---------- BMDO ----------

184 Phase I Selections from the 99.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ADVR, INC.
910 Technology Blvd, Suite K
Bozeman, MT 59718
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 522-0388
Dr. Rand Swanson
BMDO 99-001
Title:A Continuous Wave Raman Laser to Access a Broad Spectral Regime
Abstract:The proposed work will demonstrate the feasibility of frequency shifting high-power cw diode lasers to target wavelengths of 1.5 µm and 4 µm . This will be accomplished by using the recently developed cw Raman laser, which can frequency shift diode lasers to wavelengths ranging from 1 µm to longer than 4 µm. A team including the inventors of this technology will do this work. The first cw Raman laser was designed for low powers, operated with a photon conversion efficiency of 34%, and was accurately modeled by theory. An exciting prediction of this theory is that high power operation can be achieved with photon conversion efficiencies greater than 90%. Output beams will be single mode and powers of several Watts are expected using existing diode lasers as pumps. The cw Raman laser obtains high efficiencies by utilizing the multiple reflections that occur within a high-finesse cavity. This increases the effective interaction distance and also increases the pump intensity due to constructive interference of the multiply reflected pump beam. The primary benefit of this technology will be the ability to generate high-quality, high-power, cw laser beams in spectral regimes that are otherwise difficult to reach

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
1555 Doolittle Drive, Suite 100
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Rahul R. Prasad
BMDO 99-001
Title:Diamond switch for RF pulse compression
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) proposes to develop a new type of RF and millimeter wave amplifier based on pulse compression. The amplifier is based on the use of a diamond membrane that is turned from an insulating state (thus transmitting RF) to a conducting state (thus reflecting RF) when irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Such a RF amplifier is an enabling technology for a whole class of high power RF and millimeter wave devices that would otherwise be impractical. The Phase I to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. A chemical vapor deposition diamond window will be irradiated with UV radiation from a laser (4th harmonic Nd:YAG) and reflection of microwave power from the window will be demonstrated. The UV power required for practical devices will be determined. The Phase II effort will develop a RF amplifier using the pulse compression technique. The diamond switch will be coupled to a high power microwave source such as the phigtron, developed at the University of Maryland. The Phase III will be an aggressive commercialization campaign aimed at the several military and civilian uses of high power RF.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC
48-12 Briarwood Lane
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-6634
Sergei Krivoshlykov, Dr.
BMDO 99-001
Title:Compact High-Efficiency Electron -Beam-Pumped Semiconductor Laser Operating at Room Temperature
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop an innovative compact high-efficiency electron-beam-pumped semiconductor laser generating up to 10 W of average power in a broad spectral region from 330 nm to 23 um at room temperature. The compact and efficient laser design becomes possible due to recently demonstrated efficient generation of laser radiation in an electron-beam-pumped quantum well semiconductor structure at room temperature. The laser takes advantage of combining a well developed and cost efficient CRT technique with recent advances in the fabrication of the quantum wells and other quantum confined semiconductor materials. The laser parameters can be easily controlled by modulating the pumping e-beam. Innovative technology for fabricating the semiconductor materials with microscopic clusters will be developed and incorporated in the system design. This approach opens a door to the next generation of light weight, low cost laser devices capable to efficiently generate radiation in a broad spectral region using different semiconductor materials. In Phase I of the project we will demonstrate efficient generation at room temperature for a number of different semiconductor materials. Based on the obtained results, the design of the e-beam pumped semiconductor laser will be finalized. The prototype 10W laser system operating at room temperature will be assembled and tested in Phase II of the project with final device delivered to the BMDO.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L. C.
602 Explorer
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 261-0098
Jon R. Mayes
BMDO 99-001
Title:Marx-Based Phased Array System
Abstract:Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) are rapidly becoming attractive due to their reusability and the fact that unlike mechanical weapons which rely on magazines of explosive shells, these weapons rely on power supplies. The most attractive aspect of DEW weapons lies in the fact that an electromagnetic missile is delivered at nearly speed of light, negating the advantage of increasing velocity of tactical missiles. In the ideal soft kill, RF energy would couple into the target’s electronic systems and ultimately destroy the guidance and firing systems. Modem missile system use banks of discriminators to protect the receiver. An incoming signal is directed onto a delay line, with a small fraction of the signal directed to the discriminator crowbars the delay line, thus protecting the receiver. For a DEW to be effective against this line of defense, all of the discriminators must be destroyed, leaving the receiver vulnerable to the excessive amount of RF energy. Conventional DEW require excessive amount of energy and volume. These systems also require complex power supply, vacuum systems, and are driven by short-lived cathodes. This proposal details a PROPRIETARY alternative to the conventional HPM methods in the form of a Marx generator-based phased array. The proposed system is capable of delivering terawatts of peak power or RF bursts of gigawatts. The volume usage of the proposed system is a fraction of existing systems and relies on tradition power supply technologies at substantially lower voltage levels

BEAM (BEAM ENGINEERING FOR ADVANCE MEASU
100 Alexandria Blvd., Suite 5
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 977-5359
Dr. Nelson V. Tabirian
BMDO 99-001
Title:On-Line Diagnostic Systems for High Energy Lasers Using Nonlinear Optical and Diffractive Optical Transformations
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate 1) new principles of sampling and 2) new principles of beam sampling will allow obtaining of up to billion times attenuated replica of the beam. Acousto-optical diffractive gratings in noble gases kept at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature will be used in one scheme to ensure absorptionless sampling of high power beams. Sampling with the aid of wire grids will be tested for mid-IR radiation. Both devices can have very large aperture appropriate for embedding typically large high power beams. The beam diagnostic system will include measurement of the angular divergence of a beam, and pump-probe techniques for profiling of infrared beams with the aid of inexpensive techniques developed for visible radiation. Angular Selective Achromatic Diffraction Gratings will be developed for divergence measurements. The new high power beam diagnostic systems will be based on inexpensive materials and manufacturing procedures. The Phase I effort will be identifying the feasibility of the suggested principles and schemes.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 7488
Boulder, CO 80306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Wayne S. Pelouch
BMDO 99-001
Title:High Power Optical Waveguide Amplifier for Missile Defense
Abstract:Optically-based directed energy, remote sensing, and communication on airborne and spaceborne platforms require exceptionally efficient laser operation, low mass, and high power. To address this issue, CTI proposes a unique, high-power optical waveguide amplifier (WGA) laser source with a mode propagation that is radically different from standard waveguide and fiber designs. Otherwise, it’s properties are similar to fibers-the WGA is mechanically flexible, compact, light weight, efficient, cost-effective, in meter-class lengths. Additional exceptional properties include: preservation of spatial coherence, beam quality, and polarizaton; a geometry amenable to being pumped by high power laser diode arrays with minimal coupling optics; large surface area for reduced thermal loading; and potentially scalable to kilowatts of cw power or tens of millijoules pulsed output. A Nd- or Yb-doped WGA pumped by laser-diode arrays is proposed that will result in high power output in the most efficient and compact design. A completely passive-conduction-cooled system is possible by utilizing CTI’s “hot laser diode” technology. The WGA is ideal for space-based and technical airborne lasers where resources are at a premium. This novel waveguide design will find wide commercial applicability in the high power laser market, especially in materials processing. CTI’s experience in flight-worthy laser systems helps ensure a successful Phase I/II program.

FRACTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
14200 Carlson Circle
Tampa, FL 33626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 854-4332
Matt Aldissi
BMDO 99-001
Title:Novel Ferromagnetic Materials for Electromagnetic Ammunition Devices
Abstract:Recent activities in the development of electromagnetic directed energy for defense against missiles have focused on compact explosive driven sources of high power microwaves among several other technologies. There exist several issues which need to be addressed in order to bring this technology to fruition, one of which is the ferromagnetic material used in these sources. In Phase I, we will investigate the preparation and characterization of ferromagnetic particles whose surface is modified to achieve the desired characteristics, which depend on the directed energy application. The modified particles will be fully characterized in this preliminary effort to assess their suitability in this type of application. During the Phase I program, we will also establish the necessary collaborations towards conducting tests of our materials in the appropriate devices in Phase II. If successful, this effort will establish a precedent for taking this technology further towards useful compact high power microwave devices

LIGHTWAVE ELECTRONICS CORP.
2400 Charleston Rd.
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 526-1281
Lawrence E. Myers
BMDO 99-001
Title:Tunable UV Solid-State Laser Source
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will develop an ultraviolet (UV) source, specifically a diode-pumped solid-state laser which produces 1W power in a continuous-wave (CW) format tunable in the spectral range 300-350 nm. We will use a cw mode-locked laser at 1 micron as the pump source for a cascaded optical parametric oscillator and sum-frequency generator, followed by a second harmonic output stage. The technology advances that make this innovation possible are high power diode pumps and solid state laser architectures, passive semiconductor saturable absorber modelockers, and efficient microstructured nonlinear materials. Compared to current systems, this all-solid-state device will offer lower operating costs through increased reliability, higher efficiency, and longer lifetime, and better performance through high power, diffraction-limited beam quality, and wavelength selection capability

OZ ELECTRO-OPTICS, INC.
2043 De Mayo Road, Inc.
Del Mar, CA 92014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 481-0218
Oved Zucker
BMDO 99-001
Title:Current Multipliers for Pulsed Power Systems
Abstract:A current multiplying circuit modification to PRS type x-ray simulators is proposed that increases the x-ray yield from a given bank by as much a factor of 2. The increased efficiency can be used to both reduce the size and cost of the next generation of simulators and to increase the utilization of existing simulators presently in the DTRA inventory

POWDERMET, INC.
9960 Glenoaks Blvd., Unit A
Sun Valley, CA 91352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 768-6420
Andrew J. Sherman
BMDO 99-001
Title:High Stiffness Dimensionally Stable Mirror
Abstract:In the proposed SBIR program, Powdermet will demonstrate the feasibility of producing near net-shape Gr-reinforced syntactic SiC foam mirror structures. Powdermet will utilize an innovative combination of microencapsulation, powder metallurgy, and reaction bonding in addition to the use of carbon and silica microballoons, to produce extremely lightweight, low CTE, thermally stable mirror structures. The resultant structures will consist of a reaction bonded Gr/SiC mirror surface graded into a syntactic, Gr-reinforced syntactic SiC foam made net-shape using a slip-cast and sinter consolidation technique. The mirror structure will be built up onto plaster molds and sintered, eliminating all but the final stages of polishing. The ability to eliminate all but the final stages of polishing will allow for the fabrication of high optical quality structures having significantly lower areal density, at lower processing costs. Thermal distortion and density will be minimized through the use of Gr-reinforced SiC syntactic foam, which has an approximate density and thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of 600Kg/m3 and 1.3 ppm/K respectively with a modulus of over 60 Gpa. By producing syntactic foam honeycomb supports, the density will be further reduced to less than 250 Kg/M3 while sacrificing less than 35% of the structural stiffness.

SCIENTIFIC MATERIALS CORP.
310 Icepond Road
Bozeman, MT 59715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 585-3772
Randy W. Equall
BMDO 99-001
Title:High Power Narrow Bandwidth Reflectors
Abstract:DOD and other government agencies as well as commercial laser manufacturers have a strong need for high power narrow reflectors. Two specific examples of immediate importance are 940 nm Nd lasers for water vapor lidar, and high energy 1.03um Yb lasers. These lasers require optics with high reflection associated with antireflection less than 70 nm apart. Such optics are extremely difficult to fabricate with existing thin films coating technology. This SBIR project is aimed at addressing these limitations by developing optics based on distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) in bulk optical materials. The production of DBR optics will be accomplished by incorporating periodic refractive index gratings in optical quality crystals by an innovative process developed in part through previous NASA SBIR projects aimed at producing ultra-high perfection materials for laser gain media. By precisely controlling growth parameters, compositional variations can be incorporated in crystalline materials. These compositional variations result in an associated refractive index grating that can form a DBR. Optics based on this technology would be tunable and have high damage thresholds. This project will demonstrate the capability of systematically producing periodic refractive index variations index in bulk materials and characterize their applicability as optical components.

SUPER-PULSE
1452 Hanshaw Rd.
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 255-6474
Czeslaw Golkowski
BMDO 99-001
Title:High Power Microwave Pulse Sources of Coherent Microwave Radiation for Distance Disabling of Electronic Devices
Abstract:Among different methods using electomagnetic impact to disable radio-electronic devices the most effective one is the use of a series of video pulses of duration – 10 ns. A series of such pulses with repetition rates of several hundred hertz lowers the sensitivity of protection circuits by up to two orders of magnitude. We propose to use microwaves as a carrier frequency with video modulation. Microwave radiation can be formed as a narrow wave beam that sufficiently increases the power flow on the target, consequently increasing the processes of rectification in the irradiated radioelectronic elements. This combination of using a narrow directed wave beam with pulses of duration of about 10 ns will generate an effective tool for far distance disabling of electronic circuits. A mobile device using a high-power L-band vircator already exists and operates in the single pulse regime. However, the vircator cannot operate as a HPM generator of high rate repetition pulses because of the position of electrodes in the interaction space. The proposed development of HPM X-band sources which are capable of operating at a high repetition rate, with bursts of short pulses and in automodulation regimes, will permit us to build a far distance HPM disabling device consisting of a system of focusing the wave beam and a high current electron gun able to operated at high repetition rate pulses. In addition to functioning as an electromagnetic impact device such a set-up can also be used for distance testing of radioelectronic devices and as a nanosecond radar with high interference immunity and high resolution.

V CO.
388 Ocean Avenue, Suite 1613
Revere Beach, MA 02151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 284-1011
Scott R. Velazquez
BMDO 99-001
Title:Very High-Performance Advanced Filter Bank Analog-to-Digital Converter (AFB ADC)
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project demonstrates a breakthrough approach to very high-speed, high-resolution A/D conversion which improves the speed by up to six times the state-of-the-art by using a parallel array of individual converters. The significant performance improvements afforded by the Advanced Filter Bank Analog-to-Digital Converter (AFB ADC) architecture will be demonstrated in Phase I by building and testing a pre-prototype breadboard implementation of the front-end electronics of a 14-bit AFB ADC system with 260 MHz sample rate (four times the speed of state-of-the-art). A faster, single chip 14-bit AFB ADC with 390 MHz sample rate will be developed in Phase II. V Company and Raytheon E-Systems in Falls Church, VA have formed a strategic alliance to collaborate on this project. The architecture works because the filter bank signal processing significantly reduces the sensitivity to analog mismatches (e.g., phase distortion, clock skew, temperature drift) which prohibit existing parallel conversion methods (e.g., Time-Interleaving) from achieving high resolution. V Company has proven the technical efficacy of the concept by successfully building and testing breadboard circuitry with 12-bit resolution and 80 MHz sample rate. The AFB ADC architecture will always exceed the state-of-the-art because it can easily be upgraded as new, more powerful ADC products become available. The architecture is amenable to single-chip integration for compact, low-power applications.

WAVEFRONT SCIENCES, INC.
15100 Central Avenue S.E., Suite C
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 275-4747
Dr. Daniel R. Neal
BMDO 99-001
Title:Ultrafast Phase Modulators for Wavefront Correction, Beam Steering and Communication
Abstract:The bandwidth of current generation communications and adaptive optics is limited by the bandwidth of the either mechanical or electronic systems. There are a number of new applications that would be enabled if this bandwidth could be significantly increased. This includes adaptive optics for seeker window turbulence correction for Theater Missile Defense interceptors such as the THAAD or ARROW missiles, or ultra-high speed communications for theater or strategic missions. The limitation on this bandwidth is the modulator design. Current electro-optical modulators are limited to < 100 MHz. However, by building an array of such modulators, we can taker advantage of the parallelism to effectively increase the bandwidth of the channel. This means that instead of bit by bit serial encoding, we could use full word encoding. This process is fully scalable as additional channels are added. We propose to develop one- and two dimensional optoelectronic modulator arrays that can be driven at up 1 GHz rate with TTL pulses. Applications range from instantaneous wavefront correction, ultrafast beam steering, pulsed-beam diagnostics and ultrafast communication

CASTLE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
P.O. Box 5
Lexington, MA 02420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 861-0054
J. Paul Pemsler
BMDO 99-002
Title:Electrochemical Coating of Complex Carbon-Carbon Parts for Low Mass Divert Propulsion Systems
Abstract:Axial and divert motors and nozzles require complex shapes which are light weight, strong and shock resistant at high temperatures. Carbon-carbon (C-C) is an ideal material for this application and can be formed into net shape components at low cost. Heretofore, C-C has been limited in its use at 3000-4000F by the lack of an adequate coating. Castle Technology is developing the CAFRIB system in which metal is electrochemically infiltrated into matrix-free surface layers of C-C to form a surface metal matrix composite. This unique coating can withstand the large stresses which develop during firing due to the thermal expansion mismatch between C-C and the protective metal coating. Rhenium (Re) parts have been identified as suitable for propulsion systems. However, they have high launch weights and are very expensive to fabricate. Re-CAFRIB combines the best properties of C-C and Re at low cost. During Phase I, we will investigate the feasibility of electrochemically infiltrating Re into complex C-C shapes to produce uniformly coated Re-CAFRIB. Simulated valves, balls and diverts will be prepared from C-C. Electrochemical cell modelling software will be used to establish electrode and cell parameters for uniform deposition. Coating uniformity, determined by SEM, will be used to refine experimental parameters.

GENEVA AEROSPACE, INC.
P.O.Box 613018
Dallas, TX 75261
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(940) 440-9099
David A. Felio
BMDO 99-002
Title:Advanced Robust Adaptive Autopilot Design
Abstract:The concept of adaptive control design has appealed to the weapon systems design community for decades. Motivating factors for continued research in adaptive flight control technology include, but are not limited to the potential for reduced development costs and the increased design versatility afforded airframe designers. Although there are few adaptive autopilots flying today, some success has been achieved in industry in the adaptive control of air vehicles. The price that is typically paid with adaptive control techniques, however is algorithm and software complexity. These complexities increase significantly when the controllers are forced to operate in regions where the vehicle aerodynamics are highly non-linear. We have developed a break-though approach in adaptive vehicle control that is virtually trivial to implement, is highly robust, and is easily adaptable to the non-linear scenario. The proposed research will prove the robustness and technical feasibility of our adaptive autopilot design technique. This research effort will also provide the opportunity to formulate the adaptive autopilot observer to include the estimation of non-linear aerodynamic parameters required by our non-linear autopilot structure. The development of an adaptive non-linear autopilot will also serve to exploit and expand upon our existing non-linear design technique.

MORGAN RESEARCH CORP.
2707 Artie Street, Suite 17
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 533-3233
Michael S. Kranz
BMDO 99-002
Title:MEMS Gyroscope for Measuring Angular Velocity in a High Frequency Shock and Vibration Environment
Abstract:The scope of this effort is to develop a MEMS vibratory rate gyroscope for measuring high angular rates in the harsh environment seen in missile system applications. The design incorporates an innovative vibration cancellation technique that will allow the device to provide accurate measurements even when experiencing large shocks and vibrations

QUOIN, INC.
139 Balsam Ave
Ridgecrest, CA 93555
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 384-5035
Michael Dean Jacobson
BMDO 99-002
Title:Kinetic Energy Kill Vehicles and Components
Abstract:Kinetic Energy (KE) warheads perform guidance and control functions with command guidance and terminal IR guidance. Control is achieved through the use of divert and attitude control thrusters which cause reduced IR sensitivity. Quoin proposes to develop a hot gas filter that can remove contaminants, particularly carbon particles, from the gas generator. Three concepts will be evaluated by analysis and/or rocket firings at Quoin facilities. We will develop not only representative propellants to fuel our test weight motors, but will also develop techniques measure efficiency of the filter performance. The most promising concept is to temporally trap the particles in the rocket chamber so that the water present in the propellant gas can oxidize the carbon. Another concept will involve passing the combustion gases through convoluted passages and trapping the carbon on the passage walls. Techniques such as electrostatic filtration will be assessed to determine if they would aid in the process. Other techniques that will cause the particles to agglomerate will also be evaluated. The concept that displays the best performance will be fabricated for evaluation by the Naval Air Warfare Center to determine the Quoin filtering efficiency.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Jerry W. Brockmeyer
BMDO 99-002
Title:Small Particle Filtration to Minimize Kinetic Energy Interceptor Divert/Attitude Control System Plume Impact on Seeker Performance
Abstract:Miniature kinetic energy interceptors designed to destroy missiles by direct impact at high altitude operate using hot liquid or solid propellant combustion gases for attitude control and divert maneuvering. The combustion of solid propellant grains produces not only gaseous products but particulate as well. While filters are provided to remove large particles from the gas stream that might cause malfunction of the valve, small particles are carried along with the gas. Particles smaller than one micron do not degrade valve performance, but in the exhaust plume they degrade the seeker performance. Concerns associated with particle efflux include Prandtl-Meyer wraparound in front of the seeker and hot particle irradiance “blinding” or affecting the seeker for long-range missions, where the threat object is dim. In this project, Ultramet proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative filtration concept for <1-micron particles that will not cause deleterious pressure or clogging problems. Ultramet will team with Thiokol to ensure success and demonstrate hot-fire performance.

ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS, INC.
2020 Alameda Padre Serra, Suite 123
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-3331
Roger Stettner
BMDO 99-003
Title:Advanced Discrimination Ladar Receiver
Abstract:This is a proposal for an Advanced Discrimination Ladar Receiver (ADLR). The ADLR concept is based upon state-of-the-art integrated circuits and image tube technology. The concept is very innovative with enormous potential for increasing performance above existing multiple-independent-channel, discrimination-ladar-receiver designs used for reentry vehicle and decoy discrimination. Simulations show the range resolution of the ADLR is less than 15 cm and the spatial resolution is, for practical purposes, limited only by chip size; 128 x 128 pixels are possible. Data is multiplexed off the integrated circuit readout chip during laser pulses and so the receiver is not limited by real-time, multiple-independent-channel processing. A 12-bit digitizer can easily be used at the output of the sensor; real-time designs are limited to 2-3 bits. There are also substantial reductions in weight and size over the conventional receiver approach

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
1555 Doolittle Drive, Suite 100
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Jochen Schein
BMDO 99-003
Title:Diamond laser profiler for sub-nanosecond resolution measurements within high power UV laser beams
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) proposes to develop and commercialize a low-cost, reliable, radiation hardened and rugged diamond laser profiler for near UV to x-ray radiation. This instrument can be inserted directly into a high power laser beam to measure the power distribution inside the beam with high spatial and temporal resolution. During Phase I AASC proposes a proof of principle demonstration with a 3 x 3 diamond array detector with 500 µm resolution. Two different detector designs will be tested: A detector array consisting of close packaging of discrete diamonds and a monolithic detector where one large diamond is subdivided into small pixels. During Phase II the system will be scaled up to a larger numbers of pixels and a prototype will be developed with an automated computer controlled readout that allows the display of the beam profile as an image. With additional calibration these detector arrays can also work as laser power meters. Examples of applications in which the shape of the beam profile is important range from laser based weapons and sophisticated plasma diagnostics to laser cutting of metals. The diamond laser profiler will be a key enabling technology in these areas

AVYD DEVICES, INC.
P.O. Box 7942
Huntington Beach, CA 92646
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 751-8553
Honnavalli Ramaswamy Vyd
BMDO 99-003
Title:Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Nitride Based p-i-n UV Detectors
Abstract:Avyd Devices proposes to develop a nitride based UV detector technology entailing the growth of GaN and GaAlN p-i-n structures via Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth technique with emphasis on reducing the contact resistance to the p layer of the p-i-n structure. With our approach, we anticipate to develop UV detectors with much enhanced sensitivity and speed. In Phase I, we plan to establish the feasibility of our approach with demonstration of detectors in single element and linear array formats. In Phase II, we plan to demonstrate reproducibility of the approach with demonstration and delivery of large density two dimensional arrays, exibiting state-of-the art in performance

BIPOLAR TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
4724 North Brentwood Circle
Provo, UT 84604
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 378-3848
Rodney M. LaFollette
BMDO 99-003
Title:Microscopic Power Supplies for Remote, Autonomous Sensors and Other MEMS Devices
Abstract:The power supply has been the biggest obstacle to inexpensive, functional, autonomous remote sensors. The nature of this obstacle has been the need to store energy on-board, and existing energy storage options are wholly unsatisfactory. Our company has demonstrated microscopic batteries, for use in remote sensors, and other MEMS devices, which can serve to enable remote, autonomous sensor technology. The goal of this program is to create miniature, remote, autonomous sensors. The sensors will include a MEMS sensing element, a signal transmitter, and a microprocessor controller, and an energy conversion device. The entire sensor will occupy approximately 1 cm3, and will operate at <1mW average power. A wide variety of different sensor types are possible with this paradigm. Furthermore, new types of sensors can be developed and made both quickly and inexpensively. Phase I will involve proof-of concept demonstration of one or two such devices, and careful design of integrated, autonomous sensors for remote applications

BRIMROSE CORP.OF AMERICA
5020 Campbell Boulevard
Baltimore, MD 21236
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 668-5800
Sudhir B. Trivedi
BMDO 99-003
Title:Development Of Room Temperature, Miniaturized, Tunable Mid-infrared Lasers Using Chromium Doped Cd1-xMnxTe and Cobalt Doped Zn1-xMnxTe
Abstract:Lasers operating in the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral region have overwhelming importance to commercial, space and military applications such as remote sensing/measurement of atmospheric aerosols, clouds, molecular species and meteorological parameters. Brimrose Corporation, in collaboration with Dr. Uwe Hommerich at Hampton University, has developed a novel; tunable room temperature solid-state laser material using transition metal doped Cd1-xMnxTe {1-10}. We have obtained room temperature lasing in Cr:Cd1-xMnxTe and we have seen low temperature luminescence in Co:Cd1-xMnxTe indicating its potential for use as a mid-infrared laser medium. During the proposed work, we will focus our efforts on developing materials for room temperature mid-infrared lasing, and we will fabricate a prototype room temperature, solid-state, tunable mid-IR laser. We will continue our investigation of Cr: Cd0.55Mn0.45Te and optimize this material for improved mid-infrared laser performance; and we will investigate the material system cobalt doped Zn1-xMnxTe for room temperature mid-infrared lasing. Based on prior work [11-14], we believe that Co:Zn1-xMnxTe has an excellent potential for exhibiting room temperature mid-infrared lasing up to 4um. During Phase I, we will concentrate our efforts on optimization of the laser materials and we will fabricate a prototype room temperature, mid-IR tunable solid-state laser system.

