---------- ARMY ----------

199 Phase I Selections from the 98.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
NANODYNAMICS, INC.
510 East 73rd St.
New York, NY 10021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 249-2232
Chia-Gee Wang
ARMY 98-003
Title:A Novel Efficiency X-Ray Tube with Selectable Line-Emissions
Abstract:A compact X-ray tube assembly comprises an evacuated chamber enclosed by a ceramic tubular envelope, an attached power supply at one end connected to an emitter inside the chamber, electrostatic means for focusing a beam of electrons on a metal foil target, an end window at the other end comprising said target, the thickness and composition of the metal foil target and the e-beam energy being selected to generate a microfocused bright beam of x rays of a preselected energies. The compact assembly is useful in materials and aligment for resist layers for chip fabrication and for materials inspection. BENEFITS: An end-window x-ray target design brings about an x-ray generator with greatly improved efficiency and photon spectrum purity. The x-ray generator has a micro-focused focal spot, is light in weight, and is particularly useful for high resolution portable appications in manufacture process monitoring, and for materials inspection. Serving both the military and industry functions.

ABE BELKIND & ASSOC.
184 Martins Way
North Plainfield, NJ 07060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 769-6501
Abraham Belkind
ARMY 98-004
Title:Sputter-Deposition Technology for Productivity of Low-Temperature Crystalline AI2O3 Films
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will prove the principle of using a new low temperature sputtering technique to deposit crystalline films of A1203 on substrates heated to <300 Cc. crystalline films of A1203 exhibit high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Acceptable films formed by conventional sputtering methods require substrate temperatures higher than 350 0C. Lowering substrate temperatures below 350 CC will allow coatings on aluminum and other temperature sensitive materials. We propose to use an unbalanced magnetron powered by synchronized pulsed power and pulsed biasing. This will result in an enhanced ion bombardment of growing films and production of hard, transparent, and environmentally stable oxide films - all at low substrate temperatures. The technology can be scaled up linearly for large area depositions. In Phase I, we will evaluate the technology, deposit A1203 films and characterize them. In Phase I Option, together with a collaborator and potential end-user, we will further optimize the deposition process, evaluate the films' mechanical, structural and environmental properties, and perform technology cost analysis. In Phase II, we will further refine the technology, by interacting with end users, and design and produce crystalline A1203 coatings with improved interface adhesion on various substrates. Phase III will consist of marketing the technology and processing services. BENEFITS: The proposed technology has the potential to 5ignificantly improve the existing A1203 film manufacturing technologies. Further, the materials focus of this effort could significantly impact the lifetime and performance of many existing and future coatings.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
7923 Jones Branch Dr.
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-4215
Pierre Lallement
ARMY 98-005
Title:Air Acoustics Tactical Decision Aid
Abstract:The Army's increased utilization of passive intelligent acoustic sensors has created strong interest in optimizing their use in the modern battlefield. A complex acoustic propagation environment that varies in time and space, and diverse combat operations further complicate the problem. Planning Systems Incorporated (PSI) proposes to develop a Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) to guide the battlefield commander in the use of intelligent acoustic sensors and in interpretation of their results. In the past year PSI has successfully developed and demonstrated an acoustic TDA for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) applications in the Near-Shore Tactical Reconnaissance (NSTR) program sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Protects Agency (DARPA). In addition, PSI is currently making extensive use of the Mesoscale Meteorology Model (MM5) developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research and Pennsylvania State University. This extensive experience base will be brought to bear on the TDA development. Although air acoustics and underwater acoustics have very different modeling requirements, both require the use of a high resolution rendering of the b MM5 and the use of a high fidelity acoustic propagation model that is dependent on range, azimuth, and elevation (or depth). PSI will adapt the technology and software architecture of NSTR to the air acoustic environment to build the Air Acoustic Tactical Decision Aid (AATDA) software. The operator will use the software's point and click Graphical User Interface (GUI) to strategically deploy acoustic sensors in a simulated battlefield, and then run realistic threat incursions to exercise the effectiveness of the sensor field. BENEFITS: Improved use of intelligent acoustic sensors in the battlefield; increased understanding in the significance of the acoustic propagation environment in a battlefield context.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 S. Amphlett Blvd, Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Alexander Davis
ARMY 98-005
Title:AI Techniques for Context-Sensitive Tactical Decision Aids
Abstract:In Phase I, SHAI, in cooperation with our consultant, Dr. David Swanson of the Advanced Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University, will investigate, design, and implement a prototype of a context-sensitive tactical decision aid system for enhancing the deployment and employment of intelligent acoustic sensors. This system will use knowledge about local environmental conditions and terrain to dynamically determine sensor coverage of the battlefield and make recommendations for optimal sensor emplacement. It will combine knowledge of mission objectives with general tactical knowledge to interpret sensor reports in the context of the current combat situation, assessing from moment to moment which information would be most relevant and important for the user to see. It will also merge reports from multiple sensors, combining them with terrain and tactical data to provide a single coherent picture of the battlefield with maximum accuracy and utility. Since these are complex and difficult problems, we will take an integrated approach using a variety of paradigms, including Case-Based Reasoning, Model-Based Reasoning, Constraint Satisfaction, Bayesian Networks, and Knowledge-Based Representations; techniques we have used with much success in previous projects. BENEFITS: Context-sensitive tactical decision aids are applicable in any situation where intelligent acoustic sensors are employed. This includes a wide array of non-military surveillance applications such as intrusion detection in warehouse complexes, patrol of international borders, and monitoring of animal/livestock activity in wildlife preserves or commercial ranches.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71, Etna Rd.
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Nabil A. Elkouh
ARMY 98-006
Title:Plasma-Sprayed Fluxes for Welding of Titanium in Air
Abstract:Creare proposes to use a plasma-spray process to deposit flux coatings that permit the welding of titanium directly in air. Such a coating system eliminates the costly and cumbersome practice of welding titanium in an inert atmosphere created using complicated shrouds or within a dedicated enclosed chamber. The coating process offers the advantages of: (1) shielding titanium at elevated temperatures from embrittlement due to its reactivity with oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, and (2) retarding liberation of hydrogen through the formation of insoluble compounds that reduce the porosity of the resultant welds. Additionally, plasma spraying itself is inherently inexpensive, easily scaled to production scenarios, and features high, controllable deposition rates. In Phase I, we propose to prepare and test sample coupons with various plasma-sprayed flux coatings to provide a basis for assessment of the suitability of these materials for this application. We will also use the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process to produce and test sample welds on titanium alloys coated with the proposed fluxes. The flux coating process developed in Phase I makes possible the development of a synthesized welding/coating system in Phase II. BENEFITS: The proposed flux coating process is expected to: (1) broaden significantly the application of titanium alloys for both military and commercial use, and (2) permit the use of welding processes that offer high weld rates such as Gas Metal Arc and Plasma Arc techniques.

NOVA R&D, INC.
1525 Third Street, Suite C
Riverside, CA 92507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 781-7322
Dr. Martin Clajus
ARMY 98-007
Title:A Fast High Accuracy Hyperspectral X-Ray Detector
Abstract:A feasibility study is proposed for a practical, fast, high-accuracy hyperspectral x-ray detector system for detection and imaging of objects such as energetic materials and contraband. It may have many other uses such as finding and identifying contraband in luggage, briefcases, packages, parcels, containers. It may also be used for process control applications such as remote monitoring of parameters like the chemical composition or congealing of material in the casting process, or controlling fabrication of composites and fiber embedded materials. Another use can be nondestructive inspection of commercial and military energetic materials, munition items. It may also be applied for accurate determination of material properties. Medical uses are also possible, for example, in bone densitometry for osteoporosis diagnosis. During Phase I, a feasibility study will be carried out to demonstrate that the proposed detector will perform to the required specifications. During Phase II, a fully functional prototype detector system will be manufactured using the Phase I results. In Phase III, the detector system will be manufactured as a commercial hyperspectral x-ray-imaging instrument. BENEFITS: The results of the Phase I and II programs will be a fast, high-accuracy room-temperature hyperspectral imaging x-ray detector system. This detector has many application capabilities for both the military and commercial sectors.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Rd.
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Kenneth Ross
ARMY 98-008
Title:Intelligent Multi-Agent Hybrid Systems Control Technology
Abstract:ALPHATECH proposes a coordinated, multi-platform, distributed fire control system that will help the warfighter manage large amounts of target and weapon information in support of timely decision making. This concept will leverage neuro-dynamic programming (NDP) for control and resource allocation, Bayesian networks for on-line learning from the sensor data, and mobile software agents for coordinating the distributed processing. These advances to multi-agent hybrid system control technology will support distributed intelligent decision making, planning, and real-time control. ALPHATECH experience mitigates overall program risk because: 1) we have demonstrated experience in using NDP technology for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) resource allocation, 2) we have evaluated mobile software agents as flexible and fault tolerant tools for distributing computing and dynamic planning, 3) we have used Bayesian networks that use probability-based approaches to flexibly fuse information from distributed sensors, and 4) we have transitioned other advanced concepts into successful prototypes suitable for user demonstration and feedback. BENEFITS: This technology will help the Joint Forces Land Component Commander (JFLCC) and his subordinate commanders better allocate air and ground sensors / weapons to counter threat ground forces. It will help integrate fire missions and offer improved force effectiveness through enhanced command and control (C2). This technology, once mature, can be applied to distributed control problems have mixed discrete events and continuous time dynamics that are tightly coupled. It has the potential to reduce software costs and improve reliability. Examples include: manufacturing control, machine tool control, smart highway systems, air traffic management, and distributed robotic systems.

AMAIN ELECTRONICS CO., INC.
1875 Angus Ave., Unit C
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 577-0583
William Mandl
ARMY 98-009
Title:Extremely low Power on Focal Plane Digital Conversion
Abstract:As the size and sensitivity of infrared censors increase, the bandwidth to move date off the focal plane increases proportional to the number of pixels in the array. For analog focal planes, increased bandwidth also means increased noise. Off focal plane A./D as well as processing for offset and gain corrcetion also add noise. Power dissipation will also increase with size. The newly developed MOSAD technology places an A/D converter at each pixel, limiting noise vandwidth to temporal bandwidth,independent of array size. The converter requires no more surface area than the old analog detector interface it replaces. Digital at the pixel allows lower switching voltage over analog, reducing power consumption. The readout technology is absolutely linear and has zero offset. Power consuming and mouse limiting analog electronics can be eliminated from the system, improving reliability and decreasing cost. This A/D conversion process can be built with existing semiconductor technology. The technology is also less dependent on device parameters compared to other digital or analog approaches, giving it improved immunity to radiation effects and longer life.BENEFITS: There is a broad range of systems that can be developer with lover cost digital imager including: Safety ( aircraft landing, truck collision avoidance), Surveillance (law enforcement, assembly line) and earth resources ( atmospheric sounders, agricultural).

INDIGO SYSTEMS CORP.
5385 Hollister Ave #103
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 964-9797
Robert Cannata
ARMY 98-009
Title:Advanced Read-Out Integrated Circuit for Quantum wel Infrared Photodetector Array
Abstract:The goals of this program are to design, fabricate and test a readout integrated circuit (ROIC) specifically designed for use with Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays and to incorporate the advanced signal processing requirements needed for Third Generation FLIRs. QWIP photodetector arrays are fabricated from large bandgap materials (GaAs/AIGaAs) which are easily grown and processed to produce large uniform focal plane arrays tuned to detect light at wavelengths from 6 to 25 run. In Phase 1 the preliminary design and modeling will be completed for a ROIC designed specifically to take advantage of the attributes of QWIP detectors and to meet the needs of Third Generation FLIRs. For QWIP arrays to compete with other detector materials like HgCdTe, they require special readout interface features such as the ability to provide a large detector bias voltage, large integrated signal capacity, and the ability to remove the inherent dark current to increase dynamic range. The Third generation FLIR requirements also advance the capabilities of readout IC designs by incorporating signal processing features on the focal plane array. These include nonuniformity correction, analog to digital conversion, and other signal processing functions as edge enhancement, clutter rejection, motion detection, and target detection. In Phase IL the advanced readout IC will be fabricated, tested, and prototype QWIP focal plane arrays will be demonstrated. BENEFITS: Commercial, low cost, high performance, large format QWIP focal plane arrays and systems built around these IR sensors will find many applications in manufacturing industries, law enforcement, medical, environmental and agricultural.

LINCOM CORP.
5110 West Goldleaf Circle, Suite 250
Los Angeles, CA 90056
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(323) 293-3001
Vicent Hu
ARMY 98-010
Title:Multi Adaptive Spread Spectrum Coded Modulation (MASSCoM) System
Abstract:Multimedia applications are driving future wireless networks toward supporting data bearing services. Digital data transfer requires a much lower target BER and higher throughput than does a voice only application. In a wireless network, the communication environment is changing continuously. It is difficult to design a communication link that performs well under all possible conditions. Frequency hopping systems have been shown to be a feasible solution in multiple access systems while providing advantages against jamming/interference. Other strategies can be employed in conjunction with FH to improve system performance. However, these strategies typically sacrifice throughput and spectral efficiency. Under the conventional design paradigm, the link design is usually fixed a priori. Because channel conditions can change, the effectiveness of a combined spreading, coding, and modulation scheme enables the implementation of a transmitted waveform which can adapt to channel conditions and achieve the most efficient use of channel capacity. LinCom proposes the development of a multi-adaptive protocol in which channel measurements are employed to adapt the FH spreading strategy, modulation, and coding to dynamically maximize throughput. BENEFITS: The development of MASSCoM will enable the deployment of a robust wireless communication system, which could support digital data transport. This would enable fixed and mobile wireless terminals in military battlefield applications and in commercial.

VIASAT
2290 Cosmos Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-8099
Mark Johnson
ARMY 98-010
Title:Innovative Methods for Mobile Frequency Hopping Radio Networks
Abstract:As wireless communications systems move to higher carrier frequencies, advantages of direct-sequence methods are reduced due to the decrease in channel coherence time. Frequency hopping systems will be required to gain advantages of spread spectrum systems and minimize multi-user access interference. Channel dynamics increase with higher frequency operation and provide a significant obstacle to current receive processing techniques. Co-Channel interference, is emerging as one of the greatest impacts to digital data communications systems. A new approach to receiver design, applying Per Survivor Processing (PSP), offers the opportunity to achieve dramatic performance improvements (e.g. improved acquisition, and/or interference rejection) when a large number of users, difficult dynamics and/or large chanted uncertainties are present. Further, PSP excels when the channel characteristics, the number of interferers or reflections, and other key signal parameters are unknown. Application of PSP is now becoming feasible due to the rapidly increasing computational power and decreasing price of modern digital technology. PSP algorithms have been developed and simulated for dense urban environments wit mobile users under other efforts. The focus of this proposed Phase I work will be to develop an implementation capable of demonstrating the performance improvement of PSP applied to the mobile frequency hopped application. BENEFITS: The primary benefit of this multi-phased SBIR program is the implementation high-performance, robust and cost effective processing to enhance the performance and capacity of mobile frequency hopped communication systems. Mobile network protocols that are self-configuring and robust are called for in a variety of commercial situations, and represent a significant hurdle for current commercial wireless systems. Therefore, successful new methodologies for frequency hopping radio networks will have significant commercial potential for high carrier frequency multi-user systems.

GINER, INC.
14 Spring Street
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 899-7270
John A. Kosek, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-011
Title:Development of High Energy Electrochemical Capacitor Stack for Military Vehicular Applications
Abstract:The relatively high resistance and the poor performance are the limitations for the usage of the typical Electrochemical Capacitor (EC) for many applications, which require power under extreme conditions such as a wide range of temperatures. ECs with extended temperature range, high capacitance and low internal resistance are needed to open up a wide range for military, space, and industrial applications. Multi-million-dollar markets are to be expected from automotive and biomedical as well as military operations. The primary objective of this project is to develop high-energy-density, high-power-density, all-solid polymer electrolyte EC, capable of operating over most of the military temperature range (from -40 degrees to 70 degrees Celsius) to be used for military Electric Vehicle (EV) applications. This innovation is based on Giner, Inc.'s extensive knowledge in electrode materials and solid polymer electrolyte processing. The advantage of the proposed EC design includes the long life, small size and wide temperature range. BENEFITS: Commercial applications of the wide temperature range electrochemical capacitor include charge storage devices for uninterruptible power supplies, memory backup and pulse power sources for defibrillator and neurological microstimulators.

MAXPOWER, INC.
220 Stahl Rd
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-4230
David L. Chua, Ph.D
ARMY 98-011
Title:An Integrated Approach to Improve the Energy of Rechargeable Li-Ion Cells
Abstract:MaxPower is proposing a Phase I program which is an integrated approach towards developing a high capacity-high rate Li-ion cell capable of operation from ambient temperatures to -40 degrees Celsius. Since all lithium intercalated into the anode of a Li-ion cell comes from the cathode, decreasing anode irreversible capacity and increasing reversible capacity will be much more effective with simultaneous increases in cathode capacity. This is MaxPower's integrated approach which involves three tasks. Task 1 involves R&D on anode materials starting with commercially available MCMB and Superior Graphite carbons. Pyrolyzed PAN-based carbon will also be investigated. This material is deemed to be a cost-effective substitute for MCMB carbons. Task 2 involves R&D on nanoscale size LiCoO2 with inert ceramic materials synthesized by a sol-gel method. The method allows for uniform mixing of active and inert materials and will facilitate Li+ ion transport across grain boundaries. The structural improvements in these composite cathodes will also enable at least 15 % more capacity to be obtained from LiCoO2 cathodes. Task 3 involves building, testing and delivery of both liquid and polymer 100 mAh Li-ion pouch cells. These cells will have energy and power densities exceeding, respectively, 100 Wh/kg and 40 W/kg, and will deliver useful capacities at temperatures down to -40 degrees Celsius. BENEFITS: An expanded Li-ion cell technology base with respect to enhanced energy and rate capabilities, in general, and operability over the entire military temperature range, in particular, will help push the Li-ion rechargeable batteries toward wide dual (military and commercial) market acceptance. All types of portable devices and equipments, wireless communication devices, are key commercial applications. Soft packaging (pouch) cell technology will provide significant market dimension, commercially and militarily.

COGENTEX, INC.
Village Green, Suite2, Hanshaw Road
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 266-0363
Michael White
ARMY 98-012
Title:Translingual Information Access
Abstract:During missions, Army personnel are confronted with a large number of foreign- language documents, only some of which may contain important information. Army personnel need to quickly assess in English the relevant contents of the document, so that further processing of the document (for example, by human translators) can be initiated as needed. We propose the new concept of Translingual Information Access (TransIA), which will provide an integrated use of portable information extraction (PIE), Translingual text generation (TTG), and incremental summarization (IS) technologies. The PIE component will be easily portable to new event types. The TTG component will provide summaries of the results of information extraction, using COTS machine translation for extracted phrases. The IS component will allow for incremental, query-sensitive summarization of the entire source text. Using these integrated TransIA technologies, Army personnel will be able to explore the document as needed and make an informed decision about further processing. BENEFITS: Translingual Information Access is an innovative concept that integrates emerging natural language processing technologies to address the problem of multilingual document triage. The approach represents a major advance over existing practice, and has the potential to support myriad military and commercial uses.

BUSEK CO, INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
B. Pote
ARMY 98-013
Title:Ultra Compact Silicon Carbide Heat Exchanger
Abstract:The objective of the proposed effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing an ultra compact, silicon carbide heat exchanger for heat recovered gas turbine engines. The use of silicon carbide allows recuperator design temperatures of 1000-1200 degrees Celsius that capitalize on the inlet temperature capabilities of advance gas turbine designs. Higher thermal efficiency, improved fuel economy and greater power density are the benefits to be realized. In Phase I, Busek Co. Inc. and our development partner Allison Engineering Co. will evaluate candidate gas turbine applications and prepare a conceptual design of the heat exchanger that is amenable to direct reaction bonding of sintered alpha silicon carbide. We will prepare a number of material specimens and test modules that incorporate all the thermo-structural features or the prototype HEX to be designed and fabricated in Phase II. The test specimen properties will be evaluated in Phase I to demonstrate manufacturing feasibility. In Phase II Busek and Allison will design and fabricate a hybrid size prototype heat exchanger using manufacturing methods developed in the Phase I program. The recuperator will be tested in a test facility at Allison specifically designed for gas turbine heat exchanger evaluation. BENEFITS: Improved fuel economy, efficiency and low cost will allow gas turbines to be considered for prime movers, automotive and emerging hybrid vehicle applications. Outside gas turbine applications fabrication of SiC heat exchangers and structures have widespread power generation, chemical reformer and heat management applications.

ADVANCED NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS
3554 Mark Twain Court
Hilliard, OH 43026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 771-4861
Sandeep Vijayakar
ARMY 98-014
Title:Multi-Body Dynamic Two Dimensional Contact Analysis Tool for Transmission Design
Abstract:Advanced Numerical solutions has built a 2D multi-body dynamic contact analysis code capable of simultaneously modeling multiple gear meshes in transmissions. It uses many innovations to make this possible. A specially developed hierarchical solver is used to carry out implicit time integration in under 2- seconds per step for a model with 50,000 degrees for freedom. An efficient contact solver is used to solve the contact problem with multiple rigid body modes and friction in a fixed number of iterations. A special purpose programming language has been implemented to allow maximum flexibility in building complex transmission models. Preliminary tests on 2D model of a planetary system have shown that this computer program has sufficient speed to make dynamic analysis practical. It is now possible to predict vibration levels with sufficient precision to resolve the effects of tooth surface modifications. Bearing stiffness, rim geometry and other design considerations. The objective here is to verify the accuracy of the predictions made by the code. Comparisons with other methods like the boundary element method will be made. Noise and vibration comparisons will be made with experimental results available in the open literature.BENEFITS: The multi-body contract analysis tool will enable designers to improve predictions of noise and stress levels in complex geared transmissions.

B&C ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
411 Wolf Ledges Pkwy, Suite 104
Akron, OH 44311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(330) 375-1632
Dennis Townsend
ARMY 98-014
Title:The Development of a Unified Computer Code for Gear Transmission Design and Analysis
Abstract:This proposal will develop a system to provide a complete gear transmission simulation code to be used by government, industries, academia and private individuals over the Internet. Gear transmission simulation software for spur, helical, star and multiple planetary systems will be developed and verified for various applications. The simulation code will include the effects of profile modification, tip relief, non-standard center distances, misalignment, variable lubricant properties, and tooth surface damage. The software capabilities will include large and small material deformations, transient gear tooth loading conditions and gear tooth stress analysis, transient and steady state dynamic analysis, gear mesh stiffness and damping, and condition-based gear tooth health monitoring. The objective of this proposal will be achieved by using an existing NASA funded gear analysis code (GEARDYNMULT) as the building block for the development of this software. The bearing software will be disseminated via the Internet. B&C Engineering Associates, Inc. (B&CEA) and Partners in Scientific Computing (PSCICO) are currently working together to develop a virtual library' of scientific codes which government, industry, academia and private individuals can utilize to perform research, verification and design in various areas of science and engineering. While the developed software will be executed in the BCEA workstation, only uploading and downloading capabilities are required from the user. The code will be accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) with pre- and post- processor capabilities, along with an extensive help and a tutorial section. Such collaboration will provide users with state of the art software and the facilities with which to learn and use the software at substantial savings to those users. BENEFITS: The generalized and integrated computer code for high speed and high load gear transmission systems will allow a onestop computational facility for analysis and design of a large variety of transmissions. The availability of the code usage over the Internet and requiring the end user to have upload and download facilities only, will create a low cost, high reliability commercial scientific source. The code should attract a large commercial base (big industry, mid-cap companies, and individual consultants) through its Internet availability, ease of use, fast learning curve, and cost per CPU unit.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Anatoly Vasiliev, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-015
Title:Opto-Silicon Pseudo-Phase-Conjugate Wavefront Control
Abstract:The U.S. Army Research Laboratory is seeking an innovative opto-silicon technology to support real-time parallel optical signal processing and wavefront control. The goal is to develop optoelectronic elements that link a high-resolution phase spatial light modulator (SLM) and an optically and electronically matched CCD photodetector array through a programmable digital interface, which implements adaptive and nonlinear wavefront correction and aberration-free imaging. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes Opto-Silicon Pseudo-Phase-Conjugate (OSP2C) wavefront control technology capable of adaptive wavefront correction with high accuracy and wide dynamic range. In the OSP2C wavefront control device, a pseudo-phase conjugate corner-cube reflector array precisely couples optically matched SLM and CCD arrays. A commercial 256x256 CCD array with a 200 Hz frame rate and a fast ferroelectric liquid crystal SLM with 128 phase modulation levels (0 to 2) are used in a feedback active optical system that also includes a multi-chip module digital controller. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate feasibility by designing an adaptive wavefront control system with the necessary accuracy and dynamic range for image sharpness estimation and adaptive gradient descent optimization. BENEFITS: The OSP(2)C wavefront control technology constitutes a low-cost means to fast and reliable adaptive wavefront correction and aberration-free imaging. Applications include real-time small target tracking and recognition, adaptive binoculars and sniperscopes, reconnaissance imaging, military and industrial robots, recognition and identification systems for machine vision, free-space communication, and optical shop testing.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle, Suite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Peter A. DeBarber, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-017
Title:All-Optical Molecular Cryocooler
Abstract:We propose the development of a novel, all-optical cooling device capable of reaching liquid nitrogen temperatures. The device can be readily adapted and retrofitted to existing infrared (JR) detectors. The cooling medium for our device is molecular-based and has inherent advantages over existing mechanical cryogenic coolers. The optical cooling effect is based on frequency up-conversion. Our innovative features include no moving parts operation at convenient laser wavelengths, inherent energy efficiency, solid state design, small size and weight, immunity from electromagnetic interferences, long operational lifetime, and inexpensive to manufacture. The Phase I program will theoretically and experimentally determine the feasibility of the concept. BENEFITS: Development of a device with far-reaching commercial application. The potential to make inexpensive, efficient cooling devices that are driven by lasers may revolutionize satellite, computer, and high temperature superconductor industries. The potential for commercially viable spin-off technologies such as solid-state blue lasers, self-regulating thermo-electrical components, and temperature sensors is high.

PETROLASER, INC.
300 Ntelshor-Suite 600
Las Cruces, NM 88011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 522-5110
Allen R. Geiger
ARMY 98-017
Title:Optical Cooling by means of Anti-Stokes Fluorescence in Molecular Systems
Abstract:The possibility that materials may be cooled through the interaction of electro-magnetic radiation was recognized as early as 1929. Fluorescent cooling occurs when a material absorbs radiation at one wavelength and fluoresces at a shorter wavelength. This is known as anti-stokes fluorescence. The difference is photon energy is made up of energy removed from the upper state thermal bands. Thus the material cools. Anti-stokes fluorescent cooling in solids has been demonstrated by means of atomic anti-stokes fluorescence in Yb+3 doped glass. However molecular systems--could be much more efficient than atomic systems if problems with long spontaneous lifetimes can be overcome. This can be done by means of intramolecular conversion of tautomers or by near resonance coupling of paired molecular systems. Such molecular systems could be an order of magnitude more efficient than atomic systems and the working materials fabricated at low cost. BENEFITS: Development of optical cooling will allow non-refrigerant cooling of detectors and integrated circuits.

CHARGED INJECTION CORP.
Princeton Corporate Plaza, 11 Deer Park
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 274-1470
Arnold J. Kelly
ARMY 98-018
Title:Micro Burner Spray Triode Atomizer Controller Development
Abstract:SPRAY TRIODE electrostatic fuel atomizers are ideally suited for use in portable power systems. Spray droplet formation and dispersion being purely electrical in nature is achieved at low fuel pressures (>= 1/2 atmosphere). Auxiliary air or mechanical assistance is not needed. Moreover, these firefly sized atomizers typically require a few milliwatts to blue flame logistics fuels. However, to do so requires operation close to the maximum voltage defined by electrical breakdown wherein utter disruption of spray development and dispersion occurs. A means for circumventing breakdown and permitting stable, autonomous and optimal spray development under all operating conditions is proposed. Detailed knowledge of the breakdown process permits the design of a feed back control system that maintains operating voltage close to, but never exceeding the breakdown limit. A key element of this compact, low power and cost effective control system is an agile DC-DC converter whose high voltage (~5 kV) output faithfully mimics the low voltage (~5 V) controller manipulated input on a kHz basis. When implemented, SPRAY TRIODE electrostatic atomizer operation will be Transparent insofar as the nozzle will operate optimally with all fuels and valve settings. BENEFITS: The controller represents enabling technology for the introduction of electrostatic fuel preparation for carbureted, manifold and direct injected gas and diesel IC and gas turbine engines, heaters, boilers, cook stoves.

MESOSCOPIC DEVICES, LLC
1921 N. Road 80
Pasco, WA 99301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 545-4425
Dr. Jerry L. Martin
ARMY 98-018
Title:Composite Fueling System for Miniature Combustion Power Sources
Abstract:The need for improved portable electric power sources in the modern army is acute. Increasing use of electronic sensors and other electrical equipment in the military demands improved power sources. Many miniature portable power sources have shown great promise for reducing weight by utilizing the high power density of liquid fuels (75 times higher than batteries). However, the support equipment for these power systems, including the fuel delivery system, is not available at the sizes required to match the small size of the power converters. We propose to develop a complete fueling system for miniature power systems. The proposed fueling system will include a fuel pump and an adjustable, self-cleaning nozzle integrated with an electrostatic atomizer. The proposed pump will provide a factor of six reduction in weight relative to the nearest available commercial pump. The adjustable, self-cleaning nozzle will allow the use of smaller pumps and will enable a larger turn-down range than are currently possible. In Phase I, we will demonstrate a pump mechanism and an adjustable, self-cleaning nozzle mechanism. BENEFITS: The benefit to the Army and DoD is a lighter, smaller fuel system for miniature power sources. Commercial applications include miniature power systems for DoD, as well as pumps for medical and automotive applications.

