DoD SBIR FY99.1 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Navy - Air Force - DARPA - BMDO - DTRA - SOCOM - CBD

---------- NAVY ----------

266 Phase I Selections from the 99.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
P.O. Box 24344
Minneapolis, MN 55424
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 935-2035
Ranga S. Ramanujan
NAVY 99-001
Title:Smart Active Networks for Mobile Wireless Environments
Abstract:Active networks break from the traditional networking paradigm by allowing for the injection of customized computations into the network. This technology enables the rapid deployment of new network services for future Navy applications. This Phase I SBIR effort proposes an innovative active network architecture that would provide mobile warfighters with two powerful capabilities: 1) truly ubiquitous networking and 2) location-aware wireless network services (LAWNS). Ubiquitous networking refers to the ability of mobile devices to access information and communicate with a worldwide network anytime and anywhere. This capability is critical to implement the network centric warfare strategy of tomorrow that relies on rapid dissemination of information across all levels of the warfighting force. Location aware wireless network services (LAWNS) exploits the widespread availability of low-cost GPS cards for mobile computers that make warfighter location information easily available. LAWNS uses GPS-based location information provided by warfighter equipment to implement innovative protocols to support capabilities such as geographically targeted multicasts of information, range- restricted information dissemination, and location-dependent access to distributed information services. Such a capability will enable future situational awareness systems where intelligence and tactical sensor data must be exploited to provide customized, location-specific information to the force.

COMPUTER COMMAND & CONTROL COMPAN
2400 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 854-0555
Caiqun Joan Xiao
NAVY 99-001
Title:Smart Active Networks
Abstract:A key problem with the Internet is the slowness with which the underlying IP protocol can evolve. Though this protocol is very successful, there are many things for which it is not well suited, and a variety of efforts have been initiated to revise the standard to address these shortcomings. About four years ago the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) launched an ambitious program to develop a technology, known generally as Active Networking (AN), intended to address this problem of slow deployment. An active network is one in which the routers can be customized to run communication- oriented protocols on a per-user, per-flow, or even per-packet basis. In particular, users are allowed to deploy or invoke programs within the network rather than just at endpoints. This allows a range of new protocols to be deployed quickly within the network by programming them using a more high-level interface. The goal of this proposal is to take steps to commercialize one of the most successful and widely-used active network technologies, and take a first step toward developing applications based on that technology through an experiment on the ABONE. The basic technology is that of PLAN, the Packet Language for Active Networks, designed by the SwitchWare Project at the University of Pennsylvania. The application is endpoint emulation, a service in which an active router serves as a proxy for a destination that becomes temporarily inaccessible. Such a service would allow certain kinds of communication between two endpoints even if they were never connected to one another at the same time due to erratic network connectivity or the unavailability of the endpoints themselves. The resulting service is much more general than an "answering-machine" since it does not require designation of specific proxy to hold the message.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Phillip J. Stout
NAVY 99-002
Title:An Advanced CAD Tool for Quantum Device Simulation
Abstract:The goal of the proposed study is to develop a commercial-quality CAD tool to aid in the development of quantum based semiconductor devices. Currently, there are no commercial computer aided design (CAD) tools available that incorporate the proper physics for designing quantum devices. In Phase I of the study an existing 1D steady-state quantum simulator, NEMO, will be enhanced to include small-signal AC analysis through S-parameter extraction for use in a circuit simulator. This effort will be performed in close collaboration with JPL and Raytheon, the original developers of the quantum simulator NEMO. The modified quantum simulator will be used for demonstration/validation studies on resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs). Also, a new CAD tool architecture will be designed for implementation in the Phase II effort. In the Phase I option drift-diffusion effects will be put in NEMO's contact models, and experimental measurements of RTDs will be carried out to validate the CAD tool. In Phase II the new architecture design will be implemented. The architecture will leverage existing grid generation, numerical solver, database, and GUI library technologies at CFDRC. The final CAD tool will be 2D/3D, steady-state/transient, allow for AC analysis, capable of S-parameter extraction, and coupled with an electronic hydrodynamic model. The completed cross-platform tool will have a new graphical front end to aid in mesh generation, problem set- up, execution, and analysis/visualization.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
P. O. Box 105830C Hebron Avenue
Glastonbury, CT 06033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 659-0333
Harold L. Grubin
NAVY 99-002
Title:High Speed Quantum Devices and Circuits: Modeling and Design
Abstract:This proposal describes the development of computer programs for circuit simulation based on quantum effect devices. Transient quantum effects are obtained through solutions to the time dependent Wigner equation from which device parameters will be extracted. The development of small signal and large signal applications will be simulated with input and output obtained through a newly developed Windows Graphical User Interface. The long-term goal is the development of Windows and Unix based software packages enabling engineering design of advanced devices and circuits to be realized. The device emphasized in this study is the Resonant Tunneling Diode, which has developed to the point where it is being considered for high speed digital circuits operating at 100 GHz, far beyond the upper frequency limits of silicon CMOS technology (i.e. 1 GHz). The emphasis in this study is the GUI development, incorporation of transient electron and hole transport, device hysterisis, small and large signal circuit elements, output power calculations, contributions from spatially dependent effective mass, the role of dissipation, contacts, coupled devices, and demonstration of the use of the simulation in a 100GHz logic circuit.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 829-9217
John M. Anderson
NAVY 99-003
Title:Integrated Electronics for Vertical (CPP) GMR MRAM
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal will demonstrate the feasibility of integrating current-perpendicular-to-the-plane (CPP), or vertical giant magnetoresistance (VGMR), memory cells with VLSI silicon electronics. VGMR memory technology enables ultra-high density storage capability which is predicted to surpass DRAM. Unlike DRAM, however, VGMR MRAM (magnetoresistive random access memory) is nonvolatile, meaning it retains its state even without power. In order to fully exploit the benefits of this emerging technology, it will need to be implemented using high density silicon electronics. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of building the VGMR memory the following four objectives will be met: a) identify vertical memory specifications and constraints; b) identify memory array and integrated circuit process limitations; c) design vertical memory architecture; and d) design vertical memory circuitry. With the close of the Phase I effort, NVE will have completed a preliminary VLSI circuit design, predicted device performance and yield requirements, and outlined a process for fabricating integrated VGMR memory arrays. Under Phase II, VGMR arrays will be tested and debugged using multi-chip integrated prototypes followed by fabrication and demonstration of single chip VGMR arrays fully integrated with silicon-based VLSI electronics.

SIENNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
19501 144th Avenue NE, Suite F
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 485-7272
Dr. Ender Savrun
NAVY 99-004
Title:High Thermal Conductivity Vacuum-Compatible Microwave Absorbers
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will establish the feasibility of vacuum compatible, electrically lossy high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride ceramics. Aluminum nitride will be doped to increase microwave absorption without adversely affecting its thermal conductivity, dielectric strength, and vacuum compatibility. Aluminum nitride disks with the selected dopant will be produced via pressureless sintering. Density, thermal conductivity, complex permittivity of the produced disks will be measured to assess their vacuum worthiness and microwave absorption. The effects of the dopant concentration on the density, thermal conductivity, and microwave absorption will be investigated.

PEREGRINE SEMICONDUCTOR
6175 Nancy Ridge Dr.
San Diego, CA 92106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 646-8880
Ronald E. Reedy
NAVY 99-005
Title:Silicon-on-Sapphire GPS System on a Chip
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a single chip GPS receiver with architecture and manufacturing process appropriate to both commercial and military applications. The project covers the design, manufacture and test of an integrated circuit, which requires only an input signal from a modular GPS antenna and will output geolocation information in a digital format. The chip will be manufactured in an advanced silicon on sapphire (SOS) technology called Ultra Thin Silicon (UTSi) CMOS. This advanced technology enables integration of all RF, IF and baseband functions in a single CMOS chip, a capability not possible in any other form of CMOS.

EMCORE CORP.
394 Elizabeth Ave
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 271-9090
Ian Ferguson/Choung Tran
NAVY 99-006
Title:Improved Efficiency of Multicolor Light Emitting Devices Based on Short-Wavelength LEDs with Down-Converting Phosphors or Polymers
Abstract:The development of high brightness LEDs based on the (AlInGa)N materials systems has led to the possibility of revolutionary new approaches to lighting and display fabrication. For the first time, this material system permits the fabrication of efficient UV solid state sources that can be coupled to phosphors for saturated visible color and white light generation. While the operation efficiency of these UV-LED sources can be high, the total lumen output is limited because typical LED operation is in the milliwatt regime. Conventional LED fabrication technologies lead to applications requiring hundreds if not thousands of LED chips to produce high lumen output. This proposal will explore the development of advanced UV-LED designs for operation at high current (power) operation for high lumen output. This will be accomplished by developing alternate growth technology on thick GaN/sapphire substrates which can be thinned to remove the sapphire, thus improving thermal management and light extraction for high efficiency, high lumen output.

ADVANCED REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGIES
P.O.Box 1361
Boulder, CO 80306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 447-2917
Ran Yaron
NAVY 99-007
Title:Free Refrigerator
Abstract:Superconducting devices such as the volt standard required to be economically, reliably and compactly refrigerated to around 10K. No such refrigerator to be found (yet). Advanced Refrigeration Technologies, Inc (ART) of Boulder Colorado brings an elegant cost efective approach to meet those challenging objectives.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) /92-7477
Dr. Myron E. Calkins
NAVY 99-007
Title:Improved Performance 10 Kelvin Refrigerator for Electronic Applications
Abstract:We propose an affordable, compact, reliable, lightweight, and efficient 10K refrigerator for superconducting electronics applications. Recent advances show an improved 10K refrigerator can be developed. Significant progress developing Gifford-McMahon, Stirling, and Pulse Tube refrigerators for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) electronic applications has demonstrated several characteristics needed for an improved 10K refrigerator. Improvements in regenerator materials such as textured neodymium ribbon offer enhanced regenerator performance at temperatures below 10K. We will integrate these and other recent developments into a single refrigerator concept. The thermodynamic cycle, compressor and expander technology, regenerator materials and geometry will be selected by comparing the performance of existing components to requirements for superconducting electronics applications. Critical thermodynamic and engineering choices will be modeled, and we will select a baseline approach for Phase II. To focus concept development and guide Phase II and Phase III planning, candidate applications will be selected in consultation with potential customers and the Navy. In Phase II, we will complete detailed design, build and test the baseline refrigerator, and verify that performance meets the requirements for the Phase III application(s). In Phase III, we will partner with a vendor of superconducting electronics to build a fully integrated system (e.g. voltage standard or analog-to-digital converter.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL
8660 Dakota Drive
Gaitersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-8342
Vladimir Dmitriev
NAVY 99-008
Title:Development of SiC and GaN IMPATT Diodes
Abstract:TDI proposes to develop silicon carbide and gallium nitride high power IMPATT diodes for the operation at 35 GHz. Silicon carbide IMPATT diodes will be fabricated based on epitaxial pn structures and gallium nitride devices will be fabricated based on Schottky diodes. Recently high quality SiC and GaN epitaxial structures have been demonstrated by TDI. Highly doped (>1020 cm-3) p-type SiC materials and abrupt p+/n junctions have been grown. High- quality GaN Schottky barriers were fabricated. These results open the opportunity to develop high-power high-efficiency IMPATT diodes. The goal of the Phase I is to prove the concept and demonstrate building blocks for SiC and GaN IMPATTs. SiC IMPATT diodes and GaN BARITT diodes will be modeled to determine the optimum device structure. These simulations will be based on the transport theory and characterization of SiC and GaN materials and on the results of the breakdown field measurements in these semiconductors. In the Phase II, we will focus on the fabrication of a packaged IMPATT operating at 35 GHz. Test samples will be delivered.

SIGTEK, INC.
9075 Guilford RoadSuite C-1
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 290-3918
George Aliftiras
NAVY 99-009
Title:High Data Rate CDMA Network for VSAT
Abstract:The demand for high data rate (HDR) very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks has been increasing in the last two years. Newer network applications require a minimum of T1 data rate (1.544 Mbps). The network must also be robust for the operating conditions of VSATs- small diameter dishes with inaccurate tracking and a cluttered terrain environment. Most commercial VSAT modems support data rates in the range of 64-128 kbps but those that do support higher data rates require significantly more transponder bandwidth and larger antenna sizes. CDMA is a perfect solution for VSATs where increased complexity and transponder bandwidth is not an option. Sigtek has identified the VSAT network market as a target ideal for the further development of our existing direct sequence modems. Using our CDMA technology, we can develop a CDMA network that solves these problems. Our existing hardware supports flexible spreading codes, variable data rates, and several types of FEC. Combined with further analysis and simulation we can develop the parameters for a VSAT network that solves many of these problems. Investigation of types of FEC, spreading codes, and interference reduction will be critical in achieving a Phase II deployment.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS, INC.
521 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Brian G. Pazol
NAVY 99-010
Title:Multi-Purpose Acoustic Imaging System for Shallow Water AUV Operations
Abstract:An advanced imaging system utilizing conformal piezocomposite transducer technology optimized for integration with AUV's is proposed for shallow water imaging. The proposed system is expected to offer a number of performance advantages over conventional designs including high bandwidth, reduced sidelobes, low self noise, and improved image resolution and SNR. The proposed effort includes the fabrication and demonstration of a high bandwidth composite transducer for integration and deployment on the Florida Atlantic University Ocean Explorer AUV.

NEPTUNE SCIENCES, INC.
150 Cleveland Avenue
Slidell, LA 70458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(504) 649-7252
Ronald T. Miles, PE
NAVY 99-010
Title:Micro Air-launched expandable Visibility Sonde
Abstract:Phase I research will be conducted to prove the feasibility of of developing a Micro Air-launched Expendable Visibility Sonde (MAXVS) to measure atmospheric visibility profiles for both military and research purposes. The proposed research will investigate unique visibility profile measurement requirements and engineering solutions, quantify the measurement accuracy that can be obtained using these micro-size instrument form factors, and develop a conceptual design for an instrument (microsonde) that can be launched from aircraft dispensers and that can achieve the required measurement accuracy. Optional work will validate conceptual designs to speed development of prototypes during Phase II.

OCEANIT
1100 Alakea Street, 31st Floor
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Patrick K. Sullivan, Ph.D
NAVY 99-010
Title:Internal Wave Surface Expression Sensing
Abstract:Under Office of Naval Research (ONR) sponsorship entitled "Investigations of Internal Waves Around Steep Slopes and Their Influence on Convergence Zone Formation," Oceanit measured internal waves two miles offshore of Sand Island in Mamala Bay, Oahu using a thermistor string and an acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP). "Internal Wave Surface Expression Sensing" will develop a system of integrated sensors in an attempt to demonstrate the relationship between internal wave activities measured in the water (as developed and demonstrated with ONR sponsorship) with surface expressions observed using x-band radar and optical sensors. The resulting technology can be incorporated into littoral zone surveillance networks as well as City & County of Honolulu's sewage treatment plant operations.

RD INSTRUMENTS
9855 Businesspark Ave.
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 693-1178
Blair Brumley
NAVY 99-010
Title:Directional Wave Measurement from Moving Platforms
Abstract:Knowledge of ocean surface wave spectra is important in a wide variety of military and civilian oceanographic applications. We propose a method of measuring the wave directional spectrum from a moving platform such as a submerged buoy, a submerged manned or unmanned vehicle (AUV or ROV), or a small surface vessel. Our method uses the depth cells of an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to form a virtual spatial array of velocity sensors. Platform motion is measured independently using instrumentation suitable to the platform. Wavelet analysis seems particularly well suited to meeting the challenges of this task. Our proposal builds upon a previously demonstrated capability of using an ADCP to measure wave spectra from stationary platforms.

IMAGE ACOUSTICS, INC.
97 Elm Street
Cohasset, MA 02025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 383-2002
Dr. John L. Butler
NAVY 99-011
Title:Directional Underwater Acoustic Communications Transducer
Abstract:A directional underwater acoustic transducer for modem use will be developed. The transducer will provide both vertical and horizontal directionality and operate in the 8 kHz to 20 kHz spectrum with a bandwidth of 5 kHz. The proposed transducer would provide vertical directionality through its length and horizontal directionality through multi-modal excitation of the cylinders. We plan to use a combination of omni-directional, dipole and possibly quadrupole modes of vibration to attain a directional and steerable beam. The modes will be excited and steered through selective electrical summing of the signals on the silver striping on the cylinder. It has been shown that highly directive beams may be obtained from spherical transducers [J. L. Butler and S. L. Ehrlich, " Superdirective spherical radiator," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 61, 1427-1431 (1977)]. We plan to extend this to the case of a cylindrical radiator. Analytical and finite element modeling will be performed to verify expectations before the design is implemented. We believe this approach will yield a design compatible with current acoustic modems and provide an approach that would yield production cost below $1,000.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS, INC.
521 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Gerald Schmidt
NAVY 99-011
Title:Directional 1-3 Piezocomposite Transducer for Underwater Modems
Abstract:A directional underwater transducer is proposed to improve the performance of wireless underwater acoustic modems and data networks. Conservation of power is a central requirement of battery-operated wireless modems and instrument networks. The proposed transducer employs spatial diversity to decrease unnecessary modem wake-up cycling and thereby conserves modem power, to conserve transmitter power, and to improve data throughput balancing among the network nodes. The transduction efficiency of 1-3 piezocomposite will serve to further conserve transmitter power andimprove modem endurance. Simplicity of transducer design and construction is a key feature of thedesign to realize low cost fabrication.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Div.20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Norbert Fruehauf, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-011
Title:Low Cost Electronically Steerable Acoustic Transducer Array
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an Electronically Steerable Acoustic Array Transducer (ESAAT) for acoustic underwater communication systems. The ESAAT overcomes present state-of-the-art transducer limitations on power requirement, interceptability, signal-to-noise ratio, and cost. The key innovations of the proposed system are (1) low cost RISC microcontroller-based intelligent acoustic transducer modules, (2) a low cost inertial orientation sensor, and (3) a distributed beamforming algorithm that exploits the combined computing power of the RISC microcontrollers, eliminating the need for a high performance central processor. This unique combination of sophisticated algorithms and advanced distributed computing hardware results in a low cost directional acoustic transducer with fully electronic low latency (~ 100 microsecond) beam steering capability. The system can generate complex azimuthal beam patterns optimized for the actual network topology. The Phase I research will include: a thorough design study of an ESAAT for operation in a 5 kHz band located in an 8 to 20 kHz acoustic spectrum; fabrication of a low cost transducer module; and demonstration of the superior beam steering capabilities of the system. In addition, Phase I will focus on issues such as tilt and motion sensitivity, and compatibility with the U.S. Navy telesonar testbed.

OCEANTEK, INC.
41-945 Kalanianaole Highway
Waimanalo, HI 96795
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 259-9102
Dr. Jose Andres
NAVY 99-012
Title:Modeling of Free Spans/Bend Radii for Cables/Pipes on Irregular Bottoms
Abstract:Oceantek proposes to develop and validate a numerical tool to incorporate into existing software systems that will allow the user to compute a true and accurate representation of the cable/pipe shape as it lays on an irregular bottom terrain. It would also include the spans and points of contact on the bottom as well as the bend radii (to compute induced stresses) developed at the contact points. As the cable/pipe is laid over the ocean bottom, it bends over obstacles and free spans are created. The severity of these bends and the length of these spans are a strong function of the bottom roughness. Given the values of water depth along specific bottom tracks, the cable/pipe properties (wet weight and bending stiffness) and the cable/pipe bottom tension, the proposed software would determine the bottom contact points, the length and locations of the free spans, and the bend radii and global forces at the contact points.

TECHNO-SCIENCES, INC.
10001 DEREKWOOD LANESUITE 204
LANHAM, MD 20706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 577-6000
Dr. Carole Teolis
NAVY 99-012
Title:MODELING UNDERWATER CABLES AND PIPELINES
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop algorithms and a software tool that will allow the user to have a true and accurate representation of a cable's shape as it lays on an irregular bottom terrain, including the unsupported spans and points of contact at the bottom, as well as the bend radii developed at the contact points (to compute induced stresses). We propose a two step iterative algorithm to find the supported and suspended segments of a cable along a sea floor route. The algorithm is simple to implement and computationally efficient. Software support moduels will be provided for graphical visualization of the cable shape, for accessing cable properties and design, and for accessing bathymetry data. We shall collaborate with a commercial communications cable company in the design and evaluation of the software system.

IAP RESEARCH, INC.
2763 Culver Avenue
Dayton, OH 45429
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 296-1806
Duane Newman
NAVY 99-013
Title:Metal/Water Based Energetic Materials for Use in Military and Commercial Demolition Operations
Abstract:IAP Research, Inc. proposes to integrate a (metal-water) energetic materials reaction with linear shaped charge technology. Our preliminary assessment of an aluminum-water reaction indicates that energy outputs of 15 KJ/cc, approximately twice conventional explosives, are attainable. The proposed Phase I will show the feasibility of achieving the required performance for use with military and commercial demolition munitions. The Phase II effort will focus on the full scale development for commercial and military demolition and salvage operations.

SHOCK TRANSIENTS, INC.
PO Box 5357
Hopkins, MN 55343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 944-3539
David Davison
NAVY 99-013
Title:Safe, Energetic Metafex Linear Shaped Charges for Salvage and Obstacle Clearance Operations
Abstract:Metafex (for metal-fueled explosive replacement) combines the technologies of explosive reaction thermochemistry and pulsed electrical power. The technology will make systems formerly requiring hazardous explosives not only safer and more energetic but also less environmentally disruptive and lower in cost. Analysis shows that Metafex energy densities are more than twice as great as those of conventional explosives. Because the energy density is greater, weapon components can be made smaller and/or more effective, yet safer, if they use Metafex in place of explosives. There are many US Navy applications, including linear shaped charges (LSC's) for salvage and obstacle clearance operations. By replacing the high explosive with Metafex, LSC's will be safer. Because they will be safer, they will be less costly to manufacture, to ship, and to use. Also, disposal of obsolete ordnance will be non-hazardous. In contrast to conventional ones, the proposed LSC's require no explosives. They are environmentally benign, can be safely shipped anywhere; and need no special handling. They will be inert until activated by energetic electrical pulses. In Phase I of the proposed project, Metafex test samples will be built and tested, and the technology will be adapted for use in LSC's.

POLYPLUS BATTERY CO. INC.
2431 Fifth Street
Berkeley, CA 94710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 841-7242
Dr. May-Ying Chu
NAVY 99-014
Title:Development of Advanced Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries
Abstract:PolyPlus Battery Company is developing advanced secondary batteries based on lithium polysulfide chemistry. The Navy has an immediate need for secondary batteries having energy densities superior to Ag/Zn cells. Given the high energy density of Ag/Zn chemistry, the Navy seeks alternative cathodes having theoretical energy densities in excess of 1500 Wh/kg. PolyPlus Battery Company is developing a battery based on the chemistry of lithium polysulfides. The reversible cell reaction is 2 Li + S = Li2S. The lithium polysulfide cathode has a gravimetric capacity of 1165 mAh/g and a nominal cell potential of 2.0 volts, giving a theoretical energy density of 2330 Wh/kg. The extremely high energy density of the Li/S system is 33 to 55% higher than that requested by the Navy. Furthermore, fully sealed, packaged 2 Ah cells tested at PolyPlus Battery Company's facility have demonstrated exceptionally high specific energies of 150 to 400 Wh/kg at moderate to low rate (C/3 to C/25). These cells have also demonstrated high power densities of over 800 W/kg at room temperature and over 1,000 W/kg (80 Wh/kg) at moderately elevated temperatures (60 °C). The superior characteristics of this battery chemistry seem particularly well suited to the Navy's requirements.

RECHARGEABLE BATTERY CORP.
809 University DriveSuite 100-E
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 260-1120
Brendan Coffey
NAVY 99-014
Title:Development of Advanced Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries
Abstract:Rechargeable Battery Corporation has developed innovative bismuth modified manganese dioxide (BMMD) materials with unique electro- active properties. These BMMD materials could significantly enhance the performance of rechargeable lithium batteries, and are already the basis of an advanced Secondary Zinc Alkaline Manganese Dioxide (SZAMTM) battery technology. In the alkaline system the bismuth dopant confers deep (2-electron), reversible, cyclability to the MnO2. By complexing with soluble Mn(III) species, the bismuth serves as a redox catalyst, increasing the working voltage of the cell. Steric effects of the Bi-Mn complexes appear to prevent the formation of non-rechargeable MnO2 phases so that capacity fade in practical cells is low; 500 cycles are readily achieved. There is now direct evidence that BMMD materials can produce similar effects in rechargeable lithium systems, potentially translating into capacities of more than 500 Ah/kg and cell voltages of 3- 4+ Volts, if the same level of benefit can be achieved. Solution-phase structural stabilization constitutes an entirely new approach toward the development of manganese oxides for rechargeable lithium batteries. In this Phase I SBIR development program, various structural forms of BMMD will be incorporated into the cathode of button cells with lithium anodes and evaluated for specific capacity, cyclability and fade. Micro-structural analysis will be carried out on the material before and after cycling.

CARBOLEX, INC.
Adv. Sci.&Techn. Comm. CenterUniv. of Kentucky, AS
Lexington, KY 40506
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(606) 257-9488
Shaoli Fang
NAVY 99-015
Title:Carbon Nanotube - Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding
Abstract:Single wall carbon nanotube - polymer composites will be synthesized and investigated for EMI shielding applications. Bundles of nanotubes will be prepared by an arc discharge process and dispersed in several polymer hosts as a physical mixture. Composites made from as-grown and chemically purified nanotubes will be investigated as a function of the vol.% loading, as will composites formed by laminating large area sheets of nanotube paper between polymer sheets. The effects of enhanced nanotube conductivity (chemical doping) and ferromagnetic nanoparticle additives will also be addressed. Stripline cavities operating in the 0.075 - 6 GHz range will be used to measure the complex permittivity and permeability of the composites. When applicable, the results will be modeled using an effective medium theory for composites built from dielectric hosts containing high aspect ratio conducting rods.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4171
Dr. Patricia Wilson
NAVY 99-015
Title:Novel Applications for Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I proposal is to develop carbon nanotube composites for use in demanding electronic applications on Navy aircraft and ships. Foster-Miller proposes to meet this objective by developing an innovative conductive gap treatment system for stealth aircraft. To assist with identification of materials and requirements for low observable coatings, Foster-Miller has teamed with Northrop-Grumman, a leading manufacturer of stealth aircraft for the DoD. The proposed Foster-Miller gap sealant will be comprised of a unique combination of materials which focus on improving composite performance through the use of carbon nanotube technology. To improve nanotube adhesion to the matrix resin, and therefore further improve the mechanical and electrical properties of the composite, Foster-Miller will functionalize the nanotubes to react with and chemically bond to the matrix resin. In Phase I, Foster-Miller will complete preliminary electrical and mechanical evaluation on gap sealant test specimens and further investigate other EMI and low observable coating applications for carbon nanotube technology.

MOLECULAR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
270 Littleton Road, #29
Westford, MA 01852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 392-1304
Dr. Mario Cazeca
NAVY 99-016
Title:Erbium (III) Ion Containing Fluoropolymers as Optical Fiber/Waveguide Amplifiers
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I research will focus on the development of Erbium based Polymer Optical Fiber (POF) Amplifiers. POFs are potential candidates in short-haul (1000 m or less) telecommunication applications such as local area networks. Currently low bandwidth copper wires are used, which cannot support the bandwidth requirements of multimedia and internet technologies. Gradient Index POFs with a bandwidth of over 2.5 Gbits/sec have recently been fabricated, which will be enough to support most of the telecommunication applications. However, attenuation of polymers is very high at 1.55 micrometers, where most long distance fiber optic systems operate. Inexpensive polymeric optical amplifiers need to be developed to extend the operational range of POFs. MTI is proposing to develop inexpensive erbium (III) ion doped POF/waveguide amplifiers by either functionalizing or doping the amorphous fluoropolymers with erbium complexes. Multilayered fluoropolymer-erbium complex thin film waveguides will be fabricated using proprietary technique. The fluorescence lifetime of the erbium- polymer materials will be optimized from various proposed fluoropolymer- erbium complex compositions. Both fiber and waveguide optical amplifiers will be fabricated and tested. Optical gains of the amplifiers will be determined. Thermal stability and laser damage threshold of the amplifiers will also be studied.

PHOTON-X
106 Rock Rose Lane
Radnor, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 688-3243
A. F. Garito
NAVY 99-016
Title:High Gain Erbium Polymer Optical Fiber Amplifier
Abstract:Under the proposed project, Photon-X will demonstrate the feasibility of a compact, optically pumped, high gain, erbium perfluoro polymer optical fiber amplifier having low-loss at 1550 nm for operation in short and medium distance data communications network systems. The polymer amplifier will be based on the recent discovery at Photon-X of high performance rare earth polymer materials. The new rare earth polymers are directly synthesized at high rare earth ion concentrations (>10% wt of rare earth ion) with each metal ion encapsulated and physically buffered by insulating, covalently bonded, perfluorinated ligands that then form the polymer backbone matrix. This is distinctly different from heavily studied inorganic glasses and single crystals where rare earth ion salts are doped directly into the host but only to relatively low levels (<0.1% wt).

NASCENT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, LLC
P. O. Box 1470
Yorktown, VA 23692
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 872-0677
Christopher S. Domack
NAVY 99-017
Title:Aircraft Large Area Lamb Corrosion Mapping System
Abstract:As the naval aviation fleet continues to age, methods for accurately predicting the presence of structural flaws-- such as hidden corrosion-- that compromise airworthiness become increasingly necessary. Ultrasonic guided waves, Lamb waves, allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical waveguide physics. Our proposed work focuses on a variety of different tomographic reconstruction techniques to graphically represent the Lamb wave data in quantitative maps that can be easily interpreted by technicians. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, for example, we can convert the traveltimes of the fundamental Lamb modes into a thickness map of the inspection region. This proposal describes practical implementations of Lamb wave tomographic imaging techniques that will be person-portable and optimized for in-the-field testing of large-area aircraft structures.

