soldiers combat uniforms. The current FR textile materials are very expensive, ranging in price from $13/pound (Nomex TM) TO $70/pound (polybenzimidazole). Less expensive FR textile material either contains toxic chemicals (e.g., halogenated chemicals) or the level of fire-resistivity is inadequate (e.g., Trevira CS TM) for soldier clothing. Consequently, the environmentally benign, and inherently FR poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, by incorporating nonhalogenated FR additives into PET's chemical structure, followed by crosslinking. Two such additives have been investigated by Material Innovations, Inc. (MII) to develop a FR PET [1]. Although the initial studies were shown to be successful, more research is needed to determine the optimum quantity of each additive to provide the most efficient thermal insulation and compatibility with other technologies used in solder clothing. In Phase II, Thermal Protective Performance, cone calorimetry, thermal conductivity, and moisture vapor permeability testing will be used to evaluate the performance of FR PET followed by producing prototype soldiers combat uniforms with an optimum configuration.

SPECIALIZED ANALYSIS ENGINEERING
2909 12th Avenue South
Nashville, TN 37204
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 292-7022
Dr. Jeffrey S. N. Paine
OSD 98-002
Title:A Highly Damped, High strength, Puncture-resistant Fabric for Multi-threat Protective Uniforms
Abstract:Proposed is an investigation into the use of highly flexible and extremely strong, superelastic, Nitinol shape memory alloy fibers as a means of dramatically increasing the damping properties in and improving cutting and puncture resistance of organic fiber based protective clothing fabrics. The Nitinol fibers are to be used as reinforcement for organic fiber fabrics made from nylon, aramid, polyethylene, polypropylene and other such fibers at low volume fractions to enhance the cut and puncture resistance of the fabrics. Additionally, the Nitinol fibers would be integrated in such a fashion that when the fabric is subjected to heavy vibrational loads, the fibers will cycle through Nitinol's two phase transitions absorbing large amounts of the energy. These Nitinol enhanced fabrics will primarily benefit workers exposed to high-energy airborne vibrations. The increased cutting strength and puncture resistance of the fabric will benefit those in the in the glass-handling, wood-cutting, meat-packing, and metal working industries among others. Because Nitinol's superelastic, they would also benefit from the improved flexibility that the Nitinol would give the protective clothing over present fabrics used. Integrating this new composite fabric into protective gloves for workers using vibrating equipment is particularly viewed as having high potential for commercial development.

BIG LIGHT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4431 Lehigh Road, #201
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 806-1107
Richard Wagreich
OSD 98-003
Title:Fiber-Optic Instrumented Garments
Abstract:Big Light Technology, Inc. proposes to develop a light weight, comfortable, flexible, form fitting instrumented garment. The instrumented garment will be capable of monitoring the skin temperature at multiple localized torso locations using fiber-optic sensors incorporated on a single optical fiber. The sensors are passive and will therefore require no external power. The method for monitoring the sensors is optical in nature and so they will pose no danger in the presence of combustible materials. The equipment for interrogating the sensors will be compact, light weight, low power, and cost effective, thus making possible a small battery powered unit that can be sewn into the garment or clipped onto the user's belt. This system will include all of the equipment required to monitor the embedded sensors in order to determine a potential low skin temperature hazard to the user.

FEDERAL FABRICS - FIBERS, INC.
51 Middlesex St.
N. Chelmsford, MA 01863
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 470-1859
Zvi Horovitz
OSD 98-003
Title:Flexible Circuit "Board" Clothing
Abstract:It is desirable to provide a comfortable well fitting wearable textile garment which contains a network of Electro Optic devices for sensing, actuation, energy distribution and energy scavenging. Other potential uses include a medical sensate liner, friend-or-foe identification, virtual reality, heated gloves, and electrical energy scavenging. Two basic approaches will be investigated, Knitted Underwear, and Woven Outerwear. Federal Fabrics-Fibers (FFF) is uniquely situated with expertise in both 3D knitting and 3D weaving of ElOp conductors. Knitted Options; FFF proposes to demonstrate a snug-fitting, cost effective, elastic (Lycra) seamless net shape 3D ElOp garment. The technology is based on the CAD/CAM Knitted Wire Board (KWB) mastered by FFF during our development of both electrical heated, and pressure restraining gloves. Woven Option; FFF proposes to demonstrate a cost effective CAD/CAM near net shape 3D ElOp wearable textile. The technology is based on the helical and spiral weaving developed at FFF during the development of Air-Beams. This weaving process results in low/no crimp, seamless tubular and tapered-tubular geometry's. Sensing devices can be grouped into two categories. Sensors can detect local data such as heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and depth, and body temperature from the host, or remote data, external to the host including environmental conditions such as air quality, chemical contaminants, temperature, humidity, light conditions, two way communications, etc. FFF proposes to produce a knitted vest, jacket, or coverall with several circuits knitted into the garments structure. This garment will be such that it permits a vast array of sensors to be interfaced with the suit, to

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4171
Dr. Patricia Wilson
OSD 98-003
Title:Electro-Optic Fabrics for the Warrior of the 21st Century
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I program is to design a fully integrated, modular soldier system based on the use of "smart fabrics". Smart fabrics are those that incorporate electrical or electro-optic data systems through the use of conductive or optical fibers and modular connector systems. Modularity will allow tailoring of the hardware configuration of specific unit missions and locations in the battlefield. Foster-Miller has assembled a team which has strong experience relevant to the program. The team members include a specialty webbing company, the originator of the wearable computing concept, and internal expertise relating to electro-optic systems, textiles, and flexible electronics. By combining several devices into the wearable soldier garment, weight savings from the elimination of redundant systems will occur. Additionally networking functions will provide the soldier with a more information which will result in enhanced survivability, situational awareness, and lethality at the individual level.

MOLECULAR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
270 Littleton Rd., #29
Westford, MA 01886
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 392-1304
Srini Balasubramanian
OSD 98-003
Title:Biomanufacturing of Electrically Conductive PET Fabric Incorporating a Metal Ion Sensor
Abstract:Rapid identification of potential threats including chemical and biological agents and advanced warning have become increasingly important in the battlefield. Each individual military personnel needs to carry a variety of sensors and communication tools. The most practical and convenient way is to incorporate the necessary elements into a wearable fabric. The objective of this Phase I proposal is to develop a biomanufacturing process to coast a conduction polymer on a textile fabric. The coating will be carried out in an environmentally benign production process. Conducting polyaniline will be synthesized in an aqueous medium using enzymatic polymerization of aniline in the presence of a partially hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a polydopant under close to neutral Ph conditions. The conductivity of the coated fibers will be determined. A metal ion sensor based on an enzymatically synthesized polyphenol, poly(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid) (PHQS) will be developed and multilayer films of PHQS along with a polycation will be formed on partially hydrolyzed PET films as a proof of concept. Metal ion (ferric ion)

AMERICAN RESEARCH CORP. OF VA
1509 Fourth Street, P.O. Box 3406
Radford, VA 24143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 731-0655
Mr. Howard P. Groger
OSD 98-004
Title:Protection Against Warfare Agents by Using Perm-selective Elastomeric Mesoporous Membranes
Abstract:Recent experiences in the Gulf War have shown the need for chemical and biological protective gear having reduced associated physiological burden for combat personnel and decreased logistical requirements. The availability of lightweight, permeation-selective barrier membranes would constitute an advantage to military personnel by reducing the buildup of moisture within the suit. The development of elastomeric barrier materials would reduce the need for extensive stocks of protective ensembles to fit military personnel. To meet this need, American Research Corporation of Virginia suggests the modification of recently developed mesoporous materials providing up to 900m 2/g surface area-to-weight ratios to provide effective barriers to chemical and biological agents and incorporation of these materials within an elastomeric matrix. The proposal is innovative in combining a novel method of functionalizing mesoporous materials with a sorbent polymer modified elastomeric matrix. Phase I objectives include evaluation of polymeric materials suitable for use in modifying elastomeric polymers and mesoporous materials, fabrication of perm-selective composite membranes for G and H agent analogs and microbial materials, and test of coated membranes under laboratory conditions. The program is significant in developing barrier fabric materials to reduce the burden of warfighters in readiness for chemical or