BSEI
1453 Beulah Road
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 759-4518
Terence William Barrett
BMDO 99-003
Title:Wavelet Pattern Detection ATR (WPD-ATR)
Abstract:The goal of this proposal is to improve the figure-of-merit of the focus of attention stage of automatic target recognition (ATR) by developing a novel hierarchical multi-resolution prescreening architecture addressing: (A) new sensory input filtering methods that highlight target discriminating features and discard nonrelevant features; and (B) a more complete characterization of targets, decoys and clutter by modeling both the representations at each scale and across scales by means of learned generative nonlinear models. the combination of improvements (A) and (B) is represented in our Wavelet Pattern Detection (WPD-ATR) approach incorporating the prescreening of input to a nonlinear adaptive system (neural net). The WPR-ATR is designed for ultrahigh resolution sensors/radars - e.g., TeraHertz sensors/radars - and testable either in conjunction with such sensors/radars as a hardware-in-the-loop demonstration of as simulation/emulation on BMDO's VDHTB.

CDES, INC.
P.O.Box 22321
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 881-8250
John A. Dennis
BMDO 99-003
Title:Frequency Domain Signal Processing for Acoustic Sensors
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of separating cruise missile class targets when there are multiple targets observed by the acoustic sensor. Several programs (e.g., steelrattler, FASDR) have addressed the use of small, remotely deployed acoustic sensors for collecting early warning and rough track on cruise missiles. Typically, the quality of track expected is not precise enough for use as fire control data, but rather is useful to cue fire control sensors. Acoustic sensors in this role maximize the time available to engage targets and provide very early warning of impending attack. Field experimentation has indicated that using acoustic sensor data to develop tracks of single targets is feasible and practical [Ref: Steadman, R., “Air Deliverable Acoustic Sensor (ADAS), Multi-Node Data Fusion for Tracking Fast Aerial Targets”, Textron Systems Division Briefing, October 1996]. The problem that has not been adequately addressed is how to develop tracks of multiple targets (cruise missiles) from acoustic data. The proposed work will demonstrate that by implementing frequency domain signal processing techniques to time slices of the data, the variation in doppler characteristics from tow or several targets can be used to separate the signatures of multiple targets.

CERAMARE CORP.
262 Lincoln Ave.
Highland Park, NJ 08904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 445-2724
Robert Uhrin
BMDO 99-003
Title:Growth and Processing of Beta-BaB2O4 for UV Applications
Abstract:Borates have an intrinsic band edge below 200 nm, which makes them attractive for optical applications in the deep UV. The birefringence of beta-BaB204 (BBO) is large enough to allow phase matching down to the band edge, so crystal growth and processing innovations that improve transmission and the damage threshold in the UV can have a beneficial effect on harmonic generation. This project focuses on the preparation of starting materials for BBO crystal growth, crystal growth of BBO using the Czochralski technique to avoid the alpha/beta phase transition, and post growth to improve optical properties of the crystals. The successful completion of a Phase I effort should demonstrate the feasibility of rapid growth of BBO crystals combined with post-growth processing that leads to potentially lower extrinsic losses than in solution-grown crystals. The damage resistance of crystals processed using these techniques is also expected to be higher than in solution-grown crystals

CERAMARE CORP.
262 Lincoln Ave.
Highland Park, NJ 08904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 445-2724
Robert Uhrin
BMDO 99-003
Title:High Temperature Growth of Rare Earth Orthophosphate Crystals for X-ray and Gamma-ray Detection
Abstract:Because of a fortuitous combination of high density, high light yield, and fast decay time a cerium-doped rare earth orthophosphate (REOP) crystal, Ce:LuPO4, offers an opportunity to improve detection of x-rays and gamma-rays. A new approach to high temperature solutioin (HTS) growth of CE:LuPO4 crystals is proposed. The Phase I research will test the feasibility of using a novel environmentally benign solvent to replace the lead-based flux currently used to grow such crystals. Optimization of the technique will provide not only larger and better quality crystals for x-ray and gamma-ray detection but also an opportunity to develop efficient and more compact instruments and devices. For example, it is estimated that successful completion of this research will result in a reduction of more than an order of magnitude in the number of crystals required for a PET instrument. Furthermore, the new solvent can be applied to the growth of all REOP crystals, some of which have potential application as ultraviolet, visible, and infrared lasers or as polarizers and optical isolators. Thus, the ready availability of REOP crystals should ultimately satisfy not only defense department needs but also benefit health and medical industry needs through improved instrumentation

DEAN APPLIED TECHNOLOGY CO., INC.
1580 SPARKMAN DRIVE #103
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 721-9550
WILLIAM GARLAND DEAN
BMDO 99-003
Title:AN EFFICIENT, LONG LIFE, LIGHTWEIGHT, LOW COST REFRIGERATION SYSTEM USING A SOLID MAGNETOCALORIC MATERIAL AS THE REFRIGERANT
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to determine the feasibility of designing, fabricating and testing a sensor cooler which uses solid materials as the refrigerant. These materials demonstrate the unique property known as the magnetocaloric effect, which means that they increase and decrease in temperature when magnetized/demagnetized. This effect has been observed for many years and was used for cooling near absolute zero. Recently, materials are being developed which have sufficient temperature and entropy change to make them useful for a wide range of temperature applications. The proposed effort includes magnetocaloric effect material selection, analyses, design and integration of components into a preliminary design. Benefits of this design are lower cost, longer life, lower weight and higher efficiency because it only requires one moving part - the rotating disk on which the magneto caloric material is mounted. The unit uses no gas compressor, no pumps, no working fluid, no valves, and no ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons/hydrochlorofluorocarbons (CFC's/HCFC's). Potential commercial applications include cooling of electronics, superconducting components used in telcommunications equipment (cell phone base stations), home and commercial refrigerators, heat pumps, air conditioning for homes, offices and automobiles, and virtually any place that refrigeration is needed.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURES & MATERIALS, LLC
309 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Clayton R. Carter
BMDO 99-003
Title:A Novel Magnetic Field Sensor
Abstract:Proposed is the development of a novel magnetic field sensor comprised of two smart materials: piezoelectric ceramics, and magnetostrictive materials. Similar to a bi-metallic strip, this sensor consists of a thin beam of a substrate material with a thin wafer of piezoelectric material bonded to one side, and a thin wafer of magnetostrictive material bonded to the other. When the sensor is exposed to a magnetic field, the magnetostrictive material will strain thereby forcing the entire structure to bend. The bending will result in induced strain in the piezoelectric material and an induced voltage field across the piezoceramic. The induced strain on the piezoelectric material will generate a measurable potential across the poling axis of the piezoceramic, which will be proportional to the magnitude of the magnetic field. The sensor itself will require no external power to produce a signal. The proposed sensor will be reliable, possess no moving parts, small, rugged, and inexpensive when produced in large quantities

EPITAXIAL LABORATORY, INC.
25 East Loop Road
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 444-6114
Jie Piao
BMDO 99-003
Title:A Novel Buffer Layer Approach to Epitaxy of InSb on Si for HgCdTe Focal Plane Array Application
Abstract:Up to date, InSb and HgCdTe are the industry standard materials for Infrared focal plan arrays(FPAs) operating in the wavelength regions of 3-5 mm and 8-14 mm (the so-called atmospheric windows).Due to the lack of suitable substrate, the detector arrays must be In bump -bonded to the read-out integrated circuit(ROIC) on Si substrates, which limits array sizes, yield, and stability. ELI proposes to develop high quality InSb on Si epitaxial wafers for large area InSb and HgCdTe based IRFPAs. ELI will apply a novel approach to incorporate a new composition graded buffer layer (CGBL)on Si substrate to reduce/eliminate the threading dislocation in the thin InSb epilayers grown on top of the CGBL. In phase I, design and growth of novel buffers will be carried out, and high quality InSb thin epiwafer will be demonstrated. The optimization of the CGBL and production of high quality Si based InSb epiwafers will be realized in phase II

EPITAXIAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC.
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5594
Dr. Olaleye Aina
BMDO 99-003
Title:InAs/GaInSb Based Detectors Sensitive to Radiation Beyond 16 um
Abstract:Epitaxial Technologies proposed to develop a novel material technology for the implementation of infrared sensors capable of operation beyond 16µm. We will achieve this by performing device designs to determine suitable wafer configurations, material structures, epitaxial growth and device fabrication processes. The primary goal of this proposal Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel approach to prepare InAs/GaInSB strained layer superlattices (SLS) on compliant substrates to demonstrate high performance far infrared detectors. By developing techniques for wafer bonding, materials growth and wafer processing. Epitaxial Technologies will project the performance that can be realized from the proposal InAs/GaInSb SLS detectors through material and device designs. In Phase II, we will further optimize the material structures and fabricate far infrared detectors and focal plane arrays based on them

F & H APPLIED SCIENCE ASSOC., INC.
305 Pembrook Avenue
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 235-6781
Tamera Ann Yost
BMDO 99-003
Title:Infrared Phototube for Microwave Modulated Laser Radar Applications
Abstract:This proposal concerns the development of a large area, high speed infrared sensitive photodetector with wide dynamic range and high gain needed for the development of microwave modulated lidar systems operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of >1 micron. The project will be in collaboration with two manufacturing partners. This strategy should provide the fastest and most cost-effective technical and commercial success. The proposed photodetector is based on vacuum phototube technology with an active area of 1 mm2, gain of greater than 1000, and a bandwidth of 5 GHz which far exceeds the performance of commercially available large area NIR photodetectors. In Phase I we will develop a computer model of the NIR photodetector and devise a complete set of device fabrication and characterization processes. Phase I will show the feasibility of achieving superior performance. The proprietary design is described in the full proposal. The Phase II objective will be the fabrication of an optimally designed prototype device and the subsequent performance characterization. Phase II will demonstrate that this prototype provides superior sensor performance and will also address the manufacturing process to produce the highest device fabrication yield enabling successful Phase III commercialization.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
1715 Glastonberry Road
Rockville, MD 20854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Binghui Li
BMDO 99-003
Title:High Sensitivity 4HSiC Avalanche Photodiodes Technology for UV Detection in Hostile Enviroments
Abstract:SiC is very desirable for radiation hard UV photodiode applications because of its large bandgap and the ability to grow native thermal oxide to achieve good surface passivation. Although conventional 6H-SiC photodiodes with very small dark current have been demonstrated several years ago, there are no reports on SiC avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Because their operation requires avalanche impact ionization, the SiC APDs impose more stringent requirements on the SiC wafer quality and device process. With the built-in current gain, SiC APD devices should be more suitable for UV detection applications at higher temperatures. A prerequisite to realizing SiC APDs is to obtain reliable avalanche breakdown, and this has been achieved for 4H-SiC pn diode with recent advancement in SiC material growth and device fabrication processes. So, it now should be possible to develop 4H-SiC APDs using commercial available SiC materials. During phase I, the proposed SiC APD structure suitable for ultra-violet light (<0.3mm) will be optimized based on device simulation, and prototype devices will be fabricated and evaluated. Phase II will focus on improving device process to provide reliable APDs for UV detection at high temperatures

IRIDICOM, INC.
829 Salsipuedes St., Unit C
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 893-8465
T.G. Beck Mason
BMDO 99-003
Title:Rapidly Tunable Laser Source For True Time Delay Beam Steering of Phased Array Radar
Abstract:We propose to develop a high speed tunable semiconductor laser source for tue time delay beam steering of phased array radar antenna systems. The source will be based on a widely tunable multi-section integrated semiconductor laser with all electronic tuning. We will develop a control system that will enable rapid reconfiguration of the laser to any desired wavelength. This system will incorporate a wavelength monitor that can track the laser wavelength over it’s entire tuning range and multiple high speed current sources for conrol of the laser. The wavelength monitor will be based on a hybrid optoelectronic system that is insensitive to the optical power level over a wide dynamic range and provides a high degree of accuracy and stability.

KESTREL CORP.
6020 Academy Boulevard N.E., Suite 104
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
L. John Otten, III
BMDO 99-003
Title:Chromatic Correction for Multi and Hyperspectral Imagers
Abstract:Kestrel Corporation proposes a new technology that can overcome the chromatic induced optical aberrations broadband imaging systems such as multi and hyperspectral imagers. This technology has the potential of correcting one of the limiting factors in the ultimate spectral and spatial resolution that can be obtained in these critical sensors. In this Phase I SBIR, we will first incorporated the new technology into existing analytic models to parametrically assess the potential and second, demonstrated the effectiveness in a laboratory experiment. Finally we will propose a conceptual design for incorporating the chromatic correction into a set of existing sensors and estimate the performance improvements that can be expected. The proposed technique is an adaptation of a distorted grating developed to make atmospheric measurements allowing us to take advantage of an existing theoretical base. By applying the distorted grating to correct chromatic correction into a set of an existing theoretical base. By applying the distorted grating to correct chromatic distortion in multi and hyperspectral imagers we offer the opportunity to greatly increase the spectral bandwidth and improve the spatial resolution while reducing the need for costly custom optics for this emerging class of new sensor technologies. An adaptation of the distorted grating to chromatic corrections has received high interest in the bio-medical imaging community offering a clear route to commercialization.

LIGHTWAVE ELECTRONICS CORP.
2400 Charleston Rd.
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 526-1281
Lawrence E. Myers
BMDO 99-003
Title:High-Power Mid-Infrared Laser Source
Abstract:High-power cw-like source of mid-infrared radiation are needed for infrared countermerasure systems that employ closed loop jamming. The spectral range 4.5-5 microns is particularly difficult to obtain with current systems. The overall technical objective of this program is sto develop a high-power cw-like source in the mid-infrared with emphasis on the range 4.5-5 microns. The system will be based on converted diode-pumped solid-state laser. The approach is to increase the conversion in an absorption length of the nonlinear material so that significant conversion is obtained even in the region of strong absorption. We will use a mode-locked laser to have high pump intensity, and quasi-phasematching to have high nonlinerity. Our pump laser will be a passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser at 1 micron for robustness and manufacturability. The frequency converter will be a synchronously pumped OPO. Our baseline material will be PPLN, but we will also use other periodically poled ferroelectrics, notabley periodically poled MgO-doped LiNbO3.

MITCHELL/STIRLING MACHINES/SYSTEMS, INC
151 Alvarado Rd.
Berkeley, CA 94705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 845-2528
Matthew P. Mitchell
BMDO 99-003
Title:Pulse Tube Cooler With Cycle-Synchronized Heat Transfer
Abstract:Pulse tube cryocoolers are the cutting edge of regenerative cryocooler development. Their simplicity, ruggedness and reliability recommend them over older technology. Innovative improvements (the double inlet, the inertance tube) have brought orifice pulse tube cooler performance into the range of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon coolers. Double inlets and inertance tubes improve phasing of flows at the warm end of a pulse tube. However, both double inlets and inertance tubes are bulky and, in some respects, balky. The double inlet approach requires careful calibration of the bypass flow between compressor and pulse tube. DC flow is possibe, and common. The double inlet does not always work well, or at all. Inertance tubes work well only with relatively large pulse tube coolers running at relatively high speeds. Efficiency of all regenerative coolers remains far below Carnot limits and much more improvement is possible. This proposal applies the magnetocaloric effect to modify flow phasing of a pulse tube cryocooler. It offers a compact, simple improvement with no moving parts.

NOVA MANAGEMENT, INC.
400 Camino Agujito
Monterey, CA 93940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 465-6173
Gerald T. McKindles
BMDO 99-003
Title:Detection of Low Signature Moving Targets by Use of a Backround Detection System (BDS)
Abstract:The detection of low signature moving targets is enhanced and made possible by the application of a technique developed and proven by the Institute of Control Science (ICS) of the Russion Academy of Sciences (RAS). This method has been tested in their laboratory, and in the field using an air defense radar. The Background Detection System (BDS) employs an algorithm developed by ICS/RAS which not only makes detection possible, but also the determination of the targets' dynamic and geometrical parameters. By using two Synthetic Array Radars (SARs) synchronously it is possible to determine the targets' 3D coordinates, and recongnize its' shape. During this program Nova Management, Inc. (Nova) will analyze the applicability of BDS to SAR radar systems, and develop interfaces between them and the BDS algorithm. ICS/RAS will be a subcontractor to Nova, and assist in preparing a simulation of the system. Nova and ICS/RAS currently are teamed together on two on-going DOD contracts. They jointly have experience and capabilities required to successfully achieve outstanding results on bi-national programs. Distribution and access to all data will be in accord with DOD directives, and the specific authorizations of BMDO

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
8A Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2030
Feng Zhou
BMDO 99-003
Title:Novel Electrical Field Sensor Based on Functional Material Coated Optical Fibers
Abstract:Recently NZ Applied Technologies (NZAT) has successfully coated on standard single-mode optical fibers with resistive, piezoelectric, magnetostrictive materials such as Ti/Pt, ZnO, PZT, PLZT, FeCo and Terfenol-D. This technology opens a new area for fiber-optic sensor applications by using the functions provided by these thin film coatings. For examples, resistive coatings can be used to heat an optical fiber, while piezoelectric coatings can be used to strain the fiber. Localized changes in the fiber waveguiding properties can be achieved by electrically activating the fiber coating. These coated fibers show promise for applications such as optical phase shifters, modulators and dynamic fiber Bragg gratings (DFBG) with tunable reflectivity. In this proposal, we will use the coating technique developed by NZ Applied Technologies (NZAT) to demonstrate high sensitive electric field fiber-optic sensors, by combining the advantages of fiber optic sensors with active thin films coatings. The sensitivity of an FBG sensor is expected to be significantly enhanced by using a piezoelectric coating.

PHOTOBIT CORP.
135 N. Los Robles Ave., 7th Floor
Pasadena, CA 91101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 685-5152
Vladimir Berezin
BMDO 99-003
Title:Large Focal Plane Array with Ultra High Density CMOS APS
Abstract:The proposed innovation is the development of a cost efficient, high-resolution CMOS APS digital camera-on-a-chip for ballistic missile defense applications, providing early warning of attack, target detection, classification and tracking. A proprietary innovative APS design allows Photobit to attain the world's smallest pixel size. It is a high performance, low power, compact and cost efficient CMOS image sensor technology that provides resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range competitive with CCDs yet offers significant system advantages. In Phase I, optimal architectures will be investigated to achieve both excellent image quality and a reasonable chip size. The technical feasibility will be studied of obtaining an ultra-high resolution that conforms to 4Kx4K focal plane array with a density of almost 300lines/mm (3.5x3.5mm pixel size), a dynamic range of over 60dB(10bit), a frame rate of up to 30Hz, and an output data flow of around 5Gbit/sec. The main circuitry to implement the 16Mpixel camera-on-a-chip will be designed and simulated. The physical layout of entire imager will be determined. The possibility of increasing the resolution to 400lines/mm (6Kx6K pixel array) by decreasing the pixel size to 2.5x2.5mm using 0.25mm CMOS process will be investigated. Special considerations for on-chip image processing and data coding will be suggested.

PROCOMM ENTERPRISES
2024 Pier Ave.
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 450-9892
Kevin W. Alt
BMDO 99-003
Title:Development of GaN Based Microwave Power Amplifier for X Band Applications
Abstract:The objective of this proposed SBIR is to develop new commercially affordable high power, high efficient microwave power amplifiers based on GaN heterostructure field effect transistors (HFET). Compact, lightweight and efficient microwave power amplifiers are needed for BMDO mobile radar systems application. GaN HFET has been demonstrated under the sponsorship of a BMDO program to have excellent micorwave characterization for X band applications – with much improved power density and thermal characteristics. This technological achievement in GaN based HFET suggests a potential major advance for high efficient, high power microwave amplifiers for application in lightweight phase array radars and mobile communications systems. In Phase I, we will study the design and assess the feasibility of prototyping the amplifier and the potential power performance for BMDO’s applications as well as for other defense and civilian sectors. Our plans also include the follow-on Phase II program in forming a joint business venture with a Los Angeles based company for prototype demonstration. Likewise, we have in plan to work on the manufacture of GaN HEMT’s with a major RF semiconductor manufacturer

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Michael E. Harrell
BMDO 99-003
Title:Wideband SiGe ADC / Q-Dot Research Proposal 9574
Abstract:Q-DOT, together with its commercialization partners (Sanders and SPT) proposes to develop a wide bandwidth, monolithic, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using advanced silicon –germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technology. The state-of-the-art commercially available, wide and ADCs is represented by the SPT7760 : 8 bits at 1 Gs /s with 900 MHz bandwidth. Q-DOT proposes a 10-bit ADC designed to operate at 3.2 Sc s with 2880 MHz bandwidth. At 4.2 W, this monolithic ADC is estimated to dissipate only 75% of the power dissipated by the SPT7760 (i.e., 5.5 W)! Since the ADC’s wafer will be fabricated by IBM on its SiGe BiCMOS production line, its production cost will be comparable to other silicon BiCMOS parts. Both Sanders, A Lockheed Company, and Signal Processing Technologies (SPT) will support the development. SPT offers extensive experience in high-speed folded/interpolated flash ADCs, as well as product insight from a commercial perspective. As a major innovator and producer of radar, communications, etc., for military use, Sanders will guide the program toward insertion into future BMDO systems as well as other military systems. Sanders is sufficiently intrigued with the application of this ADC to military systems that is very interested in investing at least $1 for each $1 BMDO invests under a FasTrack program. SPT has agreed to offer and support the ADC as a catalog item qualified for both commercial and military customers at competitive prices. BMDO support under FasTrack will bring this ADC to market in half the time it would otherwise take to do so. Let’s do it!

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
1420 King Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 989-1896
Coorg R. Prasad
BMDO 99-003
Title:A Rapidly Tunable, High Average Power All Solid State Mid-IR Laser Source
Abstract:Rapidly tunable lasers are essential for diffractive beam steering and for the detection of clandestine chemical emissions, chemical and biological warfare agents as well as concealed combustion engines or rocket propellents from missiles. The success of operation of such detection systems depends critically on the rapid tunability and performance of the proposed laser. We will develop a high repetition rate (~1KHz), frequency agile (3-µm) , rapidly tunable (few KHz), 10mJ/pulse quasi phase-matched optical parametric oscillator (OPO), pumped by a diode pumped Yb: YAG tunable laser. Compactness and broad IR tuning range are obrained by utilizing a fixed PPRTA OPO and tuning the pump wavelength. Rapid tuning in MWIR (3-5-µm) is achieved through rapid tuning of Yb:YAG laser. In the proposed Yb:YAG laser a non-mechanical tuner based on a nonlinear optical crystal is used to obtain high speed tuning without compromising its ruggedness or performance. Employing all solid state technology from the pumping source to frequency tuner to frequency converter the proposed system is truly a versatile laser which can meet the rigor of a battle field or commercial operations. In Phase I, we will demonstrate high energy, rapid tuning, high repetition rate operations. In Phase I, we will demonstrate high energy, rapid tuning, high repetition rate operation of a MWIR OPO pumped by a Yb: YAG laser.