SENSANT CORP.
650, Saratoga Ave.
San Jose, CA 95129
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 557-6840
Igal Ladabaum
NAVY 99-017
Title:MEMS Sensors for Large Area Hidden Corrosion Detection
Abstract:Sensant Corp intends to investigate the use of a new, non-contact ultrasound technology for the rapid detection of corrosion in large areas. Sensant Corp believes that recent improvements in transducer technology that now enable air-coupled inspection may overcome many of the traditional shortcomings of costly, time-consuming ultrasonic inspection systems for large areas. The recent application of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology to ultrasonic devices has created an advanced ultrasonic sensor with significantly improved dynamic range (110 db) and wide range of operating frequencies in air (2-12 MHz). These new ultrasonic transducers are fabricated in the same manner as a silicon chip using a technique known as micromachining. In many cases, these devices enable the possibility of air-coupled, non-contact inspection of materials as demonstrated by Sensant using aluminum and Plexiglas sheets. For this research, Sensant will characterize the acoustic properties of the multi-layer material to be inspected and will determine the required properties of an ultrasonic inspection system. Then, the company will develop a custom MEMS transducer to investigate the feasibility of ultrasonic inspection of multi-layer materials. To ensure rapid inspection of large areas, Sensant will evaluate both a longitudinal wave and lamb-wave approach using arrays of focused MEMS transducers.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4170
Nese Orby
NAVY 99-018
Title:ADHER: Adherent Durable Hydrophobic Epoxy Resin Formulation for Underwater Hull Touch-Up Repair
Abstract:Marine coatings are the key materials used to protect metals against corrosion and obtain the full design service life from ships. Marine anticorrosion coatings have a significant economic impact and any breach in the anticorrosion coating that may occur due to abrasion or during docking must be repaired as quickly as possible. The most difficult portion of a ship to recoat and repair with anticorrosion coatings is the underwater hull because repairs must be done under water by divers to avoid expensive dry- docking. The present repair coating formulation disintegrates during application causes the water to be cloudy, blurs the diver's vision and contaminates the marine life. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a high performance, environmentally compliant, non-toxic, no VOC (100% solids) hull touch up repair coating that can be applied underwater without hindering the performance of the application team. The proposed repair coating will adhere well to underwater substrates, cure while immersed in water and have sufficient water-resistance so that it doesn't disintegrate and obscure vision during application. Our proposed ADHER repair-coating formulation will also provide good adhesion, toughness, anti-blush and water resistance properties, and will readily accept additional coatings that can be applied during dry- docking.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2331
Dr. Bryan M. Smith
NAVY 99-018
Title:Underwater Epoxy Coating
Abstract:Navy vessels rely on epoxy coatings to protect the hull from the corrosive sea water environment, but scratches are frequently developed in these coatings during normal operations. Current formulations and application techniques used to repair damaged coatings under water produce unacceptable contamination of the water column. TDA Research, Inc. has identified novel hydrophobic curing agents which, when combined with new application methods, promise to eliminate water contamination during underwater application. Both Navy and commercial marine vessels will benefit from the availability of an environmentally acceptable repair coating suited to underwater application. In addition to repairing damaged coatings, the proposed formulation would also serve to protect dock block areas af

ADVANCED CERAMETRICS, INC.
P.O. Box 128245 N. Main Street
Lambertville, NJ 08530
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 397-2900
Jonathan D. French, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-019
Title:Development of a Low-Cost Technology to Form Long Single Crystal Piezoelectric Fibers
Abstract:Advanced Cerametrics, Inc. (ACI) has developed a process to manufacture continuous filaments of piezoelectric ceramic materials and had designed and delivered transducer and actuator devices using these fibers to commercial, military and research institutions. Piezoceramic fiber composites are more desirable than other technologies in many transducer and actuator applications. ACI intends to adapt its piezoelectric fiber manufacturing process to form long lengths of single-crystal relaxor ferroelectric materials at reasonable cost. The proposed reseach is broken into three steps: 1) process chemical compatability studies and initial fiber spinning, 2) spinning trials for texturing and/or melt growth along the fiber axis and 3) prototype device development. Congruently melting materials (non-lead based) will be spun and continuously sintered in a melt-zone furnace that ACI developed to make high-temperature superconducting fiber. Incongruently melting materials (lead-based) will be melt-textured using procedures requiring a controlled-atmosphere, which ACI developed for monolithic HTS materials. During the research ACI will build fiber composite transducers for ultrasound and underwater acoustic applications and active fiber composites for actuator applications. By the end of Phase II ACI will have relaxor ferroelectric single-crystal fiber composite sales to its existing commercial and military customers.

BLATEK, INC.
2820 E. College Ave. Suite F
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 231-2085
Dr. Xuecang Geng
NAVY 99-019
Title:Single Crystal Tonpilz-Type Power Transducers
Abstract:This SBIR will address the modeling, fabrication, and testing of single crystal tonpilz-type power transducers. In collaboration with TRS Ceramics, Inc., single crystal PZN-4.5% PT piezoelectric will be integrated into the tonpilz power transducer, providing ultra high electromechanical coupling (up to 90%), high dielectric constant (up to 5500), high mechanical Q factor (up to 360), low dielectric loss (0.002) and high strain level (up to 0.5%). A direct comparison between an optimally designed single crystal PZN-4.5% PT tonpilz power transducer and an optimally designed PZT tonpilz power transducer will be made to demonstrate the performance enhancement. This phase I research will provide a basis for further transducer optimization and cost effective manufacturing of an optimally designed transducer array in Phase II. A Phase I option for modeling, construction, and testing of a sonar array element will enhance the development of the Phase II proposal.

BURLEIGH INSTRUMENTS, INC.
Main Street
Fishers, NY 14453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 924-9355
David A. Henderson
NAVY 99-019
Title:Miniature High-Strain Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuator
Abstract:A miniature high-strain actuator is proposed that has low internal stresses and high efficiency while using single crystal piezoelectric (PZT) materials. Single crystal PZT materials provide at least 400 percent more strain than polycrystalline materials and make it possible to produce significantly smaller actuators while maintaining the same performance. Burleigh proposes to develop new design and assembly methods that that compensate for the higher strain and lower stiffness of single crystal PZT by using anisotropic composite material bonds, electrodes and interfaces. By using these anisotropic composite materials the internal stresses are minimized and the output efficiency maximized. At least these composite material concepts will be considered: (1) micro-machining (MEMS) thin arrays of support posts connected by flexible links, (2) mixing spherical particles with polymer adhesive prior to bonding, and (3) dicing thin disks from unidirectional composite rods. All these approaches have the same objective of maximizing the d33 stiffness and d31 yield strain. Practical manufacturing solutions will be investigated and identified. In the option phase, a single crystal PZT stack and flex- tensional amplifier will be designed and constructed, using the selected composite electrodes and bonds, and fully tested to characterize motion, creep, hysteresis, non-linearity, force, stiffness and resonant frequency.

IMAGE ACOUSTICS, INC.
97 Elm Street
Cohasset, MA 02025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 383-2002
Dr. John L. Butler
NAVY 99-019
Title:Actuators and Transducers from Single Crystal Piezoelectric Materials
Abstract:An innovative acoustic transducer/actuator using a single crystal piezoelectric driver will be developed. Single crystal piezoelectric materials such as PZN-4.5%PT are capable of near linear strains greater than 0.5% and a coupling coefficient as great as 92% allowing high output over a broad bandwidth. Accordingly, there is a desire to develop a transducer and/or actuator that capitalizes on these properties. Although large scale manufacturing of this material is not fully developed at this time, small sized pieces in small quantities are currently available. Because of this and because of the high cost of the small pieces, we have chosen a configuration that will allow both high displacement actuator and acoustic transducer operation with a minimum of adverse effects on the coupling coefficient. The design is based on U. S. Patent 4,845,688 and uses stiff lever arms to magnify the displacement without significant bending, which can reduce the coupling coefficient. With this design only small quantities of the single crystal should be needed to attain a high-output broad bandwidth acoustic transducer. We plan to develop a finite element model of the design and fabricate a laboratory model using single crystal material.

WILCOXON RESEARCH, INC.
21 Firstfield Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 947-7964
Paul A. Wlodkowski
NAVY 99-019
Title:Development of Mesoscale, Piezoelectric Single Crystal-Based Accelerometers
Abstract:The advent of single crystal piezoelectric materials is destined to have significant ramifications for the vibration instrumentation industry. Wilcoxon Research, Inc. believes, however, that one of the most promising and direct paths to commercialization is through the development of miniature, high sensitivity accelerometers. Moreover, miniature accelerometers will have overall physical dimensions in the mesoscale range, obviating the requirement of growing large diameter (> 1 cm) crystals. Wilcoxon Research, Inc. hereby proposes to demonstrate a miniature accelerometer design and prototype fabrication that makes use of piezoelectric single crystals with high electromechanical coupling. One of the major advantages of this new technology is the ability to significantly decrease the size of the sensor while maintaining the same performance when compared to conventional PZT based sensors. Due to the smaller size and unique packaging, the production cost for single crystal- based sensors has the potential of being much less than PZT sensors. Its use in embedded sensing applications, throughout the military and private sector, is expected to be widespread.

HOOD TECHNOLOGY CORP.
1750 Country Club Road
Hood River, OR 97031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 387-2288
Andreas von Flotow
NAVY 99-020
Title:High Cycle Fatigue Control Using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)
Abstract:This project will study the feasibility of using MEMS fabrication technology to replace classical mechanical actuators we are currenty using for active control of High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) in gas turbine rotor blades. Left unchecked, this flexing of the rotor blades can lead to blade and engine failure By modifying the stator wakes with deployable actuators, we are able to greatly reduce rotor blade vibration. Prototype actuators have been 1/2 mm tall bumps fastened to the stator blades. These bumps must be deployable, varying their deployment with engine RPM. The existence of MEMS technology provides a potentially versatile solution, which may enable us to reduce the drag cost of wake modification. Hood Technology is currently engaged in a NAVAIR-sponsored project to demonstrate such active control of HCF in an Air Force test rig. We hope to use the MEMS actuators we propose to build under this project, in this parallel demonstration.

ADROIT SYSTEMS, INC.
411 108th Ave. NE Suite 1080
Bellevue, WA 98004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 450-3930
Mr. Erik Christofferson
NAVY 99-021
Title:Advanced Fuel Additives for PDEs
Abstract:The development of a fuel additive that enhances the detonability of current missile fuels qualified for Naval missiles may enable the full potential of the PDE to be reached. Additives which increase energy density, allow for fuel cooling, enchance atomization and mixing, and decrease initiation requirements are the focus of this effort.

CSA ENGINEERING
2565 Leghorn St.
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Dr. Eric Anderson
NAVY 99-022
Title:Magnetostrictive-Piezoelectric Resonant (MPR) Stand Alone Pump
Abstract:The innovation and the resulting opportunity proposed here involves taking advantage of the increased reliability of solid state smart material actuators, coupled together with optimized electrical circuitry performance, to yield a highly efficient, compact standalone positive displacement pump. Specifically, it is proposed that piezo-electric and magnetostrictive smart material actuators based pumps be designed so that the capacitive and inductive natures of the smart materials are also properly harnessed and phased to yield a electrically resonant circuit for greater system efficiency. The benefit of this would be reduced power requirements, smaller power amplifiers, reduced heat dissipation, and in general a smaller, lighter, more affordable standalone pump system. Use of the solid state smart materials also helps increase system simplicity and reliability. While specifically focused on the dual use of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric actuators to create a more efficient total pump system, there is a great deal of freedom left to consider a wide range of specific pump types.

LAYERED MANUFACTURING, INC.
101A Phelps Ave.
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 445-7031
Bahram Jadidian
NAVY 99-022
Title:High Authority strain and force Piezoelectric Oval Actuator Driven Pump
Abstract:The fabrication of a new generation of high authority strain and force piezoelectric actuator driven pump is proposed. The pump comprises of a pump housing, a suction valve, a delivery valve, a liquid chamber communicating to the suction and delivery ports, and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the outer surface of a vibrating plate for closing the liquid chamber. This pump offers a new generation of high frequency and high strain piezoelectric actuator which vibrates due to the application of an AC voltage. The actuator is designed using a CAD based program and fabricated directly from the Cad file using layered manufacturing process. In this process, the Fused Deposition of Ceramic (FDC) technology will be used. In this method, the actuator is fabricated by depositing PZT powder loaded thermoplastic polymer, layer by layer, along a predefined tool path which is controlled by a computer. After binder removal, sintering, electroding, and poling, the device produces large strain under the application of an electric field.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0819
Mark Harris
NAVY 99-023
Title:Modular Rail Enclosure
Abstract:Traditional power electronics has evolved an ad-hoc packaging scheme. This, along with its challenging packaging requirements has tended to keep power electronic costs high and reliability low. The Power Electronic Building Block program has sponsored work in modular Power Electronics at various levels. One of these efforts is the Coordinated Interconnect System (CIS). The CIS is based on a cellular power bus that is simply interconnected by an array of clipped tabs at the cell perimeter. The proposed effort is to develop a modular enclosure system based on the CIS that will enable inverter designers to create custom drawers and cabinets from standard parts. The primary effort in phase one is to develop a detail design of the 'rails' for the modular enclosure, develop a low insertion force connector for the power tabs and do an overall study of the various support components for the Modular Rail Enclosure (MRE).

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
500 Office Center DriveSuite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Thomas Cassin
NAVY 99-024
Title:Nondestructive Evaluation of Composite Core Structures (MSC P0B16-901)
Abstract:Multifunctional cored composites have created the opportunity to design lighter, environmentally resistant and stealthier structures for use in the topside Navy. Typical multilayer applications, such as for the AEM/S, LPD 17 and DD21 platforms have challenged both the structural designer in defining what constitutes a critical structural anomaly, and the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) engineer to find where that critical flaw has occurred. Traditional techniques have had limited success in detecting and quantifying these structural anomalies and providing a cost-effective, timely approach to inspecting very large areas of structure. This proposal will address both of these issues. The innovation and opportunity offered in this proposal is to assemble a diverse team of material developers, composite designers, and nondestructive inspection technology experts into an Integrated Product Team (IPT) for the purpose of developing a solution that will address several levels of topside NDE simultaneously. We are proposing to change the paradigm of NDE in topside structures to allow for the definition, a priori, of quantifiable damage in composite materials. This will allow for the real time disposition of a composite structure, and provide to the Naval community a methodology and suite of inspection capabilities to maintain composite materials in the fleet.

TRILION QUALITY SYSTEMS LLC
241 Atlee Road
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 659-5363
John Tyson II
NAVY 99-024
Title:Shearography NDE of Composite Core Structures
Abstract:The Phase I program proposed will demonstrate the feasibility of using shearography to rapidly and effectively inspect the Navy's multi-layered composite core structures for critical defects that effect the integrity and/or performance of these structures. These advanced composite structures are used on ship board for superstructures and hulls, as well as for primary structure on naval aircraft. These materials provide high strength to weight ratios and signature reduction as long as no critical defects are present. Speckle interferometry, using the shearography method, has been successfully used for these inspections. The TQS proposed system will incorporate advances in the technology that will provide the capabilities desired, with a direct route to commercialization.

MOBERG RESEARCH, INC.
124 S. Maple Way
Ambler, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 283-0860
Richard Moberg
NAVY 99-025
Title:Medical Data Fusion Watchboard
Abstract:The overall goal of the project is to design and develop an interactive display system (a Watchboard) which integrates real- time information from a variety of sources. The Watchboard is used to track casualty movement, optimize utilization of resources, and enhance medical decision-making. The Watchboard would be an integral component of a medical information system designed to reduce combat related mortality. The computer science and multimedia capabilities of Moberg Research, Inc. will be combined in this project to produce and easy-to-use, interactive Watchboard. A feature of the Watchboard is the presentation of an increasing level of detailed information as one proceeds through the graphical "layers" of the Watchboard. Thus, part of the Phase I effort is a classification of information using object oriented techniques and the linking of object attributes to the various layers. A proof of concept prototype will be built to demonstrate these characteristics.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Annette Myjak
NAVY 99-025
Title:MedStat: A Web-based Medical Data Fusion Watchboard
Abstract:Modus Operandi, Inc. (MO) enthusiastically proposes MedStat: a Web-based Medical Data Fusion Watchboard. MedStat uses an innovative, unique combination of proven data visualization, internet, and agent technologies to provide casualty information. Our web-based solution takes advantage of the human ability to easily comprehend large, complex data sets when information is presented graphically, while leveraging existing efforts by the military medical community to create a shared medical data environment. The end result is a medical information technology that is small, mobile, flexible, and rapidly deployed to meet today's operational needs. With MedStat, a variety of watchboards can easily be created to support the information and decision making needs of many users: the nurse or physician monitoring one or several patients; the facility commander assessing the status of a medical treatment facility; or a shipboard medical command and control center theater-wide resource allocation. MedStat provides rapid assessment and casualty tracking capabilities - to anyone, anytime, anywhere.

SCENPRO, INC.
101 West Renner RoadSuite 170
Richardson, TX 75082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) /43-7500
Michael Gately
NAVY 99-025
Title:Real-Time/Predictive Medical Data Fusion Watchboard
Abstract:We propose to develop a Real-time/Predictive Medical Data Fusion Watchboard to enhance the medical care and readiness of a medical treatment facility by allowing medical care providers, support personnel and remote command staff to rapidly visualize and assess the tactical medical situation. The system will gather, fuse and display casualty related data on a watchboard. This will include patient status, patient location, en-route patients, space utilization, staff utilization, equipment status, and supply status. The tool will gather data from a variety of sources, including the Internet, and on-line databases. The system will include a predictive casualty management simulation and capture and record all data generated during a medical incident or exercise. Thus the system will also be usable for medical training activities and after-action reviews.

VIASAT
2290 Cosmos Ct.
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 635-9933
Kathleen Wetherby
NAVY 99-025
Title:Medical Data Fusion Watchboard
Abstract:Situational Awareness can mean the difference between success and failure in a conflict. It can also be the difference between life and death for a casualty in that conflict. The ViaSat MediWatch system is a medical data fusion watchboard designed to allow the user the greatest access to data, at the most appropriate level of detail, in a format that allows the fastest perception, so that awareness of the present situation can be maximized. This proposal describes the Graphical Interface For Information Cognition (GIFIC) display paradigm, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the robust software architecture employed here to create the MediWatch system. This system will benefit greatly from other synergistic programs that have or are presently taking place within ViaSat and the GIFIC Corp.

APTIMA, INC.
300 West Cummings ParkSuite 3050
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Donna L. Anastasi
NAVY 99-026
Title:A Case Resource for Cognitive Task Analysis
Abstract:Detailed cognitive task analysis (CTA) is an invaluable tool for system design, but it is extremely resource intensive and often the results are not transferable to other design projects. There are virtually no commercial tools to support CTA, and no methods or repositories for disseminating the results. We propose to develop a convenient computer-based resource for amassing, storing, and retrieving results and methods from CTA and other task analyses using a fresh, innovative, practical approach focused on user needs. Versatility and expandability are key features of the approach. We are not committed to any one approach to task analysis, but plan to create a flexible tool. Our schema for storing and retrieving information will be driven by the needs of the users (project managers, system designers, and CTA specialists). Extensive user interviews are a key feature of Phase I. We propose to use Latent Semantic Indexing as a powerful, practical, cost-effective means for storing and retrieving information. The case resource tool will be expandable, serving a community of users who contribute to its growth. Our interdisciplinary project team combines real world experience in applying a variety of task analysis techniques with state-of-the-art expertise in database indexing and retrieval technology.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd., N.
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Gary Klein, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-026
Title:Supporting CTA Practices and Products: A Case Resource Tool
Abstract:The number and diversity of Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) methods has grown rapidly over the past decade and continues to expand. A NATO-ONR workshop held in 1997 identified a number of issues that need to be addressed for continued growth and advancement of the CTA field. Among the needs identified is a resource that provides convenient, effective access to CTA practices and products, and access to examples of CTA. The Phase I SBIR proposed here would begin to develop that resource. Critically important to the success of such a resource will be to identify an overarching structure and set of indexing dimensions that are meaningful and valid for a range of users. We will work with CTA specialists and prospective users of the tool to identify and develop these elements, building functionality, case content and structure, representation formats, and search and retrieval processes designed around their information needs.

LOGOBOTS LLC
60 E 32nd Street, #203
Chicago, IL 60616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 836-0497
Dr. Narayan P. Murarka
NAVY 99-027
Title:Intelligent Agent-Based SSCGFs
Abstract:One of the open research issues in the incorporation of battlefield stressors into CGF technology, involves the interaction of the external stressors with the personality characteristics of the individual war fighter. Further complicating this issue is the fact that the personality traits of an individual are influenced by the personality traits and the actions of other individuals (both friends and foes). Capturing this aspect within CGF technology is essential for producing realistic behaviors. In addition, these complex interactions must be represented across a range of stressor types in an efficient and user-friendly manner. "Emergent" simulations enabled by autonomous agents can be used to address this deficiency in CGF technology. Complex global behaviors of a group of agents can result from simple local interactions of these agents. Such a framework would be robust since it does not rely on rigidly scripted rules. It would also be more realistic since the interactions of agents could result in unpredictable behavior much like on the battlefield. We propose to develop one such autonomous agent model using a mathematical optimization approach which lends itself to the formulation of objective and constraint functions which can represent a wide variety of stressor models.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4216
Dr. James Dill
NAVY 99-028
Title:Electric Actuator Prognostics System Development
Abstract:In this project, Foster-Miller will evaluate the likely failure modes, and the sensor and electrical signals available in the systems controllers for performing diagnostics evaluations on advanced aircraft electric actuation systems. An overall concept will be developed for a prognostics system for the electrical control and actuation systems on a More Electric Aircraft. This concept will include use of existing sensors, controller signals, and power draw signatures for prognostics. Methods for isolating the prognostics system from EMI produced by the actuators and other aircraft systems will also be investigated. Any additional sensors that may be needed for detecting specific critical failure modes will be defined. The applicability of smart sensor technology to this application will be evaluated. As part of this effort, nonlinear phase space reconstruction techniques that have been developed for vibration control and diagnostics on Navy helicopters will be investigated for their ability to define the operating regime of the aircraft and the actuator system. The ability of these techniques and other nonlinear instrument analysis techniques to provide prognostic information relative to actuator health will also be evaluated. Data on actual electromechanical actuation systems will be obtained from Sundstrand Aerospace for the feasibility evaluation.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Center Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-5530
Mr. Joel Bock
NAVY 99-028
Title:Prognostic Development Tools for Electric Actuation Systems
Abstract:New advances in electric motor technology coupled with dramatic reductions in life-cycle costs and weight have driven aircraft designers to incorporate new electric-powered actuation devices into their near-term designs. The failure of these electromechanical actuator (EMA) components is expected, but difficult to predict. Worst-case EMA failures can have tragic results, so detecting failure before it occurs is highly desirable. By analyzing both electrical modes, plus performance parameters of an operating EMA, one can determine the extent of degradation without adding additional sensors or requiring dismantling the EMA and performing a detailed inspection of its components. This "condition-based" maintenance will result in large cost savings by extending the useful life of mechanical components, extending normal maintenance cycles, and safeguarding against premature component failure. ORINCON proposes to develop a prognostic algorithm development system for automated detection and prediction of faults in an operating EMA. Our EMA Health Diagnostic (EHD) toolkit system uses advanced spectral estimation techniques, model-based condition algorithms, data fusion, and neural network processing to detect mechanical flaws and predict failures. The proposed system will enable advanced prognostic algorithm development based on operational EMA data using ORINCON's advanced spectral estimation techniques, neural net processing, and multisensor fusion.

ATHENA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 331-1051
Ben Motazed, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-029
Title:Fault-Tolerant Control for Multiple Correlated Failures
Abstract:This effort will develop fault- and damage-tolerant control for improving air vehicle survivability through identification of and recovery from multiple correlated failures of hardware redundant flight control sensors and actuators. The proposed concept builds on Athena's Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) technology, with proven demonstration in flight, real-time detection of single sensor and actuator failures. Athena's FTC achieves fault tolerance through analytic redundancy. The principles are based on deterministic non-linear control concepts and physical system dynamics, rather than genetic learning methods. The system model and failure detection filters are used to estimate the behavior of sensors and actuators, and compared to real measurements as the discriminating voting element. The proposed concept will resolve the ambiguity with multiple correlated hardware failures, while assuring stable and controllable authority throughout the flight envelope. Athena's elegant FTC implementation will enable an economical augmentation path onto current flight control systems. Subsonic air vehicles, whether strike system or commercial aircraft, are among the most vulnerable to man- portable air defense systems. The trend toward expensive survivability measures continues to strain diminishing defense budgets. Lower cost survivability options as those proposed here, are necessary to reverse this trend and assure maturation of an emerging generation of flight control systems.

CONDUCTING MATERIALS CORP.
6935, Oakland Mills Road,Suite, 'D'
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 312-5200
V.R.PaiVerneker, Ph.D. (M
NAVY 99-030
Title:Use of Electric field or microwaves in control of rate and magnitude of energy release from energetic materials
Abstract:A need exists for an energetic material whose energy release rate and magnitude can be controlled so that it can provide either high internal blast or high metal acceleration or a muted output. This material is needed in conjunction with an adaptable ordnance technology program intended to develop a single package capable of producing multiple kill mechanism. Conducting Materials Corp. (CMC) has experience in increasing the burn rate of a solid composite propellant by subjecting it to an external stimuli. In this proposal, CMC proposes to control the burn rate and the magnitude of a prefabricated energetic material by using this technology and tailoring the external stimulus. This will be the objective during Phase I. In Phase II, CMC will apply this to an energetic material propellant of Navy's choice and tailor the variable output

CUSTOM ANALYTICAL ENGINEERING SYS.
13000 Tensor Lane, N.E.
Flintstone, MD 21530
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 722-2013
Amos Alexander
NAVY 99-031
Title:Multi-Mission Rigid Penetrator Warhead
Abstract:The objectives of this proposed Phase I SBIR effort are to develop the deign methods, manufacturing approaches, and establish preliminary performance estimates for a warhead consisting of multiple rigid penetrator segments that can be selectively deployed as a single monolythic penetrator, a column of separated penetrator sections, or a dispersed distribution of rigid penetrator segments. The effort involves analyses and design activities aimed at developing the warhead structure to achieve controlled variations in dispense patterns by sequencing and timing separation of penetrator segment packs along the length of the penetrator and by bursting each penetrator segment pack to impart a radial velocity to the individual segments. Successful development of this rigid penetrator warhead provides capability of achieving required effectiveness against a broader spectrum of targets using a single warhead, and offers the potential for selecting or altering the warhead deployment configuration to maximize its effectiveness against a specific target that may be encountered while in flight.

BLAZETECH
24 Thorndike Street
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-0700
Dr. N. Albert Moussa
NAVY 99-032
Title:Prediction of Structural Response to Fragmentation/Blast/Firestarting Effects
Abstract:We will develop engineering models for the structural response of kill mechanisms such as multi-fragment impacts, internal blast, and fire when acting separately or in combinations. The project scope will cover a number of conventional and advanced weapons and surface targets such as vehicles, buildings, and other equipment. Particular emphasis will be placed on the synergy between various kill mechanisms. The approach will cover a review test data and models from the literature, the development semi- empirical correlations of these data, and the development of first principles based model that improve on and complement what is in the literature. The test data will be used to guide the model development and validate the predictions. The models will enable the design of critical tests; the improvement of test data interpretation, the accurate extrapolation from tested conditions to new situations; and the effective design of new weapon concepts. The models would benefit the tri-services communities concerned with weapon development, munition lethality, and target vulnerability/survivability. The benefits will include reduce costs and schedules for R&D, testing, and new weapon systems.

3DI (FORMERLY EARTH INFO SYS. CORP)
201 S College Ave., Suite 300
Ft. Collins, CO 80524
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 472-9000
Philip A. Davis
NAVY 99-034
Title:Intrinsic Earth Surface Material Classifier
Abstract:Currently, surface material classification is performed by manual interpretation of various enhanced images that accentuate local differences. This procedure requires analysts with in-depth knowledge of the surface and a great deal of time. The overall objective of this Phase I project is to develop an implementation plan for development of a nearly autonomous, reliable PC-based surface material classifier for visible to microwave wavelength image data. Project tasks include: (1) Develop a surface material classification scheme that is indexed to existing standard terrain attribution systems based on the abundance and importance of surface materials; (2) Establish the intrinsic properties of these materials (and typical values) that can be obtained from remote sensing data; (3) Define parameters and radiometric models that can produce surface intrinsic properties from recorded surface signals considering variable image acquisition conditions; and (4) Devise a quantitative measure of uncertainty associated with the determination of each surface element's identity. These tasks will be accomplished by leveraging our knowledge, expertise, and algorithms from 20 years of research and applications in terrain analysis and classification and from our collaborations with a number research organizations. This technology will be exported to numerous commercial applications, some of which do not yet exist.

AER, INC.
840 Memorial Drive
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 547-6207
Shelley Petroy
NAVY 99-034
Title:Intrinsic Earth Surface Material Classifier
Abstract:Sensor developers require the capability to easily generate scenes used to test sensor designs. As with model atmospheres used by MODTRAN/MOSART, the community recognized the need for model terrain materials with full optical/thermal specifications. This database would give users the ability to create realistic surfaces, complete with expected spectral responses at other wavelengths and environmental conditions. We propose to develop the underlying database(s) and software to use in conjunction with multiple radiative transfer models; thereby providing an enhanced surface rendering tool for simulation packages. Included will be a reclassification scheme of standard land surface types for the earth based on the abundance/importance and intrinsic physical properties. The baseline for the Master DB will be the IGBP/MODIS/NPOESS schemes. Overlying this database will be a software module that will allow the user to reclassify categories as needed or select specific categories or groups of categories. The Standard Surface Material Classifier Software will then create a dynamic, overlying Terrain Materials Database. This information is passed to surface rendering model(s) selected by the user. Surface-specific BRDF's will be calculated, if required by the selected Radiative Transfer Model(s). The user will also be able to specify viewing/illumination geometry and vary some environmental parameters.

ATEC, INC.
5575 Sterrett Place, Suite 260
Columbia, MD 21044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 715-9222
Tod A. Myrum, Ph.D., P.E.
NAVY 99-035
Title:EHD Enhanced Liquid/Air Carbon-Fiber Heat Exchanger
Abstract:Advanced Thermal and Environmental Concepts (ATEC) Inc. in collaboration with Refractory Composites Inc. (RCI) propose to develop an EHD- enhanced carbon-fiber heat exchanger that can demonstrate heat transfer enhancements substantially beyond the range of conventional technology for air/liquid compact heat exchangers of significance to the AAAV program. Phase I effort will quantify the potential for substantial size/weight savings and/or performance improvement, relative to the state-of-the art technology, for EHD-enhanced air/liquid heat exchangers of interest to the AAAV program. Evaluation will capitalize on the proposers team's extensive technical know-how and experience with EHD-enhanced heat transfer and carbon-fiber composites and will employ a combination of computations and experiments to identify the best candidate(s) application for the AAAV program. Technical obstacles associated with using an EHD-enhanced carbon-fiber-composite heat exchanger for AAAV uses, such as corrosion and/or erosion and EHD-induced working fluid decomposition, electromagnetic interference, and power conditioning and/or requirement problems, will be studied. While Phase I will demonstrate the technology in laboratory-scale test modules, it will provide the design information for full scale testing of the heat exchanger in Phase II and commercialization of the technology in Phase III of the effort.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4277
Thomas Lovell
NAVY 99-035
Title:Innovative Composite Heat Exchanger Technology Enhanced by Electrohydrodynamics
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes development of an ultra-compact composite radiator design capable of operating in both land and sea environments at temperatures in excess of 250*F. Foster-Miller's design will attain equivalent efficiencies to the best metallic radiators at 1/2 to 1/5th of the volume. We will employ electrohydrodynamics (EHD) to dramatically improve the heat transfer coefficient of air. EHD, combined with our experience in composite materials, electronics industry conductor technology and aerospace industry corrosion resistant coatings, will enable critical cooling system weight reductions for the next generation of assault vehicles. The Phase I program will demonstrate several of the critical fabrication techniques needed to implement the EHD concept on the AAAV main coolant heat exchangers. Foster-Miller will work with team partners, General Dynamics Amphibious Systems (GDAS) and Land Systems (GDLS), to identify the performance requirements. Foster-Miller will utilize experimental techniques to develop the EHD parameters for ultra-compact cross flow heat exchangers. The base program will fabricate a representative cross flow heat exchanger core segment to be tested in the option. A manufacturing plan for demonstrating a cost effective EHD heat exchanger core of robust construction will be recommended at the end of the Phase I base program for implementation in Phase II.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Ave.
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
NAVY 99-036
Title:Low Cost Navigator Based on Microelectromechanical (MEM) Sensors
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to design, fabricate, and evaluate a low cost, low size and weight navigator. This navigator utilizes state-of-the-art multiple microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors and optimal filtering technology to achieve high precision navigation accuracy. Recently, a great deal of advancement has been obtained in manufacturing processes that allow the monolithic integration of MEMS sensors with driving, controlling, and signal processing electronics. This integration promises to improve the performance of micromechanical devices as well as reduce the cost of manufacturing and packaging. Several innovative technical approaches are proposed in this Phase I project for the design and fabrication of the multiple MEMS sensors navigator. These approaches are: modeling and high fidelity simulation of the MEMS sensors, electronic filter design, sensor configuration and sensor optimal estimation, and using zero-velocity updating to enhance navigation accuracy. This high precision, new concept design navigator will find big commercial applications in marine navigation, automotive navigation, pleasure, and military sectors.