PHOENIX ANALYSIS & DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES
1465 N. Fiesta Blvd, Suite 107
Gilbert, AZ 85233
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 813-4884
Dr. Mark C. Johnson
ARMY 98-018
Title:Miniature Air Handling System for Portable Fuel Cell Power Supplies
Abstract:This project proposes the development of a low cost, ultra efficient, miniature, air handling system for portable fuel cell power supplies. The project will result in a low volume, low cost production system which employs advanced techniques (stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, layered object manufacturing, etc.) to rapidly make custom air handlers. The proposed air handler employs a sliding vane compressor (before fuel cell) coupled to a sliding vane expander (after fuel cell) thus providing very efficient, noiseless operation. A concept compressor/expander was sized for a 100-Watt power supply. The concept design provides .2 SCFM of air at a pressure ratio of 3.0 and only consumes 7.8 Watts while occupying 2 cubic inches of volume. A system analysis showed that the hydrogen storage tank comprised - 70% of total system weight (based on a 10 hour mission). Thus, compressor and fuel cell efficiencies play a critical role in keeping system weight down. The analysis showed system weight is minimized at a pressure ratio of ~3.0 (since higher pressure boosts fuel cell efficiency) and that the proposed expander reduced system weight by 15% (by reducing required compressor power). The concept minimizes noise by matching (with adjustments for losses) compressor and expander pressure ratios and massflows, thus eliminating sudden expansions that produce noise. BENEFITS: This work will result in an Army vendor, which can rapidly deliver low volume production runs of custom air handlers. Other applications include: medical systems, space power systems, larger fuel cell systems, and miniature mass spectrometers

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Road
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Jared Sommer
ARMY 98-019
Title:Diamond-Like Carbon Dielectric Films for Electronic Applications
Abstract:Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are attractive electronic packaging materials because they offer a unique combination of high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and a high dielectric constant. Diamond layers have been deposited by various physical and chemical vapor deposition methods that require expensive equipment and high processing temperatures. This proposal introduces a novel method to deposit diamond-like carbon films using a low-cost electrochemical process. The ambient temperature process will produce nanocrystalline or amorphous DLC films on a wide variety of substrates without damaging the substrate material or introducing high thermal mismatch stresses. Various chemical precursors and experimental conditions will be investigated in Phase I. The deposited DLC film will be characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The resulting DLC films will be exhibiting a high degree of sp3 carbon bonding and very high electrical resistance. BENEFITS: The development of low-cost diamond films will substantially increase the commercial market. The proposed fabrication process may potentially be used to produce low cost diamond abrasives, electric field emitters, and wear-resistant surfaces.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2620 Trade Center Ave.
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 702-1672
Dmitri Routkevitch, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-019
Title:Electrodeposited Quantum Arrays for Radiation Detectors
Abstract:The proposed effort seeks to develop a technology for manufacturing radiation detectors from semiconductor quantum wire arrays. The approach is based on low cost non-aqueous electrodeposition into self-organized nanotemplates, followed by the incorporation of the array into micromachined detector. Dimensional precision at the nanometer scale of these materials ensures ultraprecision of parameters, as well as confinement of the electrical and electronic properties of these materials, which, in part, enables performance in high frequency range, and can overcome well known limitations of conventional II-VI sensors. The Phase I will demonstrate the proof-of-concept. Phase 11 will optimize the technology, build and test quantum array radiation detector prototypes. Phase III will commercialize the technology. BENEFITS: Proposed quantum array material can potentially enable new levels of performance and functionality of radiation detectors. Potential applications include light meters, smoke detectors, intruder alarms, street lighting switches, and other optoelectronic devices. The effort will also provide a foundation for a new generation of radiation detectors from -radiation to IR.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technology Division, 20600 Grame
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Wei Qiu, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-020
Title:Gallium Nitride-Based Modulator Integrated Visible Light Source
Abstract:The U. S. Army Research Office (ARO) is seeking short wavelength integrated optics components. In response, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes a Gallium Nitride Electroabsorption (GNE) solution. This new approach will integrate into a single wafer: 1) multi-quantum wells; 2) blue-green light sources; and, 3) an Electroabsorption modulator; all using GaN thin film. The results will be fully integrated, and the techniques used will be applicable to producing other short wavelength integrated optical components. Several other unique features will be included in this modulator-integrated visible light source. Electroabsorption effects will be used, for the first time, as a modulator, using gallium nitride (GaN) based quantum well material. Additionally, POC's technology for detuning the Electroabsorption effects will also be used to simplify fabrication processes. POC believes that this innovative device will provide a compact, lightweight, reliable, robust and high luminescence modulator-integrated, green-blue light source. The technology also has the potential to spawn more complicated short wavelength integrated optical devices. Phase I will deliver a prototype, fabricated on III-V nitride compound semiconductor materials, complete with initial testing to demonstrate feasibility. Phase II efforts will focus on optimization, to produce a practical, commercially-oriented prototype. BENEFITS: This project will develop a compact, low-cost, reliable, modulator-integrated visible light source for multiple military and civilian uses: high performance, full color displays, optical data storage, biological/chemical reagent identification, image projection video systems, color laser printers, and replacements for conventional lamps, such as traffic lights.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
654 Discovery Dr
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 859-1886
John R. Karpinsky
ARMY 98-021
Title:Phase Tunable Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:There is a need for Spatial Light Modulators (SLM)'s that have a few nanometers phase resolution' have > 128X128 pixels, are fast (>500 Hz), have at least 2-pi range of modulation, and have continuous phase capability. Devices of this type would have applications in the areas of displays, simulators, photolithography, optical interconnects, wave front cameras, adaptive optics systems, telecommunications, and noninvasive medical procedures. In order to meet this need, we will develop a 128 by 128 element SLM that meets the above requirements using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The SLM will be an array of micromirrors, which move vertically in response to an electronic signal, and change the phase of light. It is development will be accomplished by first, during Phase 1, developing the components that will be needed to fabricate the device. These components are an electronic multiplexer capable of addressing the pixels and a pixel that is small enough that a 128 by 128 array is feasible to manufacture. Then, during Phase 1 Option, we will fabricate the first prototype. During Phase 2, and Phase 3, we will test the prototype, refine the design, and start applying the device to solve problems for some of the applications identified above. BENEFITS: A large array of SLM's integrated with electronics and optics on chip can perform many system functions such as image signal processing, optical computing such as correlation, holographic displays, and adaptive programmable optical interconnects. This device will be ideal for these applications.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Joseph M. Kunze, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-022
Title:Nanoparticulate Reinforced Aluminum Components Produced by High Strain-Rate Superplastic Forming
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. proposes to use a high strain-rate superplastic forming (HSR-SPF) technology to fabricate complex shaped Nanoparticulate discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) components. Nanoparticulate DRA offers the strength and stiffness advantages of conventional DRA, which is reinforced with micron scale particles, but has the added advantages of HSR-SPF formability without cavitation and ease of machining using conventional tooling. The proposed innovative manufacturing technology for producing Nanoparticulate DRA components using high strain-rate superplastic forming will, for the first time, will make SPF components, both Nanoparticulate DRA and unreinforced aluminum, cost competitive. It will enable entry of SPF technology into a number of new industries such as the automotive sector. The proposed Phase I program will develop the process technology and refine the materials required to achieve the necessary form, fit and function of the component. A first generation version of the selected component will be fabricated for bench testing. In Phase 11, a full-scale component will be fabricated and tested. BENEFITS: The proposed technology will enable the cost effective entry of high specific strength and stiffness metal matrix composites into large commercial markets. In addition to DoD system components, potential applications include parts for the automotive industry, commercial gas turbine engines, and high-end recreational sporting goods.

HYPER-THERM HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES
18411 Gothard Street, Unit B
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 375-4085
Robert J. Shinavski, Ph.D
ARMY 98-023
Title:Enhanced Strength, Nanolayered SiC for Micro-Gas Turbine Portable Power Generation
Abstract:Micro-gas turbine devices may offer the potential for power densities equivalent to today's large-scale power generation in small man-portable units. Successful implementation of such devices is dependent on the development of a refractory material capable of operating at high temperatures and extremely high stress levels. Semiconductor micro-fabrication techniques combined with chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide process technology is being explored for producing MEMS-type turbine rotors. The fabrication of relatively thick (100-500 micron) devices is currently limited by the strength, residual stresses, and inadequate conformal coverage that is attributable to the columnar grain growth of thick vapor-deposited SiC. This Phase I program proposes to solve these limitations by producing a Nanolayered CVD SiC. Nanolayering of the CVD SiC structure is expected to result in enhanced strengths due to reduced grain size. The reduced grain size is critical as feature dimensions in potential high temperature MEMS decrease in scale. Nanolayering of CVD structures has also been demonstrated to improve surface replication as compared to the conventional, monolithic CVD material due to the elimination of columnar grain growth. This program will fabricate nanolayered CVD SiC materials and compare the microstructural and mechanical behavior of these materials to conventional CVD SiC. BENEFITS: Nanostructured ceramic materials IS an emerging class or materials that may be the enabling technology for the fabrication of refractory MEMS devices such as the micro-gas turbine or other high temperature, wear resistant MEMS (i.e. bearings, sensors, actuators). Potential applications include high temperature, corrosion/erosion resistant coatings, high strength oxidation protective coatings, ultra-hard cutting tool materials and coatings.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5533
Walter X. Zukas
ARMY 98-024
Title:Nanofiber Processing Developmental Facility for Soldier Protection
Abstract:Nanofibers have found a market in filter applications because of their high surface area and ability to effect a large pressure drop over a small thickness. Although their use in filter applications is known, methods to produce large quantities of nanofiber sheets are kept as trade secrets, limiting the progression of this technology into other application areas of interest to the Army. This proposal seeks to address technical issues which limit the production of nanofibers at a large scale and produce quipment for scale-up fabrication. BENEFITS: Improved availability of nanofiber mats will spur product related application research. Potential applications which may benefit are filtration, catalyst supports, biological coatings, and reinforcements for composites.

BUSTEK CO., INC.
11 Tech circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
David Carnahan
ARMY 98-025
Title:Micro-Plasma Torch for Ceramic Direct Writing
Abstract:There are no rapid prototyping methods that can directly create sintered ceramic or refractory metal components. Busek proposes to develop a micro sized plasma torch system to facilitate the direct writing/sintering of refractory components. The potential advantages of this technique are clear; the part is ready for use upon release from the build, there is no post-processing step, where a part may shrink or distort. For this and other reasons, a micro-plasma torch prototyping technique can show distinct advantages over laser sintering and other competing three-dimensional printing processes. The goal of the proposed program is to develop a miniaturized, high power density plasma micro-torch system for application to direct writing of high melting point (>2000 degrees Celsius) components. The micro torch will be demonstrated using silicon and hafnium carbide powders. In Phase I, Busek will produce a micro scale plasma torch and test its ability to fabricate simple objects. In continued work, the torch will be incorporated into a low cost system using commercially available stages and drivers. BENEFITS: Busek's plasma torch direct writing sintering technology has the potential to form dense parts and functionally gradient components directly from powders. This process is ideal for prototyping of high temperature ceramic and refractory metal parts. A system based on this micro-torch will be immediately useful to ceramic manufacturers.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2319
Jack D.Sibold
ARMY 98-025
Title:Desktop Manufacturing of Refractory Ceramics
Abstract:A method is proposed for production of high density, refractory ceramic materials using Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). Conventional methods of solid freeform fabrication have been used to produce ceramic materials, but it is difficult to make a material that sinters to its full density without deformation due to shrinkage. SLS is useful in producing intricate parts while overcoming these problems, but because of the low packing density of the powder beds being sintered, a porous ceramic results. By using a green material in the SLS, process with a higher packing density, an improved ceramic material will be obtained. Zirconia promises to be a good material for fabrication of parts that require erosion and corrosion resistance, high stiffness and deformation resistance such as diesel engine parts. However, it is very difficult to produce the fine structure necessary in these parts by traditional ceramic processing. TDA will team with a large ceramics manufacturer to produce a fabrication method using SLS to sinter a high density zirconia medium to produce a refractory ceramic part for a diesel engine from a CAD model. This method will be applicable to the production of parts from other materials with minimal equipment and design changes. BENEFITS: The SLS method developed in this work will produce intricate parts from high density refractory ceramics in a short time without part specific tooling. Commercial applications include production of parts for diesel engines and other complex erosion resistant components that are difficult to make with conventional ceramic Processing.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH, INC.
67 East Evelyn Ave, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7772
Dr. James J. Scherer
ARMY 98-027
Title:Real-Time Ultrasensitive Spectrometer for Plasma Diagnostic
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a new, real-time, ultrasensitive technology for plasma diagnostics. Los Gatos Research proposes to assess the feasibility of developing turn-key, portable Systems based on this new, noninvasive spectroscopic-based technology across a wide range of spectral regions. To date, we have demonstrated the approach in the visible spectral region in a series of proof-of-principle experiments. During the Phase I effort, we will quantify the ability to extend the technology from the UV to the infrared, as well as demonstrate the method in a plasma environment. The feasibility studies will identify components for the construction of a portable system in Phase II, based on targeted chemical species or spectral regions. The Phase I and II research will facilitate the development of a commercial, portable, and highly sensitive analytical instrument, which is capable determining concentrations into the sub part-per-trillion regime. BENEFITS: The commercial potential for analytical instrumentation based on the new technology described in this proposal is extremely broad and significant. Applications include the real-time monitoring of chemical species, such as pollutants and biological or chemical warfare agents, or the detection of reactive chemical intermediates in transient environments.

MATERIALS RESEARCH SOURCE LLC
2895 Butter Creek Drive
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 442-0067
H. P.Gillis
ARMY 98-028
Title:Quantum Dot Array Formation through Biomolecular Nanopatterning
Abstract:This project will demonstrate the feasibility of forming precisely ordered and precisely located arrays of compound semiconductor quantum dots by first etching into the substrate an ordered array of boles with diameters comparable to the size of the quantum dots Sought and then depositing adatoms to fore one quantum dot in each hole by self-assembly. The methods to be used are extensions of precarious successful growth of ordered arrays of metal quantum dots by the authors. The periodic array of nanometer-sized holes until be defined by a biomolecular mask, and wi11 be transferred into the Si(100) substrate by Low Energy Electron Enhanced Etching (LE4) with no etch damage to the substrate. GaAs quantum tote will be grown in the etched holes by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). The effectiveness of clean H-terminated Si nanopatterned surfaces and of oxidized Si nanopatterned surface in producing GaAs quantum dots will be compared. The presence of quantum dot will be verified with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFT) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEA) in both plan and cross-section views. BENEFITS: This work will enable growth of compound semiconductor quantum dots without reliance and high-strain heteroepitaxial methods. Since this work achieves massively parallel processing in was' definition, etching. And quantum dot formation, it will enable routine manufacturing of dot arrays applicable to optical designs and single electron devices.

NSE COMPOSITES STRESS SERVICES
927 N. Northlake Way, Suite 301
Seattle, WA 98103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-4888
Hui Bau
ARMY 98-029
Title:Fatigue Life Modeling of Composite Bonded Joints in Rotorcraft Structures
Abstract:The rotorcraft industry lacks a validated analysis tool that would enable designers to use composite bonded joints in primary structures. The overall goal of this program is to develop such a tool by combining state-of-the-art analysis methods with an extensive test database in order to generate certifiable strength and fatigue life predictions of rotorcraft joint configurations and loading conditions. For Phase I and Phase I Option, NSE Composites Stress Services (NSE) is teamed with members of the rotorcraft industry (Bell, Boeing Helicopter, and Sikorsky) to identify candidate joints that have potentially high payoff as bonded joint redesigns. NSE and its research consultants will conduct state- of-the-art strength and fatigue analyses on selected configurations. NSE's hybrid analytical approach is based on a strength-of-materials approach to determine damage initiation, and a fracture mechanics approach to assess damage progression. Accumulation of damage due to fatigue spectra will also be predicted. The Phase I and Phase I Option results will be: a detailed definition of candidate joints, a preliminary evaluation of the selected analytical approach, a preliminary Phase II test matrix, and a flowchart of the software to be developed in Phase II. BENEFITS: The benefit of a validated analysis tool for composite bonded joints is higher efficiency, lower cost composite structural designs. The initial commercialization will be aimed at the rotorcraft industry. As the analytical approaches are validated over a wider range of configurations, the tool will have general aerospace application.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Ave.
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-030
Title:Autonomous Multi-Mode Collision Avoidance System Using EO/GPS/MEMS-IMU for UAVs
Abstract:This Phase I project develops an innovative Autonomous Multi-Mode Collision Avoidance System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) operating as teams with manned airborne Systems in the same general airspace. The proposed approach uses a passive mode and a Low Probability of Intercept mode for measuring the range of the object for the collision avoidance system. An integrated Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver MEMS-IMU(Micro-Electronic-Mechanical-System, Inertial Measurement Unit) navigation system is used to provide the UAV position. The passive mode for measuring the range to the object employs passive Electro-Optic image sensor such as a TV camera and an infrared sensor and corresponding algorithms. The innovative Low Probability of Intercept relative positioning technology using a GPS carrier is developed to achieve a Low Probability of Intercept collision avoidance system. An Intelligent Collision Avoidance Agent is responsible for collision detection, prediction and decision making, avoidance abort trajectory generation, and a command output for a reconfigurable UAV flight control system. BENEFITS: This project will lead to a passive/low probability of intercept collision avoidance and Airspace Deconfliction system, which has several commercial applications including Air Traffic Management (ATM), smart vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, and passive target tracking.

APPLIED AERO, LLC
48365 Avalon Heights Terrace
Fremont, CA 34539
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 668-1919
James C. Wu
ARMY 98-031
Title:rotocraft Ground Noise Exposure Prediction System Using Neural Networks
Abstract:The objective of Phase I is to develop and demonstrate a neural networks system to predict, map, and interpolate rotorcraft ground noise exposure data. It is well-known that the relationships between ground noise exposures. Helicopter flight paths and operation conditions are extremely complicated and involved with many parameters, such as type of helicopters, power setting, approach path, and meteorological conditions. The formulation of such a function relationship with neural networks using experimental data seems the only viable approach. A neural network system, which is based on some existing data under theoretical guidance, will be designed and implemented, and be used to demonstrate the feasibility of the selected neural network algorithms. With the prediction system developed in Phase I, a prototype system will be designed and constructed in Phase II for a helicopter cockpit to display acoustic noise characteristics, noise level variability of different flight operation conditions, including various meteorological environments. The definition of Phase II will be formulate in Phase I in order to accomplish the implementation of prototype system under various flight test-conditions on a real-time base.BENEFITS: The rotorcraft ground noise exposure can be predicted by the newly developed system on a real-time base. In military application, the prototype system in the helicopter cockpit can guide a pilot to maneuver the vehicle to avoid potential threats in a hostile environment. In civil application, inner-city operations, police activities, and emergency operations will benefit from the technology in the approach terminal area.

SWB TURBINES, INC.
2418 Industrial Dr, Unit F
Neenah, WI 54956
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(920) 725-3721
Gregory W. Heinen
ARMY 98-032
Title:Light Weight Micro Turboprop Enigne for Outrider
Abstract:UAV Micro-turbine technology recently patented by SWB Turbines and implemented in precious flight-weight turbojet engines at SWB Turbines is adapted for use in turboprop configuration. A centrifugal compressor and radial-inflow turbine provide the core to a turboprop engine, With components derived from low-cost (

ELECTRO-RADIATION, INC.
39 Plymouth Street
Fairfield, NJ 07004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 808-9033
Murry W. Rosen
ARMY 98-033
Title:Enhanced A/J Performance GPS FRPA Antenna and Electronics
Abstract:The Phase 1 project examines the concept of low-cost and low RCS GPS protection capability for advanced rotary wing aircraft using an L1/L2 antenna retrofit. The project examines the tail stabilizer GPS antenna installation of the Comanche RAH-66 and forward antenna location for factors including: installation detail, signature, GPS coverage, blockage/masking, and onboard interference. The project employs ERI's patented single aperture, COTS A/J technology. The project examines alternate antennas (i.e., cross-slot cavity backed in turnstile and square box arrangements and patches) to optimize GPS and A/J performance. The project examines active antenna arrangements with electronics at the antenna and in the E-bay near the receiver. The objective is to provide a retrofit solution that has low acquisition and installation cost. The Phase 1 Option addresses partitioning and package trades for electronics between E-bay and aperture locations. Phase 2 develops and tests a prototype L1/L2 antenna for the RAH-66 consisting of an active antenna with modified COTS electronics for demonstration. Phase 2 builds, modifies and integrates the anti-jam system on an airframe with the existing GPS receiver, and supports test planning and demonstration that scopes anti-jam performance and signature impact. BENEFITS: The program develops a low-RCS, robust active antenna and electronics concept for GPS protection. Phase 1 conducts essential research, determines the scope of performance and cost associated with the end item, while utilizing RAH-66, CNI/ASE aperture experience.

HYPRES, INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Dr. David Osterman
ARMY 98-034
Title:Two-Dimensional Staring Arrays for Low-Cost Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging
Abstract:HYPRES proposes to develop a novel passive, millimeter-wave imager (PMWI) of much lower cost than competing types. The PN1WI will employ a staring array of micromachined detectors, each coupled to its own thin-film antenna and feedhorn. Until the present, the sensitivity of such a scheme has not beau adequate for passive imaging. Recent advances in micromachined arrays for the infrared, however, can also be adapted to millimeter-wave imaging, raising the sensitivity to the necessary levels. The resulting P5IWI system will feature complete integration on a single chip of detectors, antennas, feedhorns and CMOS readout circuitry. The advantages of this approach include high reliability, low fabrication COST, small system size, and the elimination of scanning by the use of a full two-dimensional staring geometry. In Phase I HYPRES will design and fabricate a full two-dimensional array with off-chip read-out of a single line of detectors. In Phase 0, an integrated on-chip CMOS read-out of the entire array will be developed. BENEFITS: The passive millimeter-wave imager will find application in airport security systems, imagers for locating forest fires through dense smoke, and navigation aids for planes and boats in foggy environments. The low cost and small size of the imager will make it attractive for a wide range of military and commercial customers.

MILLIVISION, LLC
29 Industrial Drive East
Northhampton, MA 01060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 582-9600
J. Jeffrey Hunter
ARMY 98-034
Title:Millimeter Wave Hand Held Concealed Object Imager
Abstract:Millivision LLC proposes to develop a low cost, portable, passive millimeter wave device for concealed object detection. The device will be hand-held and will provide the operator with a view of objects, independent of their composition, concealed under or behind a variety of obscuring materials. The device will be operated by scanning the area of interest, much in the same way as a flashlight is used to examine a darkened area. The Phase I effort will concentrate on determining the feasibility, performance, and configuration of the system. The effort will include an analysis of approaches that provide an acceptable field of view, frame rate, and signal to noise ratio, while keeping the system light and small enough to be hand-held and inexpensive enough to be appealing to a wide range of markets. This analysis will be supported by software simulation of specific parts of the system behavior, to provide a rapid and accurate appreciation of the impact of the tradeoffs we consider. The Phase I effort will culminate in the production of a system design and a report on expected system performance, including an estimate of production costs. Based upon the design, effort under the Phase I Option will initiate the construction of the sensor sub-system of the device, which will allow for early experimental validation of system performance. BENEFITS: The proposed device would be useful to military personnel and civilian police in situations requiring screening for concealed weapons, explosives, or contraband. Uses include identification and location of items concealed on the person, in walls, or under certain types of ground cover.

COMMONWEALTH COMPUTER RESEARCH, INC.
1936 Arlington Blvd., Suite 113
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 977-0600
Donald E. Brown
ARMY 98-035
Title:Fast Propagation Algorithms to Support Real-Time RF Visualization
Abstract:The ability to quickly and accurately determine effective deployment locations for radio frequency sensors or jammers is an essential element in today's highly mobile and fast-paced battlefield. Further, tools that help visualize radio coverage characteristics over a given geographic area would enable the battlefield commander to evaluate placement trade-offs without the time and expense of physically moving assets around in the field. In order for such tools to be useful, the underlying software used to model radio wave propagation must be accurate and fast. We propose to develop propagation algorithms that will provide the same accuracy as models currently used by several Army systems, but that will run fast enough to support near-real-time applications. Our proposed approach is two-fold. First, we will analyze the computational complexity of existing Army models in order to identify and improve performance problem areas. Second, we will conduct performance versus accuracy trade-off studies on a variety of other pathless algorithms. This approach will allow us to address whether more efficient calculation techniques exist and if these techniques can be used in place of existing models. The end result of our research will be a software prototype of performance-enhanced RF propagation algorithms. BENEFITS: Many industries, beyond the military, will benefit from the ability to visually analyze RF propagation in near real-time. Specific applications where the proposed effort has immediate commercial applicability range from cellular and pager networks to RF identification and tagging systems.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
7923 Jones Branch Dr.
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-4215
Pierre Lallement
ARMY 98-035
Title:Near Real Time Visualization of RF Terrain Model
Abstract:The increasingly demanding decision timeline thrust upon the battlefield commander regarding electronic warfare (EW) assets demands correspondingly responsive EW decision support tools. The rapid deployment and quick response of EW assets in today's high mobility battlefield requires a significant advancement in the responsiveness of the COMINT/SIGINT planning tool which will be locally available at the field command. Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI) proposes an innovative approach which provides a significant step forward to providing timely EW analysis data which meets the rigorous decision support timeline of the battlefield command. In Phase I, with the support of our expertly qualified subcontractor, the Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (IITRI), we will develop a computationally efficient Mission-Intelligent RF Model. In Phase 2, we will apply PSI's extensive background in simulation, real time system development and user interface functional modules that comprise the AMBISS Mission Planner. The resultant capability will yield a EW Mission Planner that is unmatched in capability, speed, and effectiveness for the battlefield command. This approach can be applied to decision support systems in joint services, law enforcement, and commercial industry. BENEFITS: The work will result in an Advanced Electronic Warfare Mission Planner that will provide a near real-time analysis tool for application in a rapidly changing complex operational environment.

INDIGO SYSTEMS CORP.
5385 Hollister Ave #103
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 964-9797
Jeffrey Heath
ARMY 98-036
Title:Unattended Miniature Sensors
Abstract:Recent advances in the development of small very low-power infrared sensors (i.e. the UL3 camera developed by Indigo Systems Corporation) are having a growing impact on area surveillance and protection strategies for military and commercial users. It is now realizable for these micro-sensors to be used in a widely distributed network for providing contiguous day/night visual surveillance of very large areas. Highly optimized systems will most likely involve the integration of extremely low-power acoustic, seismic, and/or passive IR motion sensors as trigger mechanisms for imaging components in the surveillance network. Additionally, the imaging components themselves may employ extreme low-power modes involving reduced frame rates and on-board motion detection. The work completed under Phase I of this proposal will demonstrate the feasibility of such a system. A trade study will be performed to analyze the requirements of various surveillance scenarios. The results will be used to develop an appropriate system architecture and preliminary system design. In addition, a prototype UL3 infrared camera will be fabricated and tested as part of Phase I. The proposed Phase I Option is to fabricate the hardware demonstration system designed in Phase I. The UL3 camera will be integrated with a data compressor/decompressor (CODEC), spread-spectrum transmitter/receiver, and remote monitoring station. This system will demonstrate the compressed image quality and transmission performance of autonomous sensors developed in Phase II. During Phase II power reduction schemes, including motion detection within the imaging subsystems and integration of low-power queuing sensors will be implemented. UL3-based sensors will be integrated with selected power sources and triggering sensors suitable for long field life. Multiple sensor packages will be incorporated into a complete, fieldable wide area surveillance system. BENEFITS: Advances in networked interconnection, miniaturization, ruggedization, and power reduction of unattended sensors accomplished under this program will directly apply to a broad range of military, pare-military, and commercial markets including ground-based and hand-held surveillance, process monitoring, and fire fighting.

INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC MACHINES CORP.
60 Fourth Ave.
Albany, NY 12202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 449-5504
Zack Mian
ARMY 98-036
Title:Miniature Wireless IR and Acoustic Sensor
Abstract:IEM, with assistance from its subcontractors, Infrared Solutions, Inc. (ISI) / Honeywell Technology Center (HTC), proposes to design small IR sensor electronics to drive an uncooled bolometer array. The new IR sensor will be incorporated into a small IR and acoustic sensor capable of transmitting images via a secured wireless network. IEM will incorporate several innovations in the proposed effort: reduced size electronic packaging, smart acoustic sensor, secure wireless network, and innovative data compression. The innovative small sensor will operate off a small solar cell. The potential applications of this small sensor include remote security and surveillance. This effort will be led by Zack Mian from IEM and Dr. Paul Kruse at ISI. BENEFITS: Potential applications include anti-personnel land mines, monitor activity near large mines, perimeter surveillance of nuclear bases and other military resources and bases. Commercial applications include temporary remote security, and industrial quality control.

MORIAH TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 9104
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 506-9749
Edward E. Newsome
ARMY 98-037
Title:Spectral Efficient OFDM-FH/SSMA Packet Radio System
Abstract:The objective of this project is to devise an innovative frequency hopping spread spectrum digital packet radio modulation technology for transmitting high bit rate data using spectrally efficient information signals. The system introduces a number of innovations including: the use of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing as the baseband modulation strategy, single-sideband as the RF modulation strategy, and turbo trellis-coded modulation as the channel encoding forward error correction scheme. Orthogonal frequency hopping spread spectrum will be used to provide a multi-access strategy, secure communications, and high immunity to frequency selective multipath fading and interference. Communications, synchronization, and acquisition is acquired on a packet-by-packet basis. The proposed scheme encodes M-ary pilot-based synchronization information in parallel with the data in reserved frequency sub-channels. These pilots are the basis of channel estimation and equalization. The signal constellation is coherent quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), which enables the modulator to operate with spectrum efficiencies greater than 2 bits/sec/Hertz at nominal clock rates, minimal power consumption, and a low probability of error. Integrating the modulation concept with an advanced packet control scheme allows the allocation of bandwidth-on-demand which enables supplying programmable voice, graphical, audio, data, and video services. The objective of this packet radio technology is to permit operations in dynamic, interactive multi-band, multi-user, multi-access, and multi-services modes. BENEFITS: For military markets, the proposed technology is designed for Battlefield Information Transmission System (BITS) applications. In terms of private sector markets, the technology will be employed to develop wireless telecommunication systems in the U-NII and LMDS bands. Commercialization will occur through internal production and technology licensing agreements.

ANNTRON, INC.
1440 Willowbrook Dr.
Boalsburg, PA 16827
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 235-1586
Scott Thompson
ARMY 98-038
Title:Intelligent Access HUB Technology
Abstract:An intelligent access hub concept for wireless wide area networks is described. This intelligent access hub network is a high capacity multimedia, rapidly deployable architecture which nominally supports 10 Mb/s data rates from the ATM backbone to each fixed or roaming information kiosd. The concept exploits smart directive antennas which emphasize signal reception form the desired ik and de-emphasize interference from other directions in process called spatial filtering. Spatial filtering may be used to resolve the signal from distinct Iks providing for spatial division multiple access. The fundamentallomitation to SDMA is Signal to Interference ratio. A unique solution to mitigate the SIR is proposed using a smart beamformer and adaptation of radio bridge protocols. Transmission in directive beams with minimum power provides inherent Anti-Jam and low probability of intercept properties. The design is cots richto reduce cost, Weight, and risk of the system. The architecture is realized itn the unlicensed national information infrastructure band for low cost, unlicensed implementation, but the concept is applicable to other frequency bands. The architecture has immense commercial appeal as a cost effective alternative to paying wireline leases for provision of wide area networks.BENEFITS: Wireless wans crate a new class of service for commercial data service providers. The wireless medium eliminate the dependence on the installed infrastructure and incumbent pricing. A wireless wan is rapidly deployable, scaleable and inexpensive relative to the public wireline infrastructure.

RADIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
329 North Bernardo Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 988-4707
Brian G. Agee, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-038
Title:The Terrace Network for Low-Cost Broadband AJ/LPI Communication in the LMDS Band
Abstract:The Backtalk airlink, developed for AJ/LPI communications in intraflight communication systems, is applied here to broadband multipoint data distribution in the U-NII and LMDS bands. The resultant airlink, referred to here as the Terrace system, employs a novel stacked-carrier multiple access (SCMA) communications format, blind adaptive reception, retrodirective transmission (smart airlines), (optional) smart antennas, and multihop network topologies to optimally exploit the spatial and spectral diversity present in Army communication networks. The resultant airlink can adaptively separate fixed and mobile in-cell nodes operating in the same frequency band, and can remove jamming encountered by the network during the reception process. Each Terrace node can also adaptively direct energy away from other Terrace nodes and jammers during transmission operations, allowing the network to continuously optimize its capacity and present minimal energy to other radios operating in the Terrace band. The airlink also incorporates simple means for removing features that could allow the link to be intercepted during the transmission process. The Phase I project will develop a Terrace concept, architecture, and rough cost estimate optimized for the LMDS band, and will validate performance using propagation data and testbeds provided by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, a license holder in the LMDS band. BENEFITS: Potential near-term (LMDS) applications include broadband wireless backhaul systems; wireless enterprise networks and wireless local loops; broadband wireless ATM Internet access systems; and wireless LANs, PBXs, and corporate Intranets. Potential medium-to-long term applications (LMDS and non-LMDS band) include next-generation satellite communications systems; next-generation cellular mobility systems (IMT2000); true wireless Internet systems (amorphous wireless networks); and cordless and supercordless (tetherless) telephones.

VIASAT
2290 Cosmos court
Calsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
Mark Johnson
ARMY 98-039
Title:Direction-Finding for Second-Generation Mobile Cellular Radio / Personnel Communication Service
Abstract:Mobile Cellular Radio (MCR) or Personal Communications Service (PCS) handsets that utilizes second-generation digital access schemes present a significant challenge to DF systems. Handsets utilize either Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) or Code Division Multiple Access (COMA) to communicate with the basestation. In both cases the networking complexity far exceeds that of first generation systems. Handset power control algorithms designed to extend battery life and minimize Co-Channel Interference (CCI) at the basestation result in low power transmissions and time varying handset output power. CCI is a significant challenge to overcome in successful DF exploitation of second generation MCR/PCS systems and is further exacerbated by multipath and dispersive channels that randomize the arrival times of CCI. A radical new approach to Direction Finding, applying Per Survivor Processing (PSP), offers the opportunity to achieve large performance improvements (e.g. interference rejection, rapid acquisition, multipath mitigation) over conventional techniques. PSP algorithms have been developed and simulated for MCR/PCS waveforms in dense urban environments. The focus of this proposed Phase I effort will be to develop an implementation capable of demonstrating the performance improvement of PSP applied to the mobile DF application. BENEFITS: The primary benefit of this multi-phased SBIR program is the implementation high-performance, robust and cost effective processing to determine the Angle-of-Bearing to MCR/PCS handsets. These capabilities have obvious extensions to other DoD services requiring low cost, high performance DF systems for digital signals. The benefits also extend to government and commercial entities that operate private communication networks and potentially to location applications for cellular 911 calls.