ICET, INC.
916 Pleasant St., Unit 12
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-6064
Dr. Shantha Sarangapani
OSD 98-004
Title:A Novel Composite Elastomeric Material for CBW Agents
Abstract:We are proposing a triple defense system in a single compounded thin elastomeric material, to provide both physical permeation barrier as well as chemical and biological deactivation barrier without sacrificing the elastomeric properties of the proposed elastomers. The initial physical barrier is an alloyed ethylene-vinylalcohol ultrathin layer protected by the elastomer (better PVA coploymers will be synthesized in phase II). Selected metal oxides and silver/silver oxide of high area, submicron sized particles will be dispersed on fillers such as ultrafine talc or carbon blacks. (Talc is preferred). The silver is expected to be extremely active to ward the labile halogens of the agents and metal oxides have a deactivating effect. The talc and some of its surface bound to dendrimeric or branched polyethylene glycols allow moisture permitting molecular channels due to their layered structure while blocking permeation of agents that escape through the physical/chemical barrier. Two types of high elongation elastomers have been identified for demonstrating the feasibility of the approach as they allow incorporation fillers and polymers and are quite compatible with the proposed additives (based on our experience). A statistical experimental design is presented to examine the influence of the variables and correlate the efficacy toward chemical protection and organophobicity of the

ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
650 Nuttman Rd., Suite 114
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 982-2302
Dr. John Kelly
OSD 98-005
Title:Low Cost Pocket Stove Operating on Military Logistics Fuels
Abstract:A simple and Low-Cost Pocket Stove (LCPS) concept has been identified by Altex that can be fired on diesel or JP8 fuel. The stove provides 2,000 Btu/hr heating capacity, weighs less than 2 ounces and is projected to cost $3.00. The stove can be used by soldiers to heat water. Also, the concept can be applied to other small heat driven military devices. Under the Phase I feasibility effort, a proof-of principle stove will be fabricated and tested to demonstrate performance, safety, operation and reliability. The stove will be instrumented with thermocouples and gas emission monitors. Heating performance, emissions, safety and durability will be assessed from test results. At the completion of tests, a burner cost estimate will be prepared with the help of manufacturers. This information, plus fuel costs, will be used to determine the cost of heat produced by the stove. Both performance and cost data will then be compared with fuel bar information, to determine the Benefits of the LCPS versus prior heating methods.

CHARGED INJECTION CORP.
11 Deer Park Drive, Suite 203
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 274-1470
Dr. Arnold J. Kelly
OSD 98-005
Title:Pocket-Stove
Abstract:A playing-card deck sized, logistics-fuel Pocket Stove design employing a compact, low power electrostaticatomizer is proposed. Micron sized logistic fuel sprays are generated at one bar operating pressure ( 15 psi ) by a Spray Triode electrostatic atomized. A Single "AA" cell, coupled to a compact DC-DC converter provides the low milli-watt level electrical power necessary for over 1000 hours of operation. Battery replacement is not required. Controlled by a single know, the self-dispersive charged spray preferentially flows toward an integral catalytic screen. Requiring a match for ignition and a "standard fuel bottle" pressurized to one bar, the unit is rugged, completely self-contained, and capable of operation in any position. Optionally, the design can accommodate an integral, spring-actuated reservoir capable of providing approximately an hour of isolated, "stand-alone", operation. Operational reliability is enhanced by an anti-clogging design feature. Technically mature technology, and the packaging-ergonomics-usability expertise of Arthur D. Little, Inc., assures that the six-month, Phase I effort will culminate in a prototype Packet Stove design capable of satisfying all of the stated requirements. Prototype Beta-testing and commercial exploitation will be undertaken during the Phase II

MESOSYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
George Washington Way
Richland, WA 99352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 375-3365
Charles Call
OSD 98-005
Title:Field Portable Pocket-Stove
Abstract:Commercial camp stoves currently available are too large and heavy for infantry and do not burn readily available logistics fuel. The focus of this proposal is to apply the techniques used for semiconductor manufacturing to produce a lightweight, small, robust micromachined pocket stove. The new micromachining techniques allow materials other than silicon to have sub-millimeter structures imprinted onto them. For example, metals such as copper, steel, and aluminum can have microchannels cut into their surfaces to produce a microchannel heat exchanger. These microchannel heat exchangers have exhibited heat transfer in excess of 100 watts per square centimeter. The coupling of these microchannels heat exchangers with minicombustors creates a new approach to pocket stoves.

COVALENT ASSOC., INC.
10 State Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 938-1140
K. M. Abraham
OSD 98-007
Title:Rechargeable Polymer Electrolyte Batteries
Abstract:Polymer electrolytes with significantly higher conductivity and stability than that of the present generation materials are needed to develop batteries for the individual soldier. To this end, Covalent Associates will develop single ion-conducting polymer electrolytes from enzyme catalyzed reactions of aromatic monomers with the carboxylic, phenolic or sulfonic functional groups. The unique structural features of these materials will provide them with high ambient temperature conductivity and their single ion Li+ conductivity will translate into high power for Li batteries. The polymer electrolytes synthesized will be characterized with respect to conductivity, electrochemical stability and membrane-forming properties. The usefulness of the electrolytes for rechargeable Li batteries will be determined by the construction and testing of Li/Polymer Electrolyte/LiNi0.7Co 0.3 O2 cells

FRACTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
14200 Carlson Circle
Tampa, FL 33626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 469-8327
Dr. Mahmoud Aldissi
OSD 98-007
Title:Polymer Electrolyte through Enzyme Catalysis for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project has for a goal the development of a solid-state polymer electrolyte for use in lithium-ion batteries via enzyme-catalyzed polymerization of monomers substituted with long ether segments. The high content of ether segments such as poly (ethylene oxide) or poly(ethylene glycol) is expected to yield high ionic conductivities when combined with the proper lithium salt. The solid-state rechargeable batteries using such an electrolyte offer potentially greater energy densities and a better cycle life than most conventional systems such as Ni-Cad or NiMH batteries, and eliminates the dangers associated with the use of liquid electrolytes. The Phase II effort will consist of the fabrication and characterization of the polymer. This should yield high quality films with a good dimensional and thermal stability and mechanical integrity necessary as a separator characteristic. The polymer's stability should provide the advantage of operating in a wide temperature range while maintaining its high conductivity. The Phase II program will focus on the optimization of the successful electrolyte, testing in lithium-ion batteries, and devising a scheme for large scale production of high performance, safe, environmentally benign energy sources for powering a variety of military

MAXPOWER, INC.
220 Stahl Road
Wayne, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-4230
David L. Chua, Ph.D.
OSD 98-007
Title:Enzymatically Catalyzed Polymerization (ECP) - Derived Polymer Electrolyte for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries
Abstract:This Phase I effort involves synthesis of polymers via enzymatically catalyzed polymerization (ECP). ECP-derived polymers frequently have broad molecular weight distribution with branching, which can be beneficial for ionic conduction. Ionic conductivity approaching 10 -3 S/cm can be demonstrated for "hyperbranched poly(ethylene oxide ". The objective of this Phase I work is to identify promising electrolytes for Li batteries based upon ECP-derived polymers. A series of poly(p-phenylphenol)s will be prepared by ECP, and these materials will be characterized by IR, NMR spectroscopy, DSC, and gel permeating chromatography. This effort will evaluate the ECP-derived polymer in two configurations: solid sate and plasticized polymer electrolytes. These studied materials will also be processed both as stand alone separator and as component of the positiveand negative electrodes. 100 mAh cells will be built to assess the rate-capability and rechargeability utilizing meso-carbon, micro-bead as the Li-ion materials, and LiCo02 as the cathode material.

TECHDRIVE, INC.
2115 Butterfield Road, Suite LL66
Oak Brook, IL 60523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 415-0250
Dr. Robert Filler
OSD 98-007
Title:Solid Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Polyphenols
Abstract:The objectives are the preparation and evaluation of new solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), derived from polyphenols, which may be used in the development of improved light-weight solid-state lithium batteries that supply a high number of watt-hours in a small volume. Two types of phenol monomers containing polyether or perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid segments para to the phenolic function will be synthesized. The former will be obtained by partial O-alkylation of hydroquinone, while the latter will be prepared by ring-opening of perfluoropropane sultone by 4-lithionanisole. Enzymatic polymerization of these monomers will be carrier out and both resulting polymers (I and II) will be lithiated prior to building a lithium laboratory cell. Another polymer (III) which contains both polyether and perfluorosulfonic acid moieties, will be prepared by O-alkylation of Polymer-II. The polyether segments will provide increased solubility and permit generation of an ion-conducting region for formation of a Li ion complex. The perfluoroalkylsulfonic acid segments in Polymer-Ii will reduce the basicity of phenoxide ion, while contributing to stabilization of lithium complex. The SPEs derived from these polymers should exhibit high ionic conductivity and improved mechanical properties.

