---------- DARPA ----------

61 Phase I Selections from the 99.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
AEGIS RESEARCH CORP.
6703 Odyssey Drive, Suite 200
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Jeffrey Cites
DARPA 99-001
Title:Thick-Film Fabrication Process for Micro Inertial Measurement Units
Abstract:Extreme miniaturization of sensors such as inertial measurement units IMUs has become possible with the development of micro-machining technologies. In addition to reducing size and weight, unprecedented reductions in cost and power consumption have been achieved. Unfortunately, performance has been the trade-off. Sensor structures created from very thin films have low lateral sensitivity, and lack structural rigidity perpendicular to the substrate. Bulk techniques provide promise, but may impede multi-axis measurement. To achieve IMU performance necessary for next generation small missiles, hybrid processes need to be developed. Current thin-film processes are characterized by alternating layers of materials such as polycrystalline silicon, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, doped glasses, and contact metallizations. Major limitations of current thin film MEMS fabrication processes are: limited inertial mass and cross-sectional area, fixed and constant layer thicknesses, limited flexibility for vertical actuation mechanisms, in-situ vacuum encapsulation, and choice of layer materials. It is the goal of the proposed research to develop a thick-film fabrication process analogous to commercially available thin-film processes, such as MCNC's MUMPS process or Sandia's SUMMiT process. This thick film process will combine SOI, wafer bonding, and deep RIE with traditional thin-film processes to provide a flexible process without the current limitations.

AEGIS RESEARCH CORP.
6703 Odyssey Drive, Suite 200
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Phillip Reiner
DARPA 99-002
Title:Flexible, Thin Films with Low Sheet Resistance and High Transparency
Abstract:There is currently a need for lightweight, flexible, electronically driven displays that can be used by soldiers on the modern battlefield for communicating vital warfighting information in a timely manner. Although many technologies already exist for displaying information, the size of these displays is currently limited by the power needed to drive the displays and can not be easily scaled up in size. Moreover, the displays are not very flexible. Work has been done to produce better conducting thin films (such as indium-tin-oxice) that are transparent but higher conductivity is needed and these films tend to be very brittle. Recent experimental results demonstrate that photonic bandgap materials can provide a means for producing highly conducting transparent metals with sheet resistance less than 0.2 ohms per square and better than 70% transmissive in the visible waveband. These materials can be readily combined with state of the art polymer processing techniques to provide a viable method for producing the thin, flexible, optically transparent conducting sheets required for both military and commercial display systems. The research proposed here will address this opportunity and demonstrate the ability to combine metals with optical devices that previously were thought impossible.

CHIRP CORP.
8248 Sugarman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 453-4406
Richard Altes, Ph.D.
DARPA 99-003
Title:Biomimetic Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) and Acoustic Pattern Recognition for Detection and Classification of Buried Mines
Abstract:Chirp Corporation's biomimetic SAS software detects and classifies buried mines by using clutter feature images. A weakly reflecting target appears as a distinctively shaped hole in surrounding volume clutter. Chirp's rotation-invariant target classifier uses dolphin-like signals for mine discrimination. Mines are also discriminated from other objects by using composite rough/smooth feature images that identify the relatively smooth outer case along with reflections of rough, granular explosive from inside the mine. Chirp uses a semi-coherent, Doppler tolerant broadband tomographic imaging system that is easier to implement and is more robust than fully coherent SAS. All signal processing functions are commensurate with animal sensory system capabilities. Chrip's SAS is equivalent to back projection tomography (as in medical imaging) but is more general because it utilizes feature images and image-based tracking for motion compensation. Higher cognitive function can be emulated by top-down/bottom-up SAS processing, which corresponds to algebraic reconstruction (ART). ART-SAS can be used for image interpretation, sharpening, and multi-path combining via a RAKE-like matched field processor. Area coverage rate is increased by using rotated wavelet models of dolphin space-time transmission patterns, high power pulsed sources, and/or low frequency Doppler tolerant bat-like FM signals. Objectives are to test and develop this system.

NEPTUNE TECHNOLOGIES
1200 College Walk, Suite 203
Honolulu, HI 96817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-8330
Jack Harmon
DARPA 99-003
Title:A Binaural System for Detecting and Classifying Underwater Buried Mines
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop a conceptual design for a broadband binaural biomimetic sonar system that will scan in three dimensions and approximate the scanning behavior and success rate of echolocating dolphins. Current sonar systems, including those based on dolphin echolocation characteristics, exploit a single-point receiver. Even when arrays of receivers are used in extant sonars, their function is to increase the beam forming precision or to steer the sonar beam. Dolphins, in contrast, appear to use their two ears somewhat separable. Binaural processing adds significant information about the structure of the target in both time and frequency-domain representations of the signal. Studies with speech signals indicate a 5dB performance gain when using two receivers, relative to a single receiver. Similar improvements can be expected in the proposed biomimeteic sonar. To test this model, we will construct a binaural data-acquisition system capable of precise positioning and able to move freely in three dimensions as dolphins do when searching for fish. We will collect echoes from mine-like targets placed on a relatively clutter free sandy ocean bottom, and buried under the substrate and we will compare the performance of this system with current biomimetic monaural systems.

ORINCON CORP.
970 North Kalaheo Ave., Suite C-215
Kailua, HI 96734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 254-1532
Gordon Okimoto
DARPA 99-003
Title:Wide-Area Detection and Classification of Underwater Buried Mines
Abstract:Detecting and classifying buried mines in very-shallow-water (VSW) environments is a difficult task using conventional sonar system. Traditional narrow band sonar exhibits poor detection performance and high false alarm rate, and require many emissions per target for high-confidence classifications in VSW scenarios. ORIMSON, together with Sea Engineering Inc., proposes a mine-hunting system that integrates broadband biomimetics and modern underwater sub-bottom imaging to robustly detect buried mines in littoral areas and solve the high coverage rate problem. The system will use a three-dimensional multi-beam FM chirp sonar and novel image processing algorithms to perform wide area searches of the sea floor to detect proud and buried mines. A biomimetic system that fuses dolphin and bat-like echolocation signals for increased range, field of view, and bottom penetration will be used for close to medium-range object recognition. Cutting edge biomimetic algorithms capable of remarkable classification accuracy using novel wavelet-based features and hierarchical neural networks will be leveraged for this proposal. In addition, novel automatic target recognition algorithms for chirp sonar imagery are also proposed. The development of this system will lead to a demonstration of its capabilities, and will allow further testing and refinement of algorithms during Phase II.

CUSTOM MATERIALS, INC.
10237 Breconshire Road
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 461-7759
Dennis Nagle
DARPA 99-004
Title:Multi-Functional Carbon Materials
Abstract:With the increasing demands being placed on military systems, there is a need for each component of the system to perform as many functions as possible. This approach can greatly increase the potential for mission success while reducing the size and weight of the system. Carbon materials can play a unique role in the design of multifunctional materials for these systems. The focus of this proposal is to combine the multiple functions for which carbons have been used over the last several decades into a structural carbon component. Recent research has demonstrated the viability of an innovative new process for producing net-shaped carbon reinforced composites which avoids the use of costly fibers and complex forming procedures. This is accomplished by the thermal decomposition of wood under controlled conditions to produce a porous carbon monolith which can be shaped by conventional low cost machining. The shaped carbon serves as a scaffold for forming a composite via infiltration with a second phase without change in dimensions. These carbons have been demonstrated to have compressive mechanical strengths that are superior to the precursor woods from which they are derived. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible to activate these materials to yield surface areas similar to those produced by other charcoal activation processes.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive, Suite 202
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 693-0017
Alan Cisar
DARPA 99-004
Title:Integrated Energy Supply and Wing Structure for Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:Interest in micro unmanned aerial vehicles (abbreviated as MAVs and defined as less than 6 inches in their longest dimension) is increasing due to their ability to avoid detection and give combat forces a flexible and immediate intelligence source. While vehicle concepts abound, they all face a common problem; very low-speed flight requires proportionately more power than higher speed flight. This creates a need for a small, light weight, high energy density power supply. One way to achieve the needed energy density is to build the power supply function into another part of the vehicle through the use of multifunctional structures. This can be done by fabricating wings with monopolar fuel cells as their external surfaces, serving as both wing surface and power supply. This produces only a minimal increase in drag, and forward motion supplies air, with only 50 cm2 of cell area required to supply 5 watts of power. The internal portion of the wing serves as the fuel tank, with the fuel cell stack as one surface. Further weight reductions can be achieved by using the metal current collectors within the fuel cells as antennas.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Yanjing Liu
DARPA 99-004
Title:Electrostatically Self-Assembled Multifunctional Materials and Structures
Abstract:The purpose of this program is to develop electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) "beaker chemistry" processes for the integration of multifunctional thin film materials and devices directly on structural components. The ESA method consists of alternately absorbing cationic and anionic molecules from water-based solutions onto substrates at room temperature and pressure to form multi-layer coatings. Electrical, optical, mechanical, and active functional properties of the coatings are varied through incorporation of selected crystal nanoclusters, polymers, and other molecules, by processing conditions, and by controlling the order of the multi-layer geometry. NanoSonic has demonstrated the ability to achieve high electrical conductivity, piezoelectric and photovoltaic behavior, ultra hardness and abrasion resistance, and nonlinear optical behavior in films; different functionalities may be incorporated into separate layers within a composite coating. During Phase I, NanoSonic will study how coatings with different functional properties may be formed by ESA, and focus on a technology demonstrator consisting of an interconnected, directionally-steerable optoelectronic array on a flexible polymer composite substrate. During Phase II, NanoSonic would develop methods for materials synthesis, and work with B.F. Goodrich to transition the ESA process to manufacturing. Cost sharing is provided by the Virginia Center for Innovative Technology