LNK CORP., INC.
6811 Kenilworth Ave, Suite 306
Riverdale, MD 20737
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 927-3223
Les Elkins
ARMY 98-040
Title:Virtual Environments for Distributed Command and Control
Abstract:Army Command and Control facilities need the ability to function more effectively, with smaller staffs spread over a geographically dispersed area. Their staff officers must fully comprehend a constantly changing environment, assessing the potential presence, magnitude, and intentions of threats. They must also constantly monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of their actions, reacting and re-planning missions when necessary. This project will create a distributed information visualization system that presents to the command post staff a single, unified view of the mission space. This will provide officers with a virtual environment that represents the real world, can be readily understood, requires little cognitive effort to interpret, and creates minimal distractions from the tactical situation. The visualization system will interact with a conventional C2 application, allowing users a view of the C2 application's representation of the world, and allowing staff to collaboratively work together during mission planning and execution. BENEFITS: Successful completion of this project will allow multiple users to effectively work together from different locations. Potential commercial applications of this technology include similar systems for architecture and engineering design teams, and emergency and disaster response.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway, Suite 400 Sout
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 859-9161
Craig Newbold
ARMY 98-041
Title:Hand Held Terminal for Battlefield Broadcast
Abstract:Scientific Research Corporation (SRC) proposes to design and develop a handheld terminal that is easily carried and used by soldiers operating in view of an High Altitude Endurance (MAE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) such as the Global Hawk or DarkStar. Communications through the UAV relay will use a high-speed wireless data link with data rates at or above T-1. The wireless link will be LPI/LPD via the use of spread spectrum techniques. SRC's handheld terminal will have networking capabilities enabling it to receive broadcasts from remote stations via the UAV relay and the Airborne Communications Node (ACN) payload. Various types of data will be processed, similar in content and operation of the Internet and World Wide Web. Among the many possible data types, the hand-held terminal shall be capable of receiving high quality compressed video from the UAV, for immediate display or storage for later use. A reach-back link will be provided allowing the hand-held terminal to interact with the remote station or other hand-held terminals. SRC proposes that the reach-back link use variable data rates and adaptive transmit power to maximize operating time before battery replacement or recharge. As part of the ACN team, SRC can make the Hand-held Terminal for Battlefield Broadcast part of that program by offering the technology as part of a Royalty Free loan for proof of concept use. BENEFITS: A hand-held terminal capable of receiving broadcast messages including compressed video, graphics and other data from a UAV will significantly increase the military's battlefield awareness and reaction time. Commercial Applications include Medical Response Teams, Remotely Operated Vehicles, Remote Broadcast Television, Law Enforcement, Search and Rescue, and Industrial Security.

NOVA MANAGEMENT, INC.
400 Camino Aquajito
Monterey, CA 93940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 465-6173
Gerald L. McKindles
ARMY 98-042
Title:Background Detection System
Abstract:Conventional active or pensive tarot detection systems are based upon the ability of the system to discriminate ~ lariat from the background. The problem in detecting a moving target lies in the fact that sensed radiation, reflected or generated, by the object is very close to that of the target background. The interfering background masks the useful signal from the object. This problem arises also if there is no contrast between the object and background. Besides this passive noise, target detection is also degraded by active noise jamming of the detection system sensor. The project will focus on the adaptation of the Background Detection System (BDS) to passive sensors. It will develop architecture for the unique detection and prepare a demonstration of the methodology. The BDS employs an algorithm from Nickar, a Russian company formed from the Institute of Control Science (ICS) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Nova Management, Inc. (Nova) will analyze several US detection Systems and develop interfaces between these system and the BDS algorithms. Nickar will be a subcontractor to Nova and assist in preparing laboratory demonstration of the system. The application of the BDS for this project is specifically directed to the integration of this method with passive sensors. These sensors detect radiation of a target end discriminate the target from the background. BENEFITS: The benefit of the project is to ensure that low signature vehicles are easily detected. The BDS methodology can be used in commercial application such as precision machining, the fishing industry, and in the analysis of organic cells.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Anatoly Vasiliev, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-042
Title:Multispectral Data Fusion for Moving Target Detection
Abstract:Day/night reconnaissance and surveillance are critical for military operations. Conventional airborne and ground sensor systems, use spatial information to detect and recognize targets. However, current automatic target detection techniques cannot readily find camouflaged or hidden targets. Furthermore, active Doppler detection cannot handle targets with zero or near-zero velocity. Multispectral and hyperspectral sensors can enhance target detection and recognition by increasing probability of detection and lowering false alarm rates for low signature moving targets. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an innovative multispectral moving target detection (M~D) system, which applies both spectral and spatial detection filters, and performs spatial-spectral data fusion, multispectral, hyperspectral, and spatial detection, and correlates movement measurement to precisely detect and locate targets. The goal of this Phase I project is to optimally combine results from spatially based detection with high-resolution fast spectral imaging and spectral-based discrimination techniques. The proposed spatial-spectral detection will combine POC's multi-sensor data fusion, correlation target tracking, and efficient linear and nonlinear spatial filtering for clutter reduction, detection, identification, and tracking of military targets. Phase I will identify and develop a system concept, and will select moving target detection and clutter reduction algorithms for application to current military surveillance systems. BENEFITS: By greatly improving probability of detection and clutter reduction, and reducing the false alarm rate, multispectrallhyperspectral data fusion will open a broad market for spatial-spectral automatic target recognition. Multi-sensor remote sensing will aid agriculture, geophysical surveying, and prospecting, pollution monitoring, reconnaissance, surveillance, and mine and explosives detection.

FED CORP.
1580 Route 52
Hopewell Junction, NY 12533
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 892-1900
Oliver Prache
ARMY 98-043
Title:Low Power analog Drive Amoled Miniature Display
Abstract:FED Corporation proposes to demonstrate performance from an analog driven active matrix organic light emitting diode display, which exceeds requirements for a dismounted soldier head-mounted display system. The project would yield product design for the lowest power full performance display. The superior performance will be achieved by combining the display technology with the most promise (Organic Light Emitting Diode-OLED) and a well executed low power analog circuit technique into a single integrated active matrix display chip. Phase l accomplishments will include theoretical and empirical demonstration of the electro-optical performance of the analog drive approach and developing technical design documentation for Phase 2. Phase 2 would implement the Phase 1 design into a CMOS integrated display circuit and produce a prototype analog drive, SXGA, color OLED display directly compatible with an RS-170 input. BENEFITS: The development from this project will yield the technology and documentation for a miniature display product that will meet the currently unattainable requirements for Army HAD. Meeting these requirements will also yield product design applicable to higher volume industrial and consumer HAD systems which is key to product economics.

MICRONAV
32 Hemlock Terrace
Wayne, NJ 07470
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 696-2054
Bo Ljung
ARMY 98-044
Title:Position Displacement Sensor
Abstract:This proposed Phase I effort is directed towards development of a new speckle position displacement sensor to be used as a navigation sensor for military operations in an urban environment in areas where GPS signals are not available (e.g., buildings, tunnels, forested areas and high Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) environments). The proposed sensor would track the relative motion of a platform with respect to the ground. The proposed sensor is of a non-contact optical type, suitable for use by a dismounted soldier and/or a robotic system. A portable navigation platform would use two speckle position displacement sensors and a micromachined Coriolis gyro as an azimuth reference to measure the relative motion of the platform. In an alternate configuration, an additional speckle position displacement sensor can be utilized to provide the required azimuth reference. The new speckle position displacement sensor uses optical diffraction from an infrared diode laser to measure position and velocity. The new speckle position displacement sensor is based on an earlier precision non-contact velocimeter, which was developed under contract with U.S. Army Engineers Topographic Laboratories for application in precision land vehicle navigation in the Position and Azimuth Determining System (PADS). BENEFITS: Broad commercial applications are envisioned for navigation in situations where GPS is not available such as tunnels and underpasses. The high accuracy of the proposed system (0.02% rms) may open applications in manufacturing machines and gantry robots.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
P.O. Box 24344
Minneapolis, MN 55424
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 935-2035
Siddharts S. Takkella
ARMY 98-045
Title:Secure, Compressed Multimedia Data over Variable Bit Rate, ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) Algorithm
Abstract:Multimedia applications will be a major part of the rework traffic in the next generation of high speed networks. The cornerstone for multimedia is Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATE, foreseen as the technology of the future Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (13-ISDN). Real-time multimedia, unlike traditional data transfer applications, have stringent simultaneous requirements in terms of loss and delay jitter. Traditional protocol layers do not have appropriate mechanisms to provide the required network quality of service for such VBR multimedia applications. This lack of functionality calls for the design of protocol layers to handle the stringent requirements of multimedia applications. Also, one of the major drawbacks of ATM technology today is its inability to support security. ATM will likely be used in the future for mission-critical information transfer, like financial transactions and military communications. Carrying such sensitive information will make ATM networks very lucrative to break into. To exploit its full potential, there is an urgent need to incorporate security features into ATM protocol layers. In this proposal, we analyze the requirements for transporting real-time multimedia traffic over ATM. ATM protocol layer functionality is designed based on these requirements. Also, threats to ATM are identified and different options to counter them are presented. BENEFITS: ATM is the leading networking technology of the future. Compressed voice and video, which is inherently statistical, will be transported as VBR traffic on ATM. This emerging ability will dramatically change the telecommunication industry resulting in substantial telecommunications cost savings.

VEXCEL CORP.
4909 Nautilus Court
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 583-0273
Carolyn P. Johnston
ARMY 98-046
Title:An Efficient Object-Oriented System for Extracting Terrain Features from Contour Maps
Abstract:Vexcel Corporation is proposing to build a complete object-oriented system which will interpret a contour map, in order to automatically extract features of interest in military tactical planning. One innovation in our approach to this problem over other highly successful approaches lies in our plan to extend the use of the contour tree approach to aid feature-identification tasks as well as point-based searches; we believe that a heuristic can be designed which relies heavily on the structure of the tree itself as a launch-point for feature identification algorithms. Other innovations lie in the addition of convex-hull algorithms to determine where concavities lie in contours (these are key for identifying important features such as canyons), and in our proposal of methods to handle serious interpretation problems which can arise as artifacts of the map boundary (such as mistaking canyons for depressions). Other techniques, such as contour decimation, are proposed in order to speed up more time-consuming processing tasks. Vexcel's unique contribution to this effort lies also in our understanding of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) data, and in our experience with building commercially viable systems for processing and extracting map features from remotely sensed data. BENEFITS: Vexcel anticipates that the contour map reasoning module will provide an important add-on to at least two of our commercial image processing packages, enabling us to provide its users who also wish to utilize contour map data with the capability to utilize contour maps as well as remotely sensed data.

PARATEK, INC.
1202 Technology Dr., Suite C
Aberdeen, MD 21001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 273-9077
Steven Stowell
ARMY 98-047
Title:High Performance Tunable Filter for the Elimination of Cosite Interference Using Novel Low Loss Ferroelectric Varactors
Abstract:Development of an economical tunable high performance filter for high power RE' applications is particularly important for the elimination of cosite interference from clustered SINCGARS radio transmitters. Paratek's new low-loss voltage-tunable dielectrics made from ferroelectric materials offer an alternative to conventional diode varactor technology. Ferroelectrics show promise in superior RF power-handling capability, lower varactor power control requirements, and lower inter- modulation. Paratek proposes to design a multistage high performance pass band filter that will integrate with the SINCGARS radio system. The filter will consist of multi-stage inductor-capacitor (LC) units using specially designed varactors made from Paratek's new ferroelectric materials. As a proof of concept, high performance tunable filters will be constructed that function between 30 and 40 MHz. For Phase II, Paratek will work in conjuction with ITT to produce a tunable filter for the entire band of 30 to 88 MHz that can be integrated into SINCGARS. The result of these efforts will be (i) the construction of tunable filters with the background of design and materials data during Phase I (ii) the realization of a high-performance fully integrated mass-producible tunable filter for the elimination of cosite interference in SINCGARS radios during Phase II. BENEFITS: High performance tunable VHF/FM filters made with new, low loss ferroelectric materials will enable a host of new types of filters for a broad range of military and commercial uses. These materials will have several distinct economic and performance advantages over their diode counterparts.

WANG ELECTRO-OPTO CORP.
1335 Captial Circle
Marietta, GA 30067
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 955-9311
Johnson J. H. Wang
ARMY 98-048
Title:New Antenna Materials and Technologies
Abstract:The U.S. Army has a need for the development of new antenna materials technologies that will extend the band coverage and direction of arrival of communications, radar warning, and countermeasure antennas. This new materials technologies study should result in an extremely broad bandwidth antenna which operates in frequencies from 0.05 GHz to 94 GHz. Due to the proliferation of wireless systems, a broadband multifunction antenna which can replace several, or many, existing single-function antennas is needed. This need is shared by both the government as well as the commercial sector. Due to space limitations, weight limitations, limited power budget, etc., existing antennas are unsuitable. The present SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) phase-I solicitation is focused on new antennas materials technologies which will help alleviate this problem. In this proposed program, research will be conducted using WEO's patented SMM (spiral-mode microstrip), which is the only conformal, broadband antenna in existence, as the underlying technology. Five new antenna technologies developed at WEO will be applied to the SMM antenna to help broaden its bandwidth and reduce its electrical size. A phase-II approach will be defined. BENEFITS: This development would have a significant impact on the commercial communications industry. Applications could be made to commercial aviation, vehicles, etc. The most significant application would be the enhancement of personal wireless communications, for which a broadband multifunction antenna is desperately needed.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Rd.
Bulington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Alan Chao
ARMY 98-049
Title:Integrated Battlefield Visualization System Using Sensor and Cultural Feature Cross-Cueing
Abstract:ALPHATECH proposes to design, implement, and demonstrate an Integrated Battlefield Visualization System (IBVS) that will use information fusion and cultural feature cross-cueing techniques to enhance warfighter situation awareness. IBVS will correlate and maintain multiple ground target tracks based on: cultural features (trafficability and hospitability), sensor reports (leveraging Multiple Hypothesis target Tracking (MHT) techniques), and kinematic models (relating target types to cultural features). ALPHATECH proposes to demonstrate this concept using simulated brigade-level tactical intelligence reports (e.g., Communications Intelligence (COMINT), Electronic Intelligence (ELINT), Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) (Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Electro Optic/Infra-red (EO/IR)), High Resolution Range (HRR), and Moving Target Indicator (MTI). The IBVS objective is to track and display these simulated targets in real time on a digital map. ALPHATECH's experience in tracking, information fusion, and product development minimizes overall program risk. We are / have been key contractors for efforts involving: multiple hypothesis tracking, force pattern analysis, force level aggregation, target kinematic models, human-computer interface design, and Global Command & Control System (GCCS) mission application development. Our role as researchers and developers for the Army, DARPA, and AFOSR will promote cross-fertilization of ideas, while minimizing potential duplication of effort. BENEFITS: Technology, developed under this SBIR effort, for fusing information from disparate sensors and integrating it with cultural feature databases to provide information dominance to the battlefield commander can be readily incorporated into U.S. military operational systems (e.g., ETRAC, CGS, CARS). Commercial applications include use by law enforcement agencies, traffic or transportation analysis, and creation of geographic information systems (GIS) to support the exploitation of natural resources.

KIONIX, INC.
22 Thornwood Drive
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1525
Timothy J. Davis
ARMY 98-050
Title:Silicone MEMS with Electroless Metals for Tunable RF Filters
Abstract:Kionix proposes a Phase I program to study the feasibility of using thick film microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) to create an integrated, scalable, tunable electronic filter. MEMS has been used previously to fabricate variable capacitors. Novel metal deposition processes have been employed to fabricate prototype micro-inductors. However, never have the two disciplines been integrated in a manufacturable process to produce a fully functional filter device. Silicon MEMS will provide the actuating functions to alter the frequency of the tunable filter, while the electroless deposition of thick film metals will provide low loss rf coupling through and between the inductor and capacitor pair. This configuration ensures that the filter operates with low insertion loss, high tuning range, and high isolation to the substrate silicon. BENEFITS: This proposed SBIR program will create a new methodology for tunable filters for application in communications transceivers, in both military and commercial applications.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2620 Trade Center Ave.
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 702-1672
Paul Anderson
ARMY 98-050
Title:Thick Film Microdevice Manufacturing of Miniaturized Communication Components
Abstract:The on-going revolution in device miniaturization in integrated circuits in particular, and microelectronics circuits in general, has benefited communications components and subsystems. However, many components in communication applications are based on non-silicon materials, are discrete and large relative to integrated circuits, require separate assembly during manufacturing, and are increasingly the components that determine the weight, size, and cost of the communication subsystems. Major cost, weight, and size reductions could be accomplished if recent advances in thick film materials and fabrication techniques could be developed and commercialized. Nanomaterials Research Corporation (NRC) seeks to demonstrate such a breakthrough by focussing on bulky inductive components commonly used in wideband power amplifiers. Phase I will demonstrate the proof-of-concept and establish the performance, Phase II will optimize, scale up and produce prototypes by the 100s, while Phase III will commercialize the technology. BENEFITS: Potential dual use applications include communication systems such as amplifiers and filters for cellular phones, satellite communications, or other wireless systems. The technology is also needed for wireless data transfer and for ensuring data integrity in Internet Commerce.

APPLIED SIGNAL & IMAGE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
303 Najoles Road, Suite 104
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 729-3108
Joeseph C. Harsanyi, Ph.D
ARMY 98-051
Title:New Approaches to Chemical Identification in Remote Sensing FTIR (Fourier Transfor Infrared) Spectroscopy
Abstract:The requirement for automated, passive, stand-off detection, identification and quantification of materials is a common theme in many applications of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Existing FTIR sensors such as the Block Engineering Model 100 and Model 500 are quite mature and have been demonstrated in hand held, land based, vehicle mounted, and airborne applications. While these sensors offer high sensitivity resulting in high quality spectra, reliable and consistent, automated detection and identification in realistic scenarios has not been adequately demonstrated. Under this Phase I effort, ASIT will concentrate on developing innovative spectral processing technologies and prototype demonstration of automated chemical detection and identification techniques that address real-world problems including: time varying spectral mixtures, with unknown background composition, and unknown interferant signatures. BENEFITS: To address both Government and commercial needs for passive, stand-off chemical detection and identification, this effort will combine existing FTIR sensors with specialized analysis software and lead to the development of a portable and fully automated chemical analysis system.

ORINCON HAWAII, INC.
970 North Kalaheo Ave., Suite C-215
Kailua, HI 96734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 254-1532
Dr. R. David Dikeman
ARMY 98-051
Title:New Approaches to Chemical Identification in Remote Sensing FTIR Spectroscopy
Abstract:Under this Phase I SBIR program, ORINCON proposes to develop and demonstrate digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms to provide substantial improvements in the identification and quantification of chemical compounds using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The algorithm we propose is conceptually founded on wavelet techniques. We will take advantage of the fact that the wavelet representation of the IR spectrum offers greater flexibility in enhancing low signal-to-noise ratios because the wavelet naturally resolves noise and spectral features into different domains. The algorithm itself is based on work described in Ref. [1], where an advanced wavelet technique is used to denoise astronomical spectra and remarkably recovers weak signal features that are drowned in noise so as not to be seen in the spectrum. In addition, the FTIR application of remote sensing is generally performed in a nonlinear environment due to dynamic background and instrumentation fluctuations. We propose the testing of wavelet pattern classification algorithms to aid in the identification of chemical compounds in this environment. In Phase II, algorithms, techniques, and procedures developed and demonstrated during Phase I will be optimized, implemented, and tested on a computer platform that runs ORINCON's commercial, real-time signal processing software. BENEFITS: Potential commercial applications for the algorithms developed under this program are numerous. The use of wavelet techniques in signal processing is becoming increasingly popular. Its inevitable insertion into the field of spectroscopy will have a profound effect on such fields as industrial chemical sensing, biological applications, medicine, and analytical chemistry.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
530 East Montecito Street, Suite 202
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Gary L. Key
ARMY 98-052
Title:Speech Recognition Enhancement through Digital Signal Noise Processing (DSNP)
Abstract:We propose a novel approach to speech recognition enhancement that consists of three key components: a) a decomposition of the noisy speech signal into a time-frequency representation; b) a psychoacoustically-motivated source separation algorithm that identifies cells of the time-frequency representation as speech or noise cells; and c) a very low complexity vector quantization algorithm that recovers the time-frequency representation of the noise-suppressed speech signal from the partially specified output of the previous step. Our approach can be viewed as a Psychoacoustic Noise Suppression (PSN) algorithm that enhances the speech signal to enable accurate speech recognition in noisy environments. The PSN algorithm has two key features that differentiate it from other speech enhancement systems: (1) a psychoacoustic model called IWAIF that preserves the features of the speech signal crucial to successful recognition (Krishnamurthy and Feth, Ohio State University). (2) an vector search algorithmic breakthrough, the TNE, discovered by FTI in 1994. This very low complexity algorithm can be used to search the database using partially corrupted or masked vectors, which is key to recovering the noise-suppressed speech signal. BENEFITS: This effort will significantly advance the state-of-the-art in the analysis and recognition of speech and other acoustic signals. The resulting technology will be useful in the areas of machine condition monitoring, medical diagnostics, and speech recognition in harsh environments.

REVEO, INC.
85 Executive Boulevard
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-9556
Le Li, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-055
Title:Narrow Band Spectral Color and NIR Matching Camouflage
Abstract:Reveo, Inc. has invented a proprietary low cost pigment technology having the unprecedented quality that it can be designed to be highly reflective at any wavelength in the range of less than 300 nm to more than 3000 nm with a reflective bandwidth in the range of less than 40 nm to more than 1000 nm. Outside the reflective band, the material is transparent. This novel material, based on cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs), is uniquely capable of defeating advanced battlefield detection technology that utilizes multispectral and hyperspectral detection schemes. These schemes involve detecting a combination of specific visible and near-infrared wavelengths that are characteristic of manmade objects but distinct from foliage, thereby defeating all attempts at broadband camouflage. Defeating these detection schemes while maintaining the visible and infrared camouflage that disrupts casual battlefield visibility is presently nearly impossible. Reveo proposes to adapt its unique, spectrally-designable pigment technology to the specific narrow-band and multi-band spectral requirements of next-generation military camouflage in the visible and near-infrared. This technology can also simultaneously defeat polarization-based detection schemes. Reveo has extensive experience in designing variable wavelength and bandwidth CLC films and has developed a proprietary process for fabricating pigments from CLC film materials. BENEFITS: The totally transparent, low cost near-infrared CLC-based reflexive pigment has vast commercial applications, including coating automotive, commercial, and residential windows to reject the near-infrared component of solar radiation that accounts for 50% of solar heating, thereby reducing the heat load on air conditioning systems while causing no attenuation in the visible spectrum. In addition, when applied to roofing and siding materials, reduced thermal cycling will increase the effective lifetime construction materials.

RADIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
329 North Bernardo Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 988-4746
Minnie Ho
ARMY 98-056
Title:Bandwidth-Efficient, Low Latency, Scalable Turbo Architecture (BELLSTAR)
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will define and architect a Bandwidth-Efficient, Low-Latency, Scalable Turbo Architecture (BELLSTAR) for detailed FPGA design and implementation during a Phase II SBIR development. The design will focus on a flexible, modular architecture that can be used as both a developmental tool and as a stepping stone toward new generations of high density, low-cost turbo encoder/decoder chips with an appropriate mix of capabilities. As a development tool, the BELLSTAR will provide an open architecture for the analysis, test, and demonstration of the very high coding gains achievable at relatively low latencies for the appropriate data rates and modulation types. Follow-on developments will allow the appropriate mixture of open-architecture components to be reduced using MCM, ASIC, and other novel packaging technologies to produce small, high-density, low-cost turbo codecs for both the military and commercial marketplace. BENEFITS: Potential applications of the architecture, techniques, and components developed on this project include: satellite communications, wireless communications, cable modems, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modems, voice-band modems, and most digital data communication applications that can tolerate latency in return for high coding gains. The developmental test-bed can be used as laboratory test equipment for new techniques in more advanced turbo-coding products and applications.

XENOTRAN, LLC
1645 Severn Chapel Road
Crownsville, MD 21032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 912-1148
Dr. Kevin J. Page
ARMY 98-056
Title:Turbo Code Applications
Abstract:Xenotran proposes to design for the Army a Turbo codec from VHDL. This codec will implement this novel algorithm using the latest published coredecoder architectures. It will be designed for implementation in VHDL andsynthesis to an FPGA. Xenotran proposes specifically to 1) Build a working software simulation environment for Turbo Code applications, 2) Develop Turbo codec VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) code and integrate its simulation into the simulation environment, 3) Project the performance of the VHDL Turbo codec as it would be if implemented in a variety of commercial FPGAs. These performance measures will include: 1) the possible speed of the codec given the underlying technology, 2) the circuit capacity (FPGA logic blocks or VLSI size) required by the Turbo codec, 3) the Eb/N0 versus BER capabilities of the device, 4) the data latency of the encoder and decoder, 5) the synchronization circuit performance, and 6) the bursty error behavior. For comparison, results will be benchmarked against commercially available Viterbi codecs. BENEFIT: Turbo codec technology IS useful in a wide variety or communications applications including satellite communications, cellular voiceband communcations, and wireless data networking in military and commercial systems. A system of the nature described in this proposal will have a substantial market encompassing all branches of the military and the commercial market.

ANVIK CORP.
6 Skyline Dr.
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Dr. Thomas J. Dunn
ARMY 98-057
Title:Massively Parallel Lithography System for Maskless Patterning of Printed Wiring Boards and Digitization of Artwork
Abstract:In the manufacturing of printed wiring boards (PWB's), lithographic techniques are used to transfer the pattern from a mask onto a single large substrate. The use of masks for lithography inherently results in a number of problems: the inability to generate prototype PWB's quickly; the limited mask life and defect generation when used in contact printers; and the difficulty in storage and archiving of large numbers of masks. It is desirable to maintain a computer data base of PWB mask patterns (open called artwork) which can be used to directly generate printed wiring boards thus eliminating problems associated with contact printing. In the proposed Phase I program, we will develop the capability to pattern directly onto PWB's using a maskless technology while providing the additional capability of digitizing existing patterns on a mylar mask. This additional capability can be achieved by utilizing all of the existing hardware and adding new optical and electronic subsystems which are commercially available off-the-shelf. BENEFITS: The success of the proposed program will have a large impact on the economics of PWB manufacturing. Several advantages are gained Am using the same lithography tool to pattern directly on PWB's as well as reading data from existing artwork: first, costs are reduced since similar hardware is required; second, developing a read system on a manufacturing tool reduces development time; and third, in she process of scanning in the data, it is automatically properly formatted for playback to recreate the pattern.

CYBERDYNAMICS, INC.
1860 Embarcadero Rd., Suite 155
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 856-6188
Barton S. Wells
ARMY 98-058
Title:Rapid Updating of Target Knowledge Base for Automatic Target Recognition
Abstract:There is a current need for a dynamic target knowledge base for automatic target recognition to adapt to the variations in targets encountered in the real world. The proposed research will study methods to determine differences between 2E image and range data of a target and a library of 3D CAD model data, and update the CAD model to accurately represent the real world target. We will detect features, within the 2D data and attempt to detect corresponding features in the 3D CAD model. Creating a match quality metric to measure the difference between the features will allow us to determine which CAD model best matches the 2D data. The same metric will allow us to find areas of differences between the selected CAD model and the 2D data. The selected CAL model will be adapted to more closely match the real world 2D data, and the match quality metric will again be used to assure the quality of the adaptation. BENEFITS: The proposed research will allow rapid updating of target knowledge bases that would greatly enhance military automatic target recognition systems. Other commercial applications include assembly line quality assurance systems, robotic handling systems, and medical diagnosis through MRI imaging.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Charles Jacobus, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-058
Title:Dynamic Modelbase from Motion Vision
Abstract:Constructing and maintaining accurate three-dimensional models used in Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) tasks has been a time consuming and difficult task. The problems associated with finding a good model are exacerbated by changing battlefield conditions such as weather effects and small changes in the target's appearance such as material or personnel. We propose a means of reconstruction of three-dimensional information using Motion vision (Motion vision reconstructs three dimensional structure from an image sequence recording object or camera motion). Images from standard cameras will be used to create and modify target models. These sensors will also compare current images to known models, finding the closest fit. This Phase I effort will review and evaluate the technology alternatives for implementing this dynamic set of models, and will define a system for performing automated model recovery from image streams to standard 3D representation formats such as VRML. This process will substantially speed the creation and update of dynamic knowledgebases for rapid access and update in ATR applications. BENEFITS: The model construction and updating technologies will be useful in developing model objects and terrain for simulation and training in both military and commercial venues (e.g. real estate agents and game developers).

PROPULSION RESEARCH, INC.
14155-A Sullyfield Circle
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 968-0200
Carl W. Anderson
ARMY 98-059
Title:Miniature pintle Actuation and Control System Research
Abstract:The subject program seeks to design, develop, and fabricate a miniature actuation and control system suitable for the control of pinnate position on a tactical solid rocket motor (SRM). Next-generation missile systems must be versatile, agile, and smart. IN SRM's this smart capability can be accomplished by varying pinle position during motor operation thereby changing the motor throat area causing thrust to vary by controlling the motor pressure. Two elements to these overall pintle design are required. The first is a miniature mechanical pintle that resides within the SRM chamber during motor burn that varies the nozzle throat area on electrical command. Second, is a miniature electronic control system to provide closed loop control of pintle position based on the real-time feedback of motor pressure. Phase I, will design both the pintle actuation and electronic control system based on PRI's demonstrated test experience with hot gas valves (HGV). Design emphasis will be placed on achieving miniature size, and low weight. Aminiature actuation system with brassboard electronics will be tested in a representative SRM to verify performance. Minimum response time, minimum power, and durability are certain based on the demonstrated mechanical design approach to be followed. Phase II will encompass miniaturized fabrication and testing of an operational pintle actuation and control system in F/W SRM using thermal battery power. BENEFITS: The commercial applications for the technology to be advaced under this program's research are pertinent to a broad base of the aerospace community, both Government and commercial. This technology is also applicable to high speed commercial throttle valves for liquid rocket, automotive engines, and space thrusters.

SONOMA DESIGN GROUP LLC
400 Breezewood Drive
Geyserville, CA 95441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 857-2010
Allan A. Voight
ARMY 98-059
Title:Miniturized, Low-Cost, High Performance Pintle Actuationand Control jSystem for a Pintle Solid Propellant Rocket Motor
Abstract:Based on our proven track record, Sonoma Design Group LLC (SDG) will design a miniaturized pintle actuator that will be low cost and highly producible in typical tactical missile quantities. The control system will allow rocket motor thrust to be controlled during flight and is comprised-of an actuator, a movable pintle, a pressure sensor and the guidance computer. The actuator includes the pintle actuator, with motor and reduction system, and the electronic popover driver. During Phase I SDG will develop an actuator unit cost goal in 1 it with production tactical missile cost requirements. Careful consideration for high reliability and system safety will be made throughout the design. SDG has formed a team of capable companies to carry the effort from design to production. This team includes SDG, Aerojet/Sacramento, and Versatron. SAG will lead the actuator miniaturi7atior! and cost reduction effort. During Phase I and II, SDG will perform the initial system and actuator design and fabrication, Aero jet and Versatron will supply proven components and technology. Upon completion of Phase II, our team will carry the pintle actuator system into production. SDG will work with Aerojet and Versatron during both SBIR Phases to assure a smooth transition into production. BENEFITS: This system will fill a general need for tactical missile systems for substantially improving the performance, range, and inner and outer boundaries for many existing tactical missiles. Potential exists for an upgrade to existing missile systems to allow increased performance without redevelopment programs. The general manufacturing and cost improvements which are expected during this SBIR will be applicable to a broad spectrum of industrial products such as machine taxis, aircraft systems and possibly automotive systems.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Jeff Pierce
ARMY 98-060
Title:Compact, High Average Power, Eyesafe Laser Development
Abstract:Compact lightweight and low cost lasers will benefit the war fighter for multiple applications including: micro-range finders, combat ID systems, training, IRCM and sub-munitions. Current commercial eye safe solid state lasers based on unconventional designs are inefficient, large in size, unreliable and do not meet Army performance requirements. m is SBIR topic is directly related to an AMCOM MRDEC, a small sub-munition radar seeker, Army development program called High Quantity Anti Material Sub-munition (HI- QUAMS). m is SBIR supplements the Army work by developing compact packaging for eyesafe laser sources and reducing the cost of these devices. Aculight proposes to apply its unique laser packaging of diode pumped solid state lasers and engineered nonlinear optics to show feasibility of eye safe sources that meet the cost, size, efficiency and reliability requirements of Army laser radar for munitions. The University of New Mexico (UMM) will support Aculight in this work by defining the best solid state Raman converter to be compared with periodically poled OPOs. Because Aculight and UNM have worked extensively in these fields, and have hardware resources available, the Phase I work can move beyond the design stage with laboratory measurements to directly compare these alternative approaches. BENEFITS: The low cost and compact eye safe lasers proposed enable applications in medicine, portable environmental sensors and high-resolution military imaging.