ELECTRONIC PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
26351 CURTISS-WRIGHT PARKWAY
CLEVELAND, OH 44143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 289-4115
KENNETH A MALECEK
OSD 98-008
Title:HIGH DATA RATE SOLID STATE DATA RECORDER
Abstract:Current mechanical data storage devices will not be capable of handling the advanced sensor information required for testing sophisticated military equipment in the near future. Solid state recording is attractive to the military as it can provide the record rate and storage capacity required to capture high resolution imagery while offering increased reliability over traditional mechanical storage systems. EPS proposes to define the requirements of a digital recorder capable of meeting the military's advanced data acquisition needs. This will be researched and documented through extensive meetings with potential DARO users. These requirements will be contrasted against the different forms of solid state memory in order to determine the best possible design approach. EPS will then provide a design package detailing specifications of a recorder capable of meeting these needs.EPS is uniquely positioned to provide this research as we are the solid state data recorder experts. EPS has been aggressively expanding the capabilities of solid state data acquisition for over ten years. As a result of our Phase I research, the military will have a clear definition of their needs as well as a design package for a High Data Rate Solid State Recorder capable of meeting these requirements.

SEAKR ENGINEERING, INC.
12847 EAST PEAKVIEW AVENUE
ENGLEWOOD, CO 80111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 709-8499
IAN WEBB
OSD 98-008
Title:SOLID STATE RECORDER FOR AIRBORNE RECONNAISSANCE
Abstract:The airborne reconnaissance community currently utilizes tape based storage technology. While this technology is proven, it still suffers from low mean time between failure (MTBF) and substandard data throughput rates. Additionally, with the introduction of state-of-the-art sensor platforms, it has become increasingly clear, that a more reliable, higher data rate (Greater than 240Mbits/second), non-volatile, data acquisition system is needed to support mission critical data collection and dissemination.Solid State Recorders (SSR) were originally developed for spacecraft applications as replacements for low reliability tape recorder systems. Recent advancements in solid capabilities to the point where they can be considered for use in aircraft and terrestrial high performance optical sensor data storage applications.SEAKR will develop a design specification and a design description in Phase I, and will then in Phase II, implement the design, performing the necessary engineering development and build and demonstrate a high data rate, solid state data acquisition and storage system based on the product specification developed in Phase I. At the end of Phase II, the government will have a fully developed unit ready for Phase III production.

SHAWN SYSTEMS, INC.
350 PLEASANT STREET
ASHLAND, MA 01721
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 881-7373
MR AJAI THIRUMALAI
OSD 98-008
Title:HIGH DATA RATE SOLID STATE STORAGE OF DATA
Abstract:We propose to design a state-of-the-art high speed solid-state data recorder with 200 Gbyte capacity (exceeding the required 500 to 1500 Gbit or 63 ~ 188 GBytes capacity). Data can be stored at 10 Gbps (1250 Mbytes/s), with a corrected bit error rate less than 1 bit in 1014. The 100 W, and occupy less than 1.5 cu. ft.The proposed design will make extensive use of COTS parts. The storage controller will initially be simulated to verify correctness. We then will use FPGAs for in-circuit emulation, and finally tape out to silicon for the ASIC.We make extensive use of digital signal processing to condition the incoming digital, and converted analog data streams; compact the data using lossless (or lossy, depending upon the criticality of the data and end application) data compression algorithms; and store it with error correction and error detection codes. We can also incorporate fault tolerance, and offer different architectures to suit varying levels of dependability and reliability that cannot be matched by tape systems. Our team brings tremendous expertise in high speed data acquisition, digital signal processing and hardware design, and has built 3 generations of machines at Digital Equipment Corp.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
PO BOX 162487
AUSTIN, TX 78716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 306-1100
JOE PRIEST
OSD 98-008
Title:HIGH SPEED HIGH DENSITY SOLID STATE RECORDER
Abstract:Systems & Processing Engineering Corporation proposes to develop a High Speed High Density Solid State Recorder to meet the data rate and storage requirements of the next generation reconnaissance sensors. The recorder will have a high data throughput, low bit error rate, high density storage and be capable of operation in an airborne environment. The design will exploit the use of memory technologies such as micro ball grid array, flip chip technology, state-of the-art Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory, Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. Other technologies including Application Specific Integrated Circuit and Multi-Chip Module technologies will be used to meet stringent volume and performance requirements and increase reliability.The baseline configuration will be capable of storing 1500 Gb of data with a sustained data rate of greater than 10 Gbps and a maximum BER of 1E-14 in a volume of less than 1.5 cubic feet. The modular design approach allows for customization of data inputs, outputs and memory configurations as well as enhanced reliability and maintainability. Power management techniques will be incorporated to limit power consumption to less than 100W.

VEXCEL CORP.
4909 NAUTILUS
BOULDER, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 583-0236
MATT COMPTON
OSD 98-008
Title:HIGH DATA RATE SOLID STATE STORAGE OF DATA
Abstract:We outline a possible design for a high-bandwidth, solid state data storage system. We provide an initial evaluation of the suitability of various memory technologies that are currently available for the system.

ADROIT SYSTEMS, INC.
209 MADISON STREET
ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 684-2900
JOHN T LENIHAN
OSD 98-009
Title:CDL OPNET ANALYSIS SYSTEM
Abstract:The CDL Standard and associated channelization structure was established over 20 years ago and are not optimized for current networking technologies. As networking technologies are integrated into CDL and new sensors are deployed, the demand for CDL bandwidth is increasing. Specifically, the insertion of ATM into the CDL architecture has raised some issues concerning data integrity due to the higher bit error rates in the RF environment. In addition, constraints on the command link (CL) bandwidth is a major concern; the addition of upper layer protocols to retransmit corrupted cells and other traffic on the command link is increasing the demand for CL bandwidth.ASI proposes to develop the CEL OPNET Analysis System (COAS) which will provide a robust simulation tool for CDL link performance. COAS will be a discrete-event simulation tool for CDL link performance. COAS will be a discrete-event simulation tool that provides the capability to perform both low and high fidelity modeling. ASI will leverage previous CDL/ATM modeling experience to develop an improved CDL link model by 1) building an asymmetric ATM Link for CDL, 2) improving simulation runtime, 3) and integrating error allocation and error correction models with the CDL asymmetric link model to create a flexible, end-to-end CDL/ATM simulation tool.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 WINDY RIDGE PARKWAY
ATLANTA, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 859-9161
JIM DURKIN
OSD 98-009
Title:INVESTIGATIVE USING NETWORK PROTOCOLS ON ASYMMETRIC RF DATALINKS
Abstract:SRC plans to support the acceleration of ATM and wireless network convergence by developing an Asymmetric Wireless ATM Module (Asymmetric WATM Module). SRC will leverage its experience and resource from designing and developing the Survivable ATM system, a fixed point-to-point wireless system currently being funded by Rome Laboratory. The Survivable ATM System will be utilized as a building block to rapidly develop the Asymmetric WATM Module Phase II.As the first step, SRC will develop computer simulation and modeling software using OPNET to characterize the performance and efforts by using ATM with as asymmetric data link to transmit and receive voice, data, MPEG compressed video, and imagery. Using the simulation results, the Asymmetric WATM Module will be designed initially for the Common Data Link (CDL) to enable the delivery of asymmetric multimedia services using ATM cells.

ATLANTIC AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS CORP.
6404 IVY LANE SUTIE 300
GREENBELT, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 982-5243
JAMES LILLY
OSD 98-010
Title:FEROELECTRIC SCANNED ARRAY (FESA)
Abstract:A novel beamforming network is proposed to electronically scan two independent beams in a conformal phase array. The beamformer utilizes ferroelectric materials in the RF distribution network to control the amplitudes and phases of the array element excitations. One beamformer board is required for each beam and four low power DC voltages per beamformer are needed to achieve total hemispherical scan coverage. This approach is potentially much lower cost and lighter weight than more conventional approaches utilizing discrete phase shifter components or A/D converters. It also offers true time delay beamforming at much less complexity than lens feed or photonics-based approaches.