PIEZOMAX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
565 Science Drive
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 238-4850
William O'Brien
DARPA 99-005
Title:A High-Speed Scanning Nanoprobe Head Using Carbon Nanotubes as Compliant Probes
Abstract:As the critical dimensions in transistors shrink, they become increasingly difficult to fabricate. High yield and hence adequate yield analysis define the continued success of the industry, with metrology an essential aspect of yield analysis. Surface metrology needs for current devices are barely being met, particularly in terms of resolution and speed. Piezomax Technologies, Inc. proposes to test, in this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project, the feasibility of a unique application of carbon nanotubes as probes in a novel multiple-compliant-probe sensor, a concept on which we have filed a provisional patent application. Combined with our existing high-speed actuation and control systems, the new sensor will allow nanometer-resolution surface metrology at video rates. The properties of a variety of carbon nanolithography, nanomagnetic imaging, and nanomechanical testing are also foreseen.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4165
Moshe Oren
DARPA 99-006
Title:Low Cost, High Performance Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits for RF Photonics Applications
Abstract:A new approach to significantly increasing the level of monolithic integration of InP based photonic integrated circuits for RF applications is the subject of this proposed Phase I program. The method is based on a vertically coupled twin wave guide design that has already been successfully used to fabricate lasers and amplifiers. The fabrication process requires no epitaxial re-growth, resulting in high product yields. We propose to further develop this technology and use it to fabricate photonics integrated circuits (PICs) consisting of single frequency laser diodes, high frequency external modulators, wave guides, and mode transformers. Successful demonstration of such circuits will make it possible to fabricate PICs consisting of arrays of such laser/modulatros and semiconductors optical amplifiers, thus further demonstrating the value of this technology for applications such as photonic phased array antennas, is hampered by the extreme complexity and high component count required. Increasing the level of component integration, can significantly lower the cost of such systems and accelerate their acceptance into the commercial and military markets.

MULTIPLEX, INC.
115 Corporate Blvd.
South Plainfield, NJ 07080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 757-8817
W. Tsang
DARPA 99-006
Title:High Performance Lasers for RF Photonics Applications
Abstract:The development of a high performance laser with low relative intensity noise (RIN) for RF photonics application is proposed. The laser has a modulation doped multi-quantum well active region and is fabricated on a p-type substrate. The former is needed for low RIN because the modulation doped multi-quantum well design increases the resonance frequency, and the latter is needed for low inter-modulation distortion because p-substrate based buried heterostructure lasers reduce leakage currents and hence improve linearity. Measurements and analysis of integrated electroabsorption modulated lasers for RF photonics application will also be carried out. A modulated doped multi-quantum well laser will be fabricated and characterized in Phase I with design optimization planned for Phase II. The best design identified at the end of Phase I will be optimized, fabricated, measured and packed for prototype delivery in Phase II.

OPTICOMP CORP.
P.O. Box 10779, 215 Elks Point Road
Zephyr Cove, NV 89448
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 588-4176
Peter Guilfoyle
DARPA 99-006
Title:VCSEL/Waveguide Structures for RF Photonics Applications
Abstract:The primary goal of this Phase I program is to develop a VCSEL/wave guide integration technology for enhancement of radio frequency (RF) photonic links. The proposed technology for enhancement of radio frequency (RF) photonic links. The proposed development effort emphasizes two packaging methodologies for VCSEL/wave guide integration. Although many applications exist for this technology, this program will focus on low cost RF photonic links. The technology has the potential to increase RF modulation response. Specifically, source modules for direct modulation will be designed to decrease relative intensity noise (RIN). The VCSEL/wave guide will also be evaluated for use in external modulation. Several objective will be accomplished in the Phase I program: develop an RF photonics design using a VCSEL/wave guide structure; design and fabricate a hybrid VCSEL/wave guide; and demonstrate a simple hybrid VCSEL/wave guide structure.

PHOTONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
100 Wildwood Dr.
Carlisle, MA 01741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 369-0729
Charles Cox
DARPA 99-006
Title:Cascade Laser for RF Photonic Applications
Abstract:Photonic Systems proposes a novel approach to significantly improve the RF performance, and drastically reduce the cost, of RF photonic links. The key technical innovation to be pursued in this work is the application of the cascade laser to increase the slope efficiency of directly modulated links. The slope efficiency achievable from the cascade laser should permit direct modulation to enter the realm of performance which has here to fore only been attainable via the more costly external modulation. Removing the slope efficiency limitation means it is now important to ask what slope efficiency limitation means it is now important to ask what slope efficiency is the most desirable from a cost and performance perspective. To establish a basis for commercialization of this approach, Photonic Systems proposes a Phase I program composed of four major parts: 1. Analyze the design tradeoffs among cascade laser, link and pre-amplifier parameters; 2. Select a specific configuration and fabricate a small cascade array; 3. Assemble and test a link using the cascade laser; and 4. Design, fabricate and test a low cost ($100) link with better performance that is available today. The links that results from these design initiatives will meet the needs of government and commercial applications.

PRINCETON ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
P. O. Box 8627
Princeton, NJ 08543
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 716-9212
Kaiyan Zhang
DARPA 99-006
Title:Low Cost, High Performance Lasers for Photonic Applications
Abstract:Low noise lasers are critical to the development of high performance analog photonic systems for large number of military and commercial systems. Low noise DFB lasers have been the mainstay of the low noise laser applications in the past. However, certain limitations make them less desirable for a number of applications which include the high relative intensity (RIN) noise dominating the noise performance, particularly at high frequencies. They are also quite expensive. A low cost noise laser is urgently needed for the antenna remoting and other applications for military as well as for commercial users. Diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSS) appear to be the most promising candidate for low noise lasers. Researchers have already demonstrated low noise lasers with noise of -165 dBc/Hz in the 1-20GHz range and it appears that better noise level can be achieved. However, currently they are extremely expensive to manufacture. The new technology of high power VCSELs which can be used as pump lasers will drastically change the picture by making it possible to manufacture ultra low noise solid state lasers at very low cost. Princeton Electronic Systems (PES), which has a strong background on high power VSCELs and low noise transmitter development has teamed with Fluence Solutions which has a strong background on high power VCSELs and low noise transmitter development has teamed with Fluence Solutions which has a strong background in the area of diode pumped solid state lasers. Together as a team they plan to develop a VCSEL pumped micro-laser which can be produced at a very low cost. The micro-laser will have a low material cost and can be produced under $50 each in quantities of 1000. In phase I of this program, PES proposes to demonstrate a low cost, ultra low noise DPSS micro-laser with output at 1550nm which can be used for RF as well as digital applications using 940nm VCSELs as the pump source. PES will develop the high power VCSELs in phase I using the already developed epitaxial lift off technology and couple them with this will be a revolutionary product in the area of RF Photonics and telecommunications systems. PES plans to commercialize the laser immediately after development.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1, Building 12
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-0610
Alan Sugg
DARPA 99-006
Title:High Power Broadened-Waveguide 1.55um DFB Lasers for RF Photonics Applications
Abstract:Sensors Unlimited will grow, fabricate and test a broadened-wave guide distributed feedback laser designed to operate at a wavelength of 1.55 um. The goal of this program is the delivery of the relevant basic material and structural characterization necessary for the design of a broadened-wave guide DFB laser along with a reliable broadened-wave guide DFB laser emitting powers of at least 200 mW. The motivation for a 200 mW laser are the commercial and government RF-photonic applications such as links, modulated mm-wave communications sources, and local oscillator distribution for space radar. To achieve this goal, Sensor Unlimited will use the services of Sarnoff Corp to fabricate low-loss broadened wave guide structures. Such structures are expected to permit significant expansion of both modal cross sections and cavity length to dramatically reduce power density within the laser. In addition, we will separately fabricate structures for analysis of anti-guiding, current diffusion, carrier heating, and propagation loss. Data from these measurements will prove invaluable for further designs to be fabricated and tested in Phase II of the program. For this program, Sensor Unlimited and Sarnoff Corporation will leverage experience gained by successful commercialization of DFB and high-power broad area lasers.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 426-0320
Mark Montesano
DARPA 99-007
Title:Integrated Solutions for Packaging of High Power Electronics
Abstract:Operating temperatures of high-power solid-state electronics are of critical importance to the functionality and performance of these devices. Current solutions have reached functional limitations, therefore identifying the need for increased performance from thermal management materials and waste heat rejection systems. DARPA's Megawatt Solid-State Electronics Program is focused on efficient switches operating in power ranges between 100 kW to 1 MW. Fabrication procedures and packaging techniques are being developed to integrate high-voltage, high current switches with control electronics and sensors having compatible electrical characteristics. Packaging is critical because it must provide good thermal management over wide temperature ranges and in potentially harsh environments. To take full advantage of the superior properties of SiC compared to Si, these packages must operate up to roughly 300 C and dissipate power loss in the switches of many kW/cm2. k Technology Corporation (kTC) proposes to develop a high performance electronic package material with high conductivity (>1000W/mK), and low coefficient of thermal expansion (6.5 ppm/K). The performance and cost goals of this proposed program are possible through a unique application using encapsulated thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG). The proposed material system can provide the required low resistance path for efficient cooling while satisfying mechanical and electrical requirements.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0819
Mark Harris
DARPA 99-007
Title:Actively Cooled Switch Cell
Abstract:Conventional packaging of power electronics components has reached a plateau. Extreme measures produce small gains in performance. Wide band gap materials alleviate some of the problems but the high temperatures all but negate the existing packaging industry. A new solution is required, one that improves existing devices and can be extended to the wide band gap materials. This solution includes a move from conduction to active cooling at the die interface. Simple flow cooling, across the die face is not particularly efficient so a thermal enhancement at this interface is required. SatCon proposes to use a screw augmented pin fin array at this interface. The pin fin array will interface to the die and create the Actively Cooled Switch Cell. The switch cells can be combined in series or parallel, both electrically and thermally. A set of pumped fluid module frames into which the cells are mounted would provide an applications specific power module.