CONTINENTAL COMPUTER
1891 N. Gaffey, Suite 232
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 514-0194
James P. Hynes
ARMY 98-061
Title:Dual MEMS Sensor for LCPK Missile
Abstract:The LCPK is a new Army guided missile program based on the venerable 2.75 unguided rocket. Although the guidance scheme is still up in the air, issues with rate sensors on other programs have sparked this SBIR topic. We tell the story of the Predator/MPIM rate sensor issues, analyze the LCPK rate sensor needs as a function of the guidance scheme selection, and propose a test program and isolation mount design for the Endevco Micromachined Accelerometer Gyro (MAG) sensor which should fill the application needs for both linear acceleration and angular rate information. BENEFITS: Everyone is excited about the eventual possibilities of MEMS. This project emphasizes the near term development of a highly accurate miniature inertial sensor.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4047
Dr. Paul Haugsjaa
ARMY 98-062
Title:Advanced VCSEL Packaging
Abstract:Foster-Miller Inc. in this project proposes to develop new and innovative solutions to the packaging of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) utilized in highly parallel optical interconnections for communications within and between processor units. Packaging of these devices to date has suffered in several areas, principally cost, simplicity of alignment and immunity to shock and vibration. Our approach uses coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) matched liquid crystal polymer (LCP) to provide low-cost assembly. This material will be combined with advanced heatsinking materials to provide highly reliable CTE matched VCSEL array packaging for parallel interconnect applications that is amenable to expansion to large arrays. BENEFITS: This development of cost-effective, and reliable packaging for free space, parallel optical interconnections will allow rapid expansion in the use of parallel processing in applications requiring compact processors as well as the development of compact, high throughput telecommunications switches.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
247 Third St
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 441-9207
Dr. Marthinus C VanShoor
ARMY 98-063
Title:Using Nitinol to Measure the Dynamic Structural Behavior of Parachutes During Inflation
Abstract:Mide is proposing to use Nitinol, a shape memory alloy, to instrument a parachute for measurement of the dynamic behavior of the parachute during inflation. The innovative approach, which utilizes the change in wire resistance as a function of strain (force) in the wire is robust and cheap. The system will be significantly more robust than an optical fiber system. The Nitinol wires will be plastically strained during inflation changing their resistance which will be measured by a portable data acquisition system based on Mide's portable data logger. Since the Nitinol wires can strain as much as 8% in the Martensitic phase, the measurement system will be impedance matched with the rigging lines and it will be able to withstand the high shock loads experienced by the parachute during inflation. The wires are also thin and bending them to small radii will allow normal packaging of the parachute. The system can be used over and over by restraining the wires through electrical heating. The Nitinol measurement system will provide the Army with an accurate cost effective, robust measurement system. In Phase I Mide will design the measurement system and validate it using bench-level and a 1/4-scale prototype. The initial the tests will be done under controlled laboratory conditions. Phase I will conclude with inflation tests that demonstrate the systems capability to measure representative canopy radial and hoop elongation forces. Phase II will demonstrate the capabilities of the Nitinol measurement system in full-scale airdrop tests using a full-size personnel canopy. BENEFITS: The ability to accurate measure the dynamic stresses under rapid deployment or impact loads in an application such as a parachute with a large area will benefit the design of future military and commercial parachutes, sails, drag-chutes, and rescue netting.

PHOTONICS LABORATORIES, INC.
3624 Market Street, One East
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 387-9970
Dina El-Sherif
ARMY 98-063
Title:A Novel Fiber Optic System for Measuring the Dynamic Structural Behavior of Parachutes
Abstract:For optimal design of the personnel parachute, the ability to predict the opening forces during an airdrop is crucial. Solving this challenging technical problem will permit better design for both military and civilian parachutes, in terms of structural parameters and selection of materials. As a cost-effective solution to the current practice of overdesigning parachutes, a novel methodology for real-time characterization of the structural behavior of parachutes during inflation is proposed. This method is based on the application of fiber optic sensors embedded into the parachute fabric. Sensor measurements will be supported by mechanical testing and modeling. Two types of fiber optic sensors will be used to measure axial, bi-axial, and transverse deformation of a parachute canopy and suspension lines. An optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) type sensor will be used as a short strain gauge for axial strain measurements. The second tripe of fiber optic sensors is based on the Modal Power Distribution (MPD) technique, developed by M. El-Sherif (project director) through several Army and DoD projects. Acting as a long length strain gauge, this is also the only sensor tripe that can be used in measuring transverse stresses. The integration of these two types will form a novel sensory system capable of measuring the dynamic structural behavior of a parachute during inflation. Axial, bi-axial, and drop lab tests, will be conducted to demonstrate the concept of the proposed methodology. During the optional tusk, this methodology will then be benchmarked using a small-scale model parachute. In Phase II, a normal airdrop test using a full-sized personnel parachute will be performed. BENEFITS: The developed methodology will be very useful in the redesign of parachute canopies or suspension lines with new materials. The developed technology will pave the way for future development of smart fabrics for military applications, such as clothing and tentage. In the commercial market, this technology will be useful for parafoils for sport jumping, canopy and suspension line design for fire fighters and rescue workers, sail design, and any flexible fiber network structure.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Nestor Vornka
ARMY 98-065
Title:Parachute Automatic Activation Device (ADD) for Low Altitude Jumps
Abstract:When a parachute malfunctions, it is critical that the jumper deploy the reserve parachute quickly to ensure that the reserve canopy has adequate time to inflate and slow his descent. Minimum container opening altitudes above the ground for recreational skydivers are at least 2000 feet AGL, which affords the jumper enough time to determine his canopy status and activate the reserve if necessary. Skydiving students are required to use Automatic Activation Devices (AADs), however experienced skydivers do not use AADs because they are prohibitively expensive. Military combat and training jumps are often done from 500 feet AGL and there is very little time to determine whether a malfunction exists. Consequently, the use of an AAD is highly recommended since the jumpers reaction time may be inadequate to ensure a safe landing. There are commercially available AADs that can function in a military setting, however their use is cost prohibitive in a mass tactical setting. We propose to develop a cost effective AAD suitable for low altitude jumps that utilizes accelerometers and pressure sensors to determine the jumpers rate of descent, altitude and acceleration. By utilizing high performance low cost sensors, a reasonably priced device can be manufactured for military use. BENEFITS: The currently available AADs are very expensive: the Cypress 1-pin Expert sells for $1 175, the Astra l-pin Expert sells for $950 and the FXC 12000 sells for $875. We plan to offer a comparable device for under $400 which is less than half of the cost of the other devices. At this lower price, more skydivers will be able to afford an AAD, which would increase the overall safety of the sport.

INFINITE MATERIALS & PRODUCTS, INC.
4835 N. Valley Park
Tucson, AZ 85705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 903-9053
Willian L. Johnson
ARMY 98-066
Title:Spray applied Flexible Insulation for Shelters and Tents
Abstract:Portable shelters and tents used by the U.S. Army in field operations for maintenance of vehicles and aircraft, as hospitals, and as billeting for personnel have no built-in insulation capability and rely on huge environmental control units (ECU) to establish a reasonable working environment. During operational deployments, these ECUs create a logistic requirement that is burdensome to the Army. What if there was a way to insulate these temporary structures in such a way as to reduce or eliminate the need for ECUs? At the same time, the thermal signature of the temporary structure could be negated, hiding it from an enemy's target list. Infinite Materials & Products, Inc., (IMP) believes that a flexible ceramic insulation material developed under contract to-the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization can be spray applied to the inside and/or outside of existing temporary shelters and tents to thoroughly insulate them to all climatic conditions, automatically blocking any heat signature and any sound created by the activity inside. IMP's insulation acts as a thermal sealant for the component, which is a completely different approach to simply filling the dead air space between structural members. BENEFITS: Since the insulation is spray applied, it can be used to add insulation capability to any habitable structure or vehicle, including ground, air, and sea applications. In addition, the insulation will compete directly against fiberglass in cost, but have the thermal performance of aerogel. The insulation's water resistance will provide a dry, insulated environment for any application.

L'GARDE, INC.
15181 Woodlawn Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 259-0771
David Lichodziejewski
ARMY 98-066
Title:Energy Efficient Tentage with Reduced Thermal Signature
Abstract:Essential elements of today's highly mobile military services are effective mobile and temporary shelters. Increasingly, there is a demand for large, easily deployed, temporary shelters for many aspects of military activities. Current shelters are generally not well insulated resulting in large heating and cooling environmental controls units (ECU's). These ECU's have large power requirements and are bulky and heavy reducing mobility and consequently the effectiveness of mobile military units. The poor insulation results in an increased thermal signature leaving the shelters vulnerable to detection and targeting. Further, the limited insulation results in internal thermal gradients within the structure and condensation further eroding the concept's usefulness. L'Garde proposes solutions to these insulation problems through a technology commonly used in space programs, multi-layer insulation (MLI). Incorporating multi-layer insulation into temporary structures will greatly enhance environmental thermal control while concurrently addressing the thermal signature reduction. L'Garde, with 27 years of experience in inflatable space structures, RV decoys and targets with prerequisite signatures over multiple spectral bands, is well qualified to conduct this effort. Our experience with thermal control of inflatable decoys and experience working with thin films and membranes can be directly applied to enhancing the thermal efficiency of temporary shelters. BENEFITS: The commercial possibilities of thermally enhanced materials and temporary shelters are immense. Once developed, the multi-layer insulation is applicable to commercial tents, temporary buildings, and even to retractable and inflatable arena roofs. Further, the insulation could be utilized in large solid structures such as buildings and warehouses.

EIKOS, LLC
2 Master Dr., Suite 2
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 258-0300
Paul J. Glatkowski
ARMY 98-067
Title:Electrically Switchable Membrane for Chemical and Biological Protection
Abstract:Eikos L.L.C. proposes the use of adjustable permeability electrostrictive membranes fabricated by sandwiching an elastomeric membrane of electroactive polymer (EAP) between two porous electrodes. This technology will provide the Army with a advanced barrier fabric for protection against toxic aerosols and biological agents in the Ions state while being highly permeable to water vapor in the off state. When a voltage is applied to the electrodes, the resulting electrostatic field provides a force normal to the membrane. For thin layers this force is sufficient to collapse the elastomeric membrane, thereby closing the pores. The magnitude of permeability for the resulting membrane can be adjusted electrically during use to control the passage or filtration of vapors. This membrane can be incorporated into protective clothing and/or shelters for protection against biological and chemical hazards, while allowing for the passage of water vapor. Eikos' specialty polymer fiber offers the best approach to a durable switchable membrane in clothing and shelter, that is comfortable, safe, and washable. The technology can also be applied as the basis for other electronic applications in textiles. Such electronic fabrics form the backbone for smart clothing: sophisticated wearable systems for protection, communication, detection, and onsite computer-aided analysis. BENEFITS: This adjustable membrane technology will find uses throughout the separations industry for vapor and liquid phase separation processes. Most membrane technologies have fixed transport characteristics, however this technology will not only perform many current tasks, but create entirely new application and provide competition for current products.

BOSTON DYNAMICS, INC.
614 Massachusetts Ave
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 868-5600
Marc Raibert
ARMY 98-070
Title:Mission Planning and Training Tool for Dismounted Urban Combat
Abstract:The goal of the proposed work is to create Mission Planning and Training Tool, (MPTT), a tool that will allow experienced training officers to create urban combat training scenarios in less than one hour. The importance of urban combat to the US Army is growing. Urban combat requires individual combatants to work closely with members of their tactical team while in close proximity to innocent civilians, armed civilians, hostages, and enemy forces. While simulation-based training for urban combat has advanced rapidly in the past few years, there are still gaps in the technology. One deficiency is the limited capability of existing Computer Generated Forces (CGF). We propose to create Mission Planning and Training Tool MPTT), software for simulating urban combat scenarios using a new kind of CGF. Rather than rely on complex computer intelligence, MPTT produces CGF that use the intelligence of experienced training officers who act as scenario builders. These CGF can be directly pathed, and scripted to create scenarios involving human to human interaction at close quarters, including in and around buildings. MPTT will support scenario generation, interactive mission planning, rehearsal, and training. MPTT will be a powerful and practical tool for building urban combat training simulations. BENEFITS: MPTT is dual use technology, which will be commercialized by applying it to police training, fire fighting, disaster planning systems, etc.

KATRIX, INC.
31 Airpark Road
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 921-7544
Dr. David Handelman
ARMY 98-070
Title:Individual Combatant SAF Behavior Production Environment
Abstract:In order to keep pace with events in a changing world and prepare dismounted infantry for operations in urban environments, there exists a need for an easy-to-use Semi-Automated Force (SAF) development environment enabling operators to quickly prototype friendly and opposing force behaviors. In addition, realistic simulation of doctrinally correct individual combatant SAFs has been difficult due to complexities associated with representation and coordination of physical, visual, behavioral, and reactive features. Matrix has addressed some of these shortcomings by developing a SAF system that learns from interactions with manned forces, human instructors and its own mistakes. This system has met with success in representation of small squad-level behavior. Phase I of this project will investigate the feasibility of quickly prototyping new and operationally correct behaviors by supplementing the training of neural network-based behaviors used in the Matrix SAF system. This will be accomplished by developing HLA-compatible Simulation Object Models (SOMs), metrics, and interfaces and training such SAF behaviors with HLA-compliant simulations run hundreds to thousands of times. The overall project objective is to enable creation of doctrinally correct higher-level operational behaviors quickly and automatically via automated training and rule generation as an alternative to hand-coded software development and human-in-the-loop observation and intervention. BENEFITS; 1) reduction, by at least an order of magnitude (i.e. months to days), in the time taken to produce new, operationally correct SAF behaviors, and 2) extension of traditional DIS-based dismounted infantry models with HLA SOMs. Applications: Military SAF systems (CCTT), commercial interactive entertainment and computer animation systems.

NOVATE CO.
23 Pinckney St.
Boston, MA 02114
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 665-9200
George Hovorka
ARMY 98-071
Title:Combat Communications Network
Abstract:The proposed innovation is a communication network to transmit information to users in combat environment concerning the position of mines and other dangerous devices. The system uses an inexpensive light information transfer system to transmit information to a combat data display (CDD) for combat users. The network uses visible, infrared or ultraviolet lighting as the carrier medium. The CDD receives and displays text and graphics information including up to date maps of mines. This information is coordinated with OPS data. The system is remarkably inexpensive and robust because it requires no additional or special wiring other than that already typically used for lighting fixtures. The system varies the light output of the lighting fixtures to transmit data at a rate so rapid there is no perceptible flicker. This information could include warning or status reports, technical specifications and instructions, geographical maps with individual perimeter or safe lane markings, telemetry from remote sensors, or any other information that could be transmitted over a conventional wired or radio network. Combat security is maintained because only friendly users will have the key necessary to decrypt the transmitted information. BENEFITS: Commercial products will be the light transmission and the Combat Data Device. In addition to military uses, there will be uses for hearing handicapped users, paging in buildings, museums, hospitals and other such areas.

TRANSTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
2469 Albany Street
Schenectady, NY 12304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 370-5558
Ron Gamache
ARMY 98-071
Title:Feasibility of a Bridge Health Monitoring System (BriHMS) for Improved Military Mobility and Asset Management
Abstract:The structural health of bridges is a crucial issue in both military and civilian sectors. In military teams, knowing the condition or health of a bridge is key to both mobility planning and deployment in battle situations, and to military ascot management in peso time. In to defense arena, lives, battles, and wars can hang in the balance. In the battlefield environment, military bridges are vied tactical assets, and are absolutely critical for the rapid, safe movement of troops and equipment across both natural and constructed terrain gaps. From a historical perspective, the force which controls the gap to be crossed has the battlefield advantage knowledge of the capacity and hea1th of the of the bridge in a real-time, dynamic fashion, as well as remaining life, will be a force multiplier for improving the mobility control of the battlefield commander. An innovative system concept is proposed, comprising the selection and integration of appropriate sensors and a unique, intelligent microprocessor control module. The system will allow the needed data to be sensed, converted to bridge health information and stored for transmission to field contend and control centers or vehicle commanders. BENEFITS: A direct military market exists for the system retrofitted to the DoD's current assault and support bridge inventory. Also, there in a large civilian market since 35, of our nation's 575,000 bridges are eland fled as deficient and would benefit from improved condition monitoring.

CERADYNE, INC.
3169 Redhill Ave.
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 549-0421
James Shih
ARMY 98-072
Title:Elastomer-Encapsulated, Laterally-Confined Ceramic Plates for Ballistic Armor Applications
Abstract:A program is proposed to demonstrates a low cost material, design and manufacturing method for the elastomer-encapsulated, laterally-confined ceramic armor component to limit lateral damage, to increase ballistic efficiency, and to allow multiple impacts without ballistic performance degradation. The armor component is an integrated package, containing a continuous elastomer phase around segmented, laterally-confined ceramic tiles. The proposed program is based on Ceradyne's extensive development in the armor system design and manufacturing. The elastomer is used (1) to attenuate the shock waves, and (2) to accommodate the lateral displacement during the ceramic fracturing, for reducing the damage in the adjacent ceramic tiles. The confinement on the segmented ceramic tiles is introduced (1) to increase the compressive strength of the comminuted fragments, and (2) to increase the friction between the projectile and the fragmented rabbles, for achieving the maximum ballistic efficiency. A ballistic testing methodology will be designed to quantitatively evaluate the ballistic efficiency as well as the single- and multiple-hit performance. A partnership with a commercial tire/elastomer manufacture will be established to reduce the manufacturing cost in the elastomer encapsulation process. A preliminary data base will be established for use in designing a program to fabricate and optimize armor system with multiple hit capability. BENEFITS: Large scale of the elastomer-encapsulated and laterally-confined armor packages will provide the Army a new type of armor components for stand-off armor, vehicle skirt armor, hard-face armor component and light-weight armor systems, especially in the multiple hit conditions.

DYNAMET TECHNOLOGY, INC.
Eight A Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-5967
Walter H. Zimmer
ARMY 98-072
Title:Titanium P/M Encapsulation of Ceramic With Hydrostatic Cushion for Ballistic Armor Applications
Abstract:Dynamet Technology, Inc. proposes to design, build and test a titanium alloy, HIP-encapsulated Boron Carbide ceramic plate, with two suggested improvements, a boron mesh backer (integrally bonded to the rear face of the ceramic) and a hydrostatic cushion in front of the confined ceramic. The powder metallurgy titanium alloy encapsulation process will generate hydrostatic compressive stresses within the ceramic, and a continuous integral bond between the ceramic and metal cladding. The geometry and relative thickness of each layer will be jointly designed incorporating ARL penetration codes and Dynamet's powder metallurgy titanium encapsulation and bonding process technology. Dynamet will produce six (6) 140mm diameter encapsulated armor stacks for ballistic testing at ARM against 7.63 mm penetrators, including multiple hit performance evaluations. BENEFITS: This proposal offers the potential for improved ballistic armor protection, permitting high ballistic efficiency with operational durability and scaleable, cost-effective manufacturing technology. The designs can be tailored and optimized for a dual-use application, from vehicle armor to small armored vests.

LIONHEARTH TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
25401 Spanish Ranch Rd.
Los Gatos, CA 95033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 357-5536
Mark Morgenthaler
ARMY 98-073
Title:The HLA Telepresent Control System
Abstract:Virtual collaboration has transitioned from a laboratory exercise into an accepted new means of communication. TARDEC is interested in exploring technologies that allow crew members to control various ground vehicle functions from a remote location. To facilitate these remote-driving functions, realistic imagery must be supplied to the driver. Lionhearth Technologies' proposed effort is to design and implement a system that improves existing hardware and software to enable real-time remote piloting of robotic vehicles. The system would be capable of running existing military applications, and enabling collaborative planning and multi-spectral visualization. Lionhearth proposes to design (Phase I) and build (Phase II) a remotely piloted ATV robotic test vehicle comprised of three sub-modules: 1. A vehicle mounted Sensor-Servo Module (SSM), with a GPS receiver and gimbal-mounted Stereo Vision Module (SVM) for fused infrared electro-optical telepresence. 2. A wireless communications link and MPEG-4 based video compression module for dispersed collaboration and simulation via High Level Architecture (HLA). 3. A virtualized Vehicle Control Center (VCC) that provides telepresent visualization of the ATV's operation through the use of a high-resolution, stereo head-mounted display, (HMD) novel, un-tethered head tracking system, standard, electronic game controller with haptic-feedback, and remote collaboration and visualization software. BENEFITS: A complete system could provide remote drivers of ground vehicles with visual information about their surroundings--particularly their travel. Such a system could significantly improve soldier survivability, accelerate battlefield deployment, reduce driver error and accidents, enhance reconnaissance, and reduce exposure to danger in hazardous environments. Examples of such a product include toxic waste clean-up, forest fire fighting and law enforcement tactical operations.

ROBOTIC SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY
1234 Tech Court
Westminster, MD 21157
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 876-9200
Mimbo Shin
ARMY 98-073
Title:Enhanced Visual Display System Employing Intelligent Data Fusion for Teleoperation
Abstract:Light-weight rapid deployment military vehicles will require a high degree of crew survivability, by remoting crew members and providing vehicle control in addition to realistic imagery feedback. The problem is that realistic 3-D imagery is impossible to collect, transmit and reconstruct, without an inordinate amount of equipment, bandwidth and costs. As a result the operator is aped to make mistakes in interpreting the scenery. For these systems to be feasible for both military and commercial use, they must be implemented in a reasonable cost, package size, power consumption, and work in variety of environments both day and night. Sensors will be used to measure objects and terrain features then processed to identify driving obstacles and hazards. These features will then be denoted on the actual driving camera's video in an unobtrusive manner alerting the operator of danger areas. This unique solution will not increase the bandwidth requirement, and with newer generations of sensors and processors, can be realized and tested. BENEFITS: This system is not unique to tactical vehicles; therefore, it could be easily adapted to industrial vehicles used in hazardous environments, minimizing civilian endangerment. By providing these capabilities, the + crew would not only benefit from receiving driveable video and audio from the vehicle, but the enhanced options will aid in their decisions to perform their mission, resulting in increased productivity.

IJ RESEARCH, INC.
1965 Blair Ave
Santa Ana, CA 92705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 253-8522
Yuejian (Eugene) Chen
ARMY 98-074
Title:Hybrid Propulsion Vehicle Power Conditioning Packaging
Abstract:IJ Research, Inc. proposes to develop a high temperature integrated power packaging system for Hybrid Electric Drive Propulsion Systems. It includes a hybrid MCM package housing a 6-switch bridge IGBT inverter and a integrated low-cost microchannel heat sink into the package body. Advanced ceramics and composites are selected for the packaging system for the miniaturization, weight and cost saving. The proposed microchannel heat sink uses water ethylene glycol coolant such that the existing engine cooling system on the vehicle can be utilized to provide the coolant circulation. This integrated design is aimed to save the weight and volume of this packaging system to the maximum extent to meet the current Future Combat System requirements. The cost of the proposed microchannel heat sink is estimated to be a very small fraction of the LLNL microgroove heat sinks based on the selected material and fabrication technique. The thermal resistance of the heat sink will be at the level of 0.02 degrees Celsius/(W/cm2). The dual purpose design enables this packaging system to be used both for the silicon devices at the power rating of 750 hp 3-phase AC and for the future SiC devices at 1500 hp and hither. BENEFITS: Power conditioning packaging systems based on this proposal could be used in civilian and military electric drive vehicles. A series of derivatives of this packaging system could be used in a large number of electric motor controls. High interest on this technology has been drawn from power electronic manufacturers. Rapid commercialization of this technology is extremely likely.

UNITED SILICON CARBIDE, INC.
71 Shields Lane
Bridgewater, NJ 08807
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 821-8635
Dr. Maurice Weiner
ARMY 98-074
Title:Quasi-Unipolar High Performance 4H-SiC Diodes for Motor Control Application
Abstract:We propose to design, fabricate and deliver a unique quasi-unipolar high temperature and high-speed 4H-SiC power diode for motor control applications by a novel ion implantation approach. Experimental effort will be the major concentration although theoretical work will also be performed to compare with experimental results, and more importantly to guide optimization activities in Phase II. For comparison purpose, conventional diodes will also be fabricated by using the same fabrication processes to quantify the benefits of the proposed diodes including both lower DC and AC power losses and high speed. In Phase I, we will develop the fabrication processes for the proposed diodes concentrating on minimizing reverse leakage current, maximizing power density, and demonstrating high speed switching as well as high temperature capability. Comparison will be made between the proposed diodes and state-of-the-art Si PiN diodes in terms of free-wheeling anti-parallel diode applications along with Si IGBTs in 3 phase AC induction motor control inverters up to lOOOV750HP. We will fabricate the proposed 4H-SiC diodes and deliver 6 6A-600Vdc and 6 4A-1000Vdc diodes and one 20A-l000Vdc diode module with greatly reduced power losses and capable of 250 C ambient operation. BENEFITS: High performance quasi-unipolar SiC diodes capable of operation at much higher power densities and temperatures with drastically reduced DC and AC power losses. Applications exist in numerous high temperature and compact power systems including motor control and power supply for military tanks and commercial electric vehicles.

ADIABATICS, INC.
3385 Commerce Dr
Columbus, IN 47201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 372-5052
Roy Kamo
ARMY 98-075
Title:High Power Density Diesel Propulsion Technology
Abstract:Adiabatics, Inc. and Indiana Research Institute are proposing a joint research effort to show the technical feasibility of achieving high power density diesel propulsion technology. Design targets include cylinder heat loading of 4 hp per square-inch of piston area or greater, 4 cycle bmep exceeding 300 psi, and brake specific heat rejection of 12 btu/bhp-min. or lower. Brake specific fuel consumption and specific power outputs will be consistent with the latest technological know-how. Five (5) specific technologies being considered are: 1. High-Temperature Tribology, 2. Insulative Components, 3. Fuel Injection Enhancement, 4. Turbo-Alternator Turbocompounding and 5. Lightweight Engine Structure. Indiana Research Institute will undertake (3) and (4) while Adiabatics, Inc. will undertake (1), (2) and (5). The above assignment will assure the optimum utilization of each companies capability. A newly conceived combustion concept designated as the Spatially Resolved system is being proposed in conjunction with the Shower Head injection nozzle. The second novel concept being proposed is a cooling system involving an exhaust ejector for inducting cooling air through finned surfaces where limited cooling is desired. No coolant, moving parts or pumps, fans and radiator will be required. A carbon composite material with a coating to prevent oxidation will also be exploited. Many other interesting features will be considered in this proposal phase I program. BENEFITS: Upon completion of this investigation of advanced concepts, many features necessary to advance the compression ignition engine in the future to benefit the military and the commercial sectors will be made. The fuel energy and materials conservation will be foremost.

LOTEC, INC.
181 West 1700 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84115
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 483-3100
Rama Nageswaran
ARMY 98-075
Title:NZP Ceramic Lined Exhaust and Intake Ports for High Performance Military Diesel Engines
Abstract:Ceramic lined exhaust and intake ports are critical to the goals of the next generation of high output military diesel engines because of the following benefits: i) increased engine efficiency due to the containment of exhaust gases at higher temperatures, ii) reduction of the burden on the cooling system, and iii) increased life expectancy of the cylinder head and other engine parts. Low thermal expansion NZP ceramics are choice candidates for this application because of their low conductivity, superior thermal shock resistance and their low elastic modulus. For commercial viability, the ceramic lined composite ports should be amenable to routine fabrication using processes such as metal casting. The high resistance to thermal shock of NZP is a big advantage in metal casting, however, mismatch of thermal expansions between the metal and NZP ceramic leads to failure-causing shrinkage stresses after complete cooling of the system. LoTEC, Inc. proposes to develop a commercially-viable technology involving NZP ceramic-lined exhaust and intake ports for advanced diesel engines. For routine fabrication using metal casting and reliability in application, the development and optimization process will be linked to several iterations of experimentation and engineering analysis. Engineering analysis will consist of finite element analysis of (a) cooling shrinkage stresses in complex shaped castings and (b) heat transfer analysis to assess temperature gradient profiles and gradient stresses at the instant of casting. BENEFITS: Although the primary application that results from this technology would be intake and exhaust manifold insulation for high performance diesel engines, other prospective applications such as cylinder liners, piston caps, etc. also exist. The use of NZP based insulations in the diesel engine will lead to cost savings in millions of dollars resulting from improved efficiency, simplified cooling systems, and longer life of certain engine components.

OPTIMETRICS, INC.
3115 Professional Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-1177
Charles H. Church
ARMY 98-075
Title:High Density Diesel Propulsion Technology
Abstract:We propose to conduct research to demonstrate in a high power density diesel engine the feasibility of controlled combustion by regulating the excitation of the singlet delta level of the oxygen in the charge air entering the engine. In this work, the temperature will be controlled in the charge air into the engines as an element of an integrated precise control of the combustion process. The air mass flow and the fuel injection rates will be adjustable to obtain desired power level within the constraints of engine structural strength, thermal flows, and the production of particulates and other exhaust emissions. The test engine will be a supercharged/turbocharged uniflow 2 cycle diesel engine with high pressure common rail fuel injection. In Phase I, we shall research technologies and concept designs shall be presented and substantiated via analytical calculations and modeling, virtual prototyping, drawings and a very limited engine bench-type testing demonstration. In Phase I Option we shall prove concepts from a feasibility standpoint with modeling and bench testing. In Phase II, the concept shall be demonstrated using a single or a multi-cylinder engine with operating conditions of the target high output military engine. BENEFITS: Our efforts will develop a very high power density diesel engine with an integrated control strategy which will improve combustion throughout the duty cycle, particularly at idle and low part load; the benefits include increased fuel economy, lower smoke/particulates, improved cold starting, and enhanced engine performance in all phases of engine operation. The Phase III dual-use applications commercial engines will be explored with a view towards meeting legislated exhaust emissions using this technology. The engine systems to be described here are applicable to many automotive systems including tactical and combat vehicles and other mobile and fixed engine systems which can operate using available hydrocarbon fuels. The resulting engine systems will operate over the operating cycle with very low smoke/particulates, little to no ignition delay, low noise, vibration, and harshness, easy cold weather starting, tolerant of a wide range of fuels, and high efficiency. With well-controlled combustion, the peak temperature in the combustion chamber would be controlled by the fuel injection rate.

APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4300 San Mateo Blvd. NE, Suite A220
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 795-8106
Larry L. Brown
ARMY 98-076
Title:Fouling Meter for Membrane Filters
Abstract:This research effort will develop an innovative instrument and method to monitor, and manage and control fouling and cleaning of spiral wound reverse osmosis filter elements. The developed fouling meter will determine both the extent and type of fouling (i.e., biofouling, scaling, silting, etc.), and provide real-time data to an operator on the condition of the water purification unit. In addition, the fouling meter would be used as a tool for the evaluation of the effectiveness of pretreatments for the minimization or reduction of fouling, to provide data for improved analysis of the fouling process to enable more effective fouling reduction strategies to be developed, and as a tool to select the most suitable cleaning protocol for particular types of fouling. The fouling meter would be a new and invaluable tool for the investigation of the mechanisms and effectiveness of both current and new cleaning treatments. In Phase I, the design of the fouling meter will be completed, the bench-scale unit will be built, the fouling meter will be evaluated, and will be demonstrated using a pilot scale water treatment unit. The developed fouling meter will have a profound impact on the Army's ability to purify water in the field. BENEFITS: The fouling meter will have a significant effect on separation processes in the chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutic, semi-conductor, food and beverage industries. The cost of separation can represent as much as 80% of the total processing cost. The ability to monitor both the filtering and cleaning processes will reduce these costs.

SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 679-2281
Theodore J. Rosenthal
ARMY 98-077
Title:Ground Vehicle Dynamic Subsystem Modeling for Multi-body Simulation Applications
Abstract:Vehicle simulation capability will be enhanced by developing comprehensive, real-time subsystem models that will be integrated into their multi-body vehicle dynamics simulation. This simulation technology will be used in both driver and hardware-in-the-loop performance evaluations of vehicle systems. An equations of motion based approach will be used to build a suite of dynamic subsystems models. To provide the most cost effective and efficient environment. the models will be developed and evaluated as separate models on a personal computer and then later ported offer and integrated into the TACONI multi-boa! architecture. As part of the evaluation process the models mill be integrated into an existing personal computer based real-time simulator to insure that no anomalies occur. Using a specified vehicle. a prototype demonstrating the feasibility of the approach, will be developed. A set of currently existing subsystem models that have been developed for passenger vehicles and heavy trucks will be used as the starting foundation. Based on TACOM's needs, the hardware environment and the fidelity requirements of the models, the base set of models will be enhanced or replaced: and other desired models that are not part of the base set, will be developed. BENEFITS: At the successful completion of this project a suite of ground vehicle dynamic subsystem models will be available for use in computer simulations and engineering analysis. The models mill be capable of uncorking on a wide variety of computer platforms and therefore can be applied in fields such as real-time simulation, hardware prototyping.

BERKELEY APPLIED SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
5 Third Street, Suite 530
San Francisco, CA 94103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 543-1600
M. Panahandeh, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-079
Title:Global-Local Modeling of Composite Structures using Homogenization Methods
Abstract:As the application of advanced composites expands and new material systems are introduced and as the severity of mechanical, thermal, and environmental loading conditions increases, the analyses of durability, damage evaluation and failure of these structures under static and dynamic conditions becomes more and more important. It is the specific objective of this research: 1. To develop a global-local engineering methodology using homogenization theory for obtaining a model with varying degrees of fidelity that effectively describes the dynamic response of structures composed of periodic media, 2. To couple the global-local homogenization models of composite structures with local heterogeneous damage models and showing the practical feasibility of embedding different damage models into the coupled global local dynamic analysis, and 3. To incorporate the global-local dynamic models and local damage models into an existing finite element program and to analyze benchmark problems of impulsively-loaded structures which are of interest to the Army to assess the accuracy of the developed analysis tool. BENEFITS: The need for a robust composite structure design and an analysis tool capable of predicting the integrity of composite structures during impact or impulsive loading events exits in both commercial and military vehicle sectors. The software developed during this research will provide a practical tool for military designers, commercial designers, and manufacturers of composite materials to analyze and design lightweight composite vehicle bodies. Numerous ranges of other applications will also greatly benefit from this package.