SENTOR TECHNOLOGIES
9467 Manorwood Dr.
Mechanicsville, VA 23116
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 550-0157
Philippe Lam
BMDO 99-003
Title:Development of a Microwave-Based Gamma Radiation Detector (MiRaD)
Abstract:Conventional photo-conductive and scintillation-based detectors have inherent limitations due to the fundamental problems associated with extracting secondary particles (electrons, holes or scintillation photons) from a detection medium. These problems include impurity attachment, low carrier mobility, hole trapping, recombination, electrode capacitance, non-uniform electric fields, poor electrical contacts and self-absorption in scintillators. Recent results by researchers at Sentor Technologies Inc. have demonstrated the potential for an entirely new class of gamma radiation detector based on microwave photo-conductivity. The contactless “MiRaD” detector can detect and quantify gamma-ray interactions in a material without directly collecting secondary particles and promises to offer properties far surpassing anything currently available. The phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed detector technology and will generate performance specifications. This will be accomplished through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental testing.

SMARTPIXEL, INC.
6598 Tealwood Dr.
Lisle, IL 60532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(312) 942-0841
Tae-Seok Lee
BMDO 99-003
Title:Monolithically Integrated Multi-Color Megapixel HgCdTe Infrared Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:The availability of large amount format, multicolor, staring infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA’s) is of utmost importance for DOD mission for the next millennium. Due to its bandgap tunability in the entire IR range and its high quantum efficiency, HgCdTe is the material of choice for multicolor IRFPA’s. However, the development of large HgCdTe IRFPA’s based on current hybrid technology has been seriously impeded by the thermal expansion mismatch between Cd1-xZnxTe substrate and Si readout. In addition, hybrid technology suffers from severe drawbacks. Hence the monolithic integration of HgCdTe photodetectors to the Si readout multiplexer appears to be the most advanced technology for high performance very large IRFPA’s required for 3rd Generation sensors. In this Phase I project, we will design advanced, small pitch, multicolor (SWIR and MWIR), large format (1280 x 960) monolithic HgCdTe FPA’s. We propose also to demonstrate the feasibility of the monolithic integration of HgCdTe photodetectors to a compatible Si CMOS readout multiplexer. In order to achieve this goal, high quality CdTe(111)B and p-on-n SWIR HgCdTe will be grown by MBE on selected areas of high density silicon CMOS readout. Photodiodes will be fabricated and the monolithic integration of arrays in the format of 16 x 1 and 4 x 4 will be achieved.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
Aaron M. Moy
BMDO 99-003
Title:Indium Gallium Arsenide Antimonide Quantum Dot Infrared Detectors
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for better performance in IR detectors operating in the 2-10 micron range. SVT Associates proposes to investigate the application of Indium Gallium Arsenide Antimonide quantum dots (QD) to detectors and imaging arrays operating in this regime. The material structures will be grown using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Quantum confinement offers physical and electrical properties which are potentially advantageous to devices such as detectors. In Phase I, the QD alloy and growth conditions will be explored and characterized, and a prototype QD will be fabricated. In Phase II, detector performance will be refined and imaging arrays will be created based on these QD detectors.

UHV TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
113B West Park Drive
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 608-0311
Nalin Kumar
BMDO 99-003
Title:A Highly Efficient Thermoelectric Cryocooler
Abstract:There is a need for a compact, reliable, long life, low cost, low power consumption and low maintenance cryogenic cooler for infrared cooling applications. Currently available cryogenic systems have unreliable mechanically moving parts leading to less than desired lifetime. The current solid state thermoelectric coolers suffer from low efficiency and limitations on lowest achievable temperatures. We propose an advanced thermoelectric cryocooler concept that uses an innovative approach to combine a standard thermoelectric cooler with rapidly emerging vacuum microelectronic device technology. Most thermoelectric coolers have low efficiency due to the fact that all good thermoelectric materials also have relatively good thermal conductivity resulting in loss of cooling from the cold plate to the hot plate. We propose to increase the efficiency and temperature differential by inserting vacuum microelectronic devices in the n- and p- semiconductor legs of thermoelectric cooler. These devices have the property that they are good electrical conductors while being poor thermal conductors. Thus they act as thermal breaks without significantly affecting the electrical/thermoelectric behavior of the cooler. In Phase-I, we will perform closely coupled theoretical and experimental investigations to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. In Phase-II, we will fabricate and optimize various cooler device structures.

URI
5930 W. Greenway Rd. Ste. 10-165
Glendale, AZ 85306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 978-1034
Graham Walker
BMDO 99-003
Title:Low Cost, Long-Life, Miniature Cryocooler
Abstract:This SmallBusiness Innovation Research Proposal is concerned with research and development of an low cost, compact, light weight, energy-efficient long-life, low maintenance, low mechanical vibration, low electromagnetic induction closed cycle refrigeration capable of providing 100 milliwatts of cooling at 10 K as well as cryogenic cooling at higher temperature. The refrigerator is intended for use with cryogenic sensors, and cold electronic devices, superconducting and semiconducting instruments, Josephson voltage standards and IR imaging cameras for both space-borne and terrestrial applications. The type of refrigerator proposed for development is an innovative novel variant of the two-stage pulse tube refrigerator with warm end expander. The pressure wave generators used for both stages are hydraulically driven diaphragm compressors. Diaphragm expanders are used for both warm end expanders. The expanders operate synchronously with the compressors but lead in phase by approximately one-quarte cycle. The pulse tubes are coaxial with and are enclosed within the regenerator matrices. The regenerator matrices comprise sintered metal powder elements of annular form. Rare earth metal powders are used for the regenerator elements at the lowest temperatures int he second stage. The two stages of the pulse tube generate refrigeration at two temperature levels in the range of 5 - 20 K in one case and 50 - 90 K in the other. The two stages may be deployed in an extended tandem geometry but the alternative folded parallel geometry is generally more convenient.

VIRGINIA MILLIMETER WAVE, INC.
706 Forest St., Suite D
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 295-4994
Philip J Koh
BMDO 99-003
Title:A Novel Interconnection and Assembly System for MMIC Circuits
Abstract:A new interconnection and assembly system is proposed for MMIC-based microwave circuits. This system has the potential to reduce assembly cost while significantly improving interconnect performance and repeatability

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Avenue, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Dr. Vladimir Manasson
BMDO 99-003
Title:Solid-State MMW Source Based on a Mode-Locked Laser Diode
Abstract:WaveBand Corporation proposes to develop a new millimeter-wave (MMW) source compatible with MCM and MMIC technology. The MMW source is based on a specially designed passively mode-locked semiconductor laser (MLSL) with a ring cavity. It does not require coupling out of the radiation produced within the active region of the laser. A coplanar guiding line coupled to the saturable absorber will serve as the MMW probe coupling out the MMW electromagnetic waves produced by the device. The new source promises to be much less expensive than the state-of-the-art MMW sources employing outer MMW cavity and thus will find applications as a local oscillator in sensors, MMW radars, steering antennas, and other MMIC devices.

AMBER WAVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
35 Brick Mill Road
Bedford, NH 03110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 425-1965
Mayank Bulsara
BMDO 99-005
Title:High Efficiency Thin Film Compound Photovoltaic on Si Substrates Using SiGe Interlayers
Abstract:AmberWave proposes to demonstrate its proprietary technology in the epitaxial deposition of high-quality III-V compounds on Si substrates for photovoltaic applications. The technology employs AmberWave’s proprietary SiGe epitaxial layers that allow the lattice mismatch and thermal expansion differences between Ge and Si to be controlled during the growth process. Ge is nearly lattice-matched to GaAs. AmberWave has also developed process control that allows the reproducible growth of antiphase-domain free GaAs/Ge interfaces with minimal interdiffusion. This GaAs/Ge interface control has been developed for molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The result is Ge and GaAs device-quality thin films on Si substrates. AmberWave’s business strategy is to develop high efficiency (.30%) III-V thin film solar cells on Si substrates for satellite power systems. Such cells will be more than 50% lighter than current GaAs/Ge cells which would more than double the power output per unit weight. Such an advance will have great value in BMDO satellite designs since these lighter cells will also decrease mass in other supporting systems. In Phase I, AmberWave proposes to demonstrate its GaAs/SiGe on Si fabrication process on 4-inch Si wafers and evaluate a prototype GaAs solar cell on Si.

AMERICAN SUPERCONDUCTOR CORP.
149 Grove Street
Watertown, MA 02172
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 836-4200
Calman Gold
BMDO 99-005
Title:Exciter and Cryogenic Electronic Regulator for HTS Electrical Machinery
Abstract:A novel brushless exciter and cryogenically operable power electronic current regulator and controls are proposed for electrical machines (motors, generators, magnets), incorporating high temperature superconductor (HTS) windings and coils. The benefits of the approach are both a substantial reduction in the cryogenic cooling power requirement of the machine and a commensurate reduction of cost, system losses, and weight

AMERICAN SUPERCONDUCTOR CORP.
149 Grove Street
Watertown, MA 02172
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 836-4200
Leslie G. Fritzemeier
BMDO 99-005
Title:Non-Vacuum YBCO Thick Film Processing
Abstract:High power density non-nuclear power sources are required for BMDO, TMD and NMD applications. Systems operating at liquid nitrogen temperature using superconducting wire with high engineering current densities will successfully enable these applications. YBCO coated conductors offer the most promise for generator systems but require advances in coating processes to reduce cost and process complexity for high critical current density conductors. A low cost, thick film process incorporating advantages of existing laboratory methods will be demonstrated. This approach combines the demonstrated high critical current densities of the ex situ BaF2 deposition approach with a proven commercial non-vacuum deposition method for production of long lengths of YBCO superconducting tape. The objective of the Phase I and II efforts is development of superior YBCO coated conductor to enable the demonstration of efficient, high power density power systems for airborne use. The Phase I effort will demonstrate that this thick film deposition approach will produce YBCO films with superconducting performance comparable to benchmark vacuum and solution deposition processes. A scaleable manufacturing process for the uniform deposition of the precursor over long lengths of substrate will be demonstrated. The manufacturing robustness and cost benefits of the deposition approach over competing approaches will be assessed.

APPLIED THIN FILMS, INC.
Suite 102, 1840 Oak Ave.
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 491-7805
Ilwon Kim
BMDO 99-005
Title:Engineered Conducting Buffer Layers for High-Temperature Superconductor Coated Conductors
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is proposed to identify and develop new robust buffer layers for superconducting YBCO-coated metal tape technology. The approach is to develop a new conducting buffer layer which we have identified as an excellent template for YBCO growth. This particular buffer composition should allow the growth of an extremely thin, compatible oxide layer which should enhance the deposition of the YBCO. These buffer materials have substantial advantages over conventional oxide buffer layers, including high strength, toughness, electrical and thermal conductivity. The purpose of this Phase I investigation is to develop buffer layers which promote improved YBCO growth, resulting in higher critical currents. The Phase I effort will involve growth of textured buffer layers on biaxially-textured Ni substrates. Additionally, the in-situ growth of thin intermediate stabilization layers between the buffer and YBCO films will be pursued. Suitably thick YBCO layers (up to a micron) will be overgrown on buffer-coated Ni tapes using pulsed laser deposition. Material characterization of the buffer and YBCO layers will be done using x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic susceptibility measurements will be carried out to test their current carrying capacities.

BIPOLAR TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
4724 North Brentwood Circle
Provo, UT 84604
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 225-1974
Narayan Doddapaneni
BMDO 99-005
Title:Non-Precious Metal Macrocyclic Catalysts for O2-Reduction in PEM Fuel Cells
Abstract:Fuel cells offer the potential to dramatically reduce environmental pollution as well as our dependence on foreign oil. They are actively being developed as alternated energy sources for transportation, stationary and military applications. The degradation of oxygen electrode catalysts (e.g., Pt, Ag, and others) and corrosions of carbon substrate make commercialization of present fuel cells economically unattractive. In addition, the fuel (methanol, ethanol) crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathode. In order to eliminate/minimize these effects; alternate inexpensive and stable catalysts are needed. Initial work has shown that metal macrocyclic complexes are promising candidates for improved O2 reduction catalysts in fuel cells, relative to present platinum catalysts. In this proposed program, we will evaluate these complexes in PEM fuel cells. The chemical and electrochemical performance and stability in the fuel cell environment will be examined.

BLUE SKY BATTERIES, INC.
360 N. Third, South Suite
Laramie, WY 82072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(307) 755-6490
John Michael Pope
BMDO 99-005
Title:Molecularly-Engineered Conducting Polymer Cathodes for High Energy Density Rechargeable Lithium Batteries
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research Proposal details the technical and business strategies of Blue Sky Batteries to develop extremely high charge capacity polymers for use as cathodes in rechargeable lithium or lithium-ion based batteries. The weight and packaging savings associated with using these polymer cathodes will translate to reduced mission cost and decreased device profile for missle defense appications. Private sector commercial benefits of using these cathodes include increased portability and flexibility in product design as well as reduced power storage costs

CERAMPHYSICS, INC.
921 Easywind Drive, Suite 110
Westerville, OH 43081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 882-2231
William N. Lawless
BMDO 99-005
Title:Composite Dielectric Insulation for Ni/YBCO/Ag Tapes for Quench Protection
Abstract:A Phase I SBIR program is proposed to develop a dielectric insulation having a large thermal conductivity in the 60-80 K range for the quench protection of Ni/YBCO/Ag tapes. A composite approach will be taken where ceramic powders having a large thermal conductivity are mixed with an organic carrier (either GE 7031 or Formvar) that cures at room temperature (elevated temperatures are avoided to protect the oxygen stochiometry of the YBCO). Thermal conductivities (60-100 K) and thermal expansions (60-300 K) will be measured on candidate composites and downselected composites will be coated on Ni and Ag substrates for thermal cycling tests (300-77 K) and on Ag wires for voltage standoff measurements at 77 K. The specific heat of the final downselected composite will be measured (60-100 K) and the thermal diffusivity determined. The results of the research will be documented.

DAYSTAR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
303 S. Broadway, B-415
Denver, CO 80209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 722-4197
John R. Tuttle
BMDO 99-005
Title:1000 W/kg Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cell Technology
Abstract:This proposal seeks to investigate the possibility of achieving aggressive weight and cost targets for space asset power sources through the use of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology. Daystar Technologies has previously demonstrated copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) thin film PV cells on stainless steel foil with AM1.5 efficiencies in excess of 16%. These performance levels offer the possibility of array specific power in excess of 200 W/kg. Initial flight tests have shown that CIGS is radiation-tolerant in low earth orbit (LEO). In the proposed project, we will address technical issues necessary to prove efficacy of the technology base. This includes cell fabrication processes, cell performance on very lightweight substrates, conceptual packaging design and preliminary space qualification of materials. Successful completion of Phase I will lead to a Phase II proposal where cell packaging, space qualification, module design and manufacturing system design will be completed

DYNAMIC STRUCTURES & MATERIALS, LLC
309 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Jeffrey S.N. Paine
BMDO 99-005
Title:Portable High Efficiency Power Source for Missile Technology
Abstract:DSM is proposing the use of a novel high efficiency AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter) as an increased efficiency power source for space missions and various ground applications. The AMTEC device is very flexible and adapts well to a variety of physical geometries. The proposed system can be easily adjusted and utilized in low earth orbit sensor satellite, or ground based assets. The size and configuration is similar to a battery. A proposed design is an energy converter with the following characteristics: efficiency of 20-40 percent, power to mass ratio greater than 0.5 kW/kg, no moving parts, low maintenance, high durability, efficiency independent of size, modular construction, and ability to use solar heat sources. AMTEC is compatible with many heat and fuel sources. AMTEC unit has high power density at 150 to 450 kilowatts/m3. Predicted cell power densities are near 80 watts per kilogram. AMTEC is environmentally friendly (no residue) and there is minimal risk of operational failure

ELECTRO ENERGY, INC.
19 Hillandale Road
Brookfield, CT 06804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 797-2699
Jack T. Brown
BMDO 99-005
Title:Non-Nuclear Power Sources and Power Conditioning Advanced Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery With New Materials and Design
Abstract:This proposal anticipates research on the development of an advanced battery based on nickel-metal hydride chemistry with a unique new design but more particulary a new light weight, highly efficient, low-cost hydrogen storage material for the battery anode in place of the usual metal hydride alloy. The new material will store large amounts of gaseous hydrogen in carbon nanotubes with a storage capability as high as nine hydrogen atoms per carbon atom. Implication is for a reduction of the weight of the anode electrode by up to 80 percent and a doubling of the nickel-metal hydride battery energy density, which presently used materials, including the LANi5 type hydrogen storage anode alloy has a theoretical upper bound energy density of 215 watt-hours per kilogram. Preliminary results indicate a very stable hydrogen regeneration. Into and out of the nanotube indicating a long life battery system would result. The EEI project would include incorporating the new material as a plastic-bond electrode made by an EEI patented process and incorporated into EEI patented “wafer cell” design. Test cells will be used of a size which would enable a proposed design in the required 0.5 to 5 kw power range.

GLOBAL SOLAR ENERGY, LLC
12401 West 49th Avenue
Wheat Ridge, Co 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 420-1141
Joseph H. Armstrong
BMDO 99-005
Title:Monolithically-Integrated Thin-Film Diode Protection for Flexible CIGS Solar Arrays
Abstract:Photovoltaic (PV) cells are low-voltage devices that must be connected in series to provide suitable voltage for given applications. PV cells generate a photocurrent when exposed to light, but behave like a conventional diode when shaded. Hence, when one or more cells in a string are shaded, they are reverse biased by the remaining operating cells, which heats and potentially damages them. Array protection is especially critical in space where the higher sunlight intensity results in 40% more available power. To protect against damage, PV arrays often incorporate discrete diodes to bypass these cells in case of shading. These diodes require additional installation steps that increase solar array cost and affect reliability. Our flexible, monolithically-integrated thin-film CIGS photovoltaics are survivable in space and exhibit high specific power. Also, monolithically-integrated CIGS arrays are inherently low-cost due to lower material and installation cost. However, to exploit the above advantages, we must also incorporate monolithically-integrated diode protection. In this program, we shall demonstrate a method to incorporate flexible CIGS diode protection, and thus assuring a simple, low-cost, lightweight protected array for space as well as provide a basis for polycrystalline thin-film devices for flexible electrical components and flat panel displays.

HESTON CONSULTING CO., INC.
430 Lebanon Road
West Mifflin, PA 15122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 462-9877
Lawrence J. Long
BMDO 99-005
Title:Superconducting and Cryogenic Stators for Lightweight Cryogenic Generators
Abstract:There is an emerging class of post cold war airborne and groundbased military weapons and surveillance systems that will require unprecedented amounts of electrical power. Unless high power electrical generators are developed that weigh no more than one fifth as much as the lightest available generators, these systems will not be possible. While superconducting generator technology has always promised very lightweight generators, these devices have been too unreliable for military applications. Many of the design problems were caused by using cryogenic rotors with warm (non-cryogenic) stators. Reliable cryogenic generators must use cryogenic stators and cryogenic rotors. Advances in high temperature superconductors (and other cryogenic conductors) may finally allow us to build practical cryogenic generators. This proposed SBIR program will design two one-megawatt cryogenic stators, using state-of-the-art conductor and cooling technology. One stator will be designed for low voltage missions (50-200 volts) and the other will be designed for high voltage missions (10,000-20,000 volts). The two interchangeable cryogenic stators will be designed to mate with a one-megawat HTS cryogenic rotor (being built by Heston Consulting in another BMDO SBIR program) to produce a complete cryogenic generator that is light, inexpensive and reliable enough for military applications.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-2923
Peter Bletzinger
BMDO 99-005
Title:GaN/AlGaN Devices for Space Based Defense Systems
Abstract:The primary technical goal of the proposed program is the development of electronic devices that are capable of satisfying the high-frequency, radiation-tolerant performance requirements of BMDO space-based tracking and surveillance defense systems. The highly skilled team of Dr. Peter Bletzinger (ISSI) and Prof. Hadis Morkos (Virginia Commonwealth University, VCU) has been assembled to accomplish this goal. Phase I should be a three-fold effort: 1) GaN/A1GaN film growth and characterization to demonstrate device quality epi on Si substrates; 2) plasmaetching investigation focusing on a RIE/ICP dual or two-step process, including an effort to investigate environmentally friendly process gas(s) that provide high-vapor pressure Ga-halogen compounds; and 3) details device design, including template design for both A1N and flip-chip configurations

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20955 Morris Ave., P.O.Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 489-4889
Dr. M. Z. A. Munshi
BMDO 99-005
Title:High Energy Density Metallized Film Capacitors
Abstract:This Phase I program is to identify and perform research on novel film dielectric materials capable of being highly energetic with large dielectric constants, exhibiting excellent dissipation factor, indulation resistance, breakdown voltage, reliability and clearing ability. Such film material could also be used for high-rep-rate applications. The novel polymer dielectric material is expected to provide at least three folds improvement in energy storage density compared to what is presently available for PVDF dielectric material. This work will attempt to identify material which are highly energetic and yet more stable than PVDF. The proposed research activities focus on the preparation of these new polymers as well as fabrication, characterization and testing of fully wound capacitors

SIGMA TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
10960 North Stallard Place
Tucson, AZ 85737
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 575-8013
Ali Boufelfel
BMDO 99-005
Title:Ultra-High Energy Density Polymer Film Capacitors
Abstract:Recent developments in ferroelectric film surface modifications hold a greater promise for the development of lighweight ultra high energy density film capacitors. The proposed work will utilize a film structure modification method and several polymer film innovations that have been energy density. In the phase I program, we propose to design and fabricate high voltage, high current (<0.1ms discharge) capacitors, with an energy density of 10-15J/cc, based on existing and proven capacitor technology. The new capacitor design will based on Sigma’s new hybrid treated polymer film technology that allows the production of polymer films that have improved self healing characteristics, higher breakdown strength, lower dielectric absorption and superior thermal and mechanical properties which result in higher current carrying ability. In the Phase I program 25.0µF/5300V parts with energy densities of 10-15J/cc will be produced and tested. In the Phase II program, specific DoD applications will be addressed and capacitors will be produced and delivered for field testing.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES, INC.
120 Centennial Avenue
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-5909
Zane A. Shellenbarger
BMDO 99-005
Title:Greater than 30% Efficient Monolithic Tandem Antimonide TPV Cells
Abstract:The IR Devices, Modules, and Materials Group at Structured Materials Industries (SMI) proposes the development of high efficiency tandem cells based on antimonide materials for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. The structure of this device will be a dual-junction monolithic tandem cell. Working with Sarnoff Corporation, SMI has recently demonstrated a high-efficiency InGaAsSb TPV cell with a cut-off wavelength of 2.3 microns. This cell represents the state-of-the-art with internal quantum efficiencies over 90% at a peak wavelength of 2.0 microns. To significantly improve upon this device, a next generation of dual junction tandem TPV cells with conversion efficiencies in the range of 30 to 40% need to be developed. The innovation of the proposed program will be development of the first tandem cells for TPV applications that provide greater than 30% energy conversion efficiency. In the Phase I program, we will determine the most promising structure for a high-efficiency tandem TPV cell, building upon our existing InGaAsSb device for the bottom cell. Experimental work will utilize our existing epitaxial growth and processing technologies for fabricating these devices. When fully developed, this technology will result in a significantly higher performance, lower weight, cost-effective improvement for low temperature TPV generating systems.

SUNPOWER CORP.
435 Indio Way
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 991-0910
Pierre J. Verlinden
BMDO 99-005
Title:Point-Contact Silicon Photovoltaic Cell for Space Applications
Abstract:SunPower proposes a high-efficiency, radiation-tolerant, thin silicon photovoltaic cell for space power generation. Compared to competing III-V (GaAs) photovoltaic cells, this cell is expected to provide nearly equivalent output power at about one-quarter of the cost. Based on preliminary simulations, we expect that the cell will achieve 18.8% beginning-of-life (BOL) AMO efficiency. Using SunPower’s experimentally validated degradation models for lifetime surface recombination velocity, and emitter saturation current, we predict 15.7% end-of-life (EOL) efficiency after 1E15/cm2 of 1 MeV electron irradiation. At EOL, the cell is expected to provide over 80% of its BOL output power, making it as, or more, radiation tolerant than a typical GaAs/Ge cell. The specific power of this cell is projected to be more than 1.0 kW/kg at EOL, which is significantly, better than competing III-V cells. The cell design incorporates very thin float-zone (FZ) wafers with back-side point-contacts, similar to photovoltaic cells SunPower has commercialized for solar airplane and terrestrial concentrator applications. Phase I will fund process development, fabrication of prototype cells, and preliminary radiation tolerance testing

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-1194
Sherry Zhu
BMDO 99-006
Title:High Performance Nanocomposites for Extreme Thermal Environments
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop an entirely new polymer/inorganic nanocomposites. New polymer melt processing technology which incorporates conventional extrusion processes will be developed for producing these new polymer/inorganic nanocomposites. The new process will involve organophilic modification of layered minerals, promotion of polymer melt intercalation, and reaction processing to produce the nanocomposites. The new materials will be thoroughly characterized by morphological analysis and mechanical testing. The new nanocomposites will be especially useful for both of cryogenic and high temperature applications, can be inexpensively produced, and will offer important improvements in polymer composite material’s mechanical, thermal and chemical properties. There is an immediate application for these composites in liquid rocket engine components if they can be shown to meet the cryogenic and permeability requiremetns. The Phase I will aim to demonstrate feasibility of the innovative materials and new process, test properties of these new materials, and provide a baseline leading toward commercialization.