THERMAL SPRAY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
515 Progress Way
Sun Prairie, WI 53590
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 825-2772
William Lenling
DARPA 99-007
Title:Development of Thermal Spray Circuit Board (TSCB) Technology for Hybrid Circuits
Abstract:The multi-million dollar market of Hybrid electronics is thriving despite the problems with the current manufacturing technologies. Processes like direct-bond-copper and other manufacturing techniques used to create Hybrid circuits are very time consuming, expensive, and produce hazardous wastes. Thermal Spray Technologies (TST) proposes funding for the development of a novel thermal spray process for producing hybrid circuits. TST recently developed the capability to deposit circuit traces directly onto polymeric based substrates using a sophisticated technology they dubbed the Thermal Spray Circuit Boards (TSCBs) technology. TST also produces high-density ceramic coatings for electrical insulation in many of its current products. TST proposes to deposit its high-density dielectric ceramic material directly onto a heat sink and then using its proprietary TSCB technology deposit a circuit pattern directly on top of the ceramic. The successful development of a thermal spray process that would be able to fabricate hybrid circuits by depositing a ceramic layer on top of a heat sink succeeded by a TSCB on top of the dielectric would be tremendous in the amount of money and processing time saved. The new commercial and military applications would be vast due to the flexibility in circuitry design and cost savings that this novel technology would bring.

PRI RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CORP.
25500 Hawthorne Blvd, Suite 2300
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 378-0056
Ahmadreza Rofougaran
DARPA 99-008
Title:Miniature, Ultra-Low Phase Noise Oscillators for High Performance Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs)
Abstract:In this Phase I proposal, PRI proposes to use a completely new technique for the design of an integrated-circuit-based VCO. The technique will use integrated automatic tuning and trimming to achieve an ultra-stable, low power oscillator. We will achieve this by optimizing a combination of parameters important for ultra high performance oscillators to reduce phase noise: high Q, low gain, low noise device and highest linearity for the oscillator. A parallel architecture with an array of LC on-chip oscillators for trimming will be used. Noise will be suppressed by a larger amplitude swing permitted by the more linear MOS devices. We will show in the proposal that this technique will provide a predicted thermal phase noise floor of -175 dBc/Hz and 1/fn corner frequencies less that 20 kHz. The final output of the Phase I effort will consist of the final detailed circuit design, layout and fabrication of prototype and testing of the prototype.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Michael Harrell
DARPA 99-008
Title:Low Phase Noise Miniature Oscillator (MINO) for Advanced ADCs
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop a miniature oscillator MINO) in a small (0.2" x 0.2" x 0.5"), PCMCIA-card-compatible module. The MINO will oscillate at a frequency in the range of 1-10 GH (nominally 6Ghz). The MINO is specifically designed to drive high performance analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in advanced digital receivers. These 16-bit ADCs are characterized by 100mhz bandwidth, 100dB SNR, and 100dB SFDR. To support these ADCs, the MINO must strive to attain 1fs jitter, which exceed the best jitter performance reported to date (1.1fs)! That jitter was reported on a one-of-a-kind, rack mounted laboratory source. Achieving whale-size performance in a minnow-size package is a daunting challenge. Q-DOT has 21 years experience in the design and development of high speed, high precision data acquisition equipment (e.g. digitizers, ADCs, etc.). Q-DOT staff guided by Dr. William F. Egan, a world renowned author and frequency source designer will explore multiple approaches to attaining the MINO goals. To the extent possible, MINO will utilize IBM's advanced SiGe BiCMoS processes, including those currently in development. The core SiGe BiCMOS chip will be complemented with discrete components (e.g. low noise transistors) to improve performance. MINO will be packaged in an MCM or hybrid.

DIAMONDBACK SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 20023
Washington, DC 20041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 476-8234
Robert Douglass
DARPA 99-009
Title:Streaming Multimedia for the Warfighter
Abstract:DiamondBack Systems will design a software viewer that will allow a tactical warfighter to view multimedia data integrated from separate information streams. The viewer uses an innovative meta-data tagging scheme to allow the viewer to search for and combine the information he needs based on its content. By specifying his preferences and priorities, the warfighter will enable the viewer to adapt to available processing and bandwidth resources by differentially adjusting the quality and composition of different pieces of content. By using a combination of emerging international standards, DiamondBack will ensure that major portions of the proposed capability can be realized using commercial Internet technology. Design and experimentation in Phase I will focus on testing the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Specifically to be investigated are the integration of multiple streams, content selection by the warfighter, and the efficacy of a common, standards-based representation for a variety of geo-spatial and graphical information. A secondary focus of Phase I will be the selection of military application for Phase II demonstration and assessing the potential benefit of a multi-source, multimedia viewer.

ATLANTIC AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS CORP.
470 Totten Pond Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-4200
Mon Young
DARPA 99-010
Title:Model-Based Multi-Sensor Fusion for OLCD
Abstract:Current systems that observe and detect changes from information gathered by a single sensor have limited success in dynamic scenarios. The fusion of information from desperate sources such as SAR and IR in conjunction with Object Level Change Detection offers the potential for improved performance in terms of reduced false alarms. This is primarily due to the complementary information across the two sensing domains and the differences in the source of false alarms. The incorporation of model-based processing into the processing chain will provide the capability to accommodate normal signature variations in sensor, and object masking effects. The overall goal of the proposed effort is to develop a robust process that detects changes at the object level. The developed change detection process will fuse IR and SAR sensor data at the feature level and will also provide the mechanism to incorporate other imagery sources including spectral data. It will complement ongoing fusion technologies currently developed under the DDB program. The proposed fusion will be performed at multiple stages of the exploitation chain and will take advantage of mode-based processing to improve system robustness. The feasibility of the developed technology will be demonstrated using sample data. We will show the potential for improved false alarm reduction over current capabilities.