AEROHYDRO, INC.
54 Herrick Road, P.O. Box 684
Sothwest Harbor, ME 04679
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 244-4100
Dr. John S. Letcher, Jr.
ARMY 98-080
Title:Robust 3-D Surface Model Representation
Abstract:This project will provide strong technical foundations for the development of software products and services that will enable collaborative design among development teams using disparate CAD and analysis packages. Issues to be addressed include: construction and maintenance of a robust central geometry representation comprising surface patches and trimmed surfaces; export of geometric data in user-defined formats to a variety of analysis codes; export of geometric data to a variety of CAD systems in editable form; reconstitution of edited data returned from client CAD systems to a form compatible with the central representation. We propose to utilize AeroHydro's patented Relational Geometry (RG) framework as the central representation. By capturing a broad variety of interobject relationships, RG provides fundamental benefits in editability and accuracy over conventional surface representations. The project will demonstrate capabilities to export editable CAD models from RG to a variety of CAD systems, using primarily DXF, IGES and STEP formats; to receive back edited data in these same formats; to compare returned and original data; to identify the elements that changed; to update the central RG model to reflect the changes. The project will build upon existing RG capabilities of AeroHydro's RGKernel, MultiSurf and Surface Works products. BENEFITS: Military: This technology will serve as the essential GEM component of TACOM's Automotive Product Development Framework. Commercial: It will provide a collaborative design framework for manufacturing concerns of all sizes.

SIGNATURE RESEARCH, INC.
P.O. Box 346
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 969-3450
Phillip M. Janicki
ARMY 98-081
Title:Lightweight Composite Ballistic Skirts & Fenders
Abstract:The U.S. Army has long recognized the potential of composite materials as a structural and ballistic armor material to realize weight reductions while maintaining appropriate levels of structural integrity and ballistic protection. Current ceramic armor multi-hit performance is below full potential due to excessive crack propagation from projectile impacts. Recent advancements in Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) materials may offer a solution to the relative fragility of monolithic composites. CMC's are highly flexible in their total composition, allowing considerable options for additives, coatings and laminations, compared to monolithic ceramics. We propose to develop an integrated, lightweight composite ballistic skirt for ground vehicle applications. The materials and techniques developed under the effort will be directly applicable to the design and integration of composite ballistic fenders as an inherent project objective. In Phase I, we will define the ceramic material requirements and specifications, identify alternative skirt design concepts and integration approaches. This effort will include threat definition, system and material requirements, the identification of available data on the ballistic and structural performance of the recommended ceramic material, the establishment of material specifications and development of a feasibility prototype skirt panel section design concept. BENEFITS: Development of lightweight structural composite materials, processes and designs may be applies to multiple military vehicles and adapted to meet requirements for lightweight fuel-efficient commercial vehicles.

PHYSITRON, INC.
3304A Westmill Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 534-4844
C. K. Wood
ARMY 98-082
Title:Reduction in Shock / Vibration Levels Experienced During Dynamic Warhead Testing
Abstract:The use of sled vehicles to perform high speed/high acceleration testing of warheads and warhead components generates an inherently Noisy vibration environment. The anticipated level of shocks and the vibration energy levels associated with sled tracks will normally exceed the environment of a missile in free flight. This elevated shock and vibration environment inhibits the accurate testing of actual hardware and necessitates either hardening the hardware to the sled track vibration levels or designing new hardware for testing only. Physitron proposes a solution to this problem with a low cost, technically innovative approach which is based on a unique understanding of the problem, an ability to treat the entire track, sled, and payload as a connected system and the capability to turn the analytical solution into hardware which will solve this problem of reducing the shock and vibration levels in dynamic warhead testing to acceptable, near actual flight levels. Each of the contributing parts will be designed to produce a system which meets the SBIR objectives. The design and fabrication process, the track, the track status, the maintenance of track status, the track-sled interface, quality control of the interface, the structure of the sled, and the payload isolation system will all be optimized to achieve the required cost/benefit results. BENEFITS: The primary benefit will be allowing testing of actual hardware without special modifications for sled track vibration levels. Commercialization potentials exist in the transportation and material handling industries where control of shock and vibration levels translate into dollars and savings through reduction of damage.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Peter E. Nebolsine
ARMY 98-083
Title:underwater High Speed Laser Illumination and Imaging System
Abstract:The Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) conducts underwater tests of warheads and projectiles including shaped charge, blast, and projectile impacts. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has a diverse experience base in the design(including for ATC), fabrication and fielding a number of repetitively pulsed laser illumination systems coupled to high speed imaging systems. Our proposal addresses using high-speed digital cameras coupled with multiple short pulse laser illumination and bandpass filters for this specific underwater application. COTS or semi-custom laser systems have been used. The system will have the advantages of submicrosecond laser pulses stopping the action of high speed explosively driven events, e.g., a shaped charge jet, as well as overwhelming the self luminosity associated with the event by the combination of the illumination source having high spectral brightness and a moderately narrowband passband filter on the imaging system. This proposal addresses the tradeoffs of operating in water with limited clarity as well as the survivability of illumination equipment and image recording system. The use of expendable fiber optic system for transmitting laser pulses and a periscope device for the imaging system will physically remove the key equipment to a safe distance where structural hardening is practical. BENEFITS: Once the requirements are established for illumination and underwater housings; design studies, point design and proof of concept experiments will be done. The Phase I Base program ends with a Phase II program plan that when implemented in the Phase I Option and Phase II program will end with the delivery of a complete system to ATC. This system will provide illumination and imaging capabilities that are not currently available at ATC or elsewhere. Systems can then be supplied to other users requiring the imagery documentation of high speed events, either underwater or in air.

TACAN CORP.
2330 Faraday Ave
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Brian J. Sullivan
ARMY 98-084
Title:Laser Induced Plasma Fluorescence Spectroscopy for the Detection of Heavy Metals
Abstract:The Army has a need for a fieldable unit that can be use for the detection of depleted uranium with the sensitivity in the several ppm region. The system must operate in adverse conditions and in the presents of un-exploded ordnance. Standard method for the detection of heavy metals, such as atomic adsorption or emission spectroscopy require instrumentation not suitable for field use. In this proposal, we will explore the innovative use of a laser- induced plasmas and fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of trace amounts of depleted uranium. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been employed in the detection of heavy metal contaminates in soils and laser- induced fluorescence has been employed in sensitive detection of heavy metal ions produced in a inductively coupled plasma. Through the novel use of optical fibers and compact solid state light sources and detectors, we shall investigate the design of a field portable heavy metal detector. The system shall consist of a central unit containing the laser excitation sources and the spectral detection units, the compact probe will be linked by optical fibers. We shall also, explore the use of laser-induced plasma as a means of generating metal ions that can be detected by laser-induced fluorescence. BENEFITS: Benefits include: the development of a fieldable unit for the rapid detection of heavy metal species in soil and aqueous matrices. Applications of this development are: monitoring of environmental remediation sites, detection of heavy metals in buildings and structures, monitoring and control of industrial processes.

APTIMA, INC.
600 West Cummings Park, Suite 3050
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Dr. Jean MacMillan
ARMY 98-086
Title:Model-Based Performance Assessment for the Jobs of the 21st Century
Abstract:Soldiers in tomorrow's Army will need new skills to function in a technology intensive environment. To assess potential performance in jobs of the future, we propose to develop a Job Skills Model that combines extensive existing models and performance data for today, s jobs with models and measures for the new skills required for tomorrow's jobs, to be assessed in a simulation testbed. Our multidisciplinary project team combines extensive experience in assessing and modeling the job skills of today's soldiers (Micro Analysis and Design) with a proven simulation-based approach for measuring the complex decision-making expertise of Army commanders and the communication and coordination skills of teams in simulated environments (Aptima). Our Phase I products will be a Job Skills Model for selected jobs and a demonstration of how data will be collected in a simulation teethed to populate and validate the model. In Phase II we will use the Distributed Dynamic Decision making simulation to collect performance data and will deliver a validated Job Skills Model, measures for assessing both the existing and new skills required by those jobs, and a simulation teethed for measuring complex decision making and teamwork skills that cannot be assessed in naturalistic environments using more conventional means. BENEFITS: A measurement approach and a set of modeling and simulation tools for assessing the skills needed and the ability of individuals to perform in tomorrow's dynamic, technology intensive job environments will be valuable to both government and industry for assessing manning optimization and corporate restructuring alternatives, measuring information management skills and performance, and assessing teamwork skills in collaborative workgroups.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5504
Thomas Campbell
ARMY 98-087
Title:Structural Bracing for Seismic Energy Dissipation
Abstract:Presidential Executive Order 12941 requires that all federal agencies inventory their buildings and estimate the cost of achieving adequate seismic safety. The Foster-Miller team provides an innovative seismic retrofit solution, noted expertise in event modeling and code revision and a clear path to cost-effective production. The resultant energy dissipation product will provide a viable alternative to the use of viscous dampers at a fraction of the cost. The proposed concept builds on a novel idea put forth for the Osaka convention center in Japan. Yielding diagonal frame members can be included in a new building, or added as a retrofit, to provide energy dissipation during a seismic event. Foster-Miller will develop a diagonal bracing system that will yield in both tension and compression to achieve energy dissipation. Hybrid carbon and fiberglass pultruded composite braces will be used to constrain buckling under compression loads while not adversely contributing to the axial stiffness. Foster-Miller will direct the program and provide expertise in design, modeling and implementation of novel composite structures. Fluor Daniel will support the assessment of performance and code requirements. McNamara/Salvia will provide seismic evaluation and design expertise. Glasforms, a leading pultrusion manufacturer, provides cost-effective commercial production. BENEFITS: The proposed system is a low cost option for seismic energy dissipation in both new and retrofitted buildings. As design for seismic performance is being required throughout the U.S. and abroad, the commercial market for this product is very large. Foster-Miller has assembled an expert team that can realize both cost-effective production and widespread implementation.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01880
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5668
James J. Gorman
ARMY 98-087
Title:Automated Production of Low Cost Pultruded Composite Bracing for Seismic Energy Dissipation Structures
Abstract:During Phase I KCI will develop at least ten different candidate designs for a composite material bracing system that will prevent buckling of a seismic energy-absorbing steel cruciform member that the bracing system surrounds. KCI's new lightweight bracing, which is intended to replace the heavy concrete and steel system currently in use, will ensure that the energyabsorber is effective both in tension and compression. The lighter weight of the composite design will be a major advantage in retrofitting existing structures with inexpensive seismic protection devices. KCI designs will investigate a variety of geometric configurations. Reinforcing materials in the study will include E-glass, S-glass and Carbon, as well as a proprietary system that on paper offers significant performance advantages over traditional composite reinforcements for this application. Matrix systems will include polyester, vinyl ester, phenolic and epoxy. We expect pultrusion will be the manufacturing process of choice for this product, however in Phase I designs tailored for other processes including braiding, filament winding, SCRIMP and RTM will also be considered. In Phase I KCI will fabricate sample parts for testing by our program consultants in the MIT Civil Engineering Department. In addition, an innovative manufacturing concept will be developed and tested. BENEFITS: Seismic energy dissipation has become an important aspect of build design, however cost of the required earthquake protection is high. Also, retrofit of existing structures is difficult. The proposed concept should significantly reduce the cost of installing energy-absorbers in new and existing building by a combination of automating their production and greatly reducing their weight.

INDUSTRIAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS, INC.
245 West Roosevelt Systems
Chicago, IL 60185
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 876-8981
Dr. Donald E. Yuhas
ARMY 98-088
Title:Near Surface Imaging in Soils for Archeological Assessments
Abstract:Once a cultural or archaeological resource site has been identified, it must be assessed in order to determine its significance and eligibility for National Registry of Historic Places (Executive Order 11593). Currently, there is no reliable, non-invasive method for determining the number of buried artifacts, or their characteristics. Thus, the significance of the archeological resource cannot be determined. The objective of the proposed research program is to demonstrate the feasibility for detecting and imaging subsurface cultural artifacts using acoustic energy. Recent studies have indicated the potential of low frequency acoustics as a modality suitable for finding and imaging buried objects in soil. In the proposed Phase I program, we develop acoustic transmitting and receiving sensors, which are optimized for imaging in soil. Using these sensors, acoustic echo data is collected in soils containing buried metallic and nonmetallic test objects. By exploiting existing processing methods developed for radar ranging and medical imaging, images of the buried objects are reconstructed and evaluated. BENEFITS: Pavement inspection, tunnel inspection, location of underground pipes, cables, commercial archeological assessment, and detection of unexploded ordinance.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Chuck Shipley
ARMY 98-089
Title:Range-Resolved Inflight Air Temperature Sensing
Abstract:Aircraft icing is a known hazard to military and commercial flying. Onboard de-icing systems are effective but are applied to larger aircraft, not small and/or commuter aircraft and helicopters. What is needed is an onboard means for pilots to observe, in a timely manner, whether conditions ahead of the aircraft represent an icing hazard, so that evasive action can be initiated. A key component of icing prediction is the ability to remotely measure cloud region temperature to an accuracy sufficient to determine if the temperature is in the range of 0 degrees to -10 degrees Celsius, i.e. is in the liquid water super cooled region. Technology Service Corporation has developed a radar-based concept that promises to remotely determine a range resolved measure of the temperature in a cloud region. The method is an extension of the well known two-frequency radar method of remotely measuring cloud Suspended Liquid Water Content, that is another key component of icing prediction. The new temperature measuring method can use the same radar equipment as the two-frequency method. It should also be possible to integrate the new method with existing A/C weather radars. BENEFITS: If successful this technique, when integrated with a radar system that otherwise remotely measures cloud liquid water content, will provide a self contained sensor system that will accurately predict icing hazard conditions ahead of an aircraft. It would apply to commuter aircraft and helicopters.

DATA FUSION CORP.
9035 Wadsworth Parkway, Suite 1260
Westminster, CO 80021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 421-7994
Dr. John Thomas
ARMY 98-091
Title:Multi-Sensor Exploitation Capabilities Enhancements for an Autonomous Analysis/Exploitation System
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) proposes to develop a method called Mixture Tuned Matched Subspace Filtering for detecting materials of interest and extracting their abundances from hyperspectral mixed pixels. This approach combines the benefits of the interference invariant schemes and the mixture tuned schemes to improve performance with fewer assumptions. BENEFITS: This technology is extremely beneficial for remote sensing for material identification.

ESEA
5150 El Camio Real, Suite B-15
Los Altos, CA 94022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 962-1167
Kevin Prest
ARMY 98-092
Title:Applying Leading Edge Software Technologies in Automated Vector Map Update and Validation Tools
Abstract:This project is to develop new cools for the automated update and validation of legacy geographic information system (GIS) vector datasets. These tools permit legacy vector map data to be efficiently refined by verifying their internal logical consistency and by improving the process in which they can be registered to more accurate image sources. Automatic validation of vector maps is accomplished by applying a set of logical consistency rules written in a rule-based language to query and modify the data. Automated registration of a vector map to an image is performed in the image domain, using image pattern matching techniques, and in the vector-domain, using an innovative raster-to-vector conversion process that takes advantage of ESEA's conflation algorithms to utilize legacy vector data. A flexible object-oriented vector database is used to adjust non-visible map elements, such as political boundaries, to maintain their consistency with visible elements. Phase I provides a conceptual design of the complete tool set. The tools developed in the project will significantly enhance capability for updating legacy map data to the accuracy standards required for the current and future GIS needs of the United States armed forces. BENEFITS: As both government and commercial organizations update geospatial datasets with data from multiple sources and of different types, automated tools are necessary for map updating and map quality assurance. This need creates a market demand for tools that (1) automatically align vector feature data to imagery data and (2) verify internal map consistency consistency.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Fei Wang
ARMY 98-093
Title:Multicolor Electrochromic Camouflage
Abstract:Surfaces which can be actively adjusted to provide color matching with a changing background would be extremely valuable for military camouflage operations, particularly in hiding military surveillance equipment, weapons systems, and for personal soldier applications. In this regard, electrochromic materials have been demonstrated which exhibit deep modulation over a broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We propose here a new concept in electrochromic coatings for producing uniform, flexible, long cycle life, environmentally robust electrochromic cells for surface application. The innovation is based on using flexible polymeric materials for the components of the charge balanced electrochromic cell elements. The electrochromic layers will comprise organic, inorganic and mixed materials prepared by controlled surface coating processes. The overall objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility of electrochromic materials and electrochemical pixel cell configurations for providing a three color variable camouflage element. The work will encompass a survey of new multicolor electrochromic polymers developed at EIC Laboratories and, through a subcontract, by the Reynolds group at the University of Florida. Phase II entails scale-up of flexible pixel elements to provide fully matrix addressed, environmentally robust appliques for spatially varying active signature control. BENEFITS: The major products of electrochromic technology include: information displays; filters for optics, photography and electronic imaging; military low observable applications; ophthalmic eyewear and sunglasses; automobile mirrors, sunroofs, and glass; atria glass; and architectural glass for all kinds of buildings from passive solar dwellings to large office complexes.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Prakash B. Joshi
ARMY 98-093
Title:Light Electro-Optical Active Reflectivity Device (LEOPARD) Technology
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a system of variable color electrochromic (EC) devices and sensors for actively sensing the background environment of an object and adjusting its reflectivity in visible wavelengths to minimize its contrast with the environment. The LEOPARD(tm) (Light Electro-Optical Active Reflectivity Device) technology is a system comprising a large number of panels covering the surface of the object, with each panel comprising a number of electrochromic devices, and a high resolution color CCD camera(s). Our design will incorporate a distributed architecture with microcontroller intelligence at the panel level. For electrochromic devices with variable reflectance over visible wavelengths, we propose to use conductive polymers. Such devices can be fabricated as mechanically rugged, thin films on flexible kapton substrates, they can withstand a wide temperature range, and can be manufactured at low cost. In Phase I, we will construct several electrochromic devices of various color ranges and demonstrate the proof-of principle of real time control of color of an EC device as the video camera views different target colors. In Phase I Option, we will develop a preliminary design and breadboard a multi-device panel, and conduct preliminary environmental testing to select conductive polymers for Phase II developments. BENEFITS: The military market is a clear near-term opportunity for commercial applications of the LEOPARD technology, but a variety of extremely large consumer applications will ensue as the technology matures and prices are driven down through increased volume. The military market includes smart camouflage material appliques on fixed and mobile platforms: tanks, fighting vehicles, aircraft and uninhabited air vehicles, small boats, radar installations, missile batteries, and depots. A large market for consumer applications, estimated between $20B and $30B annual revenue, is the Electronically Programmable Billboard (EPB) for outdoor advertising. Other markets for the LEOPARD include programmable displays on buses, buildings, and stadiums.

WILFRED BAKER ENGINEERING, INC.
8700 Crownhill, Suite 310
San Antonio, TX 78209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 824-5960
Quentin A. Baker
ARMY 98-094
Title:Shock Tube for Testing Conventional Building Components
Abstract:The problem addressed in this proposal is the design and fabrication of a test apparatus to simulate blast loads from terrorist vehicle bombs and to economically test conventional building components. A shock tube is proposed as the test apparatus. The shock tube will simulate a vehicle bomb shock wave with high resolution, yet allow the tests to be conducted safely in or near a laboratory. Innovative shock designs proposed by WBE meet the simulation requirements yet are cost effective to fabricate and operate. BENEFITS: The shock tube will benefit both the Government and industry by allowing relatively inexpensive blast testing of conventional building components, and the development of improved components. Commercialization potential is high as seen with WBE's existing shock tubes.

BELL DENTAL PRODUCTS, LLC
6565 S. Dayton St., Suite 3500
Englewood, CO 80111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 708-8078
Daniel D. Bell
ARMY 98-095
Title:High Performace Portable Electric Dental Unit
Abstract:Development of a high performance electric powered portable dental unit is an important element of a strategy to improve the mobility, deployability, and effectiveness of the United States military mobile dental corps. Of prime importance are: lighter weight, smaller cube, and lower power consumption. This project will define the requirements for a portable unit, survey the marketplace for candidate light-weight, small cube, low power components, and build a prototype to demonstrate the feasibility and value of such a product. BENEFITS: There are thousands of people in remote areas of the world that could receive dental care with this type unit. This type unit would make it easier for dentists to provide care in: nursing homes, hospitals, homes, prisons, and other institutions.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-1167
Stefan Vasile, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-096
Title:Miniature, Non-Invasive Sensor for Multi-Site Measurement of Tissue Microvascular Blood Flow
Abstract:The proposed Phase I SBIR program provides a means of analyzing and extending current methods of gathering simulator and in-flight assessments of helicopter flight tasks and maneuvers through application of task performance math models. The program employs innovative research in the areas of pilot modeling, rotorcraft inverse simulation modeling, pilot-vehicle-task analysis, and simulation. Sample tasks obtained from recent piloted simulations are analyzed to develop the important pilotage-task metrics, workload effects, safety considerations, and vehicle dynamic relations. The objectives include assembly of existing math model software for off-line simulation of ADS-33 helicopter pilot-vehicle-task models, validation of derived models, construction of two compelling task model examples, demonstration of variation for pre-simulation or pre-flight study and application of inverse simulation methodology. Project tasks to follow these objectives in order, and conclude with an outline for advanced software needs leading to a Phase II study. Phase II would extend the methodology to new tasks and classes rotorcraft, extend to all axes of control and environmental conditions, and acquire needed simulator or in-flight validation data. Results of the SBIR Phases I and II extend both to military and commercial applications in engineering research and development as well as aircrew training and flight safety. BENEFITS: Provides means for augmenting conventional simulator and in-flight testing as well as enhancing pre-test planning and post-test data analysis. Applicable to engineering modifications and upgrades to existing aircraft and to development of new aircraft. Also useful in the area of aircrew training where task assessment metrics needed.

EIKOS, LLC
2 Master Dr., Suite 2
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Jeffery Conroy
ARMY 98-097
Title:Platforms for Rapid Microarray Prototyping
Abstract:Building on its previous SBIR success, Eikos LLC has assembled a team of researchers that is the best qualified in the world to carry out a P. falciparum microarray fabrication project. This effort will incorporate Eikos's large sequence database and develop bioinformatics tools to enhance the utility of these microarrays. The Phase I program described in this proposal will lead to the fabrication of a resistance genotype micorarray. More importantly, it will establish procedures for rapid prototyping of falciparum microarrays which will be very important as more genomic data for Plasmodium species becomes known. The proposed Phase I effort will support the Phase II effort by reducing to practice the techniques needed to develop microarrays for malaria from genomic databases. BENEFITS: Malaria microarrays will enable the diagnosis and surveillance of drug resistant strains, protecting the international community at large. This technology also supports the development of antimalrial drugs which are needed across the Globe.

ANDCARE, INC.
2810 Meridian Parkway, Suite 152
Durham, NC 27713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 544-8220
Robert W. Henkens
ARMY 98-098
Title:Hand-Held, Battery-Operated Device for Rapid Gene Detection of Multiple Biological Agents
Abstract:Army personnel are at risk of exposure to a broad range of disease agents many of which are rare in the U.S. Moreover, military and civilian personnel are all at risk from terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological warfare agents. Consequently, medical workers and counter-terrorist response teams need to be able to rapidly detect and identify multiple infectious diseases/agents and biological threat organisms in real time in field settings. That important capability is not yet available. Because rapid detection and identification of disease organisms by culture is difficult, researchers have been working to develop molecular-based assays for detection and identification of pathogenic target organisms. However, the current laboratory-based DNA and antibody assay methods are not suitable for rapid, reliable real time testing in actual field settings. For this Phase I project, AndCare proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a simple-to-operate, hand-held, battery-powered instrument capable of real time detection of pathogenic organisms using geneprobe techniques. The instrument will be designed to accommodate existing as well as next-generating assay technologies with the goal of providing the flexibility needed to meet the Army's needs for rapid, simultaneous detection of multiple organisms in a field setting. BENEFITS: Phase I/Phase II success will result in prototype, battery-powered instruments employing sensor array chips for detection of multiple agents. The hand-held instruments will be lightweight and will use gene-probe methods originally developed for 8-well microtiter plates or membrane strips. The potential dual-use U.S. military/civilian market is substantial with the total diagnostics device market likely exceeding $5 billion.

BIOARRAY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
19906 Halfpenny Pl.
MontgomeryVillage, MD 20886
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-1122
Babak Esmaeli-Azed
ARMY 98-098
Title:A Microfluorimeter for Full Spectrum Fluorescence Analysis of Diagnostics of Biological Agents after Nucleic Acid Amplification
Abstract:Field detection of multiple biological agents based on rapid nucleic acid amplification is an anticipated goal of DOD We here propose development of a hand held battery operated microfluorimeter device for fluorescence based detect ion and quantitation of biological agent a after nucleic acid amplification. This device is beard on our patented technology of Acousto Optic Tunable Filters which permits rapid, specific, ultra-sensitive, and quantitative analysis of fluorescence light omission from the full range of fluorescence omission wavelengths. A prototype hand held device based on this robust technology and solid state electronics components will be made and tested during the course of this proposed research and development program. BENEFITS: There are universal applications for the proposed device with an estimated commercial diagnostic market size of $5 billion per year in the United States alone.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
Z.Z. Ho, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-099
Title:Rapid Sensitive and Easy Test for Transmissible Diseases
Abstract:The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all blood shipped by interstate commerce be tested for certain transfusion transmissible diseases. Unfortunately, current tests can not provide rapid support for field medical emergencies that require blood in excess of the tested supply, especially when additional blood needs to be drawn from the available walking pool. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to develop and construct an innovative surface plasmon resonance optical waveguide (SPROW), based on label-free, wash-free, one-step reaction, that can simultaneously perform multiple transmissible disease assays with specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity. In this project, a microslide-based waveguide chip, immobilized with molecules, will be developed and integrated with optoelectronics for the simultaneous screening of multiple diseases. The system will be tested under FDA guidelines using the selected format to verify the required sensitivity and specificity. During Phase I of the project, the technical feasibility of the SPROW system will be demonstrated using HBV and HCV test antibodies. BENEFITS: A rapid and sensitive method for the detection and identification of pathogens has a wide variety of applications. Blood banks, diagnostic clinics, point of care facilities, and the food and pharmaceutical industries can all benefit from this technology.

LIFECELL CORP.
3606 Research Forest Drive
The Woodlands, TX 77381
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 367-5368
Jerome Connor, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-100
Title:Frozen Storage of Human Platelets with Directly Transfusable Cryoprotectants
Abstract:LifeCell has developed a patented system for the long-term preservation of platelets utilizing the biochemical stabilization of specific second messenger pathways critical to the platelet physiology. The stabilization formulation, ThromboSol(tm) modulates the endogenous platelet pathways that lead to cellular activation. This modulation renders the platelets capable of withstanding the rigors of cryopreservation in the absence of structural or biochemical damage. The platelet preservation system is logistically simple and yields high recovery of platelet number, morphology indices and in vitro and in viva functional activity. A feature of this cryopreservation system is the use of 2' DMSO. While this does represent a 3-fold reduction in the DMSO concentration as compared to the standard cryopreservation methods, it remains to be determined if this reduced amount of DMSO is directly transfusable of if so whether alternative agents more compatible with transfusion can be used. The goal of this platelet preservation program is to obtain a directly infusable formulation. Therefore, this proposal will identify alternative reagents which can mimic both the biochemical stabilization and cryoprotectant properties of DMSo. These reagents will be evaluated using in vitro assays, in conjunction with ThromboSol, to develop a platelet cryopreservation formula which' is directly transfusable and achieves high retention of platelet cell number and functional activity. BENEFITS: Successful completion of the development the ThromboSol platelet cryopreservation systems represents an important contribution to solving the critical problem of access to a rapidly deployable, directly transfusable platelet transfusion product. This will contribute to overcoming the problems of blood loss and bleeding in both far forward combat casualty care and civilians.

CONDUCTING MATERIALS CORP. (CMC)
6935 Oakland Mills Road, Suite D
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 312-5200
Nili Leffers
ARMY 98-101
Title:Combinatorial Approach to Malarial Drug Development
Abstract:Conducting Materials Corp. Proposes to support the antimalarial structure-based discovery efforts at Walter Reed Army Institure of Research, Division of Experimental Therapeutics. Specifically, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, an enzyme intimately linked to the metabolic functions of dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate syntheses, will be targeted with a new generation of antimalarial agents. In Phase I, malarial SHMT will be cloned, sequenced, and expressed in bacteria. The functional enzyme will be purified for testing against potential antimalarial agents. The catalytic activity of the enzyme will be tested against some simple variation of substrates to get an approximation of the binding preferences of the malarial SHMT. At the same time, and RNA combinatorial library (SELEX) will be established to probe at and compare the active sites of host versus parasite metabolic enzymes. For proof of principle, the RNA combinatorial system will first be applied to drug-sensitive malarial DHFR since this protein is known to bind certain antifolate 1,000 times more tightly than the host enzyme. It is expected that the SELEX system will be able to identify RNA molecules that mimic the binding properties of drugs such as pyrimethamine. Phase II will design biased combinatorial libraries of small molecules.BENEFITS:Successful outcome of phase I&II will lead to anti-malarial drug development which will overcome the problem of drug resistant malarial parasites. Such a development, besides providing a great relief to nations which suffer from malarial infestations, will protect the visitors from other developed countries as well.

POINT RESEARCH CORP.
2740 S. Harbor Blvd., Suite B
Santa Ana, CA 92704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 557-6180
Robert W. Levi
ARMY 98-102
Title:Embedded Physiologic Sensors for Ambulatory Monitoring
Abstract:We propose to develop physiologic sensing capabilities that make use of existing equipment already available in soldier systems such as Land Warrior. By maximizing the functionality of existing sensors to serve multiple purposes, we can approach the goals of zero power, zero weight and zero size. Some of these measurements are indirect indications of parameters that are traditionally measured by dedicated transducers. Additional dedicated sensors can also be added as required that are embedded in the soldier's equipment. Both the indirect sensors and optional dedicated sensors can be interfaced with wireless personal networks. During Phase I we will conduct validation experiments for the indirect sensing capabilities. The Phase I Option work will include verification that existing sensing technologies can be embedded in the soldier's equipment to provide a wear and forget, unobtrusive system. BENEFITS: Remote physiologic monitoring in hazardous environment enhances the survival of personnel and permits remote force management. Applicable users include military personnel, law enforcement, fire fighting, search & rescue and hospital outpatients.

INTEGRATED DIAGNOSTICS, INC.
1756 Sulphur Spring Rd.
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 737-8500
Helene Paxton
ARMY 98-103
Title:Development of a Rapid, Sensitive and Specific Antibody Detection System to Facilitate Diagnosis of Ehrlichial and Rickettsial Diseases
Abstract:Rickettsiae and ehrlichiae are obligately intracellular, arthropod-borne bacteria which are distributed either worldwide or in defined geographic areas. Several are human pathogens and may be a significant cause of acute febrile illness in endemic regions. Integrated Diagnostics currently distributes, on commercial and investigational bases, rapid dot ELISA dipstick (DS) diagnostic kits for detecting anti-rickettsial and ehrlichial antibodies. We propose to upgrade these devices by developing a more rapid, handheld format which requires only ambient temperatures for performance and reagent storage. Two formats, a modified DS and a lateral flow device, will be evaluated side by side. In Phase I, we will assess the performance of each device in detecting antibodies to one rickettsia, Orientia tsutsucamushi, and determine the feasibility of replacing lysed whole cell antigen with a recombinant O. tsutsunamushi antigen. Phase II will address incorporation of other (and multiple) rickettsial antigen specificities, production scale-up, and field testing. This work will result in a serological test better adapted to field situations and, like some of our current DS, capable of screening sera for a number of antibody specificities in a single test. BENEFITS: The improved devices will address the needs of domestic and foreign health agencies for simple, economical serosurveillance and confirming diagnosis. We sense a strong commercial interest in these, which will supplement DS lines marketed by INDX in the U.S. and abroad.

ESSEX CORP.
9150 Guilford Rd.
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 953-7985
Louis C. Phillips, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-104
Title:Multiband Multi-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar
Abstract: The goal of this project is to define and pursue novel SAR processing techniques to exploit the phase history data to the full potential. Essex plans to augment traditional SAR processing capabilities by extending the resolution and bandwidth via a coherent combination of multiband, multi-platform, and multistatic phase history data. Essex achieves this objective by combining existing synthetic processing algorithms developed at Essex, conducting further research for further processing enhancements, and perform analysis and trades to sufficiently define several candidate processing approaches. BENEFITS: The algorithms developed and validated under this program directly advance SAR image quality, image resolution and new SAR image products. The techniques developed also propose to reduce costs for current systems upgrades and future systems by enabling SAR imagery improvements without additional or complex RF hardware to extend bandwidth and resolution.