BURLEIGH INSTRUMENTS, INC.
Main Street
Fishers, NY 14453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 924-9355
David Arthur Henderson
BMDO 99-006
Title:Piezoelectric Spherical Pointing System (PSPS) for Microsatellite Electric Thrusters
Abstract:A Piezoelectric Spherical Pointing System (PSPS) is proposed for electric microsatellite thrusters. This two-axis pointing system uses a single spherical shell that allows direct bearing support, actuation, and position measurement from a single spherical surface. When compared to a classical nested gimbal design the PSPS; (1) requires fewer parts, (2) needs fewer flex cables and lines, (3) is smaller and lighter for the same performance, (4) can use small and low power piezoelectric motors, (5) holds off-power position and is less susceptible to overload torque damage, (6) has symmetric dynamic response, (8) requires minimal launch caging locks, and (9) uses simple linear position encoders to measure angle. Integrating the PSPS with a Hall effect thruster creates an optimized thruster and pointing system for small lightweight satellites (MicroSats and NanoSats). Hall effect thrusters offer significant performance advantages for satellite orbit insertion, orbit transfer, station keeping, attitude control, and de-orbiting. Significant miniaturization and improvement of MicroSat propulsion systems has already been completed which has reduced the wet mass of a satellite. The objective of this project is to demonstrate additional weight savings in the thruster pointing system and bring the full concept of a NanoSat one step closer to reality.

CERAMIC COMPOSITES, INC.
1100 Benfield Blvd
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Walter Zimbeck
BMDO 99-006
Title:Freeform Fabrication of Lightweighted Rhenium Components
Abstract:Development of a stereolithography-based fabrication technique is proposed that will enable lower cost fabrication of complex shaped, high strength rhenium components. In addition, an innovative design approach will be developed that utilizes the capability of stereolithography to fabricate complex internal structures. Cellular architectures will be designed based on predicted thermal and mechanical stresses in use and will be built such that the mass efficiency of the rhenium component is optimized. Lightweighting of rhenium components by 30% - 70% is anticipated. Phase I will focus on achieving strengths in test specimens comparable to conventionally processed rhenium. Sample characterization will include density, tensile strength and microstructure.

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Avenue
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Kurt Baum
BMDO 99-006
Title:Unusual Route to Difluoramino Compounds useful as Rocket Propellant Ingredients
Abstract:BMDO has a continuing need for advanced propulsion technologies for both TMD and NMD applications. A particularly critical requirement is for rocket propellants with higher performance than state-of-the-art materials. The ability to intercept ballistic or tactical missiles puts a premium on the accelerating power of propulsion systems. It is known that the difluoramino group is superior to other common oxidizing functional groups as a source of combustion energy in combination with hydrocarbon or metallic fuels. With boron-based fuels, BOF is formed, which is non-condensable. The elimination of two-phase flow losses can result in 3-4% increase in performance. It has been difficult, however, to devise synthetic schemes for the preparation of propellant ingredients containing difluoramino groups that have sufficient overall content of oxidizing groups to meet formulation requirements. Under the proposed program, a little-studied method for the preparation of compounds with difluoramino and nitro groups will be elaborated for the synthesis of practical propellant ingredients. The overall simplicity of the approach means that useful target compounds can potentially be attained at substantially lower cost than those using methods currently under intensive study

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Avenue
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Kurt Baum
BMDO 99-006
Title:High Performance Azidonitro Plasticizers
Abstract:Advanced propulsion technologies are needed by BMDO for both TMD and NMD applications. The ability to intercept ballistic or tactical missiles puts a premium on the accelerating power of propulsion systems, and consequently on the energy content of propellant ingresients. Under the proposed program, a little-studied method for the preparation of compounds containing azido and nitro will be utilized for the preparation of higher performance solid propellant ingredients. An important advantage imparted by azides is that optimum performance is achieved at relatively low flame temperatures, with increased ballistic control. Thus, nozzle erosion is reduced while desirable high expansion ratios are maintained. The stability properties of the products will be examined to determine if the materials meet the requirements of propellant ingredients

HI-Z TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7606 Miramar Road, Suite 7400
San Diego, CA 92126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 695-6660
Norbert B. Elsner
BMDO 99-006
Title:Development of Low Cost Ceramics: For use at 3700-4900F(2038-2704C)(Phase I)/For use at 4900-6200F(2704-3427C)(Phase I Option
Abstract:A program is presented for developing ceramic materials for operation at 3700-4900 F (2038-2704 C) with non-aluminized propellants and at 4900-6200 F (2704-3427 C) with aluminized propellants. At the lower temperature range the promising HfBx-HfCy-SiC-XX compositions will be evaluated where XX are rare earth borides such as YB2. These alloys (without XX) exhibited very good performance in arc jet (low pressure) evaluation and must now be evaluated in a rocket engine environment (high pressure). At the higher temperature range, TaC will be evaluated along with HfC for comparison. No data is available on TaC in this particular temperature range and pressure.

JOHNSON ROCKETS, INC.
359 Fairview Drive
Carson City, NV 89701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 885-0139
Curtis W. Johnson
BMDO 99-006
Title:Emission Reduction through Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Real Engine Effects (REE)
Abstract:Missile defense systems rely heavily on plume signature recognition to help identify and neutralize hostile missiles. Unfortunately, plume signature modeling has proven to be extremely difficult, with modelers struggling to obtain good agreement between predictions and data. The modeled exhaust conditions display a significant lack of fidelity as compared to the actual constituents exiting the engine. In particular, soot concentration, which as a continuum radiator in the IR spectrum is extremely important to good signature prediction, varies considerably within the plume because it is dependent upon the soot producing, fuel-rich regions in the exhaust. Fuel-rich regions have proven especially difficult to model. Johnson Rockets, along with the Naval Postgraduate School, has been developing methods for accurately predicting soot concentrations in exhaust plumes. Expansion of this work will vastly increase both the modeling capabilities of the chemical kinetics of hydrocarbon combustion and our understanding of O/F variation in the combustion chamber. Increasing our modeling capabilities with respect to these combustion phenomena will provide methods for predicting soot production that are essential for plume recognition modeling

NEW ENGLAND SPACE WORKS, INC.
24 Swift Road
Framingham, MA 01702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 626-0467
Lynn B. Olson
BMDO 99-006
Title:Plume Control in the RF Plasma Thruster
Abstract:New England Space Works proposes to magnetically control the thrust plume from an RF plasma thruster. Two issues will be addressed, plume divergence and thrust direction. Plume divergence is controlled by the point in the exhaust where the plasma breaks free of the magnetic field lines. The physical model for the thrust divergence will be verified, then used to design a unique magnetic circuit to minimize divergence. The use of magnetic coils to change thrust direction without use of gimbals will also be examined. This work will enhance the RF plasma thruster, uniquely suited for low power operation because it does not have the hollow cathode propellant losses of gridded ion and Hall thrusters, nor the propellant loss at end of pulse of the PPT.

ADVANCED REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGIES
P.O.Box 1361
Boulder, CO 80306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 447-2917
Ran Yaron
BMDO 99-007
Title:Bubble Refrigerator
Abstract:Advanced Refrigeration Technologics, Inc. proposes to BMDO a dual use opportunity for a core technology devices. Device capable to convert efficiently electrical power to mechanical work at over 50 W/mm3, which is over l,000 times higher then any other motor, piezoelectric or smart material. The entire device will be constructed with micro-machining technologies used in the semiconductor industry resulting in micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) few mm in size running at 100,000 Hz and comparable in refrigeration power to conventional refrigerator more than 1,000 times in size.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Avenue
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-4572
Wei T SHIH
BMDO 99-007
Title:Novel Composites for Microelectronic Packaging Applications
Abstract:By selectively converting the carbon matrix of high conductivity C-C to SiC, a CTE tailored Hi-K thermal management material will be developed. Recycled A/C brake C-C and proven one-step low-cost Hi-K C-C will be selected for the proposed development activity. Used brake material will be further processed to maximize its thermal conductivity. Samples will be machined and CVR converted to silicon carbide. The resulting surfaces will be characterized. The compatibility and thermal performance between these materials and chip packaging substrates will be demonstrated. Technology and production cost will be assessed at the end of Phase I. These information will serve as the foundation for the Phase II proposal. In Phase II, the conversion process, the surface roughness, the efficiency of machining and many other related issues will be further studied. The source of worn C-C brake will be identified and secured for possible production. The conversion process will also be scaled up. It is anticipated that real applications, both at chip level and at MCM packaging level, will be identified and prototype components will be fabricated and evaluated for both military and commercial applications

ENERGY SCIENCE LABORATORIES, INC.
10955 John J. Hopkins Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 552-2039
Christopher Lawrence Seam
BMDO 99-007
Title:High Conductance Thermal Interface
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project investigates a concept for improving the total thermal conductance between interfacing components by an order of magnitude over conventional thermal gaskets and adhesives. The developed interface gaskets will have ultra-high conductance, high compliance, and low outgassing. They will work well in vacuum and when interfacing components with nonflat surfaces, large gaps, and/or significant CTE mismatch. They will have simple attachment and removal procedures. The concept relies on novel compliant materials that have high interfacial conductance at low contact pressure between surfaces that need not be flat. These materials should lead to significant weight savings by eliminating the need for heavy stiffeners and clamping mechanisms. Phase I effort shall aim at fabricating test specimens which demonstrate the concept. Thermal and mechanical testing will be performed to demonstrate performance. Phase II would further develop the materials for use in spacecraft, missile, and commercial thermal control systems

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 631-3550
Lawrence R. Grzyll
BMDO 99-007
Title:A High-Efficiency, Low-Power, Two-Phase Pumped Loop (MEC Proposal No. 901LG2003)
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I research is to design, fabricate, and test a high-efficiency, low-power, two-phase pumped loop. This high-efficiency, low-power, two-phase pumped loop will use a unique two-phase working fluid pair that offers the capability of higher efficiency and lower pumping power because of its heat of solution characteristic. This heat of solution characteristic, combined with the latent heat of vaporization, significantly increases the cooling capacity of the working fluid, resulting in significantly lower flow rates required for a given cooling load, decreasing the pumping power required. The Phase I effort will analyze various working fluid pairs, select the optimum fluid pair, design and fabricate a two-phase pumped loop test stand, and compare the performance of the two-phase pumped loop operating with the working fluid pair to the performance of the same loop operating with two-phase single-component fluid alone

MS TECHNOLOGY
7922 Avenida Kirjah
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 558-6363
Dr. Saeid Ghamaty
BMDO 99-007
Title:Low Cost High Performance Heat Removal Device
Abstract:Future chip and board level electronics or optoelectronics will require innovative heat removal solutions to enable them to meet size, weight, power, high reliability, and low cost. Commonly, these approaches are based on efficient 2-D and 3-D arrangements of electronics, often involving "multi-chip modules" (MCMs). As chips are brought closer together, the area/volume power densities and, therefore, heat increases. MS Technology (MST) proposes a new type of heat removal modular device, which will solve electronic packaging problems of future large scale device electronic and optoelectronics systems, like MCMs. This new approach removes the generated heat by first converting it to electricity which could be dissipated in a shunt resistor far from the device or supplement the main system power supply. This supplementary power source further increases reliability, reduces cost and weight of the entire system. MST will evaluate and develop conceptual designs for this new device that should provide significant thermal management improvements compared to the thermal management techniques used in heat removal approaches now. MST will conduct proof of concept demonstrations to indicate the practicality of such techniques for use in device electronic systems. A low cost high performance heat removal modular device, will find commercial application in projects of interest to government, industry and academia, especially with respect to commercial applications. It is also possible in certain circumstances to find applications in other domains, where large amounts of dense circuitry can be confined with limited air flow boundary conditions.

SIERRA-NEVADA RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
688 Tumbleweed Circle
Incline Village, NV 89451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 784-6714
Sandra Chandra
BMDO 99-007
Title:Endothermic/ Exothermic Composites for Thermal Management
Abstract:Sierra-Nevada Research and Development, Inc. proposes to develop a composite material for the production of high performance, compact heat exchange devices. The composite will have a relatively high thermal conductivity coupled with a very high effective heat capacity. This technology will allow for the design of small, high-performance heat exchange devices that are insensitive to variations in heat load: are inexpensive to manufacture, and: are more universally applicable than conventional heat exchangers because the composite can readily be made to conform to complex shapes. Furthermore, since liquids or gases are not involved, the thermal performance of this material will be insensitive to g-loading or ambient pressure level. Because of the high thermal performance that can be achieved, exchange devices or structures can be designed for applications where: spatial or temporal temperature uniformity is required (such as with phased array radar antennas), or high localized cooling is required (spot cooling of power electronics)

THERMAL MANAGEMENT & MATERIALS TECH
4664 Vista De La Tierra
Del Mar, CA 92014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 481-2348
Daniel L. Vrable
BMDO 99-007
Title:Thermally Enhanced Lightweught Antenna Enclosure
Abstract:An innovative lightweight antenna enclosure for ground-based radar system operation at 240 K is proposed. The research offers solutions to improved antenna performance, enhanced thermal cooling, control of ice formation and reduced enclosure mass. The advanced T/R enclosure design uniquely integrates a lightweight resin matrix composite material and high thermal conductivity aluminum cold plate. The enclosure mass will be reduced by 20-30% from an all-metal design. The integrally cooled aluminum cold plate will be thermally tailored to match the local heat flux of the cooled T/R modules and electronic components operating at 240 K. The enclosure design will address the potential of ice formation on the enclosure exterior. The 240 K operation improves the efficiency and rf radar power output of the antenna, which reduces the number of antenna modules, the overall system mass and volume and the prime power requirements. The research incorporates micro-channel cooling to achieve high heat transfer coefficients and high heat transfer surface area and incorporates tailored composite material thermal conductivities to address issues of ice formation. These features are integrated within a lightweight hybrid composite/metal enclosure that houses the T/R modules and electronics

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-1199
M. Albert Capote
BMDO 99-008
Title:Spray-On, Low Temperature Sintered Metallic Coatings For Electromagnetic Shielding
Abstract:There is an emerging need within military electronics for protection of electronics from the adverse effects of high power electromagnetic radiation. The Department of Defense has a requirement to ensure survivability of key military C3 and weapons systems against the effects of electromagnetic weapons threats. What is needed is an electromagnetic hardening technology that is lightweight yet offers high shielding effectiveness and can be integrated into the system design, is low-cost, field-expedient, and transparent to the user. Transient liquid phase sintered (TLPS) conductive inks, now emerging as a low-cost approach to fabrication of printed wire boards, will fit all of these requirements if low-cost application methods, reduced cure/sinter temperatures and improved electromagnetic shielding properties can be achieved. TLPS inks comprise a combination of polymers and metal powders that fuse together at low temperatures to form a continuous metallic layer that bonds to common substrate materials. The objective of this proposed effort is to develop a spray-applied electromagneticpaint-shield with superior shielding that sinters and cures at temperatureswell below those of current TLPS inks. This conductive paint will allow low-cost shielding to be applied to just about any electronic device.

EIDEA LABS, INC.
7617 Little River Turnpike, Suite 1000
Annandale, VA 22003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 354-9350
Raphael C. Malveaux
BMDO 99-010
Title:A Component Simulation Framework for Missile Defense
Abstract:In general the models and simulations currently used in BMDO are stovepipe solutions to a particular set of engineering problems and as such do not interoperate under any type of common architecture or framework. They are thus fidelity and data-centric as a function of the individual model, in general need to have artificial "gateways" to comply with architecture standards such as the DoD High Level Architecture (HLA) and are not well integrated with the measurements which serve as their anchor points to the real world. The evolution and maturation of a number of new Information Technologies including Semantic Component Technology, which enables simulation components to be autonomously built, the CORBA standard which facilitates true integration, coupling, distribution and interoperability among distributed components, and of mobile agents such as Java, XML, and KQML which facilitate event-based decision support can be integrated to address this common architecture problem. The Component Simulation Framework (CSF) proposed here will develop a blueprint for a general simulation service-centric architecture based on an innovative meta-model, use the above technologies to implement this architecture, and demonstrate a prototype missile defense implementation of this simulation architecture.

ENVISAGE, INC.
4950 Corporate Drive, Suite 105B
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-4000
Douglas E. Meyer
BMDO 99-010
Title:Rapid Threat Deployment and Simulation (RTDS) System For NMD BMC3 Software System Testing
Abstract:During NMD BMC3 system development, the generation of simulated threats is a cumbersome and time-consuming process. Weeks are often involved with the construction of a single threat scenario, and once constructed, the scenario becomes a static sequence of actions applied against the defense system in a software-based simulation. What is required is a system capable of rapid generation, injection and adjustment of simulated threats into a BMC3 system exercise. Such a system would provide an efficient mechanism through which a human operator, aware of the current state (and weaknesses) of the defense system under test and charged with the task of thwarting it, could rapidly inject or adjust a threat in an attempt to overcome the system. Such testing is necessary to insure the robustness of the BMC3 system. Envisage shall design and develop what will hereafter be referred to as the Rapid Threat Deployment and Simulation (RTDS) system. Using COTS speech recognition software and leveraging off of existing corporate expertise in the areas of visualization and computer graphics, the system will integrate graphical data displays, high-level natural language processing and ballistic flight models to allow an operator to verbally specify, inject and adjust simulated threat entities in real-time.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
1715 Glastonberry Road
Rockville, MD 20854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
ChiMan Kwan
BMDO 99-010
Title:A Novel Video Compression Technique Using Wavelets for Distributed Command and Control Applications
Abstract:In distributed command and control applications, video can provide significant help in terms of interpersonal communications, intelligence gathering, resource management, and other military functions. However, the available bandwidth is very limited in battlefield that necessitates the use of video compression. Current standards such as MPEG-1 (Motion Pictures Experts Group) can only achieve a compression ratio of 400, i.e. from 472 Mbps to 1.2 Mbps. There are I (Intracoded), P (Predictive), B (Bidirectional), and D (DC-coded) frames in MPEG-1. Although D-frames are not necessary for military application since they are mainly used for fast-forward function in VCRs. Thus one can eliminate D-frames to save some bandwidths. This is still not enough. The aim of this Phase 1 research is to develop a new technique that can achieve a compression ratio of 1000:1 so that it is feasible to use video in military command and control applications. Here Intelligent Automation Incorporated (IAI) and Boston University propose a new overlapping block transform based wavelet coder (OBTWC) to compress video images. The objective is to reduce the transmission time without sacrificing too much the performance of the image quality. Wavelet technology is a promising technique for image compression. Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) has adopted a Wavelet Scalar Quantization technique to compress all fingerprints in its headquarter in Washington DC. FBI's technique achieves compression ratio of 18:1. We have applied our proposed new technique to fingerprint image compression. Our approach can achieve 26:1 with the same quality as the FBI coder. Therefore, we strongly believe that our algorithm can achieve 1000:1 compression ratio if we replace the DCT coding scheme in MPEG-1 by our OBTWC scheme.

NUTECH ENGINEERING
7005 E. Spring St.
Long Beach, CA 90808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 420-2247
Thomas H. Weight
BMDO 99-010
Title:Enforcing System Contracts in Hardware
Abstract:NuTech Engineering is proposing to apply the new concept of “Design by Contract” to help in the system test and integration problems. “Design by Contract” allows test engineers to specify system requirements in the form of software which is downloaded to a special test monitor. This test monitor resides on the system processor chip but runs separately from the system processor. The test module runs in a non-interference mode that allows the system processor to run at full speed. System contacts are extremely versatile and can be used to effectively support many different types of requirements. For example, “Design by Contract” provides a powerful interface that allows the engineer to control and test the system. Since the “Design by Contract” contracts are requirements, they are less subject to design and implementation errors. These contracts are enforced by the on-board test module. When a contract is violated, the test module takes appropriate action. During test, this action may consist of outputting trace or other information to the test operation. During flight operations, the results of a failure could be remedial actions providing a well defined approach to obtaining fault-tolerance

OBJECT SERVICES & CONSULTING, INC.
6111 Baywood Ave.
Baltimore, MD 21209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 755-7581
Venu Vasudevan
BMDO 99-010
Title:Smart Data Channels
Abstract:The goal of this effort is to develop a battlefield information dissemination system that facilitates warfighter access to filtered, personalized, current information. Previously implemented systems (e.g.pager, radio based) are expensive to construct, and require the warfighter to carry bulky receiving equipment. The web provides a cheap and lightweight infrastructure for access, but does not inherently support functions of aggregating and filtering data from heterogeneous sources. This phase I effort proposed the Smart Data Channel approach to building a web-based information dissemination system using commercially available technologies. In this approach, the information dissemination policy is specified as a collection of Smart Data Channels (SDC), objects that map information sets from heterogeneous information sources to the warfighter functions that need them. Warfighters access this channelized information space by “logging in” (or tuning in) to a channel that they have authorization for. They then receive a continuous, personalized data feed. Phase I efforts will demonstrate the feasibility of an SDC-based dissemination system. Phase II efforts will focus on a system that is scalable to large warfighter communities, and adapts to changing battlefield situations and mission goals.

QUALITY RESEARCH, INC.
4901-D Corporate Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 864-8222
Lawrence A. Tubbs
BMDO 99-010
Title:A 3D Pointer for Volumetric and Other Virtual 3D Environments
Abstract:This project will produce a 3D Pointer for "fishbowl 3D" and volumetric 3D displays. Virtual 3D displays using 2D devices have become standard tools for simulations. These displays can provide virtual environments where users may train for complex tasks. Alternatively, developers have made significant progress toward realistic 3D displays using several volumetric display techniques. Both fishbowl and volumetric displays have great potential for application to command and control (C2) functions. C2 application of these technologies awaits the development of a simple, "drag-and-drop" mechanism usable by the average business manager. Digital appendages and 3D controllers have provided tools for expert computer users. These devices are either: expensive and cumbersome to the user (digital gloves and head-mounted displays); or require complex motions and mode changes (3D mice and 3D joysticks). What is lacking is a technology for pointing, selecting, and moving objects in 3D environments, taking advantage of the human instinct to select by pointing and the current generation's expertise in "drag-and-drop" methods. Integrating commercial 3D technologies and developing software drivers, the project will produce a pointing device for 3D targeted to real-world managers. The device will be suited for object control in the fishbowl and volumetric 3D displays.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
99 South Bedford Street, #7
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Matthew Braunstein
BMDO 99-010
Title:The Computation of Nonthermal Chemical Rates for Highly Energetic Systems
Abstract:Highly energetic chemical processes, such as exothermic reactions and high velocity collisional excitation, play critical roles in many military and commercial applications. However, it is usually difficult due to time and/or length scales, or impractical due to the high cost of experiments, to properly characterize such chemistry. Computational chemistry methods and computing power have matured rapidly over the past decade to provide fast and reliable methods for computing reaction rates for many systems which would be difficult or impossible to measure. Several innovations are proposed to extend these methods to the high energy and non-equilibrium environments required for plume signature calculations. The overall Phase I goal is to develop the methodology to calculate velocity-dependent reaction cross sections for processes leading to IR/UV radiation from high altitude missile systems. Specific technical objectives are: (1) Apply an electronic structure code to determine molecular energies and structures along a prototype reaction path, (2) Develop and apply chemical dynamics codes to compute reaction rate constants, (3) Validate the technical approach for calculating the reaction rate properties by comparing with available laboratory and field data

THE ATHENA GROUP, INC.
3424 N.W. 31 Street
Gainesville, FL 32605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-2567
Jonathon D. Mellott
BMDO 99-010
Title:An FFT/Correlation Accelerator Technology (FCAT)
Abstract:BMDO has been entrusted with the responsibility of protecting citizens and assets from missile attack. Many of the systems developed under BMDO’s TMD and NMD focus areas require high speed correlation, often in a compact package. The performance requirements of high-end BMDO correlation-centric applications (e.g., target recognition/registration, control) often exceed the capabilities of the existing technology base. In response to this challenge, the FFT/Correlation Accelerator Technology (FCAT) is proposed. FCAT is a revolutionary enabling technology, based on the proposer’s advanced ASAP technology currently being developed under a NIST ATP award in partnership with VLSI Technology, Inc. ASAP has been demonstrated to be an ideal technology for implementing complex multiply-accumulate algorithms, such as a correlator. In Phase I, it is shown that ASAP is fully capable of performing Fourier transforms and correlation at speeds which are at least 8× to 16× faster than currently available from existing DSP processors with the same silicon investment. The Phase I study will begin the FCAT implementation process, and will result in the design definition and integration of the core element of the FCAT technology. An optional Phase I study will position FCAT for implementation as a COTS CBIC in Phase II.