IMAGE CORP, INC.
4716 Pontiac St., Suite 301
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 220-2123
Reuven Meth
DARPA 99-010
Title:Model-Based Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar Fusion for Object Level Change Detection
Abstract:Current object level change detection (OLCD) methods typically rely on performing differences between detected objects and objects stored in a database. Image Corp, Inc. proposes in this Phase I effort to develop a system dedicated to the joint exploitation of SAR and IR images that significantly improves the performance and application of existing OLCD through the incorporation of appropriate prediction, fusion, and temporal reasoning mechanisms. Algorithms will be developed to exploit predicted multi-sensor signatures, and data from multiple sensors will then be fused to eliminate false alarms that would be present in the single sensor scenario. Site model information and contextual evidence will be incorporated to quantify the confidence in the detection. Temporal trends will be computed using dynamic systems analysis and observer-predictor systems to evaluate the plausibility of a given detection. Temporal reasoning and the aggregation of evidence from multiple sensor observations will be carried out using a probabilistic approach supported by a Bayesian framework. We will emphasize a strict performance evaluation using both empirical as well as theoretical methods.

METADAPT DESIGN SYSTEMS, INC.
11706 Tumbrel Ct
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 478-2421
Michael Alexander
DARPA 99-011
Title:Fractal Architectures & Complex Adaptive Systems
Abstract:Large-scale software systems are often highly complex, rigid structures, which makes them difficult to adapt to dynamically changing requirements. The overwhelming complexity and high rigidity of present systems stems from their underlying architectures (or lack thereof), which are ill equipped to accommodate changes in scale. A new software architecture based on inherent scalability and dynamic adaptation will eliminate the root causes of these problems by allowing for dynamic assembly and evolution of systems over time. Fractal scalable systems will have constant perceived complexity (from the viewpoint of users and developers) while providing support for increased complexity and growth. Dynamic adaptation provides numerous benefits to software systems and leads to a new development paradigm where applications are fluidly assembled, modified and enhances at runtime. This paradigm is based on interoperable components that can be manipulated visually (or using other intuitive assembly metaphors) within running applications. The paradigm also provides implicit support for workflow-based processing at the application level; components can be shared among widely distributed systems, and applications are seamlessly transported between end users and create on the fly. We believe a fractal scaleable, dynamically adaptable software architecture can be developed, and propose investigating its initial design and feasibility during Phase I.

MOBILE INTELLIGENCE CORP.
7963 Pine Hollow Drive, SE
Alto, MI 49302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 554-4639
Douglass Mackenzie
DARPA 99-011
Title:A Distributed Adaptive Control System Based on Composable Agents
Abstract:Complex distributed systems are difficult to develop, validate and maintain. Instead of exhibiting graceful degradation under stress these types of systems tend to collapse, degrading far out of proportion to the increase in demand or loss in hardware performance causing the stress. The solution is to develop a new composable software architecture and agile run-time system which allows systems to dynamically reconfigure to balance loads and mitigate hardware failures. The proposed fractal architecture will consist of three elements: 1) An interface specification and framework for coding primitive modules using traditional programming languages. 2) A new fractal language for composing primitive modules into components, components into more capable components, and components into programs. 3) A distributed agile run-time system to execute these fractal programs, which is able to migrate tasks between processors to balance system loads and resurrect tasks to recover from hardware failures. The Phase I effort will design these three facets of the architecture as well as develop examples illustrating how the architecture would be used, how the system reacts to stress, and prediction of its run-time scalability and performance. Phase II will focus on implementing a prototype and conducting detailed performance evaluations.

MCLEAN RESEARCH CORP.(MRC)
5904 Richmond Highway, Suite 300
Alexandria, VA 22303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 325-3482
Chris Demchak
DARPA 99-012
Title:END RUN: Simulation Architecture for Information Warfare
Abstract:The objective of END RUN is to provide a modeling and simulation architecture. This architecture will improve the present representation of Information Warfare within current and emerging models and federations of simulations. END RUN's architectural design will provide an order of magnitude improvement in obtaining a predictive analysis of the cause and effect relationship associated with Information Warfare. To accomplish this, we planned for five deliverables. Deliverables 1 and 2 are research studies. The first study will document both the unclassified and classified Information Warfare features, issues, interactions, and inter-relationships associated with the Information Warfare battle space necessary to support military exercises and selected analysis. The second study will document the organizational behaviors related to the use of computerized networks in communications, information exchanges, decision making, and interpretations of critical responses applicable to both the military and commercial sectors. Deliverable 3 is a generic architecture design called END RUN. Deliverable 4 is a design that will be targeted toward a specific instantiation of a pre-selected legacy simulation or to an emerging model for a demonstration of a proof of concept. In deliverable 5 we plan to develop a list of considerations and desirable features for applying END RUN to commercial applications.

DARYOUSH GEMS, INC.
250 South Roberts Rd
Bryn Mawr, PA 19010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 526-9012
Warren Rosen
DARPA 99-013
Title:All-Optical Fiber Optic Backbone for Advanced Military Data Networks
Abstract:Daryoush GEMS proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of a high-performance all-optical backbone network for military applications. The network is based on wavelength division multiplexing with sub-carrier modulation and a novel universal network interface. The network will seamlessly support a number of high-performance protocols with multiple security levels and be scaleable to more than 30 nodes at data rates up to 10Gb/s.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Stephen Hannon
DARPA 99-014
Title:Noise Reduction in Laser Radar Airborne and Space-Based Vibrometry
Abstract:CTI proposes to extend the agile waveform doublet pulse concept to characterize and improve its performance for measuring micro-doppler motion properties of ground and airborne targets from moving platforms at long range. Rather than focus on developing core hardware technologies, the proposed effort serves to take a system-level view of the agile pulse technology to transform the base capability into operational effectiveness. Both airborne and satellite observing platforms are to be considered. Targets include ground surface motion due to underground operations, stationary and moving ground and airborne vehicle targets. Current micro-doppler measurement concepts are limited at long range by a number of noise sources: optical path fluctuations due to advection of turbulence through the lidar beam, line-of-sight jitter, time varying speckle induced by both the relative motion between the target and the observer and by rotational motions of the target, and shot noise. In Phase I detailed modeling and simulation of these error and noise sources will be incorporated into a physics-based model to characterize the performance for different viewing geometries as well as to identify and assess mitigation techniques. The subsequent Phase II effort will extend the physics-based performance model and will demonstrate and validate the mitigation strategies, and improved sensor capability, with appropriately-scaled ground-based field tests.

CYCLOVISION TECHNOLOGIES
295 Madison Avenue, 32d Floor
New York, NY 10017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 499-0909
Raghu Menon
DARPA 99-014
Title:Smart High Definition Omnidirectional Imaging System
Abstract:Force protection can greatly benefit image understanding technologies. In most battlefield scenarios, it is valuable to be able to assess the area of operation prior to deployment of troops. Video sensors deployed in the field provide valuable visual information that can be used to develop strategies prior to sending in troops. A major limitation of existing video sensors is field of view. It is highly desirable to have sensors that provide "complete" coverage after deployment. From this perspective, omni-directional video cameras present major advantages over conventional ones. The 360 degree coverage provided by such a sensor enables a remote user to "look around" and assess the battlefield. Today, the main drawback of omni-directional cameras is their limited resolution. Since a complete hemispherical fields is projected onto a single CCD detector, far away objects are only imaged onto a small numbers of pixels. For instance, when a standard NTSC video camera is used in conjunction with omni-directional imaging optics, a human 50 meters away will appear within just 5-10 pixels in a typical omni-directional image. This proposal is geared towards the development of high-resolution omni-directional cameras. The implementation of such sensors requires not only the use of a high-definition video camera but also the design and fabrication of accompanying optics to generate the desired field of view. Our optical design will be a catadioptric one, where mirrors are used in conjunction with lenses to project the large field of view onto a single planar image detector. This design procedure will require the use of sophisticated optical design techniques. In addition to the design of a high-definition omni-directional sensor, we propose the implementation of a series of low-level image processing and image understanding algorithms. These algorithms will include real-time generation of perspective video, real-time tracking and monitoring of multiple moving objects, fast ego-motion estimation for applications where the omni-directional sensor is mounted on a moving platform, as well as higher-level algorithms for activity and object recognition.

EQUINOX CORP.
1 East University Parkway
Baltimore, MD 21218
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 889-2541
Diego Socolinsky
DARPA 99-014
Title:Smarter Sensors Using Hybrid Multichip Camera Technology
Abstract:The development of a novel sensor technology is proposed that completely integrate simultaneously registered CCD and FLIR imaging into a single unified camera system. Such a hybrid sensor exploits unique complementary imaging characteristics of these sensing modalities for day-night and all-weather operation. Novel image understanding algorithms for data fusion enable unique 'smart sensor' capabilities for a variety of applications.