RADIANT RESEARCH, INC.
9430 RESEARCH BLVD SUTIE IV305
AUSTIN, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 338-4670
SUNING TANG PHD
OSD 98-010
Title:AN AIRBORNE DETECTOR-SWITCHED TWIN-BEAM OPTICAL TRUE-TIME-DELAY MODULE WITH PAYLOAD-MINIMIZED PHOTONIC WAVEGUIDE CIRCUITS
Abstract:The proliferation of wireless and satellite-to-satellite communications makes the phased-array antenna approach the most attractive due to its agility and accuracy in angular scanning and its security in operation.In this program, Radiant Research, Inc. (RRI) proposes a drastically new compact detector switch waveguide true-time-delay line (TTD) module that offers improved performance at reduced cost and payload. TTD up to 50 nsec with 0.1 ps resolution can be implemented within the RF spectrum of 1 GHz to 40 GHz which can be easily covered using semiconductor-laser-based optical heterodyne technique developed by RRI. The 2 MB/s to 600 MB/s data rates will be provided by the direct modulation of a laser diode. Unlike any conventional approach where one TTD line can provide only one delay signal at a time, the proposed true-time-delay module is capable of generating all required optical true-time delay signals simultaneously to all antenna elements. Th application of the wavelength-division-multiplexing technique makes the formation of a twin-beam phased array an easy task without increasing the payload of an airborne or spaceborne platform.By the end of Phase I, we will demonstrate all the after mentioned unique features to build a solid cornerstone for the success of the Phase II program.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 VAN NESS AVENUE SUITE 1105
TORRANCE, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
DR VLADIMIR MANASSON
OSD 98-010
Title:TWIN-BEAM CONFORMABLE BEAM-STEERING OPTICALLY CONTROLLED ARRAY
Abstract:WaveBand Corporation has developed a new approach to steering an antenna by means of a plasma grating positioned in a planar semiconductor waveguide. The new approach exhibits the beamforming flexibility usually attributed to phased array antennas but is much more cost effective and thus has high potential for both military and commercial applications. In the Phase I project, WaveBand will perform a proof of concept experiment demonstrating a 1-D steering twin-beam antenna; computer simulations of beam-patterns for a 2-D conformable antenna will also be carried out.

PRINCETON MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3 NAMI LANE UNIT C-10
MERCERVILLE, NJ 09619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 586-8140
SRJIT S BHARJ
OSD 98-011
Title:SMALL SIZE, MULTI-FREQUENCY, MULTIBEAM PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA SYSTEM
Abstract:Satellite communications, Airborne radar, EW, and Communications systems differ significantly in their antenna requirements. Not only do the various systems differ in their primary functions, but the many variations within one system will affect antenna requirements. For example, an airborne radar system may be configured functionally as a tracking, search and track, altimeter, navigation, ground mapping etc. Each of these radar systems has aperture reuirements unique to its function as modified by location on the airborne platform. Additionally, radars and communications require both transmission and reception of energy where as ESM and ECM systems require only reception of energy. With the availability of a mature monolithic microwave based Transmit/Receive modules it is now possible to look at alternative concepts. The availability of the T/R modules alone is not sufficient if a low cost shared aperture antenna is to be realized. Innovative front end partitioning and use of other technologies, such as multilayer printed circuit microwave technology or low temperature co-fired ceramics needs to be incorporated. For an antenna to acquire two simultaneous satellite links in the X-band, C-band and KU-band requires an innovative concept that will compete with the single parabolic concept. It is distant satellite, is determined by the aperture of the antenna. Any elements introduced behind the antenna aperture, such as filters or amplifiers with a known loss or noise figure, will degrade the subsequent signal to noise ratio. Active phase array radars require solid state T/R modules with high output power, low noise figure, high third order intercept and innovative concept with an architecture that requires a minimum number of the active components. The Multibeam Array approach proposed under this Phase I SBIR can be utilized for either the narrow or wideband arrays. The capability for wideband power splitter or feed network and a wideband antenna elelment. The specific technical objective of the Phase I SBIR proposd herein examines the critical issues that will make a Multibeam aperature phase array antenna a practical technology. The requirement to opearate several systems simultaneouslyf rom a common aperature can be achieved by using a control circuit at each element. The control circuit consists of an arrangement of a multiplexer, an attenuator and a phase shifter. The multiplexeer is used to partition the aperature into several simultaneously operating anten

ASTRON CORP.
22560 GELNN DRIVE SUITE 114
STERLING, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
JOSEPH R JAHODA
OSD 98-012
Title:ADVANCED COMPACT ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY
Abstract:The program objective is to demonstrate enhanced antenna element gain enhancement for small light weight synthesized virtual antennas. Astron/VPI have proposed a series of innovative helicalantennas to support the improved performance of a multi-element synthesized virtual antenna.

REST SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
2331 W LINCOLN AVE
ANAHEIM, CA 92801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-8274
RS TAHIM
OSD 98-012
Title:SMALL SIZE, MULTI-FREQUENCY, MULTI-BEAM PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA SYSTEM
Abstract:This proposal describes a new approach to multi-frequency, multi-beam phased array antenna system. The geometry of linear tapered slot antennas (LTSA) is utilized to incorporate the solidstate devices (HEMTs/HBTs, Schottky diodes) to design a transmit/receive (multi-function) antenna element. A number of such active antennas (T/R modules) are integrated to develop phased arrays at C, X and Ku-band frequencies. The input power to the phased array antennas is coupled by using a multiplexer system and a feed horn. The amplified signals combine the powers quasi-optically form the radiating antenna elements to form a high power transmit beam in space which is electronically steered by hanging the bias bolage of each active antenna element in the phased array. Since this approach eliminates the conventionall phase shifter circuits and the RF distribution network to feed each T/R module, it offers the potential of simple, small size, low cost and more efficient multi-beam phased array system.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
75 AERO CAMINO SUITE A
GOLETA, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
THOMAS L LARRY
OSD 98-012
Title:ADVANCED COMPACT ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY
Abstract:Small lightweight airborne platforms present severe constraints to the development of communication antenna suites. This is particularly so when there is a need for multiple SATCOM links including high data rate transmissions in the presence of interference environments. Limitations due to size, weight, platform motion, and cost constraints make it difficult to achieve desired performance levels. The proposed approach would examine antenna designs that incorporate control devices to provide states. This would provide a great deal of multifunctional and adaptive performance capabilities in a limited aperture.

ATLANTIC AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS
470 TOTTEN POND ROAD
WALTHAM, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-4200
MR MON YOUNG
OSD 98-013
Title:DETECTION OF MILITARY SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN EO/IR SENSOR DATA
Abstract:The ultimate goal of this multi-phase effort is to develop a semiautomated IMINT processing system for EO and/or IR sensor data that is based on object-level change detection (OLCD) concepts. The objective of the Phase I program is to demonstrate the feasibility of object level change detection in the context of substantial reduction in false alarms. Our approach to object level change detection is a multi-stage and modular processing architecture. The general architecture is similar to the SAIP OLCD architecture (developed by AAEC) with the exception that we are adding (1) stronger emphasis on feature-based change detection, (2) a second layer of verification for missing and new objects, and (3) a model-based processing paradigm. To provide state-of-the-art EO/IR OLCD capability, AAEC has teamed with Hughes Aircraft Corporation (HAC) to include efficient/real-time model-based target recognition capabilites for the proposed effort.In the Phase I program our specific objective is to develop and evaluate three key processing modules: geolocation accuracy, consistancy of target cueing, and an initial spatial-based features for change evaluation. The results of the Phase I effort will provide the basis and solid foundation for the design, implementation and demonstration of the full process in chain.

DATAMAT SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
8260 GREENSBORO DRIVE STE 255
MCLEAN, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 917-0880
JERZY BALA
OSD 98-013
Title:STRUCTURED SAR IMAGERY FOR OBJECT CHANGE DETECTION AND EXPLANATION
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop methodology and prototype algorithms for object-level change detection and change explanation using structural SAR image data. Structural SAR image is obtained by the filtration, detion and transformation of local pixel-level formations of strong and weak electromagnetic (EM) responses into higher-level geometric and morphological micro-elements. These micro-elements form an image of a new type. Change detection is applied to an image of micro-elements. The explanation of a change is deducted from the geometric and morphological comparison. Three algorithms will be developed for (1) the transformation of a pixel-level SAR image in to a geometric SAR image, (2) comparison of object states and clutter characteristics using structural and morphological micro-elemnts, and (3) an explanation of the change in terms of structural similarity/differentiation. The developed methodology will be validated through three groups of experiments. We have already shown that the proposed SAR image transformation is not sensitive to illumination level nor is it sensitive, to a certain degree, to small changes in object pose.