ARETE ASSOC.
333 North WilmotSuite 450
Tucson, AZ 85711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Brian Redman
NAVY 99-037
Title:Real-Time Obstacle Detection Using a Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR (STIL)
Abstract:Grazing incidence LIDAR has been demonstrated for detection of shallow objects at significant standoff ranges. Practical application of this technique for collision avoidance requires development and integration of a compact, rugged configuration that can provide high resolution imaging over a wide swath from a maneuvering platform, with sufficient standoff range to allow the operator to avoid the detected obstacle. Arete Associates has developed a novel 3-D Imaging LIDAR system, the Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR (STIL) which can provide high resolution imaging at significant standoff ranges. The patented STIL approach is based on application of mature technologies, and has been demonstrated in the laboratory, ship-based experiments, and airborne demonstrations. STIL uses fan beam illumination, push broom imaging, and electrostatic sweep to generate high resolution images with no moving parts, yielding a rugged compact configuration for vehicle integration. Arete proposes to directly demonstrate STIL for obstacle detection at near grazing incidence by adapting and utilizing existing, proven hardware for a cost-effective Phase I concept validation. Prototype system development will follow in Phase II, and include detailed design, fabrication, integration, and demonstration of a deployable configuration for vehicle mounted obstacle detection.

GORCA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
300 West Route 38
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 273-8200
Dr. Marc Olivieri
NAVY 99-037
Title:Marine Collision Avoidance Sonar
Abstract:A low-cost, lightweight, stealthy broadband acoustic sensor is proposed to achieve surface and subsurface obstacle avoidance (no-compromise) for Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicles (AAAV). The Marine Collision Avoidance Sonar (MARCAS) is based on a small size, retractable sparse planar array using a minimal number of commercial off-the-shelf transducers. The MARCAS provides both high vertical and high horizontal resolution over a wide aperture to provide AAAVs' drivers with WideViewTM detection without any moving parts. WideViewTM is important because drivers must make navigation decisions not only based on forward obstacles but also on potential obstacles on either side (similar to changing lanes on a highway). Thanks to the high vertical angular resolution and because of shallow water operation, the MARCAS will discern direct-paths from multipaths (reverberation) and differentiate obstacles above and below the 20-foot "safety-depth". Finally, the MARCAS is stealthy because it uses GORCA Technologies' proprietary concept, BiopulseTM, which is coded copies of naturally occurring biological transient pulses such as shrimp sounds. The broadband frequency content of these coded pulses drastically limits shallow water propagation interference and allows detection over a range of 400m. This distance represents the "safety cushion" that gives the AAAV driver approximately 30 seconds to avoid obstacles.

ARMORWORKS, INC.
1701 W. 10th Street #5
Tempe, AZ 85281
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 517-1150
William J. Perciballi
NAVY 99-039
Title:AAAV Multi-Threat Armor System
Abstract:This proposal describes an SBIR Phase I program that identifies a candidate AAAV armor system and provides design rationale for its performance advantages. Ceramic and composite armor technologies are discussed and design guidelines are explained using ballistic data to substantiate performance claims. Ceramic facing materials and composite backing materials are combined using innovative construction methods to meet the AAAV armor weight goal of 17.0 lb/ft2. Armor materials and construction details are discussed and quantified using ballistic data. A ballistic test plan is presented, along with phased program objectives, to demonstrate that AAAV armor weight, protection level, and multi-hit performance requirements are met.

CERADYNE, INC.
3169 Red Hill Avenue
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 549-0421
John P. Bird
NAVY 99-039
Title:Lightweight Armor Solution Proposal I
Abstract:A program is proposed to provide a lightweight, environmentally rugged, readily producile, low cost, modular solution to the armor requirements of the AAAV (Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle). This effort builds upon the known technology of the vehicle's current armor solution. By iteration into higher performing materials and through a build and test validation sequence, a demonstration of the required ballistic/weight performance is planned. The program involves a unique combination of highly experienced organizations and individuals who bring to bear state-of-the-art technology in ceramic materials, armor design, penetration mechanics phenomena understanding, and validation methodology. Finally, the Phase I report will include a thorough cost/weight reduction benefit analysis enabling the customer to make informed decisions regarding the utilization of alternate improved materials for AAAV armor.

PRINCETON POLYMER LABORATORIES
521 Lehigh Ave
Union, NJ 07083
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 687-7033
E. Allan Blair
NAVY 99-040
Title:Expedient Foam Technologies for Marine Corps Operations
Abstract:The objective of this project is to demonstrate the capability and affordability of rigid polyurethane foams (RPF) as an expedient construction material to improve operational capability of Marine Corps units conducting expeditionary operations. The function of this material is to fill gaps or crossings, serve as a barrier or channeling material, and stabilize beaches and marshes. It will serve the function of concrete or asphalt, but it requires less material, and is easier to mix and apply. In Phase I, we propose to develop the technical specifications for the material, develop a RPF meeting those specifications, and develop a prototype machine for dispensing and mixing the ingredients to make the RPF. With this machine, we will demonstrate our ability to make the RPF meeting the specifications of the project and will prepare a quantity of product RPF for evaluation by the client agency. In Phase II, we will modify the specifications of the RPF if necessary, based on the client agency's evaluation of the product from Phase I, develop a full scale machine for field application of large amounts of the RPF that we developed in Phase I, and will carry out a field demonstration of the apparatus and material.

ADVANCED REFRACTORY TECHNOLOGIES, I
699 Hertel Ave.Suite 290
Buffalo, NY 14207
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 875-4091
Richard Hexemer
NAVY 99-042
Title:Development and Implementation of a Lightweight/Durable Aluminum MMC Track System for the AAAV
Abstract:Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc (ART) is currently proposing the Development and Implementation of a Lightweight/Durable Aluminum MMC Track System for the AAAV. ART, teaming with Keweenaw Research Center (KRC) at Michigan Technological University is in an excellent position to supply an track system which meets the AAAV program office needs. ART is currently in the final stages of completing a lightweight MMC track system design (52 pounds/ft) for the M2 Bradley. It will be a direct replacement for their current T157I track system, but with a weight reduction of 25% and a doubling of track life (6000 miles). Shoe strength and wear are significantly enhanced utilizing selective SiC whisker reinforcement and high pressure squeeze casting. Shoe life is enhanced through improved shoe design and rubber components. It is proposed to leverage the technology and track design developed under this program to optimize a track system for the AAAV. Both single and double-pin track systems will be addressed to meet the weight requirements. This effort will commence by reviewing the requirements of the current track design and identifying changes/improvements which are not constrained by the AAAV. It is envisioned that the shoe body, track pins, track pad, and bushing sleeves can be lightened compared to the M2 track. Based on these considerations, the ART/KRC team feels confident that a track system can de developed in phase I and fabricated in Phase II meeting a 3000 mile track life, 42-45 pounds/ft weight (30% reduction compared to steel), and 21 inch width.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
500 Office Center DriveSuite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Anthony A. Caiazzo, P.E.
NAVY 99-042
Title:Development of Lightweight, Durable Composite Components for the AAAV (MSC P0A04-906)
Abstract:The Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV) program office has challenged the advanced materials community to develop durable and lightweight concepts for some of the aluminum and steel components of the vehicle. In this proposal, we have assembled an integrated product team (IPT) of design engineers that are familiar with the performance requirements of the AAAV, and design considerations and manufacturing techniques unique to fiber reinforced composite materials. The objectives of the proposed work is to develop a list of AAAV components where the application of composite materials could reduce the weight by at least 30% and to provide confidence that these materials can meet the durability requirements of the vehicle. To accomplish these objectives, the IPT will conduct preliminary design and manufacturing studies for candidate components and conduct laboratory evaluations of structural elements. The IPT approach proposed here is designed to reduce risk and facilitate transition of the advanced composite designs from concept and prototyping stages into implementation on the AAAV.

DE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3620 Horizon Drive
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 270-9700
William J. Clark
NAVY 99-043
Title:Armored Composite Ammunition Pressure Vessel
Abstract:We propose to develop an advanced ammunition container system that not only meets environmental and handling requirements but also provides armor protection against impacting threats and reduces the response of the stowed ammunition to an acceptable level when encountering an overmatched threat. The design of the ammunition boxes will be accomplished by an integration of advanced armor-system and composite rocket motor casing technologies. The integration of these two technologies is essential since both ballistic protection and containment of high pressure gases are simultaneously required for proper function of this component. The desired result of an overmatch threat engagement is to contain the stowed munition by preventing ejection from the container, while at the same time venting any gases to the exterior of the vehicle. There are three elements that must be addressed in the design effort; armor protection from external medium-level threats, containment of the reacting 30mm ammunition, and venting of overpressure gases. This increased protection of ammunition within the combat vehicle will improve the vehicle's ability to carry out its mission with a reduction in both the risk to the crew and the vulnerability of the system. This will also lead to satisfying IM specifications and vehicle survivability requirements.

STRATEGIC JOINT DESIGN INNOVATIONS
16 Via Belmonte
Rancho Santa Marg, CA 92688
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 589-6547
Steven Bishop
NAVY 99-043
Title:Titanium Sandwich Overpressurization Containment Ammunition Box
Abstract:This project will investigate the use of titanium sandwich panels for use on an overpressurization containment system. The manufacturing technique used will allow material to be added to the box in an efficient way and is cost effective. The joining method used is a one step process that creates no discernable change in material properties. It also has the advantage of allowing easy forming of contoured shapes. This lowers maximum pressure, allows incorporation of blast vents, accommodates a variety of interfaces, and allows a structurally efficient pressure resistant design. A series of parametric computer models will be used to analyze the maximum pressure and required vent activation pressure and cross-sectional area, after determination of the maximum credible incident for the AAAV box. A prototype cross-section test specimen will be manufactured to validate and demonstrate key features of the optimized design.

GINER, INC.
14 Spring Street
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 899-7270
Larry L. Swette
NAVY 99-044
Title:High Pressure, Electrochemical Oxygen System Trickle Charger
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is directed to development of a prototype oxygen generation system design capable of delivering oxygen at 2 to 4 ambient liters per minute and generated at a pressure level of 2500 psig to trickle- charge a storage source. The technology proposed is derived from the life-support oxygen generator system developed by the team of Giner, Inc. and Treadwell Corp. (Thomaston, CT) for the U.S. Navy's Seawolf Submarine. This high-pressure electrolyzer design, based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) to serve as an immobilized electrolyte and to separate the gases, will be modified as necessary to meet the requirements of a military aircraft application, specifically for trickle-charging a high- pressure gaseous oxygen supply. Trade-off studies will be performed on the current state-of-the-art in PEM electrolyzer technology and the conceptual design will consider material selection, size, weight, geometry, failure modes/effects, startup characteristics, safety and a performance assessment over aircraft altitude and temperature ranges. The Phase I goal will be to establish a conceptual design that meets all of the requirements for a full-scale, flight-test prototype 2500-psi Oxygen System Trickle Charger. The design process and trade-off studies will be based on in-house technology and supported by laboratory data from a working benchtop model.

ICET, INC.
916 Pleasant St., Unit 12
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-6064
Srinivasan Sarangapani
NAVY 99-044
Title:Electrochemical oxygen system for trickle charger
Abstract:Many types of military and commercial aircraft rely on the use of high-pressure oxygen cylinders to provide respiratory oxygen to crew members during emergency conditions. These cylinders require frequent replenishment to "top off" the oxygen gas lost during testing, inspection or use. Maintenance crews must refill cylinders on the ground. Cylinders are removed from the aircraft for refilling or are refilled in place using land based equipment. The procedures are time consuming, expensive and hazardous. There is a real danger of accidents and fire as a result of oxygen cylinder refilling. The overall goal of this program is to develop an aircraft oxygen generator for trickle-charging high-pressure gaseous oxygen supplies. The Phase I feasibility program will attempt to provide a conceptual design of the proposed system using a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) based electrochemical stack as oxygen generator. A bench-top model capable of generating oxygen at a rate of 1 liter per minute will be built and tested to provide performance data. A study of compressor technology that can meet the requirements of size, weight and input power for this application will be conducted and a conceptual design for aircraft system would be presented.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive, Suite 202
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 693-0017
Dr. Craig C. Andrews
NAVY 99-044
Title:On-Board Electrolyzer Based High-Pressure Oxygen Generator System for Aircrew Breathing Oxygen
Abstract:An available source of pure oxygen, usually in the form of high pressure oxygen gas in storage cylinders, is especially important for military aircraft crews. On-board generation of high- pressure oxygen gas can decrease the ground support requirements for military (and commercial) aircraft by reducing the need for high-pressure oxygen transfer cylinders. Following preflight validation and in-flight qualification, the proposed oxygen "trickle charger" may be used to automatically replace oxygen in storage cylinders that has been consumed by aircrew personnel and/or lost through system leaks. The use of a water electrolyzer system as a "trickle charger" is ideal since the oxygen is generated from easily obtained consumables (electricity and a small amount of water). Such a system may be arbitrarily cycled on and off, oxygen generation and pressurization is accomplished with a minimal number of moving components, and the system is essentially maintenance free. The proposed system is compatible with the rigors of flight, including altitude, temperature extremes, orientation, dynamic loading, and is fully capable of performing real-time on-board diagnostics. In addition, the system is compact, lightweight, reliable, has a relatively low electrical power demand, and requires no special handling. This Phase I project will result in the development and performance testing of a breadboard electrolyzer oxygen generation system having an output of 0.5 liters per minute at a pressure of 500 psi. The system will be tested at temperature extremes including starting from a frozen state. In preparation for the development of a high pressure system (2500 psi) in Phase II, critical design aspects will be addressed as part of the Phase I effort.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) /42-9330
Sam Boykin
NAVY 99-045
Title:Cost Estimating Model for Aircraft Weapons Integration
Abstract:Developers and planners are required to prioritize the development of technologies and systems relative to user needs. Designs for new sys-tems typically only exist at the conceptual level, yet trade studies musts be performed to assess cost and effectiveness, as well as overall affordability. As new systems become more sophisticated and automated, integration costs and test/certification costs become an ever increasing proportion of the total system cost as well as schedule drivers. Devel-opers and planners require a methodology and tool-set to not only esti- mate integration and test costs and their associated schedules; but, to conduct trades between the amount of sophistication/automation and the resulting integration/test costs and schedule to derive effective, af-fordable systems. This SBIR will modify an existing methodology that currently estimates system life-cycle affordability based on performance and operational re-quirements. The estimating tool developed during this research project will be based on an existing cost tool developed for the Air Force. The tool will be capable of operating separately or as a functional element of a more detailed model. The Phase I program will demonstrate feasi- bility of the approach, develop the top-level affordability relation-ships and provide a prototype. The Phase II program will fully develop the tool and validate its accuracy.

TECHNOMICS, INC.
5290 Overpass Rd #206
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 964-9894
John A. Horak
NAVY 99-045
Title:Aircraft Integration and Certification Cost Model
Abstract:This proposal address the development of an automated methodology that estimates the cost, both research and development as well as production, of aircraft integration and certification (i.e. an aircraft modification program). This automated tool will provide the capability to interact with aircraft design models to give a complete evaluation of the capabilities and affordability of aircraft modifications. The methodology that we are proposing will yield cost estimating relationships (CERs) that estimate the activities performed in the acquisition phase of an aircraft integration and certification program. The activities comprising an integration program include the development, production and installation of the hardware (i.e. Group A equipment), the development and/or modification of the software (e.g. electronic box integration and OFP)and the testing and certification of the hardware and software (i.e. the flight test program).

APPLIED SCIENCES, INC.
141 W. Xenia Ave. PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 766-2020
Ronald L. Jacobsen
NAVY 99-046
Title:Nanocomposite Applique Lightning Protection
Abstract:Applique containing a few percent carbon nanofiber additive can have excellent lightning strike protection while also having a very low electromagnetic cross section, making such appliques useful for aerospace assets with reduced signatures. The carbon nanofibers additive is relatively inexpensive, costing from $50 to $100 per pound depending on its form, or in other words a few dollars additional cost per pound for applique containing a few percent carbon nanofibers.

INTEGUMENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10 East Fourth StreetP.O. Box 507
Jamestown, NY 14702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 875-5597
Dr. Terrence G. Vargo
NAVY 99-046
Title:Lightning Strike Protection
Abstract:Naval and Marine Corps aircraft systems, subsystems, and components are typically designed to minimize failure due to severe lightning strikes. To minimize the effects of lightning strikes, the aircraft's exterior surface incorporates a copper mesh that is covered with an anti-static paint. This technology suffers from the high cost and difficulty of depainting and repairing damaged regions due to wear, tear, or corrosion. The depainting process is especially costly because it routinely damages the underlying copper mesh. A cost saving solution to the above problem is provided through the use of an environmentally stable, anti-corrosive polymeric/conducting metal composite appliques that can be readily applied via a peel and stick method. This proposal will demonstrate a composite applique that will consist of 1) a thin film of conducting polymer bonded to 2) an underlying low dielectric fluoropolymeric material bonded to 3) a thin film of copper metal that is 4) undercoated with an adhesive for application to metallic surfaces. This composite film is an excellent, cost savings candidate for paint replacement due to its inherent excellent thermal stability from -50 deg. C to +150 deg. C, resistance to chemical or physical corrosion, and low surface energy for reduced drag.

M. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
440 Horsham Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 322-3057
Dr. Phillip E. Whitley
NAVY 99-047
Title:Crew Centered Armament System for the Future (2025) Cockpit
Abstract:Technological advancements projected for the 2025 period will potentially give the pilot a substantial increase in targeting and weapons delivery capability. In addition to technology, the 2025 force structure, warfighting strategy, platform capability and platform mission roles form the framework in which force in employed in the future. This Phase 1 effort will produce a conceptual armament system based on the 2025 capabilities for head-mounted displays, sensors, information transfer, data fusion, avionics, stores management and release, and weaponry that concentrates on optimizing the "shooter" as the key factor in mission success.

AMERICAS PHENIX
121 Tennessee Ave, N.E.
Washington,, DC 20002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 546-7442
Marcio C. Duffles/Dr. Sta
NAVY 99-048
Title:Gas Turbine Hot Section Parts Innovative NDI Systems Research
Abstract:The Team of America's Phenix, Bayesian Systems and Gryphon Technologies proposes applying Bayes'Engine (TM) as an innovative non-destructive inspection (NDI) technique for increasing the number of successfully reworked gas turbine engine nozzle guide vane (NGV) segments. The proposed applications is based on the premise of consolidating available post-assembly (rework) data for the NGV segments on the Rolls Royce F402 and General Electric F404 engines that are reworked at the Naval Engine Airfoil Center (Cherry Point, NC). Bayes Theorem is the fundamental mathematical/logical principle governing the process of using logical inference or reasoning from available data to drawing a conclusion. Applying Bayes Theorem to the NGV segment rework process will account for all available relevant information (such as engine history, usage and maintenance data). Using this information and applying the Bayesian logic, the tool will develop probability curves for the possible outcomes at each available decision option. These curves, along with cost information, are input to a Decision Theory module which quantifies the associated risk in continuing the rework process (whether at the inception point or the end of the process) and recommends the optimal decision on whether to rework, continue rework or scrap the NGV segment.

BALES SCIENTIFIC, INC.
1620 TICE VALLEY BLVD.
WALNUT CREEK, CA 94595
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 945-0144
MAURICE BALES
NAVY 99-048
Title:INNOVATIVE GAS TURBINE COMPONENT INSPECTION AND THERMAL EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION USING IR IMAGING
Abstract:In an era of declining budgets, techniques that promote faster, cheaper and better performance without compromising reliability or safety are the most sought after by the aircraft industry. The large costs associated with maintenance of gas turbines is a primary motivator for evaluating methods to detect problems before and during service with the intention of extending the overall life of these systems. Efficient cooling is also a mandatory requirement and the complex cooling designs of hot section components have become an even more critical function of the proper operation of the engine. Traditional NDT techniques are labor intensive, sometimes lack quantification, may not be able to represent problems in 3D and in many cases cannot properly test these new and/or complicated geometries. In this Phase I effort, we propose using an infrared system in conjunction with controlled stimulation sources along with integrated hardware and software to more accurately and cost effectively determine the quality of cooling circuits in these advanced cooled components. Hot section components can be tested for defects such as blocked cooling holes and passages, incompletely drilled holes, delamination of bonded components and thermal barrier coating bond integrity in a more effective manner using level 1 operators at tremendous cost savings. By comparing each component to a standard that has been previously determined to be acceptable/good, discrepancies can be identified and all test results compared and archived. With constructive improvements during Phase II, this system will provide an automated, cost effective inspection of modern and future gas turbine hot section components.

HEATCON COMPOSITE SYSTEMS
600 Andover Park East
Seattle, WA 98188
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 939-0554
David Brewer
NAVY 99-049
Title:Heating System for Curing Composite Repairs on Complex-Shaped Structures
Abstract:Conventional composite repair technologies utilizing electrical heat blankets are generally limited to flat or near flat surfaces and not feasible for irregular shapes or double contoured surfaces. Currently a need exists in developing a new heating system that is capable of applying controlled heat to advance the curing of resin systems in the repair of complex shaped structures and larger areas. A new heating system capable of achieving higher temperature cures over a larger irregular geometry is proposed. The proposed tasks include evaluation of existing technology, design and analysis of prototype heating system, and performing a market search. Details of each task, related work and key personnel are described in the proposal. The result of these tasks will lead to development of a new heating system for the repair of U.S. Navy and commercial aircraft made of high temperature composites.

JONA GROUP
33 Laurie Boulevard
Bethpage, NY 11714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 935-2673
Ronald Rothchild
NAVY 99-049
Title:Portable Heating System for Uniformly Heating Arbitrarily Shaped Surfaces Having Non-Uniform Properties
Abstract:Repairs to composite structural parts on aircraft require cure by temperature cycling to precise specifications. The environment is not isothermal, and standard heat blankets applied to complex shapes have non-uniform heat transfer characteristics. The presence of metallic structure contiguous to the repair area makes heat capacity effectively non-uniform as well. Consequently there is a need for practical means to provide uniform temperature cycling of such parts in field repairs. Jona proposes to address this need with a system that independently measures temperature at multiple zones in a control grid over the repair area, and applies heat as required at each grid point to follow a specified cycle. Compensation for heat transfer coefficients and heat capacity that vary with position is automatic. Objectives of Phase I are: 1. Identify other, comparably demanding field applications and determine what technologies and/or components may be transferable to the current application. 2. Determine the minimum density of grid points with which temperature uniformity can be maintained within specifications. 3. Develop alternative approaches to the conceptual design stage for comparative evaluation. 4. Compare and rate the design alternatives against specifications and select one concept for development to the prototype stage.

CENTER FOR REMOTE SENSING, INC.
11350 Random Hills Rd.Suite 710
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 385-7717
Suman Ganguly
NAVY 99-050
Title:Microwave Detection of Corrosion
Abstract:Electromagnetic probes covering frequency bands of kHz to tens of GHz are known to detect corrosion, cracks, and flaws hidden under paint and other materials. These probes, however, are not uniquely responsive towards corrosion. The nonlinear response of the corrosion products could be easily combined with the microwave surface resistance measurement technique and an innovative system using combinations of these techniques is proposed. The handheld probe will provide realtime detection of corrosion hidden under paints and other materials, will be robust and will be able to discriminate corrosion from other flaws. During Phase I, we propose to perform laboratory experiments and numerical analysis to determine the optimized parameters. We provide a proof-of-concept demonstration and a plan for prototype construction.

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS TESTING TECHNO
1209 Northwestern Avenue
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 233-2458
Tianhe Ouyang
NAVY 99-050
Title:Travelling Magnetic Field Method for Detection of Aircraft Corrosion under Paint and Appliques
Abstract:Early detection of corrosion hidden by aircraft paint and appliques is a concern for ensuring minimum cost and a long service period for naval aircraft operation. Current aircraft corrosion nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are not sensitive enough to detect the earliest stages of the onset of corrosion. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the Travelling Magnetic Field Method (TMFM) for early detection of corrosion hidden by aircraft paint and appliques. The TMFM uses a novel combination of five techniques. They are highly sensitive IMTT-RF01 system; eddy-current resonance probe (ECRP); travelling magnetic wave (TMW) scanning system; giant magneto-resistance (GMR) element array, and artificial neural network (ANN). A TMFM probe will look like a large carpet that can be placed on top of the aircraft skin . A TMW is generated that moves along the X and Y directions. The ECRP makes the field extremely sensitive to samll variations in materials and geometry. The GMR element array picks up the signals. The IMTT-RF01 system amplifies the signals. The ANN provides signal analysis capabilities for defect classification and characterization. GMR field gradient sensors is used for lift-off compensation. Successful completion of the proposed research goals will result in a novel technique that will enable early detection of corrosion hidden by aircraft paint and appliques. The new technique is applicable to both military and civil aircraft.

SMRC (SYSTEMS & MATERIALS)
113 S. Cuernavaca
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-0822
Alan V. Bray
NAVY 99-050
Title:Coating/Microwave Interaction (C/MI) NDE
Abstract:Microwave NDE methods show promise in detecting corrosion under coatings, but have failed to demonstrate the senstivity to detect onset levels of corrosion, a requirement for aircraft inspection. To improve microwave NDE senstivity SMRC proposes to modify aircraft coatings, both paint and appliques, to reduce microwave return energy in the bands containng aluminum corrosion products. This coating-microwave interaction (C/MI) NDE innovation should improve microwave senstitivy to onset corrosion levels in aluminum, as demonstrated in similar tests at Sandia Labs using millimeter waves. Phase I paint modifications will include pigment re-blending using low microwave return constituents identified through materials characterization. Appliques provided by 3M Corporation will be tested in a variety of thickness and colors, and guidance for modifications will be developed via microwave characterization of applique base materials and pigments. Boeing's Electromagnetic Properties Laboratory will characterize coating materials and constituents, and conduct sensitivity testing of Phase I coated aluminum panels. Focused microwave NDE methods used at Boeing for aircraft windshield NDE will be explored for enhancing C/MI corrosion sensitivity. Coated corroded specimens will be prepared at Southwest Texas State University. Phase I includes a full C/MI NDE Navy cost model and commercialization planning for both DoD and commercial air NDE product introductions.

AIRTRAX CORP.
1830 Gallagher DriveSuite 104A
Vineland, NJ 08360
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 205-0890
Barney Harris
NAVY 99-051
Title:Airtrax Corporation Presents a Proposal to Develop the Multiple Purpose Mobility Platform
Abstract:Airtrax Corporation proposes to develop the Multiple Purpose Mobility Platform (MP)2 incorporating its own proprietary omni directional vehicle technology. Airtrax's approach is to review all pertinent performance requirements, perform analysis and design and prepare a final report during Phase I. Airtrax has been addressing the well known wheel vibration problem of all omni directional wheel types for the past two years with a proprietary combined analytical and empirical approach, and has made significant improvements. Airtrax intends on using its own off the shelf components to design the MP2 including wheel hub, shafts, bearings, and rollers, vehicle power and control system. Airtrax also maintains proprietary omni directional vehicle design software. The availability of these components, systems, and design software frees up resources to concentrate on minimizing wheel vibration.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
W. Dodd Stacy
NAVY 99-051
Title:Compact, Omni-Directional Materiel Handling System for Shipboard Applications
Abstract:Creare proposes to develop a compact and highly versatile system to move aviation support materiel safely and rapidly throughout shipboard spaces with a minimum of personnel. The self-powered materiel handling unit is reconfigurable on-the-fly and employs rubber-shod holonomic wheels and a hybrid electric drive system with onboard engine-generator set for operational flexibility. In Phase I, we will develop a preliminary design for a Multipurpose Mobility Platform (MP)2 through engineering design and trade studies to optimize the holonomic wheels and their drive and control, the power system, and the architecture of mission-specific structural adaptations. In Phase II, we will design, fabricate, and test a working prototype (MP)2, including shipboard testing.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Terry Cussen
NAVY 99-051
Title:Omnidirectional Transport Platform
Abstract:One of the most important elements contributing to the effectiveness and efficiency of Navy and Marine corps sea-based aviation support systems is the movement of aircraft components, munitions, and other aviation support materiel on the flight deck, hangar deck, and throughout the other spaces on the ship. On a typical large deck aircraft carrier, this function consumes many thousands of labor hours, ties up hundreds of personnel, and has hundreds of equipment items dedicated for this purpose. This project will begin the development of an Omnidirectional Transport Platform (OTP) to improve materiel transport throughout the aircraft carrier. This platform features powered, omnidirectional wheels, a remote control operator interface, and compatibility with existing lift and materiel transfer equipment such as engine lifts and munitions carriers. With Cybernet's background in the development of multi-axis robots, coordinated motor control, human-machine interface, and control electronics, we will focus on the omnidirectional wheel technology during the course of the Phase I effort, culminating in the creation of a prototype omnidirectional platform. This omnidirectional platform will demonstrate core technologies relevant to the development of a full scale Omnidirectional Transport Platform during the Phase II activity.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark CircleSuite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) /55-3068
James D. Trolinger, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-052
Title:A Hybrid Active/Passive Optical Avoidance System for Helicopters
Abstract:Low-flying aircraft such as helicopters are exposed to the danger of flying into suspended electrical and telephone cables. We propose a hybrid passive/active optical system that can detect and range thin cables, thereby enabling the prevention of potentially catastrophic accidents. Our system makes use of a (mid-wave infrared) sensitive CCD camera and sophisticated image processing software to passively detect suspended cables. Under some conditions, it is expected that an active source will be required for cable illumination, hence, the dual nature of our system. Cables are actively located by scanning the field-of-view with a laser beam, imaging the scattered light with the same CCD camera used in the passive system, and processing the data. In addition to being able to alert the pilot to the presence of a cable, the active system permits ranging so that the distance to the cable becomes known. Our system will be able to examine at least a 10-degree field-of-view and be able to detect a 1-cm diameter wire at a range of greater than 600 m in a time less than 1 second.

SVS R&D SYSTEMS, INC.
6207 Pan American Freeway NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 373-8859
Mark Gudaitis
NAVY 99-052
Title:Low Cost Obstacle Avoidance System
Abstract:A low cost obstacle avoidance system for low flying airborne platforms will be developed. This system contains a passive infrared camera, a ranging sensor, obstacle detection and identification algorithms, obstacle location, processor electronics, and an end-user interface. These are all off-the-shelf components (hardware and software) that have been used in commercial applications, making for a low cost system. The Infrared camera will have a wide field of regard to allow for wide area detection. The system will be capable of autonomously detecting objects as small as one centimeter in diameter (i.e. wires) at a range of at least 600 meters. It will operate in day/night and in all weather conditions. Height, width, and range of the obstacle is determined with minimal processing time to allow ample time for the pilot or crew to avoid the obstacle. An audio and visual alarm will be provided to the pilot or crew. Packaging for this system will be designed for a low risk and low cost retrofit to existing fixed and rotary wing aircraft. All the hardware will be designed to work in a military aircraft, meeting the vibration, temperature, EMI/EMP, and environmental conditions.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness AvenueSuite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(312) /21-2772
Dr. Lev Sadovnik
NAVY 99-052
Title:Helicopter Obstacle Visualization Radar System
Abstract:WaveBand Corporation (WaveBand) in collaboration with Marconi Astronics proposes to develop a helicopter obstacle-warning sensor capable of detecting power line wires (down to 1 cm in diameter) at a distance sufficient for a safety maneuver (not less than 600 m). Toward this goal, the Phase I project will establish the feasibility of the proposed sensor through: (1) Numerical modeling of the sensor performance including resolution, S/N and signal-to-clutter ratio; (2) Establishing detailed specification- and design- requirements of the sensor; (3) Experimental demonstration of the obstacle wire detection phenomenology. The proposed sensor, once developed, will provide all-weather day/night operation, plus a potential multifunctional capability of the imaging system that will include target mapping, navigation aid, and fire control. The sensor will be low in cost due to the use of our proprietary scanning technique, and to capitalizing on a growing commercial market for automotive and avionic obstacle detection sensors.