SENTAR, INC.
4910-C Corporate Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-0860
Carey E. Cilyok
ARMY 98-105
Title:An Extensible Solution for Distributing and Accessing Tactical Geospatial Information
Abstract:The GeoSystem concept proposed by Sentar will provide the end user with an industry standard Web browser interface to critical map data using ActiveX controls in Internet Explorer 4.x. Using standard software component technology, Sentar will meet the requirement for an extensible, scalable client/server GeoSystem architecture. The bulk of relatively static map data will be stored locally, while client/server interaction provides for subscription-based server access to map updates, tactical information, and other time-critical information such as event data, alarms, and warning messages. A demonstration prototype of this concept will be built and tested using an end- to-end scenario simulation. Additionally, Sentar proposes to investigate fault-tolerant agents and XML-based Vector Markup Language as innovative technology areas that have potential for enhancing the effectivity of GeoSystem. The Sentar team's technical approach is to use the ActiveX Document Model component architecture to leverage the client users' knowledge and familiarity with the Internet Explorer Web browser. The server will utilize Active Server Pages (ASP) supported by Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS), Microsoft Proxy Server, and Microsoft SQL Server to deliver a solution which provides an object-model which allows a user organization to extend both the server and client-sides with minimal effort. BENEFITS: The architecture proposed is an enabling technology that can greatly reduce the bandwidth and time delivering graphical information to users. The commercial appeal of the technology ranges from delivering weather maps to highway traffic information to stock market charts.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2929 P-1 Eskridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Dr. T.S. Sudarshan
ARMY 98-107
Title:Aluminum Oxy-Nitride and Lanthana Strengthened Yttria Optical Windows for High Energy Laser Systems
Abstract:In recent years efforts have been concentrated on maximizing the resolution of optical materials for use in high-energy laser systems by minimizing absorption of irradiated power and subsequent deformation caused by heating. With a higher thermal shock resistance than any available optical material, sapphire is the material of choice, but displays significant scattering due to optical anisotropy. Aluminum oxy-nitride and lanthana strengthened yttria based optically transmissive materials are isotropic because of their cubic symmetry and therefore are an ideal replacement for sapphire. In this Phase I effort MMI proposes to synthesize nanocrystalline gamma-AION and consolidate the same to highly dense near net shapes in less than 5 minutes. The consolidated part will further be polished to a roughness of

EXPERT DECISIONS, INC.
613 Henning Court
Naperville, IL 60540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 420-2583
David Lewis
ARMY 98-108
Title:Data Fusion for Hypothesis Comparison
Abstract:The Data Fusion for Hypothesis Comparison system provides a technology for generating knowledge from data and using it to compare competing hypotheses. Current approaches to data fusion in the aid of decision support systems cannot dynamically synthesize knowledge about data, and filter out the more from the less likely hypotheses that result. Further they provide no means to control data deluge, missing data, or adjust as unanticipated results are discovered. By utilizing recent advances in data mining, both deductive and inductive, problems in the current technologies can be overcome. The result is a system that can support commanders at all levels by providing the best hypothesis available and giving a means of varying the parameters associated with those recommendations. BENEFITS: The benefits will accrue from improved decision making due to a better understanding of the hypotheses and assumptions used in building the decision model. Commercial applications will be found in all business areas where data from databases are used to support financial, marketing and operational decisions.

LOGOBOTS LLC
60 E. 32nd Street, Suite 203
Chicago, IL 60616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 836-0497
Dr. Narayan P. Murarka
ARMY 98-108
Title:An Interactive Risk-Based Decision Aid
Abstract:One of the most difficult problems in decision support is real-time decision-making under uncertainty. The information age has vastly increased the number of data sources while at the same time compressing the time available for making decisions. More the data sources, greater the uncertainty in the accuracy of the decision since any one of the data sources could be erroneous. Thus there is a greater risk that the commander (user) would make a wrong decision. In fact, assessing the risk involved in the decisionmakeing process is an important component of decision support. We adapt a technique, called Value-at-Risk (VAR), developed by the financial services community for risk-based decision-making. We propose a new approach for real-time computation and interactive display of VAR. The approach uses a Monte Carlo method for training a neural network using historical patterns of risk factors. We choose a particular scenario of the information warfare problem as our initial application domain. We propose to demonstrate a software prototype of this decision support system at the end of Phase I. Further, we propose a four-month option effort for demonstration the approach to potential DOD and private sector clients, and thereafter refining the approach and implementation to facilitate commercialization.BENEFITS: A software product/service for risk-based decision support aimed at information securtiy applications is expected.

MICROWAVE TEST SOLUTIONS, INC.
P.O. Box 9981
Trenton, NJ 08650
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 448-8878
John Besse
ARMY 98-109
Title:Remote "Non Contact" Environmental Sensing and Communication Device
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop a small, low cost MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS) sensor combined with a wireless transceiver for monitoring and recording the internal environmental conditions of a material within which the sensor-transceiver is embedded. MEMS technology will be used to realize a highly stable temperature dependent capacitance which will be used by the embedded transmitter to relay temperature data to an external receiver. A passive transceiver will be initially developed which will derive its power from energy received from an external interrogator. It will then be shown how to extend the capability of sensor transceiver to include the provision of recording and storing simple data strings as well as sensing pressure and humidity. BENEFITS: This effort shall result in a prototype of a highly stable ultra compact environmental sensor for use in applications that require remote monitoring of the internal temperature of objects.

NEW JERSEY MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
240 King Blvd.
Newark, NJ 07102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 642-4695
Chang-Qing Zhan
ARMY 98-109
Title:Remote "Non-Contact" Environmental Sensing and Communication Device
Abstract:We propose to monitor temperature and other environmental parameters remotely without hard wire connection or local stored-energy power sources at the sensor. The discrete sensor is a monolithic silicon chip containing capacitive diaphragm structures which monitor temperature barometric pressure, and excessive shock loads. Further development may permit monitoring of humidity with this system. The basic sensing system with a MEMS integrated sensor chip has been presented and reviewed at the 1995 International Conference on Sensors and Transducers in Stockholm. It is also covered by US patent #5,610,340 Integrated (Pressure) Sensor with Remote Power Source and Remote Readout issued March 11, 1997 with co-inventors W. N. Carr and S. Chamarti. The sensor utilizes a resonant LC tank circuit which determines the barrier frequency of the chip oscillator in addition to serving us non-inductive pickup loop for powering the sensor. The sensor utilizes a unique (patented) data communicating device/system embedded in a silicon chip of size typically 0.5x2.0x2.0 millimeters. , The sensor will be extremely environmentally stable. The silicon chip melts at 1412C. Residual films on the silicon are oxides and thin aluminum typically less then 1 micron thickness. Remote interrogation/power devices will store sensor readout data. BENEFITS: The remote sensing system to be demonstrated under this SBIR will have general applicability for close-proximity parameters testing using disposable microsensors chips. Commercial applications include air frame environmental sensing in wind tunnels, motor vehicle tires, etc.

ORION INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2201 Buena Vista Dr. SE, Suite 211
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 998-4000
Joseph Barfoot
ARMY 98-109
Title:Remote "Non-Contact" Environmental Sensing and Communication Device
Abstract:Internal temperature of a howitzen prepellant grain mill be measured through the use of a Radio Frequency Identification (RRID) tag and, remote reader. Temperature is calculated from the changing response of the tags normal characteristic return to the reader as a functions of temperature. The resultant system will provide very small (approx. 1 x .25 x .02) and relatively inexpensive expendable device that will completely combust then the propellant grain is ignited. The system wil1 have a temperature resolution of about +/- 5 degrees Celsius in its initial configuration with several methods available to increase sensity. BENEFITS: Frozen foods monitoring, industrial mass monitoring, biolgical monitoring when lot data and temperature must be remotely readable.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technology Division, 20600 Grame
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Zhanxiang Zhang, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-110
Title:MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS) - Based Fiber Optic Grating Sensor for Weapon Stabilization and Fire Control
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to investigate and develop a novel approach for a MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS) based fiber optic grating sensor (FOGS) to improve weapon stabilization and fire control. This POC concept will overwrite two gratings with wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm onto a polarization-preserving optical fiber. Based on the reflected optical signal from the FOGS, three-axis strain and temperature can be detected and identified. A MEMS diaphragm will be fabricated and integrated in order to improve the sensitivity of this dual overwritten gratings fiber sensor. POC's sensor system will provide highly accurate data about three-axis strain and temperature, and also pressure and vibration. The combined multifunctional MEMS and FOGS will be cost-effective, quick, very rugged for harsh environmental conditions, compact, and highly sensitive. An entirely new set of equations and algorithms will be formulated for solving unknowns, and a user-friendly computer software interface will be developed. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach via advanced computer simulations. In Phase II, a viable prototype with user-friendly software will be provided. BENEFITS: This project will provide a compact, highly sensitive, extremely rugged, cost effective, MEMS-based Fiber optic grating sensor system, together with a novel data acquisition and analysis system that can be used for smart skin sensing, multi-sensor integration, and other industrial controls.

QRDC, INC.
P.O. Box 562
Excelsior, MN 55310
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 474-2177
Dr. Dary Allaei
ARMY 98-110
Title:Smart Isolation Mounts for Airborne Guns (SIMAG)
Abstract:In this SBIR project, we offer an innovative solution, namely Smart Isolation Mount for Airborne Guns (SIMAG), to the weapon stabilization and fire control problem. SIMAG is composed of the optimum integration of two innovative technologies, namely Vibration Control by Confinement and smart sensor/actuator/active control systems. First, these two complementary approaches will be combined to solve the firing problem at the gun mount and turret interface location. Second, the combined approach will be applied to the gun barrel to reduce its undesired vibratory motions excited by external and internal disturbances, such as gun firing frequency. Conceivably, the proposed SIMAG approach could be designed to first passively reconfigure the distribution and propagation of excess vibrational energy (i.e., intentional confinement); and therefore, confine vibrations to certain non-critical regions within a structure. Concentrated passive, active, or smart damping elements or cancellation techniques will be applied to more effectively dissipate or cancel the trapped vibrations and to prevent an energy build up in the assembly. Such combinations will result in a significant reduction in fluctuating loads and deformations. The unique feature of our SIMAG concept is the combination of the vibration energy localization theory and smart sensor/actuator/control systems. SIMAG will make significant progress towards solving the firing control problems with very small weight and power penalties by compensating for all errors in one of the two places, namely at the turret-aircraft interface or gun barrel. Even though the initial target application of SIMAG is airborne guns, a modified version can be incorporated into ground armors, such as tanks. During the first phase of this project, we will demonstrate the feasibility of our unique SIMAG concept via computer simulations. BENEFITS: The industrial and military use of an effective, efficient, and low-cost smart isolation system is a big market. Our proposed SIMAG will be offered in this market. Other versions of our technology can be applied to a variety of industrial applications in which low-level vibrations and shocks must be maintained. Commercial watercraft, aircraft, space vehicles, automobiles, machinery, machine tools, buildings, bridges, and home appliances are only few examples of the commercial applications.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Ave.
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-111
Title:Animation, Visualization and Real-Time Control of Automated Ammunition Handling Manipulators
Abstract:This SBIR project is to develop an animation, visualization and real-time control environment for automated ammunition handling manipulators. The emphasis is on the development of reusable hardware/software architectures and components for automated material handling and their applications to the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS). The environment consists of a VME-bus target system with a VxWorks RTOS, a SUN workstation system with Tornado and ControlShell developing software tools, and a PC animation and visualization system with a Cimetrix Open Development Environment (CODE). These systems are connected to each other and transfer data through ethernet (TCP/IP) and serial channels (RS232). The SUN workstation system is a host to develop embedded real-time codes for the target system. The PC system is to perform the simulation, animation and visualization of robotic manipulators. The entire environment can run in two configuration modes: an off-line real-time animation simulation and control mode and an on-line realtime visualization and control mode. In the former mode, the environment is used to develop, test, and verify automatic control algorithms with a manipulator model, and in the latter, to refine, tune and test the control algorithms with a real manipulator. Although the environment developed in this project is targeted for SCATS, it can be used for various material-handling robotics. Therefore, the environment has wide commercial application potential. BENEFITS: The animation, visualization and real-time control environment developed in this project will enable cost reduction and time savings in the development of autonomous material-handling manipulators. It has wide commercial applications in industrial robotics.

REAL-TIME INNOVATIONS, INC.
155A Moffet Park Dr., Suite 111
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 720-8312
Stan Schneider
ARMY 98-111
Title:Reusable Software Components for Materiel Handling
Abstract:Materiel handling is critical to many enterprises, from military operations to shipboard loading. However, materiel handling is time-consuming and expensive, primarily because it requires extensive human labor. When working with hazardous environments or materials, the expense increases dramatically. Today's automated handling systems must be teleoperated-painstakingly controlled remotely by an active human operator. Teleoperated systems are slow, clumsy, and fundamentally expensive. The technology exists to build handling systems that can operate more automatically. Vision systems, robotics, motor control, force sensing, user interfaces, and even grasping are reasonably well understood and available components. However, integration remains an intractible problem. We propose to develop a materiel handling software system that will allow seamless integration of these diverse technologies. Our immediate goal will be to create a reusable framework and components for materiel handling that can be: Operated robustly and efficiently, Applied to many systems with differing hardware, and Utilized to complete many different tasks. The system will share control between the computer and the operator, allowing each to contribute to the operation. We will thus exploit the strengths of each member of the team: the human, s reasoning, and the computer's accuracy and automation of small motions. BENEFITS: If successful, this work will greatly accelerate the development of automated materiel handling. It will also be applicable to many other types of control systems, from industrial automation to remote equipment maintenance. RTI has the males and industry experience to successfully commercialize the product.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park 716 N Bethlehem Pike
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Ken Graves
ARMY 98-112
Title:Reference Architecture Tools Support
Abstract:Next generation embedded software systems for fire control applications will become extremely costly without a means to promote software reuse. In the loins Technical Architecture-Army (1TAA), there is little guidance concerning this issue. To forestall costs resulting from failure to reuse software in embedded system applications, a generic Reference Architecture (RA) is required to allow design, development, implementation, and simulation of software to maximize reuse of previously developed components. To address this problem, CHI Systems will develop an RA and RA toolset. The RA will use an abstract description language to unite the conceptual notion of software components with instantiations of physical components in order to form a specific application. Tools will be required to support the RA. The RATS tools include a repository browser to identify existing software objects, validation of object integrity, a simulation environment for design testing, design pattern recognition, and RA compliance checking. The Phase I effort will produce a limited implementation of the RA and RATS tools to demonstrate the utility of the concept. The Phase II effort will result in a well-defined RA for embedded weapons system software to promote reuse, and a robust toolset for using the RA to design reusable components. BENEFITS: RATS is a highly commercializable technology. Just as the military must avoid or reduce software implementation costs, so must the commercial software development sector. RATS in its commercial version will be similar to Microsoft's Visual Studio, and will allow non-programmers to develop complex software designs with maximum software reuse. RATS offers a significant cost reduction for development of complex software systems.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Ave., Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. Joseph H. Discenza
ARMY 98-112
Title:User-Focused Architecture for Embedded Decision Aids
Abstract:This research will develop principles and plans for a user-focused architecture for embedded applications for war fighters. The concept of a user-focused architecture is based on new, sophisticated system services centered in the user interface. These services will allow the user to move data easily from one application to another, and to or from the tactical display. These services will improve the user control over the processing of the embedded applications while at the same time reducing the cost and effort in building or integrating new software. This approach does not prevent Parallel efforts to standardize other levels in the system, such as databases or application content. However, it is superior to those methods because (1) it isolates applications from one another more effectively and (2) it gives control over the sharing of information to the user rather than to software designers. This approach does not compete with object broker implementations but rather it builds on those techniques to further insulate applications from each other's construction details. In this approach, applications share information from other parts of the system as directed by the user and managed by advanced services provided in the user interface. BENEFITS: This new architecture will permit multiple applications, of new and legacy to be added to an embedded application in a straightforward manner. It will allow these new applications to be developed in a way that permits the user to use all the components of the system in a synergistically, without having to modify, control, or publish the details of an application's processing or database. Further, systems with this architecture will have dramatically reduced user training time when new applications

PROLOGIC, INC.
1000 Technology Drive, Suite 3140
Fairmount, WV 26554
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 363-1157
Nancy Solderitsch
ARMY 98-112
Title:An Integrated Tool Environment Supporting Product-Line Engineering of Embedded Applications Domain
Abstract:In the domain of weapon/fire control systems, embedded software will be a key cost driver in the next generation. Furthermore, the omnipresence of embedded systems in today's market (from home appliances to spacecraft) and the quality requirements these systems are expected to meet, put a great emphasis on the techniques that are deployed to develop these systems. It has been recognized that development of standardized product line architecture with supporting infrastructure technology, tools, and design methodology can be an enabler to control embedded software cost and complexity. This effort proposes the development of standardized infrastructure technology, tools, and design methodology to effectively manage and control the cost and complexity of software used in embedded combat vehicle and indirect fire weapon applications. We will assess the feasibility of an integrated tool environment for end-to-end support of architecture-centric software development process based on the experiential knowledge accumulated over half a dozen product line engineering efforts. BENEFITS: This effort will provide the basis for standardized development of embedded applications (DoD and Commercial) using reusable assets resulting in tremendous cost savings in software development, testing, deployment, and maintenance/support activities.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
21 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-7267
Mitchell Shifrin
ARMY 98-113
Title:Low-Power Integrated Radar Proximity Sensor for Fuzing
Abstract:Single-chip MMICs that perform all RF front-end functions of FM-CW radars are used as proximity sensors in the new generation of fuzes in artillery and mortar munitions. To extend this technology to proximity fuses in small to medium caliber munitions and sub-munitions, it is now necessary to develop novel techniques for lower power consumption and further miniaturization by expansion of scale of integration combining RF and signal processing circuits. This proposal describes Hittite's approach to develop a highly integrated chip for the low-power ultra-miniature proximity fuses. The proposed approach is based on Hittite's unique circuit techniques and newly emerging silicon and gallium-arsenide semiconductor processes. The new processes allow operation of silicon MMICs at higher frequencies and integration of signal processing circuits in GaAs, showing a promise of highly integrated multi-function mixed-signal ICs. The proposed program will lead to definition of optimum scale of integration, selection of the optimum process, and demonstration of the feasibility of the low-power ultra-miniature fuses. BENEFITS: Products to be derived from the proposed program are integrated sensors for proximity sensing, object detection, range sensing, etc. Commercial applications of those sensors include: vehicular sensors for approach control, blind-zone sensing, crash sensing, etc., area access control, liquid level control, traffic control, etc.

MULTISPECTRAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
202 Perry Parkway, Suite 7
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3978
Robert J. Fontana, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-113
Title:A Novel Ultra-Wideband Radar Proximity Sensor for Fuzing
Abstract:Technical Abstract (Limit your abstract to 200 words with no classified or proprietary information/data.) MSSI proposes the use of ultra wideband (UWB), nanosecond duration pulses for a fusing sensor waveform to determine the ordinance to target range with an accuracy of better than six inches over a six inch to six foot target range. UWB sensors operate as presence detectors and employ waveforms which are covert ant extremely difficult to jam. The sensor and firing pulse electronics logic will be incorporated into a single integrated circuit chip. In Phase I, MSSI will study the design ant miniaturization of a brassboard ultra wideband radar sensor in four tasks: (1) Develop sensor block diagrams which incorporate the safety and operating features of current sensor designs; (2) identify promising technologies that would allow single chip integration of all features of the radar fuze; (3) conduct modeling and simulation of the selected sensors using the software package Matlab to predict performance; and (4) fabricate and test a breadboard model to confirm predictions from the simulation. The breadboard will be evaluated for: (a) minimum required ERP for target detection; (b) achievable level of covertness; (c) circuit complexity for ultimate incorporation into a single-chip design to be implemented in Phase II. BENEFITS: UWB Micro-Miniature Circuit Development will produce critical building blocks for automobile collision avoidance, aircraft obstacle avoidance, liquid level sensing and low altitude accurate radar altimetry.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Dr.
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Michael E. Harrell
ARMY 98-113
Title:A SiGe Radar Proximity Sensor
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to realize an inexpensive, low-power, single-chip radar proximity sensor in advanced silicon germanium tSiGe) BiCMOS technology. This technology combines state-of-the-art RF transistors (Ft=47 GHz) with millions of state-of-the-art (0.35 um) CMOS transistors, all at the low cost of silicon processing. Integration of this sophisticated sensor with a battery and antenna will provide high performance fusing for small caliber, medium caliber, and submunition application Q-DOT has extensive experience in developing MMIC technology with IBM's SiGe processes. We have designed and fabricated advanced, mixed analog/ digital circuits including ADCs, DACs, mixers, VCOs, LNAs, and related circuits for operations to 20 GHz. Our partner, Kaman Aerospace Corporation's Raymond Engineering Operations (REO) is a recognized leader in the development and manufacture of sating and arming devices for fuzing. During Phase I, several radar schemes will be assessed for performance and realization as a single SiGe BiCMOS chip. Under the Phase I Option, the most promising radar scheme will be functionally demonstrated with laboratory equipment. In Phase II, the complete, single-chip radar will be fabricated. Our development partner, REO, plans to develop a complete, single-chip radar proximity fuse in Phase III. BENEFITS: The small, inexpensive radar proximity sensor will find a place in commercial robotics for automation control, mating/docking, and collision avoidance; in advanced highway systems for dynamic vehicle positioning and air bag fusing; and in the manufacturing and assembly of large equipment for gross component location and positioning.

AUGUST DESIGN, INC.
120 West Lanchaster Ave, Third Floor
Ardmore, PA 19003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 642-4000
Gregory M. Katucki
ARMY 98-114
Title:Sight Based- Container Handling Equipment
Abstract:The weak link in the intermodal transportation chain is the transfer between modes. At every container depot in the world, whether it is at a modern seaport, or a quickly established military field unit, the container must either be transferred using expensive material handling equipment located at the site or the container is stored on an expensive chassis until it is ready to move out. Many problems would be solved if the chassis holding the container were able to load or unload the container without the need for additional MHE or manpower. Such a concept is only practical if the solution can provide a number of qualities such as: the ability to be adapted to existing chassis and flatbeds; the ability to work efficiently when operated by a single unskilled driver; low costs; does not dramatically reduce the carrying capability of the truck; etc. Phase I result will be a concept that is both technically and economically feasible. This proposal presents a clear and concise methodology for the development of the concept. The proposer's past successes in producing innovative technology lends assurance that the methodology will lead to a concept that will have an excellent chance of performing as desired. BENEFITS: Such a solution would have many benefits. It would free up the chassis for use in further moves; eliminate the need to have local MHE, and operators; reduce the land required per container by permitting the containers to be stacked; and speed up the transfer process by allowing the truck driver to load/unload the container without the need to queue up for MHE resources

JJW CONSULTING, INC.
122 Hidden Pond Circle
Smithtown, NY 11787
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 366-0921
Dr. Richard Augeri
ARMY 98-117
Title:Millimeter Wave (MMW) Crossbar Switching for Multi-Beam Electronic Scanning Antenna Technology
Abstract:The JJW Consulting/AIL Systems Inc. team proposes the development of a Ka-Band 4 x 20 Crossbar Switch with low insertion loss (< 0 2dB) and high isolation (>30dB). The crossbar switch incorporates innovative photonic techniques that result in rapid switching (< 1 ms), low power dissipation (< 10 watts-maximum) and is relatively inexpensive. The proposed design can switch any of the inputs to any of the outputs simultaneously. The bandwidth of the Ka-Band switch is 4 GHz minimum. The number of ports on the switch can be expanded beyond the 4 x 20 design as proposed. The innovative design can also be extended in frequency to at least W-Band. BENEFITS: Due to its low cost potential, development and application of systems using multi-beam electronic scanning techniques for point-to-point communication and shared apertures becomes affordable. In addition, commercial applications such as satellite communications, rf testing, multi-beam radars for airport control, cellular communications also becomes feasible and affordable.

GORCA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
300 West Route 38
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 273-8200
Dr. Kenneth Abend
ARMY 98-118
Title:Countermine Vehicle Forwar Looking Terrain Mapping SAR
Abstract:A simple, rugged, and novel forward- looking, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is proposed for mapping terrain variations in front of a countermine vehicle system for control of mine-clearing plow depth. Antenna steering is not required. Range resolution is obtained with a stepped frequency waveform and accurate terrain elevation relative to the vehicle is obtained with the aperture generated by the vehicle's forward motion. High quality SAR imaging is possible in the presence of severe motion irregularities because of a reliable, high accuracy, computationally efficient, auto-focus / autonomous-motion-compensation technique developed by GORCA Technologies (GT) to focus data in the presence of severe motion irregularities without the uuse of INS, GPS, nor any of the external data source. GT has successfully imaged F-15 radar data collected during a 4g maneuver, and forward-looking synthetic-aperture sonar data (for shallow-water mine avoidance). GT is currently building a tiny mm-wave sensor prototype for side-looking SAR imaging from a small UAV. Phase I will include experiments with the microSAR(tm) equipment mounted on a test vehicle traveling over rough terrain. The data will be processed to obtain accurate elevation estimates 10 meters ahead of the sensor, and the Phase II real-time terrain-mapping plow-control system will be defined. BENEFITS: Mine clearing operations via a remotely piloted plow vehicle such as the drive-by-wire Grizzly requires information to control plow depth under all visibility conditions. This sensor can also be used in civilian mine clearing, and in earth and snow moving equipment. A similar sensor could provide look- ahead terrain data for an active suspension system in an off-road military vehicle or a civilian luxury, sports-utility, or emergency medical vehicle.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Dr. Chiman Kwan
ARMY 98-118
Title:Ultra Wide Band Radar Terrain Mapping Sensor
Abstract:The key innovation of this proposal is the use of Ultra-wideband (UWB) Time Modulated Impulse Radar. Within the last few years low cost ultra-high precision oscillators have become available, and these now make it possible to build UWB radar systems which have no base band frequency. The only signals transmitted are single pulses which can be generated by a single transistor which is either on or off. Impulses in the time domain generate very wide bandwidth signals in the frequency domain, and the signals generated by our current hardware have bandwidths in the several gigahertz range. UWB is able to penetrate foliage because of its low frequency components, which allows pulses to easily pass through foliage, or even walls, tree trunks, and concrete. In the system we propose, these pulses are generated in a pseudo-random sequence, making them virtually impossible to detect, and very difficult to jam. The energy from each pulse may be far below the noise level and is only detectable if you know exactly when to listen for the pulse, and can average many pulses together. BENEFITS: Our partner company, Time Domain Corporation (TDC), is the patent holder on much of the technology for UWB Time Modulated Impulse Radar and Impulse Communication. They have $15 million in private funds and have already begun marketing several products. IAI will work with TDC to commercialize the technology for a terrain preview sensor, and in several other niche areas.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Tin M. Aye, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-120
Title:Liquid Crystal Tunable Polarization Filter
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a transmissive tunable polarization filter for infrared imaging. Current polarization filters are largely limited to operation at visible wavelengths, and those for infrared wavelengths are based on wiregrids and are unsuitable for real-time polarimetric imaging. The proposed tunable infrared polarization filter is based on Tunable Refractive Birefringent Optic technology, integrating a microwedge array with liquid crystal. The compact, low-voltage liquid crystal tunable polarization filter (LCTPF) to be used in this device is superior to others in that it is highly efficient and has a high extinction ratio, wide wavelength coverage, a large aperture, and a large acceptance angle. The LCTPF itself is commercially attractive because it will be producible at low cost using mature fabrication techniques and commercial materials. In Phase I, we will design and analyze the performance of the LCTPF, and demonstrate a proof-of-concept device at near infrared wavelengths. BENEFITS: This project will lead to low-cost, high performance, large aperture tunable IR polarization filter technology that can be applied to many IR imaging systems. Commercial applications include ice detection on planes, roads and bridges, geological remote sensing, pollution monitoring, nondestructive testing, and medical imaging.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
654 Discovery Dr
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9095
David B. Chenault
ARMY 98-120
Title:Fast Infrared Imaging Polarimeter Development
Abstract:Polarization imaging holds promise for providing significant improvements in contrast in a number of target detection and discrimination applications. In several recent development efforts, it has been demonstrated that manmade objects have a significantly stronger polarization signal than natural backgrounds resulting in good contrast that complements the conventionally imaged infrared signature. Other recent research has suggested that polarization sensing may increase detection range through optically dense media such as fog or aerosol laden atmosphere. However, these experimental systems frequently require long data acquisition times, which results in artifacts in the polarization imagery due to platform or target motion. Additionally, calibration and investigation of systematic errors in these systems is difficult and robust calibration procedures have not been fully demonstrated. SY Technology, Inc proposes an aggressive instrument develop program beginning with modeling and prototype design efforts in this Phase I task. Infrared polarization signatures for typical scenarios will be modeled followed by analysis of various polarimetric detection schemes meeting the 30 Hz frame rate requirement. Once the optimal detection scheme is chosen, the prototype instrument will be designed complete with component specifications, schematics, data reduction, and calibration algorithms. A thorough performance analysis of the design will also be performed. BENEFITS: It is anticipated that the imaging polarimeter will significantly enhance target detection on a wide variety of military seekers. Ice detection, humanitarian de-mining, remote sensing, and medical imaging applications are all potential commercial applications of this instrument.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Ilya Agurok, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-121
Title:Nonimaging Beam Combiner-Collimator
Abstract:To support the Army Research Laboratory's development of high power, continuous wave laser illuminator for a unique surveillance ladder, Physical Optics corporation proposes a nonimaging beam combiner-collimator for imaging ladder applications. The proposed NIBCC will produce an extremely high quality collimated beam with 0.5 mrad divergence. It will be rugged and stable over harsh battlefield conditions, as well as inexpensive to produce. The proposed NIBCC will be 10 times more compact than conventional optical design technology, such as optical telescopes or collimators. The key feature of the proposed NIBCC is a special arrangement of imput light delivery fiber with focusing gradient index lens assemblies. All the proposed elements can be mass produced, so the NIBCC can be manufactured at low costs and with reliable replication methods.BENEFITS: The proposed high efficiency beam combiner can be used in many military and civilian applications. Civilian uses include ladars and illumination systems for atmospheric measurements, collision avoidance systems, and terrain mapping.

QUANTUM PHOTONICS, INC.
P.O. Box 49
College Park, MD 20741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 706-5941
Dr. Si-Hyung Cho
ARMY 98-121
Title:Power Combining of Tapered Lasers Using Arrayed Waveguide Grating
Abstract:We propose to coherently combine the output of a tapered laser array of slightly different wavelengths using an arrayed waveguide grating. We will fabricate large mode tapered lasers with a curved or a straigh AR-coated pre-amplifier monolithically integrated with the power amplifier. The curved waveguide allows an angled input facet which effectively reduces the facet reflectivity to broadband reflectivities of order less than 1 x 104. We will then integrate a fiber Bragg grating with the pre-amplifier/power amplifier chip. This will ensure that the laser lases at a frequency governed by the fiber Bragg grating. This frequency will be largely independent of the output power of the device. It is then possible to focus the light from the tapered output end of the laser into a single mode optical fiber. The different wavelength laser outputs will then be directed on the different inputs of an arrayed waveguide grating and wavelength multiplexed creating a unique output in a single mode fiber with power equaled to the combined power of the individual lasers (minus the intrinsic loss of the multiplexer). This approach does not require phase coherence between the individual tapered laser sources. BENEFITS: High power, eye-safe, semiconductor laser sources will find bath military and commercial applications. These include communication system applications such as satellite crosslinks and line-of-sight terrestrial links as well as remote sensing applications such laser radar, laser range finding, lidar spectroscopy, laser illumination and medical applications.

ADMA PRODUCTS, INC.
8180 Boyle Parkway
Twinsburg, OH 44087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(330) 487-0474
Valdimir S. Moxson
ARMY 98-122
Title:Low Cost Titanium Components for Armor and Structural Applications
Abstract:In Phase I of the proposed program the team of ADMA Products Inc. Twinsburg OH and the University of Idaho, Moscow, ID will demonstrate the ability to produce low cost plates of Ti-6AL-4V using a powder approach with acceptable properties including ballistic behavior. At least four powder types will be evaluated which are potentially low cost and can also be used for the Laser Rapid Prototyping approach to titanium component fabrication. Tentatively these are (1) crushed machine turnings which will be crushed after hydrogenation, (2) CaH2 reduced TiO2, (3) powder produced by a displacement reaction (mechanical alloying) from a TiO2 or TiCl4 precursor and (4) Russian spherical plasma rotating electrode process powder. Plates will be fabricated using a low-cost loose powder sintering approach, in some cases using the thermohydrogen processing approach to enhance processability and refine the final microstructure. These plates will be evaluated for microstructure and mechanical properties, and samples supplied to the Army for ballistic testing. In a Phase I option oxygen level and microstructure will be varied, and fabricated plates evaluated. If Phase II is funded, a component tentatively selected as the Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer, MIA2 tank, will be produced using the optimum approach from Phase I.BENEFITS:The research is designed to result in production of titanium Components for Army systems as the MIA2 tank which have mechanical properties at least equivalent to current parts, but at considerably lower cost.