LOGOBOTS, LLC
60 E. 32nd Street, #203
Chicago, IL 60616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 836-0497
Narayan Murarka
DARPA 99-015
Title:Vulnerability Analysis Using a Market Approach
Abstract:With the emergence of the Internet, information systems are increasingly vulnerable to cyber warfare. Existing approaches to information systems security focus on component level vulnerabilities that are already known to exist. What is needed is an approach that targets strategic vulnerabilities at a system-wide level. In order that such an approach be applicable to attacks that may be devised in the future, adversaries need to be modeled in a relatively generic fashion. Further, the approach should be capable of suggesting countermeasures and of providing the system security officer with a visualization of the tradeoffs. The central contribution of the proposed work will be the development of a tool, called Mitigator, that will model adversary threats and suggest countermeasures to offset identified vulnerabilities. It will help the system designer and security administrator to predict where red teams will attack the system and to handle the tradeoff between risk, performance, cost and functionality. To provide these capabilities, we propose a market-based multi-agent approach based on time-tested game theoretic concepts from economics. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by applying it to DARPA's Advanced Logistics Program (ALP).

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 S. Amphlett Blvd, Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Terrance Goan
DARPA 99-015
Title:Assessing the Vulnerability of Heterogeneous Information System Networks
Abstract:We propose to develop a unique system for the identification and management of strategic vulnerabilities that utilizes an innovative combination of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. By drawing on our experience developing intrusion detection systems, statistical analysis tools, and model-based reasoning techniques, we propose to provide system administrators with a powerful unified risk management tool for heterogeneous networks of computers. In this task we draw inspiration from the success of automated medical diagnosis systems that utilize diverse diagnostic measures and an understanding of subsystem interactions in order to assess a patient's condition. In particular, our tool will detect and assess strategic vulnerabilities through the correlation of evidence from: COTS configuration examination applications, statistical analysis of previous incidents, intrusion detection techniques, and predictive analysis. The resulting system will be capable of accurately estimating the risks facing a network and identifying appropriate risk balancing measures. Finally, our system will be linked with our ICE intrusion detection system to facilitate the identification of previously unrecognized vulnerabilities and to provide continuous risk monitoring capability. The prototype tool developed in our Phase I effort will prove the feasibility of our approach and provide the basis for a complete Phase II implementation of SecureE(StratEgiC vUlneRability Evaluator).

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC
1911 North Fort Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-3500
Susann LuperFoy
DARPA 99-016
Title:Dialog Interaction Tools for Domain Expertise Acquisition and Presentation
Abstract:IET's goal for Phase I is to define, implement, and evaluate a suite of software components for elicitation and presentation of expertise in video media form for interactive instructional systems. Our software tools will have three dialogue interfaces to service three classes of users respectively: (1) domain experts, (2) domain novices (students), and (3) instructional system developers who customize the interfaces for a given combination of training objectives, experts and students. For the run-time instructional systems we propose, there are two primary modes of user system interaction. In Expertise Acquisition (EA) mode, the system elicits information from the domain expert in order to create structured material that can be accessed later through conversational user interfaces. During Expertise Presentation (EP), the system interacts with a student to present the material collected during EA. Both EA and EP are to be accomplished through dialogue interfaces; though the two dialogue modes differ in their treatment of detected dialogue errors, their use of initiative, and their reliance on speech for input and output.

INTERACTIVE DRAMA, INC.
7900 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 200
Bethesda, MD 20814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 654-0676
William Harless, Ph.D.
DARPA 99-016
Title:Dialog Interaction with Video for Expert Knowledge Transfer
Abstract:This proposal describes the development, demonstration, and evaluation of a cost-effective method of knowledge transfer through virtual dialogues with individuals who possess special expert knowledge. The primary focus of this research effort will be to enable a user to conduct a believable, virtual dialogue with a video-based expert in order to gain knowledge ('lessons learned") conveyed by the expert. A prototype program will be developed with an expert (i.e., Nobel laureate Dr. Joshua H. Lederberg whose images responding to a series of interview questions will be videotaped, digitized, and compressed on a CD-ROM. IDI's Conversion system will generate the interactivity algorithms that allow users to speak with the virtual character. A new continuous speech, independent speaker recognition capability will be added to support unprompted natural language inquiry. Users will be able to speak in their own vernacular and gather information in any order they choose. A field test will be conducted in Phase I to evaluate the acceptability of the method. In Phase II, a series of virtual dialogues with eminent experts in the military, politics, and medicine will be produced and a rigorous, controlled experiment will measure the learning effectiveness of this method. Internet distribution will also be introduced.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Terry Keller
DARPA 99-017
Title:Computationally Efficient Detection of Vehicles in High Clutter Environments in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery
Abstract:For robust target detection, we propose the TNE paradigm, which has recently been extensively exercised against the MSTAR derived HRR radar database. We will develop a demonstration test bed to characterize the use of TNE for target vehicle detection in a classify before detect mode. Our goal is to demonstrate proof of concept for a robust target detection systems capable of mitigating naturally induced false alarms in medium resolution magnitude detected microwave synthetic radar imagery from airborne collection systems. We will define and characterize the performance of prototype direct TNE methods for automated use of scene context in Foliage Penetration (FOPEN) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery to improve detection of camouflaged or concealed targets. Our testing will use the radar signatures of both individual and groups of vehicles in areas with significant background clutter density resulting from target-like natural and man made objects. The TNE paradigm has been shown to be a computationally efficient method for robust target detection and recognition using HRR signature data. We will extend testing the to the SAR/FOPEN arena. The TNE algorithm is very suitable for parallelization and porting to Field Programmable Gate Arrays and other Digital Signal Processing devices for real-time implementation.

IMAGE CORP, INC.
4716 Pontiac Street, Suite 301
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 220-2123
Reuven Meth
DARPA 99-017
Title:A Context-Based System for Vehicle Detection from SAR
Abstract:Existing approaches to the detection of vehicles from SAR imagery are handicapped by a high false alarm rate, especially when used in high clutter environments such as urban areas and forested regions. In this Phase I proposal. Image Corp, Inc. proposes a system for SAR-based vehicle detection that makes extensive use of contextual information derived from the SAR image itself. Multi-resolution and fast non-Gaussian algorithms will be used to make the processing both robust and fast. The key to achieving robustness is the construction and use of a detailed 2-D "site model" from the SAR image, which delineates roads, buildings, trees, shadow regions and open terrain. Candidate vehicles are detected using a Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) technique followed by filtering and post-processing. False alarms resulting from man-made structures such as buildings as well as those resulting from vegetation are detected using the site model. Image Corp's proposal is based on the work at the University of Maryland of the research group of Prof. Rama Chellappa, whose outstanding contributions to SAR image exploitation are widely recognized. The proposed work will be invaluable in improving battlefield awareness and in peace-keeping efforts. Potential commercial applications include transportation monitoring and disaster relief.

CLIFTON LABS, INC.
3678 Fawnrun Dr.
Cincinnati, OH 45241
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 563-4731
Dale Martin
DARPA 99-018
Title:ELASTIC: A Framework for Constructing Self-Adaptive Software Systems
Abstract:Clifton Labs, Inc. proposes to model and implement a framework for the construction of self-adaptive software systems. Specifically, a framework for the creation of self-improving software systems that are able to dynamically reconfigure themselves with the aim of improving performance or exploiting better functionality. To accomplish these goals, the framework promotes the use of on-line monitoring techniques and permits developers and end users to experiment with alternative program configurations, to play "what if" games with selected program attributes. The objective of this research is the modeling, development, and demonstration of the applicability of a workbench for constructing on-line configured software systems. Clifton Labs, Inc. proposes to model, develop, and evaluate the proposed workbench in an implementation independent manner. The Phase I objective are to (1) develop predictive and recovery based control polices for specific software systems (support for building new control techniques will also be provided), (2) automate evaluation of software functionality and performance, and (3) develop a workbench to tailor predictive and recovery based techniques to specific software systems for run-time configurability.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Donald Myers
DARPA 99-018
Title:Learning in Two-Level Hierarchical Controller
Abstract:Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) proposes to design, implement and demonstrate a two-level learning system for autonomous devices. There are several novel aspects of the propose architecture. It incorporates the basic reflex-type behaviors of reactive systems with goal directed behavior of deliberative systems. It also offers a means for automatically programming the reflex behaviors. Initially the behaviors are demonstrated by a supervisor so that the system can function in a rudimentary way. The system then learns during operation from reinforcement provided by the supervisor. The supervisor can also demonstrate new behaviors if the system becomes "stuck" during operations. Secondarily, the supervisor also effects the learning rate by adjusting essential parameters. However, this whole process is evolutionary. The behaviors learned during one mission can be transferred to another mission so that supervisor interaction will become increasingly less necessary throughout the course of many similar missions. During Phase I, IAI will demonstrate the system on a UGV performing a simple mission such as navigating an office hallway containing obstacles with the objective of entering an open office door.

OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS, INC.
470 San Antonio Road, Suite 200
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 858-8585
Lara Crawford
DARPA 99-018
Title:Rapid Design Tool for Robust, Adaptive Control
Abstract:Control design for a new system can be a lengthy, expensive effort. Currently, available automated assistance in this design task is extremely limited, especially for nonlinear systems requiring robust, adaptive design. Herein is proposed the development of a rapid design tool for robust, adaptive control of nonlinear systems, with particular application to missile Autopilot. This design tool, given a system model, will automatically implement any of a suite of control methodologies, including robust and adaptive techniques. A mode-switching capability will also be incorporated. By offering the designer a palette of nonlinear control options that can be immediately implemented and tested, the rapid design tool will drastically reduce the time required for control design prototyping. The design tool will be evaluated through simulation with a six-DOF ship defense missile model.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 W. Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Jovan D. Boskovic
DARPA 99-018
Title:Development of Intelligent Reconfigurable Control Algorithms and a Software Design Toolbox for Autonomous Systems
Abstract:SSCI proposes to develop robust software-enabled intelligent control algorithms and adaptive control design toolkit for rapid controller design and prototyping for autonomous systems operating under highly unpredictable circumstances such as sensor and actuator failures, large external environmental disturbances, parametric uncertainties, and hard and safety constraints on the variables of interest. The proposed approach to solving this problem is based on the framework on Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning and Adaptive Interacting Multiple Observers for fast and accurate Failure Detection and Identification (FDI) in the presence of failures and damages; use of multiple reference models and combined robust and adaptive control for fast and efficient control reconfiguration, and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for handling different constraints. To achieve these objectives the following tasks will be carried out: (i) Failure modeling, sensitivity analysis and achievable performance determination; (ii) Design of multiple reference models and robust stabilizing controllers; (iii) Development of adaptive decentralized FDI observers (iv) Development of robust adaptive re-configurable flight control algorithms; (v) Testing, turning and performance evaluation of the control algorithms on a Boeing's Tailless Advanced Fighter Aircraft (TAFA benchmark example in collaboration with Boeing (vi) Validation of our design using the Game-theoretic approach in collaboration with UC Berkley; (prof. Sastry) (vii) Development of the Control Design software toolkit; (viii) Delivery of the Control Design Toolkit, all test results, associated documentation and final report; The FDI and MPC software modules developed by SSCI will be used as the starting point in the development of the proposed control system design software toolkit. Boeing Phantom Works will provide both technical and commercialization support on all phases of the project.

CS3: COMPUTING SERVICES SUPPORT SOLUTION
5777 W. Century Blvd., Suite 1185
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 337-3013
K. Narayanaswamy
DARPA 99-019
Title:An Event-Monitoring Framework for Automatic Network Diagnosis
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR Phase I project is to design and prototype key elements of a reactive, event-based framework for automating network security, diagnosis and management. Events are the common formalism used to describe simple and complex conditions related to network performance, security, and quality of service. A high-level language is used to state the runtime monitoring conditions (event specifications) that might trigger key network management responses. Our technology automatically compiles the event specification, dynamically distributing the necessary computations to detect those conditions automatically throughout a network. The most significant results will include the design of a customized notation for network events distributed over arbitrary distributed networks and the dynamic specification of new monitoring conditions and responses - all scalable over the volume and diversity of events required to solve problems in a typical real-world network. The ability for the network to monitor and correct itself dynamically forms the technology base for the next generation of self-adaptive networks.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 S. Amphlett Blvd.,, Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Russell Kinnicutt
DARPA 99-019
Title:Multi-Agent System for Resource Reliability
Abstract:In Phase I, we will develop an innovative distributed processing model to insure resource reliability over computer networks. The approach will involve a federation of agents operating on locally available information about network elements to the global effect of resource reliability. This multi-agent approach will emphasize a robust, fault-tolerant, scaleable processing model. The approach will feature new concepts in computer security, including the distributed packet filtering protocol (DPFP). Borrowing from work done in packet filtering firewalls, DPFP will provide a dynamic, distributed, security infrastructure capable of thwarting many old and new types of threats. Sophisticated distributed artificial intelligence techniques for the recognition of imminent threats will be developed. Together, the multi-agent processing model, pattern recognition methods, and DPFP will provide a highly reliant and responsive network security system. Consideration will be taken for the variety of network elements involved, the many security holes in software implementations of protocols, faults inherent in widely used networks protocols, exploitation of application flaws, and system configuration errors. A prototype demonstrating the feasibility of our system will be developed during the Phase I. This prototype will form the basis for a complete multi-agent system for resource reliability to be developed in Phase II.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street, Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Azad Madni
DARPA 99-020
Title:Intelligent Process and Information Management (IPIM): The Key to Managing Change with Zero Latency
Abstract:Recent advances in information management and process management methods have created significant benefits while at the same time illuminated some of the deficiencies in each. These deficiencies can be overcome by integrating these two technologies within an integrated process and information management (IPIM) system. IPIM holds the promise of both maximizing awareness as well as providing instantaneous awareness during wide-area process executioin. Phase I of this effort will produce an innovative IPIM system concept and implementation plan which will be executed during Phase II.

MATHSOFT
1700 Westlake Ave North, Suite 500
Seattle, WA 98109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 283-8802
Giovanni Marchisio
DARPA 99-020
Title:An Inverse Inference Engine for High Precision Web Search
Abstract:We will prototype an original methodology for search and knowledge discovery in electronic databases. The methodology represents a quantum leap with respect to ongoing work on Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and is based on the Backus Gilbert method for inversion. This provides the framework for the implementation of a practical and scalable algorithm. We recast the measurement of the similarity between query and document projections in principal component space as a constrained optimization problem. The adoption of alternative optimization techniques brings a dramatic improvement in computational speed. It also provides important conceptual advantages over the unsupervised classification process implied by LSI. The first is a formalism to assess the process of fitting a "noisy or imprecise" query to the information in a database in a reduced transform space. The ability to introduce constraints in the optimization translates into new and appealing IR functionality. A new metric quantifies performance as a function of the order of relevance of the returned documents. The prototype addresses issues pertaining to scalability, portability and extensibility. It is based on the abstract services and distributed objects paradigm, where arrays of indexing and information retrieval modules reside on different platforms and communicate across an intranet or the internet.

MICROVISION, INC.
2203 Airport Way South,, Suite 100
Seattle, WA 98134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 515-0447
Abraham Gross
DARPA 99-020
Title:Autoscope: The Application of Virtual Retinal Display (TM) (VRD(TM)) Technology to the Design and Development of a High Performance Stereogr
Abstract:Present approaches to providing high-quality sterographic display of complex images and visual information typically involve mechanical aids including passive and active polarizers. Microvision's solution advances a innovative auto-stereoscopic design principle integrated with VRD technology to produce a stereographic display that permits the full-color, 3-dimensional display and visualization of complex data sets and images without viewing aids of any kind.

REVEO, INC.
85 Executive Blvd.
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-9556
Zhan He
DARPA 99-020
Title:3D Image Displays Using Variable Focal Length Liquid Crystal Microlens Arrays
Abstract:In this SBIR program, Reveo proposes to develop and commercialize the world's first mass-market 3D display technology. There does not currently exist a technically and commercially viable 3D technology having no viewing angle or encumbering eyewear restriction - holographic and varifocal techniques are far too expensive and cumbersome. Leveraging Reveo's extensive experience in developing and commercializing liquid crystal (LC) technologies, Reveo proposes a 3D display technique utilizing an innovative variable focal length LC micro-lens array. When coupled with AMLCD technology, each array element focuses its pixel's light at the required depth. The total effect is an imaged shape in free space emitting light in a broad range of angles from each point of its surface requiring no encumbering eyewear to view. In Phase I, Reveo will develop two elements micro-lens array, which will then be used in conjunction with an AMLCD array and a static glass micro-lens array to make a 2x2 element 3D demonstration display that exhibits all of the important properties of an ideal 3D display discussed above. In this manner, the feasibility of this frontier technology will be established.

SPECIALTY DEVICES, INC.
1104 Summit Ave. Suite 104
Plano, TX 75074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 578-7501
Paul Higley
DARPA 99-020
Title:Human Information Interaction
Abstract:Recent advances in volumetric display technology have yielded displays capable of presenting full color, three-dimensional images within a transparent medium. The resulting images are also transparent, because there is no means of rendering the solid volume of these images in a manner that occludes the light behind the image. The objective of this proposal is to develop a volumetric display technique capable of selectively generating areas of opacity within the otherwise transparent media of this display. The resulting display accomplished by modified existing volumetric display technology. The technology to be modified utilizes a three-dimensional array of light sources (voxels), each of which glows when addressed, and is virtually invisible when turned off. This proposal describes the incorporation of proprietary technology within the current display. This technology will provide for the digital generation of dark areas within the otherwise transparent display. The methods proposed would not hinder the current technology's capability of presenting images in full three-dimensional color. The proposed advancements would allow the rendering of volumetric images within the display in a more solid and realistic manner, providing a significant advancement in 3-D volumetric display technology.