WOLFBANE TECHNOLOGIES
69 McAdenville Rd.
Belmont, NC 28012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 807-4219
Roger Bane
BMDO 99-010
Title:A System for the Thermal Control of Integrated Circuits
Abstract:A system is designed to protect integrated circuits and other electronics from excessive temperatures. The system will allow the use of electronics devices with greater heat dissipation requirements while at the same time preventing damage or dysfunction of the devices if their local temperature exceeds the recommended operating temperature. The design is applicable to a wide variety of electronic systems including standard computer motherboards and high density multi-chip modules (MCMs). It is directly applicable to existing commercial systems with a minimum of engineering changes. The system will add less than 0.1 cubic inches of new material to the electronics package. Further proprietary technical details are given in a “Proprietary Technical Brief” at the top of page 3.

ADVANCED SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES
1505 North Main Street
Mount Holly, NC 28120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 812-5784
Forrest Gregg McIntosh
BMDO 99-011
Title:Ultra-fast AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum well optical switches for terabit communications
Abstract:Optical time division multiplexed networks for multi-terabit communication links require ultra-fast all optical switches to be feasible. This program will demonstrate an enabling technology, intersubband transitions in AlyGa1-yN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), that will permit the construction of terabit/sec switches at telecommunication wavelengths. The ultra-fast nature of the intersubband transition (~80 fs) is approximately three orders of magnitude faster than the carrier lifetime, and the wide band gap of the nitride materials offer advantages that make similar intersubband devices constructed out of other material systems impractical. All of these transitions and devices discussed are viable at room temperature. The thrust of this Phase I proposal is to validate the materials science that will enable the above technological applications. The proposed growth method for these structures, Atomic Layer Epitaxy (ALE), has distinct advantages over other more standard growth methods, including precision control of layer thickness and uniformity. Upon verification of the optical properties, optical switches will then be fabricated and characterized. The principal investigators will use their combined and extensive experience in the ALE growth technique, and nitride material characterization to demonstrate AlyGa1-yN/GaN (0.7 < y < 1.0) multiple quantum wells (MQWs) that exhibit intersubband transitions at telecommunications infrared wavelengths.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC
48-12 Briarwood Lane
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-6634
Sergei Krivoshlykov, Dr.
BMDO 99-011
Title:All-Optical Components for Signal Processing
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop an innovative component for all-optical signal processing. The nonlinear component will be capable to operate as all-optical transistor, modulator, sampler and quantizer. It can also be used in new bistable optical device configurations. Two types of new nonlinear materials will be incorporated in the system design: (1) recently demonstrated dye-doped nematic liquid crystals with extraordinary large nonlinearity and (2) semiconductor materials with dramatically enhanced nonlinearity. A revolutionary technology for fabrication of semiconductor materials which nonlinearity is increased in 10²-10³ times providing sensitivity of 1m W/mm² will be developed and used in the device design. An all-fiber-in-line version of the component uses resonance evanescent coupling between a side polished single-mode fiber and a high-index multimode nonlinear waveguide. In a compact integrated optical version of the components, the developed technology will be used for selective processing of semiconductor based Mach-Zehnder modulators and directional couplers in order to enhance their nonlinearity. Phase I of the program will address to developing and demonstrating the proposed technology for fabrication of the all-optical components. In Phase II, the all-fiber-in-line and integrated optical versions of the device will be developed, fabricated and tested with the final product delivered to BMDO.

AMERICAN PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
218 Wilder St., #31
Lowell, MA 01851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 452-9293
Jaspal Singh
BMDO 99-011
Title:High Speed 2x2 Optical Switch for Optical Signal Processing
Abstract:In advanced computers optical fibers would be used to achieve high performance intra communications. Thus there would be need for a dynamic NxN optical switches to route the optical signal to an appropriate destination. This SBIR’s Phase I, research will focus on the development of an advanced 2x2 optical switch. This optical switch will operate at 1.55 microns light wavelength. Our proposed optical switch will be made on InP based semiconductor. To overcome coupling losses switching device will be engineered in such a way that it combines optical signal switching with optical gain in the switch. This 2x2 optical switch would have a net, fiber to fiber gain. Thus can be used as a building block to achieve loss less NxN array of optical switches. Optical switches would be wavelength independent covering 40nm optical bandwidth of the material gain. Switching time for this device would be lesser than 5-nsecs. The device would have the extinction ration and cross talk levels as needed by the BMDO

COMPUTER OPTICS, INC.
120 Derry Rd
Hudson, NH 03051
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 889-2116
Jonathan S. Kane
BMDO 99-011
Title:Analog Phase Tunable MEMS Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:Computer Optics Inc. proposes to develop an optically addressed spatial light modulator (SLM) based on Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology. The SLM is driven electrostatically so that it draws virtually no power and provides pure analog phase modulation. Analog phase modulation allows true signal processing in the Fourier domain which exceeds that possible with current binary modulators. Most significantly the mirror motion is approximately 2 microns which corresponds to 6pi depth of modulation at 632.8 nanometers or 3 times that provided by today’s technology. The device is formed from a pixelated array of piston driven micro-mirrors each with a restoring spring made from polysilicon. The MEMS array planarity is dependent on the substrate which is nominally lambda/5 but will be significantly improved by a factor of four with COI’s precision polishing techniques. Planarity is essential in phase modulators when working with optical signal processing since any departure represents systematic error. In order to contain costs we will use standard Commercial Off The Shelf processes to manufacture the device. All the drive circuitry and sensor arrays will be manufactured separately using CMOS technology. The result is that processing algorithms can be implemented directly into the integrated circuit for pennies per chip.

DISCOVERY SEMICONDUCTORS, INC.
186 Princeton-Hightstown Road, Bldg. 3A, Box 1
Cranbury, NJ 08512
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 275-0011
Abhay Mahadeo Joshi
BMDO 99-011
Title:100 GHz Radio Frequency (RF) Optical Interconnects and Free Space Data Links
Abstract:A new type of miniature and light weight, 100 GHz Radio Frequency (RF), optical interconnects and free space data links are proposed. To achieve this goal, we will use our advanced, InGaAs / InP detector - amplifier MMIC Opto-electronic Integrated Circuits (OEICs). In Phase I, we will design and simulate a new class of 100 GHz, InGaAs / InP detector - amplifier - planar antenna OEICs as a RF emitter module, and a new type of 100 GHz InGaAs / InP planar antenna - amplifier - detector Millimeter Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuits (MMICs) as a receiver module for the free space RF data links. In a potential Phase II, we will continue the development by fabricating and characterizing the new components designed in Phase I, and set-up a RF data link system to connect several high performance computers. Dr. Arthur Paolella of Lockheed Martin's Communication & Power Center will consult

EAGLE OPTOELECTRONICS, INC.
223 Powderhorn Trail
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 492-6707
Stephen Seung Huh
BMDO 99-011
Title:Optical Interconnection Network
Abstract:We propose to build a high-performance, moderate cost optical multicomputer system using commodity Intel PC workstations and previous SBIR-funded optical computing technologies -PicoLight, Inc., VCSEL short wavelength transceivers, with long wavelength transceivers in future development -Eagle Optoelectronic, LLC., deflection routing board, with future direct PicoLight, Inc., VCSEL interfaces into the board Included in the optical computing system will be complete software support from the application to the device driver levels to ensure complete system functionality

ELO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3205 Ocean Park Blvd. Suite #120
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 452-6688
Alex Pike
BMDO 99-011
Title:Epitaxial Liftoff for an Integrated MEMS-Tunable WDM Optical Detector
Abstract:This effort shall develop a product for high speed, high data throughput Wavelength Division Multiplexing optical networks through an integrated Micro-electro-mechanical System - Epitaxial Liftoff (MEMS-ELO) manufacturing approach. We shall develop a low cost wavelength-tunable optical detector for low cost fiber optic LAN and WAN applications. Through controlled, real time tuning to optical channels, we can use a high data capacity LAN just as we currently use two way radio channels for communication. Existing fiber lines can be outfitted with this Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) system to upgrade capacity to multiple channels and terabit networks. This multi-faceted effort will include the technology integration, the detector module design, the communications system design, manufacturing integration and the supplier and customer relationships required for a successful market entry. WDM is quickly emerging in the fiber optic arena. Building upon the prototypes produced in the Phase I effort, this effort shall outline a WDM network requiring only a single, low cost, tunable detector component and a single transmitter per hub.

F & H APPLIED SCIENCE ASSOC., INC.
305 Pembrook Avenue
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 235-6781
Robert Fischl
BMDO 99-011
Title:Microchip Laser with Tunable Millimeter Wave Subcarrier
Abstract:The overall goal of this proposed program is to develop a novel millimeter-wave optical transmitter based on a tunable, low phase noise microchip laser. The transmitter developed will simultaneously generate a tunable millimeter wave subcarrier in the 10 to 100 GHz range and an optical carrier with power levels of 100mW or higher. The transmitter will have inherently low relative intensity and phase noise characteristics (RIN and phase noise). The novel approach followed in this proposal is significantly different from past practices in two aspects. First, the host material for the solid state laser is an electrooptic crystal, LiNbO3, which provides efficient interaction between the optical and electric fields. Secondly, we are fully integrating the laser with the microwave components to reduce parasitics and provide a compact, rugged and low cost package. Phase I concerns the feasibility study and design of the proposed solid-state mode-locked microchip laser. Of particular interest is the achievement of low phase noise (< -110 dBc/Hz @ 1 KHz offset) and millimeter wave frequency tunability. In Phase II we will develop a prototype transmitter to demonstrate superior performance and address the manufacturing process to allow successful commercialization in Phase III for military and non-military applications.

INTELLIGENT FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS (IFOS)
1778 Fordham Way
Mountain View, CA 94040
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 967-4107
Behzad Moslehi
BMDO 99-011
Title:Lossless Splitters based on Novel Integrated-Optic Amplifiers
Abstract:Photonics offers 'denser computing capability' because of the extraordinary large bandwidth that it offers. However, a common problem is splitting-loss whereby signal strength per channel is reduced whenever a signal is split. For an economic and compact solution to this problem, there is the need for multi-function devices that combine splitting and amplification of light. Erbium-doped amplifiers have become well established in fiber form. However, their manufacture is today complex and costly. IFOS proposes to combine integrated-optic splitter fabrication with an innovative proprietary approach for manufacture of distributed photonic amplifiers. This will open up new application opportunities for amplifiers in subsystems intended for sensing, signal processing and communications. Our approach brings together processing technologies that are low-cost, low-temperature and lend themselves to dense integration and high-volume production. In Phase I, we will focus on materials-processing and analyze, fabricate and characterize active-glass waveguide films for proof-of-concept demonstration of low-cost and high gain-per-unit-length. In Phase II, we will demonstrate active-ridge-waveguides and then fabricate an optimized lossless splitters and begin commercialization activities. All the essential ingredients for success are provided by the proven expertise of IFOS and collaborators in photonics, including amplifiers and couplers/splitters, materials processing, business and marketing.

INTELLIGENT FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS (IFOS)
1778 Fordham Way
Mountain View, CA 94040
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 967-4107
Behzad Moslehi
BMDO 99-011
Title:Photonic Signal Processing Arrays for Radar Applications
Abstract:IFOS proposes to develop novel photonic signal-processing subsystems to replace certain electronic signal-processing functions presently limiting many sophisticated systems such as radar. Using photonics for signal processing and computing holds promise for ultra-high bandwidth and speed, immunity to electromagnetic interference and crosstalk, freedom from impedance-matching problems, higher interconnect density and lower cost compared with their electronic counterparts. The proposed ultra-fast photonic processors are a first-time implementation with wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic circuits in architectural configurations known as ‘systolic’ which are well-suited to our goal. Systolic processing provides a pipelined means for implementation of linear algebra, crucial in many signal-processing functions including those in radars. Because of increasing need for ultra-fast processors and recent advances in optical-fiber gratings, couplers and amplifiers, the time is ripe to move photonic systolic processing toward commercialization. The IFOS team is in a unique position to do this because of (a) its pioneering history in the subject, and (b) its recent related device technology advancements. In Phase I, IFOS will simulate, analyze, fabricate and test an expandable photonic systolic processor comprising three proprietary processing elements. Radar, which has very essential military and civilian applications, will be employed as a platform to demonstrate the IFOS signal processing technology

IRIDICOM, INC.
829 Salsipuedes St., Unit C
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 893-8465
Gregory A. Fish
BMDO 99-011
Title:Rapidly Tunable Monolithic InGaAsP/InP All-Optical Wavelength Converter
Abstract:Tunable wavelength conversion is expected to play a critical role in enhancing the performance of future communication networks based upon wavelength-division-multiplexing. Photonic integrated circuit technology in the InGaAsP/InP material system is uniquely capable of producing a completely monolithic device for tunable all-optical wavelength conversion. Using monolithic devices to perform wavelength conversion is more robust and cost effective. We propose to develop a novel wavelength converter which will integrate a widely tunable semiconductor laser on chip with a cross phase modulation wavelength converter. This Phase I proposal is intended to investigate the feasibility of a process for the fabrication of this monolithic InGaAsP/InP tunable all-optical wavelength converter. The objectives will focus on developing the key technologies for the fabrication process. To achieve these goals, test structures will be fabricated and characterized to illustrate the effects of the process parameters in the key steps

LASER POWER CORP.
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 755-0700
Timothy L. Boyd
BMDO 99-011
Title:Laser Optical Microwave Signal Synthesis
Abstract:Fast tuning microwave synthesizer systems are required by the DoD for the demodulation of waveforms encoded by spread spectrum techniques. These systems are required for signal jamming, jamming countermeasures, secure communications and low phase noise sources for rapidly tuned radar. Our novel approach to these requirements involves optical heterodyne between two diode laser-pumped, electro-optically tuned, single frequency microlasers operating at 1.55 µm. In such a device, the output frequency is tuned simply by applying a voltage to the laser Phase noise control is facilitated as well as phase locking. This is in contrast to slower frequency control techniques that use piezoelectric or temperature control. The anticipated performance of monolithic devices yields an optical source with extremely low phase noise, making the ideal for microwave synthesis. Microlaser technology combines this potential with compactness and low cost and represents a substantial improvement over current state-of-the-art non-planar lasers. The Phase program includes RF signal generation by heterodyne between tow narrow linewidth lasers.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Yanjing Liu
BMDO 99-011
Title:Electrostatic Self-Assembled Nonlinear Optical Thin Films and Photonic Devices
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will develop electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) methods for the formation of nonlinear optical (NLO) thin films, and optical signal processing device products based on such films. The PI and colleagues at Virginia Tech have shown that the ESA processing method inherently yields noncentrosymmetric molecular structures that possess remarkable large x(²) second order NLO response, without the need for electric field poling. Such structures have been shown to exhibit inherent long-term stability, in contrast to conventional poled polymers. Additionally, ESA nonlinear optical thin films offer advantages of excellent homogeneity for low waveguide scattering loss, simplicity and low fabrication cost. ESA film thicker than 10 microns can be produced with excellent uniformity and can be patterned in three dimensions to yield channel waveguides and other device structures. During Phase I, NanoSonic would work with colleagues at Virginia Tech to investigate the feasibility of fabricating materials with enhanced high x(²) response, good thermal stability and low scattering, and consider methods for implementing such materials in early device prototypes. During Phase II, NLO waveguide and modulator device products suitable for near term use in optical communication and signal processing systems would be developed.

NP PHOTONIC TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
UA Science and Technology Park, 9030 S. Rita Road,
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 621-7402
Seepo Honkanan
BMDO 99-011
Title:Waveguide Routers for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project deals with the development of planar waveguide routers for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems, based on our recently developed low-birefringence double ion-exchange glass waveguide technology. The double ion-exchange approach enables much easier elimination of the polarization dependence compared to other planar waveguide technologies. The fabrication process is extremely simple and reproducible, which facilitates low-cost production of the devices. The proposed devices feature low losses, low-cross talk and are polarization insensitive which is of crucial importance in practical applications. Successfully meeting the goals in this Phase I project will provide an excellent foundation for the development of fully packaged fiber-pigtailed devices. The key advantage of the planar waveguide router approach is the possibility for large number of wavelength channels. The goal in this program is to develop reliable 64 x 64 waveguide routers for future Dense WDM-systems. The proposed devices have potential for extremely low-cost production. They meet the needs of the rapidly growing telecommunications market and have great commercial potential

NP PHOTONIC TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
UA Science and Technology Park, 9030 S. Rita Road,
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 626-3295
Tao Luo
BMDO 99-011
Title:Ultra broadband Er3+ Doped Tellurite Glass Fiber Amplifier
Abstract:We propose to develop ultra broadband Er3+-doped tellutrite glass fiber amplifier for the 1.54 µm optical communication networks. Our goal is to demonstrate a flat gain bandwidth greater than 75nm in this special glass fiber. The effect of glass composition on spectral, thermal and physical properties will be investigated extensively. New Er3+ doped tellurite glasses will be developed and optical fibers will be fabricated. The demonstration of this ultra broadband Er3+1doped tellutrite glass fiber amplifier will pave the way for the emerging ultrahigh speed optical networks using dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology

OPTICOMP CORP.
P.O. Box 10779, 215 Elks Point Road
Zephyr Cove, NV 89448
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 588-4176
Peter S. Guilfoyle
BMDO 99-011
Title:Cost Effective High Performance 1300nm VCSELs for Massive Parallel Optical Interconnects
Abstract:The primary goal of this Phase I SBIR program is to develop cost effective, high performance 1300nm vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). These devices can serve as a low cost replacement for edge emitting, or stripe lasers, which are commonly used in military and commercial telecommunications networks. Successful VCSEL devices have been fabricated in the shorter infrared wavelength range (850 and 980 nm); however, operation at longer wavelength from 1.3 – 1.5µm faces many technological challenges. The proposed VCSEL structure and fabrication process will provide single element and multielement devices which will be suitable for low cost, high volume production. In addition, an active layer design will be incorporated that will allow for better temperature stability for long-wavelength VCSELs. The program technology can be used in military systems for applications such as radar; RF photonics; and battle management, command, control, and communications (BMC3). The 1300nm VCSELs will also facilitate the development of low cost, reliable transmitters for system applications which include local area networks (LANs), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and cable television (CATV)

PICOLIGHT, INC.
4665 Nautilus Ct. South, Suite 3
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 546-0567
Jack L. Jewell
BMDO 99-011
Title:High-Performance 1550nm Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research proposal describes a program to develop practical, high-performance 1550nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) for next-generation datacom applications. Required of the VCSELs are: ability to be modulated at multi-Gb/s speeds; output power in excess of 2mW; ability to have these performances over 0º-85ºC temperatures; manufacturability; and extremely high reliability appropriate for datacom. The approach taken is a careful balance of use of existing techniques where possible and developing new techniques when necessary. The Phase I effort will involve evaluation of different materials approaches; selection of appropriate materials combinations; growth and evaluation of the material structures; and a “dress rehearsal” growth and characterization. An optional extension would attempt to grow, process and test an attempted 1550nm VCSEL. A materials-oriented subcontract to a well-equipped University will direct the initial bulk of the effort. A Phase II program would end with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) 1550nm VCSELs suitable for datacom applications in commercial and military environments

QUANTAIMAGE CORP.
70 Garden Circle Suite 1-B
Waltham, MA 02454
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 221-3579
Ergun Canoglu
BMDO 99-011
Title:Large Area Format Direct-Vision Optical Processor
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR, QuantaImage Corporation proposes to design and fabricate a large area, high-resolution, high contrast optically addressed spatial light modulator to be used with the state of the art high-speed electrically addressed spatial light modulators such that the resulting optical processor will be able directly capture gray level images from the environment and processes in several microsecond time scale. The proposed device will be able to provide 4000 x 4000-pixel resolution with up to 12 bits gray level images and operate at low illumination. In Phase I, QuantaImage will fabricate and design devices with various contrast, spatial resolution and gain whereas in Phase II these devices will be used to construct the optical processor.

SENTEL TECHNOLOGIES
NE 1615 Eastgate Blvd.
Pullman, WA 99163
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 334-5190
David James Welker
BMDO 99-011
Title:Electro-optic Fiber Materials And Process Development
Abstract:In broad terms, the purpose of the Phase I research is to determine if it is feasible to make an electrooptic device in a polymer optical fiber with reliable core material and high-quality electrodes. Past results demonstrate that all the pieces are in place to build such a device. The objective of this project is to determine the feasibiity of the following. (1) Incorporate a more reliable side-chain polymer into the core of the fiber preform. (2) Incorporate into a fiber preform electrodes whose melting temperature and/or plastic range better matches the glass transition temperature of the polymer. (3) Demonstrate that an electrooptic polymer fiber can be pulled from this fiber. A successful demonstration of these three technical objectives would provide a robust electrooptic fiber that could be used as an inline component to make a family of devices such as molulators and multiplexers. We have already demonstrated that electrodes can be incorporated around a light-guilding single-mode core and that the fiber can be poled with an electric field during the fiber drawing process.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
Peter P. Chow
BMDO 99-011
Title:Quasi-Self-Assembled Si-Based Light Emitter for Optical Computing
Abstract:Advances in optical computing and signal processing would benefit from the breakthroughs in materials technology for monolithic optoelectronics integration. We propose a new silicon-based light emitter for such possible "superchip-IC". This concept is an extension of a major material development recently demonstrated called hetero-epilattice Si/O superlattice (HES), which for the first time created robust silicon, potentially very fast based light emitters. An initial version has been in continuous operation without degradation for over one year. Made by a quasi-self-assembly process, it is compatible with the standard silicon processing so the device can be readily integrated into electronic circuits. We plan to investigate alternative material and process optimization to improve the interface quality such that the efficiency of the device could be significantly enhanced. The proposed work includes material fabrication, comprehensive characterization and device testing. This feasibility study would then lead to the Phase II demonstration of monolithic integration of photonic and electronic devices.

TOWNSEND SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
One Oak Hill Road
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 345-9090
Harry R Clark
BMDO 99-011
Title:Three Dimensional (3-D) Optical Computing
Abstract:Silicon-based devices have remained the workhorse of the solid state device community. As the need for higher processor rates is ever increasing, silicon-based systems are being pushed to their limit. In addition, due to the indirect bandgap of silicon, light emission is not possible. We propose an entirely new approach to processor technology. In this project, we will construct and demonstrate the basic device architecture for a three dimensional (3-D) optical processor. Since our technology is not constrained to the surface area of a single crystal silicon substrate, devices measuring in square feet will be enabled. In addition, our device can be fabricated on plastic.

ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERTS, INC.
215 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 577-0700
David Warkentin
BMDO 99-012
Title:Piezoceramic Actuators for Torsional Control
Abstract:Piezoceramics have been gaining increasing popularity in structural control. Their high energy density permits fabrication of actuators with very high control authority, yet relatively little mass of volume. These properties make piezoceramics ideal for precision positioning elements (e.g., stabilization of optical gun sights), structural damping, precision controlled valves (e.g., environmental control systems) and noise control (e.g. vehicle interior quieting). Unfortunately, piezoceramics have some undesirable properties which complicate their use. In common usage, the devices are bonded to the surface of the structure and actuated using d31coupling. This yields a device which cannot control torsional or twist modes of orthotropic structures, limiting the usefulness of piezoceramics in applications in which torsional motion is important, including missile bodies or fins, and the torsional vibration of satellite solar panels. Herein, ACX proposes to address this problem by developing a surface mount piezoceramics actuator for torsional control. Target applications will be selected which have military and commercial significance. Devices will be designed, built and tested to demonstrate their ability to meet the functional requirements of the target applications. Performance prediction tools will be developed for design purposes.