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
P.O. Box 8392
Las Cruces, NM 88006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 382-9024
Dr. Ralph M. Tapphorn
ARMY 98-122
Title:Solid-State Spray Forming of Near Net Shape Titanium Alloy Components
Abstract:A hydride-dehyride (HDH) reactor in combination with the patented Solid-State Spray Forming (SSF) process is proposed as a low cost method of fabricating near-net-shape titanium alloy components for armored vehicles. The dehydride design of the reactor uses a high temperature inert gas to remove hydrogen from chemical hydride forms of the titanium alloy feedstock. The material benefit of using the SSF process over powder metallurgy or laser rapid prototyping is the improved ballistic performance anticipated by spray forming Extra Low Interstitial (ELI) titanium alloy powders at low temperature in a non-oxidizing environment. It is anticipated that the strength of the material will be improved over high temperature processes by limiting the grain growth, while the ballistic performance is enhanced through in-situ dehydride treatment of titanium- alloy hydride powders. In Phase I. the object of the work will be directed toward investigating and demonstrating the feasibility of spray forming ELI titanium alloy components using the SSF technology in combination with the dehyride reactor. A target cost of S10 per lbm for the finished product is anticipated by using a recycling SSF system for gases and powders, along with low cost hydride form of the titanium alloy powder. BENEFITS: The anticipated benefits of this research is significant weight reduction of military ground vehicles and gun systems enabled by near net shape fabrication of titanium alloys with a high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent ballistic performance, and corrosion resistance. In addition to the military applications, titanium will find increased commercial applications.

RICE SYSTEMS, INC.
1150 Main St, Suite C
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-8768
Dr. Colleen Fitzpatrick
ARMY 98-123
Title:Lossless Splitters Based on Active Silica Films
Abstract:Degradation of signal level, caused by transmission and distribution losses, is an important problem in integrated optoelectronics. While transmission loss can be reduced by minimizing waveguide length andlor by improving material quality (for example, reducing absorption or scattering loss), distribution loss is intrinsic to device design, as in the case of lxN splitters. Erbium-doped thin-film waveguides, suitable for monolithic integration with other guided-optic devices, are promising as loss-compensating devices for photonic integrated circuits and systems. In this program, we will address the major challenges in the development of lossless integrated optics beamsplitters based on Er-doped glass films: the requirement of higher Er concentrations, the limitations on the maximum-obtainable gain of Er-doped thin-film amplifiers, and the development of a suitable lxN beamsplitter architecture. Our efforts will include materials and process refinement demonstrated through the fabrication of simple Er-doped amplifiers and beamsplitters. The integrated optics design capabilities and the marketing expertise of Rice Systems, combined with the Er-doped thin film expertise of the University of Pittsburgh Optoelectronics Laboratory, form a well balanced team for the development and commercialization of an Er-doped lossless splitter, for improving system gain in integrated optic sensors, and for increasing the laser diode sharing factor in distribution systems. BENEFITS: Rice Systems has several integrated optics sensors under development for sensing rotation and acceleration. The incorporation of a lossless Er-doped splitter into our sensors would allow us to increase the sensitivity of our devices, opening a large market in navigational grade inertial instrumentation.

BONNEVILLE SCIENTIFIC, INC.
P.O. Box 9497
Salt Lake City, UT 84103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 273-7518
Allan R. Grahn
ARMY 98-124
Title:A Robust Head Pressure Analyaia System
Abstract:Exposure to poisonous gas or biological agents is a real threat for US soldiers. Therefore it's imperative that they have adequate protection against these and other agents. Gas masks can provide this protection, but only if they produce pressures high enough to effectively seal against the face, but not so high as to produce a level of discomfort that discourages their use. In this Phase I project, Bonneville Scientific, Inc. will establish the feasibility of the proposed sensor construction and installation techniques suitable for covering a human-like headform worth arrays or robust, yet sensitive force/pressure sensors. These arrays will use BSIs ultrasonic pulse-echo ranging technology to achieve important advantages over other technologies, such as resistive-in-based sensors. Part or Phase I will be to identify potential techniques for calibrating the Phase II head pressure analysis software. In the Phase I Option period, BSI will settleseveral key issues in order to allow a smooth transition into the Phase II construction of the head pressure analysis system.BENEFITS: The proposed robust head pressure analysis system will aid the Army in developing effective, more comfortable head-mounted individual protective equipment. Commercial applications will include measuring pressures produced by ski goggles, helmet - headset earcups, helmet suspensions, and dynamictesting of crash helmets in order to improve the effectiveness and comfort of these devices.

PRESSURE PROFILE SYSTEMS, INC.
5230 Pacific Concourse Drive, Suite 350
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 377-0179
Jae S. Son, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-124
Title:Application of Conformable Tactile Sensor (CTS) for Head Pressure Analysis System (HPAS)
Abstract:A Head Pressure Analysis System (HPAS) needs to make many measurements close together and have sensors that conform to multiply curved surfaces. Furthermore, to make the sensors unobtrusive, it must be thin and flexible while easily accommodating the variation in the size of the people. Existing pressure distribution measurement systems do not conform to multiply curved surfaces and the quality of the measured data is poor. Pressure Profile Systems, inc. has developed a proprietary technology called Conformable Tactile Sensor (CTS) that can be wrapped around irregular and spherical surfaces. Application of this technology for the HPAS will provide a thin, conformable, robust, and sensitive measurement systems for researchers and designers. Consequently, the proposed HPAS will be able to accurately measure interface pressures of head mounted devices such as helmets, goggles, masks, virtual reality systems, night vision systems, head mounted phones, and head motion detection systems. BENEFITS: With the growing number of head-mounted devices that are being developed and used, obtaining the interface presume with the HPAS for assessing comfort, fit, impact pressures, fatigue, seal, and stability of these devices is critical.

VISUAL SCIENCES, INC.
P.O. Box 90335
Raleigh, NC 27675
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 782-3030
Anand D. Kasbekar, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-124
Title:Head Pressure Analysis System
Abstract:Advances in both hardware and software technology in the areas of pressure sensor technology and automated data acquisition make it feasible to configure complex test equipment in an efficient and cost effective manner. The proposed research involves reviewing available sensor technologies and selecting the most appropriate sensors to develop an easy to use reliable and accurate pressure sensing headform that will enable researchers and equipment designers to evaluate pressure distribution for various types of headmounted protective equipment. Additionally, specialty silicones and other polymer blends will be used in conjunction with published and measured data on real human tissue to develop a realistic headform surface with material properties that mimic human tissue. The properties are essential to ensure that the headform does not unrealistically conform to the subject protective equipment or vice-versa. This system should also be capable of being outfitted with a breathing simulator to be used when testing respirator masks and similar devices. A complete head pressure analysis system will be designed and a prototype system constructed as proof-of-concept. This design will provide for a cost-effective method to incorporate multiple headforms that will utilize the same sensor technology and data acquisition hardware and software. BENEFITS: Test apparatus for evaluating protective equipment is valuable to both military and commercial industry for product optimization prior to developing costly tooling. CAD and simulation tools require such test equipment for physical validation of computer models. Nile combined use of simulation and physical testing will yield Improved designs with unprecedented performance reliability and comfort over a wide range of environmental and operating conditions.

NANOPOWDER ENTERPRISES, INC.
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-5909
Dr. Ganesh Skandan
ARMY 98-126
Title:A Generic System for Characterization of Nanomaterials
Abstract:There have been number of new technologies have been developed over the past decade to produce metallic and ceramic nanopowders, the market for which is growing rapidiv. However, much needed user-friendly characterization techniques for this new class of materials have not been developed. Traditional methods, used for submicron powders are not always suitable for nanomaterials, because of inherent limitations. In this program we propose to develop and deliver a generic and user-friendly bench-top Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) system, with proprietary data analysis software designed specifically for nanomaterials. SAXS can yield accurate information on particle characteristics, such as size, size distribution. Morphology, thickness of surface layer, extent of agglomeration, and surface area. In addition, sintered materials can also be characterized. The ultimate objective is that the instrument be used by an individual who is not a trained scatterer. Sample nanopowders of metals and ceramics will be characterized by SAXS in Phase I, and the instrument will be packaged in Phase II of else program. The instrument will be sold on a commercial basis in Phase III of the program. BENEFITS: Instruments needed to characterize nanopowders on a routine basis, have not kept pace with the development in nanoparticle production technologies. The instrument that we propose to develop in this program is designed to address this issue. If successful, every nanopowder production louse and research facility will benefit from sucks, user-friendly bench-top system.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-1167
Arieh Karger
ARMY 98-127
Title:Real-Time Obstacle Detection Ladar System Utilizing Ultra-Sensitive APD Array
Abstract:There is a growing need for new sensors to non-invasively monitor the physiologic status of casualties on the battlefield. Advances in the theoretical understanding of photon migration in tissue, as well as recent developments' of compact light sources and detectors, have made possible new, robust and non-invasive instruments. Currently, optical detectors limit the usefulness of optical diagnostic systems for deep tissue hemodynamics due to their cost, size, or insensitivity to low light levels. The proposed work is based on recent hemodynamic sensors development at RMD Inc. and Tufts University. We plan to produce prototype components for a compact, lightweight, hemodynamic monitoring system, and to demonstrate proof-of-principle design for an immature, non-invasive integrated solid-state optical sensor. The sensor is based on the measurement of deep tissue multi-spectral absorption coefficients, in conjunction with the measurement of blood flow induced Doppler broadening on detector arrays with single photon sensitivity. Using oxyhemoglobin as a marker, this novel system will simultaneously measure the hemoglobin, oxygen saturation concentration, and blood flow in surface and deep tissues. The proposed system will significantly improve monitoring of physiological status of battlefield casualties and make possible new applications requiring continuous monitoring of the full hemodynamic. BENEFITS: The development of a low cost, miniature full hemodynamic system will improve on current hemodynamic diagnostic systems and make possible new applications Including continues monitoring of the full hemodynamic, skin patch viability, and feedback during photo-dynamic therapy or laser coagulation of malignant lesions. This monitor could become a valuable tool in emergency rooms, surgery, and intensive care units.

TAL MATERIALS, INC.
912 N. Main St, Suite 300
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 741-9522
Anthony C. Sutorik
ARMY 98-128
Title:Designing Enhanced Performance Polycarbonate Nanocomposites by Incorporation of Reinforcing Silicate Sheets or Silsesquioxane Clusters
Abstract:Design and synthesis of inorganic-organic hybrid materials are proposed to improve the chemical, abrasion, and flame resistance of polycarbonates . We propose the formation of hybrid materials, in which hard, stable inorganic segments are incorporated into a polycarbonate oligomer, in two different pathways; a) Exfoliation of silicates in a polycarbonate matrix: Layered inorganic silicates (e.g., montmorillonite), will be exfoliated directly in a polycarbonate matrix, and the resultant layered silicate-polymer network (LSPN) is expected to have better mechanical strength, chemical inertness, and toughness than the original polymer. b) Incorporation of silsesquioxane cube clusters in polycarbonates: Cubes [(RO) SiO1. 5] 8 have robust, well-defined polyhedral structures, and hence are chemical and abrasion resistant by nature. Appropriately functionalized cubes can be introduced into a polycarbonate polymer, by cross-linking reactions, and the cubes are expected to impart abrasion resistance and inertness to the resultant hybrid polymer. Commercially available polycarbonates will be used for the formation of hybrids. The effect of varying ratios of the inorganic to organic segments on the properties of the hybrid will be studied to arrive at an optimum composition. The approach, which leads to promising results, will be developed further to produce polycarbonates with improved properties. BENEFITS: Potential commercial applications include: 1) hard, tough, transparent materials for personal protection (i.e., helmets, safety equipment); 2) novel high-strength, flame and abrasion resistant materials for use in aerospace or automobile applications; and 3) high-impact strength, transparent materials for helicopter canopies and aircraft windows.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Anant Singh Ph.D.
ARMY 98-128
Title:Novel Transparent Polymer Nanocomposites
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes an innovative nanotechnology that will develop novel transparent nanocomposites with high abrasion- and scratch-resistance, high barrier to chemical agents, superior flame-resistance and weatherability characteristics, as well as high ballistic strength. These nanocomposites will be based on Polycarbonate, and will significantly expand its already wide usage by enhancing its properties. We will use two parallel technical approaches to achieve our ambitious objectives. We will ensure the success of both approaches of the proposed effort by careful control of the filler morphology, its surface chemistry, and the processing parameters. These nanocomposites will serve numerous applications of the US Army as well as commercial markets, viz., aircraft windows, helicopter canopies, vision block for vehicles, safety goggles and face shields for soldiers, architectural glazings, lenses, public transit windows etc. BENEFITS: This successful Phase I will develop an enabling technology that will benefit many military and commercial applications including helicopter canopies, aircraft windows, architectural and security glazings, goggles and face-shields for soldier and chemical laboratory personnel, as well as smart materials systems.

AMERCOM, A SYNTERIALS CO.
318 Victory Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 472-9310
R. E. Engdahl
ARMY 98-129
Title:Low Cost Approach to SiC Matrix Composites
Abstract:The CMC material systems with SOA, performance use Nicalon To fiber and a silicon carbide, SiC, matrix made using CVD or preceramic polymers. The acceptance of these approaches have met a great deal of resistance due to the high cost of the raw materials and processing. Amercom/Synterials has recently been working on a unique approach to a low cost SiC/CMC material by attacking the problem on the matrix materials, preforming and matrix processing fronts. The new Arnercom/Synterials approach utilizes a fugitive material as a transfer agent to carry one of the matrix constituent elements to the other where it will react and form SiC, the desired matrix. Moderate temperature, ambient pressure and controlled atmosphere are all that is required to process the matrix material. Standard PMC lay up or filament winding processes can be used to produce the net shape reinforcement preform. This process uses low cost commercial materials and does not require expensive precursor chemicals, sophisticated low pressure processing apparatus or handling of corrosive and hazardous gases. The SynSiC matrix placement process and its raw materials offer potentially a very low cost path to a SiC matrix for CMC materials. BENEFITS: Develop a low cost Silicon Carbide matrix for high temperature oxidizing environment structural ceramic gas turbine engine components.

ROBERT HEFFLEY ENGINEERING
349 First Street
Los Altos, CA 94022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 949-1747
Robert K. Heffley
ARMY 98-130
Title:Computer Modeling and Simulation for Helicopter Task Analysis
Abstract:Recent discoveries of plant-like organelles in Plasmodium falciparum, the organism that causes malaria, provide potential new avenues toward treatment and prevention of this deadly disease. More specifically, it is now known that the Shikimate Pathway, an enzymatic pathway that provides essential aromatics, is vital to the survival of P. falciparum. By blocking any of the seven enzymes in this pathway, it is possible to attenuate growth of the organism. Since these enzymes are not present in humans, their blockage presents an opportunity to effectively and selectively treat the disease without harm to human cells. We propose to clone the recently discovered P. falciparum charismata synthase (enzyme #7 of the Shikimate pathway) in E. Coli, by known procedures. Using the resulting product, we will then develop a prototype high throughput assay, which will lead to the development (in Phase II) of a major screening program of combinatorial libraries of potential antimalarial drugs. BENEFITS: Safe and effective antimalarials could make a significant impact in human health. The proposed genomics/combinatorial chemistry approach not only provides potential new antimalarials, but validates a method of much broader application to drug discovery.

VISIDYNE, INC.
10 Corporate Place, South Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-2820
Dr. Alfred D. Ducharme
ARMY 98-132
Title:Optical and Inertial Hybrid Helmet Tracking System
Abstract:Visidyne, Inc. proposes to design and demonstrate the feasibility of an optical and intertial helmet-tracking system. This hybrid system will integrate two patented technologies, the commercially available InterSense IntertiaCube inertial sensor and Visidyne's optical range sensor OpticalGPS to provide six-degree-of-freedom head tracking within a moving vehicle. These mature technologies will be merged in an innovative hybrid system to yield a helmet-tracking system with capabilities far beyond any commercially available tracking system. BENEFITS: The technology we propose will provide precise six-degree-of-freedom helmet tracking using technologies that are mature and commercially viable. The technology has a high degree of commonality and may also be applied to telesurgery, telepresence, augmented and virtual reality, and indoor navigation.

DEFORMATION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7261 Engle Road, Suite 105
Cleveland, OH 44130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 234-8477
Dr. B. Lynn Ferguson
ARMY 98-133
Title:Software to Predict Distortion of Heat Treated Components
Abstract:Unanticipated distortion during the heat treatment of precision steel parts adds significant cost for both commercial and defense suppliers. A collaborative project managed by the National Center for Manufacturing sciences has resulted in the development of a multiphase internal state variable material model and comprehensive phase transformation kinetics models that accurately describe the mechanical and metallurgical response of steel alloys to carburization and immersion quench hardening processes. Other significant progress was made in process characterization and in describing heat transfer between the workplace and environment. This capability will be extended to include fixtured and press quenching. A commercial software tool to predict dimensional change, residual stresses, metallurgical phase distribution and volume fraction, and hardness of both through-hardened and carburized steel parts that have been heat-treated will be developed. The user interface of the software will be a customized version P3/PATRAN that contains dataforms specific to the heat treat industry. The software will produce finite element models to be solved using ABAQUS and it's user defined material subroutine capability. Included in this software development program is the specification of the material and process data required for simulation and the methods for determining these data. BENEFITS: The commercial application resulting from this project is a software tool to sell to heat treaters. The benefit to them is reduced process cost.

RESEARCH APPLICATIONS, INC.
11772 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite 145
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 259-7541
Jalees Ahmad, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-133
Title:Decision, Material Selection and Life Prediction Software for Ceramic Matrix Composite Components
Abstract:Innovative research and development leading to a dual-use advanced technology product is proposed. The product is a methodology and software for design and life prediction of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components. The primary focus is on a Nicalon/SiC composite, which is the prime candidate material for JTAGG III combustor liners. But the software and methodology win be applicable to a much broader class of CMCs for military and commercial applications. The product is of direct and immediate use to AlliedSignal Engines, Pratt ~ Whitney and other IHPIET Prime Contractors for design and development cost and risk reduction. Additionally, the product will be highly marketable to commercial jet engine, space propulsion systems, and industrial gas turbine manufacturers. Phase I win involve the development and validation of crucial modeling techniques for predicting the initiation and growth of relevant damage mechanisms. Full advantage will be taken of recent test data as wed as modeling techniques developed under various DoD and NASA programs. Additionally, RAI will work closely with AlliedSignal Engines to ensure that the proposed research and development and the product are directly relevant to JTAGG m. The Phase I innovative research effort will focus on developing and validating mechanism based (mechanistic) modeling methods to describe CMC response under general stress states and load conditions, and thermal and environmental conditions of interest in JTAGG m. The development of a mechanistic modeling approach is a necessary pre-requisite to developing a marketable product in Phase II. BENEFITS: Due to the proliferation in potential applications of ceramic matrix composites in military and commercial aerospace and in industrial gas turbine industries, the proposed dual-use high technology product has an immediate and expanding market. RAI will market the software to these and other industries which will directly benefit by design and development cost reduction and risk reduction.

SPECTRON ENGINEERING, INC.
255 Yuma Court
Denver, CO 80223
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 733-1060
Norman E. Herz, Jr.
ARMY 98-134
Title:Device for Measuring Performance and Defects in Binocular Displays
Abstract:The objective is to develop a device which can measure the image quality of any wide field-of-view, binocular, head mounted display. This Phase I effort proposes to achieve this by continuing the development of the existing, commercially available Spectron DASH 6 Axis HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) Tester which already meets or exceeds a large portion of this objective. Research and development will be required for a field of view increase, supporting metrology and image generation. This effort also includes continued development of setup and automated test procedures which can be integrated into a user friendly, display test package. Implementation of functional bread boards and appropriate modifications to the existing DASH Tester will be used to gain empirical experience whenever practical. The testing of customer supplied HMDs will be used to supplement the research and development of the Phase I proposal. BENEFITS: The proposed display test system would be useful to manufacturers of commercial and military binocular displays. With the economy of one testing unit, laboratories or depots could obtain valid performance comparisons between all binocular displays, including different designs and module.

COMPSYS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4244 Ridge Lea Road, Suite 3
Amherst, NY 14226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 838-3556
Malini Sridhar
ARMY 98-136
Title:Low Power Computing System for DSP Applications
Abstract:With the increasing consumer demand for mobile/portable systems, low power VLSI has gained great importance. A number of circuit level power reduction schemes, including supply/threshold voltage scaling, multiple threshold schemes and selective clocking are available. However, greater power reduction can be achieved only if the problem is approached from a global perspective. This includes algorithmic, architectural and circuit levels. Further, significant power reduction has been observed when system-level improvements are applied. Primary among these is the software-level power efficiency. This involves performing a power spectrum analysis of the instruction set of the target processor, followed by an analysis of the assembly code for the target application. Power-hungry instructions are replaced with more efficient ones. At the architectural level, bus-encoding schemes can be applied to reduce the impact of switching at the large capacitances associated with the I/O pads. These methods include data- compression and coding schemes such as bus-invert coding. At the circuit-level, adaptive voltage scaling, in conjunction with self-timed approaches, offer great promise. Strong ARM processor has very good low-power characteristics that makes it an attractive target architecture. A synchronous ARM, integrated with a DSP core can offer high speed DSP solutions with significant power reduction. The techniques developed in Phase-I will be applied to an asynchronous ARM DSP system in Phase-II. BENEFITS: The proposed power minimization techniques will decrease the power consumption in the target DSP system, thereby extending battery life. The power-analysis software, developed as a result of this project is expected to be marketed as a key tool for estimating the power consumption of any DSP application.

THESUS LOGIC, INC.
1080 Montreal Ave, Suite 200
St. Paul, MN 55116
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 699-9611
Ryan Jorgenson
ARMY 98-136
Title:An Asynchronous Testbed for Low Power DSPs
Abstract:Theseus Logic has developed and demonstrated a proprietary new logic family, NULL Convention Logical (NCL), which integrates data transformation and control into a single expression thus producing inherently clockless, data driven, and effectively delay insensitive circuits and systems. Theseus proposes to take advantage of the NCL circuits developed both internally and in on-going programs such as Clockless Logic (DARPA contract DABT 63-96-C0057) and Cascade Processors (BMDO contract N00014-98-C-01) to demonstrate the advantages of an NCL design approach for combining computing speed with low power consumption. Specifically, Theseus proposes to use NCL components from these programs to build a DSP architecture testbed which will demonstrate the ability of an NCL architecture to provide the following benefits; Low Power - Data dependent processing. Gates not processing are quiescent and only consume leakage current. - Dynamic reduction of power supply voltage to match circuit speed to data rate. Plug and play system integration. - Collections of NCL circuits self synchronize at their highest common operating frequency. - NCL asynchronous interface circuitry for crossing multiple clock domains Reconfigurabilty and Adaptibility. - NCL circuits can be programmed into Xilinx FPGAs without the need for detailed timing analysis at the chip or system level. BENEFITS: NCL produces circuits which are clockless, data driven and effectively delay insensitive. As a result of these features they are extremely well suited to battery operated portable systems because power consumption is inherently matched to data rate. Thus conserving battery life and providing improved reliability because a low battery results in a low data rate not a failed system. These benefits are applicable across a wide range of military and commercial systems.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Rd.
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison K. Brown
ARMY 98-137
Title:Navigation/Electro-optic Sensor Integration Technology (NEOSIT)
Abstract:Under this Phase I contract NAVSYS Will develop a baseline system architecture for a Navigation/Electro-optic Sensor Integration Technology (NEOSIT) applique. This applique will be designed to optimally integrate navigation data, sensor imagery and image or terrain database to estimate and correct for errors in each data source. This effort will leverage NAVSYS existing GI-Eve and GI-View products which arc designed to integrate GPS, inertial and sensor imagery to apple feature updates to estimate errors in the inertial solution calibrate for sensor errors and estimate target locations. Tic proposed NEOSIT solution will implement these capabilities and Will also include the capability to calibrate for offsets between different image and terrain geospatially referenced databases. Thc architecture will leverage COTS image processing and image understanding software tools to lead to a real-time system for correlation of onboard platform visual and navigation systems With imagery and terrain databases in Phase II. Thc final delivery of this Phase I effort will be a system specification, a description of the proposed system, architecture and a concept of operations. Under the Phase I option a demonstration will be performed with NAVSYS GI-Eye system using feature updates to best approximate platform position in the absence of GPS updates. BENEFITS: ThE proposed systemm will have application for sensor fusion across different platforms and data sources and Will also provide a back-up navigation capability in the absence of GPS. Military applications include battlefield data management and navigation for MOUT and UGVs. Commercial applications include GIS data manipulation and robotic navigation.

MAXPOWER, INC.
220 Stahl Rd
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-4230
Dr. Mark Salomon
ARMY 98-138
Title:High Capacity Negative Electrode for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries
Abstract:MaxPower's Phase I program will develop new metal oxide anode materials with practical capacities> 500 mAh/g. The approach for this objective development of a Li-ion system containing a metal oxide anode which does not undergo significant irreversible losses during the first charging cycle. Task 1 involves R&D on anode materials starting with nanoscale sized pure Sn powders subjected to controlled levels of surface oxidation. This approach will minimize irreversible capacity losses by controlling the amount of li20 formed during the initial charging process. Task 2 involves R&D on Sn/Cu and Sn.Ni based alloys for anode materials in Li-ion cells. The objective of this approach is to eliminate the use of Sn oxide starting materials where all of the oxygen in the oxide is irreversibly converted to Li20. These alloys do not significantly expand and contract upon lithium insertion and removal which is of prime importance for high cycle life. The technology developed in tasks 1 and 2 will be transferred to Task 3 where prototype Li-ion cells will be tested and the results used to design and construct prototype 18650 Li-ion cells. BENEFITS: An expanded Li-ion cell technology base with respect to enhanced energy and rate capabilities, in general, and operability over the entire military range, in particular, will help push the Li-ion rechargeable batteries toward wide dual (military and commercial) market acceptance. All types of portable devices and equipment, wireless communication devices, are key commercial applications. Both spirally wound and soft packaging (pouch) cell technology will provide significant market dimension, commercially and military.

ASTRON CORP.
22560 Glenn Dr, Suite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Joseph R. Jahoda
ARMY 98-139
Title:High Power Transmit / Receive Antenna for Airborne Applications
Abstract:Astron proposes to develop and demonstrate a compact, extremely high power transmit/receive antenna to cover (with a minimum number of antenna elements) the HE through UHF frequency range. These antennas are intended for on-the-move operations in airborne applications. Antenna miniaturization and broadbanding are stressed. BENEFITS: This program will provide the basis for providing highly miniaturized antennas for the greatly expanding civilian wireless, cellular phone, and PCS market. It will greatly enhance the appearance and performance of base stations mounted on high masts and the mobile/portable market.

AGAVE BIOSYSTEMS, INC.
117 Devlen Rd.
Groton, NY 13073
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 255-2896
Dr. Carl A. Batt
ARMY 98-143
Title:Real Time Automated Screening and Selection of Phage Displayed Antibody
Abstract:Current methods for screening of phage display libraries require time-consuming biological amplification steps which can lead to the loss of potentially valuable clones that do not replicate. With the rapid growth of the use of recombinant protein products, an automated system which would allow rapid screening of phage libraries would be of significant benefit to military and industrial researchers. Agave BioSystems proposes to develop and demonstrate an instrument capable of real time, automated screening of recombinant phage libraries. Two parallel technologies for marking display phage will evaluated each of which will help to report the presence of a bound phage. Key to detecting these marked bound phage is the development of a highly sensitive fluorometer based on an innovative and proprietary design. Coupled to optimized marker systems, this novel instrument would allow real time detection of a single phage binding event which would in turn allow capture of the desired bacteriophage. BENEFITS: This technology has potential use for drug and vaccine discovery, diagnosis, and resistance monitoring for infectious diseases. By using biomolecules for targets of commercial interest, low-cost, portable diagnostic equipment will be developed. Due to the broad range of applications, this technology is expected to have a major impact on the large medical research and clinical markets.

TERA BIOTECHNOLOGY CORP.
10835 Altman Row, Suite #100
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 450-5946
Tim stinchcome
ARMY 98-143
Title:Automated Parallel Processing of Phage Libraries
Abstract:Tera Biotechnology Corporation proposes to develop an automated system to screen phage antibody libraries by our parallel selection process. The system we propose could be used to routinely generate antibodies of any specificity without the need for human intervention. For Phase I we will develop an automated robotic system for the identification and selection of specific antibodies that bind ovalbumin, a biological warfare simulant. Our goal in Phase II will be to produce and test an efficient automated screening system, compatible with use at P4 biosafety levels, for the cloning of antibody binding fragments useful for the detection of novel biological warfare agents. BENEFITS: Current protocols used to discover antibodies to bioagents are cumbersome and may expose personnel to risk. To lower the risk to personnel and to generate considerable cost savings an automated method to clone high affinity antibodies is highly desirable.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4046
Dr. Suneet Chadha
ARMY 98-144
Title:Low Cost Rugged Upward Looking Infrared Ground Sensor for Stand Off Chemical Detection
Abstract:Advanced autonomous detection of chemical warfare agents and other organic materials has long been a major military concern and is becoming an increasingly realistic threat. Foster-Miller, Inc. proposes to develop a robust miniature mid-infrared spectrometer covering the atmospheric window wavelengths between 7.5 and 14.3 microns that features no moving parts and a low cost uncooled linear detector array. Optical performance capabilities approach those of an FTIR, making it possible to detect chemical agent plumes against a cold sky background. The entire spectrometer including optics and electronics will be about the size of a deck of playing cards and weigh less than 1 lb., allowing for eventual large scale, low cost manufacture. Our light-weight, high throughput wedge concept and monolithic construction lends itself to suitable air drop packaging for the intended application. The Phase I effort will fabricate a bench-top prototype and demonstrate required sensitivity for the stand-off detection. Once the optical instrument design parameters have been established, Foster-Miller will propose packaging and deployment concepts leading to a preliminary concept design of an engineering prototype for development and testing during Phase II. BENEFITS: The ability to perform standoff infrared sensing of chemical agents and other organic molecules of interest has incredibly broad potential use in both military reconnaissance/chemical defense and commercial applications. A small footprint low-cost device will find numerous applications in space, ground and airborne based monitoring for security, air quality and environmental sensing.

MESOSYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3200 George Washington Way, Suite A
Richland, WA 99352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 375-1111
Joseph G. Birmingham
ARMY 98-146
Title:Development of a Lightweight Micromachined Aerosol Collector
Abstract:MesoSystems Technology (MST) proposes to develop and test a lightweight micromachined aerosol sampler. This will include the fabrication of two devices: (l) MicroVIC with a microcentrifuge: Air-to-air particle concentration in which a small amount of fluid would be added to the concentrated particulates as a final processing step. This collection approach addresses situations where either fluid evaporation or freezing temperatures are a concern and where the biosensors require a liquid sample. (2) MicroRAC: Air-to-water sampler whose biological aerosol samples could be collected directly into water. The product will be a micromachined aerosol sampling system that interfaces with either of these devices, simultaneously collecting, concentrating, and delivering the sample to the appropriate location within the integrated pathogen detection system. The aerosol sampler will be based on the proprietary micromachined aerosol collector technology, currently under development for CBDCOM. The micromachined aerosol collector will identify airborne pathogenic materials for a wide variety of applications including UAV, for individuals, and other civilian uses. We will challenge the collectors with bacterial spores such as Bacillus globigi and a bacteriophage such as MS-2 (virus). BENEFITS: An efficient, lightweight, and small micromachined aerosol collector would easily integrate with biosensors to alert civilian and military, personnel to the presence of pathogens.

SY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
654 Discovery Dr
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 859-1886
Michele R. Banish
ARMY 98-148
Title:High Speed Camera Capable of Identifying Regions of Interest
Abstract:SY Technology, Inc. proposes to develop a smart camera to automatically identify regions of interest (ROI) in imagery. The camera has two target recognition applications. First, to process a correlation surface (obtained by correlating an image with a filter) to identify, enhance and output ROIs for storage and further processing. The same camera can also delete obvious regions of no interest before imagery is input into the target recognition system. The desired on-board processing speed is achieved by utilizing a CMOS Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN). The PCNN is selected for this high-speed camera for three reasons. First, this team has demonstrated that the PCNN segments imagery significantly better than thresholding methods. Secondly, a PCNN based target detection algorithm that identifies and deletes regions of no interest has been developed in prior work. Finally, SY Technology is fabricating a high speed CMOS PCNN chips for medical applications. Phase I will optimize a PCNN based algorithm to identify ROT in imagery. A camera of 512 x 512 pixels with 8-bit readout will be simulated/validated. Simulations will focus on speed, reliability and size. m e final design of the smart camera, processing > 60 fps, will be delivered. Option I proposes to fabricate a prototype. BENEFITS: In addition to obvious military applications, smart high speed cameras identifying regions of interest have many commercial applications. Medical image processing (radiology, pathology, nuclear medicine, cardiology), security and surveillance systems, and telescopes that are developed by NASA are a few examples. During phase II, a prototype high-speed smart camera that meets or exceeds the requirements of defense and commercial applications will be fabricated, and demonstrated. Sales have been identified and are presented in the commercialization section of this proposal.