LEEOAT CO.
2631 Colibri Lane
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1439
Dr. Eli Wiener-Avnear
NAVY 99-053
Title:In-Line Fuel Sensor
Abstract:In Phase I of the program, LEEOAT Company will develop and optimize the design and fabrication strategy of a portable cost- effective, high-performance remote chemical sensor for the identification and quatatization of the concentrations of contaminants in fuel lines. We will demonstrate the fabrication feasibility of the device and verify its performance for field applications. We will theoretically model the device, to predict the systems expected performance. We will estimate the cost/effort for the fabrication and testing of the prototype in Phase II of the program.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Michael C. Kimble
NAVY 99-053
Title:Electrochemical In-line Fuel Analyzer
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I Project develops and demonstrates an electrochemical sensor for detecting and quantifying the concentration level of water in aviation fuel. Sediment and water degrade the quality of aircraft fuel at concentration levels as low as 2 mg/l and 5 ppm, respectively. Frequent fuel sampling is presently used where samples are analyzed using on-board analytical equipment. It is desired to lower the cost of maintaining the high quality fuel by using an array of sensors located throughout the fuel delivery system. An electrochemical sensor is proposed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) to detect and quantify the concentration of water in the fuel. Additionally, the sensor will also assess the level of sediment in the fuel. The PSI sensor approach is based upon using a multi-array of micro-electrochemical sensors where each sensor in the array has a unique electrochemical response to the fuel stream. A pattern recognition methodology such as principal component analysis is used to identify an empirical relationship between the sensor array response and the fuel stream composition.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Bruce R. Pilvelait, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-054
Title:An Optical Sensor for Verifying Launch Bar Seating Alignment
Abstract:The proposed innovation is an autonomous device for verifying proper alignment between the launch bar of a Navy aircraft and the carrier-based catapult assembly. It is based on a robust, low cost mechanical position sensor and visual indicator located on the catapult spreader. In addition, a remotely located optical scanner detects the presence of the indicator and automatically prevents the catapult from firing until verification. The innovation addresses the stated subtopic requirements of eliminating the dangerous Hookup Petty Officer role, improving the reliability of the alignment observation, performing the verification with a wireless approach under all possible conditions, withstanding extreme force and acceleration, giving fast response, and having high durability. With the proposed approach, there are no modifications to the aircraft, nor are there electronics located on the catapult. In Phase I, we will develop the mechanical catapult sensor as well as the optical scanner. We will demonstrate the feasibility of making the verification reliably in extreme conditions. In Phase II, we will produce field deployable units for shipboard evaluation. The long distance identification hardware developed in this program has significant potential for commercial applications such as automated tollbooths, smart highways, high-speed manufacturing, freight transportation, and security systems.

MSE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.
200 Technology WayP. O. Box 4078
Butte, MT 59702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 494-7393
Jim McConnell
NAVY 99-054
Title:Machine Vision Confirmation of Launch Bar Engagement
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project will develop a system that provides a positive indication to the catapult officer when an aircraft launch bar is properly seated in the catapult shuttle of an aircraft carrier. Improper launch bar seating has resulted in the loss of numerous aircraft. The proposed system will employ a two dimensional machine vision system based on charged coupled device (CCD) camera technology and pattern recognition software. The machine vision system will provide highly reliable indication of launchbar seating during day and night operations, in all weather conditions. The proposed system will require no alteration to the aircraft, and requires no attachment of any components to moving parts of the catapult. The machine vision system will not protrude above deck, will provide its own source of collimated red light for illumination of the target, and will compensate for variations in shuttle position after tensioning. The machine vision system proposed will work with any present or future aircraft, as the system can easily "learn" the correct seating configuration of any aircraft launchbar.

ADVANCED WIRELESS & TELECOM CORP.
4721 Cornell Road
Cincinnati, OH 45241
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 489-6008
Jeff W. Marshall
NAVY 99-055
Title:Miniature Wireless Transceiver
Abstract:The need to add wireless capability to many different types of devices continues to grow. This has been primarily due to the need to add mobility to devices or due to the high cost of installing and maintaining cabling between separate pieces of equipment. A focus on new radio frequency (RF) circuit design is required that meets the functional, physical, and environmental requirements of these applications. A miniature radio transceiver that can support the WICS requirement and that can be adapted to meet the requirements of many other target applications, both military and commercial, is described in this proposal. Key areas of reliability are identified that ensure the design can be manufactured in significant quantities. The engineering team's experience in producing RF circuits for high-rel military products makes it particularly capable of producing a solution for the WICS and other government applications.

MULTISPECTRAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
202 Perry Parkway, Suite 7
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3978
Robert J. Fontana, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-055
Title:A Novel Ultra Wideband Wireless Intercommunications System
Abstract:Current Intercommunications System (ICS) designs utilize lengthy and cumbersome cords to attach a crewman's headset to a distributed audio (intercom) system. These cords require constant attention thereby reducing mission effectiveness while increasing the potential for accident or injury. Replacing the communications cord with a covert radio frequency (RF) link will improve operational effectiveness without subjecting the aircraft to interception by electronic warfare threats. Under Phase I, Multispectral Solutions, Inc. (MSSI) will develop a novel ultra wideband RF ICS link. The link will be compatible with existing headsets and intercom control boxes. The UWB wireless ICS will permit unimpeded movement throughout the cabin and to a limited distance outside of the aircraft. Key advantages of MSSI's UWB approach include the use of a very low probability of intercept and detection (LPI/D) waveform, multipath immunity, low power consumption, small size and low cost. Under Phase II, several prototype UWB WICS will be developed for use in testing onboard selected aircraft. The size of the modules will be significantly reduced and voice encryption will be added to further improve performance against intercept threats. Phase II will reduce technical risks thereby establishing a strong basis for Phase III follow-on efforts.

CONTINENTAL COMPUTER
1891 N. Gaffey Suite 232
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 514-0194
Jim Hynes
NAVY 99-056
Title:Narrow Band MEMS Sensors for Object Tracking
Abstract:Recently, MEMS inertial sensors have been recognized as valuable components for tracking body parts and objects in many applications including the development of realistic virtual reality simulations. We propose to optimize low cost MEMS inertial sensors to capture the relativity low bandwidth of human dynamics. Laser trimming of vibrating sensor elements can enhance the signal level by an order of magnitude for band limited motion, proportionally reducing electronics errors and allowing mass produced sensors to be used for demanding augmented reality applications. All inertial sensors measure rates of change, so eventually have to be calibrated with direct angular and positional measurements. Rather than rediscover optimal sensor fusion, in this project we apply knowledge developed by the guided missile and inertial navigation communities. For latency correction, we will use GINI, a COTS computer code developed for tightly coupled, GPS/Inertial Navigation system integration. The new AHRS grade Endevco Micromachined Accelerometer Gyro (MAG), and a Systron Donnor QRS will be analyzed in this new inertially aided tracker with optimal prediction capability.

INTERSENSE, INC.
73 Second Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 270-0090
Eric Foxlin
NAVY 99-056
Title:Inertial Sensor Technology
Abstract:Head-mounted displays (HMDs) play a vital role in military and commercial simulation and training systems. They allow the user to interact with and navigate through virtual worlds before encountering them for real. This has proven to save lives and increase effectiveness in military applications such as flight simulation, dismounted infantry simulation, hazardous materials handling, mission planning and rehearsal. Immersive HMDs also have valuable commercial applications in education, architecture, medicine, entertainment, virtual prototyping, teleconferencing, scientific and financial data visualization and web-based experiences. All of the previously existing motion-tracking technologies (magnetic, acoustic, optical, mechanical, gravimetric) have significant problems with jitter, latency, interference, line-of-sight, accuracy, and/or range. These deficiencies lead to simulator sickness which can erase all the benefits of the immersive application. In addition to HMDs, many other applications (i.e. weapon aiming, camera tracking, personal navigation, etc.), require improved tracking technology as well. InterSense has patented, developed, and successfully commercialized the world's first inertial and sensor-fusion-based motion tracking systems. This technology offers very low jitter and latency, large range, immunity to environmental interference, and high-quality motion prediction to combat latency in the computer graphics rendering system. In this Phase 1 SBIR, we propose to research the technologies for a new generation of micro-miniature integrated inertial measurement units, and appropriate calibration and sensor fusion algorithms. Capitalizing on recent advances in micro-machining technology, sensor fusion algorithms, and electronic packaging, the new InertiaCubeÖ will offer substantially improved performance, smaller size, and lower manufacturing cost.

DIAMOND VISIONICS CO.
400 Plaza Drive, Suite D
Vestal, NY 13850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 729-8593
David L. Peters
NAVY 99-057
Title:Advanced Control Features to Adapt Low-Cost Digital Display Based Projectors to Training Simulation
Abstract:Display systems for training devices and other applications that have the need for channel to channel seam matching impose stringent image mapping requirements. In high performance visual systems, image matching functions are typically performed in the image generator (IG) or the projection system. In CRT projection systems, image mapping is implemented using analog raster shaping. In digital display based projectors and monitors, pixel location is invariant, which, although providing the blessing of lifetime stability, precludes adjustment for seam matching. For such applications, high performance IGs can perform the image mapping functions. In application where low cost IGs or 3-D accelerator cards drive digital display based projectors and monitors, the image mapping function can be performed in an intermediate image-mapping system. Since such a system operates by processing video content, it is a logical place to include other desired video processing, such as multiple image suppression, and intensity modification to correct system nonuniformities and blend edges. Under this Phase I SBIR, DVC applies its extensive digital display and image mapping experience to define and recommend cost effective digital system solutions for mapping and other desired processing. They includes algorithms, software/firmware functions, electronic modules, with performance specifications for such an image-processing system.

SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
3404 Technological AveSutie 10
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 282-4432
Dr. Dutch Guckenberger
NAVY 99-057
Title:Shadow Buffer Control Module for Digital Warp, Intensity Transforms, and Filtering Advanced Control Features
Abstract:Shadow Buffer Control Module Research and Design will include software prototyping to identify which adjustments of Low-Cost Digital Display Based Projectors can be effectively user- controlled or automated. Initial research directions will explore utilization of per pixel parallel buffers that will modify simulation calculated pixels for intensity, position offsets and warping prior to the digital information being output to the digital display device. Rapid prototyping of control algorithms will leverage an existing low-cost testbed with COTS multiple graphics board which currently implements 4 digital buffers to produce full screen anti-aliasing. Research will include investigation of algorithms from simple linear transforms to innovative concepts using Condition Logic, Neural Network and Genetic algorithms. It is envisioned that the more advanced algorithms can be utilized as initialization functions (i.e., learning modes) in an automated methodology similar to the auto convergence features on existing CRT projectors. Critical requirements will be driven by Human Factors and Human sensor limits so as to "right size" the effective adjustments, for digital displays including helmet-mounted. Further, the reuse of this technology may have direct benefits for related research. The research and design efforts will include reuse of the Shadow Buffer Control Module for Sensor Fusion and Synthetic Vision Applications.

ISERA GROUP
5370 Hollister Ave. #5
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 967-3820
Richard Reeves
NAVY 99-058
Title:Master Training Plan (MTP) Generator for Fleet Replacement Squadrons (FRSs)
Abstract:Navy Fleet Replacement Squadrons (FRSs) provide advanced training to Fleet-bound pilots and aircrew. FRS training operations are complicated by major factors such as different skill levels among individual trainees, the use of scarce equipment (simulators, operational aircraft), and the occurrence of variable training setbacks arising from bad weather, equipment failure, or diversion of squadron resources to support operational Fleet activities. Each FRS generates a Master Training Plan (MTP) as an idealized curriculum schedule to help measure class completion dates, individual student progress, and average time-to-train. Currently, the MTP is a relatively inflexible, paper-based tool that requires significant man-hours to create and maintain. This Phase I SBIR proposes to investigate the feasibility of creating a software tool that could create, update, and maintain the MTP of an FRS while providing more analytical power than current methods. Our effort will research data requirements and sources and the statistical and other analytical modeling requirements needed by such a tool. In addition, we will conduct a Software Requirements Analysis to define the functional needs of the MTP generator and to plan Phase II software development, as well as implementation at a Navy FRS. We also propose a Phase I option to build a prototype MTP database.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Dr. Andres Rudmik
NAVY 99-058
Title:AERODYNE: Automated Expert Resource Optimization in Dynamic Environments
Abstract:Modus Operandi, Inc. (MO) enthusiastically proposes an innovative strategy for managing and optimizing the allocation of scarce flight training resources that enhances management's decision making and planning capabilities through the innovative use of modeling and decision analysis techniques. Our innovation is called AERODYNE: Automated Expert Resource Optimization in Dynamic Environments. AERODYNE uses an innovative, unique combination of proven system dynamic modeling and analysis, expert systems, utility theory, and legacy system integration to facilitate the forecasting of training throughput and resource requirements in conjunction with creating a Master Training Plan for Navy flight training planners and managers at Fleet Replacement Squadrons. This will lead to an improved understanding of the relationships among the diverse factors that impact training capacity and military readiness, leading to optimal resource utilization.

MALIBU RESEARCH ASSOC.
26670 Agoura Road
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-5494
Anand Kelkar
NAVY 99-059
Title:MULTISPECTRAL HIGH-FIDELITY RADAR SCENE GENERATOR
Abstract:RADAR performance simulators today fall into 1 of 2 categories. The first rely on terrain data from DTED type databases to address siting issues, and the second on high fidelity physics based target models that can descibe RADAR performance against targets. Neither address RADAR performance issues stemming from clutter rejecton capabilities and variation in target and clutter cross-section due to weather and RF propagation effects. These are the issues which tend to dominate real world RADAR performance. This SBIR addresses a simulator architecture that allows models from various sources and measured data as applicable to be integrated to provide a complete RADAR environment. The physics based Radar Scene Generator (RSG) approach provides extremely high fidelity output that can be used to assess real world RADAR performance accurately.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 331-6322
Fred Ganz
NAVY 99-059
Title:Multispectral High-Fidelity Radar Scene Generator
Abstract:A high fidelity, wide area, multi-spectral scene generation capability incorporating the advanced VTRPE propagation code is proposed for radar and ESM system applications. The physics-based approach employs material and feature typing at the individual pixel level to produce high resolution RCS maps, which can be used in both monostatic and bistatic applications. The scenes are deterministic and geospecific, enabling true end-to-end sensor simulations in real-world conditions to be conducted. The major benefit of the underlying physics-based approach is that the common scene data bases support multiple sensors operating at different frequencies, and that reflectivity characteristics from the scene can be rapidly recomputed as each sensor platform moves relative to the scene. Sensor/ scene interfaces will produce inputs to sensor models in both the frequency domain (spectral representation) and in the time domain (coherent I,Q pulse generation). The scene generation software will be modular, using Object Oriented Programming techniques, to facilitate upgrades, integration with large scale simulations, and interoperability with various sensor models. During the Phase l activity, a sample scene will be developed using the new scene generation algorithms, and validated against measure data.

JIL INFORMATION SYSTEMS, INC.
1608 Spring Hill Road
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 470-9997
William F. Cunningham
NAVY 99-060
Title:HUMAN SENSORY PHYSIOLOGY MODELS FOR CENTRIFUGE-BASED FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT TRAINING FOR RECOGNITION OF DISORIENTATION AND RECOVERY FROM OUT-OF-CONTROL
Abstract:JIL Information Systems proposes to develop an instructional program to provide cognitive and perceptual motor training for recognition of disorientation and for the recovery from out-of-control flight situations. The Centrifuge-Based Flight Environment Trainer (CFET) will be the training platform. Glick and Holyoak (1987) reported that positive training transfer is highly correlated with simulator fidelity. The CFET's 8 meter rotational arm and roll and pitch capabilities provide a degree of fidelity in flight simulation that exceeds off-the-shelf short arm demonstrators. . Lazarus and Deese (1952) found that emotional stress induced before skills have been well-organized negatively impacted learning. The CFET will enable the pilot the benefit of repetitive practice that simulates real world flight conditions, minus the debilitating fear of pushing the flight envelope and losing an aircraft. JIL experts will develop and validate Sensory Physiology Models that are adaptable to the CFET to achieve training objectives. Mental modeling of expert performance for recovery techniques will be incorporated in the training scenarios, resulting in a more effective pilot response and standardization of the curriculum. The completed training package can be marketed to foreign and domestic users of CFET type centrifuges.

M. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
440 Horsham Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 322-3057
Dr. Phillip E. Whitley
NAVY 99-060
Title:Out of Control Flight Recovery and Disorientation Recognition Training on a Centrifuge
Abstract:Traditional training in recovery from out of control flight situations will not be possible in modern military training aircraft. In addition a safe method of spatial disorientation training is increasingly important. The Navy has a training centrifuge that is potentially capable of performing these tasks. Using the indicated out of control events as a starting point, this Phase 1 effort will define out of control flight profiles and spatial disorientation illusions that may be used on the Navy's centrifuge and then evaluate these profiles for use with a methodology developed in this effort to assess usability, feasibility and human compatibility.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Karen A. Harper
NAVY 99-061
Title:Intelligent Hostile Urban Threat (IHUT) Agents for Urban Combat Simulation
Abstract:With more military engagements focusing on suppression of rebel and guerilla insurgences in developing nations and politically unstable climates, the need for well-trained troops in close urban combat becomes increasingly vital. The nature of the battlefield changes dramatically in an urban setting, due to the complexities introduced by the environment. To meet the demanding simulation-based training requirements of the DoD in these urban battlespaces, we propose to develop a set of Intelligent Hostile Urban Threat (IHUT) agents to be implemented within DoD training simulators. Our proposed IHUT agents will comprise the integration of two software components: 1) a reactive intelligent agent representing the key human activities of visual perception, event detection, information processing, situation assessment and procedurally-driven decision-making; and 2) a physical model of dismounted infantry soldiers capable of emulating realistic movement and action within a simulated urban combat environment. Our proposed approach to the development of the IHUT agents will provide for realistic representation of human movement through the simulated environment in real time, and reflect skill-based reactive behavior in that environment as well as higher level cognitive task behaviors of situation assessment and planning to accomplish key MOUT mission objectives.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Rukmini Vijaykumar, Ph.D
NAVY 99-061
Title:An Advanced Behavior Model Repository for Hostile Urban Entities for Simulators
Abstract:DoD plans to acquire new simulators for training warfighters to operate in hostile urban environments. These simulators need computer-controlled urban-oriented entities to interact with trainees realistically, taking into account: physical models of human movement and performance degradation; reactive behaviors for selecting immediate actions; and reasoning for providing situation assessment and planning. To foster re-use of these entities, their software models must be stored in a repository. Traditional CGFs' modeling approaches, oriented towards representing platforms, not people, are inappropriate to meet these challenges. We propose a divide-and-conquer approach. We separate the repository and the UHE simulation from the training simulator to foster re-use. We further divide the UHE representations into "behaviors" and "bodies," each of which is stored in the repository. We use existing COTS products to implement the "body," and use the ONR-funded "Subsumption Architecture" developed at MIT's AI Lab to implement the behaviors. The resulting repository will contain UHE behaviors that are more realistic, more efficient, more numerous, and easier for subject matter experts to audit, than competing approaches. Reliance on COTS software lowers cost, time, and risk. We propose to obtain sample individual and group UHE behaviors from the sponsor. We will classify these sample behaviors according to Subsumption Architecture levels and test them in its Behavior Language environment. We will define sensor and actuator APIs so that other CGFs can re-use the behaviors written to that API. At the customer's option, we will retarget the back end of the BL compiler to be compatible with C/C++ code. Finally, we will document our findings in a Final Report.

DUAL, INC.
30 Skyline Drive
Lake Mary, FL 32746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 333-8880
Brian Cahill
NAVY 99-062
Title:Virtual Environment for Weapons Effects Visualization (VEWEV)
Abstract:Dual, Incorporated proposes the innovative use of Virtual Reality Visualization (VRV) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technologies to develop a low cost tool enabling the presentation of weapons effects on simulated combat systems in real time. Using the unique ability of the virtual environment to present complex multi-dimensional and multivariate data (such as FEA output files) in an intuitive format tailored to user needs, this tool allows a person to observe and quickly comprehend the effects of a weapon impact on a simulated ship, aircraft or land- based target. Traditional methods using raw FEA data to describe weapons damage are cumbersome for typical users to employ. The Virtual Environment for Weapons Effects Visualization (VEWEV) tool enables a person to observe weapon penetration, fragmentation, stress, and heat distribution via three dimensional deformational presentations of external and internal views of the target. These views are augmented with color coded stress gradients, and a capability for specialized graphical displays to provide supplementary information in a format meaningful to the user. The virtual environment provides the observer with a unique ability to navigate into and through a structure, and to perceive details and data unavailable with any other inspection method.

XTENSORY, INC.
140 Sunridge Drive
Scotts Valley, CA 95066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 439-0600
Paul Cutt
NAVY 99-063
Title:Enhanced Multiplatform, Integrated Virtual Urban Warfare Simulation
Abstract:Xtensory is uniquely qualified to integrate multiple simulated vehicle platforms into single simulator platforms for testbeds for virtual warfare simulation or for training because it already has developed key components, the device interfaces and device integration server. This can be used for provide multiple vehicle platform simulators for virtual warfare software with its unique approach to integration of devices to the software. The device API is designed to be easily extensible to new device hardware and software. We will be able to deliver a working prototype for multiple vehicle platforms for evaluation. Xtensory provides all the device interfaces for Paradigm Simulation's Vega simulation as well as Transom's virtual human software so is intimately familiar with interfacing devices to simulation software. Our integration of sound (audio) for Schlumberger provides experience in sound integration. Finally our involvement in NASA's distributed virtual hospital project provides experience in integrating multiple distributed devices. Tools developed for this project are readily adaptable to other simulation-oriented tasks in the military and civilian worlds. Due to our commercial experience we anticipate pursuing the Fast Track funding option which will aid in commercialization of this system.

AECHELON TECHNOLOGY, INC.
454 Ives Terrace
Sunnyvale, CA 94087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 593-0218
Ignacio Sanz-Pastor
NAVY 99-064
Title:Cell-based Adaptive Terrain Fitting Technique
Abstract:Traditionally two methods have been applied to terrain rendering: 1. Cell-based rendering of pre-computed, decimated levels of detail (LOD), and 2. Real-time creation of a terrain skin with continuous LOD whereby only required polygons are drawn based on distance from eye-point. The objective of this research is to investigate a terrain rendering technique that combines benefits of both prior methods, without incurring the high compute costs of a full, real-time meshing solution, given the current cost/performance trends in graphic versus cpu subsystems. Factors other than distance, such as angle of incidence and complexity will be evaluated to select the structure of the image to be rendered.

CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS & SOFTWARE
PO BOX 1129
CHINO VALLEY, AZ 86323
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 636-2600
Ed P. Andert Jr.
NAVY 99-064
Title:Advanced Terrain Modeling and Rendering
Abstract:The military and Navy have found modeling and simulation cost effective for training, design, testing, development, and mission rehearsal as operational equipment has become more complex and costly to operate. Distributed simulations are being fielded to allow a wide range of simulators, simulations, platforms, sensors, and live forces to participate in common exercises. The realism and effectiveness of such simulations is improved through the incorporation of synthetic representation of terrain. A realistic synthetic representation of terrain is a critical element of simulations for training, planning and decision making. This project will develop an advanced feature correlation and terrain rendering approach that alleviates known problems with traditional terrain generation techniques. The Phase I technical objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of an advanced terrain modeling and rendering approach that provides realistic synthetic terrain for training simulation applications.

AECHELON TECHNOLOGY, INC.
454 Ives Terrace
Sunnyvale, CA 94087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 593-022
Javier Castellar-Arribas
NAVY 99-065
Title:GIS-based Satellite/Photographic Imagery Enhancement
Abstract:The objective of this research is to investigate the use of vector geographic data to enhance satellite imagery at close viewing ranges, by means of artificial creation of additional levels in the texture mipmap pyramid. Key points of the study are the application of image orthocorrection techniques to vector data and the development of high quality scanline rendering with multitap texture filtering for texture instantiation from vector data, with smooth transition facilitated by alpha blending. Aerial photographs will be used to derive geo-typical texture patterns that give the appearance of geo-specific imagery for insertion where geo-specific imagery 'smears' as the eye-point approaches.

MULTIGEN-PARADIGM, INC.
Suite 40014900 Landmark Blvd.
Dallas, TX 75240
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 960-2301
Dan Brockway
NAVY 99-065
Title:Generation of High Resolution Clip Textures through SPLOT Processing
Abstract:A method has been developed for improving the appearance, performance, and overall quality of visual scenes rendered in real time from large area terrain databases. An innovative modeling and database development technique called Splotting, provides for the building of high-resolution databases comprised of high-resolution models incorporated into lower resolution source imagery. Splotting is a process of capturing orthographic geo-specific "imagery" of a geo-typical terrain database, then creating a clip mapped texture of that imagery to be mapped to a terrain contour. Through this technique high resolution textures can be inserted into the clip stack of a run-time database to provide high resolution geo-specific imagery with an optimized geometry (reduced polygons). By utilizing this technique, the appearance of textured terrain can be improved dramatically while improving the throughput of the rendering system. This approach overcomes many of the deficiencies associated with image resolution and source data. For this phase I program, MultiGen-Paradigm, Inc. will further develop the Splotting process and address the commercialization of splotting software tools into existing COTS products.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
14A GILL STREET
WOBURN, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2030
Dr. Jian Xu
NAVY 99-066
Title:Dual Polarization White Light Interferometer for the Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (FOG)
Abstract:Stress-induced birefringent fibers are critical components for fiber sensor systems such as fiber-optic gyroscopes. An advanced technique to precisely align the principal axes of the fibers is required. Especially in fiber optic gyroscopes, the principal axes of a fiber optic coupler and sensing fiber loop should be aligned as exactly as possible. NZ Applied Technologies proposes to develop an innovative method for an accurately alignment of two birefringent fibers. The method employs a scanning Michelson interferometer, a scanning Retro-reflector and a special arrangement of a Wallaston prism to measure the dual interference signals. This type of device overcomes the major drawbacks of current devices and simultaneously possesses the desirable charateristics of highly accurate, rapid and continuous scanning with low cost of manufacturing. An advanced signal processing method will enable us to reach a measurement dynamic of 80dB which corresponds to an angular misalignment of 0.057°. With the existing signal processing program a display in the wavelength spectrum is possible by a Fourier transformation. In phase I, a breadboard device with available input and output optical couplers will be constructed and its functionality will be demonstrated on an optical table for testing a variety of the Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (FOG) devices.

OPTIPHASE, INC.
7652 HASKELL AVE
VAN NUYS, CA 91406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 782-0997
JEFF BUSH
NAVY 99-066
Title:WHITE LIGHT ANALYZER
Abstract:We propose a unique design approach for a White Light Analyzer for high resolution measurements of polarization scattering in fiber optic components and devices. In Phase I, we will demonstrate an unprecedented signal measurement dynamic range exceeding 10,000:1 or 80 dB. Such performance represents close to a tenfold improvement over existing technology; and is highly suited for analyzing precision components used in the manufacture of Interferometric Fiber Gyros, and is the requirement cited in the solicitation. The most unique aspect of the proposed design incorporates an optical pick-off method for precisely determining the zero path position of the scanning interferometer, which provides a twofold benefit: 1) Data collection for both scan directions becomes correlated which effectively doubles the measurement rate; and 2) Coherence averaging is enabled, providing the potential for measurement resolutions approaching 100 dB. The proposed White Light Analyzer will also be capable of providing high resolution coherence and optical spectrum measurements, where we project wavelength resolution of 0.002 nm and a high absolute accuracy. In Phase I, a breadboard system will be constructed to demonstrate the design performance claims. In Phase II, a full featured prototype system will be developed.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
7923 Jones Branch Drive
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 734-3424
James F. Forren
NAVY 99-067
Title:Off-board Processing for Air-Deployed-Acoustic ASW Sensors
Abstract:With the advent of quieter threats and the shift in operational emphasis from deep-ocean to literal areas future airborne ASW systems will increasingly rely on acoustic-receiving buoys with increased spatial discrimination to combat increased ambient noise, reverberation and multi-path effects. The implication is that signal detection and classification must now be performed on the time series outputs of a large number of beams. Current and planned buoy to aircraft communications channels cannot accomodate this increased load. Current multiple beam sensors (ADAR) address this by reduced frequency band coverage relative to the former DIFAR full band. Even with this reduced coverage, which may cause signals of interest (SOI) to be missed, transmitting raw acoustic data from all beams and sensors would overwhelm the operators. This effort addresses the problem by defining innovative system-level concepts and algorithms for autonomous in-buoy detection and contact processing of the beam time series such that only critical target information is transmitted to the monitoring aircraft. A goal will be to restore the full band of acoustic signal processing while minimizing power consumption. Although the emphasis is on active search processing the concepts are extensible to passive search and nontraditional methods as well.

RDA, INC.
P.O. Box 49
Doylestown, PA 18901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 340-9514
Eugene Macur
NAVY 99-067
Title:In-Buoy Processing for Active Systems
Abstract:The Air-ASW Navy's current bistatic active processing system consists of the ADAR sonobuoy as a receiver for the IEER incoherent source. However, buoy to aircraft bandwidth limitations restrict the buoy's data band over which the aircraft processing can take place. In-Buoy Processing, however, eliminates that limitation, since it can access the data directly from the individual hydrophones, and thus have access to the full bandwidth of the individual sensors. This Phase I proposal provides an innovative approach to performance improvement by utilizing the extended data band to demonstrate gains in detection, bearing estimation, buoy and target location accuracy and classification performance.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
962 Wayne AvenueSuite 800
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 565-2970
Mary Heimer
NAVY 99-068
Title:Integration of Mode S into Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) Systems
Abstract:Deficiencies in the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS) have lead to the development and use of the Mode S Beacon System, which is backward compatible with the ATCRBS. In the U.S. and Europe, Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radars (SSRs) have been installed at many land-based sites and most commercial aircraft carry the requisite Mode S transponders. Navy shipboard and airborne IFF systems are designed to detect aircraft using the ATCRBS (with Mode 4 for friendly detection). The Navy must evaluate the feasibility and benefits of adding a Mode S capability to these IFF systems. Mode S is expected to improve detection of beacon replies and bring enhanced situational awareness in hostile environments where civilian platforms are present in the battle space. In Phase I and the Phase I Option, TSC will identify the benefits of various Mode S implementation options, construct a table of trade-offs, and generate a preliminary architecture for two primary options. The analysis will include study of the modifications required to the associated platform interfaces, displays, and data distribution functions. TSC will then refine the architecture for the one most feasible option in preparation for Phase II prototyping of critical components.

ZAI/AMELEX
8229 Boone BlvdSuite 300
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 862-5500
Vern Parde
NAVY 99-068
Title:Integration of Mode S into Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) Systems
Abstract:Mode S provides a means whereby a ground air traffic control (ATC) system may interrogate an aircraft equipped with a transponder. The response of the transponder allows the ground system to determine the aircraft's identity and position for ATC purposes. Mode S provides numerous improvements over previous systems, particularly in terms of ability to resolve closely spaced targets and to provide a unique aircraft identification (ID). The unique ID of Mode S is perceived to be beneficial to Navy combat identification systems in order to identify commercial aircraft (neutrals). The Navy Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems currently don't have a capability to perform Mode S interrogation and processing. ZAI/AMELEX proposes to provide this capability by developing a circuit board that will essentially "plug and play" in the existing Navy interrogator/processor IFF systems that employ a common open system architecture (VME). The Phase I study will investigate what benefits for Navy combat identification can be derived from the Mode S capability and how best to achieve them without loss of existing Navy IFF capability or interference with civilian systems. The board design will meet the specific requirements determined by the study as well as civilian ATC requirements.

FOTRON, INC.
7 S 515 OAK TRAILS DRIVE
NAPERVILLE, IL 60540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 983-4146
GREGORY J. SELLERS
NAVY 99-069
Title:AIRCRAFT OPTICAL CABLE PLANT (OCP)
Abstract:We propose to develop a family of modular components for a second-generation fiber optical cable plant that is optimized for aerospace and shipboard applications. Specifically, designs will be proposed for connectors, splices, break-out boxes, backplane interfaces and fiber optic couplers. These components will be designed to terminate fiber ribbon cables. Together, they will permit the creation of an OCP consisting of cables and harnesses that can be configured to satisfy the requirements for fiber optic interconnection. We intend to use etched silicon micromachined components for the multi-fiber positioners that will position the optical fibers and waveguides. For the break-out box, we intend to develop a prototype design that can accommodate both ribbon and simplex cables; we intend to produce and evaluate prototype hardware for this break-out box. For connector components, we intend to employ the "floating contact" concept to allow for realistic tolerances on the packaging components. We intend to offer additional design versions for the FOTRON Aerospace Bulkhead Connector: a right-angle version, an advanced polymeric composite version for lower cost and a four-cable version for greater number of optical channels with greater routing flexibility. We intend to provide an updated backplane connector design that will use the MFPs to accommodate both optical fiber and polymeric waveguides.