ADVANCED MECHANICS TECHNOLOGY, LTD.
6508 Anna Maria Ct.
McLean, VA 22101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 356-0122
Rong Chung Shieh
BMDO 99-012
Title:Parallel Design Tools for Optimization of Smart Structures
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to develop a set of innovative and efficient optimization algorithms/tools for uni- and multi-objective design and placement optimization of passive and active elements of smart structures, primarily in a massively parallel environment. The objective functions to be minimized will include structural weight or cost function (including material and actuator/ sensor device costs) and/or distortion index (e.g., strain energy function or maximum displacement). The design variables include discrete and/or continuous cross-sectional areas/sizes of structural element and number, locations, and control gains of active elements, all of which may be simultaneously present. In Phase II, the optimization algorithms [of potentially superefficient Integral GLO/Local Optimization (IGLO)-type] and smart structural optimization methodologies will be fully developed and implemented into two prototype parallel computer programs, IGLOPACK (IGLO software PACKage) and PASOS (Parallel Adaptive Structural Optimization System), respectively

ATODYNE TECHNOLOGIES, L.L.C.
4100 N. Old Pine Trail
Midland, MI 48642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 839-9616
Wayne Blaser
BMDO 99-012
Title:Fabrication of Parts via Direct Metal Rapid Prototyping
Abstract:This proposal addresses an innovative solution to solicitation 99-012. It is a novel method for direct manufacture of metal parts or other metallic components. As compared to conventional rapid prototyping or rapid realization technologies, the proposed technology will enable the manufacture of complex metal parts (3D), without casting, machining or sintering, and with sufficient strength and physical properties for use in industrial applications

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
56 Rogers St
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 252-0660
John Patrick Rodgers
BMDO 99-012
Title:Innovative Concepts for Structural Vibration Reduction
Abstract:Three vibration reduction concepts are proposed to address current and future needs for more efficient vibration control techniques. More cost-effective solutions are required to enable active material technologies to benefit the performance of ballistic missile systems. Both active and passive techniques are considered, applying piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, and shape memory alloy materials. An experimental investigation of three potential systems will be used in the design of the experimental demonstrations. Emphasis is placed on the complete electromechanical system design, including power, mass, and cost considerations. Realistic applications will be used to direct the design of the experiments. Results from the analyses and experiments will be used to downselect to a single concept for further study

QRDC, INC.
P.O. Box 562
Excelsior, MN 55331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 474-2177
Daryoush Allaei
BMDO 99-012
Title:Energy-Based Vibration Control System for Load-Bearing Skin Structures
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR project is to develop smart load-bearing skin structures with embedded energy-based hybrid vibration control systems. The proposed vibration control strategy relies on the vibrational energy management concept. The vibration control system will be comprised of both passive and active elements which each will have two functions. The passive elements will be utilized for energy dissipation at high frequencies and energy absorption at resonance frequencies of the skin structure. Constrained layer damping and tunned-mass dampers will be the initial candidates for passive elements during the feasibility study. The active elements will dissipate energy at low frequencies and steer vibrational energy to specified regions at which excess energy can be most effectively absorbed or dissipated by passive or active elements. PZT-based actuators will be the initial candidates for active elements. The proposed smart skin structures will have the capability of steering their excited vibration energy in the most efficient and effective manner in order to minimize the damaging efforts and/or radiated noise of propagating vibrations. In Phase I, the feasibility of the proposed smart load-bearing skin structure will be demonstrated on a flat panel. A computer model will be used to show that is possible to construct a panel with embedded vibrational energy steering capability which is the novel part of our work.

AEROPLAS CORP. INTERNATIONAL
3 Vesbard Lane
Pepperell, MA 01463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 465-7300
THOMAS C. WALTON
BMDO 99-013
Title:Rapid E-BEAM Curable Filament Wound Polymeric Composite Rocket Motor Cases
Abstract:New low viscosity, low temperature, Rapid E-Beam Curable Filament Winding resins are now available which meet and exceed state-of-the-art thermally cured filament winding epoxy resin baseline mechanical properties. Initial tests on a 5.75"D test vessel show >5% higher hydro-burst results for ACI’s first iteration E-Beam curable formulations (without the need for a special carbon fiber sizing) and with >50C higher Tg vs. a state-of-the-art anhydride thermally cured baseline control (both using 12K IM-7 reinforcement). ACI has already teamed with the largest composite rocket motor case builder in the world to further develop ACI’s E-Beam cure resin technology for the next generation of higher burst strength and >50C higher Tg Filament Winding resins. Several attempts, mainly in Europe to make motor cases this way were tried but the free radical type resins had undesirable properties and processing problems. The AEROPLAS breakthrough base resin is <400 cPs at room temperature and (has >6 month 25C out time) for rapid tow wetout and a boasts a cured service temperature greater than 350F. This new resin is particularly suited for low cost fabrication of ultra-large, high quality structures including once-off master tools or co-cured aircraft sections

AP MATERIALS, INC.
8220 Delmar Blvd. - Suite 210
St. Louis, MO 63124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 935-8512
Douglas Paul DuFaux
BMDO 99-013
Title:Lightweight Metal Matrix Composites for Structural Applications
Abstract:Feasibility of fabricating nanophase reinforced Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) will be demonstrated. MMCs are a class of materials that have superior physical, mechanical, and thermal properties; including specific strength and modulus, high temperature stability, thermal conductivity, and controlled coefficient of thermal expansion. Because of inherent differences to traditional materials, MMCs provide the properties necessary for many advanced structural, aerospace, electronic, thermal management, and wear applications. Extending microstructural refinement of MMCs down to the range of nanostructures should result in significant property improvements. A novel aspect of this work is the in-situ production of nonoxide composite powders through Gas-Phase Combustion Synthesis. The powders are coated in a fully removable encapsulation material to ensure they retain their purity until consolidation. We will also employ a novel encapsulation method that removes the encapsulation material just prior to consolidation so that powders are never directly exposed to oxygen. The proposed synthesis and consolidation technologies address the critical issues facing the successful implementation and commercialization of nanostructured MMCs. They represent the first scalable means of producing high purity, unagglomerated powder in a way that the as-produced powder can be processed using cost effective, commercially-viable handling procedures. For this program we will produce and mechanically test aluminum-aluminum nitride MMCs

DYNAMIC STRUCTURES & MATERIALS, LLC
309 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Jeffrey S.N. Paine
BMDO 99-013
Title:Portable Composite Structure / Missile Evaluation System
Abstract:A method for sensing the quality and state of composite material structures will be developed. The technique can be used to determine the resin cure state, detect pre-damage bond quality and sense or quantify damage in the material during use. Because the sensors are very lightweight, robust, and inexpensive, they can be readily located at critical points over an entire structure. The sensors may be either integrated into the material or surface bonded. The technique will yield significant value to both military and commercial structures. The detection / inspection method utilizes small, robust piezoceramic impedance sensors in conjunction with a portable impedance analyzer. Material structural integrity, cure state of the resin system, and degradation in the material due to damage is sensed using very accurate measurement of the local dynamic response. The technique uses measurements of local dynamic response to sense changes in the mass, stiffness, or damping at the bond or joint around the bond. These measurements correlate with the structural state. With the sensors in place, the structure can be inspected quickly and easily. A single, untrained person can simply monitor a portable meter with an algorithm for determining cure, joint quality or material structural integrity changes.

GEMFIRE CORP.
2440 Embarcadero Way
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 849-6832
Andrew T. Ryan
BMDO 99-013
Title:A Scalable Nonlinear Optical Material for Displays
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate the technical feasibility of fabricating an affordable blue laser array for projection displays. Our concept uses a new approach to fabricating lithium-niobate-based quasi-phasematching frequency converters to efficiently frequency-double low-power commercial diode lasers t produce blue light. A novel device architecture will be enabled by a new materials processing approach that will circumvent the main technical barrier to producing low-cost blue laser arrays: the need to rotate the polarization of diode laser light. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the scalability of this device concept to high-powers and multi-emitter arrays. In Phase II, we will fabricte prototype blue and green laser arrays. If successful, the proposed light sources will provide optimum power efficiency, high resolution, superior brightness, ideal spectral purity, and excellent dynamic range

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-4980
A. Neal Watkins
BMDO 99-013
Title:Application of Intelligent Coatings for Optical-Based Corrosion Detection and Protection
Abstract:The proposed Phase-I SBIR Program targetsthe development of a field-deployable non-destructive optical-based corrosion inspection system (CIS). Smart coating based on sol-gel-derived thin-film architectures will be designed for the early detection of corrosion processes in ballistic-missile defense systems and aircraft. The sol-gel process will also allow the investigation of possible protective coatings that can be applied to these surfaces. The Phase-I program will result in: 1) demonstration of the feasibility of sol-gel-based smart coating for the early detection of corrosion, 2) development of a prototype cost-effective, robust, compact, optical-based CIS, 3) integration of hardware and software modules for producing user-friendly system capable of data acquisition, post-processing, and storage, with remote-communication operation, and 4) investigation of novel protective coatings. Steady-state and time-resolved optical-based approaches will be investigated to optimize data-acquisition and post-processing routines. A CIS prototype will be constructed and tested in laboratory-based corrosion studies incorporating the advanced sol-gel-based smart coatings

LOTEC, INC.
181 W. 1700 S.
Salt Lake City, UT 84115
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 483-3100
Rama Nageswaran
BMDO 99-013
Title:Advanced, Lightweight, SiC(fiber)-Toughened NZP Matrix Composites
Abstract:Lightweight ceramic composites that exhibit high strengths and high toughnesses even at elevated temperatures are of particular interest for ballistic missiles, advanced gas turbine engines, unmanned combat aero vehicles, and other structural applications. Such ceramic composites include glass/glass ceramic matrices reinforced with high strength and high modulus SiC fibers and are known to exhibit damage resistance and non-catastrophic failure characteristics. However, the low corrosion resistance and inadequate high temperature creep resistance, make SiC(f)-toughened glass matrix composites unsuitable for many structural applications. LoTEC, therefore, proposes the development and commercialization of SiC(fiber)- reinforced high temperature structural composites involving fully crystalline, sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) matrices. Two lightweight NZP compositions viz. Sr1+xZr4P6-2xSi2xO24 (SS-50) and Ca1-xSrxZr4P6O24 (CS-50) are known for their: (i) high temperature stability, (ii) moderately low thermal expansion, (iii) good thermomechanical and thermochemical compatibility with SiC, (iv) creep resistance, and (v) good hot corrosion resistance. Phase I activity will focus on processing dense SiC(f)-NZP composites with and without an NZP-based interface coating and evaluating their physical, chemical and thermomechanical properties. In Phase II, extensive microstructural and engineering analysis will be conducted to refine processing and design of the composites to achieve the optimum matrix, interface, and composite properties.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2929 Eskridge Road; P-1
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
M.S. Krupashankara
BMDO 99-013
Title:High Energy Plasma Synthesis if Crystalline Beta Carbon Nitride Powders
Abstract:A number of thin film deposition techniques such as rf magnetron sputtering, dual ion beam assisted deposition (DIBAD), ion assisted dynamic mixing, high pressure synthesis of sp2 bonded carbon nitrides, thermal decomposition of molecular precursors, an even high pressureshock wave synthesis have resulted in amorphous forms of carbon nitride. It has also been concluded that in-situ deposition of carbon nitrides is also dependent on the substrate, which has prompted researchers to investigate structural templates such as ZrN, and TiN to force the growth of crystalline b-C3N4 films. However, the stability of this phase, interactions between carbon and nitrogen and newer applications for this material can be better understood with availability of pure crystalline B-C3N4 powders. In this Phase I project MMI proposes to synthesize these powders and further deposit these powders onto steel and OFHC copper substrates for preliminary evaluation of tribilogical properties. The synthesis process will be optimized through extensive characterization of the powders

MATERIALS RESOURCES INTERNATIONAL
403 Elm Avenue
North Wales, PA 19454
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 616-0400
Ronald William Smith
BMDO 99-013
Title:Low Temperature Active Joining of Structural and Electronic Composites
Abstract:MRi is proposing a new low temperature active joining process, S-Bond, for joining metallic composite materials for use in missile fins, actuators and in electronic packaging and electronic thermal management. Key to the S-Bond process are a new family of active low temperature(200-450ºC) Sn(Zn)-Ag-Ti-X alloys that can wet and bond to aluminum, beryllium, and other metallic and refractory composites that contain graphite, carbon, alumina and silicon carbide fiber or particulate phases. S-Bond joining is conducted in air with these new alloys that directly react with surface compounds to form bonds without the need for fluxes or special surface treatments. This new metallic joining method introduces significant joining and performance advantages over fasteners and epoxies since S-Bond would eliminate the weight and stress concentration of fasteners and can be remelted to permit repair, where thermosetting epoxies could not. The Phase I investigation will evaluate and characterize several of the proposed low temperature active braze alloys joining several selected composites, including aluminum graphite and aluminum:SiC, a beryllium composite alloy, and carbon:carbon or C:SiC composites) that are being considered for missile and aerospace components. The objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate the feasibility of S-Bond joining for fabricating metallic composite missile and or space platform components by joining several simulations of fins/stabilizer structures, optical mirrors or antennas and/or electronic packages.

MENTIS SCIENCES, INC.
150 Dow St., Tower 2
Manchester, NH 03101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 624-9254
John F. Dignam
BMDO 99-013
Title:Integrated Missile Structures Program
Abstract:The two critical requirements for BMDO TMD (Theater Missile Defense) interceptors are cost and weight reduction. Resent advances in fibers, resins, and composite fabrication techniques allow the planning and initiation of programs to investigate methods to significantly reduce interceptor weight and volume through the integration of the functions of thermal protection, structures and power consistent with the philosophy of advanced interceptor design. The principal goal of Phase One of this program is to demonstrate the feasibility of, and the path (s) which allow transition of strategic missile system structures from the traditional three layer structure ( i.e., TPS-Bond-Substructure) to a one layer integrated system which performs both the thermal protection and load carrying requirements. The tasks outlined within this Phase of the program are an attempt to identify the manufacturing techniques and its components, specifically resins, which will exceed the survivability requirements of present and future missile systems: at an exceedingly lower cost than state-of-the-art systems.

METRIX COMPOSITES, INC.
3817 Griffin Rd.
Clinton, NY 13323
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 853-2028
Joseph J. Stanco
BMDO 99-013
Title:Rapid Prototyping of Metal Matrix Composites by Selective Gelation Printing
Abstract:For many BMDO, DoD, electronic packaging and aerospace applications under consideration, both pressure cast and reaction infiltrated discontinuously reinforced aluminum, DRA, composites are candidate replacements for more traditional materials and graphite epoxy composites. However, the high costs associated with difficulty in fabricating prototypes and small production runs presents significant barriers. Selective Gelation Printing, SGP, is an innovative solid freeform fabrication technology that can directly create very high quality preforms from CAD-generated solid model, thereby eliminating non-valued added steps and part specific tooling. This increased flexibility will enable rapid design changes, dramatically reducing cost and lead time involved in developing and fabricating DRA parts from months to weeks. DRA materials can be designed and synthesized with novel microstructures such as functionally gradient compositions. Phase I will build the alpha SGP system and establish feasibility in building porous ceramic preforms with specifiable volume fraction. Test articles will be characterized for dimensional accuracy, homogeneous particle distribution, and volume fraction and to verify cost performance benefits. Phase 2 goals include developing fully integrated beta SGP system capable of faster build times with expanded preform material and design capability. Also integrate computer modeling and simulation for process control, materials and preform design.

MSNW, INC.
P.O. Box 865
San Marcos, CA 92079
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(330) 655-0839
Dr. Robert J. Price
BMDO 99-013
Title:Low-Cost Isotropic Carban Fibers for Structural Composites
Abstract:Graphitization-resistant isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers are proposed as a replacement for rayon-based carbon fibers in carbon-phenolic composites used in heat shields and exhaust systems of missiles. Fibers spun from isotropic (non-mesophase) petroleum and coal tar pitches have mechanical properties very similar to carbon fibers made from unstretched rayon but may tend to graphitize and become thermally conductive when exposed to high temperatures. The objectives of the proposed Phase I project will be identify chemical treatments for precursor pitches that result in graphitization-resistant, low thermal conductivity carbon residues; identify spinning and stabilization parameters for making fibers from the modified pitch; document alternative natural or synthetic pitches that form graphitization-resistant carbons; and review non-woven fabrication techniques as alternatives to spinning and weaving multifilament yarns. To prepare for Phase II, the potential advantages of isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers as reinforcements in ceramic matrix composites for rocket propulsion components will be preliminarily evaluated.

PIEZOMAX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
565 Science Drive
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 238-4850
William L. O'Brien
BMDO 99-013
Title:Linear Nanopositioning Translational Motion Stage Based on Novel Composite Materials to Enhance Speed and Range of Motion
Abstract:A need exists to increase the speed, acceleration, positioning accuracy, and in particular range of motion of precision motion stages, while maintaining load carrying capability. The need is pervasive, covering, for example, lithography and metrology in the semiconductor industry, precision machining in the optical lens and magnetic storage media industries, increased positioning accuracy in the optical communications industries, and an increased emphasis on local probes and localized drug delivery in biomedical research. Materials parameters do not allow these requirements to be met by scaling present-day motion stages. Alternative materials with superior properties are necessary. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate the feasibility of using composite materials for high-performance nanopositioning stages. The requirements for such stages will be determined and compared to the materials properties of different composite materials. Physical and thermal parameters and the anisotropic nature of materials properties will be evaluated. From the results a high-performance nanopositioning stage will be designed and the design tested by finite-element analysis. The stage will have high resonant frequency, large range of motion, and true guided motion, and will be manufacturable. A factor of 10-100 improvement in range of motion is projected. In Phase II, the optimum manufacturing option will be determined and prototypes manufactured.

POWDERMET, INC.
9960 Glenoaks Blvd., Unit A
Sun Valley, CA 91352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 768-6420
Dean Baker
BMDO 99-013
Title:Spray-Formed High Stiffness Aluminum
Abstract:Increased rigidity is required for increasing the maneuverability of next-generation missile systems. High stiffness aluminum alloys are optimum candidates for missile structures, including the missile airframe, seeker supports, and control surfaces. Specifically, aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC’s) have higher strength and stiffness than graphite composite structures while being potentially much lower cost, more reliable, and more durable if improved fabrication methods can be developed. The proposed program will demonstrate an innovate thermal spray forming process for aluminum MMC’s which integrates the low cost spray forming and post-forming mechanical working steps into a single step process suitable for the fabrication of sheet stock, tube, and other thin cross-section parts. Powdermet will produce tailored, pre-alloyed Al/SiC spray powders and will team with UCLA to develop the combined thermal spray/mechanical working process resulting in very low cost fabrication of high stiffness, high strength and toughness aluminum MMC parts

UHV TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
113B West Park Drive
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 608-0311
Nalin Kumar
BMDO 99-013
Title:A Novel Fully Addressable Multipixel X-ray Source for Non-Destructive Evaluation of Structural Materials
Abstract:Recent advances in the cold cathodes, e.g. diamond thin films, have opened several new areas where the power hungry thermionic filaments can be replaced by these efficient cathodes. One such example is the x-ray sources widely used for imaging and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of structural materials and composites. X-ray tubes, originally developed at the turn of 20th century have not seen many changes in their basic design. The high current capability of diamond field emitters, for the first time, offers the potential to eliminate the heated cathodes and the introduction of microeletronic processing for fabricating "innovative array x-ray sources". We propose to use the diamond cold cathodes to develop innovative conformable, two dimensional, fully addressable, multi-pixel x-ray array sources that can be used with array x-ray detectors to construct complete NDE systems. These sources will allow development of low mass, compact, portable and specialized imaging systems with very high sensitivity for NDE of various materials and components for military material evaluation applications. In phase I project, we will demonstrate the feasibility of this concept by fabricating a 10 x 10 pixel array x-ray source. In phase II, a complete NDE system useful for structural materials and composites will be developed.

XC ASSOC.
28 South Main Street, P.O. Box 521
Berlin, NY 12022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 658-2159
Frank Burzesi
BMDO 99-013
Title:High Thermal Conductivity Composite Structures
Abstract:This SBIR represents a basic core technology required to design and fabricate enhanced heatsinks for the thermal management of electronics. The addition of boron nitride (BN) powder to a high thermal conductivity pitch carbon fiber laminate dramatically increases the transverse thermal conductivity. In the past the usefulness of pitch carbon fiber laminates has been limited by the low transverse conductivity. The increase in conductivity will dramatically increase the number of applications where this composite can be used for example: heatsinks, thermal radiators and missile structures. It is predicted that high thermal conductivity laminates will be able to replace structures that have traditionally been fabricated from aluminum beryllium for lower cost and weight. Prior experimentation carried out with EPSCoR funding has shown that thermal conductivity increases as the concentration of BN is increased, but also the strength of the laminate decreases. The technical objective of this project is to fabricate laminates with increasing concentrations of BN and measure the thermal conductivity and corresponding strength and stiffness. Data and design tables will be produced to enable engineers to accurately predict the performance of structures where the thermal conductivity of a pitch laminate has been enhanced by the addition of BN.

AC MATERIALS, INC.
2721 Forsyth Road, Suite 264
Winter Park, FL 32792
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 679-3395
Arlete - Cassanho
BMDO 99-014
Title:Diode-pumped, Tunable 3 micron Laser Sources
Abstract:A potentially efficient, tunable laser is proposed that, can, in principle, span the 2.8 to 3.4 micron wavelength range, a technically challenging area for atmospheric constituents and coherent wind measurements. The concept is based on a BaY2F8 crystal co-doped with thulium and dysprosium. Promising recent spectroscopic and dynamic measurements indicate excellent prospects for efficient energy transfer between the Tm3+ and the Dy3+ ions, since thulium absorbs in a region accessible to standard semiconductor arrays. The proposed laser offers, for the first time, the promise of a diode pumpable, direct, tunable emission in the 3 micron spectral region. The primary goal for this Phase I project is to demonstrate lasing from Tm,Dy:BaYF crystals pumped at around 800 nm. Several crystals will be grown to determine the effect of different ion concentrations on crystal level dynamics and multiphonon relaxation processes, followed by selection of samples with the most promising compositions for laser experiments. Techniques demonstrated with existing Ho,Tm:YLF lasers will be considered to address issues of power scaling and/or narrow-band operation. In addition, a new laser material, with even lower phonon energies than BYF, Dy: NaYF4 will be evaluated

AMBER WAVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
35 Brick Mill Road
Bedford, NH 03110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 425-1965
Mayank Bulsara
BMDO 99-014
Title:High Quality Monolithic Integration of III-V Electronics on Si Substrates Using SiGe Interlayers
Abstract:AmberWave proposes to demonstrate and develop III-V metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) and high mobility transistors (HEMTs) on Si using its proprietary technology in the epitaxial deposition of high-quality III-V compounds on Si substrates. The technology employs AmberWave’s proprietary SiGe graded epitaxial layers that allow the lattice mismatch and thermal expansion differences between Ge and Si to be controlled and accommodated during the growth process. AmberWave has also developed process control that allows the reproducible growth of antiphase-domain-free GaAs/Ge interfaces with minimal interdiffusion. The end result in Ge and GaAs device-quality thin films on Si substrates. In Phase I, AmberWave proposes to demonstrate its fabrication sequence for high quality GaAs on Si on 4-inch Si wafers and evaluate a prototype GaAs MESFET on Ge/SiGe/Si

AMSEN TECHNOLOGIES
1181 N. El Dorado Pl., Suite 319
Tucson, AZ 85715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 546-6944
Ayyasamy Aruchamy Ph.D.
BMDO 99-014
Title:Highly Monodispersed MINIM Arrays for Single Electron Transistors
Abstract:As the current trends in transistors miniaturization are continued down to the molecular level (in a dimension of tens of nanometers or less), the electronic properties of solids and solid-solid interfaces are inherently different on the nanometer level. It is becoming clear that continued increases in circuit density will require fairly dramatic changes in the way transistors are designed and operated. The concept of single electron transistor has the potential to revolutionize this field. This program seeks to develop nanoelectronic devices with an innovation that focuses on highly monodispersed MINIM arrays for single electron transistors. During Phase I, AMSEN will demonstrate the proof-of-concept of such a device. Phase II will build on Phase I success, optimize, build prototypes and field test the technology in partnership with DoD. Phase III will commercialize the technology and anticipated spin-off

APPLIED CERAMIC RESEARCH CO.
39327 Harbor Rd.
Avondale, CO 81022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 948-2109
Lee Kammerdiner
BMDO 99-014
Title:Metal-Ferroelectric-Insulator Field Effect Transistor (MFISFET) for Radiation Hardened, Non-Destructive-Read-Out (NDRO) Nonvolatile Memory
Abstract:We are proposing the research and development of a non-destructive-read-out ferroelectric gate (NDRO) memory. In a ferroelectric gate memory, ferroelectric thin films like strontium bismuth tantalate are used as the gate dielectric. In order to prevent the inter-diffusion of the ferroelectric thin film into the silicon substrate, thin buffer layers like zirconium oxide and yttrium oxide can be used as a diffusion barrier. The thickness of the buffer layer and the ferroelectric thin film will be optimized to minimize charge injection at the silicon-insulator interface and maximize ferroelectric charge retention. The metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor structures (MFIS) will be analyzed structurally using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The electrical characteristics of the MFIS structures will be analyzed by capacitance-voltage (C-V), Polarization vs Electric field (P-E) and Current-voltage measurements. Ferroelectric gate field effect transistors (MFISFET) will be fabricated under optimized process conditions. The devices will be tested for memory window, memory retention and radiation hardness.

ARKANSAS MICROELECTRONICS DEVELOPMENT CO
700 West 20th Street
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(501) 575-5614
David Martin Nelms
BMDO 99-014
Title:Thin Film RC Terminators for High Performance Applications
Abstract:Arkansas Microelectronics Development Corporation (AMDC) proposes to develop resistor-capacitor (RC) termination schemes using novel fabrication techniques. This project targets BMDO's goal of lighter, stronger, faster, and more reliable technologies. In all fields of electronics packaging, especially computer and telecommunications, there is an incentive to achieve high speed and high volume signal transmission, while reducing size. However, as system speed increases, the time available to make signal logic level transitions decreases. The goal is to have a rapid, quiet transition from level to level, making the final signal level available to any receivers at the earliest time. This resulting high clock rates increase and very fast edge rates require that interconnects be terminated to prevent signal reflections, to adjust propagation delays, and to minimize power consumption. Therefore, AMDC plans to demonstrate thin-film RC Terminators that will not only reduce system size and weight, but will also improve operating characteristics of high performance systems such as those required in ballistic missile defense applications. In order to take advantage of outside expertise, AMDC will subcontract the University of Arkansas' High Density Electronics Center (HiDEC) for design and modeling assistance. Matching funds from the Arkansas Science and Technology Authority (ASTA) will also be pursued.