OPTICAL SCIENCES CORP.
P.O. Box 8291
Huntsville, AL 35808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 772-6721
D. Bretta Beasley
ARMY 98-149
Title:Dynamic Infrared Scene Projector Based Upon a Commercial Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:The Objective of this effort is the development of a dynamic IR scene projector (DIRSP) which is based upon a commercially available spatial light modulator. The DIRSP developed during this effort will be suitable for hardware-in-the-locp applications and could potentially be used for built-in-test and mobile field test applications. The proposed DIRSP offers the potential of lower cost and improved performance over currently available DIRSP technologies. Potential performance improvements include higher spatial resolution, frame rate, and spatial uniformity. During Phase I a limited performance prototype DIRSP will be fabricated and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed concept. During Phase II a fully functional DIRSP will be fabricated. BENEFITS: The result of this effort will be an IR scene projector which has the potential to improve the state-of-the-art in dynamic IR scene projectors for HWIL simulation and test applications.

LAT, INC.
739 San Rafael Place
Stanford, CA 94305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 852-9674
Mark Lin
ARMY 98-150
Title:A Built-In Active Sensing Structural Diagnostic (BASSD) System for Composite Structures
Abstract:It is proposed to develop a cost-effective innovative Built-in Active Sensing Structural Diagnostic (BASSD) system for monitoring the integrity and for detecting damage in composite structures, particularly the invisible impact damage. The development of the BASSD system is primarily based on the SMART layer technology which uses a built-in network of piezoelectric sensors and actuators to interrogate the condition of the structures. A Monitoring layer based on the AMART layer technology will be developed which will be made of a thin dielectric adhesive film with an embedded network of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The monitoring layer could be surface-mounted or embedded inside composite structures. The BASSD system consists of three major components: a monitoring a smart suitcase, and application software. The smart suitcase hosts a sensor/actuator control unit as well as a laptop computer The software based on application to be implemented in the computer will be developed for the control unit to interface with the monitoring layer by a wired or by a wireless communication channel. BENEFITS: Upon completion of the development of the BASSD system, it could potentially provide the following advantages over to traditional NDE inspection techniques: *Convenience and Automation *Real Time Inspection *Reduction of Labor *Reduction of Down Time *Improvement of Reliability *Improvement of combat readiness

STONE ENGINEERING CO.
2227 Drake Ave., Suite 26
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 881-8004
Al Maykut
ARMY 98-151
Title:Throttling Gel Bipropellant Engine
Abstract:The Army has a need to improve the propulsion performance and flexibility of missile systems for tactical applications. A Constant Pressure Throttling (CPT) engine is a concept with the potential to provide the on-demand thrust schedules required of smart propulsion without the performance losses that ordinarily accompany throttling. By incorporating a pintle controlled nozzle into a bipropellant combustion chamber with an array of splash plat injector elements that promote propellant atomization and mixing, combustion pressure can be maintained at high performance levels while simultaneously throttling the mass flow rate through the injector. Stone Engineering Company will propose and investigate alternative design implementations of this concept in the context of the Army's Future Missile Technology Integration (FMTI) application, quantify the resulting propulsion performance with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, and explore resulting system performance with parametric propulsion design studies and trajectory simulations. If the concept proves to have the expected merit in this study, a Phase II effort consisting of full-scale hardware design and demonstration testing would be warranted. If successful, the CPT engine concept could move the Army a step closer to realizing the enormous Operating and Support cost reduction of a multi-purpose tactical missile weapon system. BENEFITS: The development of a Constant Pressure Throttling engine will have an important commercial benefit to the propulsion industry as numerous applications in both military weapon and commercial space systems will result once the feasibility and practicality of the concept is understood and demonstrated.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY
174 N. Main Street, Bldg., P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-8780
Sanford m. Dash
ARMY 98-152
Title:Divert & Attitude Control Solid Propellant Jet-Interaction Modeling
Abstract:This project addresses the specialization and upgrade of unstructured CFD numerics for the simulation of missile aerodynamic flowfields with lateral/divert jet interactions. Starting unstructured capabilities are advanced and include gas-phase chemical kinetics and two-equation turbulence modeling in an upwind/implicit (Roe-TVD/GMRES] framework that operates in a parallel environment (domain decomposition/MPI) and includes multiple elements (sets, hexes, prisms, etc.). Principal Phase I upgrades will include solution adaptive gridding using extension of the 3DTAG/3DMAG embedding methodology of Biswas and Strawn, and, the recent jet adaptation work of Baker. Other upgrades will include explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) turbulence extensions with compressibility corrections, coupling of k into the energy balance, and the performance of checkout studies. Detailed comparisons with fundamental lateral jet flow data will be performed and methodology for inclusion of turbulent/particle and turbulent/combustion interactions will be formulated. An optional task entails the detailed multiprocessor unstructured analysis of an AIT missile divert jet interaction flowfield with the advanced turbulence framework utilizing Let based and hex based grids with several levels of solution adaptive refinement. BENEFITS: The proposed research paves the pate for utilizing unstructured numerics to solve advanced missile system aerodynamic flows in a much more accurate and efficient manner than can be provided by current technology. The benefits to the missile community are a highly improved tool which can support design and system assessment studies. Commercial applications include the licensing of this code to the missile community (to replace existing codes that we have licensed), and, expansion of our business to support gas turbine engine and exhaust flow simlations and automotive IC engine.

PROSPECTIVE COMPUTER ANALYSTS, INC.
400 Garden City Plaza
Garden City, NY 11530
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 742-9100
Gregory Winter
ARMY 98-153
Title:Develop Advanced System Tools to Automate TPS Re-host
Abstract:PCA proposes conducting research towards a software system to analyze test program set (TPS) source code and extract, synthesize, and analyze test parameters, interface characteristics, and switching requirements. It will then compare this data against an interface specification database for a designated Automatic Test System (ATS) to generate a pin mapping and interface definition file that may be used to 1) reprogram or re-host the original TPS, and 2) design Interface Connection Device (ICD) hardware. Research will investigate the feasibility of 1) developing specialized compiler technology to extract required TPS data, 3) mapping Unit-Under-Test (UUT) input/output (I/O) pin data from one ATS to another, and 4) mapping I/O data to ATS interfaces whose standards are in flux. Research will also investigate methods and formats for outputting data to Computer- Aided Design (CAD) software to automatically design an ICD for the target ATS. Our Phase I research goal will be to define requirements for a prototype software that may be productized under Phase II to support the rapid rehost of TPSs from one ATS to another. The prototype will be demonstrated using TPSs to be rehosted from a legacy Army ATS to the Integrated Family of Test Equipment (IFTE). BENEFITS: Successful results of this research will benefit and promise savings to the DOD, aviation maintainers, automotive electronics diagnosticians, and commercial electronics manufacturers vendors who test, repair, and maintain complex electronic systems. Savings are estimated on the order of tens of millions of dollars per year.

ADVATECH PACIFIC, INC.
2015 Park Avenue, Suite 8
Redlands, CA 92373
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 307-6218
Jay P. Ebersohl
ARMY 98-154
Title:Coupling Aerodynamics, Thermal, and Structural Analysis Methods for High Performance Airframes
Abstract:The typical mission requirements of supersonic and hypersonic flight impose complex aerodynamic and thermal loads on the airframe structure These multidisciplinary problems currently require inefficient interfacing between analysis groups to solve. This proposed effort will ascertain the feasibility of coupling the aerodynamic and thrill load calculation analysis codes with structural response codes, tailored toward high speed flight. To minimize cost, current and past efforts of the Army, Air Force, Navy, and NASA will be thoroughly considered, since the software developed under their efforts is generally freely available to US government and industry users. A number of existing flowfield and heat transfer analysis codes will be evaluated. The evaluation process will assure accurate and robust prediction methods for a variety of systems. Among the physics to be included in the chosen codes are real gas effects, free molecular and transition regime flow, enhanced heating near aerodynamic control surfaces, weather effects, and ablation. An integration routine will be created to transfer the analysis results to the ABAQUS structural response code. The result is an integrated package that can be used to quickly solve multidisciplinary problems at low cost. BENEFITS: Utilization of the product proposed will reduce the time and cost to develop high-speed missile airframes.

MESA ASSOC., INC.
190 Lime Quarry Rd., Suite 202
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 772-7025
Don W. Jones
ARMY 98-154
Title:Development of Software to Procide Aerothermal and Pressure Loading BC's for Nonaxisymmetric, 3D, Supersonic and Hypervelocity Airframes
Abstract:While major advances have been made in complex missile component thermal and thermo-structural analysis software and desktop computing, technological advances in the generation of convective heating and pressure boundary conditions have not kept pace. The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and easy-to-use analysis tool for generating and applying these boundary conditions. To this end, our existing software will be modified and upgraded and an interface tool developed so it can be readily used to generate and transfer boundary conditions for finite element analyses of external missile structures. The Maneuvering Aerotherm Shape Change Code (MASCC) computer code can currently model all of the phenomena of interest relative to external missile heating in supersonic and hypersonic flight regimes. Much of the missile geometry inputs that are currently done by hand will be automated under this program. The development of a Graphical User Interface, which steps the user through development of a geometry model and input of environments, is a significant part of this program. A single, standard graphical desktop tool set for all UNIX based platforms will be developed. BENEFITS: The automated analysis tool developed in this program will provide the thermal analyst an easy to use technique for generating and applying boundary conditions to external missile surfaces. The capabilities provided by the MASCC code will provide the analyst the ability to mode1 all important phenomenology relative to aerodynamic heating of missile.

NEOTERIC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 4709
Huntsville, AL 35815
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 650-4601
James W. Neiers
ARMY 98-155
Title:Harmonizing Automatic Test System Assets, Drivers, and Control Methodologies
Abstract:This project addresses the issue of improving return on investment for control software, primarily the test program sets (TPSS), for automatic test Systems (ATSS) by establishing generic instrument classes (GIC) for asset drivers that will reduce compatibility problems, the cost of TPS development, and the adverse impact of instrument change-out. Through a systematic analysis of alternatives that impact the end effect over the entire control path, a methodologies for establishing optimum classes will be established. The methodology will be tested on four categories of assets: digital multi-meters, power supplies, counter timers, and digitizers. An innovative use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) will accelerate the process of preparing specifications for the resulting GICs. BENEFITS: Reducing cost of TPS and assets driver development. Greater re-use of TPS and freedom to insert new devices in ATS. Broader base for asset supplies to amortize driver costs due to greater asset interoperability among different suppliers. Reduced cost of ATS reduces support cost for all industry. Cost of ownership of factories, aircraft, trucks, and automobiles will be reduced.

NEXTEC APPLICATIONS, INC.
2611 Commerce Way
Vista, CA 92083
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-5533
Randy Meirowitz
ARMY 98-156
Title:Precision Placement of Thin Polymeric Silicone Films within Fabrics
Abstract:Nextec's patented technology allows for the precision placement of thin polymeric films around fibers, and crossover points, while filling in or leaving open interstitial spaces within fabrics. The choice of silicone, substrate and placement of polymer allows for addition/improvement of certain properties. In the apparel market the benefits of this process are delivered with a minimal impact on fabric tactile properties. Properties that can be influenced include but are not limited to breathable barrier performance; controlled porosity; water, wind, tear and abrasion resistance; adhesion/release behavior, and durability of properties to wash. Protective gear has been prepared that is lighter and has better barrier than standard commercial material. This technology has found applications including apparel, automotive, aerospace, and medical. The benefits in these applications are delivered in a process that has no volatile organic compounds and yields inert residual materials. This proposed program will identify specific military fabrics that have potential for improvements from treatment using Nextec's technology. The proposed work will include investigation of the influence of materials and process parameters and optimization of these parameters against the desired property combinations. The results will indicate the suitability of Nextec's technology for treating military fabrics. BENEFITS: Commercial applications include outerwear; mechanical rubber goods particularly hoses, ducts, and seals; protective gear including reusable surgical garment and other protective gear; tent materials; as well as thermal transfer media. Potential benefits include decreased weight and bulk; reduced operations and support costs, improved comfort, improved barrier, multifunctional capabilities, protective properties & adhesion/release.

RBD GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS LLC
354 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 655-0440
Paul T. Barham
ARMY 98-157
Title:Virtual Individual Combatant Trainer for Embedded Reherasal (VICTER)
Abstract:RBD Government Systems (RBD) proposes to develop a modular, man-in-the- loop, embedded simulation system for Individual Combatant (IC) mission planning and rehearsal. The system will be designed to simulate and stimulate Force XXI soldier systems from programs such as the Land Warrior (LW), the Objective Individual Combatant Weapon (OICW), the Small Unit Operations (SUO) program, and the Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) ACTD. The purpose of the system is to provide the individual soldier and small unit with the capability to reconfigure Go-to-war soldier transportable systems for mission planning and rehearsal, enabling individual soldiers to be networked and interact seamlessly within the virtual environment while en route to a combat situation. The embedded simulation system will be PC-based and will be compliant with the High Level Architecture (HLA). Phase I efforts will focus on the analysis and system design of a virtual embedded simulation for Land Warrior, including computer generated forces on synthetic battlefields. Additional system configurations and implementation plans will be developed for the OICW, SUO and MOUT programs. The system design and execution plan developed in Phase I will provide the framework and will facilitate the construction of an actual embedded simulation system in Phase II. BENEFITS: Commercial potential exists for mission rehearsal of law enforcement officers, security personnel, or border patrols in dangerous, urban situations such as hostage rescue, anti-terrorist and crime-fighting activities. Development of VICTER will support the OSCR Program by improving the operational performance of the soldier while reducing overall training costs.

CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS & SOFTWARE
P.O. Box 1129
Chino Valley, AZ 86323
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 636-2600
Ed P. Andert Jr.
ARMY 98-158
Title:Low Cost Real-Time Dynamic Terrain
Abstract:A dynamic terrain synthetic environment representation for low-cost PC platforms is needed for Army simulation of maneuver force operations and terrain effects such as mine breaching, obstacle breaching, defensive positioning, damage, dynamics, mobility, trafficability, soil plowing, and flooding. Applications that need dynamic terrain capability include: Grizzly Trainer, Armored Vehicle Launched Mine-Clearing Line Charge, Explosive Standoff Minefield Clearer, Armored and Ground Standoff Mine Detection Systems. Low cost, PC-based, dynamic terrain capability is needed to mitigate reliance on high-end platforms with limited accessibility to maneuver forces. High performance is required for real-time response and run time terrain polygon deformation and movement. Networked operation with distributed communication of terrain changes must be supported. A low cost, PC-based, physics-based, dynamic terrain model representation environment is proposed that incorporates validated system models and response algorithms, all operating in compatibility with the current High Level Architecture (HLA) distributed simulation standard. This environment will enhance Army maneuver training and will allow virtual systems evaluation. The Phase I technical objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of an approach for realistic, real-time and distributed dynamic terrain simulation in a synthetic environment hosted on low cost PCs. BENEFITS: The low cost dynamic terrain has Alga potential for phase III success as it brings realistic terrain visualization to Army maneuver troops. Commercial applications include equipment training for mining, construction, oil export and farming in addition to the interactive network gaming.

DIAMOND VISIONICS LLC
400 Plaza Drive, Suite D, P.O. Box 1276
Vestal, NY 13851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 729-8351
Graham Upton
ARMY 98-158
Title:Low Cost PC Based Real-Time Dynamic Terrain
Abstract:DVC will define requirements, explore alternative concepts, and develop a feasible approach for providing a low cost, realistic dynamic terrain by building on our current PC based dynamic terrain experience. DVC's own current Dynamic Terrain PC-based software will be used as a rapid prototyping tool to help define the requirements. In the Phase I Option DVC intends to provide a technology demonstration of Dynamic Terrain incorporating networking, soil dynamics, and compatibility with SEDRIS databases. Demonstrating a rapid prototype Dynamic Terrain scenario typical of that required for the Grizzly trainer, within an HLA environment using SEDRIS legacy databases is a goal. DVC will explore alternative concepts and develop a feasible approach to providing dynamic terrain everywhere, an HLA Federation prototype FOM/SOM, a SEDRIS data model, API, and Interchange Transmittal Mechanism (ITM) extension to standardize the interchange mechanism for Dynamic Terrain enabled database. For Phase II DVC will implement the best approach from Phase I with the objective of providing feasibility and effectiveness of the concept. Further, DVC will focus on the development of a software API centered on the refinement of the soil and terrain dynamics and the interaction of the military vehicles acting individually or in teams. BENEFITS: The primary resulting product will be a software API module. The application to the Grizzly program for military mine breaching training, the CATT family of training devices, and the interactive network game/entertainment market is obvious, and as such has been long awaited in both the military and the commercial markets. These markets include training in the use of mining, construction, oil, and farm equipment.

ACUSOFT, INC.
12249 Science Drive, Suite 160
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 658-9888
Jesse Liu
ARMY 98-159
Title:Virtual Terrain Database Correlation Research
Abstract:AcuSoft proposes to research and develop a database correlation tool to maximize the reusability of existing and future Computer Generated Forces Terrain databases and to improve upon current terrain database correlation methods. In the Phase I effort, AcuSoft will 1) Study simulation database formats used by ModSAF, ITEMS, and ATCON, 2) Formulate and show feasibility of an effective methodology, using SEDRIS, to convert and correlate ModSAF terrain databases with ITEMS and ATCOM database formats, and 3) Develop and demonstrate a functioning prototype software tool that can support database conversions and correlation testing. AcuSoft's research will emphasize the automation aspect of the correlation process. The methodology and tool developed for this effort will allow ModSAF, ITEMS and ATCOM users to evaluate database correlations rapidly. In addition, AcuSoft's proposed correlation methodology would cover all Synthetic Environment issues addressed by SEDRIS, including terrain, atmosphere, EM, etc., that concern CGF interoperability. The goal is to produce a tool that can be 1) used by CGF users to check the correlation of simulation databases, and 2) used by database producers to produce SEDRIS databases readily usable by various CGF systems. This proposed Phase I effort will re-use software developed during AcuSoft's on-going SEDRIS development efforts. BENEFITS: The DoD M&S community will benefit from having a SEDRIS-based database correlation tool. This tool will help various CGF simulations achieve higher levels of interoperability through correlated databases. Commercial database and simulation developers will equally benefit from the technology developed under this effort.

RBD GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS LLC
354 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 937-9370
Suraiya Haque
ARMY 98-159
Title:Web-Based Conversion of Correlated CGF Terrain Via SEDRIS
Abstract:Over the past several years the Synthetic Environment Database Representation and Interchange Specification (SEDRIS) project has been developed to address the issues of simulation data interchange between heterogeneous applications in a non-ambiguous, lossless fashion. As one of the SEDRIS Associate Members, Reality by Design (RBD) has helped both to define and implement the SEDRIS standard. By utilizing RBD's expertise with SEDRIS and Internet-based SEDRIS applications, a software architecture will be designed to address the conversion of correlated terrain databases for use in Computer Generated Forces tCGF) systems. Use of SEDRIS and the plugin-based format conversion architecture developed by RBD will provide a single conversion application to perform all CGF database conversion tasks. Different formats will be supported via the use of Dynamic Link Libraries, making the conversion software extensible and provide a future growth path. The conversion software will be accessed via a Web-based interface and support access to CGF databases accessible over the Internet as well as private Intranets. The software package will support a variety of input and output formats. A SEDRIS based correlation test tool will also be developed to verify the integrity of terrain geometry and feature topology. BENEFITS: The use of CGF and large scale networking of virtual environments within the DoD, commercial training industry, and entertainment markets is expanding. The need exists for highly correlated, heterogeneous synthetic environments. The proposed work will nurture these emerging markets. Commercialization benefits will roll back into the DoD, reducing time and cost of developing correlated military databases.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4208
Giampiero Brentani
ARMY 98-161
Title:Pressurized Fuel Filter Restriction Gauge for the HMMWV Military Vehicle
Abstract:On the HMMWV military vehicles the fuel filters are currently replaced every 12 months or 6,000 miles, whichever comes first, regardless of its condition. Foster-Miler, Inc. will develop a new pressurized fuel filter restriction gauge (PFFRG) which will signal when the element of the filter needs to be replaced, allowing the maximum life of an existing filter element and providing the best engine protection. This PFFRG does not interfere in any way with the normal flow of fuel to the engine. Preliminary cost estimates indicate a possible payback of the cost of the PFFRG at the time the first or maybe second filter element would have been replaced prematurely. In Phase I, Foster-Miller will design, build and test a first set of prototypes and demonstrate their operation. In the Phase I option the first production prototype will be designed and 12 samples will be supplied. In Phase II, extensive tests will be conducted to finalize the design, optimizing its configuration taking into account its cost and reliable operation. Also, studies will be made to adapt this PFFRG to other diesel powered vehicles which have similarly configured fuel systems. BENEFITS: This PFFRG will signal when the fuel filter element needs to be replaced, avoiding the unnecessary replacements which are occurring now. Both the military HMMWV and the commercial Hummer will immediately benefit of its use. Similar PFFRGs can be used to provide savings in other types of military vehicles with similar fuel system configuration. Also, in the commercial marketplace, significant savings can be obtained when one considers its use on fleets of vehicles, such as long distance cargo haulers.

GERACE COMBUSTION GROUP
28 Allegheny Avenue
Towson, MD 21204
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 821-0255
Anthony Gerace
ARMY 98-162
Title:Compression Ignition Engine Technology Insertion
Abstract:An advanced development project is proposed for testing a thermal injection method to improve overall combustion efficiency in compression ignition engines, and to provide a method for using alternate fuels. His method allows controlling combustion in two distinct stages and is suitable for insertion in current CI engines. A portion of the compressed air from the cylinder with fuel added is delivered to a thermal injector to form a homogeneous mixture. The heat by compression ignites the mixture which is then isolated by a control system; this system also controls a valve to open near TDC to discharge the burning fuel into the cylinder and complete the combustion process. Earlier experiments confirmed the feasibility of this concept. Computer modeling with the KIVA-3 code will be used to simulate the basic features of this combustion method and to provide relevant data on the physical processes involved and on the operational features: control issues; fuel preparation; mixing; overall efficiency. This will include a study of the design of the control system; testing of the thermal injector component; and a study for selecting and retrofitting an engine to be used for experimental testing. BENEFITS: The commercialized product of this new technology will cost-effectively address global issues of improved compression ignition engine cold start and combustion efficiency, greater fuel economy, fuel flexibility, and reduced emission of pollutants. The fuel injector will provide a simple cost effective retrofit for improving compression ignition engine performance.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
11000 Cedar Ave., Suite 170
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 791-6749
Frederick J. Lisy
ARMY 98-162
Title:In-Cylinder Pressure Sensors Using Thin Film Shape Memory Alloys
Abstract:Engine manufacturers are faced with ever-increasing demands to improve engine performance, fuel efficiency and emissions reduction. This demand is resulting in a surge of maturing technologies for automotive applications to lower emissions, improve engine performance and fuel consumption. The US Army's diesel engines can benefit from these same technological advances through innovative research and development of new technology and methods by which they can be inserted into existing diesel engines. Orbital Research proposes an in-cylinder pressure and optional temperature sensor which would provide real-time cylinder information to the Engine Control Unit. This technology will provide the US Army with significant fuel savings and cost objectives for their diesel engines well into the 21st Century. Orbital Research proposes an in-cylinder pressure and temperature sensor which is made from Thin Film Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). SMA undergoes a phase transformation through which its electrical resistance, which is a function of temperature and pressure, changes by 20~. This material can be customized by adding various rare earth metals. The material can be designed for specific temperature and pressure environments up to 10,000 psi and 800 degrees Celsius. Orbital Research is confident that this sensor will provide benefits to any US Army diesel engine. BENEFITS: Engine manufacturers agree that an affordable in-cylinder pressure sensor can yield improvements in engine control, fuel efficiency, and emissions. An SEA pressure sensor can meet these requirements for in-cylinder pressure sensing as well as in oil, coolant, tire and fuel pressure applications.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGNS, INC.
4900 Pearl East Cirlcle, Suite 201E
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-6947
Rick Archer
ARMY 98-163
Title:Improving Soldier Factors in Prediction Models
Abstract:Increasingly, resource allocation questions are being answered with computer modeling and simulation. Additionally, much of the training provided to soldiers relies on computer models and simulations of the combat environment. To date, these models do not adequately address the effects of training on performance, nor do they adequately address the interactions between factors that shape human performance. This effort will remedy that situation by developing methods and data structures that will allow computer generated force models (CGFs) to adequately respond to the key features of training. We propose a mix of model development and data collection. The models we propose reflect the state-of-the-art in human performance modeling and what we know about the effects of training on performance. These models are based on research and our extensive experience in these areas. The data sources we propose represent a get something in place now and build on it later approach where we start with subject matter expert data in Phase I and then expand our data search in Phase II. As such, this proposal presents an innovative approach to ensuring that improved CGFs are in place soon, while also providing room for planned growth as we learn more through future research. BENEFITS: The Immediate benefits to the military are 1) that models will be able to to be used to evaluate the payoff of a training investment in terms of resulting soldier performance and 2) the models used for training soldiers will be more realistic. For commercial applications, the model structures proposed are generalizable and could allow industry to make trades between the value of training vs. other strategies for process improvement such as automation.

ICET, INC.
916 Pleasant St, Unit 12
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-6064
Dr. Srinivasan Sarangapan
ARMY 98-164
Title:Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures
Abstract:Painted coatings are not perfect and their integrity is constantly challenged. During everyday use, scratches or scribes are often introduced into a coating. Where this occurs, the underlying metal is exposed directly to the environment and this favors accelerated corrosion. Thus, there is a need for so-called smart coatings that can spontaneously heal themselves wherever they are damaged. Incorporation of microcapsules loaded with a multifunctional corrosion inhibitor into a coating formulation offers this possibility. Wherever such a coating is scratched or scribed, the microcapsules are designed to rupture and release their corrosion inhibitor contents to cover the damaged area thereby providing corrosion protection to this area. The overall goal of the proposed program is to develop an effective corrosion inhibiting coating system for outdoor use on steel enclosed appliances and equipment. The coating system will be based upon a primer that contains a microencapsulated corrosion- inhibiting liquid formulation. Variables associated with microcapsule parameters and coating parameters will be investigated. Salt spray and electrochemical characterization of coatings will be conducted to assess the efficacy of the self-healing coatings. BENEFITS: The US Army estimates that the cost for painting/depainting operations is $2 billion per year. In addition, Navy and Air Force coating requirements for steel and aluminum are significant dollar volume. In the consumer area, automobile and marine applications are significant. Numerous hobby-related applications, which are less price-sensitive, exist.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71, Etna Rd.
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
David B. Kynor
ARMY 98-165
Title:High Resolution Subsurface Acoustic Soil Imaging
Abstract:Site characterization on military bases includes the detection of hazardous materials and artifacts buried in the ground as well as an assessment of subsurface layering and groundwater properties. Currently available technology develops, at best, poor-quality images and also has a limited-detection sensitivity for non-metallic objects. Creare proposes to develop an acoustic soil imaging system to address all these needs. The Creare design is built around a novel acoustic array configuration designed to produce images of high resolution, compared to present methods, of objects buried in the upper 10 meters of the soil. Image generation and evaluation times will be significantly smaller than times required by current methods. The system features a sparse array of dynamically focused imaging transducers. This system leverages Creates experience in developing state-of-the-art medical ultrasound instruments and is designed to overcome the unique challenges created by the acoustic properties of soil. BENEFITS: The technology developed under this program will meet the Army's need for high-resolution imaging of geological structures. Besides providing a tool for rapid detection and identification of hazardous materials, the technology developed under this program may also be used on military and civilian construction projects to locate other buried objects such as pipes and conduits.

OASIS RESEARCH CENTER, INC.
3131 N. Country Club Rd, Suite 206
Tucson, AZ 85716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 455-2500
Michael C. Stein
ARMY 98-166
Title:Simplicial Complex-Based Data Representation and Integration
Abstract:This proposal describes the simpliclal complex data structure, an advanced representation for multi-source data that extends hierarchical structure to vector data. It is a compact representation that requires little more space than the original vector data but contains implicitly the geometric structure of the vector data and its interrelations. The representation, along with tools for its analysis, allows this implicit structure to be expressed as needed and used for linking and integration of the multi-source data in an efficient and consistent process. This is currently possible because of tremendous strides made recently in several theoretical and computational fields that provide the tools to allow the simplicial complex data structure to be efficiently represented and computed. Through our approach, we gain several advantages over traditional representations, including enough expressive power to represent arbitrary relational information, a natural hierarchy for multi-source data integration and multi-level representation, and computational efficiency that takes advantage of computation rather than search, through the inherent geometry of simplicial complex representation of spatial data. BENEFITS: The representation and analysis algorithms developed under this program would increase the efficient and consistent application of contextual information contained in terrain databases to the processes of military battlefield awareness and situation assessment. Commercial geographic information systems applications include environmental assessment, regional land use planning, copulation census, agricultural planning, and habitat mapping.

GEOMEDIA RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
6040 S. Strahan Rd.
El Paso, TX 79932
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(915) 877-2777
Mark R. Baker
ARMY 98-167
Title:Determining Capacity of Military Pavements: A Portable Sonic-Ultrasonic Stress Wave Testing Device
Abstract:We plan to build a portable stress-wave measurement device for sonic and ultrasonic wave speeds and resonant modes, suitable for rapid military pavement evaluation. Specific Phase I tasks will target three areas. 1) We will prototype robust battery operated hardware. This includes a wind-insensitive accelerometer mounting that accommodates grooved pavement topography, low power electronics with transducer conditioning and A/D, and a solenoid source with integral accelerometer for impact echo and core resonance testing. 2) We will conduct theoretical and field studies to optimize source-receiver placement and interpretation software. This includes 3-D finite element models of grooved airfields to estimate methodology accuracy and test interpretation methods, and field tests on slabs to optimize receiver spacings for pavements ranging from concrete runways to thin asphalt overlays. 3) We will collect information on military field test procedures and database requirements to design and prototype software for the ultrasonic testing device. BENEFITS: Potential applications include construction quality control or post-construction testing and monitoring of highways, airfields, foundations, piers, or bridge-decks.

PACIFIC TECHNOLOGIES
21806 NE 1st
Redmond, WA 98053
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 823-5649
David L. Putnam
ARMY 98-168
Title:Rapid Acute Toxicity Screening
Abstract:This project addresses needs for identifying and measuring effects of therapeutic agents or toxic agents with sensitive, practical in vitro bioassays employing multi-cellular organisms as Biological Indicators (BI). Our proposal is to develop an innovative bioassay approach based on measuring agents' effects on the metabolic activity in vitro of small waterborne invertebrate BI's, in particular Artemia (brine shrimp), Daphnia, and similar organisms. Novel disposable sensors will be used in our bioassay to measure metabolic activity within BI cultures, serving as me indices of changes in me BI population. Phase I of this project is designed to investigate and establish the feasibility of the proposed bioassay concept in two fundamental aspects: (1) that the sensing approach for a metabolism readout is an efficacious means of assaying multi cellular organisms' activity/health and identifying changes therein induced by exposure to agents; (2) that early stage embryos of Artemia and Daphnia have potential value as a biological-indicator model for assaying agent effects. The goal is to ultimately provide a new methodology presenting opportunities for inexpensive, rapid field bioassays using multicellular organisms potentially prepared conveniently from dry, stable embryos. BENEFITS: This project addresses needs for identifying and measuring effects of therapeutic agents or toxic agents with sensitive, practical in vitro bioassays employing multi-cellular organisms as Biological Indicators (BI). Applications for drug development, toxicological testing, and food or environmental screening, exist in commercial, research, and government laboratories, and simple fast tests have utility for field-testing.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dai Hyun Kim, Ph.D.
ARMY 98-169
Title:Highly Adaptable Uncertainity Estimation Methodology for Sensor Fusion Systems
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop uncertainty estimation technology based on geometric data management (6DM). The proposed 6DM is a uniquely integrated data analysis model for state estimation and system self-calibration for adaptive uncertainty management. 6DM will be built with interconnecting logical sensors with three types of modules according to the given system structure: Feature Transformation Modules transform raw data into logical sensors; Data Fusion Modules fuse multiple sources of logical sensors and generate optimal features; and the Constraint Satisfaction Module represents system knowledge that imposes a constraint upon a set of feature values. This unique structure will have several advantages over error source investigation: continuous consistency and error monitoring; increased stability and robustness; maximum utilization of information; simultaneous performance of uncertainty update, error source identification, and error recovery; and improved computational efficiency for real-time estimates of uncertainties. In Phase I, POC will focus on identifying and analyzing the source of errors by building an appropriate model based on a current ALTAIR model with the proposed 6DM. Designing the 6DM structure will establish the basic parameters, and will isolate and identify the sources of errors. Computer simulation will be performed to evaluate 6DM real-time operating capability. BENEFITS: The proposed error analysis model will have numerous applications such as air traffic control, subway and railroad control, autonomous robotic vehicle navigation, intelligent security systems, and many other control applications.