ADVANCED POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1250-24th Street, NW, Suite 850
Washington, DC 20037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 223-8808
L. Susman
DARPA 99-021
Title:Printed Circuit Fractal Loop Antenna for Ultra-Wideband Airborne Sensors
Abstract:This proposal addresses the problem of creating a low profile antenna of relatively small electrical size that can be made conformal and integral to a variety of airborne structures and yet achieve wide band performance. As the candidate for low-profile/conformal antennas for ultra-wide band airborne sensors, APTI proposes the Printed Circuit Fractal Loop (PCFL) Antennas. The PCFL antenna has novel and other attractive features in addition to the wide band common to regular fractal antennas: 1) Constant phase center makes them a better wide band element for phased arrays or for designing circular polarized antennas for satellite communications; 2) Can be configured as a single ultra-wide band or multi-wide band antenna; 3) Easy to manufacture using printed circuit technology; 4) Readily conformal to airframe structure; 5) Low profile and light weight. Phase I study will focus on: 1) Numerical modeling and simple prototype validation of various designs; 2) Comparative and trade study of system and mechanical performance on different designs; 3) Optimized paper design for Phase II fabrication and testing.

TKA
313 Appletree Avenue
Camarillo, CA 93012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 484-1266
Michael Nurnbreger
DARPA 99-021
Title:Low Profile/Conformal Antennas for Ultra-Wideband Airborne Sensors
Abstract:An innovative broadband slot spiral design for electrically small, low profile antennas with possible bandwidth of greater than 100:1 is proposed for HF/VHF/UHF and microwave band operation. The proposed antenna, which has great potential in maximizing angle-time-frequency diversity in multi-mode airborne applications, is based on a new already been demonstrated for operation from 200 MHz to 5 GHZ without dielectric loading. Under this proposal, the existing slot spiral design will be integrated via our innovative approach with various loading options and matched terminations to develop a rugged, low cost, conformal antenna that will be about 13 inches in diameter and 0.875 inches deep for operation above 100MHz. For operating frequencies down to 30 MHz, the proposed antenna's size can be kept less than 20 inches in diameter and 1.5 inches deep, a size that can be readily incorporated into the skin of a UAV at various locations. Further size reduction can be achieved by extending the proposed concepts, if necessary. Because of the possibility to attain extremely large bandwidths (i.e. 30 MHz to 5 GHz) based on our proposed innovative extensions, the proposed antenna is a "dream antenna" for ultimate counter-intelligence/ECM applications and for very accurate direction finding, imaging at varying depths (within foliage) or obtaining moving target information.

ARMORWORKS, INC.
1701 West Tenth Street, Suite 5
Tempe, AZ 85281
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 517-1150
William Perciballi
DARPA 99-022
Title:Air-Deployable Autonomous Delivery System (ADADS)
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a concept study for a single-soldier delivery system that is launched in-flight at high altitude from a carrier aircraft. The delivery vehicle is a glider modified for powered flight using a ducted-fan propulsion system. The air-delivery system uses an autonomous GPS guidance system that initializes before deployment, then continuously corrects the flight path of the aircraft. After the deployment and cruise phase, the delivery vehicle intercepts and flies a terminal glide path to its objective, where it lands using a ballistic parachute system.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4394
James Carter
DARPA 99-022
Title:High-Low Altitude Single Soldier Precise Delivery Systems
Abstract:As rogue nations continue to develop weapons of mass destruction, the need for accurate, real-time intelligence gathered on site increases. Typically, sites of interest exist deep in denied territory. To be truly effective, a sensor package would have to be delivered covertly from a significant standoff. One possibility would be a platform capable of carrying a significant payload which could be released covertly from a commercial air-lane. The payload might be a single human occupant, or a suite of sensors capable of measuring and analyzing a variety of inputs, making real-time assessment a reality. Foster-Miller and its partner AeroVironment propose to meet this requirement with an aircraft based system. AeroVironment propose to meet this requirement with an aircraft based system. AeroVironment will modify an existing system to develop a suitable airframe. The aircraft will drop the payload over the target. Whether the payload is an electronic package or a human being, there is a limit to the amount of shock which can be applied to it and still have it survive. Foster-Miller has developed similar shock mitigation systems previously, and brings the necessary expertise and experience into the package protection phase of the mission. It is the design of this shock mitigation system which is the subject of the proposal.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Thomas Vaneck
DARPA 99-022
Title:Air Launched Single Soldier Deployment Vehicle
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop an innovative airborne system that will deliver soldiers to a precise position at the correct time to initiate tactical combat operations. The vehicle will be capable of delivering 300lb of soldier and equipment deployed from between 5,000 and 70,000 ft in altitude to a landing point with an accuracy of a few meters and in a narrow arrival time window. During the flight the soldier does not fly the vehicle, instead the navigation, guidance and control are performed autonomously under computer control. The proposed Single Soldier Deliver Vehicle (SSDV) is a hybrid design combining into a single small vehicle elements of lifting bodies, gliders and rotorcraft. This vehicle can be deployed horizontally at high subsonic speeds from either high or low altitude, will configure itself for long endurance cruise flight affording a significant standoff distance, and will re-configure itself for a vertical approach and landing at the destination point.

CERAMIC COMPOSITES, INC.
1110 Benfield Blvd.
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Mark Patterson
DARPA 99-023
Title:Technologies Enabling Development of Affordable High-Speed Air Vehicles
Abstract:Currently the first generation of hypersonic vehicles are being developed and built. Even at their relatively low design speeds, e.g. MACH 7 for ARRMD, they are pushing current material technologies to the extreme. In order to reach the next performance levels, materials which withstand higher temperatures and better resist oxidative environments must be developed. This Phase I research proposes to develop an advanced ceramic matrix composite (CMD) with superior properties to C/SiC, which is presently thermally limited for many potential applications. Using a low-cost rapid densification process, mixed HfC/SiC matrix CMCs will be fabricated in one seventh the time and one tenth the cost taken to fabricate CMCs conventionally. In addition, the density of the final composite will be >90% and the HfC/SiC matrix CMCs will offer considerable oxidation protection - far superior to C/SiC. This technology is low-cost and is focussed at producing high performance CMCs for use in hypersonic applications such as coatings and leading edges.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
John Bossard
DARPA 99-023
Title:Air-Turbo-Rocket for Minimum Cost High Speed Vehicle Propulsion
Abstract:As a result of its hybrid rocket/turbojet nature, Air-Turbo-Rocket (ATR) propulsion offers the airframe manufacturer 3-4 times the specific impulse of a SRM with 2-3 times the specific thrust of a turbojet under identical operating conditions, Quantum cost reduction is possible by optimizing the trade-off associated with propellant selection, trubomachinery specific speed combination and combustion mixture ratio. Phase I will focus on the utility of an ATR over competing propulsion systems in current DARPA missile and global reach scramjet boost operation initiatives. Propulsion vehicle designs to be considered during Phase I will include hydrogen regenerative and bi-propellant (LOX/RP-1) ATRs for scramjet boost as well as ultra low cost solid propellant fueled ATRs for AFSS, LCCMD and MALD missile systems. The starting point for each ATR propulsion concept will be synthesized from CFDRC's high performance solid propellant ATR demonstrator engine currently being tested at the U.S. Army AMCOM. CFDRC will use an advanced version of its proven Global Engine Mission Analysis (GEMA) software package to conceptualize ATR engine concepts suitable for installation into each vehicle. Preliminary vehicle/propulsion/trajectory simulations of each DARPA initiative will be completed. Whenever necessary, CFDRC will interact with ATR propulsion team members Boeing, Raytheon, Lockheed Martin, Atlantic Research Corporation, Allison and Sundstrand to identify critical vehicle installation issues and/or component technologies requiring further consideration during Phase II. The objective of Phase II will be to ground test an affordable flight configured ATR propulsion system and thereby evince the ATR as an optimum thrust to weight air breathing propulsion system with minimum propellant fraction and cost (both acquisition and recurring operational).

MULTISPECTRAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
202 Perry Parkway, Suite 7
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3978
Robert Fontana, Ph.D.
DARPA 99-025
Title:A Novel, Ultra Wideband, Collision Avoidance Sensor
Abstract:MSSI proposes the development of a micro-miniature, ultra low power, light weight, precision Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radar sensor for Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) collision avoidance. The proposed sensor is capable of sub-foot resolution making it viable for dual use as a high accuracy altimeter. The altimeter with increased power may also find use in buried mine detection. Under Phase I, MSSI will investigate collision avoidance sensor requirements, develop system specifications, identify promising micro-miniature approaches (e.g. MMIC, ASIC, and MCMs), conduct modeling and simulation of selected antenna configurations, construct a brass board radar sensor, and conduct system test and evaluations. Phase I hardware will prove the feasibility of the UWB radar for MAV collision avoidance. Under Phase II, the Phase I design will be refined to meet MAV size, weight, and power constraints. Several prototype UWB radar modules will be developed for flight testing onboard selected airborne platforms. Successful Phase II testing will lead to high volume Phase III collision avoidance developments for use by a wide variety of platforms and vehicles.

YANKEE SCIENTIFIC, INC.
93 West Street
Medfield, MA 02052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 359-7999
Eric Guyer
DARPA 99-026
Title:Compact Combined Cycle Diesel Engine with Liquid-Injected Expander
Abstract:The heating of high pressure sub-cooled liquid coupled with liquid-injected two-phase expansion is proposed as a pathway to a compact and high-efficiency combined cycle diesel engine. The concept is a novel and non-obvious departure from earlier industry efforts to develop high efficiency diesel engines. This new engine concept avoids the high temperature materials problems of prior high-efficiency engine concepts and has significant thermodynamic advantage over earlier combined diesel and Rankine cycle engines. The liquid injected expander eliminates the liquid-vapor phase separation requirement of conventional Rankine bottoming cycles and enables the miniaturization of system components. Also, the liquid injection cycle has a significant thermodynamic efficiency advantage over Rankine bottoming cycles in this combined cycle and enables the miniaturization of system components. Also, the liquid injection cycle has a significant thermodynamic efficiency advantage over Rankine bottoming cycles in this combined cycle application. This thermodynamic advantage stems from the ability to utilize the waste heat of the diesel engine over a wide temperature range. The combined diesel and liquid-injected expander engine concept allows for an economic breakthrough to a practical and highly efficient combined cycle diesel engine with a minimum of technical development. The economic feasibility of this new engine concept is an outgrowth of technology developments in compact heat exchanges, two-phase expanders, small high pressure pumps, and electronic controls. The power-to-weight ratio of the combined cycle engine should exceed that of conventional diesel engines.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technology Division, 20600 Gramercy Place,
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Ilya Agurok
DARPA 99-027
Title:Combined Hartmann-Autofocus Wavefront Sensor
Abstract:DARPA is soliciting new, real-time methods for wave front WF testing, that will utilize extended scene imagery. In response, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes Hartmann-autofocus sensors (HAS). In the proposed HAS, the exit pupil of an imaging missile seeker will be divided into several patches. The size of these patches will be sufficient to support a distinguishable target image. In contrast to current Shack-Hartmann sensors, which need at least 50 patches, the HAS will require no more than 6 patches for WF retrieval. As in autofocusing cameras, local defocusing will be determined by the relative axial positions of the sharpest images over the patches. The local slope will be found as in the Hartmann test. The combination of local wave front curvature with the local slope in the patches will provide enough information for high quality wave front restoration. Finally, this small number of WF patches will provide an improved energy budget and a rapid response in the hundreds of hertz. During Phase I, POC will undertake a thorough theoretical investigation of the proposed HAS and compare this approach with existing methods. In Phase II, a brass-board laboratory prototype of the HAS adaptive optics system will be produced and tested.

AEROVIRONMENT, INC.
222 East Huntington Drive, Suite 200
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 357-9983
Derek Lisoski, Ph.D.
DARPA 99-028
Title:Active Load Reduction for High Altitude Long Endurance Remotely Piloted Aircraft
Abstract:In the course of developing the solar powered Pathfinder and Centurion high altitude long endurance (HALE) uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs), AeroVironment has done extensive investigations into the effects of atmospheric turbulence on this unusual class of aircraft. This investigation found that turbulent loads are the driving factor in the design of these vehicles. In particular, two-or three dimensional turbulent motions give rise to higher loads that those from the maneuvering or one-dimensional gust loads used in classical aircraft design. Existing turbulent loads analysis techniques and data were found to be inadequate when trying to estimate the design loads for such flexible and lightweight aircraft. It was also found that almost no statistical turbulence data exists for aircraft that cruise for months at extreme altitudes and may experience only one or two takeoffs and landings during their design lifetime. As a result, the current generation of aircraft may have been significantly over-designed to account for uncertainty in the expected turbulence loads. Solar powered aircraft may have been significantly over-designed to account for uncertainty in the expected turbulence loads. Solar powered aircraft performance depends very strongly on being able to reduce weight. This document proposes to investigate the feasibility of a system that, through both an active control system for direct reduction of turbulence induced loads and, through the indirect development of a significant database of high altitude turbulence information, will lead to reduced structural weight and greatly improved performance for HALE UAVs.

APPLIED MATHEMATICS, INC.
1622 Route 12, Box 637
Gales Ferry, CT 06335
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 513-1612
Helmut Portmann
DARPA 99-029
Title:Multi-Function Monolithic Actuator for Micro-Adaptive Flow Control
Abstract:Active control of boundary layer separation using MAFC via periodic excitation has the potential of enabling aircraft with thick, separation-controlled wings with no moving control surfaces and thrust vectoring with no moving vanes or surfaces. The result will be significant performance enhancements with lighter, less complicated and less expensive control systems, as well as reduced radar and thermal signatures. We propose a novel fluidic-controlled actuator that provides the functionality of several fluidic and piezo actuators, plus sensor and feedback control, in one monolithic MAFC device. Phase I technical objectives are: (1) Develop a system design and manufacturing plan for a multi-function monolithic actuator system, and construct system component prototypes, (2) Develop a plan for benchmarking the actuator system performance under realistic flight conditions, and (3) Develop system performance estimates based on well-defined flight test maneuvers and expected specific vehicle performance improvements. These objectives will produce the plans, specifications, and basic designs required to support Phase II, which will include manufacture of the full MAFC system, installation in an instrumented RPV, and flight testing for performance benchmarking.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
11000 Cedar Avenue, Suite 170
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 791-6749
Troy Prince
DARPA 99-029
Title:Self Cleaning MEMS Microvalve for Active Suction Control
Abstract:Suction has been proven to be a viable technique to influence the macro flow environment over airfoils. Two main problems exist with traditional suction: a) environmental contamination of the suction holes; and b) high suction and power requirements. In this Phase I program, Orbital Research Inc., will evaluate the feasibility of an active, self-clearing MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) suction device for flow control on an airfoil. The proposed micro-valve will be a MEMS device that is electrostatically operated (low power) and capable of regulating the required suction. The micro-valve will actuate a novel suction flow control technique, which exploits the natural instability in separated flow to trigger intense vortices on the airfoil surface. Since part of the control input is supplied by the flow itself, the required suction level is reduced. Results from preliminary experiments indicate a potential two-order magnitude reduction in suction rate from conventional techniques. This program will design, fabricate and test this innovative, self-clearing MEMS micro-valve. Then, the active separation control system will demonstrate, and validate discrete suction under simulated rapid maneuvers as the airfoil is quickly moved through increasing angles of attack in the wind tunnel.

MOHAWK INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
437 New Karner Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4288
Hooshang Heshmat
DARPA 99-031
Title:Shock Tolerant Magnetic Auxiliary Bearings
Abstract:Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs) with their ability to electronically manipulate rotor system dynamics, add damping as required and operate without lubricants offer an attractive alternative to conventional liquid lubricated bearing systems, especially in flywheel energy storage (FESS) devices, such as are planned for future land based combat vehicles. However, offsetting the many advantages of the AMB are its sensitivity to transient loads and the lack of a built in fail safe mechanism to capture the rotor and protect the FESS in the event of a system failure. To meet this need MiTi has conceived and has tested two shock tolerant auxiliary bearings, the Zero Clearance Auxiliary Bearing (ZCAB) and the Powder Lubricated Auxiliary Bearing (P-LAB). Each is suitable for high speed vacuum operation. Under Phase I, MiTi will identify the design requirements for a vehicular class (e.g., the combat hybrid propulsion system) RESS shock tolerant auxiliary bearing designs to meet the design requirements, identify the required tribomaterial system (i.e, shaft material, bearing material and dry lubricant), select the bearing most suitable for Phase II demonstration and establish the development test rig concepts designs needed for Phase II. Under Phase II, MiTi will complete the detailed design and fabricate the selected auxiliary bearing for development testing.