BLUE LOTUS MICRO DEVICES
7620 Executive Dr.
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
James Michael Van Hove
BMDO 99-014
Title:Nitride Semiconductors for High Power Microwave Electronics
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for high power microwave transistors. Blue Lotus Devices proposes to develop AIGaN/InGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) structures for this application. In Phase I, the heterojunction will be deposited and the electrical and physical properties of the structure characterized. In Phase II, high frequency power HEMTs will be fabricated and tested. The anticipated increase in carrier confinement, sheet carrier concentration and electron mobility will lead to improved power and frequency characteristics of nitride based transistors

BLUE LOTUS MICRO DEVICES
7620 Executive Dr.
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
Robert Hickman
BMDO 99-014
Title:Nitride-Based Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors
Abstract:Proposed here is the development of AlGaN/GaN HBTs for linear, high temperature operation with very high power density needed to design >400 W output power amplifier modules in the 1-5 GHz frequency band. A successful program would result in a small form factor solid-state alternative to traveling wave tubes in this application regime. The GaN-based HBTs offer high transistor linearity inherent in bipolar designs that is required for economically significant digital transmission applications. The chemically stable, thermally stable, high temperature, high power devices would have numerous commercial applications in aerospace, automotive, portable communications and digital communications industries.

BREWER SCIENCE, INC.
P.O. Box GG, 2401 High Tech Drive
Rolla, MO 65401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 364-0300
Shari Keith
BMDO 99-014
Title:Flourinated and Fluoracyclated Parylenes for Low-K Interlayer Dielectric Application in Submicron IC's
Abstract:Interlayer dielectrics with low dielectric constants (k<3) will be needed in advanced integrated circuits to reduce crosstalk and increase signal propagation speed. Current interlayer dielectric (SiO2) does not have the desired low-k properties. As a result, a broad range of new spin coatable polymer dielectrics have been developed recently. However, these materials are prone to reliability and defectivity problems stemming from the deposition process. This has led IC manufacturers to search for low-k polymer dielectrics which can be applied by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In Phase I, we will demonstrate a novel, cost effective syntheses for incorporating fluorine into parylenes which can be deposited by CVD methods to form low-k interlayer dielectrics. The procedure uses direct modification of relatively inexpensive and commercially available parylenes as the basis for the preparation, avoiding the typically low yielding multi-step synthesis. High thermal stability is needed for new low “k” material to withstand IC processing. At this time, the isothermal TGA at 1% weight loss and outgassing temperature are used to determine the usefulness of new materials. We will demonstrate the impact of thermal stress on two important physical properties for our low “k” materials; dielectric constant and thermal stability.

CERAMARE CORP.
262 Lincoln Ave.
Highland Park, NJ 08904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 445-2724
Robert Uhrin
BMDO 99-014
Title:Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO for Semiconductor Substrates
Abstract:ZnO has emerged as viable prospect for use as a substrate for GaN deposition. Various techniques have been applied to grow ZnO crystals, but the hyrothermal method has had the most success. Thermodynamic modeling is proposed as the approach to predicting suitable low temperature, phase pure synthesis of ZnO crystals. Epitaxial growth on seed crystals, obtained by flux growth, will be used to verify the predicted conditions for growth within the temperature range 150-300ºC. Results of synthesis experiments conducted at these mild conditions will be used in Phase I to determine linear growth rates on oriented ZnO seeds. This data will form the basis for crystal enlargement experiments in Phase II. The thermodynamic model developed in Phase I will be instrumental in growing p-type ZnO crystals in Phase II.

CERMET, INC.
1019 Collier Road Suite C1
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 351-0005
Jeffrey E. Nause
BMDO 99-014
Title:Seeded Melt Growth of Pure and Stabilized ZnO Bulk Single Crystals
Abstract:The primary goal of Phase I work will be to demonstrate the feasibility of growing high quality, high purity, stoichiometric ZnO bulk crystals from a seeded melt. The secondary goal will be to stabilize the ZnO, thereby improving the stability of the ZnO lattice in reducing atmospheres at high temperatures. Zinc oxide powder will be melted in Cermet’s crystal growth apparatus in a pure oxygen environment. The crystals will be analyzed for crystalline perfection using x-ray rocking curves, and dislocation densities will be quantified using electron microscopy. High temperature stability will be investigated in GaN MOCVD and HVPE reactors. Lastly, GaN will be deposited on the crystals, and the films will be analyzed for perfection. This technique, matured in Phase II work, will provide BMDO with a high quality ZnO wafer source, with an ultimate volume price that is competitive with sapphire

CERMET, INC.
1019 Collier Road Suite C1
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 351-0005
Thomas J. Kropewnicki
BMDO 99-014
Title:Wide Band Gap ZnO p-n Junction
Abstract:The primary goal of Phase I work will be to demonstrate ZnO p-n junction technology to form a ZnO UV LED. The technology is enabled by Cermet’s proven ability to grow high quality, ZnO bulk substrates of 1 square centimeter area, and proven ZnO MOCVD technology. Zinc oxide MOCVD technology will be obtained by Cermet from an MOCVD industry leader. N-type and p-type ZnO films will be deposited on homoepitaxial substrates to form the p-n junction. An additional structure could include p-type films on n-type bulk substrates to form the p-n junction. Device design and material characterization will be enhanced through the use of an internationally recognized compound semiconductor expert. The successful completion of Phase I goals will demonstrate ZnO UV diodes and practical UV LEDs in Phase II. By building on Phase II results, future, more complex, devices will include ZnO UV laser diodes and detectors

CORETEK, INC.
25 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-2005
Parviz Tayebati
BMDO 99-014
Title:Broadband Erbium Doped Telluride Glass for WDM Laser Applications
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project proposes to extend the material development of Erbium doped Telluride glass material systems into a waveguide medium for integrated lasers and amplifiers. Rapidly increasing bandwidth demands of telecommunication industry creates a big market opportunity for photonic devices with large bandwidth. The existing lasers and amplifiers based on conventional Er doped glasses encompass only a 40 nm window near 1.5 mm. For Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), an enormous increase in the amount of information can be obtained by simply increasing the usable spectral window. With its 75 % more bandwidth, Er doped telluride glass is a prime candidate for next generation WDM devices. In Phase I, CoreTek , Inc. will develop low-loss waveguides with high gain and broad spectral width in Er doped telluride glass. In Phase II, the development of laser structures using the technology developed in Phase I as well as integration and packaging issues will be addressed

CRYSTAL PHOTONICS, INC.
2729 N. Financial Ct.
Sanford, FL 32773
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 328-9111
Bruce H. Chai
BMDO 99-014
Title:Large Area Gallium Nitride Substrates for Blue Laser Diodes
Abstract:It is clear that only large bulk single crystals of gallium nitride can alleviate the electrical and optical problems that plague present gallium nitride thin films grown on unmatched sapphire substrates. Therefore we propose to produce large bulk single crystals of gallium nitride by starting with perfectly lattice-matched LiGaO2 substrates and utilizing the rapid growth rated affordable by halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Anticipated growth rates will be 50 to 100 microns per hour. First a thin buffer layer of GaN will be grown by MOCVD on the new LiGaO2 substrates to guard against corrosion by HC1. Our new hybrid MOCVD/HVPE reactor will allow all processing to be performed in on cycle. The oxide substrates will subsequently be removed by wet chemical etching, leaving large area free standing wafers of gallium nitride. Such wafers will be made available commercially by Crystal Photonics Inc for homoepitaxial growth of gallium nitride films. With a conducting substrate, present device contacting problems will be eliminated. Very low defect densities will induce high power densities in blue diode lasers. In Phase I, we shall prepare blue GaN light-emitting diodes on our new wafers to demonstrate their utility. Lasers will be produced during Phase II

EMCORE CORP.
35 Elizabeth Ave.
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 271-9090
Ian Ferguson
BMDO 99-014
Title:Innovative Approach to Optimizing the Piezoelectric Effect for High Power GaN FETs
Abstract:Innovative device designs and novel growth and fabrication techniques will be investigated to provide a significant improvement in the operational characteristics of A1GaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTS). Three novel GaN-based HEMT structures based on the strain control of the heterostructure interface will be investigated for successful demonstration of high power HEMTs in this material system. Comparison between traditional impurity doping vs. piezoelectric doping for three different GaN based HEMT structures will be evaluated. Significant reduction of dislocation density in A1GaN/GaN heterostructures by employing novel techniques of lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) will be investigated with respect to the device performance. The factors limiting performance of advanced A1GaN/GaN LEO-based will be analyzed for further optimization of the devices. III-Nitride based HEMT structures will be optimized to produce materials with improved mobility and uniformity over multiple substrates in a commercially GaN production reactor. Various means of exploiting the advantages of LEO, including the use of buried FET gates in the dielectric mask for novel electrical designs as well as improved thermal performance will be explored. A strategic pairing between Northrop Grumman and EMCORE Corporation will ensure both the technical and commercial success of the proposed work.

EPITAXIAL LABORATORY, INC.
25 East Loop Road
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 444-6114
Jie Piao
BMDO 99-014
Title:Novel TlGaAs/AlGaAs Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor
Abstract:Next generation of phased-array radar, satellite systems, and cost driven, commercial markets of automotive collision warning radars, personnel communication systems are all moving to higher frequencies, resulting in a need for better device with lower cost. Designers want to digitize the signal as close to the front end as possible. This is driving the development of 100 GHz or greater IC technology for A/D converters, synthesizers, MUX/DEMUXs, DDSs, and PRNs. At microwave frequencies, InP HEMT devices have demonstrated the best combination of gain, noise figure, and linearity. But the InP substrate is very expensive. The price of a raw 3-inch InP substrate(~$800) is comparable to the cost of a 4-inch GaAs PHEMT wafer. When considering the mature GaAs MESFET and PHEMT technology with 4 inch fab lines, retaining GaAs substrate in manufacturing operation, as opposed to switching to InP substrates, is highly desirable. ELI proposes a next generation TlGaAs based PHEMT on GaAs substrates. TlGaAs on GaAs PHEMT will offer many advantages over present technologies. These include Improved performance with reduced cost, better reliability, and lower leakage currents. In phase I, MBE growth of TlGaAs will be carried out, and prototype PHEMT device will be realized in phase II.

EPITAXIAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC.
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5594
Dr. Olaleye Aina
BMDO 99-014
Title:A Novel Gigabyte Digital Memory
Abstract:Epitaial Technologies propose to develop a novel material technology for the implementation of high speed gigabyte digital memories. We will achieve this by investigating new material structures that will enable large capacity memories and devising epitaxial growth and device fabrication processes to implement them. The primary goal of this proposed Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel RTD based multi-valued logic approach for high capacity digital memories. By developing techniques for growing and fabricating A1Sb/InAs multi-well RTD with high peak-to-valley ratio that can be integrated with transistors, Epitaxial Technologies will project the performance that can be realized from the proposed RTD based memories. In Phase II, we will further optimize the material structure, design and fabricate SRAMs based on the developed technology

GENUS, INC.
1139 Karlstad Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 747-7140
Thomas E. Seidel
BMDO 99-014
Title:Integrated Dielectric Films for Advanced Microelectronics
Abstract:Leadership in every aspect of Information Technology (IT) has been a key element of U.S. economic dominance. At the brink of the 21st century, applications in medicine, communication, military and even artificial intelligence are awaiting the era of giga-hertz technology. In order to achieve the needed performance, new High K dielectric materials and deposition techniques are essential for the pursuance of the development of memory cells and advanced CMOS gate insulators. The SIA National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (NTRS) has alerted the development community of these shortcommings, which may seriously affect the progress of the electronics industry. This program proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of a high purity novel method for deposition of new high-K dielectrics integrated with metal films. The design intent includes high reliability (commercial maintainability) features at the outset. The proof-of-concept provides a critical capability for engineering advanced integrated dielectrics with already developed metal barriers for the realization of integrated metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures. The deposition method enables processes for controlling dielectrics at the atomic level, while meeting 0.1-0.05 um generation needs (through the year 2012) for uniform, conformal deposition on large area wafers using low process temperature.

IONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
1400 N. Shoreline Blvd. Bldg. A-4
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 961-4800
Ronald M. Kubacki
BMDO 99-014
Title:Trimmable Capacitors
Abstract:Capacitors are formed by depositing a dielectric between two conductive plates. While fabrication techniques achieve outstanding levels of repeatabillity and consistency, many applications are difficult to fullfill with current manufacturing methods. A solid state resistor film may be “trimmed” to a certain value after deposition by the selective ablation of the resisting medium by a laser beam. A capacitor, however, is formed by the entrapment of a dielectric material between the metal conductors. We propose the development of a capacitor using a dielectric material that has a dielectric constant which may be altered by exposure to ultraviolet radiation after deposition to provide a basis for trimmable or tunable capacitive devices. This will involve the use of organosilicon materials plasma polymerized at room temperature and a photo oxidative polymer which when exposed to UV and oxygen will pattern and is alterable with UV dosage. As the literature shows no indication of work in this area discussions with users are needed to develop and identify specific areas of application.

LAWRENCE SEMICONDUCTOR RESEARCH LAB
2300 West Hungington Drive
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 438-2300
Richard Westhoff
BMDO 99-014
Title:Carbon-Doped Polycrystalline Silicon-Germanium Gate Contacts for Low Voltage, Radiation Hard CMOS
Abstract:We propose carbon-doped polycrystalline silicon or silicon-germanium (SiGe) gate contacts for metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Polycrystalline SiGe is a promising alternative for gate contacts in MOSFETs, with useful properties including the ability to manipulate work function of the contact, enhanced dopant activation, and lower boron diffusion rates. Polycrystalline SiGe and silicon with low carbon (0.05-0.2%, denoted as SiGe : C and Si : C) should inhibit boron diffusion/penetration. As gate oxide thickness shrinks in higher frequency devices, inhibition of boron penetration from polycrystalline gated during high temperature processing is a limiting issue in MOSFETs. Recently, small amounts of carbon in silicon and SiGe layers have domonstrated significantly inhibited boron diffusion. The most common means to reduce boron penetration is nitridation of the gate oxide, which may be less radiation hard. Additionally, as dielectric thickness decreases, nitrided layer thickness also shrinks, reducing its effect as a diffusion barrier. Suppression of boron penetration may ultimately require both nitrided gated dielectrics and carbon doped polycrystalline electrodes. The primary goals are to determine the effect of carbon and thermal processing on boron penetration through the gate oxide, polycrystalline layer morphology and the capacitance voltage (CV) properties of the gate stack before and after radiation testing.

MESO.D CORP.
63 Bovet Rd, Suite 340
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 525-1418
Wayne H. Richardson
BMDO 99-014
Title:Design of a Single-Electron Transistor Based on the Degenerate p-n Junction
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project features as the main goal demonstration of the feasibility of a single-electron transistor with the following characteristics: 1) a high voltage gain, 2) gain over a significant range of operating voltage, and 3) modulation of the current by the gate even if the bias voltage is large. The transistor is an important device mainly because it can amplify a weak signal. Theoretical estimates of the gain from present single-electron transistors show that, under optimistic conditions, the maximum gain is on the order of 10. Furthermore gain is only possible over a narrow range of input voltage. It was recently demonstrated that a controllable saturated tunneling current is available in a degenerate p-n junction. Here, we propose to make use of that saturated tunneling current, ad intrinsic bandgap attributes, to design a single-electron transistor with the aforementioned characteristics

NASCENTECH ASSOC.
20 Joyce Rd.
Arlington, VA 02474
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 646-2587
Qing S. Paduano
BMDO 99-014
Title:Spectroreflectance System for III-V Epitaxy Process Optimization and Production Wafer Inspection
Abstract:Recent developments in both commercial and DoD electronic applications have dramatically pushed up the demand for III-V epitaxial wafer products. Production oriented II-V epitaxial growth systems capable of meeting this increased demand are now available from a number of vendors. However, epiwafer characterization systems able to handle production quantity volumes are either limited or nonexistent. In this proposed effort, we will demonstrate an optical spectroreflectance apparatus that is capable of simultaneously mapping the epilayer thickness and composition. The proposed production apparatus is fast, non-destructive, and relatively inexpensive. Our approach combines an InGaAs photodiode arrary and a fixed grating monochromator to reduce data acquisition time to 1 second per point. This means that a layer thickness wafer map and a composition wafer map can be obtained simultaneously in less than 10 minutes. In Phase I, we will concentrate on characterizing GaAs/AlGaAs epitazial wafers. In Phase II, we will work to expand the material database and to include doping effects so that actual production wafers can be characterized.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
8A Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-0300
Andrei Ossinski
BMDO 99-014
Title:Novel High-power Nitride-based Electronic Devices for Wireless Communication
Abstract:Innovative device designs based on application of novel wide band gap nitride efficient electron emitters for significant improvement of microwave power characteristics of Heterostructure Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) will be developed. NZ Applied Technologies has recently developed novel nearly lattice matched (or strained) and chemically compatible semiconductor heterostructure systems comprising complex ternary and quaternary nitrides and SiC. These heterostructures should have virtually dislocation free interfaces, and could add to SiC homostructure electron devices all the advantages of heterostucture technology. Negligible hole injection from the SiC base to the WBG emitter is ensured by larger then 1eV band offsets, providing greater gain and wider bandwidth. One unique property of these novel WBG lattice matched semiconductor emitters, is high electron conductance, even at band gaps above 4.2 eV. Electron conductivity can be controllably varyed by controlling parameters during epitaxial growth. The proposed novel HBT device offers superior performance compared to the power devices based on (Al)GaN/SiC heterojunction and SiC homojuctions. The goal of this Phase I effort is, therefore, to demonstrate an HBT, based on the proposed novel heterostructures

QUANTUM SEMICONDUCTOR ALGORITHMS, INC.
5 Hawthorne Circle
Northborough, MA 01532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 393-7870
Sita Ram-Mohan
BMDO 99-014
Title:Wavefunction Engineering of Semiconductor Nanostructures
Abstract:Wavefunction engineering refers to the optimized design of quantum semiconductor devices through appropriate localization of carriers in specific regions of the quantum heterostructure. It extends the concept of band-gap engineering of heterostructures by tailoring of optical or transport properties through choice of materials, modulation doping, strain, and external electric or magnetic fields. We propose developing software tools to achieve such design optimization and simulation for quantum wells, wires, and dots using tight-binding and finite element modeling. Our sparse matrix algorithms will be used so that complex structures can be modeled with ease. A very preliminary version of the proposed software has led to the successful wavefunction engineering of quantum inter-band cascade lasers using InAs/GaSb/AlSb operating at 3-5 microns. A full-featured software will reduce the time for the design, growth, testing & production cycle very substantially. By providing a computational environment for simulation of quantum devices it will permit the exploration of novel electronic mechanisms for semiconductor devices.

RADIANT RESEARCH, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd, Suite 105
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 338-4521
Jeffery J. Maki
BMDO 99-014
Title:Three-Dimensionally (3-D) Integrated Polymer Thin Film Waveguides for High Density True-Time-Delay Lines for Phased Array Antenna Applications
Abstract:Next-generation RF and microwave antenna arrays are expected to possess much advancement beyond existing antenna designs. In particular, improved range and cross-range resolution and new beam capabilities would be made possible with a wideband true-time-delay antenna feed. Several new techniques, such as fiber-optic feeds, offer excellent delay-line performance with the advantages of size, weight, bandwidth, propagation loss, immunity to electro-magnetic interference, and channel isolation. The packaging issues related to fiber-based delay lines, however, are complicated and costly. A guided-wave antenna feed in another form could offer the desirable attributes of fiber-based antenna feeds with simplified packaging and greater compactness. In this program Radiant Research, Inc. proposes a novel three-dimensionally integrated polymer-waveguide-based high-packing-density structure to cover all the advantages provided by optical-fiber arrays, while further reducing the system size and eliminating the complicated optoelectronic packaging problems associated with optical-fiber-based delay lines. Five-bit optical-delay lines of up to 10 meters can be fabricated using a 5 cm by 5 cm plate housing three-layers of polymeric waveguides, which have corresponding time delays of 1 ps to 50 ns. The resulting antenna system will possess the features oflow cost, wide coverage, flexible frequency change, multiple-link capability.

SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY, INC.
15 Ward Street
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 547-1122
DANIEL L. BIRX
BMDO 99-014
Title:HIGH PULSE RATE EUV RADIATION SOURCE FOR SUB-0.1-MICRON-DESIGN-RULE LITHOGRAPHY
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR project is to develop a compact, efficient Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) radiation source for application to advanced sub-0.1micron lithography. The EUV radiation is produced by a dense plasma focus (DPF) discharge driven by a pulsed, high current source. Pulsed power to drive the high pulse rate EUV source will be delivered by a highly reliable, all-solid-state driver based on nonlinear magnetic switches capable of operating at pulse rates of more than 1000 pps. The compact DPF EUV source proposed here creates a thin filament of high temperature, high density plasma with a diameter of 10s of microns and a length of approximately 0.5 centimeters. The peak plasma temperature and density in this filament can be controlled via a combination of drive current, initial gas pressure and electrode geometry. For this application we are proposing to develop a DPF EUV source which reliably achieves a peak plasma temperature of greater than 100 eV. The plasma will be composed of either highly ionized lithium or xenon to maximize the radiation intensity in the vicinity of 13 nanometers. Proof-of-principle experiments to be conducted on a breadboard DPF EUV source during Phase I will be used to support the construction of a brassboard 20 watt DPF EUV source during Phase II.

SPECIAL MATERIALS RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY
27390 Lusandra Circle
North Olmsted, OH 44070
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 777-4292
Maria Faur
BMDO 99-014
Title:Room Temperature Wet Chemical Growth of Low Dielectric Constant SiO-Based Thin Films for ULSI Microelectronics
Abstract:SPECMAT, Inc. proposes todemonstrate the use of its revolutionary Room Temperature Wet Chemical Growth (RTWCG) process to grow low dielectric constant (2

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL
8660 Dakota Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-8342
Vladimir Dmitriev
BMDO 99-014
Title:Development of AIN an GaN Wafers by Advanced HVPE Technique
Abstract:TDI proposes to develop aluminum nitride and gallium nitride wafers using advanced hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The HVPE technique is a well-established, relatively cheap method to grow thick layers of GaN on sapphire and silicon carbide substrates. This epitaxial method provides high growth rates sufficient to obtain quasibulk materials. Our recent experiments showed that AIN thick epitaxial layers can be grown by HVPE. AIN and GaN free-standing platelets have been obtained after the substrate removal. We also develop large area AIN and GaN wafers. The goal of the Phase I is to prove the concept and demonstrate high quality free-standing AIN and GaN wafers. Test samples will be delivered. Homoepitaxial layers will be grown on AIN and GaN bulk wafers. In the Phase II, we will focus on the development of multi-wafer HVPE growth porcess for AIN and GaN wafers

THE GEMESIS CORP.
595 Bay Isles Rd., Suite 200
Longboat Key, Fl 34228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 392-4978
Alexander Novikov
BMDO 99-014
Title:Novel Ultra-High Pressure (UHP) Growth of Single Crystal GaN Substrates
Abstract:The production of high quality, large area GaN single crystal substrates is perhaps one of the most outstanding issues in III-V nitride materials. The availability of GaN substrates is expected to decrease the defect density of homoepitaxial GaN films, thus paving the path for large lifetime GaN based injection lasers for a myriad of applications. The Gemesis Corporation in cooperation with the University of Florida has developed a novel crystal growth technique that is ideally suited to synthesize high quality diamond single crystals, which require similar processing conditions (pressure and temperature) as GaN. In Phase I of the project we propose to identify the processing chemistries for reproducible GaN single crystal growth, while in Phase II of this project, the focus will be to grow GaN substrates upto 2 inches in diameter.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, N.E.
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4437
Kirk M. Slenes, M.S.
BMDO 99-014
Title:Novel Composite Dielectrics for High Energy Density Capacitors
Abstract:The next generation of military energy storage capacitors will necessitate improvements in materials efficiency, energy density, and temperature reliability over existing devices. Similar performance issues are driving the consumer electronics market towards the development of high capacitance, low voltage, and small volume energy storage devices. These two market needs can be met by a single product which addresses the mutual concerns for high temperature stability and improved dielectric performance. TPL proposed to develop a high density material having a three-fold increase in energy storage density with improved thermal stability. A composite system is proposed consisting of two novel materials developed at TPL, polyimide copolymers with increased energy density and mechanical strength, and surface functionalized, nano-sized X7R barium titanate. Capacitor grade film of the composite materials will be fabricated and evaluated with regard to critical electrical performance parameters. TPL has extensive experience in dielectric polymers and hydrothermal titanate ceramics, including the development of doping methods to produce 50 nm size ceramic powders with flattened frequency and temperature response. Expertise in these two areas, in conjunction with industrial partners, will be used to develop dual-use materials to satisfy the mutual needs of military and consumer products.