TACAN CORP.
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Charles B. Morrison
NAVY 99-069
Title:Optical Cable Plant for Fly-by-Light Applications
Abstract:TACAN will develop a new optical cable plant for avionics applications and identify cables and harnesses, connectors, splices, break-out boxes, backplane interfaces, and fiberoptic couplers for this avionics application. The scope of this work includes all manner of waveguides including single mode and multimode glass fibers and waveguides, plastic clad silica fibers and waveguides, and all plastic fibers and waveguides. Test and maintenance concepts are developed, and manufacturing, installation, and repair tools, processes, and training programs are also identified. The analysis of these definitions will lead to a comprehensive and optimized design for an optical cable plant which will provide an advanced high-density interconnect system based on emerging technology concepts. This optimized cable plant, when coupled with photonic transceiver modules already available at TACAN, forms an integrated information distribution system capable of transferring all information on military and civilian aircraft with dramatic improvements in affordability, reliability, fault tolerance, EMI/EMP immunity, and safety throughout the lifetime of the product. Because of its light weight and high speed, this cable plant will improve aircraft performance and fuel economy while reducing aircraft certification costs.

ARCON CORP.
260 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-3330
Dr. Muralidhar Rangaswamy
NAVY 99-070
Title:Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) for an Electronically Scanned Circular Array
Abstract:This research presents the development and performance analysis of space-time adaptive processing(STAP) algorithms for circular array radars. The algorithms developed here result in reduced training data support and computational requirements utilizing a priori information regarding the structure underlying the interference. Because these algorithms are based on interference consisting of a small number of strong low rank interferers plus white noise, they permit development of powerful data matrix-based methods that also offer potential for considerably reduced training data support and computational complexity. The algorithms afford the capability of a constant false alarm rate(CFAR) and permit the design of robust receiver structures. Performance analysis using realistic simulated data and real data from experiments using a UESA circular array is presented. Simulation techniques for data generation from an idealized circular array and a practical circular array, including relevant radar parameters, are developed. The algorithms resulting from this research permit rapid localization of dominant interference subspaces, enabling fast adaptation intervals which are fractions of a coherent processing interval(CPI). Consequently, these algorithms are suitable for use in severely non-homogeneous and nonstationary interference backgrounds. This work outlines the differences between uniform linear arrays and circular arrays and discusses the resulting impact on STAP signal processing.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
6515 Main Street
Trumbull, CT 06611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Dr. Douglas Page
NAVY 99-070
Title:Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) for an Electronically Scanned Circular Array
Abstract:The application of space-time adaptive processing (STAP) to circular antenna arrays presents additional challenges when compared to the ideal case of a linear array oriented along the aircraft velocity vector. This is primarily due to the fact that the spatial characteristics of the radar returns depend on two cone angles, rather than one for the linear array. This increases the clutter rank and also introduces range de-pendence to the covariance matrix of clutter at a particular Doppler frequency. Thus, when covariance estimation is performed through range averaging, an error exists that affects the STAP performance. The challenges become greater when one includes effects such as aircraft interference and mutual coupling. The proposed research will provide greater insight as to how the differences between radar returns in cir-cular arrays and linear arrays impact the various components of STAP algorithms. Novel adaptive signal processing approaches that overcome the challenges present in the circular array problem will be investi- gated. These techniques will lead to STAP algorithms that provide both enhanced mitigation of clutter and ECM, and enhanced target detectability over conventional STAP approaches. Three basic compo-nents of STAP processing will be investigated: 1) Pre- processing techniques, 2) Covariance matrix esti-mation and 3) Weight formation. The causes of performance degradation of conventional STAP algo-rithms in circular arrays will be investigated and will be related to particular aspects of the target, clutter and jamming returns. Different techniques in each of the three components of STAP algorithms will be examined and their impact on the performance of the algorithms in different scenarios employing circular arrays determined. A table of promising techniques versus their performance impact and processing load requirements will be generated.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway SoutSuite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Jeffrey Pierce
NAVY 99-071
Title:Compact Diode Driver
Abstract:Laser sources are required to achieve many National Defense requirements for range finders, illuminators, mid-IR sources for countermeasures (IRCM), and solid state optical radars for range gated imaging, autonomous piloting, targeting and guidance. Significant advancements have been made over the last few years in laser capability such as wavelength coverage and output power, but these sources are rarely deployed in operational systems due to the significant problems of cost, reliability and size. Aculight is a key player developing lower cost diode pumped solid state lasers with Navy and Air Force funding. This proposal describes the development of a compact, low cost diode driver that will enable Aculight to deliver a complete source to the Navy for a Tomahawk LIDAR system.

VPT, INC.
P.O. Box 253
Blacksburg, VA 24063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5000
Steve Butler
NAVY 99-071
Title:A High Density, Multi-Output, Low-Cost, Thick-Film Hybrid Power Supply for a Diode Laser Application
Abstract:VPT Inc. proposes to develop a low cost, ultra-compact, thick-film hybrid dc-dc converter for a diode laser application. The converter will employ state-of-the-art chip and wire technology, high frequency switching, reliable magnetic feedback, in a hermetically sealed package. The converter will be triple output; with power for the diode laser, a thermo-electric cooler, and a Q-switch with a PRF frequency in the tens of kilohertz. The power supply will feature low output voltage ripple to minimum phase and amplitude noise in the intended LIDAR or LADAR application and an EMI filter designed to meet Mil Std 461. However, because it will be based on a VPT standard product design, it will also be very low cost. These standard products are designed to meet Class H military screening levels. This combination of features is unique in the industry and is made possible by an innovative multi-layer hybrid structure. In Phase I, VPT Inc. will develop detailed design requirements, build a breadboard, verify operation, perform a thick-film hybrid layout, fabricate a dummy load to simulate the characteristics of the diode laser, and test the breadboard with the simulated load. In the Phase I option, VPT will build a triple output hybrid dc-dc converter module.

MICROFAB (WASVA MILLIMETER WAVE)
706 Forest Street, Suite D
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 295-4994
Philip Koh
NAVY 99-072
Title:Silicon pulsed IMPATT diodes for W-band
Abstract:We propose to develop fabrication and packaging procedures for W-band high-power pulsed IMPATT diodes.

QUINSTAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
Dr. John Kuno
NAVY 99-072
Title:W-Band Short Pulse IMPATT Diode Development
Abstract:Many military and commercial radar, weapon guidance, and imaging systems require solid state transmitter power sources. IMPATT devices have been serving as the primary transmitter source for applications such as W-band high peak power, short pulse radar and guidance systems. Currently, there exists an acute need to develop U.S. production capabilities for low cost, short pulse, high power millimeter-wave IMPATT diodes to meet the weapon system requirements. Silicon IMPATT diodes are capable of generating short pulse (100 ns typical), high power (40 - 50 watts) output power at W-band (75 - 110 GHz). However, the traditional suppliers of IMPATT diodes such as Hughes Aircraft Company and Raytheon Company are no longer producing the devices. QuinStar Technology has recently acquired from Hughes/Raytheon the license and equipment to produce and sell millimeter-wave IMPATT diodes. The proposed program will develop IMPATT diodes capable of high power (40 to 50 watt peak output power), short pulse (100 nanosecond) at W-band frequencies. This will serve as a vehicle to develop not only the enabling technology but also the US capability to produce high performance, low cost IMPATT diodes, both required for insertion into the existing systems and for the development of the next generation systems.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4127
Richard Formato
NAVY 99-074
Title:Robust, Long Life Submarine Outboard Electrical Cable Connector
Abstract:The Navy's submarine fleet continues to experience premature failures in submarine outboard electrical cable connectors across many CWS and HM&E systems due to water ingress into the connector. Foster-Miller, Inc. a specialist in advanced materials technologies, with strong support from D. G. O'Brien (DGO), a leading developer and supplier of submarine outboard electrical cable and connector systems to the Navy, proposes to replace the current water permeable polyurethane overboot and water permeable epoxy backfill materials with advanced "hydrophobic" polymeric materials whose properties can be tailored to meet the exacting requirements for more reliable, longer service life underwater connectors. The Foster-Miller team will be strengthened by the addition of two leading experts in outboard cable systems: Dick Hugus, formerly with NRL and Ray Haworth, formerly with General Dynamics Electric Boat Division. During Phase I the Foster-Miller team will demonstrate the feasibility of using "hydrophobic" materials and new design concepts to produce a generic solution to both the primary and secondary sealing problems of outboard electrical cable connectors. Phase I materials and designs will be further refined in Phase II, leading to the fabrication and testing of prototype connectors under simulated operating conditions by DGO in anticipation of Phase III commercialization.

SEA CON BRANTNER & ASSOC.
1240 Vernon Way
El Cajon, CA 92020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 562-7070
Don Pepper
NAVY 99-074
Title:Improving Submarine Electrical Cable Outboard Connectors
Abstract:SEA CON proposes a Fleet requirements driven modification and re-design project for submarine outboard connectors. Fleet failure modes are reviewed in early taksing to establish the priority and direction of the Phase I engineering design effort. Methods are propoesed to integrate historical Fleet connector failure mode information and current Fleet data into a summary of outboard connector problems. This information is analysed and design priorities established for the project. Modifications to connectors are suggested using grommets to eliminate cable hosing, and an extended GRE insert and overmold are suggested as possible re-design concepts. The commercialization strategy is directed at the Navy in the early stages, then branches to offshore, ROV, DSRV, and water utility markets.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Steven A. Africk
NAVY 99-075
Title:Advanced Submarine Coatings
Abstract:This program will evaluate three submarine coating concepts, one that optimizes current systems and two representing entirely new classes of treatments. These are based on the precept that the limiting factor for coatings is the fundamental connection between static and dynamic properties which often requires that the most effective treatments have the greatest ship impact. The fundamental governing relationships are (for treatments in which the properties vary slowly with frequency, including modern designs) dictated by the requirement that the static modulus cannot exceed the dynamic modulus. This consequence of linear system causality is difficult to circumvent. The first concept is an optimization of the ratio of static to dynamic moduli of current coating concepts by crosslinking during or immediately after installation. The second employs embedded resonant structures with rapidly varying properties with frequency which can be stiffer statically than dynamically. Both macroscopic and microscopic resonant structures (using MEMS technology) will be evaluated. The third concept is a radically different coating system which decouples the submarine in a manner which may have controllable ship impact and may be amenable to mechanical attachment methods. The result of Phase I will be a downselect to one or possibly two concepts for demonstration in Phase II.

INDUSTRIAL QUALITY, INC.
640 E. Diamond AvenueSuite C
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 948-2460
Thomas S. Jones
NAVY 99-076
Title:An Electronic Three-Dimensional Radiographic Technique for Detecting and Locating Defects in Elastomer Materials
Abstract:Industrial Quality, Inc. proposes to develop a novel three-dimensional radiographic approach for the detection of voids and other discontinuities in thick elastomer components. The proposed technique utilizes a high-resolution flat panel electronic x-ray detector to collect multiple images of the component using different source locations/angles for each image. The images are processed concurrently to permit viewing of the internal structure of the subject along any arbitrarily selected plane. A film-based predecessor to this electronic technique has been used successfully in a wide variety of applications but has been limited by the difficulties associated with exposing, processing, digitizing, registering and analyzing these film images. The full process often required several hours to complete. With the newly available large-area flat panel imagers, the prospect for rapid collection and processing of the images is now available. Many of the difficult steps of processing and registering the films are completely eliminated. Even the exposure of the images is made considerably quicker by the significantly more efficient flat-panel detectors. During the Phase I program a flat-panel detector will be integrated into a special test fixture and used to develop techniques to evaluate Navy-supplied elastomer test components.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
P.O. Box 24344
Minneapolis, MN 55424
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 935-2035
Jordan C. Bonney
NAVY 99-078
Title:Testability and Certification of Complex Software in Total Ship Computer Environments
Abstract:A concept to provide advanced test and certification capabilities for shipboard systems is provided, the ScoreCARD Software System. ScoreCARD Software provides unique facilities to be focussed on the issues of test/certification functional testing, real-time response measurement and availability factors for systems comprised of software intensive COTS-based dynamic distributed systems. This certification capability will significantly increase the system reliability with reduced schedule requirements and cost savings (installation and life cycle maintenance).

VIATEC RESEARCH, LLC
59 Chesterfield Dr.
New Castle, DE 19720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 272-0025
Anthony T. Rivers Ph.D.
NAVY 99-078
Title:"Testability and Certification of Complex Software in Total Ship Computer Environments"
Abstract:The Navy has demonstrated a need for technologies to address the testability and certification of complex software-intensive applications/systems within a total ship computing environment. Viatec Research proposes to determine the feasibility of developing a set of "accurate" risk-based software testing and reliability predictors and guides that are based on our "award winning" Resource Constrained Testing (RCT) methodologies. Our goals are to develop methods, metrics, process enablers, heuristics and models to be applied in "COTS Integrated" distributed software intensive systems. We propose to demonstrate how our methodologies will be used to guide the software testing process, assess the testability of software, identify which software items may be problem prone, and certify the availability and reliability in terms of functionality and real time response of a software system. Our RCT Testing-Efficiency (TE) metric will allow construction of fault-rate performance graphs that demonstrate whether a testing process is performing as expected. Our RCT residual fault-models will estimate the number of faults expected during operational use (e.g., in the next two years). Our RCT technology already has been successful in forecasting field quality and providing testing process decision support using real data from complex tele- and data communications software intensive systems.

AST ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
12200 E. Briarwood Ave.Ste. 260
Englewood, CO 80112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 790-4242
George L. Krasovec
NAVY 99-079
Title:Managing Dynamic MLS Information Systems with SNMP-Enabled Security Brokers
Abstract:The objective of the proposed R&D is to expand the capabilities of AES' CORBA-based MLS Security Services (CMSS) prototype to address the stringent information security requirements of complex, advanced computing architectures. In contrast to conventional solutions for MLS problems which involve fixed hardware, software and data configurations, advanced computing architectures will adapt dynamically to changing mission, configuration, and resource requirements while protecting data, classified at multiple security levels, from compromise. Our Phase I technical approach is based on the augmentation of AES' CMSS prototype by enhancing its CORBA security broker with interfaces, logic and a management information base (MIB) to support the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). This SNMP interface will provide an open pathway to mission-specific network management functions which can not only monitor the current configuration of all CORBA objects, but also dynamically control and alter the distribution of those objects on specific network resources. A proof-of-concept prototype will be developed to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing an SNMP interface for our CMSS security broker without compromising underlying CMSS security mechanisms. An optional Phase I effort will be conducted to develop and verify a MIB for application to the Total Ship Computing Environment during Phases II and III.

MPI SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1 Research BlvdSuite 201
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(601) 320-4300
Darwin E. Ammala
NAVY 99-079
Title:A Next Generation Dynamic, Adaptive Multi-Level Security Framework for Computer Intensive Environments
Abstract:The 21st Century Naval Combat environment will be computer-intensive and will place greater demands on the computing infrastructure to adapt to changing mission requirements. This environment must also be capable of providing Multi-Level Security services and protection since the computing resources will not be dedicated to a single task. Resource management and control, task migration, and quick recovery capabilities along with fault management will all be required. The existing DOD standards in this area are not adequate to fully address this scenario. In this work, a technical roadmap will be built to move the Navy into this new high performance environment. High performance computing is immature in security protection, hence new and innovative approaches must be made to bring the technology, security protections, and MLS capabilities to the Navy customer. MPI Software Technology, the proposer, has expertise in developing computer intensive environments, and has personnel available who are familiar with computing security practice and theory. These elements will enable an innovative solution strategy to meet the security challenges that the Navy must meet to remain the pre-eminent military force on the planet.

PHOTONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
1800 Penn Street, Suite 6
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-8181
Dennis R. Pape
NAVY 99-080
Title:Photonically Controlled True-Time-Delay Wideband Phased Array Antenna Controller using Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Abstract:The next generation Navy radar systems will require shared active phased array antennas (PAA). PAAs offer may advantages including steering without physical movement, accurate beam pointing, increased scan flexibility in two dimensions, precise PAA element phase and amplitude control to obtain low sidelobes, and reduced power consumption and weight. The complexity associated with controlling the many thousand array elements, while handling the broad bandwidth required of a shared antenna, makes the marriage of photonics and microwave radar attractive - especially when true-time-delay (TTD) is required for wide bandwidth and large scan angle steering. Our analysis has shown, however, that despite the attractiveness of utilizing photonics, the excessive complexity and cost and in some cases performance limitations of current photonic beamformer approaches will limit their acceptance in deployed systems. The novel TTD photonic beamformer proposed here offers a high performance but lower complexity and cost photonic TTD system using a novel combination of commercially available wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) components which we call WDM Delay Broadcasting TTD. In this approach fixed delays are encoded with wavelength and broadcast to all of the antenna subarrays. Our approach uses a simple tunable optical filter at the antenna element to decode the delay.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
116 West Sixth StreetSuite 200
Bloomington, IN 47404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 336-7576
Dr. William A. Wood
NAVY 99-080
Title:Affordable Wideband Radar Receiver
Abstract:Future naval combat systems will include wideband radars for high range resolution (HRR) target detection and discrimination functions. However, such functions in large arrays cannot be supported by conventional narrowband beamsteering techniques. TSC proposes a new approach to beamforming in which photonic wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology is used to implement an affordable true time-delay (TTD)-assisted synthetic wideband (SWB) HRR radar receiver. SWB processing is a means of increasing the effective bandwidth of existing narrowband phased arrays through time-domain multiplexed radar waveforms. However, SWB alone poses severe technical challenges in radar resource allocation, dwell times, and overall accuracy. Full TTD beamforming, on the other hand, is intrinsically wideband but has proven prohibitively costly to implement on a large scale. By combining the two beamforming approaches, a HRR radar receiver will be developed requiring only partial TTD implementation to achieve performance comparable to a truly instantaneously wideband system. This will involve synthetic wideband processing to reduce the level of instantaneous bandwidth required for HRR, while implementing partial TTD to reduce the difficulties inherent in the SWB approach by effectively reducing the aperture size. Photonic WDM technology for partial TTD offers significant advantages in cost, performance and availability over other techniques.

LIGHT BYTES, INC.
12024 Moccasin Court
Orlando, FL 32828
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 249-2875
Nicholas Madamopoulos, Ph
NAVY 99-081
Title:High-Speed High-Isolation 2X2 Fiber-Optic Switch for RadarHigh-Speed High-Isolation 2'2 Fiber-Optic Switch for Radar
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project deals with a unique 2X2 fiber-optic switching structure using acousto-optic (AO) device technology. The proposed switch is fully inertialess as it uses electronically programmable sub-microsecond speed bulk AO devices to implement optical switching suitable for high optical power applications. The switch delivers desirable capabilities in one optically reversible unit, making an ultra-fast, high optical isolation, broadband operation, self-aligning robust module. The switch is independent of the optical polarization of the incident light and uses a unique orthogonal drive configuration to suppress leakage noise to the desired levels for radar applications such as true time delay control. Phase I research will concentrate on the basic proposed switch structure and a proof of concept experimental demonstration will be performed to study, analyze and optimize switch performance at the 1300 nm optical band suited for high-optical-power fiber-optic microwave distribution applications. Groundwork will be laid to indicate technical concept feasibility that will lead to a Phase II plan for prototyping and development of the 2'2 optical switch.This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project deals with a unique 2'2 fiber-optic switching structure using acousto-optic (AO) device technology. The proposed switch is fully inertialess as it uses electronically programmable sub-microsecond speed bulk AO devices to implement optical switching suitable for high optical power applications. The switch delivers desirable capabilities in one optically reversible unit, making an ultra-fast, high optical isolation, broadband operation, self-aligning robust module. The switch is independent of the optical polarization of the incident light and uses a unique orthogonal drive configuration to suppress leakage noise to the desired levels for radar applications such as true time delay control. Phase I research will concentrate on the basic proposed switch structure and a proof of concept experimental demonstration will be performed to study, analyze and optimize switch performance at the 1300 nm optical band suited for high-optical-power fiber-optic microwave distrib

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
14A GILL STREET
WOBURN, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2030
Dr. Jing Zhao
NAVY 99-081
Title:Electro-optic 2X2 Switch
Abstract:High performance fiberoptic switches are in great demand for use in the information super-highway and modern defense systems. Current fiberoptic switches do not simultaneously meet the requirements of high speed, low loss, high extinction ratio, and high reliability. Based on the successful development of a state-of-the-art high speed and highly stable 1x1 switch, NZ Applied Technologies proposes to fabricate a novel solid-state 2x2 switch, based upon ceramic materials with large electro-optic effect and an innovative device architecture. This fiberoptic switch has leading edge performance attributes which include electro-optic high speed operation, polarization insensitivity and low insertion loss fiberoptic loss, as well as ceramic ruggedness for high optical power handling and long term stability. The design eliminates the need for mechanical movement, organic materials, and waveguides which introduce intrinsic drawbacks. Moreover, the design is simple, compact, and cost effective. It is anticipated that state-of-the-art performance in several key specifications can be achieved through this program. These include high data rate, low optical insertion loss, wide temperature range, high optical power handling, high stability, and cost effectiveness. Prototype optoceramic 2x2 switches will be fabricated to demonstrate functionality in Phase I.

CARLOW INTERNATIONAL, INC.
3141 Fairview Park DriveSuite 575
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 208-3451
Thomas B. Malone, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-082
Title:Assessment of Reduced Manning Impacts on Ship Crew Operational Effectiveness and Computer Resources
Abstract:Carlow International Incorporated (Carlow) and AST Engineering Services, Inc. are pleased to submit this SBIR Phase I proposal to the Naval Sea Systems Command to develop modeling and simulation (M&S) technology to assess reduced manning impacts on ship crew operational effectiveness and computer resources. The M&S technology required to ensure effective and responsive human performance in a reduced manning operational environment should include the following capabilities: (a) the ability to conduct what-if analyses in real time to assess the impact of different mission scenarios on ship, system, computer plant requirements, and personnel capabilities, including human error potential, crew workloads in an operational, reduced manning environment; (b) support of real-time mission planning exercises where the emphasis is on ensuring that available resources, including manpower and computer resources, are most effectively employed and deployed for specified missions; (c) provide real-time manpower assignment during periods of conflict where crew incapacitation or system degradation will further impact crew workloads and workload distributions; and (d) support determination of the impact of proposed modifications to existing or projected ship systems on personnel performance. The Carlow/AES team will assess the state-of-the-art M&S tools and will adapt existing technology or develop new technology to meet the needs of this effort. In the Option period an initial validation will be conducted of the selected tool by demonstrating the tool displays to Navy line personnel for selected scenarios, and obtaining insights and critiques on the feasibility of presenting such information to operational personnel in a tactical situation, as defined by selected scenarios.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd., No
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Gary Klein, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-082
Title:Increasing the Robustness of Reduced Manning Concepts
Abstract:One risk of using advanced technology to reduce the crew size of Navy ships is that even if the crew members are able to perform their primary missions, they may be unable to handle collateral missions such as damage control. We will address this problem in several ways. First, we will define the prototype emergencies that ships face. Then we will use the powerful and versatile simulation platform Micro Saint to represent the workload demands for several of these prototypes. Next, we will conduct Cognitive Task Analyses to define the cognitive demands on planners during damage control incidents, to identify the requirements for a planning support system. Finally, we will use these findings to generate a conceptual design, represented in storyboard form, for a planning support system to handle damage control events. The option task will include a review of the technology and a reverse engineering study of a significant damage control incident, using Micro Saint to study the impact of different technologies on reducing the workload requirements.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8807 Sudley RoadSuite 210
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 846-5047
Ronald G. Murdock
NAVY 99-083
Title:Multi-Disciplinary and Multi-Sensor Integrated Display Development
Abstract:The SC-21 Mission Needs Statement (MNS) has invoked requirements upon the ship design which include manpower reductions of 70% relative to current DDG manning. Reduction in manpower requirements to conduct combat control operations can only be achieved if highly effective and efficient operator machine interfaces are available. Sonar, electronic warfare, and radar systems provide data that must be combined in a common format which presents a data independent, common tactical picture for any operator. DoD initiatives to incorporate COTS in military systems are a key enabler for the accelerated growth of technological capabilities. Combat system development efforts are able to exploit technology trends to rapidly improve performance. Although these efforts have and will continue to yield results which enable the fleet to maintain tactical superiority, improvements to the operator interface for these systems have not kept pace with the flood of raw data driven by new sensors and new processing techniques that have been made available for management and interpretation. This research will establish new techniques and tools for reducing operator workload and fusing that with other information sources by managing and presenting information to support the SC21 platform goals.

SPECIALTY DEVICES, INC.
1104 Summit Ave.Suite 104
Plano, TX 75074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 578-7501
Paul D. Higley
NAVY 99-083
Title:Multi-Disciplinary and Multi-Sensor Integrated Display Development
Abstract:Recent developments in volumetric display technology have yielded displays capable of presenting full color, three-dimensional images. The objectives of this proposal is to modify this volumetric display to integrate multi-disciplinary and multi-sensor data. The volumetric display that will be built requires no goggles of headgear to present real time three-dimensional data, and can be used by many different viewers simultaneously. The proposed display would have the capability of presenting three-dimensional images of the ship, sub-surface threats, and three-dimensional representations of subsurface terrain. Volumetric representations of water current and intuitive and easy to understand manner. Radar images and electronic warfare data would also be shown in full three-dimensional detail about the ship. The information in this display would be scalable and color coded, allowing the user to use a simple computer interface to turn various display elements on and off. The display will have the capability to zoom in and out on any given situation or theater using simple controls.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 Court StreetSuite 210
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 798-1377
Walter Szczepanski
NAVY 99-084
Title:Adaptive Mainbeam Cancellation Technique
Abstract:Integrated Sensors, Inc has teamed with Lockheed Martin Ocean, Radar and Sensor Systems to develop techniques that effect practical, operationally meaningful, mainbeam jamming cancellation in solid state, active array radar and passive receive systems. A sequential adaptation scheme for MLC/SLC will be extended due to its superior ability to separately cancel mainlobe and sidelobe jammers while preserving the monopulse accuracy. Measures of performance and measures of effectiveness will be developed to provide a basis for performance comparison. Extension of existing simulations, RLSTAP/ADT and ECCM Nulling Simulation, will provide validation and evidence of feasibility of the resultant mainlobe jammer rejection techniques against both narrowband and wideband jammers. A state-of-the-art active array testbed radar will be available for efforts during follow-on phases.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
962 Wayne AvenueSuite 800
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 565-2970
Dr. Menachem Levitas
NAVY 99-084
Title:Adaptive Mainbeam Cancellation Technique
Abstract:Conventional Mainbeam cancellation is a more difficult technique to implement than sidelobe cancellation, due to two principal reasons. First, it requires at least one high-gain auxiliary channel (each such channel entails an independent, full gain, beamformer,) and second, the post-cancellation main-beam residues are normally too distorted to allow for a meaningful angle measurement capability. The mainbeam cancellation approach that we propose below obviates these difficulties. It utilizes an innovative beamforming technique that provides several major advantages. First, it enables the radar to steer the pattern difference nulls toward the jammer within the same dwell at which jamming is first detected, and to implement the steering more accurately than is possible via the antenna phase shifters. Second, it makes it possible to adaptively cancel jamming residues in the difference patterns using multiple available high gain channels, without incurring undue pattern distortions. Third, it enables target detection in the jamming sanitized difference channels. Fourth, it enables a measure of angle estimation based on difference channel ratios sanitized from jamming. And fifth, it accomplishes all of the above using only minor modifications to the conventional monopulse beamforming architecture, and increasing the number of receive channels by a modest amount.

ISL
8130 Boone Blvd. Suite 500
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
Paul M. Techau
NAVY 99-085
Title:Space-time Adaptive Processing for Advanced Phased Array Radar Systems
Abstract:Solid state active array (SSAA) radars are expected to play an increasing role in the development of future surveillance, acquisition, and tracking systems. They provide the advantage of being able to schedule beams arbitrarily, thus facilitating performance-enhancing functions such as increasing the scan rate on high-priority sectors or performing track-while-scan operations. In addition, the use of digital beamforming allows for the application of adaptive array processing techniques for use in interference mitigation. This includes space-time adaptive processing (STAP) techniques comparable to those developed for airborne radar for mitigating both Doppler-shifted cold clutter and mainlobe scattered interference (MSI or hot clutter). In this proposal we address the issues associated with implementing STAP in SSAA systems such as system bandwidth effects, computational complexity, and degree of freedom (DoF) reduction techniques. We outline a program for the development and optimization of SSAA architectures together with STAP algorithm development to achieve the objectives of improved sensitivity and robustness to interference sources. In addition, we illustrate the need for site-specific clutter models to provide a meaningful simulation environment for this development.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
6515 Main Street
Trumbull, CT 06611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Dr. Douglas Page
NAVY 99-085
Title:STAP for Advanced Phased Array Radar Systems
Abstract:The next generation of Navy shipborne radars must be designed to improve the detection low observable (LO) targets such as sea skimming missiles in littoral environments. These radars will be designed using solid state active array (SSAA) antenna technology. SSAAs utilizing space-time adaptive processing (STAP) can simultaneously reject land clutter, EMI and jam-ming, significantly enhancing the radar's ability to detect LO targets. The Phase 1 research that is being proposed by Technology Service Corporation (TSC) will in-vestigate the transition of STAP into both a notional S-band area defense and an X-band self-defense shipborne radar. The requirements for these radars will be specified, the best-suited STAP algorithms will be selected and optimized for shipborne applications, and the performance enhancements will be assessed. An adapt-on-transmit (i.e. Inverse STAP) concept will also be investigated. A transition task and a Phase 2 follow-on effort will select available software tools, perform de-tailed analyses of the STAP techniques and define experiments that can be performed using NSWCCD and other Navy facilities to validate the STAP algorithms' performance.

MECHANICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
1719 Route 10 ESuite 205
Parsippany, NJ 07054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 326-9920
Chang-Wei Jen
NAVY 99-086
Title:An Automatic Self-Cleaning 5 Micron Fuel Oil Filter
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative design that combines centrifugal separation, cross-flow filtration (CFF), Dean flow surface cleaning, and back-flush techniques into an effective micro-filtration unit. The centrifugal separation is effective in separating debris which has higher specific gravity than that of the DFM for particles as small as 20 microns. CFF is especially effective for feed flow with colloidal solids. Unlike dead-end filtration, the surface dynamics of CFF does not make gelatinous colloidal solids (which often get carried into fuel oil by seawater) extrude through filter pores, and thus does not compromise the performance of filtration. CFF makes use of the shear force parallel to the filter medium to reduce the cake formation on the filter surface. Dean flow is a secondary flow created in a curved flow passage. The resulting flow profile takes the form of a toroidal vortex. The vortex profile generates a high shear rate which acts to transport material such as colloidal solids and fine silts away from the membrane surface. The combination of these features with an automatic back-flushing device forms a compact, self-cleaning, and continuously operable unit suitable for pre-filtration in Navy shipboard fuel oil systems.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Patrick J. Magari, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-087
Title:Plasma-Sprayed, Non-Skid, Wear, Erosion, and Corrosion Resistant Ship Deck Coatings
Abstract:Creare proposes to use a plasma-spray process to deposit non-skid ship deck coatings. Plasma-sprayed coatings can have unique properties that are far superior to conventional coatings (paint, plating, etc.) in terms of wear and corrosion resistance. The plasma-sprayed coating would either entirely replace or be used in conjunction with more conventional paint-like coatings to achieve the desired color. The roughness of the plasma-sprayed coating would be controlled to provide the desired non-skid characteristics. The adhesion of the paint-like coating, if used, would be highly enhanced by the roughness and high corrosion resistance of the plasma-sprayed coating. Plasma spraying offers many advantages over other techniques for applying coatings, because it is inherently inexpensive, environmentally benign, easily scaled to production scenarios, and features high, easily controllable deposition rates. The approach has modest equipment and operator skill requirements and should be easily integrated with the present repair infrastructure. In Phase I, we propose to prepare and test sample coupons with various plasma-sprayed coatings to provide a basis for initial assessment of the suitability of these materials. We will also perform simulated shipboard environmental testing to assess corrosion resistance, hardness tests of the films, and abrasion tests to assess wear resistance.

APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
811 Spring Forest RoadSuite 100
Raleigh, NC 27609
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 876-0018
Qiang Xiao, Ph.D., P.E.
NAVY 99-088
Title:Reliability Assessment of Watertight Boundaries
Abstract:This proposal will develop a feasible framework for reliability assessment of existing watertight decks and bulkheads of vital spaces and establish reliability levels inherent in present design codes for these structural components. Applied Research Associates, Inc. brings over fifteen years of experience in reliability and risk assessment, and reliability-based design methodology. ARA has teamed with industry partners ABS Americas and Designers & Planners, Inc., who will bring valuable expertise in ship structural analysis and design. In this proposal, we will present innovative and feasible solution strategies for reliability assessment, including: (1) use of a simplified load model with consideration of uncertainty in ship motion, wave action and various sea states as well as hydrostatic pressure, and (2) use of simple and basic element models. The load model proposed will be consistent with damaged stability criteria. Modes of failure will be identified for structural components under flooding conditions. The successful completion of this study will provide a basis for further calibration of the current design codes and development of reliability-based design criteria for these structural boundaries in Phase II. Use of these new criteria will result in a uniform reliability level for the structural components forming vital spaces.

RH LYON CORP.
691 Concord Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 864-7260
David L. Bowen
NAVY 99-090
Title:Advanced Monitoring and Diagnostics of Motor-Operated Valves and Actuators
Abstract:A motor-operated valve (MOV) diagnostic system, originally researched at MIT with sponsorship from a nuclear power industry consortium, has been further developed at RH Lyon Corp with sponsorship by the NRC. This "MIT/RHL system" is non-invasive and may be implemented in either a remote or roving configuration. It uses supply voltage and current signals to determine instantaneous motor torque, and housing vibrations to determine gear meshing and therefore valve travel or position. The resulting "torque vs. travel" signature has been shown to correlate well with important valve faults such as poor seating, obstructions, tight packing, poor stem nut lubrication, and is expected to diagnose worn or bent stems. This system does not at present detect and classify motor or gearing faults (not a priority in the previous application), but the vibration and electrical signals now captured by the system are the signals of choice for such diagnostics. We propose to augment the current system with gearing and motor diagnostics, and then demonstrate its ability to operate in a shipboard environment. Although the present system is quite portable, we propose to design a board level embedded version, compatible with ICAS, as a Phase I option, for construction and implementation as part of the Phase II effort.

NOESIS, INC.
10363 Bear Creek Drive
Manassas, VA 20111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 741-0300
Dr. Robert Henderson
NAVY 99-092
Title:Prediction of Prototype Hydrodynamic Performance
Abstract:The objective of the proposed effort is to define and demonstrate a methodology to confidently predict the hydrodynamic performance of a prototype marine vehicle using data from small-scale experiments. Traditionally, the scaling of small-scale data to estimate prototype performance assumes that the major issue is the friction drag change with Reynolds number and usually for the hull alone. This process ignores important conditions, such as acceleration, deceleration and maneuver. The proposed Phase I effort will develop a computer-based process that consists of a series of existing boundary layer estimation codes whose physical modeling has been carefully validated. The feasibility of the process will initially be demonstrated by focusing on the scaling of friction drag. If successful, the process can be adapted to address pressure drag and lift. A "smart" process will be defined that applies the different boundary layer codes to the flow regime that they are best suited to model. This smart process will be used to post-process small-scale data to reflect the effects of boundary layer changes between small scale and prototype Reynolds numbers. With an accurate knowledge of both the small-scale and prototype boundary layers the prototype system performance can be confidently estimated.

BRIDGER-OET, INC.
114 State Road
Bourne, MA 02532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 637-4715
Lars S. Ostlie
NAVY 99-093
Title:Non-Toxic Antifouling System Based on AC Electric Fields
Abstract:The primary objectives of the proposed effort are to further develop a novel, proprietary technology (Alternating Current Anti Fouling "ACAF") which applies a rapidly alternating electric field to layers of conductive and insulating films to minimize or prevent attachment of aquatic organisms to a submerged surface. Principals of this technology have been proven under laboratory conditions utilizing barnacle larvae (Balanus Amphritete) as the target species. Results indicate that high frequency electric fields disrupt the settlement process of cyprid larvae, resulting in substantially reduced fouling coverage on treated surfaces. The Phase I effort will focus on further optimization of the electrical properties of films, of the electric field variables (frequency, voltage, duty cycle) and methods of connecting and transferring power. The project will incorporate a field validation trial using static immersion panels deployed at a test site with heavy macro fouling. Subsequent efforts will be directed toward a progressive "scale up" of the technology for ship and industrial applications.

SURVICE ENGINEERING CO.
1003 Old Philadelphia RoadSte. 103
Aberdeen, MD 21001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 699-5137
William A. Hockberger
NAVY 99-094
Title:Development of Total Ownership Cost Parametric Assessment Software Baseline Models for Ship R&D Concepts
Abstract:When considering future ship R&D needs, the Navy must determine both the benefits to be obtained if particular new technologies are selected for development, acquisition, and operational deployment as well as the complete set of costs that will have to be borne. Total Ownership Cost (TOC) is an element of the acquisition reform and business practice reengineering currently being pursued within the Navy. TOC is a broadened definition of Life Cycle Cost with the addition of an array of costs previously excluded because they were not directly and exclusively connected with the particular system being acquired. It is now recognized that these additional costs are in fact relevant to the decisions being made regarding development or acquisition. The Parametric Assessment of Ship Systems (PASS) design synthesis model embodies methodologies for examining the whole ship impact of new technologies and design concepts. This effort will combine the synthesis and costing models to provide a powerful and efficient tool for determining the characteristics of the best ship capable of meeting specified requirements, determining the impacts on a ship resulting from use of a particular new technology, and determining the full cost of that ship or technology over its life cycle.

FERN ENGINEERING, INC.
55 Portside DriveP.O. Box 3380
Pocasset, MA 02559
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 563-7181
Philip Levine
NAVY 99-095
Title:Application of Direct Evaporative Spray Cooling Techniques to Augment the Power of GE LM2500 Gas Turbines in Marine Service
Abstract:Use of fine evaporating water sprays directly injected into the inlet of a gas turbine have been shown to provide significant increases in power production in land-based applications. By providing evaporative cooing inside the compressor, the sprays act an an "in-situ intercooler" to reduce the amount of work required to compress the air flow. The increased mass flow from the injected water also serves to increase the power delivered by the expander sections of the turbine. The diameter of the water droplets in the sprays are a critical factor in determining the impact on gas turbine performance. Smaller droplets evaporate faster and are more likely to follow the streamlines of the flow. Further, smaller droplets serve to decrease the potential for droplets impacting the compressor blades and causing erosion. A recently developed spray technology, swirl-flash nozzles, shows promise of yielding droplet diameters an order of magnitude smaller than standard high pressure nozzles can currently deliver. The proposed work will evaluate the impact of using standard spray nozzles, as well as swirl-flash spray injection on a Navy LM2500 gas turbine. The cost and performance of these options will be compared to other water and steam injection power augmentation techniques. In addition, the constraints imposed by shipboard installation will be examined to determine the feasibility of using this technology in a Navy ship.

KAZAK COMPOSITES
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Jerome Fanucci
NAVY 99-096
Title:Pultrusion of Damage-Resistant Polyurethane Composite Deck Stanchions
Abstract:KCI proposes to design and prototype pultruded polyurethane matrix composite stanchions to replace the steel tubing currently used for shipboard safety railings. They key technical challenge is establishment of commercially-robust processing technology that will allow routine pultrusion of polyurethane matrix composite structures. KCI will evaluate the range of available urethane matrix materials with the goal of identifying the best resin for KCI's modifications to formulate it as a pultrudable system. KCI will work with our formulation subcontractor, Science Research Laboratory, to specially blend a polyurethane system that simultaneously meets the wet out and curing characteristics required of a pultrudable resin and the ultimate service requirements of the composite stanchion. KCI will select reinforcing fiber materials, design a composite from these fibers and our formulated pultrudable polyurethane, and perform finite element analysis to verify performance of the stanchion when exposed to critical design loading. KCI plans to investigate both conventional tubular stanchion configurations and other, more novel open section designs that would simplify tooling, ease process development and ultimately reduce production cost. Prototype polyurethane matrix parts will be pultruded and tested, and initial project ions of the production cost for the stanchion developed during Phase I.

SUNREZ CORP.
392 Coogan Way
El Cajon, CA 92020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 442-3353
Novis Smith
NAVY 99-097
Title:AFFORDABLE NDM (Non-Distribution Media) VACUUM ASSISTED RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING (VARTM)FOR LARGE NAVAL STRUCTURES
Abstract:An improved VARTM (vacuum resin transfer molding) process for the fabrication of large scale composite parts and ships is needed by the Navy. Sunrez has conceived and is developing the new LS VARTM Process which eliminates all of the under bag flow media usually associated with current VARTM processes. The currently used VARTM Processes require an inordinate amount of "under the bag" resin distribution media and tubes and excess resin, which are thrown away after the part is fabricated creating higher material and labor costs. The desired VARTM process will be lower cost with respect to labor and materials and have no under the bag resin distribution media. Sunrez has conceived of the LS VARTM Process which meets these requirements and is very low cost. In Phase I of this program, the LS VARTM Process will be developed and key demonstration parts made which will prove the viability of this process to meet all of the Navy requirements for this program. Cost estimates will also be done showing other low cost advantages of this process. It is anticipated that this LS VARTM Process will become one of the dominate commercial composite fabrication processes fro large structures

WEBCORE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
591 Congress Park Drive
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-5034
Rich Rydin, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-097
Title:Innovative VARTM Process and Core Systems for Affordable Composite Sandwich Structures
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project combines the processing capabilities of a resin permeable fiber reinforced foam (FRF) core and a unique vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process. The proposed VARTM system does not use a distribution medium and therefore eliminates the labor and waste associated with traditional VARTM processes. A series of laminates and sandwich panels with FRF and balsa cores will be molded. Structural testing will be performed on the panels to determine their bending and compression properties. Additionally, resin flow studies will be conducted to characterize resin flow front progression. A large sandwich panel representative of a Navy ship topside structure or a vehicular bridge deck will be molded to demonstrate the scalability of the process. Valuable information will be gained about the cost and technical challenges associated with molding large cored composite structures.

DPD, INC.
2000 Turner Street
Lansing, MI 48906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 349-5653
Ken Ostowari
NAVY 99-098
Title:Pseudoelastic-Based Holders for Advanced Metal Foil and Fiber Brushes
Abstract:The proposed research seeks to develop new constant force brush holders incorporating pseudoelastic alloys for use with advanced metal foil and fiber brushes. The new brush holders satisfy requirements relevant to brush pressure and wear movements; they are also compact, resistant to prevalent operating temperatures and lateral forces, and capable of minimizing electrical losses while transferring high current densities. Incorporaition of pseudoelastic springs is the distinguishing feature of the new holder design. Pseudoelastic alloys can be strained orders of magnitude more than normal spring materials without being plastically deformed; the stress level associated with these large pseudoelastic strains is practically constant. The proposed Phase I research will: (1) select geometric configuraitons, compatible pseudoelastic alloys and detailed deisgns for satisfying the targeted requirements in different circumstances; and (2) manufacture pseudoelastic-based mechanical holders, and verify their performance through simulated laboratory tests. The Phase I Option would quantify the competitive technical and cost advantages of the new brush holders. The proposing group includes a leading manufacturer of brush holders and a major supplier of pseudoelastic alloys.

NOVATEK
2185 S Larsen Parkway
Provo, UT 84606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 374-6222
David R., Hall
NAVY 99-099
Title:High-Speed 'Hot Chip' Motherboard with Low-Cost High-Pressure Polycrystalline Diamond Heat Spreader.
Abstract:Presently as much as 80% of the heat generated in a microprocessor "hot chip" is conducted to the motherboard through the leads. A better approach would be to remove most of the heat directly from the entire surface of the die via an efficient heat spreader. Diamond has the highest thermal conductivity of all materials, but single crystal diamond is much too expensive for use with microprocessor chips, which are from 5 to 15 mm square. Vapor deposited diamond is also too expensive in any grade having high thermal conductivity. An advanced polycrystalline diamond ceramic material exhibiting thermal conductivity approaching that of single crystal diamond can be made inexpensively in thick pieces to near net shape at ultra-high pressures and high temperatures. This proposal envisions manufacture of a novel polycrystalline diamond heat spreader which will efficiently couple the entire surface of the die to all metal planes in the motherboard and optionally to an external heat spreader on the back plane. Board assembly is facilitated via a straightforward adaptation of present Tape Carrier Package technology. Phase I goal is to demonstrate cool operation of a high performance desktop Pentium processor "hot chip" in a convection-cooled motherboard.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8807 Sudley RoadSuite 210
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 846-6824
Kenneth M. Anderson
NAVY 99-100
Title:Cost Effective Integration Methods for Large Complex Systems
Abstract:The introduction of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) products into ship systems represents an enormous challenge that impacts virtually all elements of Integration and Test (I&T). While the use of COTS products is not a new concept to the Navy, its application to highly elaborate weapon system developments such as the USS Virginia (SSN774) Class New Attack Submarine (NSSN) Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) System surpasses earlier complexity. Adding to this complexity is the fact that the majority of the NSSN Non-Propulsion Electronics System (NPES) subsystems, of which the NSSN C3I subsystems are a subset, will be interfaced together for the first time at the Command and Control System Module Off-Hull Assembly and Test Site (COATS) in the shipyard at Electric Boat (EB). Following the I&T efforts at COATS the NPES subsystems will be installed on the submarine platform which will require some additional I&T effort. I&T at the COATS and on the NSSN platform will undoubtedly be fraught with technical and resource challenges that will demand new and innovative I&T techniques and concepts. The goal of this SBIR is to determine the I&T techniques and concepts that meet those challenges.

CONTINENTAL COMPUTER
1891 N. Gaffey Suite 232
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 514-0194
Jim Hynes
NAVY 99-101
Title:Submersible Data Acquisition System
Abstract:The Navy currently validates performance of torpedo tubes using pressure transducers and a tape spooler that that requires penetration of a subsafe boundary. We propose to build, using MEMS sensors, microcontroller technology and simulation modeling, a flexible data acquisition and communications system that gives clean multidimensional data without requiring penetration of the sub safe boundary.

BCO, INC.
799 Middlesex Turnpike
Billerica, AL 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 262-2882
Robert Hartwell
NAVY 99-102
Title:Automated Test & Integration Methods for COTS Hardware & Software
Abstract:SBIR N99-102, Automated Test & Integation Methods for COTS Hardware & Software Components, seeks an innovative approach to testing COTS using a "Hot Box" or alternative concept for pre-integration testing. The solution is expected to: 1. Reduce logistics material and testing associated with Combat System supportability. 2. Result in a significant cost and time savings to the Navy logistics supportability system. Under the proposed Phase I effort, experienced BCO Inc. engineers will 1) Select a representative Combat Support System for analysis such as the Non- Propulsion System of the Virginia Class Submarine, 2) Perform a Test Requirements Analysis of the COTS components associated with pre-integration automated testing 3) Define the requirements and architecture for the "Hotbox" Tester and Test Software and 4) Determine the supportability benefits and versatility of this approach. The option phase will include a modest demonstration of critical technologies. The BCO, Inc. personnel are uniquely qualified to perform this task because of extensive experience in COTS VMEbus Systems, board/system testability, test software, automated test equipment, and system software development. Our experience transcends VMEbus architecture to include VXI, 1553, ethernet and other bus architectures. This experience gives us a unique perspective to solving the Combat System supportability problem.

CHESAPEAKE SCIENCES CORP.
1127B Benfield Blvd.
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 445-8461
Robert O. Hauptmann
NAVY 99-103
Title:Design Improvements to Enhance Towed Array Robustness and Reliability
Abstract:The towed arrays used by the U.S. Navy have no equal in acoustic performance. They are longer, have smaller diameters, can be towed faster, and have higher break point speeds than arrays towed by the rest of the world's Navies. But these superlatives are of no use if the array is unreliable and not working when needed. The proposed Phase I effort will evaluate five areas of known system design weaknesses, and develop innovative solutions that will increase the towed array robustness and reliability. The technology areas to be evaluated are: 1) the adaptation of solid filled seismic streamers to fleet tactical and/or surveillance arrays, 2) the inclusion of vibration isolation module (VIM) functions into the array tow cable so the unreliable features of the VIM can be eliminated, 3) the development of improved TB-16 hose wall strength member by substituting Vectran for Kevlar, 4) developing a thicker, more rugged, TB-29 hose wall, by improving the material matrix, assessing the benefits of "bend limiters", and minimizing heavy internal components, and 5) developing a more flexible, elongated, stress-relieved, TB-29 E/M coupler. The results of these analytical studies will be to identify specific design improvements that will greatly increase array reliability, while in many cases reduce system costs.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. Michael Dingus
NAVY 99-104
Title:Towed System Marine Life Attack Reduction
Abstract:Navy Submarine Towed Acoustical Array Systems are experiencing loss and damage due to attacks from marine life such as sharks and other fish. During the period of 1993 to1995, over 20 TB-16 Kings Bay Georgia based arrays were replaced due to suspected marine life attack, costing millions of dollars. Research into the cause of these attacks is needed, along with solutions and/or countermeasures the can be implemented without reducing performance. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. will team with Dr. Philip Motta of the University of South Florida and Dr. Timothy Tricas of the Florida Institute of Technology to investigate this problem. Information acquired from NAVSEA will be used to determine possible features of the array that attract fishbite. Array segment test articles will be prepared and exposed to sharks during static and towed tests. An underwater projector will be used to introduce acoustic signals to the sharks and their response observed. Attraction by odor will be investigated using static test articles fabricated from array materials. Damaged test articles will be analyzed to identify the responsible marine species. A Phase II test plan will be prepared that includes attractant masking and active deterrents during actual towed array field tests.

IMT, INC.
5895 Gleneagles Circle
San Jose, CA 95138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 531-9832
Keith Briggs
NAVY 99-105
Title:Compact Terabyte RAID Disk Subsystem
Abstract:iMT Incorporated proposes to construct a Compact Terabyte RAID Disk System that provides 0.5 Terabytes of storage in a rugged 10U rack mount package. The baseline proposal is for a RAID Level 2 system with full on-the-fly error recovery, hot swappable disks, and dual bit error detection. The system will rely on a fully redundant commercial controller design. It is expected that the Year 2000 cost of the storage modules will be approximately $24,000 for a total system cost significantly less than $50,000. The electronics and software design will be fully prototyped during the first phase of the effort allowing tests to be conducted to verify critical functionality and performance. The design and development will be completed as part of a future Phase II effort. As part of Phase I, trade studies on the following subjects will be conducted: - RAID Comparison Study, - Firewire, UltraSCSI and SCSI tradeoff analysis, - Input buffering analysis, - Output buffering analysis, and - Disk drive recovery modeling. A SRR and PDR of the resulting design will be conducted.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee HighwaySuite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7785
Kevin Fitzpatrick
NAVY 99-106
Title:Maintenance and Telepresence System
Abstract:The Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774) Program Office faces an unprecedented challenge in the development of maintenance mechanisms for what promises to be the most advanced and complex submarine ever developed. Drawing on our experience with software engineering; image compression, sound and video on ATM networks, and the Virginia class submarine program, Trident will develop an untethered, man-wearable computer system capable of providing NPES sub-system access equal to that available to NPES laptop systems. This includes full access to the Non-tactical Data Processing System (NTDPS) Digital Library. Additionally, the Maintenance and Telepresence System (MATS) will be capable of transmitting and receiving compressed audio and video over the Virginia class submarine's NTDPS local area network (LAN). Under Phase I of this SBIR, Trident will develop the requirements for the system, establish the system design, and produce a proof-of-concept demonstration. Phase II will extend the requirements based on program office feedback, further refine the design, and produce a full-scale prototype system. During Phase III of this SBIR a robust, fully tested, version of the system ready for use by the Virginia Class Submarine Program will be developed and delivered.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4110
Justyna Teverovsky
NAVY 99-107
Title:Environmentally Friendly Fill Fluid
Abstract:The U.S. Navy uses fill fluids in their sonar towed arrays to provide high quality sonar performance, proper buoyancy, and corrosion protection for the sonar electronic components. The currently used fluid, Isopar L, poses two environmental hazards, the first to humans during the filling operation, and the second to the marine environment as a result of accidental leakage. In this Phase I program, Foster-Miller proposes to identify an inherently more environmentally friendly fill fluid using a computer model based on group contribution theory. The five most promising candidates will then be tested in the laboratory for key physical, chemical, and environmental properties. After identifying a new fill fluid, Foster-Miller will then develop one or more innovative additives for the fill fluid that will minimize the environmental impact of a leak or spill in the marine environment. These additives will create a fill fluid system that is self-remediating, making the fluid non-persistent. At the conclusion of the Phase I program with Option, a new fluid will have been identified and several concepts for self-remediation will have been surveyed for further development. In the Phase II program, the development and optimization of the self-remediating additives will be performed.

COMNETICS, INC.
22421 Sweetleaf Lane
Gaithersburg, MD 20882
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 482-0894
Daniel Solomich
NAVY 99-108
Title:Networked Naval Trainer
Abstract:ComNetics, Inc. is proposing to develop a network centric training device capable of providing realistic sonar and other naval sensor analysis, as well as command and control, electronic control measures, and weapons training. The signal processing subsystem will readily receive real-time analog acoustic target data and output it to the student workstations over standard Ethernet networks. The device will provide individual and team training with a configurable number of student and instructor stations. The trainer will be designed using the latest Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) PC hardware, Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology, Network Interface Cards, and C++ software development tools. The goal of the PC based hardware platform will be to provide low purchase, maintenance, and upgrade costs. The proposed system will demonstrate the realism and advanced capabilities that currently available COTS hardware can provide. The anticipated capabilities and pricing of these network centric trainers are expected to cause a revolution within the training community. The fresh and innovative approaches taken to solve classic problems will benefit the Navy by affording more training capabilities without the high costs historically incurred.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd. #300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Joseph Salzman
NAVY 99-109
Title:Enhanced EWS Receiver Design for the Detection of LPI Signals
Abstract:Modern low probability of intercept (LPI) radars utilize large time-bandwidth product pulse compression waveforms, such as linear or non-linear frequency modulation (FM) and binary- or multi-phase coded signals, in order to reduce the peak transmitted power. These radars, example of which are Philips/Signaal's PILOT and Signaal's SCOUT coastal surveillance radars, pose a challenge to conventional EW support (EWS) receivers, which will typically detect the radar signal at ranges shorter than the radar detection range. This negative detection margin makes naval vessels such as submarines vulnerable to attack, since the radar can detect the periscope, other masts, or the sail, before the radar signal is detected and jammed. Technology Service Corporation (TSC) has investigated and developed a variety of LPI waveforms, as well as specialized feature detectors designed to intercept them. During Phase I of the present study, TSC proposes to investigate the feasibility of applying a variety of feature detection techniques, designed to detect the presence of a number of LPI waveforms, to an EWS receiver design concept that is built around a fast digital processor. In the Phase I Option, TSC will design a proof-of-concept EWS receiver, and develop a test plan to demonstrate the concept in Phase II.

DARLINGTON, INC.
2800 Shirlington RoadSuite 950
Arlington, VA 22206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 931-9300
Stephen M. Kurak
NAVY 99-110
Title:Investigation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Radio Products for Submarine Communications Support
Abstract:We propose to conduct an investigation of current and developing technologies related to wireless communications and networking for the purpose of identifying Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies and products that can be used to replace existing legacy submarine communications equipment on VIRGINIA CLASS (SSN 774) submarines. In order to accomplish this we will implement a process that prioritizes user requirements, provides a means of quantitatively comparing key parameters of candidate technologies, and then applies the results of the analysis to create decision support data. This investigation will depart from past studies of this type because, in addition to identifying systems which fully meet all VIRGINIA CLASS (SSN 774) functional, environmental, and cost requirements, we will focus on identifying systems which provide the greatest capacity for achieving interoperability with the evolving global commercial wireless networks. We believe that by obtaining a system that provides seamless interface with the commercial communications infrastructure, as well as meeting all current and projected military requirements, the likelihood of premature obsolescence or eventual "stovepiping" of the system will be avoided.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8807 Sudley RoadSuite 210
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Ronald D. Ghen
NAVY 99-111
Title:Improved Sonar Detection Displays and Interfaces
Abstract:Combat system development efforts in sensors and signal processing continue to provide added capability to detect and track challenging contacts. Although these efforts have and will continue to yield results which enable the fleet to maintain acoustic and tactical superiority, improvements to the operator interface for these systems have not kept pace with the flood of raw data driven by new sensors and new processing techniques that have been made available for management and interpretation. No significant effort to reduce workload or manning has been made to date, nor has 3D data visualization been seriously examined for tactical contact fusion applications. These conditions have established a significant opportunity to improve the "effectiveness" of the submarine. Automation has recently entered the tactical community; however, advancements in OMI to use the automation effectively have not been introduced. Manual and automatic data correlation tools need to be provided to reduce sonar operator workload and provide Decision Support for the Officer of the Deck (OOD). This research will establish new techniques and tools for reducing sonar operator workload as well as fusing that with other sources for use by the OOD through information management to allow full exploitation of today's system improvements.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Robert J. Kline-Schoder
NAVY 99-112
Title:System for Optimization of Very Low Frequency Audio Signals
Abstract:Very low frequency (VLF) sonar signals are advantageous because target detection and tracking can occur at very large distances. Visual displays which transform the time-domain signals into the frequency domain and which average the signals over time are currently used for target detection and tracking. However, by averaging, important information about transients and other ocean acoustic events is lost. Sonar operators do not listen to the VLF signals because current hardware and signal processing techniques are not effective in this frequency range. Creare will develop a hardware and signal processing system to optimize VLF audio signals for human operator hearing. The system will enable frequency translation and compensation so that the optimized signal can be calibrated to the hearing response of a specific sonar operator. In addition, we will provide a suite of signal processing algorithms that can be used to determine the optimal method for aurally presenting VLF acoustic signals to sonar operators. During the Phase I project, we will develop the required technology to optimize the VLF audio signal, build a bench top system, and perform experiments to demonstrate the capability. During Phase II, we will build prototypes that can be tested dockside and at sea.

CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS & SOFTWARE
PO BOX 1129
CHINO VALLEY, AZ 86323
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 636-2600
Russell L. Carter
NAVY 99-113
Title:Reusable and Maintainable Java Components for Naval Combat Systems
Abstract:The continued use of Commercial Off-the Shelf (COTS) hardware and software in Navy systems can cause substantial integration issues when these COTS products are upgraded. Recent technologies, such as the Java programming language, have made great strides toward painless incremental updates of software. The Java languages Object-Oriented (OO) design and the use of component-based architectures, such as JavaBeans and Enterprise JavaBeans, make software reuse practical in Navy shipboard systems. The software used in the Navy's New Attack Submarine (NSSN) contains opportunities for using the Java language's strengths to achieve a high level of reuse and ease the burden of periodic updates. This SBIR proposes an innovative Java component architecture utilizing JavaBeans and Enterprise JavaBeans components capable of implementing naval foreground and background systems. Cost savings will be realized because of the architectures inherent flexibility, extensibility, and dynamic distribution allowing high levels of reuse and easy integration. The proposed component architecture will decrease the cost of creating, deploying and maintaining naval combat systems. The approach includes Java real-time solution for allowing the component architecture to meet real-time performance requirements.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Joseph Murray
NAVY 99-113
Title:JAVA Applications for Naval Combat Systems
Abstract:The Navy has made applying Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies to the development of naval combat systems a critical priority. Under this new development paradigm, as combat system data processing components become obsolete or requirements grow, faster and less expensive COTS hardware can be rapidly introduced through technology refresh programs. Transportable Middleware (TM) provides the critical mechanism allowing complex military application software to be ported and scaled to new COTS platforms quickly. TM provides a layer of software that completely isolates the application software from the underlying hardware and operating systems. DSR proposes developing a processing architecture that will provide a pure Java interface into existing TM developed real-time systems. DSR will focus on the development of HMIs for embedded real-time systems in pure Java to ensure: (1) application portability, (2) the development of a pure Java interface into the existing publish-subscribe Transportable Middleware, and (3) the development of tools to verify that pure Java applications can inter-operate with the embedded processor regardless of the current processor, operating system, and Java Virtual Machine. Emphasis will be placed on the development of reusable objects (Java Beans) common to military applications, promoting code reuse, and fast and effective HMI development.

JACKPINE TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
1700 Four Oaks Road, Suite 227
Eagan, MN 55121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 414-4379
Robert J. Shepherd
NAVY 99-113
Title:Java Portability for the New Attack Submarine
Abstract:The purpose of this research is to investigate ways of using Java to address the issues of software portability and reuse in Naval combat systems. Our primary focus will be on the NSSN (Virginia Class Submarine) Exterior Communication System (ECS). In subsequent phases, our results can be applied to a wide variety of DoD and commercial systems. Jackpine Technologies has teamed with Lockheed Martin for a Phase I effort to: 1) Determine the risks of using Java in the ECS environment, including potential incompatibilities and performance problems related to integration with hardware/OS, existing protocols, communication paths, data bases, etc. 2) Analyze ECS applications to determine their suitability for Java implementation. Identify areas of risk where migration to Java will be difficult. Explain the fundamental reasons for the risks, and offer potential solutions to the problems. 3) Develop a software specification for a set of candidate applications described in task 2. In Phase II we will develop the Java and supporting software outlined in Phase I, and demonstrate its portability and performance while integrated with the NSSN ECS test facility.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH
3292 East Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Dragan Popovich
NAVY 99-114
Title:Ultra-Fast, Affordable, Portable Tool for Concrete/Steel Cutting in Rescue/Salvage Operations
Abstract:The proposed solution to ultra-fast concrete and steel cutting is to simultaneously increase hardness and toughness of a cutting tool. Novel cellular cermet cutting tool inserts offer an order of magnitude increase in cutting rates compared to traditional carbide or ceramic cutting tool inserts. The actual form of a cellular insert will be in form of a coating (between 0.5mm and 1mm thick) on a cutting face of a solid carbide insert. The cellular coating provides the fracture toughness, abrasion resistance, and resistance to chipping, while the solid carbide body underneath provides high flexural and compressive strength. This approach has already been demonstrated in ACR's work on oil well drill inserts with Smith International of Houston, TX, a leading manufacturer of oil exploration equipment. This collaboration has led to the development of drill inserts that allow well drilling in rock formations that were previously considered to be impossible to drill, such as granite. Both laboratory and field testing of novel cellular cermet drill bit inserts have demonstrated that a new paradigm in abrasive cutting is achievable through careful engineering of the microstructure of a cutting tool. More importantly, novel cellular cutting inserts can be effectively and inexpensively integrated into traditional portable devices, such as circular or chain saws.