LIGHTWORKS LLC
8513 N 95TH STREET
LONGMONT, CO 80501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 554-0743
CHRISTIAN GRUND
OSD 98-013
Title:DIGITAL CORRELATOR FOR AVIONICS APPLICATIONS
Abstract:Detecting changes in two-dimensional scenery requires three essential components: detection/recognition of object, computation of relative motion, and fast, compact processors to carry out the required numerical calculations. Traditionally, most emphasis is placed on the first two software components. A problem is that processing large 2-D arrays is a complex task reireing board level hardware. An attractive alternative approach to simply considering improved software, is to reconsider the hardware in conjunction with software algorithms. We have recently conceived of a novel spectral processor based upon reduced bit depth logic. Originally developed as a means for very rapid calculations of frequency (Doppler) spectra for laser radar applications, it appears that the same type of hardware processor can be applied to image correlation, and hence detection of motion within images. We propose to carry out further analysis of this processor in Phase I, with particular emphasis on extending correlation calculations to two dimensions. we also plan to build a scaled-down 1-D processor in Phase I, in order to demonstrate the viability of carrying out full-scale development in Phase II.

OASIS RESEARCH CENTER, INC.
3131 N COUNTRY CLUB ROAD
TUCSON, AZ 85716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 661-6880
DR DAVID IZRAELEVITZ
OSD 98-013
Title:CUE-LEVEL CHANGE DETECTION
Abstract:This proposal describes an innovative coarse-to-fine approach to the detection of militarily relevant changes in electrooptical remotely sensed imagery. Our approach is based on the use of a generalized cross-image modeling technique to act as a focus-of-attention mechanism, and graph monomorphism finding algorithms for object-level reasoning. The focus-of-attention algorithms are robust with respect to misregistration effects and differential illumination and determine the likely areas of possible change. Knowledge of the approximate location and size of change regions reduces tremendously the computational requirements of object-level analysis and provides good initial estimates for processing parameters. Detailed analysis and matching of segmented regions is used to determine locations of actual physical change. Prioritization strategies are developed to permit an image analyst to rank the exploitation mission relevance of each change cue.

ATLANTIC AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS
470 TOTTEN POND ROAD
WALTHAM, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 982-5203
DR SHUBHA KADAMBE
OSD 98-014
Title:ADAPTIVE WAVELETS FOR LOSS-LESS HYPERSPECTRAL COMPRESSION
Abstract:The penetration of hyperspectral sensing from either airborne or spaceborne platforms into both commercial and defense applications, has risen the need for efficient data transmission and storage. This efficiency can be provided by data compression technology that exhibits sufficient compression ratio at no or minimal loss of information and can perform the task in real or near real time. This Phase I SBIR is aimed at developing and assessing the feasibility of a practical hyperspectral imagery compression process that combines two key components; adaptive wavelet decomposition technology and spectral binning. The proposed compression technology will be capable of both lossless performance as well as controlled information loss to achieve higher compression ratios. The developed algorithms will make maximum utility of unique attributes of hyperspectral imagery in order to achieve high compression ratings. Since real or near real time performance is desired, the focus of the development will be on computationally efficient algorithms that can be implemented in real time on COTS or special purpose hardware (such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays). In addition to real-time, size, weight and power is of high interest for airborne and spaceborne platforms.

LNK CORP., INC.
6811 KENILWORTH AVENUE STE 306
RIVERDALE, MD 20737
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 927-3223
MR SRIDHAR SRINIVASAN
OSD 98-014
Title:A HYBRID REVERSIBLE INTEGAR INTER-BAND DECORRELATION TECHNIQUE FOR LOSSLESS/LOSSY HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE COMPRESSION
Abstract:The placement of hyperspectral sensors on future Unmanned Air Vehicles is constrained by a data bottleneck caused by the limited downlink bandwidth. This proposal addresses this problem by developing a lossless compression algorithm that is optimized for hyperspectral imagery. Hyperspectral imagers generate 3-D data whose two axes correspond to spatial directions and the third to spectral response. The proposed solution exploits the latest results in lossless image compression by performing a reversible multiresolution decomposition of the data along the spatial axes. For extracting the redundancies in the spectral axis, one of three choices is proposed. The first is based on the principal component analysis, modified to ensure reversibility of the transformation. The second is based on cross-spectral prediction and the last on an integer multiresolution decomposition in the spectral direction. An experimental setup is proposed to pick the best candidate solution over a range of sample data. The transformed data is efficiently encoded by means of a contextual arithmetic encoder.Lossy compression is possible in a simple extension of the lossless technique. In addition the algorithm permits progressive transmission. The computational requirement of the algorithm is reasonable, and encoding the decoding complexities are nearly symmetric.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC.
4020 SPENCER STREET #108
TORRANCE, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 371-4445
NAHUM GAT PHD, PM
OSD 98-014
Title:PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS TRANSFORMATION FOR HYPERSPECTRAL DATA COMPRESSION
Abstract:The principal components transformation will be applied to obtain real-time lossless compression of hyperspectral images, with compression factors of the order of 20-50. A large compression factor will permit UAVs and space borne sensors to gather and store far more data than before. This will not only reduce the operational costs of acquiring hyperspectral imagery drastically but also increasing the strategic significance of hyperspectral imaging technology. The computational requierements of the algorithm are of the order of several billion operations per second for data rates of 100MBits/s. Since no single current available processor is capable of handling the problem in real-time, dedicated hardware will be built using commercial off the shelf technology for real-time implementation. The architecture will exploit algorithm's inherent parallelism and combine an array of digital signal processors (DSPs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to perform the task. The multiprocessor platform will be reconfigurable and can therefore be used to implement the entire class of parallel algorithms that fall within the single instruction multiple data (SIMD) paradigm.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
PO BOX 162487
AUSTIN, TX 78716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 306-1100
WILLIAM H HALLIDY JR PHD
OSD 98-014
Title:HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE COMPRESSION MODULE (HICM)
Abstract:Hyperspectral imaging sensors offer utility for a wide range of commercial and defense applications. These instruments image a scene over a large number of spectral bands to form a complete reflectance spectrum. Such a system generates prodigious amounts of information. The HYDICE sensor, for example, generates data at over 5.8 Mbytes/s. An hour of collection provides a spectral/spatial hypercube of over 20 GBytes of data. Hyperspectral instruments now being planned will significantly increase these numbers. It is challenging to store or transmit the data. Data compression can alleviate this problem.Having recently finished a program to compress hyperspectral interferomentric data. Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation proposes applying this expereince with state-of-the-art compression to hyperspectral imagery and defining requirements to design and develop a compression module to interface with a broad family of hyperspectral imaging sensors. The real-time compression module will provide frame capture, selectable lossless or lossy data compression, forward error correction, and modulation and will be able to telemetry the data over existing channel bandwidths. Phase I will investigate the suitability of compression and decompression algorithms and will develop optimal forms of lossless and lossy compression. Phase II will design and fabricate a prototype module capable of supporting flight-tests.

HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICS, INC.
358 SAW MILL RIVER ROAD
MILLWOOD, NY 10546
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 762-1774
JOSE R MAGARINOS
OSD 98-015
Title:FLEXIBLE HOLOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS FOR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING
Abstract:An excess of data is currently being obtained in hyperspectral imagery. Existing systems record the whole spectrum divided into a multiplicity of narrow bands. There is a need for a spectrally flexible system that can significantly reduce the number of bands used for each specific application. Such a system should have the capability either to individually adjust the band center wavelength and the bandwidth of each band or have the capability to switch easily between pre-designed spectral sets, optimized for each specific application. Novel solutions are offered in this proposal for producing low cost, custom designed spectral dispersive elements with flexible band centers and bandwidths. During the proposed Phase I effort, two parallel approaches will be considered, each having advantages for specific applications. If the application requires a set of narrow bands in a spectral region, but in another region can suffice with a single extra-broad band, the best approach will be to implement two pre-designed sets of dispersive elements. On the other hand, there are applications which need fine tuning of the narrow bands with moderate requirements for the bandwidth tunability. In this case, an array of individually tunalbe dispersive elements would be the best solution.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
ENGINEERING & PRODUCTS DIV
TORRANCE, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
GAJENDRA SAVANT PHD
OSD 98-015
Title:FLEXIBLE BANDWIDTH HOLOGRAPHIC FILTER
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a Flexible Bandwidth Holographic Filter (FBHF) based on tunable holographic filter elements. The FBHF will be compact and lightweight, with high optical density (OD>5) and tunable center wavelength and pass bandwidth. This new filter approach is based on the unique integration of a pair of Raman holographic edge filters (RHFs). Which are proprietary POC broadband holographic filters characterized by high optical density, narrow slope, and absence of ripple or sidelobes in the passband. Using two RHFs with overlapping bands, the filter center wavelength can be scanned from ~10nm to 100nm by independently varying the tilt angles of the RHFs. As a transmissive device, the proposed FBHF can be integrated into existing hyperspectral imaging sensor systems essentially without modification. Specifically, when placed in front of a standard broadband diffraction grating the FBHF forms a flexible dispersive element of a sort needed in many airborne remote sensing systems.

RUGATE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
72 GRAY'S BRIDGE ROAD UNIT 1A
BROOKFIELD, CT 06804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 775-0136
THOMAS D RAHMLOW JR
OSD 98-015
Title:HYPERSPECTRAL RUGATE DISPERSIVE ELEMENTS
Abstract:Rugate Interference filters are ideally suited to hyperspectral applications due to their ability to combine multiple functions and spectral regions in a single element, their flexible design and manufacture techniques, and their superior performance. Rugate transmission notches can be placed virtually anywhere in the spectrum without the harmonic bands associated with conventional discrete filters. The bandwidth of the notch is easily controlled as is the inband transmission or optical density. The same holds true for pass band filters. Multiple notches or passbands (or a combination) are easily fabricated. We propose to design rugate elements specifically for hyperspectral imagers, evaluate their predicted performance on focal plane arrays, and fabricate a Phase I prototype with selected materials.

WAVEFRONT RESEARCH, INC.
616 WEST BROAD STREET
BETHLEHEN, PA 18018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 694-9778
THOMAS W STONE
OSD 98-016
Title:NOVEL HIGH RESOLUTION, WIDE ANGLE, LOW LOSS OPTICAL FIELD FLATTENERS FOR IR HYPERSPECTRAL SENSING
Abstract:The goal of this effort is to establish the feasibility and advantages of a new class of wide angle optical field flatteners which exhibit superior resolution and insertion loss when compared with other fiber-based approaches and, unlike the classical Piazzi-Smyth field flatteners, have a nearly unlimited field curvature correction range. This high performance field flattener technology is an enabler for wide-field hyperspectral sensors over the SWIR and other broad spectral regions. Further there is potential for using these elements to reduce the spectral coordinate distortion that arises in grating-based dispersive systems. Optimized configurations will be developed and used to model system performance and benefits in a hyperspectral system. During this effort the feasibility of the new field flattener technology will be demonstrated through modeling and experiment. The experiments will include construction of an experimental feasibility testbed and an investigation demonstrating the feasibility of a low-cost manufacturing technique.

ALPHA INFORMATICS, LIMITED
7531 Presidential Ln.
Manassas, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 392-0303
Patricia M. McCormick
OSD 98-017
Title:Information Flow Analysis Capability
Abstract:Alpha Informatics, Limited proposes to define a set of simulation and analysis process which will allow Theater Warfare personnel to visualize analyze and manage information flow necessary to support operations foreseen in Joint Vision 2010 and JCS concepts for Network Centric Warfare. In conjunction with the Government, we will define, develop and document a set of processes which will allow Theater Warfighters to: 1) describe their operational environment (including information processing nodes and information transmission pathways), 2) Define the information requirements necessary to support their assigned missions, particulary Extended Littoral Battlespace operations, 3) Visualize the flow of required information, and 4) Manage this flow under varying operational conditions. These processes will then be used to define the structure and functions required for an HLA compliant theater information flow simulation. We will use the structure and functions to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a prototype theater information flow simulation tool to support visualization and analysis of theater information requirements. Such a prototype could be used as a basis for further development including the use of this simulation in conjunction with already developed theater deployment, force on force, and sustainment models.

APTIMA, INC.
600 West Cummings Park, Suite
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Daniel Serfaty
OSD 98-017
Title:Computer-based Tool for Information Flow Analysis of a Complex and Adaptive Theater Warfare System
Abstract:In complex command and control architectures, warfighters must clearly understand the impact of information flow on information management and decision-making processes. To cope with rapidly changing mission environments, complex, information-rich theater warfare systems must adapt their information structure (who should know what, and when) to survive and dominate the battlespace. The Information Flow and Analysis tools we plan to develop to support the analysis and design of human-system adaptive architectures are intended for both the commander and the designer. Our focus is on tool enhancement rather than tool building and on model integration rather than model development. Our human-centered approach, based on a blend of proven system modeling techniques combined with an existing set of C2 visualization and simulation tools, provides a low-risk, high-payoff solution with a short development cycle allowing computer-based modeling tools to be rapidly placed in the hands of the commanders and the designers of theater warfare systems. Aptima and its team partners for this project, Klien Associates and Micro Analysis and Design, have the collective experience to demonstrate the prototype of such a tool in Phase I, and deliver the complete set of Information Flow and Analysis Tools in Phase II.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
420 Hardscrabble Rd.
Chappquqa, NY 10514
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 769-2939
Dr. Alexander D. Stoyen
OSD 98-018
Title:An Innovative, Java-Based Tool Suite for Visual Failure Management in Large-Scale, Complex, High Assurance Systems
Abstract:21st Century Systems, Inc. (2CSI, formed April 1996) proposes a tool suite which will combat architectural design errors in large-scale, high-assurance systems through systematic and intelligent simulation and modeling of alternate designs. The suite will feature a wide range failure analysis, identification, isolation, correction and management tools, and will make use of many innovative resource allocation heuristics, and cost and objective functions. The suite will facilitate failure management for collaborative, distributed system development and will incorporate a rich family of intelligent agents to assist in all human and automated functions. Finally, the suite will be entirely COTS-based (Java, VRML, browsers) and will run on common, inexpensive, Windows and Unix platforms. 21CSI builds tools for complex systems ineering and operation. The company has pioneered the use of both affordable visualization and intelligent agents in design and decision support tools. 21CSI has already delivered or is delivering innovative tools and technologies to AF Armstrong Lab, AF SMC and DARPA. 21CSI is engaged in a major joint licensing with Telelogic, an investigation of technology transition with Boeing, a transition to SMCăs satellite management, and an investigation of a Navy-Air Force simulation and decision support system for Joint Forces Operations with the NRL. We fully expect OSD funds to leverage third-party support. For this project, a team with both a superb track record in systems, tools, visualization, failure analysis, and a solid knowledge of the sponsorăs problem domain has been assembled. Under Phase I, 21CSI will deliver a report, a detailed design document and a prototype proof of concept. Then, 21CSI will transition and commercialize the technology under combined Phase II and third-party funding.

AST ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
12200 E. Briarwood Ave., Suite
Englewood, CO 80112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 790-4242
Eric W. Brehm
OSD 98-018
Title:Failure Modeling and Visualization in High Assurance Systems
Abstract:System dependability is an increasingly important characteristic of mission critical computer systems. These systems must be maintained in a state of readiness to perform critical functions, and must be able to perform these functions correctly despite the presence of imperfections in system components, and in the environments in which the systems operate. Automated tools are needed to assist in specifying and evaluating dependability characteristics of high assurance computer system designs, and in balancing dependability against other system attributes such as performance and cost. Phase I research will determine the feasibility of an automated tool set for modeling and visualization of failures and their effects in high assurance computer systems. This research will: a) define an information model for representation of dependability-oriented behavior and design features, b) define quantitative evaluation capabilities for prediction and/or simulation of dependability and performance in various failure situations, c) define visualization capabilities for graphical depiction of failure effects and rapid identification of critical design elements, and d) validate the applicability of the proposed capabilities using a representative set of system dependability design issues. Completion of these tasks will provide a starting point for implementation of a prototype automated tool set in Phase II.

QUALTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
66 Davis Rd.
Storrs, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 423-3659
Dr. Amit Mathur
OSD 98-018
Title:Failure Analysis of Large-Scale High Assurance Systems
Abstract:Significant savings in the life-cycle costs of modern systems can be achieved if they are concurrently engineered with three design criteria: performance, reliability, and ease of maintenance. The proposed effort will address the development of a comprehensive model-based environment that supports the design evaluation process for large-scale system of systems by providing for the analysis of failure effects (including the effects of human failure), testability analysis, and reliability analysis. The environment will build upon Qualtech Systemsă (QSI) multi-signal modeling methodology that forms the core in a suite of commercial tools presently used for fault modeling, maintenance and troubleshooting of complex systems. The proposed effort will be conducted in consultation with Aptima, Inc., an industry leader in Human Engineering. In Phase I, the issues in extending the reliability analysis and FMECA techniques, already implemented in TEAMS, to systems of systems will be investigated. We will also focus on enhancements to the GUI in QSIăs tools, TEAMS, and to its underlying multi-signal modeling methodology for developing a visualization tool for failure analysis (TEAMS-FA). A joint task force military mission will be used as an example scenario to test the utility of the developed technologies. In Phase II, TEAMS-FA development will be completed and the tool integrated with behavioral simulators for automatic multi-signal model extraction. The capability to integrate with QSIăs diagnostic tools for post-deployment support will be a welcome by-product.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Rd.
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Eileen B. Entin
OSD 98-019
Title:Integrated Human Engineering Toolset for Engineering of Complex Systems
Abstract:Alphatech proposes to develop an integrated human engineering toolset to support the effective design of complex human-machine systems. The toolset will be based around two central concepts: human-centered engineering and integrated tools. By human centered engineering we mean a system designed around human capabilities. By integrated tools, we mean a seamless set of software tools that can exchange data and be used in any combination without human intervention. The toolset will include "plug-and-play" components for requirements specification, task analysis and allocation, workload and competency analysis, human-system interface prototyping, and system modeling. The Phase I effort will focus on specifying the functional requirements for each of the components, identifying specific tools, and specifying data exchange standards for integrating the toolset. The Phase I effort will provide the basis for Phase II development of a full-featured toolset to support the implementation of human engineering methods in the design of complex man-machine systems. This integrated toolset will be applicable to military, government, and commercial complex systems engineering. It will support the Navy in achieving the most efficient and productive use of human resources onboard ship and thereby support the goal of reduced manning requirements.

CARLOW INTERNATIONAL, INC.
3141 Fairview Park Dr., Suite
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 208-3451
Thomas B. Malone, PhD
OSD 98-019
Title:Human Engineering Tools for Engineering of Complex Systems
Abstract:The Engineering of Complex Systems(ECS) is a technology development initiative being conducted by the Naval surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division to formalize and standardize the process and tools associated with applying system engineering to computer intensive (complex) systems. The enabling capabilities required are heavily dependent on increasing levels of automation. The automated techniques will leverage the best available computing technologies and in some instances, will require advancements in state-of-the-art algorithms, computing hardware, software, networks, information management, displays, etc. The ECS program is concerned with computer intensive system (via system level components). System level components are software, hardware, and the human component. This SBIR effort will address the requirements for incorporating a concern for human engineering and human-centered design into the ECS methodology. This will be accomplished through and adaptation of a design process already existing within Carlow Internationalăs SHIP SHAPE (SHip System HIS Affordability and Performance Effectiveness) human engineering for ships process and tool system. A set of human engineering tools will also be developed in this SBIR which will be integrated among themselves, with the adapted human engineering form ECS design process, and with the other SHIP SHAPE tools and databases.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4900 Pearl East Circle, Suite 201E
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-6947
Susan Archer
OSD 98-019
Title:A Human Engineering Tool for the Engineering of Complex Systems (SEAIT)
Abstract:The project would design and prototype an integrated set of performance evaluation, workload assessment, and decision support tools for assessing human systems integration (HIS) aspects of US Navy and commercial ship designs. The tools will be used to evaluate reduced manning and automation concepts for new designs. The tools would consist of three software modules. 1. A functional description tool will assist users in performing and documenting a function and task analysis. This module would let users identify the workspaces and specific interfaces used to perform tasks for each function. The function description module will also assist users in specifying workload demands for tasks. 2. The simulation development tool will let users build simulation models of voyage profiles. 3. The data analysis tool will have three pieces: A report generator presents reports and graphs of simulation results. A task allocator uses clustering techniques to suggest task allocation alternatives to mitigate excessive workload and risk. A life cycle cost estimator provides insights to the potential affordability of a system design and the likely life cycle training requirements These tools will consist of an open architecture that capitalizes on parallel data base development and systems engineering tool development efforts.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Charles J. Jacobus, PhD
OSD 98-020
Title:Implementing a Distributed Testing Simulation Space Based on HLA
Abstract:Significant similarities exist between various DoD battlespace simulation applications and distributed testing systems. We know of only one effort which provides an integrated simulation system and testing control center. Under this STRICOM effort the proposers are developing virtual instrumentation for DIS/HLA simulated systems. While DoD standards, including the new HLA, and the older DIS afford a firm jumping off point for developing a federation of simulated and real forces within a single simulated battlespace, our earlier STRICOM "virtual test range" work indicates the need for incorporation of lower level stream data oriented protocols to complement the event oriented protocols of HLA and DIS. Additionally, for large federations of virtual and real systems (even soldiers), the effects of system scalability must be considered. At the foundation, High Level Architecture (HLA) for distributed simulations compares favorable to commercial solutions for simulation messaging like Microsoftăs DirectPlay, but these must be complemented with collaborate engineering systems, federated simulation management, and data collection oriented subsystems. In this Phase I we will implement a design for such a system based on our past experience implementing the virtual test range and will implement a demonstration distributed testing simulation space which is network controlled and compliant with HLA.

LS OPTIMAL
13-D University Houses
Madison, WI 53705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 231-9619
Guining Li
OSD 98-020
Title:Automated Resource Optimization for Large Scale Complex
Abstract:We propose to develop an Automated Resource Optimization (ARO) prototype for efficiently solving many resource allocation problems encountered in the design of large scale complex systems. Our proposed approach is based on a novel optimization framework, the Nested Partitions Method. The main goal of the proposed Phase I effort will be to demonstrate the feasibility of the ARO prototype. The Phase I effort will provide a foundation for development of automated resource optimization software tools in Phase II. These software tools can be integrated into systems engineering environments in supporting virtual engineering technology.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Ave.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Tod C. Hagen
OSD 98-020
Title:Wide Area Virtual-Prototyping Environment (WAVE)
Abstract:Most government and commercial engineering organizations are under pressure to reduce system development time and costs while increasing overall quality. Modus Operandi proposes to combine the most promising new technologies for remote collaboration, Virtual Reality Prototyping, and tool integration into an innovative environment with significant benefits for complex engineering efforts. The Wide area Virtual-Prototyping Environment, or WAVE, will allow teams of geographically separated engineers to quickly prototype and evaluate potential system designs using an integrated set of remote collaboration, Virtual Reality, simulation, HLA, design, analysis, browsing, impact analysis and management tools. WAVE will allow engineers to work faster, collaborate more effectively, and produce better systems. To reduce the cost and risk in building WAVE, Modus Operandi will use COTS, GOTS, and legacy tools and build on open industry standards. Catalyst, a mature engineering environment, is the culmination of Modus Operandiăs ten years of experience in building environments and will provide the foundation for WAVE. To this foundation will be added robust modeling tools from MultiGen, Inc. and Coryphaeus Software. The resulting system will provide important benefits to large Navy programs, such as SC21, CVX, LPD-17, and NSSN. A leading engineering tools vendor has already expressed interest in commercializing WAVE.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
2520 W. 237th St., Research & Development Division
Torrance, CA 90509
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
Edgar A. Mendoza
OSD 98-021
Title:Distributed Fiber Optic Acoustic Emission Sensor for Crack Growth Monitoring in Advanced Aircraft Structures
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation, a leader in the development of distributed fiber optic sensors for nondestructive inspection and evaluation, proposes to develop a multipoint, continuously operating distributed fiber optic acoustic emission sensor (FOAES) system for the detection and monitoring of cracks in aging aircraft structures and in next-generation fighters. Based on a distributed array of in-line fiber Bragg gratings that are sensitive to acoustic-emission waves, the proposed FOAES system can either be embedded or surface-mounted in a wide variety of aircraft materials and structures. The goals of the proposed Phase I effort are: (1) to demonstrate quantitative acoustic emission detection in aircraft materials with multiplexed fiber gratings; (2) to design an automated optoelectronic sensor readout system; (3) to integrate the fiber grating system and a bench top optoelectronic sensor readout and demonstrate its performance as a distributed acoustic emission sensor system; and (4) to test the FOAES instrument for the quantitative structural analysis of aircraft structural materials (i.e., aluminum and stainless steel) in the laboratory; and (5) to demonstrate the commercial potential of the FOAES technology.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Rd.
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Michael Dingus/Mr. Russel
OSD 98-021
Title:Acoustic Emission (AE) Distributed Crack Initiation and Growth Monitoring System Using Optical Fibers
Abstract:The proposed effort will examine continuous AE monitoring of fatigue in aircraft, where uncertainty about fatigue damage threatens to retire aircraft. Noise levels and other common AE issues have been addressed by others, but fundamental limitations of commercial systems, such as weight and EMI interference, continue to hamper extensive use of AE monitoring on aircraft. During Phase I, TRI/Austin will team with Boeing. SPEC, and Felicitv Group to create a smart, single cable AE sensor system that processes AE waveforms at the sensor. This will greatly reduce the amounts of data that commercial systems must transfer via cables into a central computer. This reduction will allow a single cable to monitor many AE sensors while reducing the weight, heat generation and size of the computer. Processing data at the sensor will allow heavy, EMI susceptible pre-amps to be removed from the AE sensors. The smart sensor could be smaller than conventional sensor/preamp combinations because the chips needed to implement smart sensors are commercially available, small, and lightweight. Phase I tasks will include: smart sensor development; fiber optic data transfer system implementation; adapting software; and optimizing ssystem performance versus commercial AE equipment.