UHV TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
113B West Park Drive
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 608-0311
Sam Amin
BMDO 99-014
Title:Advanced Electronic Material Coating on Fibers
Abstract:Recently, optical fibers have gained a lot of popularity due to their performance advantages in commercial applications. Fiber optic technology is employed extensively for an ever increasing array of commercial and military signal transmission, communications and control applications. However optimum use of these fibers in these applications requires coating of these fibers with thin layers of various electronic materials such as semiconductors, insulators, metals and compounds. We propose to develop an innovative thin film fabrication deposition technology for coating advanced high technology electronic materials on optical fibers. We will use a unique high throughput, in-line manufacturing system (recently developed for wear resistant diamond like carbon coating on bare optical fibers) for this development. We will study the microstructure and nanostructure of various electronic materials deposited on optical fibers to analyze the effect of curved substrate on the film quality and its electronic properties. We will demonstrate this technology by fabricating a very sensitive optical fiber magnetic sensor. The proposing team, consisting of UHV Technologies, Drexel University and Sarnoff Corporation possesses unique capabilities to undertake this project

WIDEGAP TECHNOLOGY, LLC
5655 Lindero Canyon Rd., Suite 404
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 967-9433
Yifeng Wu
BMDO 99-014
Title:High Power Insulating Gate SiN/AlGaN Microwave HEMTs
Abstract:High power microwave and millimeter-wave amplifiers for wireless communication base-stations, wireless local area networks, digital radio, and airborne or space-based applications like phased array radar, satellites communications are increasingly utilizing solid state power amplifiers. Nitride based wide bandgap semiconductors have demonstrated microwave power densities substantially higher than conventional structures such as GaAs MESFETs and HEMTs. The AlGaN-GaN HEMT is the most attractive since high voltage, high current and low on-resistance can be simultaneously achieved, resulting in high power-high efficiency operation. Loss in large signal rf performance, both in power and PAE is one of the most important problem in current state of the art AlGaN-GaN HEMTs. In this program, WiTech proposes to address this problem by developing the Silicon Nitride insulating Gate HEMTs (SiNG-HEMT) in the AlGaN-GaN material system. As explained in the proposal, the SiN insulator will alleviate the trapping effect in AlGaN-GaN HEMTs. This will enable the GaN HEMT technology that achieves power densities ~ 10 times and power added efficiencies higher than existing GaAs MESFET and pHEMT microwave technologies. In phase I, WiTech shall fabricate 0.6 um gate length SiNG-HEMTs operating at a high power density (~ 3-5 W/mm), high efficiency (> 40 %) at C band. The SiNG-HEMT will be compared to a baseline AlGaN-GaN HEMT to quantify the effect of the SiN insulating gate on the device performance. Phase II goals would be to target higher power densities (~ 5-7 W/mm) as well as higher efficiencies (~ 60-70 %), demonstration of enhancement mode SiNG-HEMTs and increased reliability.

ADTECH NEPTH, INC.
220 North Lombard Avenue
Oak Park, IL 60302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(708) 386-9657
Shome N Sinha
BMDO 99-015
Title:THICK FILMS OF Y123-Ag SUPERCONDUCTORS BY DIRECTIONAL PROCESSING OF NEPTH PRECURSORS
Abstract:The Project will fabricate bulk Y123 superconductors with engineering critical current density greater than 35 kA cm-2 at 77 K and 3 T at a cost of $10 per kA m or less. To fabricate such bulk superconductors, Adtech will establish a New Technology for production of continuous lengths of HTS thick films. Adtech's New Technology will extend Adtech's patented Method of superconductor fabrication by retrofitting it with Directional Processing, a novel approach of concurrent reaction sintering and texturing of NEPTH precursor. Adtech's Method is the only known method that bypasses the oxygenation of the tetragonal Y123 phase as the prerequisite to fabricate Y123 HTS and thus overcomes the shortcomings of the other current methods that limit engineering current density and cost-effectiveness of current bulk superconductors. The Phase I Project will establish the New Technology by fabricating Y123 HTS with 10 wt% silver and in the form of thick films on ceramic substrates. Y123 HTS bulk from the Phase I Project will have a minimum critical engineering current density of JE of 10 kA cm-2 at 77 K and 1 T, a minimum length of 20 cm and a minimum fill factor of 0.5

HYPRES, INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Deepnarayan Gupta, Ph.D.
BMDO 99-015
Title:Asynchronous 20Gb/s Interchip Data Transmission Technology for Superconducting Multi-chip Modules
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research project proposes the development of novel technology for asynchronous 20 Gb/s data transmission between chips mounted on a superconducting multi-chip module (MCM). In spite of demonstrated advantages in high speed, low power-consumption and high accuracy, commercialization of superconducting electronic systems are retarded by fabrication technology limitations, such as low yield and uniformity. Modularization of a complex circuit into smaller blocks, fabricated on separate chips and mounted on a common carrier, circumvents this limitation and improves reliability. While individual circuit blocks have been demonstrated to operate at 20 Gb/s and beyond, present interchip data transmission rates limit operation of these large circuits to less than 5 GHz clock speed. In order to take full advantage of superconducting digital technology, interchip data rates above 20 Gb/s must be achieved. In Phase I, 20 Gb/s data transfer through non-superconducting solder bumps and passive transmission lines on the MCM carrier will be demonstrated, using digital logic to eliminate the need for amplification and avoid bandwidth limitations of transmission lines. In Phase II, HYPRES will increase this interconnect speed to 30 Gb/s and use this novel MCM technology to develop digital receiver components.

HYPRES, INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Mr. Wenquan Li
BMDO 99-015
Title:Ultra-Reliable Digital SQUID-Detector Based on FM-Detection
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR, HYPRES proposes to develop an ultra-reliable digital SQUID-detector with an unlimited dynamic range in the Earth ambient magnetic field, based on FM (Frequency Modulation) detection and a latest discovery in RSFQ circuit reliability. The most striking advantage of this digital detector is that it can convert its input signal directly to digital signal, without the need of a preamplifier which often contaminates its small input signal that needs to be amplified. The noise level of room temperature preamplifiers is often the limiting factor in deciding the smallest signal that an ADC converter can handle. With this digital SQUID-detector , ultra-small signals can be converted to digital signals without any contamination. Magnetic signals are very fundamental signals. Any other physical signal which can be transformed into a magnetic signal can be measured by the proposed detector. This detector can be used directly to measure ultra-low level voltage, current, and magnetic field. Therefore, practically any effort dealing with the high sensitivity measurements of ultra-weak signals can benefit from the proposed detector. When feasibility is shown, HYPRES proposes in Phase II to develop a prototype of the proposed detector with sensitivity 2fT/(Hz)^(1/2)

RESEARCH APPLICATIONS ORGANIZATION, INC.
P.O.Box 128
Goleta, CA 93116
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 971-5036
Muralidhar Rama Rao
BMDO 99-015
Title:High Performance Ribbons for Superconducting Digital Logic
Abstract:The objective is to develop a flexible ribbon with superconducting channels that transmit analogy and digital signals without degeneration between superconducting components. In Phase I, multilayers of high temperature superconductor and insulators will be grown by a combination of ion-beam and pulsed-laser deposition techniques. Materials with high flexibility, low thermal conductivity, and low rf dissipation will serve as substrates for the superconducting films. The dc electrical properties of the superconductor will be characterized. A single superconducting channel will be fabricated, and the channel performance will be characterized at high frequency. Temperature cycling and ultrasonic shock tests will be performed. In Phase II, longer ribbon lengths, multiple channels, and end-connectors will be demonstrated. The ribbon fabrication process and channel layout will be optimized to realize extremely low cross-talk between channels. The final product will be a high performance ribbon cable tht is light and flexible, with low heat load, low insertion loss and extremely low cross-talk.

APPLIED OPTOELECTRONICS, INC.
242 Kingfisher
Sugar Land, TX 77478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 242-2588
Chau-Hong Kuo
BMDO 99-016
Title:Growth of the large two-dimensional 8-15 um InAs/InGaSb type-II SL photodetectors array on GaAs compliant substrate
Abstract:Photodetectors operating at 8-15 mm and beyond are of great importance for commercial and military applications in infrared (IR) thermal imaging. InAs/InGaSb type-II quantum wells (QWs) have advantages over HgCdTe for applications requiring higher temperature and longer wavelength operation. The type-II QW photodiodes would have comparable quantum efficiency and smaller dark current due to a larger effective mass, and enhanced lifetimes due to much slower Auger recombination rates, and hence much longer carrier lifetime. Through careful bandgap engineering, we have suppressed the Auger coefficient by a factor > 8 for 4.5-mm type-II QW mid-IR lasers at 300 K. With improved MBE growth technology, we have improved the responsivity of type-II photoconductors by a factor 50, due to the improved interface quality. Currently, we have demonstrated among the best performance of photoconductors using III-V materials up to 14 mm. Recently, we have demonstrated a four times better photoresponse of 13 mm photoconductor from InAs/InGaSb superlattice layers grown on GaAs compliant substrate compared to that on GaSb substrate. In this program, we will develop both the growth of large two-dimensional arrays of IR photodetectors based on InAs/InGaSb type-II QWs at 8 to 15 mm and 2 inch GaAs universal compliant substrate technology.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
PO Box 600
Buzzards Bay, MA 02532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Robert Scott Morris
BMDO 99-016
Title:New Polymer for Improved Lithium Ion Electrolytes
Abstract:Solid-state rechargeable batteries offer potentially greater energy density and reliability than their liquid electrolyte counterparts. Unfortunately, there still is no solid electrolyte that can effectively compete with liquid electrolytes in this technology sector. The proposed research effort will involve computer-assisted evaluation of new polymers in polymer/salt complex electrolytes which will hasten the selection of candidate materials for synthesis. Select materials will than be synthesized and characterized electrochemically to determine which are most likely to yield the desired electrochemical properties. Success in the Phase I effort will lead to the development of a solid polymer electrolyte that is equal to liquid electrolytes and will mean a whole new era for lithium batteries in the consumer market. This will occur because a competitive solid polymer electrolyte will put an end to safety problems encountered with lithium batteries

DIGITAL OPTICS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
64 Daly Dr. Ext
Stoughton, MA 02072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 297-7916
Selim Shahriar
BMDO 99-016
Title:Holographic Beam Combiner for High Power LADAR and Other Applications
Abstract:The Holographic Beam Combiner, HBC, proposed here can be used to combine the output from up to 20 lasers into one, single beam with a divergence of 2 mrad. The HBC will operated in the 105 to 1.7 micron region of the spectrum and will obtain high coupling efficiency with the lasers. The HBC will be small, lightweight optical element and it will be inexpensive. The fabrication of the HBC is based on the storage of multiple holographic gratings in the same spatial location. Until now, this has been difficult and inefficient due to material issues. With the advent of polymer with diffusion amplification, PDA, multiple holographic gratings can be efficiently stored in a single location on a holographic plate. Using a large dynamic range, this material can combine 20 holograms with a combined output that has more than 90% of the combined input power. This is the key advantage of this particular holographic material over others. For the purposes of this proposal, information from several different laser beams will be multiplexed as holograms in the PDA material. These multiplexed holograms can then work to redirect or combine the output from the laser beams of the ladar system simultaneously, thereby forming a single, high energy beam. The HBC can also be useful for applications such as channel multiplexing in a fiberoptic network, as well as in laboratory research for combining multiple beams without loss of power.

GEMFIRE CORP.
2440 Embarcadero Way
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 849-6871
Nigel J. Cockroft
BMDO 99-016
Title:Low Cost Optical Gain Medium For Lossless Signal Splitting
Abstract:The goal of the Phase I program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of developing a scalable lossless optical splitter in a new gain medium. Resultant devices should operate entirely in the optical domain, be polarization independent and be readily scaled to large numbers of output channels. Importantly for Phase III commmercialization activities, the proposed splitters will be manufactured during planar processing techniques and, in quantity, should be significantly more affordable than conventional approaches. The key enabling innovation underlying the approach is a new, versatile, low-cost amplifier. Phase I will evaluate technical feasibility by determining the gain requirements for the candidate device designs, determine the losses associated with the proposed amplification scheme, and calculate from key measurements the expected gain associated with a splitter architecture. Phase I will conclude with a down selection of a device configuration and detailed performance projections for a Phase II prototype based on the proposed amplifier scheme.

LIGHTPOINTE COMMUNICATION, INC.
3215 Marine St., Suite E260
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 492-7298
Saeid Safavi
BMDO 99-016
Title:Avariable Data Rate Unlicensed Microwave Digital Radio Backup System for Multi-Gbps Terrestrial Laser Communication Links
Abstract:LightPointe Communications, Inc. proposes to combine the advantages of license free wireless laser-and RF-technologies and built an ultra high speed variable data rate microwave digital radio (MDR) inteface as backup system for terrestial laser communication links. The digital radio interface will be capable to operate at speeds up to 155 Mbps which will be the highest data rate ever reported in the license free ISM communication band. The integration of these two wireless communication technologies into a compact hybrid laser/RF system wil be extremely beneficial and is potentially the only method to solve the statistical availability problem of longer distance terrestial laser links

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3901 Green Industrial Way
Chamblee, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 457-8400
Subu Shanmugham
BMDO 99-016
Title:Nano-Powder Ddispersions Via Liquid Combustion Vapor Condensation
Abstract:This SBIR project will develop MicroCoating Technologies' novel open atmosphere process to synthesize state-of-the art nano-powders with 50% to 90% processing cost reductions compared to classical techniques. This process will also enable numerous nano-powder compositions that are inaccessible by conventional techniques. In Liquid Combustion Vapor Condensation (LCVC), low-cost, environmentally friendly, metal-bearing reagents are dissolved in solvents that also serve as compustible fuel. Using MCT'S innovative nebullizer, this solution is atomized to form submicron droplets, which are then combusted in a torch, forming vapor. The condensable species thus formed nucleate homogeneously as aerosol nano-powders that are then collected in dispersion media. Premixed precursor solutions allow great versatillity in synthesizing a wide variety of compound nano-powders of very uniform size and composition. The LCVC method will be developed to produce nano-powders that will be collected as colloidal dispersions, a convenient form for handling and subsequent processing. The powders will be characterized for microstructure, stoichiometry and physical properties as a function of process variables. Applications will be developed in near net shape ceramics, powder coating, and rheological fluids. Success will lead to a Phase II, tens of kilograms per hour capable, effort to scale and optimize the LCVC process for low cost production of nano-powders in Phase III.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
56 Rogers St
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 252-0660
Marthinus van Schoor
BMDO 99-016
Title:Integrated Battery Structural Member
Abstract:Midé and Payload Systems are proposing an innovative concept for embedding low profile Lithium-Ion Solid Polymer Rechargeable batteries in an aerospace metal or composite structure. This multi-function aerospace structural material will improve reliability, cost and decrease weight. The innovation satisfies a clear need, namely: to provide the power to embedded sensors, actuators, and corresponding circuitry, locally. This innovation was made feasible by the recent developments in the field of very thin, very long life, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Phase I will determine the feasibility of the proposed approach. Analytical studies and small scale experiments will be performed to address technical risks and to determine design guidelines so that a demonstration system can be build and tested in Phase II

MILLI SENSOR SYSTEM & ACTUATORS, INC.
93 Border St
West Newton, MA 02465
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 965-4872
Raymond Carroll, PhD.
BMDO 99-016
Title:Rugged MEMS Nano-g Accelerometer With An Effectively Free Proof Mass
Abstract:MSSA has discovered a mechanical means that can improve drift stability and sensitivity of MEMS accelerometers by orders of magnitude. This will make ultra-precise nano-g accelerometers feasible. We have a unique means that gives a flexure pivoted reference pendulum the appearance of being an inertially free pendulum, it is this discovery that will transform a moderately performing rugged accelerometer into a precision instrument that maintains its ruggedness and is capable of very long term bias stability. With the elimination of bias errors from flexure torques, it’s feasible to evacuate the accelerometer and reduce random walk to a negligible level. This allows the accelerometer to sense vibrations as well as very low frequency motions. The nano-g accelerometer will be capable of exhibiting high sensitivities, while at the same time be capable of measuring large input levels; which is not possible in traditional MEMS accelerometer designs. Consequently, the nano-g accelerometer will operate as a true inertial displacement sensor with displacement errors that are bounded over substantial time intervals. It’s the purpose of this program to demonstrate analytically and experimentally, that a flexure pivoted reference pendulum can perform as if it were an inertially free pendulum.

NANOPOWDER ENTERPRISE, INC.
Suite 106, 120 Centennial Avenue
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-1088
Ganesh Skandan
BMDO 99-016
Title:Infrared Transparent Nanocrystalline Aluminum Oxide: A replacement for sapphire
Abstract:In Phase I of the program, we will demonstrate fabrication of IR-transparent, dense, nanocrystalline (< 100 nm) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) discs by microwave sintering of nanopowder compacts. Such a material is a potential replacement for the more expensive sapphire (single crystal Al2O3) that is used in high speed heat seeking missiles. NEI is a manufacturer of nanopowders, and our collaborators at PennState University have developed a unique microwave sintering technology, especially suited for processing large and complex shaped transparent components. Starting from coarse grained powders, fully dense, transparent ceramic pellets that are 10 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick, have been formed by microwave sintering. In Phase I of the program, Al2O3 nanopowders will be produced by our patented Combustion Flame - Chemical Vapor Condensation process, compacts that are 10 mm in diameter and 1.5 mm thick will be formed, and microwave sintered to theoretical density. The optical properties and structure will be characterized in Phase I. The sample size will be scaled and properties will be optimized in Phase II. In addition, mechanical, thermal and optical properties will be evaluated and a property database for these materials will be created. IR-transparent nanocrystalline ceramics will be produced on a commercial basis and marketed in Phase III of the program.

NANOPOWDER ENTERPRISE, INC.
Suite 106, 120 Centennial Avenue
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-5909
Amit Singhal
BMDO 99-016
Title:Nanocrystalline Metal Oxide Electrodes for Rechargable Lithium Batteries
Abstract:Metal oxides are excellent hosts for lithium and are widely used a positive electrodes in lithium rechargeable batteries. In preliminary experiments, we have shown that V2O5 nanopowders exhibit substantially higher initial capacities in a lithium metal battery compared to standard coarse grained V2O5 powders. This is apparently due to an order of magnitude shorter diffusion distance for the small domain nanocrystalline material. In this program, we propose to produce a high specific energy (> 800 Wh/ kg) battery with good cycling life (> 300), using an intercalating metal oxide nanopowder (<100 nm particle size) as cathode material. The use of nanoparticle “aggregates” will enhance the rate of Li+ insertion. In Phase I, nanopowders of lithium-doped metal oxide system, namely LiCoO2 will be produced by our patented Combustion Flame – Chemical Vapor Condensation (CF-CVC) process. Lithium (metal) test cells will be fabricated by working in collaboration with our industrial partner, who is also providing matching funds to this program. In Phase II, prototype lithium – ion batteries will be fabricated and tested for electrochemical properties, such as energy density, power density and cycling life. Rechargeable lithium batteries utilizing nanocrystalline metal oxide powders will be produced on a commercial basis and marketed in Phase III of this program.

OPTIGAIN, INC.
350 Columbia Street PO Box 3732
Peace Dale, RI 02883
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 783-9222
Dr. Shijun Jiang
BMDO 99-016
Title:Ultra-Narrow Linewidth, Tunable Single-Frequency Ytterbium Fiber Laser
Abstract:Optigain proposes to develop, for the first time, a single-frequency, ultra-narrow linewidth, TEM00- mode, linearly polarized, few hundred mW and tunable Ytterbium (Yb) doped laser in a fiber form. This novel approach, to construct a Yb-doped fiber laser in a traveling-wave (unidirectional) ring resonator incorporating a double frequency stabilization/locking system, will achieve the goads defined in this topic area. The combination of intracavity frequency stabilization and external frequency locking will yield a very high frequency stability and a narrow linewidth, of the order of 10 Hz. Another crucial aspect of our approach is to actualize the linear-polarization lasing to totally eliminate the polarization mode competition, ensuring a long-term reliable operation. The Phase I effort we will analyze the fiber laser resonator design trade-off, through theoretical and computer modeling, to determine the best resonator configuration of the Yb-doped fiber laser for achieving an ultra-narrow linewidth, stable single-frequency, TEM00-mode, linearly polarized, few hundred mW and tunable operation. We will also conduct experimental investigations to demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed Yb-doped fiber laser. The Phase I result will provide a comprehensive technical base to build a fully functional in the Phase II.

PIONEER ASTRONAUTICS
445 Union Blvd. Ste. 125
Lakewood, CO 80228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 980-0890
Robert M. Zubrin
BMDO 99-016
Title:Solar Sail Microspacecraft
Abstract:The Solar Sail Microspacecraft (SSM) is a low-cost concept for implementing solar sail propulsion on a practical spacecraft with present-day technology. In the SSM, a simple micro-spacecraft derived vehicle is employed which could cheaply investigate multiple targets and simultaneously demonstrate the utility of small solar sails. The SSM reduces technology risk by using off-the-shelf aluminized mylar. A very small core vehicle with short range communication systems drastically reduces the size of the sails, allowing the spacecraft to be launched as a hitchhiker payload. Because the spacecraft is small, the sail is small, allowing it to be self-deployed using either a rolled spring-steel or inflatable self-deploying boom system. Because of its maneuverability, the SSM could visit multiple targets, engaging in photographic inspection of friendly or adversarial satellites. A SSM could be used to disable or destroy other satellites by parking itself in a position where it blocked the target spacecraft's solar arrays. It could also be used to interfere with the operation of an opponent's remote sensing vehicle by using its sails to block the view. This proposed study shall examine the design and construction of a low-cost, near-term SSM vehicle for immediate use in near Earth space.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Jayant Shukla
BMDO 99-016
Title:Tracking Cruise Missiles and Low Contrast Targets
Abstract:Tanner Research proposes an innovative approach for detecting cruise missiles. Instead of using the shape, size, or direction of motion, we propose to use only the speed of the missiles to detect them. Speed of a particular type of missile is a better known factor compared to its outward physical characteristics. Our approach will be based on the ongoing work at Tanner Research on low contrast point target detection (LCPTD), and the Wave Process, which has already shown great promise in the detection of cruise missiles from stationary sensor platforms. We aim to extend this technology to detect cruise missiles from moving platforms. We will further enhance the Wave Process by developing a shape based detection method to improve the detection probability for low contrast targets, and provide the direction and speed of the target. We have already demonstrated an efficient analog VLSI implementation for the Wave Process, providing a high-performance signal processing component with low power, weight, and size, making it suitable for near-focal-plane applications. We will test and demonstrate these extended capabilities with synthetic IR focal plane data and a software simulation of the Wave Process.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL
8660 Dakota Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-8342
Vladimir Dmitriev
BMDO 99-016
Title:Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy for GaN-Based Devices
Abstract:We propose to develop hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) to fabricate multi-layer epitaxial structures for GaN-based devices. Currently, only metal organic vapor phase deposition (MOCVD) is employed to fabricate production GaN-based devices including light emitters and high-power microwave devices. Another epitaxial method known to deposit high quality GaN layers is the HVPE. Historically, the HVPE method has been use to grow thick quasi-bulk GaN materials due to high growth rate, high crystals quality of the grown material, and relatively low cost of the method. Recently, we demonstrated the first p-type GaN and GaN pn junctions grown by the HVPE. A1GaN alloys and A1GaN/GaN heterostructures have been fabricated by HVPE. These results open the opportunity to develop a new epitaxial technology for the fabrication of group III nitride device structures. The goal of Phase I is to prove the concept and demonstrate GaN-based device structures grown by HVPE. Test samples will be delivered

TOWNSEND SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
One Oak Hill Road
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 345-9090
Harry R Clark
BMDO 99-016
Title:Field Rechargeable Battery
Abstract:The 21st century soldier and the systems that support the 21st century soldier are becoming ever more dependant on power sources to operate. Night vision goggles, friend or foe identification, laser targeting and satellite communications are just a few of the items that the 21st century fighting force will need to employ in order to effectively engage an opposing force. Currently the United States leads the world in high tech fighting gear. Unfortunately these systems are inherently power hungry. The ability to deliver power where and when it is needed, right down to the individual soldier, may well determine the outcome of future conflicts. This project will produce a field rechargeable battery that will significantly increase the effectiveness of our combat forces. In addition this device will have wide commercial and non-military governmental appeal. There currently exists an opportunity to develop this system that will enhance the readiness of our fighting troops, bring needed power to the underclass peoples of the world and provide a significant positive environmental impact on power generation.