CERAMIC & MATERIALS PROCESSING
4921 E. Pineledge Dr.
Clarence, NY 14031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 759-8211
Vladimir Hlavacek
NAVY 99-114
Title:Ultra-fast Portable Metallic/Concrete Plate Cutting
Abstract:New methods of very fast cutting of steel plates will be proposed. Following processes will be considered: 1) Use of ultrafine metallic powders to increase the speed of propagation of the cutting flame. 2) Use of new type of solid phase oxidizers to boost the exothermic reaction. 3) Use of additives, which convert the liquid iron pool into gas. 4) Use of metallic jet to increase the cutting speed. For cutting of concrete a novel method is proposed which converts concrete into gaseous products. Both batch and continuous portable equipment will be considered.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Nabil A. Elkouh
NAVY 99-115
Title:Flexible Corrosion Preventative Coverings
Abstract:Creare proposes to develop a family of temporary storage systems based on an innovative corrosion preventive composite covering. These protective coverings are unique in that they not only offer protection from the environmental elements with an impervious, waterproof outer shell, but also absorb and wick away large volumes of water that may leak between the covering and equipment surface. Such a system would keep the surface of protected equipment dry and significantly reduce the occurrence of corrosion. The proposed composite coverings consist of (1) an outer waterproof membrane, (2) an optional radar absorbent layer, (3) a highly absorbent matrix, and (4) a mesh retaining layer. The highly absorbent matrix can retain up to 400 times its weight in water. Regeneration of the coverings is also possible, enabling the absorbed moisture to evaporate during dry intervals. In Phase I, we will develop prototype coverings and demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. We will evaluate our innovation's corrosion protection ability, facility of use, maintenance requirements, and cost. In Phase II, we will construct a broad range of storage system configurations for field-testing and evaluation.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
900 Middlesex TurnpikeBuilding 8
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 436-9600
Dr. Triveni N. Upadhyay
NAVY 99-116
Title:Augmented Joint Precision Automatic Landing System (AJPALS)
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal is responsive to the Navy Precision Automatic Landing System (PALS) requirements for the new class of stealth aircraft carriers, designated as CVX. The PALS system must be at least functionally equivalent to ACLS+ and must meet the signature requirements of stealth CVX. The new DoD JPALS system, based on FAA LDGPS architecture, meets all the CVX requirements, however the vulnerability of GPS satellites signal- in-space to enemy jamming in battlespace environment presents a major concern. This proposal addresses this concern directly and proposes two levels of augmentation to JPALS: (1) an anti-jam augmentation to mitigate degradation in the receiver signal-to- noise power due to jamming and (2) a robust overlay signal architecture augmentation to address satellite's signal denial in worst case jamming. The Augmented JPALS, AJPALS, will be analyzed in Phase I through modeling and simulation and using experimental hardware measurements to validate the feasibility of AJPALS architecture. The Phase I program will also investigate the effects of these two levels of augmentation to JPALS in meeting the guidance requirements for shipboard CAT II landing. The Phase II program will implement and demonstrate the AJPALS architecture and will develop design-to-cost goals for this product in the context of both military and commercial viability.

EMF TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4121 Jacks Hollow Road
Williamsport, PA 17702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 745-3555
Gareth Knowles
NAVY 99-117
Title:Induced Strain Linear Motors
Abstract:In a highly attractive development, the U.S. Navy has been developing compact, heavy duty motors based on magneto-mechanical systems using metastable alloys(such as magnetostrictive or magnetic shape memory). However, a major obstacle to transferring these advances to practical systems for vertical and horizontal motion of deck systems such as bay doors, helicopters and stores has been clearly identified as the electronics. The fundamental operation of magneto-mechanical system mandates high energization at fast slew rates. The present use of linear power electronics is not capable of meeting specifications and incurs prohibitively large weight and power penalties for almost all ship deck applications such as machinery isolation or valve control that require the unique ability of magneto-mechanical systems to achieve actuation authority not available in ferroelectric mechanisms and devices. The goal of the project is to provide a full solution design of a compact and lightweight system capable of replacing heavy maintenance and power intensive hydraulic systems for ship deck operations. The proposed system introduces advances in switching topologies, components and subsystem designs for inductive loads as to minimize the weight and power costs.

MAGNEMOTION
142-V North Road
Sudbury, MA 01776
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 369-7600
Richard D. Thornton
NAVY 99-117
Title:Modular Linear Motor Driven Shipboard Material Handling System
Abstract:The development of a Navy linear motor driven material handling system will require extensive knowledge of linear motor design, careful consideration ship integration issues and considerable innovation. MagneMotion is focused on linear motor systems and on their application to a variety of demanding material handling missions. MagneMotion will work with the Navy and engineers at Bath Iron Works to determine operational requirements for this system. Against these requirements we will establish design criteria to conduct trade-offs of different motor technologies. MagneMotion's personnel are experts with all types of motors and are highly qualified to assess the options. Once the choice of motor type is made, a design activity will commence to develop a system capable of moving 12,000 lb. loads horizontally and vertically in a ship. This design will be scalable to the laboratory demonstrator model in Phase II. In addition, MagneMotion will develop preliminary concepts for: modularity by using standard motor modules rated at some minimum power level that can be stacked to meet higher power requirements; handling of oversized loads by linking multiple vehicles in a train; plane-to-plane transfer with either in-line or off-line concepts; and split lifts that can operate independently or in tandem.

POWER SUPERCONDUCTOR APPLICATIONS
930 Cass Street
New Castle, PA 16101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 657-9450
Dr. Stephen Kuznetsov
NAVY 99-117
Title:Linear Motor Technology in the Vertical Plane
Abstract:PSA has experience in the manufacture of both transverse flux linear induction machines (termed TFMs) and in conventional longitudinal flux LIMs (LFMs). The application of linear motors for vertical elevators for Navy ships involves a combination of transverse flux and longitudinal flux machines. Specifically, the single-sided, self-levitating "Magnetic River" TFM is ideal for the horizontal movement applications and couples to a double-sided LFM for vertical lift capability with multiple lift stations. This in our experience combines the optimum characteristics for both machines for maximizing the power to weight ratio, power factor, efficiency and specific thrust. Herein is provided a baseline design for a 12,000 lb (5454 kg) lift system operating at a typical service speed of 10-20 m/s and yielding a baseline power rating of 1.07 Megawatts for a vertical thrust of 53,500 Newtons.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
427 South 166th St.
Omaha, NE 68118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 683-1840
Joseph Chiara
NAVY 99-118
Title:Innovative Solutions to Improve Combat Information Center
Abstract:We plan to use and develop appropriate technology and techniques to enhance information management, display of information, judgement and decision support, and individual and team performance in CIC environments. We think our approach will result in reducing the number of personnel needed to effectively operate these systems, while maintaining or increasing situational awareness and enhancing operator and team performance. Our technical approach includes the use of intelligent technologies, information/data fusion and advanced displays and controls.

AEPTEC MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
15800 Crabbs Branch Way, #300
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 670-6770
Steven C. Chen
NAVY 99-118
Title:Advanced Connectivity for CIC Operations
Abstract:AEPTEC proposes to provide a COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE to all surface combatants operating in a battle group, by implementing advanced connectivity technologies that will support the sharing of a 3D tactical picture. AEPTEC has teamed with Lockheed Martin, and Multispectral Solutions, Inc. (MSSI) to offer a high bandwidth connectivity solution that will enable every ship's CIC to share a COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE of the battlefield. We will further develop our revolutionary Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radio which uses water as a wave guide and is currently being used by Special Forces to send T1 packets of data and imagery up to 20 miles over water. We plan to upgrade this technology to offer T1 connectivity for up to 60 miles over salt water to allow ships in a battle group to send each other the COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE in a real time, secure and low-cost manner that independent of satellites. We will also research the feasibility of 1) developing a low-cost flat antenna kit which could enable a ship's fire control antenna to receive T1 bandwidth connectivity, and 2) of utilizing low-cost kites to expand a ship's connectivity range.

APTIMA, INC.
300 West Cummings ParkSuite 3050
Wodburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Dr. Jean MacMillan
NAVY 99-118
Title:(CODE): A Mission-Driven, Human-Centered Quantitative Approach
Abstract:The driving force for technology and innovation for next generation aircraft carriers (CVX) is a 50 percent reduction in traditional ship manning. The need exists for a comprehensive methodology to optimize decision making organizations (e.g., carrier CDC/CVIC) to complete complex missions in the face of these reductions. We propose to develop an innovative tool to design optimal organizational structures to accommodate reduced manning. We will build on an existing team modeling approach that has been used to design an optimized CIC for future Navy surface ships, based on missions requirements, resources available, information networked, and doctrinal rules. Our method relies on practical design principles to guide the mission-driven specification of team members' roles task distribution, communication networks and physical layouts for command organizations. This process relies heavily on input from the warfighter and subject matter experts to define realistic mission characteristics, and to serve as evaluators of the optimized organizational structures. We plan to extend this methodology and develop an innovative CODE and Carrier Operations Design Environment, a team design an modeling tool for carrier systems developers. With this computer-based tool, we aim to move the method of organizational design from a heuristic based procedure to a scientifically based process.

RSL TECHNOLOGY CENTER, INC.
975 Second Street Pikeoffice G
Richboro, PA 18954
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) /35-7811
J. Barton Boodey
NAVY 99-119
Title:Rapid, Low-Cost Screening of High Strength Corrosion Resistant Fastener Materials for Critical Naval Marine Applications
Abstract:The overall objectives of this proposal are: a) to demonstrate the feasibility of using rapid, low-cost test methods for screening materials to be used as fasteners in critical assemblies; and b) to rapidly screen existing and new high-strength (120-150ksi) corrosion resistant materials to replace K-Monel, which is unacceptable for critical application at these strength levels due to electrochemical incompatibility with Ti-6Al-4V and Inco 625 and susceptibility to Environmental Assisted Cracking (EAC). The proposed test methods will screen these high-strength materials for significant plasticity and resistance to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) as outlined in the fracture mechanics approach described in the Fracture Toughness Review Process Document. The materials chosen for this proposal were: Inconel 718, A286, MP35N, and MP159. In addition, three newer materials were selected based upon their potential for good strength and toughness and significantly improved EAC resistance. These three alloys are Carpenter Custom 625 plus, Carpenter PH-465, and Inco 725. In addition Phase I Option testing will be conducted on Monel K-500 fabricated to the same yield strength range for comparison to data previously determined as validation of rapid testing methods and with the results of the testing on the alloy systems for selection for Phase II.

BNI
6325 W. 55th Ave
Arvada, CO 80002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 421-8111
Kenneth E. Nichols
NAVY 99-121
Title:Sewage Discharge Pumps
Abstract:A highly innovative pump concept for Navy wastewater disposal systems is proposed that will greatly increase reliability and maintainability over present systems. This innovative design concept incorporates a hermetic design that completely eliminates the troublesome pump seal and utilizes a unique mechanism chopping solids at the pump inlet. The pump motor and bearing system is cooled, lubricated, and purged with readily available seawater thus eliminating the typical oil system. After researching and defining requirements for the high reliability/maintainability CHT pump, Barber-Nichols will design, develop and test several configurations of the chopper mechanism to optimize the design of the Phase II effort. Final preliminary analysis, material selection, and a conceptual design layout will be completed that incorporated the findings of this effort. The Phase I effort will be completed with a detailed final report.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4283
Robert L. Cardenas
NAVY 99-121
Title:Nonclogging Sewage Discharge Pump
Abstract:The comminutors and transfer pumps used to process and discharge sewage from Navy vessels are the two primary components requiring the most service/maintenance. When the comminutors fail, oversized solids enter into the Collection, Holding and Transfer (CHT) system used to process shipboard soil and waste drain discharge. These large solids can subsequently clog the sewage discharge pump (SDP), disrupting system functionality and forcing sewage to be discharged into restricted waterways which is in direct violation with Secretary of Defense promulgated regulations. To correct this situation a new or modified pump must be engineered that will eliminate the need for the communitor. This new pump must be capable of either passing the largest solids that can flow through system piping or reducing the size of incoming solids using integral chopping mechanisms. In Phase I, system requirements will be established and a design for an advanced SDP will be developed. The proposed principles of operation for this new SDP will be verified through proof of feasibility testing using modified pumps tested on simulated waste streams. The Phase I results will provide the baseline foundation for developing prototype SDPs that can be tested on actual shipboard waste in a follow-on Phase II program.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 679-1791
Daniel K. Patton
NAVY 99-122
Title:Total Ship Training Concept
Abstract:New naval ship classes will be manned with fewer personnel, creating a near-term requirement for new tactical and training system technologies that can reduce crew workload. Current Navy embedded training systems, such as the Battle Force Tactical Training (BFTT) system and the AEGIS Combat Training System (ACTS), provide excellent examples of embedded training systems that incorporate traditional stand-alone shipboard training systems under a comprehensive systems architecture to create an expanded Combat Information Center (CIC) training system capability. DSR proposes exploring the feasibility of using these embedded combat mission training systems as a Total Ship Training core and developing a system architecture that would allow for the integration of existing onboard trainers that support ship's navigation, propulsion, damage control, and embarked Marine and aviation components to create a system. The goal would be to provide the Afloat Training Group and Shipboard training teams with a coordinated training simulation capability for the entire ship that supports shipboard readiness objectives, minimizes personnel requirements, and is cost-effective.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway NorthP.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 663-9034
Milton L. Stretton
NAVY 99-122
Title:Total Ship Training Concept
Abstract:Sonalysts, Inc. proposes to meld our extensive research and development and applied training application experience with state-of-the-art approaches to distributed team training management in developing an innovative training concept of operations and architecture for Total Ship Training. Sonalysts will conduct architectural requirements research to support distributed training management of disparate, highly-variable training systems; differing missions and disciplines; variable observer/controller skill levels; a wide range of training objectives; extensive training resources; and differing data collection and performance measurement needs within a total ship training environment. Phase I key tasks include identification of the following: Scope of integrated Marine Detachment and Navy host training requirements Range of training objectives/requirements Characteristics and capabilities of current Marine and Navy systems Levels of distribution for training Range of training environments Levels of complexity to be supported Measures and measurement schemes to quantify performance for objectives Data collection requirements Feedback processes required for combined Navy and Marine force training Sonalysts will also assess future and developmental training system efforts to round out functional requirements. This assessment, combined with a state-of-the-art review of tools and methods such as intelligent agents and expert systems within an open architecture, will be integrated into a concept of operations and system architecture for recommended recipients.

TECHNOVATIONS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
215 WINDY HILL ROAD
COATESVILLE, PA 19320
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 469-2563
DR. JOHN H. BUCHER
NAVY 99-123
Title:CORROSION PREVENTION METHODS FOR STRUCTURAL STEELS
Abstract:The feasibility of a metallurgical process for developing an adherent corrosion preventive surface film on structural steels containing certain alloying elements is proposed. This film will allow steel products to remain in open outside storage areas while minimizing corrosion or oxidation. The range of specified corrosion inhibiting elements in steel will be determined based on a metallurgical model which takes into consideration the total property requirement of the steel products. Cost-effective practices and processes will be designed to introduce the specified corrosion inhibiting elements in steel. By developing an innovative process, the surface of the steel product will be provided with an adherent, stable, corrosion and scratch resistant surface film. Determination of the processing conditions for large scale commercial applications will also be studied.

THE S. MAIN CO. L.L.C.
P.O. Box 577
Milford, MI 48381
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 684-9259
Edmund J. Swain
NAVY 99-123
Title:Ferritic Nitrocarburization-Based Method for Corrosion Prevention
Abstract:This project will analyze the feasibility of utilizing a thermochemical process that is based on ferritic nitrocarburization for the purpose of developing a new corrosion preventative method. A sample set of structural steel components will be examined and treated to help characterize the new process. In addition, the process control parameters will be developed and analyzed to aid in generalizing the method for other material types.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive, Suite 202
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 693-0017
Dr. Thomas D. Rogers
NAVY 99-124
Title:A Novel On-Board Wastewater Treatment System for Naval Vessels
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I Project is the development of an on-board wastewater treatment system for naval vessels. Presently, ships collect and hold all sewage and wastewater, then discharge the waste while in port at pierside connections. While at sea, waste is emptied directly into the ocean. Because of the rising cost of pierside off-loading and stricter environmental regulations, a water treatment system is needed on the ship that provides independence from shore facilities and produces and environmentally benign discharge. Lynntech's proposed method for water treatment is based on a unique combination of microwave technology, membrane filtration, and ozone disinfection. This integrated system will meet all effluent discharge goals including total suspended solids of 100 mg/liter, biological oxygen demand of 50 mg/liter, and fecal coliform of 200 colonies/100 mL. It is affordable, compact, safe, and can be easily installed and integrated with the Navy's present collection, hold, and transfer system (CHT). In Phase I, we will design and optimize the waste treatment system to produce an environmentally safe discharge. In Phase II, we will build and install the new microwave treatment facility on a ship to handle all the sewage and gray water streams in an environmentally safe manner.

WASTECH INTERNATIONAL, INC.
210 West Road, #7
Portsmouth, NH 03801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 436-2809
Guy Marchesseault, PhD
NAVY 99-124
Title:Microwave Technology Treatment for Sewage System
Abstract:In order to comply with environmental regulations an maintain its operational effectiveness, the U.S. Navy must examine alternative technologies for wastewater treatment, disposal, and reuse. WASTECH International, Inc. has developed a number of innovative and alternative treatment technologies that are directly applicable to the U.S. Navy's sewage and gray water treatment needs. These treatment technologies are potentially capable of eliminating sludge and producing an effluent suitable for overboard discharge. Under Phase I of this project, WASTECH proposes to design a prototype wastewater treatment system that will provide the most economical means of shipboard treatment of sewage and gray water for overboard discharge and/or reuse, as appropriate. WASTECH's treatment technology involves the microwave incineration of toilet solids, resulting in no sludge generation, as well as ceramic filtration of effluent to significantly reduce the suspended solids concentration in discharge effluent. In addition, WASTECH has developed complementary technologies to disinfect the effluent and reduce dissolved organic matter. It is expected that information obtained from Phase I will make it possible to design integrated wastwater treatment and management systems for all appropriate classes of Navy ships under SBIR Phase II and III.

DECISION DYNAMICS, INC.
4600 East West HighwaySuite 410
Bethesda, MD 20814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 657-8500
Louis E. Alfeld, ScD.
NAVY 99-125
Title:Advanced Verification and Validation Techniques
Abstract:This proposal presents a unique technical opportunity for NAVSEA to build on an existing body of knowledge to create both metrics and the quantifying techniques used to assess model performance. DDI has pioneered the development of complex dynamic simulation models for the USN over the past eight years, many under the SBIR program. During this time, DDI has often provided V&V assurances to its software users as well as examined third-party software developed by others, including client-server applications. DDI's strength, however, lies in its extensive experience in judging the validity of complex models and modeling systems and in its experience in the development of metrics for the most complex type of simulation models, those involving multiple, non-linear feedback relationships with multi-variable interdependencies. DDI intends to apply its expertise into the development of a method for determining and describing the degree to which intricate simulations emulate reality. DDI will categorize specific purposes for model use; identify critical aspects models must satisfy for validity; and, define metrics to measure model performance. In addition, DDI will identify potential approaches for quantifying model performance against such metrics and demonstrate how at least one of the approaches might be applied in practice.

VISITECH LTD.
3107 North 18th Street
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 391-6264
Steven Kasputis
NAVY 99-125
Title:Advanced Validation Techniques
Abstract:As the use of complex simulation representations becomes more widespread, it is imperative that their accuracy be precisely defined. At the same time, however, the very nature of their increased complexity progressively prohibits the use of conventional methods of measuring or assuring such precision. The statistical validation methods proposed by VisiTech would complement and augment the traditional verification and validation methods. Those methods would still be required at the more fundamental level such as the individual production rule for knowledge-based models or the constituent model used in complex simulations. The statistical methods developed under this SBIR would be used to measure performance when these more fundamental constructs are combined in ways that result in non-deterministic aspects during execution.

CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS & SOFTWARE
PO BOX 1129
CHINO VALLEY, AZ 86323
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 636-2600
Ed P. Andert Jr.
NAVY 99-126
Title:Distributed Synthetic Environment Data and Effects Server
Abstract:The military is developing distributed simulations to allow a wide range of simulators, simulations, platforms, sensors, and live forces to participate in common training, planning and decision making exercises. This reduces training costs while improving readiness. The Navy Battle Force Tactical Training (BFTT) system is an example of distributed embedded simulation application that stimulates ship combat system sensors to cause ship systems to act as virtual trainers. Incorporation of dynamic synthetic environment representations of ocean, surf-zone, atmosphere, terrain, and near-space improves the realism of such training simulations. A consistent and realistic synthetic environment is a critical element of such distributed and embedded simulations. This project will develop an E-Server distributed synthetic environment data and effects server that provides consistent and realistic environment services for HLA-based distributed simulations. The synthetic environment server enables environment "services" to be accessed from anywhere on a networked simulation. The Phase I technical objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of the E-Server distributed environment server approach that provides a realistic and consistent synthetic environment for distributed and embedded training simulation applications.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(618) 876-8085
Brian Spaulding
NAVY 99-126
Title:The Smart Server -- An Application for Distributed SNE Processing
Abstract:Traditionally, simulations have handled the modeling of the synthetic natural environment (SNE) internally, creating closed, stovepipe environments. While this was sufficient for stand-alone systems, it is not sufficient to support today's distributed simulation environments. Systems, once used for individual training, are being reused in distributed exercises to support collective training, mission planning, and mission rehearsal. These systems, of varying fidelity and data requirements, need to interact together in a shared synthetic environment. To support these systems, an open, flexible, distributed processing environment is needed. The system must provide a consistent representation of the SNE while supporting a wide array of source data and simulation systems. MÄK Technologies will establish a robust SNE architecture that supports both embedded and distributed SNE calculations. The architecture is based on two primary components; the SNE Application Programmers Interface (API) and the Smart Server. The SNE API supports the incorporation of many different authoritative data sources, while insulating the simulation from changes in the underlying data formats and data distribution mechanisms. The SNE Smart Server will be capable of providing SNE calculations for end systems with different modeling requirements, and performing load balancing by distributing the SNE related processing across other network resources.

I-KINETICS
17 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 270-1300
Bruce H. Cottman
NAVY 99-127
Title:Universal Modeling and Simulation Data Exchange
Abstract:The key barrier to realizing new capabilities in Modeling & Simulation (M&S) is integrating existing M&S assets from such valuable resources such as weapon simulations and mission planning data. In practice, almost 100% of M&S systems are custom software driven by domain and mission-specific requirements. Mission changes result in system requirement change and thus integration of new capabilities is the most significant problem. The promise of component-based M&S systems is to enable developers and end-users to "snap together" new applications by mixing and matching external simulation data and components. A major innovation of this effort is the design of universal M&S data exchange language based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). The major capabilities of the M&S data exchange language are (1) new M&S language terms can be added without effecting the reliability of existing terms; (2) term structures can be nested to any level of complexity; (3) any M&S data object can contain an optional description of its grammar. Another major innovation dynamic (run-time) transformation of legacy M&S software interfaces into standards-based services. The result is the ability to adapt quickly to different user and mission demands, while achieving reliability through the reuse of verified components.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
3085 Woodman DriveSuite 200
Dayton, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 299-5999
Mary Lou Fricke
NAVY 99-127
Title:Multi-Resolution Mapping Framework
Abstract:The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's High Level Architecture (HLA) supports implementation of advanced distributed weapons system analysis and training systems by linking dissimilar simulations. One of the grand challenges in HLA stems from the desire to represent large-scale operations in a single simulation and yet retain the ability to investigate certain aspects of the battle space in greater detail. In order to link simulations implemented at substantially different levels of resolution, a multi-resolution mapping framework is needed. Spectra Research, Inc. (S*R) and Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) propose to prototype a Multi-Resolution Mapping Framework (MRMF) tool and demonstrate it with a HLA toolsuite called Federate Connect. Federate Connect is under development to map the source code of a simulation to an HLA object model, build a Simulation Object Model, and generate a HLA compliant federate including middleware to connect to the HLA Run-time Infrastructure. The proposed MRMF tool will replace a simpler Object Model Resolver tool included in Federate Connect. By building on this existing baseline, we will be able to focus on developing a very robust MRMF in Phase II. The MRMF will be compatible with the evolving Joint Simulation System and Joint Modeling and Simulation System implementation.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Dr. Jacqueline A. Haynes
NAVY 99-128
Title:Team Readiness Assessment Program
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes to develop the Team Readiness Assessment Program" (TRAP). TRAP will be an assessment tool to measure the effectiveness of training battle groups in the performance of mission essential tasks as individuals or as a team. TRAP will use Latent Semantic Analysis, a powerful new machine-learning technology, to provide a numerical index of the similarity between textual descriptions of tactics, tasks and other elements of task performance with a description of the trainee's decisions and response, with after-action reviews of training exercises, and with scenarios having desirable outcomes. The goal is to develop TRAP as a reliable method of assessing battle group readiness, and to aid in planning needed training programs. TRAP will enable the Navy to measure performance of trainees and effectiveness of training using LSA-based similarity metrics by matching descriptions of training exercise outcomes with descriptions of ideal outcomes, and by matching trainees' consideration of factors such as weather, sea state, relevant tactics and doctrine to experts. The numerical scores provided by these comparisons will be scaled along a continuum indicating the readiness of the individual or Battle Group to effectively plan and implement mission essential tasks. TRAP will enable trainees to receive real-time feedback on their decisions, and provide them with descriptions of choices that match more closely to optimal choices. TRAP will be designed for individual or group use, and for local as well as distributed training environments.

MULTI-MEDIA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
6610 Rockledge Dr.Suite 168
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 897-8777
Robert Wei-Cheng Tung
NAVY 99-129
Title:QoS Optimization Tool for Internet Protocol Based Integrated Services Internet
Abstract:Today's Internet operates basically with one class of service, called "best effort." The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), in response to the demands of industry, has published two "integrated services" (Intserv) standards that define additional service classes in an effort to provide a framework for the vendors to implement quality of service (QoS) guarantees. These two classes--Guaranteed Service and Controlled Load--do not adequately support the end-to-end quality of service requirements that the Navy has for command-and-control and mission-critical applications under stringent battle conditions. Fundamentally, these two Intserv QoS classes do not take advantages of the statistical nature of communication traffic. We propose to develop a coherent set of statistical QoS criteria (delay, jitter and loss) that will work within the Intserv QoS framework and will enhance the Intserv traffic management capabilities. Our goal is to develop an end-to-end QoS Optimzation (IP QO) tool that will allow Navy network managers to set router and switch parameters to achieve maximum possible network bandwidth utilization, end-to-end, in a heterogeneous network environment. The proposed IP QO tool will work with HP OpenView and IBM's Trivoli, the Navy's Network Management System's of choice. Through these NMSs, it will allow network managers to control and configure the shipboard networks to guarantee end-to-end QoS services.

MULTI-MEDIA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
6610 Rockledge Dr.Suite 168
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 897-8777
Robert Wei-Cheng Tung
NAVY 99-130
Title:Navy Command System: A Quality of Service (QoS) Management Tool Over Internet Protocol (IP) Based Networks
Abstract:Today, overall network performance and guaranteed end-to-end QoS delivery are affected adversely by lack of interoperability. Moreover, the networking challenges of the Web era demand a new generation of management systems featuring tighter linkage among user-, network- and application-level management information. It is plain that effective allocation of network resources cannot be devised unless the network elements fully understand the required performance and mission criticality of the various applications and of users roaming the network. To address these concerns, we propose a framework for developing a Policy Manager (PM) that consistently and coherently implements the Network Policy (NP) of an organization in a multi-vendor network infrastructure. The NP organizes the QoS levels of potential connections (and relevant attributes) into a Policy Directory from which an Absolute Ranking is generated. Used in conjunction with a set of Implementation Script Generators, this approach leads to a streamlined prioritization of network resources, transparently and coherently across multiple vendor implementations, in support of organizationally driven QoS provisioning as is imperative in Navy shipboard and shore-side networks. The PM will be compliant with existing and emerging protocol suites, including ATM and IETF standards (e.g., Intserv, Diffserv and LDAP); its modular structure allows easy upgrades in response to technological changes.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Center Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-5530
Dr. Vivek Samant
NAVY 99-131
Title:Distributed Simulation Based Acquisition (DSBA) Framework Using Distributed Computing Architectures and Java/CORBA Infrastructures
Abstract:Our objective is to develop and demonstrate a model for the Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) process. The concept is that the SBA framework is an associative network of interdependent objects implementing the underlying information model. We propose an integrated architecture for this purpose using the Java/CORBA Object Web in phase I, and integrate it with an initial implementation of the HLA/RTI in phase II. The Object Web provides the distributed infrastructure and associated services needed to facilitate the evolution of the SBA process as the product evolves from concept to its disposition. The output of this SBIR project will be a demonstration software framework that will provide initial software component implementations and interfaces required to create an application suite that will facilitate phases of the acquisition process throughout the total product life cycle. In Phase I, we will develop object models, the Object Web, and demonstrate a limited set of these capabilities using an initial implementation of a set of simulation object models. In phase II, we will develop and integrate a more complete set of models in a distributed environment. In Phase III, we will transfer technology to support DoD applications and to develop commerical products.

MOUNTAIN WAVE, INC.
6542 Tucker Ave.
McLean, VA 22101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 790-7295
Robert Iler / Juanita Koi
NAVY 99-132
Title:Security Mode Verification for Untrusted Workstation
Abstract:Mountain Wave, Inc. proposes to investigate the development of an automated security mode verification scheme that would allow independent verification that a group of networked "untrusted" workstations with embedded encryption is configured properly. This scheme will include the following components: " Intelligent Agents on each workstation that run autonomously to achieve the goal of maintaining a baseline configuration of the network layer, the operating system, the security layer and the application layer " A private and secure communications method that allows remote communications with the Intelligent Agents " A Security Information Server that performs status checks and administration of the Intelligent Agents including the verification of the authenticity of the Intelligent Agents " Automation methods that reduce the administration task of configuring and maintaining the proposed scheme in a production environment Phase I of this SBIR will focus on developing the Intelligent Agents and demonstrate that these agents cannot be subverted by the workstation operators. In Phase II, the whole automated security mode verification scheme will be prototyped along with a study on the associated cost and reliability issues. The automated features of this scheme are necessary to keep pace with the rapid security client-server exchanges of future shipboard systems.

MULTI-MEDIA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
6610 Rockledge Dr.Suite 168
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 897-8777
Robert Wei-Cheng Tung
NAVY 99-133
Title:Performance Interoperability in Internet Protocol (IP) / Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networks
Abstract:The main challenge of today's heterogeneous networks is concerned with interoperability, that is, to deliver end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) among various networking technologies and equipment from different vendors while achieving maximum possible network performance. Standard protocols provide a common ground for the equipment to communicate; however, the network performance is always lower than would be expected from its original network design. The causes of this performance degradation are subtle and can be traced, fundamentally, to a vendor's proprietary design schemes, e.g., packet scheduling, buffering, and call admission control, and inappropriate parameters setting on the network elements and their interfaces. We will investigate these root causes and their associated network design and operational difficulties. Our goal is to develop a Rules-based Expert System (RES) that will provide extensive 'expert experiences', known as knowledge rules, to assist designing and operating highly efficient heterogeneous networks. It will work with HP OPENVIEW or IBM TIVOLI, the Navy Network Management Systems of choice, so that RES can be remotely controlled and operated through a uniform Navy platform. RES will achieve Navy's stringent interoperability goals such as those in the IT-21 and DD-21 programs.

PICOLIGHT, INC.
4665 Nautilus Court SouthSuite 3
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-3189
Jack Jewell
NAVY 99-134
Title:Viable 2.5-10 GHz 1300nm VCSEL Arrays
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research proposal describes the development of the most viable technology for 1300nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The technical approach overcomes the problems encountered by the many other approaches being pursued and published. Futhermore, it will minimize development time and is compatible with commercially available manufacturing systems. Picolight's ongoing progress in longwave VCSEL technology will be leveraged. The Phase I program has the agressive goal to demonstrate and evaluate 2.5GHz modulation in a 1300nm VCSEL. Compatibility with Picolight driver circuitry will also be evaluated. Additionally, designs will be made for mil-spec-compliant, Gigabit-Ethernet-compliant, and reliable VCSELs for datacom in both multi- and single-mode packages. The Phase II program will develop commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) 1300nm VCSELs suitable for shipboard data links over distances at least 1km and at speeds and arrays at least 1x12 in size. The 1300nm VCSEL effort will be a materials development, and will be in concert with synergistic Picolight efforts in VCSEL design, packaging, driver/receiver circuits, and small-form-factor transceivers.