CENTER FOR REMOTE SENSING, INC.
11350 Random Hills Rd., Suite 710
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 385-7717
Suman Ganguly
OSD 98-022
Title:Distributed Sensors for Monitoring of Actual Corrosion
Abstract:Corrosion of aircraft poses many problems including safety risks, higher maintenance costs, and reduced, operational effectiveness. Detection of corrosion on aircraft is difficult because corrosion often occurs in hidden places, requiring extended maintenance periods for disassembly. A corrosion detection system is proposed utilizing self contained sensors affixed to the aircraft. Novel sensors are proposed to directly monitor the amount of corrosion within the aircraft structure. These sensors will monitor the actual corrosion as well as corrosive conditions and will transmit measurements at regular intervals to a central processor onboard the aircraft. Maintenance personnel need only link to the central processor to determine when corrosion levels reach a threshold requiring service, thereby reducing overall service time and cost. Several means of data transmission are explored. During Phase I we design and develop a prototype system using wireless transmission of data. Tests using Navy facilities are planned during Phase I.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
2520 W. 237th St.
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
John D. Prohaska, PhD
OSD 98-022
Title:Fiber Optic Demodulation Method for Fiber Grating Corrosion Detection
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a new fiber optic corrosion detection system capable of measuring the location and progress of corrosion in an aging aluminum aircraft structure. The proposed system will give aircraft maintainers and designers important quantitative information about corrosion kinetics. The proposed system uses a corrosion sensitive fiber Bragg gratings, which can easily be embedded into structural members and lap joints, as sensing elements. The fiber provides distributed sensing over the entire area covered by the fiber. The fiber optic corrosion detection system will focus on the development of fiber Bragg grating sensors with aluminum metal coatings and the development of a novel demodulation method based on tapped fiber Bragg gratings. The sensor can be used to detect the average state of corrosion at specific points along the fiber. The tapped Bragg grating demodulator dispersively scatters light out of the optical fiber and is then imaged on to linear photodiode array. In Phase I POC proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of using corrosion sensitive fiber Bragg gratings with the novel tapped Bragg grating demodulation system to detect the presence of aluminum corrosion.

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
2555 N.E. 20th
Fairview, OR 97024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
Eric Udd
OSD 98-023
Title:Fiber Optic Grating Sensor Distributed Adhesive Bond Monitoring Systems
Abstract:An innovative distributed multi-axis fiber optic based strain sensor system will be used to measure transverse strain, longitudinal strain, and strain gradients in adhesive bonds to track the onset of failure. This system which is based on advanced fiber grating technology allows multiplexing of large numbers of sensors, Synergy with the communications industry allows the unit cost of the sensors to be low, This program is directed toward the demonstration of (1) the first usage of a single point multi-axis strain grating sensor to monitor an adhesive bond, (2) the effectiveness of measuring transverse strain gradients in tracking the onset of damage in adhesively bonded joints, (3) localization of damage by measuring multi-dimensional strain field changes, (4) the strategic placement of fiber grating sensors in bonded joints does not degrade joint strength and, (5) fiber grating sensors can be used to monitor the curing process of an adhesive bond.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Rd.
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Alan V. Bray/Joseph L. Ro
OSD 98-023
Title:Guided Wave/Fiber Optic NDE of Distributed Adhesive Bonds
Abstract:Adhesive bonds are a critical joining logy for modern aircraft, and health monitoring of distributed bond areas is an important part of airframe preventative and conditioned based maintenance programs. The introduction of smart composite materials with embedded fiber optics (FO) makes possible the union of two sciences into a leap-ahead bond nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology - ultrasonics and optics. Ultrasonic guided waves (GW) are one of the most defect sensitive NDE methods known, and they can probe at large (over 20ft in composites) from the inspected area. By using embedded fiber optics as receivers the acoustic guided wave passage is sensed internal to the part under inspection. This provides an NDE capability heretofore unavailableămonitoring guided wave structure at different points within the part to determine distributed bond health. A ground based maintenance system, GW/FO NDE would add less than 5 pounds to aircraft weight. The inspection would be done by connecting a knee high instrument rack to the aircraft using singlemode FO connectors. Inspection times should be on the order of 10-15 minutes for fighter size aircraft with 5-6 GW/FO embedded arrays. A commercialization approach for GW/FO NDE is presented for both military and airline industries, and company resources and university M.B.A. programs are used to assess market potential for this innovative NDE product.

HOOD TECHNOLOGY CORP.
1750 Country Club Rd.
Hood River, OR 97031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 387-2288
Andreas H. von Flotow
OSD 98-024
Title:Health Monitoring of Rotating Engine Parts
Abstract:We propose to upgrade a blade vibration monitoring system developed 15 years ago: 1) to improve its sensitivity and vibration measurement capability with the goal of using the improved system in on-going research in active high-cycle fatigue abatement for rotor blades; 2) develop the system, especially its electronics and software, and bring it to current aerospace industry standards to become the core of an on-board crack detection system that could be included in new engines or retrofitted to existing ones. The basic technology is a capacitive blade detection system which, couples to a very accurate timer, and post-processing, figures out the dither in the time-of-passage due to a blade resonance and infers synchronous vibration that way. The sensor is small, non-intrusive and one sensor measures all blades in one disk, hence has great operational potential. The early version of this system was demonstrated in Poland, where it was originally developed and did detect blade damage in actual operational jet engines.

ROTOMETRICS
1214 Oxford St.
Berkely, CA 94709
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 841-3585
Dr. Richard Spitzer
OSD 98-024
Title:A Prognostic System for Turbine Engines
Abstract:A measurement technology currently under development by the proposer will be utilized to develop,a health-monitoring system (HMS) to determine the integrity of a rotating turbine engine under normal operation. The HMS detects changing conditions of rotating elements in time to avoid their failure during operation and to allow repair or replacement at a more convenient time. The complete system will consist of (i) a measurement subsystem to collect and process a time array of data; (ii) an empirical database for reference; and (iii) a pattern-recognition subsystem (PRS) to interpret the measured and stored data. The measurement subsystem relates travelling torsional waves on each side of the rotating component to each other by their transmission/reflection/absorption coefficients. This nonintrusive network method is similar to those applied in the past to other wave phenomena, such as microwaves and acoustics. Temporal changes in these coefficients will be monitored and provide a measure of the rotating-component deterioration. The proposed Phase I program will determine the measurement subsystem and establishes feasibility through performance simulation of the designed hardware subsystem. The empirical database and the PRS will be developed in later program stages.