PRINCETON ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
196 Princeton-Hightstown Road
Cranbury, NJ 08512
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 716-9212
Kaiyan Zhang, PhD
NAVY 99-134
Title:High Performance Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers at 1300nm Using Patterned Growth
Abstract:A low cost, high performance, 1300nm VCSEL will be a very desirable device for telecommunications as well as data communications applications. However, there is no low cost process for manufacturing of the 1300 or 1550nm devices at present because of the smaller refractive index difference between the InP/InGaAsP material systems compared to the GaAs/AlGaAs systems at shorter wavelengths. Princeton Electronic Systems, in collaboration with University of Michigan proposes to develop a low cost fabrication technology for 1300nm VCSELs using patterned growth approach which has been extremely successful for 1550nm devices. The VCSEL structure can be grown on patterned GaAs substrate, with no regrowth or multi-wafer growth/bonding process. The wide-band GaAs/AlxGaAs-oxide DBR mirror will reduce the growth time by 3-5 times. It will be possible to fabricate multi-wavelength emitters from a single wafer growth by simply controlling the mesa dimension. In phase I of this SBIR, we propose to design the VCSEL structure, grow the wafers by MBE, and fabricate the VCSEL devices. The devices will be tested for their performance including the high speed performance. We will demonstrate the feasibility of the devices in phase I and perfect them in phase II. We want to manufacture the devices in phase III.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1Building 12
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-0610
Dr. Alan R. Sugg
NAVY 99-134
Title:Flip-Bonded, Substrate-Removed, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Arrays at 1.3 µm
Abstract:We propose to design, demonstrate and develop highly stable, single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) in 1 x N arrays (N > 8) operating at 1.3 µm at 1GHz bandwidths. Sensors Unlimited will use a novel design based upon flip-bonding, substrate removal and dielectric stacks for both VCSEL mirrors. We will deliver individual VCSELs operating in a single mode at a 1.3 µm-wavelength capable of 1GHz bandwidth operation at the end of Phase I. This will include complete characterization of the device including operating wavelength, threshold current, output power, far-field pattern, thermal and current tuning of the lasers as well as bandwidth characterization. The dependence of laser threshold upon the nature of the Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) mirrors will also be studied. In Phase II, we will complete the optimization of the device in terms of the lasing threshold and wall-plug efficiency. We will also fabricate and deliver a 1 x 8 array of VCSELs. Prof. S. R. Forrest (Princeton University) and Milind Gokhale (Princeton University) will consult on this project.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge ParkwaySuite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9543
Mark Jensen
NAVY 99-135
Title:Survivable Multi Level Security (MLS) Architecture for Dynamic Resource Allocation
Abstract:This proposal prescribes an approach for developing a Survivable Multi Level Secure (MLS) Architecture (SMA). This survivable computing architecture will allow a DD21 class platform to rapidly prepare in real time for the recovery and protection of critical C2 and C4I applications in the event of a pending threat such as an incoming missile or to respond to abnormal operating loads by load balancing processes and applications across distributed platforms. This architecture will allow processes to be rapidly moved from one computing platform, which is expected to become inoperable or overloaded, to a safer platform physically located in another part of the vessel. In performing this dynamic reallocation, the SMA will execute in a secure fashion that will allow multi-level secure operations to be restored within the new distributed processing configuration. The architecture developed under this SBIR will meet the requirements for survivable Navy shipboard, mission critical, multi-level secure networks and will leverage commercial standards and technology such as CORBA, JAVA, and Modula-3. This proposal outlines the Phase I SBIR tasks to be performed that will define the SMA architecture and its implementation details.

CRYOGENIC MATERIALS, INC.
2625 Iliff
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 494-1852
Richard P. Reed
NAVY 99-136
Title:Development of Low-Cost, Composite Isogrid Support Strauctures for Large-Scale Naval Applications of Supercoanductivity
Abstract:Composite tubes for cryogenic cold-to-warm support structures with an isogrid structure will be developed that have lighter weight, lower thermal conductance, and equivalent compressive strength to those currently in use. Previous attempts to produce composite isogrid tubes, using the filament-winding process, have resulted in nonparallel and bent glass tows in the grid elements and considerable radial expansion (tow bending) at the grid nodes (intersections). Composite fabrication techniques will be emphasized to eliminate nonparallel glass tows in grid ribs and at nodes (intersections) and to minimize setup and winding costs. Several isogrid tube structures from two distinct glass/epoxy composite fabrication processes will be produced. Complete tubes having equivalent material cross-sectional areas will also be fabricated. Axial compression tests will be conducted for all produced types at room temperature and 77 K for comparison. Optimized isogrid structure and fabrication process will be assessed based on tube performance and fabrication cost.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5504
Thomas Campbell
NAVY 99-136
Title:Development of Low-Cost, Composite Isogrid Support Structures for Large-Scale Naval Applications of Superconductivity
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes development of an ultra-compact composite radiator design capable of operating in both land and sea environments at temperatures in excess of 250*F. Foster-Miller's design will attain equivalent efficiencies to the best metallic radiators at 1/2 to 1/5th of the volume. Foster-Miller will employ electrohydrodynamics (EHD) to dramatically improve the heat transfer coefficient of air. EHD, combined with our experience in composite materials, electronics industry conductor technology and aerospace industry corrosion resistant coatings, will enable critical cooling system weight reductions for the next generation of assault vehicles. The Phase I program will demonstrate several of the critical fabrication techniques needed to implement the EHD concept on the AAAV main coolant heat exchangers. Foster-Miller will work with our team partners, General Dynamics Amphibious Systems (GDAS) and Land Systems (GDLS), to identify the performance requirements. Foster-Miller will utilize experimental techniques to develop the EHD parameters for ultra-compact cross flow heat exchangers. The base program will fabricate a representative cross flow heat exchanger core segment to be tested in the option. A manufacturing plan for demonstrating a cost effective EHD heat exchanger core of robust construction will be recommended at the end of Phase I base program for implementation in Phase II.

AEPTEC MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
15800 Crabbs Branch Way, #300
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 670-6770
Steven C. Chen
NAVY 99-137
Title:Advanced Connectivity for CIC Operations
Abstract:AEPTEC proposes to provide a COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE to all surface combatants operating in a battle group, by implementing advanced connectivity technologies that will support the sharing of a 3D tactical picture. AEPTEC has teamed with Lockheed Martin, and Multispectral Solutions, Inc. (MSSI) to offer a high bandwidth connectivity solution that will enable every ship's CIC to share a COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE of the battlefield. We will further develop our revolutionary Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radio which uses water as a wave guide and is currently being used by Special Forces to send T1 packets of data and imagery up to 20 miles over water. We plan to upgrade this technology to offer T1 connectivity for up to 60 miles over salt water to allow ships in a battle group to send each other the COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE in a real time, secure and low-cost manner that independent of satellites. We will also research the feasibility of 1) developing a low-cost flat antenna kit which could enable a ship's fire control antenna to receive T1 bandwidth connectivity, and 2) of utilizing low-cost kites to expand a ship's connectivity range.

SPATIAL INTEGRATED SYSTEMS, INC.
7564 Standish PlaceSuite 123
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 610-7965
Dr. Ali Farsaie
NAVY 99-137
Title:A Three-Dimensional Video Targeting System
Abstract:We propose to design a new 3-D targeting system for reduced manning of Combat Information Center Support. The system will provide an enhanced-confidence, more accurate device for use with existing and future combat systems. We will develop a biologically inspired 3-D video processing system to accurately capture the physical scene and objects within the scene; to construct a 3-D view of the captured scene; and to provide range information for any target within the scene. The 3D view of the scene and all the objects within the scene will provide the operator with a photo-realistic view of the area of interest. In Phase I, a laboratory prototype unit will be constructed to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed concept. Our commercial partner, Lockheed Martin, is the integrator of the Aegis Combat System and a leading contender for the integration role on the DD-21 and CVX platforms. Lockheed has teamed with SIS, Inc. to jointly develop advanced 3-D targeting techniques for surface ship combat systems. We intend to leverage the results of this SBIR contract into a commercial offering that Lockheed will sell to other Government agencies as well as to commercial market.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 S. Amphlett Blvd. Ste 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Richard Stottler
NAVY 99-137
Title:Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Automating CIC Tactical Operations
Abstract:AI and Expert System technology offer the capability of capturing human decision processes. Developing a general schema for capturing the knowledge required for each CIC position facilitates the development of Intelligent Watch Station Software Modules to automatically perform the associated watch station's tasks, including filtering, collecting, correlating, interpreting, identifying, processing, evaluating, and fusing the data from the sensor systems while controlling, monitoring, adjusting, configuring and optimizing their equipment. These software modules represent a layer of intelligence between the tactical decision makers and the equipment. But the representation and automatic execution of CIC knowledge is a complex problem. What is needed is an integrated approach using a broad range of technologies. We will develop a general schema for CIC knowledge representation using AI techniques such as task transition diagrams, knowledge-based representations (rules, objects), case-based reasoning, intelligent entities, tactical diagrams, constraint-satisfaction, and fuzzy logic. The primary goal is to support a radically reduced manning concept in the CIC. In Phase I, we will design an intelligent CIC watch station automation system which includes a general CIC knowledge representation schema, investigate the knowledge required for several watch stations, implement a limited prototype CIC knowledge representation and execution system, and implement three limited automated watch station prototypes for different CIC positions using the schema

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 339-6500
Dr. John H. McAdoo
NAVY 99-138
Title:A High-Average-Power Limiter Based On Silicon Carbide
Abstract:The objective of SAL (silicon-carbide adjustable limiter) is to design a replacement limiter for the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) transceiver upgrade. The SAL will withstand 250 W while occupying no more space than the present limiter. More than twice as much power has to be transferred to the heat sink through a limiter with the same foot print as the present CEC limiter. This will be accomplished by designing the limiter from silicon carbide (SiC). The high thermal conductivity and high operating temperature of SiC solves the heat-transfer problem. To avoid problems experienced by others using bipolar SiC devices, Mission Research Corporation will design the limiter with n-type field-effect transistors (FETs). A working prototype will be made with chip and wire technology and tested for feasibility. We have successfully performed this type of design in gallium arsenide (GAL) and are presently teamed with Raytheon to develop and market a commercial product. The SAL approach can be used to design compact limiters for any system. The flexibility of the FET circuit can be utilized to design limiters with adjustable insertion loss for avoiding pulsed interference; hence the acronym SAL for SiC Adjustable Limiter. Since the field-effect transistor is amenable to monolithic integrated circuit techniques, this work will set the stage for the production of integrated receiver front ends when SiC technology matures sufficiently to support low-noise amplifier design.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4110
Justyna Teverovsky
NAVY 99-139
Title:High-Strength, UV Resistant, Lightweight LCP Cords Suitable for Deck Edge Safety Nets
Abstract:Netting is presently used on U.S. Navy ships to provide fall protection for landing/maintenance crews. This netting in past years was fabricated using metallic cord and at present is constructed from nylon braid. The metal nets were quite durable, but added to the ship radar cross-section and were heavy. Presently used nylon is lightweight and has no radar signature, but must be replaced every 12 to 18 months due to UV degradation and abrasion. Foster-Miller proposes to use Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) fiber technology to address the Navy's need for an advanced deck-edge safety net with a 5+ year life-cycle. In Phase I lightweight LCP cords will be developed and tested for their ability to withstand harsh marine environments and loading conditions. The use of fiber infiltration/coating processes combined with braided sleeves will be used to provide two levels of protection against UV degradation and abrasive wear. Furthermore, the outstanding strength and inherent non-flammability of LCP cords will enhance it applicability for use as a safety net. In Phase II the successful technology identified and developed in Phase I will be refined/optimized, and integrated into our teaming partners netting production facilities for fabrication into pre-production LCP netting suitable for shipboard testing.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Michael Dingus/John Bullu
NAVY 99-139
Title:Non-Metallic Netting for Deck Edge Safety Nets
Abstract:Deck edge safety nets surround the perimeter of surface ships and are critical to the prevention of crew injury or loss of life. The nets prevent personnel knocked down by helicopter downwash or jet blast from falling into the ocean or on to the next lower deck. Current material is nylon impregnated with neoprene latex. Due to a short service life, material replacement and installation costs are 92% of the life cycle costs. Texas Research Institute Austin will team with Murdock Webbing Company, Inc. to produce the most economical and longest lasting material for safety nets. Advanced nylon and polyester fibers are available with high tenacity and high modulus that also meet the cost restraints of the project. Dyes and coating for fibers that show enhanced UV resistance will be identified and incorporated into the webbing for better resistance to degradation due to sunlight. Candidate materials will be exposed to UV radiation and salt-water spray then tested for physical properties to determine their physical attributes.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Joseph Murray
NAVY 99-140
Title:Virtual Distributed Real-Time OS for Real-Time Combat Systems and Joint Systems Like CEC
Abstract:Combat systems have historically been developed through a process that focuses on insular subsystems. This process has resulted in severe limitations on system interoperability and technical obsolescence. In addition, excessive life cycle costs are associated with maintaining multiple configurations to ensure some level of interoperability. To overcome these limitations, new emphasis has been placed on the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies. To support the use of COTS, DSR has developed a real-time middleware framework for integrated combat systems and joint warfare coordination systems that is becoming widely used in the Navy. Transportable Middleware (TM) permits software developers to take advantage of the continuing technology advances in the commercial computing industry, because application software can be ported quickly. TM is being applied to the Cooperative Engagement Capability Processor (CEP) because of the desire to use a common software baseline on many different hosts located on different platforms. The overall objective of this Phase I research is to extend TM by designing a suite of test and performance analysis tools that will minimize the need for complete regression testing when introducing new hardware and software. The ultimate goal is minimizing life-cycle cost, which is particularly crucial to the CEC Program.

TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 71735 Water Street
Wiscasset, ME 04578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 882-7589
Mr. Charles Benton
NAVY 99-141
Title:Optimized Structural Component Assembly Manager
Abstract:The application of industrial lasers in producing structural shapes for shipbuilding will create enormous savings (in excess of $1,000,000 per Aegis Destroyer), plus result in a higher quality product than produced by present methods. This is because components fabricated from plate steel are inherently more precise and of lower weight than those produced from traditional rolled steel. A major requirement is the need for automatic categorization, nesting, and handling of steel plate used in fabricating structural shapes (i.e. I-beams, T-beams). The key issue underlying this capability is that the flow of raw materials through the cutting and welding process requires management of many components to create an optimized delivery of end product (fabricated parts) with minimal material waste and labor expense. Development of an Optimized Structural Component Assembly Manager (OSCAM) is proposed. The proposed approach will create a modular system compatible with emerging CAD standards, commercial cutting and welding systems, and suitable for adaptation to various manufacturing requirements, with emphasis on shipbuilding. This effort focuses on identifying existing and emerging capability in collaboration with leading research and end use organizations to produce a comprehensive implementation plan which can be integrated into ongoing shipbuilding capabilities in the near term.

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
25 Cord Dr.
Latham, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) /27-6249
Dr. Glen A. Slack
NAVY 99-143
Title:Aluminum Nitride Crystal Growth for IR Window Applications
Abstract:We propose to grow single crystals of AlN to be DoD IR window applications. Sublimation-recondensation will be used as the crystal growth mechanism. In this program, we will explore approaches to this growth technique in order to achieve large windows. We will also measure basic material properties to qualify single-crystal AlN for this application.

MER CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. J.C. Withers
NAVY 99-143
Title:Development Of Processing To Produce Transparent Aluminum Nitride For Infra-red Windows In Hypersonic Missiles.
Abstract:Aluminum nitride (AlN) has the potential to meet the requirements of mid-wave infrared seeker windows on high-speed missiles. However, ALN has not been produced with the required optical properties of less than 2% scatter at a wavelength of 4 microns, an absorption coefficiency less than 0.1/cm at a wavelength of 4 microns and a transmittance of 74% at 4 microns. Transparent AlN has been produced in very thin films but not in required thickness of 2mm or greater required for seeker windows. In cursory experiments, MER has demonstrated a deposition process for producing transparent AlN and this deposition process has produced other materials in thicknesses up to 12mm thick. This economical rapid deposition process will be optimized to produce AlN with 2 mm or greater thicknesses with the desired optical properties.

SIENNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
19501 144th Avenue NE, Suite F
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 485-7272
Dr. Ender Savrun
NAVY 99-143
Title:A Novel Flux Growth Technology for Growing Aluminum Nitride Single Crystals
Abstract:This project will investigate a novel method for growing single aluminum nitride crystals by a modified top seeded flux growth technique. A flux material will be selected to dissolve the aluminum and aluminum nitride powders. Solubility limit of aluminum nitride in potential flux materials will be determined. Flux material will form a temporary media between the molten metal and nitrogen atmosphere for precipitation of single crystal under a temperature gradient. Single crystals will be grown on a seed crystal rotating at the flux surface in nitrogen gas atmosphere. Crystal growth parameters will be studied to enhance the crystal quality and the growth rate.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Robert M. Pap
NAVY 99-144
Title:Advanced Projectile Targeting Method
Abstract:Recent developments in the plasma aerodynamics area suggest that the shape of the shockwave produced by a hypersonic aircraft can be modified, in flight, by weakly ionizing the air flowing around the aircraft. The purpose of the present proposal is to investigate the feasibility of using this phenomenon to guide a gun shell, in lieu of mechanically actuated control, while simultaneously reducing the drag of the gun shell. Accurate Automation is actively involved in investigating this technology in the context of of its hypersonic flight programs. The goal of the proposed program is to investigate the feasibility of adapting the weakly ionized gas technology for: directional guidance and drag reduction of a gun shell. AAC will perform a preliminary design of a prototype gun shell including: selection of the plasma generation technology the preliminary design of the required electronics and power source, the guidance system, the required gun hardening; and theoretical basis necessary to "optimize" the design. AAC will examine how this can be used with a metal Matrix Composite Gun Barrel.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. James Burnett
NAVY 99-144
Title:Aimable 200 Caliber MMC Gun for Naval Surface Fire Support
Abstract:Naval Surface Fire Support NSFS initiatives require a 160-200 caliber 5" gun barrel that 1), can be installed and operated below deck 2), allows active and passive reduction of thermal, radar, and muzzle blast signatures and 3), allows elevation and train over a limited arc without dominating the ship through its shear size and weight. The "key feature of this barrel is a vertical mounting, with a bendable barrel to provide train and elevation over a limited arc of approximately 20 degrees". This configuration meets thermal, and radar signature requirements for this advanced system. Triton Systems proposes to design this "bendable barrel" using an innovative structure of silicon carbide reinforced titanium metal matrix composite combined with an active cooling layer in aluminum alloy. The proposed structure will withstand the hoop stress of the shot firing and the strain produced by the bending of the barrel. The strain limited fatigue property of the Ti/SiC at elevated temperature will be determined experimentally. Processing protocols for application of the aluminum alloy active cooling channels to the barrel will be determined. At the end of the program, the feasibility of creating a "bendable barrel" and adding active cooling to the composite barrel will be determined.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Kirk Harrison
NAVY 99-145
Title:Multi-Sensor Correlation Displays
Abstract:DSR proposes development of new innovative display formats that will facilitate multi-disciplinary and multi-sensor presentation of data in surface combatant combat systems. The results of this Phase I effort will provide prototype displays that efficiently present, manage, and evaluate high volume bearing-only, range-less information such as Electronic Warfare data. DSR will also develop displays that effectively present this bearing-only, range-less data with localized Combat System data that has bearing and range. The proposed display development process will be structured to ensure that operator requirements for access to data, display configuration, and system flexibility are addressed. Consideration will be given to the ability to overlay multiple data types (at the contact or data level) effectively and the presentation of logical guides to orient the operator to the scenario quickly. The effort will define automation tools to help operators manage and follow multiple data types on the display. The results of this Phase I effort will be directly applicable to COTS state-of-the-art implementation within an open system architecture framework. DSR's tools provide direct support for developing the Software Requirements Specification for implementation in Phase II.

APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4300 San Mateo Blvd., NESuite A220
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 795-8106
Jerome D. Yatteau, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-146
Title:Body-to-Body Penetration and Damage Models
Abstract:The Navy is improving its anti-air missile systems to defeat missiles and aircraft. Direct hits by one missile against another (body-to-body impact) is the primary defeat mechanism for some new concepts. Fast-running, analytical penetration and damage prediction methodologies are required to evaluate and optimize these new designs. Current methodologies do not adequately account for inertial and strength effects or for the temporal resolution of terminal ballistic loading and responses associated with impacts, between complex, spatially extended structures. The overall objective of this SBIR effort is to develop a fast-running, analytical/engineering methodology and computer code to predict high velocity, terminal ballistic interactions between complex, structures. The Phase I study objectives include, Identifying the loading and response characteristics associated with high speed impacts between complex structures, and a detailed plan for developing the objective prediction methodology which will include time-resolved interceptor and target geometry models and physics-based terminal ballistic loading and response models. A limited demonstration of the new methodology will also be accomplished during the Phase I study.

PIEZO TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2525 Shader Road,P.O.Box 32854-7859
Orlando, FL 32804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 298-2000
David A. Symonds
NAVY 99-148
Title:Improved Time and Frequency Standards for Gun-Launched Projectiles
Abstract:Crystal oscillators, whether simple clocks or precision frequency references, are used in almost every present-day electronic system, and this is expected to remain true for the foreseeable future. The success of numerous weapons systems now under active development depends upon electronics packages capable of withstanding very high acceleration and mechanical shock, most of which will also use crystal oscillators. Applications include guided munitions, smart fuzes, and penetrating weapons. For this program we are interested in the application to Extended Range Guided Munition (ERGM), which will incorporate on-board GPS receivers as part of the guidance system. The receiver requires a frequency source whose accuracy determines the time to acquire the first satellite. To meet the allowable thermally induced frequency shift this will be a TCXO - - a temperature-compensated crystal oscillator. Although the circuitry of a crystal oscillator is relatively shock inert, the conventional crystal resonators used are inherently susceptible to shock. To manufacture crystal oscillators shock-hardened up to 30,000 G there is a corresponding need for hardened resonators. PTI has been intimately involved over the past decade in the development of resonator shock-hardening technology. Each technique developed to date has certain limitations, different for each. By combining techniques we feel that inherent failure mechanisms can be eliminated. This first phase of this program will demonstrate that the combination of techniques which we have mastered, can produce a much more rugged but still economical resonator. In this program PTI will develop the solutions needed to meet the objectives of this solicitation in an economical manner.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mr. Christopher J. Crowle
NAVY 99-149
Title:Thermal Spray Process for Manufacturing Thin-Film Electrodes in Thermal Batteries
Abstract:We propose a thermal spray process to deposit thin-film cathodes and anodes on rugged substrates to replace the thick, fragile, pressed pellets currently used in thermal batteries. Plasma- spraying is an innovative alternative to slurry techniques to manufacture such thin-film electrodes. We have previous experience demonstrating that the plasma-spray approach works with lithiated-cathode materials and works at high temperature, two aspects of interest in this application. Specifically, we have plasma-sprayed: (1) Lithium-compatible cathode materials (LiCoO2) for batteries, and (2) Selective emitter materials (rare-earth oxides) which retain the correct crystal structure and operate at high temperature up to 1700 K. The plasma-spray process is readily transitioned to the production environment; our existing plasma-spray equipment is the same equipment as used in production facilities. We propose to deposit cathode and anode materials in Phase I and to characterize their morphologies to demonstrate that the thermal spray process is a feasible approach to manufacturing thin components for thermal batteries. We will also develop a preliminary battery design, estimate performance benefits, and estimate production costs. Optional activities include testing sample cells. In Phase II we will complete the battery design and build working prototypes.

US NANOCORP, INC.
20 Washington Ave.Suite 106
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 234-8024
T. Danny Xiao, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-149
Title:High Rate Thermal Battery Using Thin Film Thermal Sprayed Cathode
Abstract:Li-Alloy/FeS2 thermal batteries are the predominant thermal cell chemistry today. Despite progress, the use of pressed powders for thermal battery cathodes, anodes, and separators has several intrinsic limitations, including high labor costs associated with material processing (blending, pelletizing, and QC of thickness and weight). A more efficient means of providing thin electrodes would dramatically increase the volumetric and gravimetric efficiency as well as the rate capability of thermal batteries. In another Phase I program, US Nanocorp (USN) and Sandia successfully demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating viable thin film large-area FeS2 cathodes for thin cell thermal batteries using the industrial technique of thermal spray. USN developed a patent pending process (to repress pyrite decomposition in the plasma) to spray FeS2 cathodes. The proposed program leverages the remarkable success of that effort to optimize thermal battery electrode structures for high rate applications using DC arc plasma spray, specifically with regard to controlling porosity and pore size, in a continuous low-cost manufacturing process. USN has engaged Sandia in the Phase I program to assemble and evaluate thermal battery cells using USN's thermal sprayed electrodes.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Art Hoffman
NAVY 99-150
Title:Enhanced Platform Tracking Based on Multiple Emitter Reports Detected by a Single Sensor System
Abstract:DSR proposes to develop and validate innovative techniques for effectively performing emitter contact tracking and correlation. The proposed approach will provide the capability to track intermittent emitters effectively, reduce emitter history loss, and mitigate subsequent re-correlation requirements. DSR has identified two primary approaches for Enhanced Multi-emitter tracking in an intermittent environment: (1) Data Synchronization; and (2) Tracker Interval Modification with associated enhanced inputs. The proposed research will test the algorithms using simulated data to establish baseline performance and real data to validate the algorithm against a realistic environment. DSR has developed an Engagement Defense Tracking Model (EDTM) that will be used to provide a realistic simulation of the track association process; realistic simulation is essential to the development of enhanced tracker concepts. It is a passive tracking model based on EW signals received on spatially separated AIEWS arrays and consisting of time series of estimated (and platform stabilized) azimuth and elevation angles for emitter (source) detections (threshold crossings).

LET CORP.
4431 MacArthur Blvd
Washington, DC 20007
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 337-8349
C. A. Kapetanakos
NAVY 99-151
Title:Optimization of High Average Power Ultra-Broadband IR Radiation Source
Abstract:In 1997, LET Corporation, under contract with the Naval Sea Systems Command completed the conceptual design of a novel source that is capable of providing an ultra broadband radiation spectrum that extends from approximately 2 to 16 microns. These studies show that the source can produce high average power radiation in every IR atmospheric transmission window of interest and therefore, it has the potential to provide efficacious countermeasures for high value, high signature platforms, which presently have only very limited protection. The novel source is based on the interaction of a beat wave with non-linear media. The beat wave is formed from the mixing of two carbon dioxide laser beams with closely spaced wavelengths, such as 9.5 and 9.6 microns. The studies by LET Corporation, as well as the original studies of the IR source are based on the supposition that the beat wave is formed by two distinct carbon dioxide lasers that provide two closely spaced wavelengths. Since the weight, size and cost of the driver exceed, by far, the weight, size and cost of any other component of the IR source, replacing the two carbon dioxide lasers with a single laser would substantially reduce the weight, size and cost of the system. A scheme is proposed that has the potential to produced two closely spaced wavelengths from a single carbon dioxide laser line. The scheme is based on the modulation instability, which is a general characteristic of many dispersive, non-linear media.

ADVANCED POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1250 24th Street, NW Suite 850
Washington, DC 20037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 223-8808
Dr. Peter Koert
NAVY 99-152
Title:Power Beaming of Millimeter-Waves for UAVs
Abstract:The Navy has a requirement for remotely powering UAV's to permit prolonged duration missions; and to eliminate the requirement for tethering during near-ship operations. A capability to power UAV's by beaming millimeter-wave power from a transmitter to the UAV, and converting the received energy into electrical power by means of a rectenna (a half-wave dipole array with integrated diode rectifiers) offers a uniquely versatile solution to both requirements. APTI possesses unique knowledge and expertise in rectenna technology; and has been granted two patents on mm-wave rectenna. APTI proposes to apply unique knowledge, patented rectenna technology and related mmw expertise to these requirements. The application of APTI's extensive high power microwave and millimeter wave technology expertise and of its experience with complex system integration will enable full consideration to the system design and operating frequency determination. Through the use of innovative high density designs and advanced materials APTI will address the critical issues of high efficiency and very lightweight packaging. APTI will use experience gained in previous 35 GHz and 94 GHz rectennas to assure optimal performance capabilities. This will lead to lightweight high efficiency power systems suitable for UAV and Micro-UAV sustained mission applications.

LAKOTA TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
PO Box 2378
Ellicott City, MD 21041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 461-1045
John R. Moore
NAVY 99-153
Title:Battlegroup AAW System Software Analysis of Sneak Circuits
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR study is to produce a detailed examination of the Cooperative Engagement Capability with respect to identifying the areas in which system problems, such as sneak circuits, exist. Primary emphasis will be on the Cooperative Engagement Processor design that resulted in the creation of sneak circuits and the test procedures that failed to identify them at an early stage in the development. Consideration will also be given to the associated combat systems and tactical data links. A secondary objective of the proposed Phase I study is to investigate object-oriented analysis and design techniques that may be used to develop future CEP functionality (e.g., unit/sensor independence) in such a way as to avoid the creation of sneak circuits.

STI
6000 Executive Blvd.Suite #205
Rockville, MD 20852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 881-2111
Jim Farmer
NAVY 99-153
Title:Sneak Circuit Analysis For Software
Abstract:Large scale integrated systems are often plagued by sneak conditions because they are comprised of several different components that are designed independently by different groups. Design reuse, cross-pollination of requirements, insufficient system component modeling, continual requirements changes and inherent design process weaknesses make sneak paths more likely to occur and more difficult to detect in these complex systems. Software sneak paths in particular are typically not caught by evaluation or test, resulting in operational errors and outright failures in fielded systems. Sneak Circuit Analysis (SCA) is a proven process that eliminates unwanted paths in electronic systems and has been successfully applied to Software Sneak Path Analysis (SSPA). STi proposes to study present design process and available case reports of integrated combat and warfare systems to identify root causes of software sneak paths. Based on our research, coupled with our extensive SCA experience, we will: (1) recommend changes to design procedures and processes; (2) determine whether analysis techniques can be developed around existing models; (3) identify minimum system modeling requirements; and (4) define requirements for software tools to be developed and tested in Phase II that have potential to eliminate the hidden effects and enable designers to focus on performance.

AMERICANELECTRONICS, INC.
8229 Boone BlvdSuite 300
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 883-0506
James J. Lascody
NAVY 99-154
Title:Acoustic Technology Enhancement for 3
Abstract:The Acoustic Device, Countermeasure (ADC) MK2 three inch submarine launched expendable countermeasure device has been deployed on submarines for over twenty years and has demonstrated exceptional operational effectiveness in support of submarine defensive warfare mission areas. The expected effectiveness of the new Mobile MK2 will provide significant tactical value by providing as much separation between the launching submarine and countermeasure as possible through the capability to preprogram the device for optimum positioning. In order to realize the full effectiveness potential of the Mobile MK2 device, cost effective integration of new technologies in acoustics, programming, micro processing and associated electronics packaging must be developed. This Phase I project will identify and evaluate acoustic technology enhancements, programmable methods including download link and reactive methods and produce a design approach for a direct form and fit replacement of electronics and packaging contained in the Mobile ADC MK2 baseline. Specifically, the work to be accomplished under this Phase I project will identify and evaluate the range and combinations of acoustic missions, associated acoustic technologies, trajectory variables and programming techniques in addition to the formulation of electronic packaging alternatives and approaches (such as surface mount technology) for integration with the Mobile MK2 platform.

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
2555 NE 205th Avenue
Fairview, OR 97024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
Eric Udd
NAVY 99-155
Title:Fiber Optic Grating Depth Sensor for Towed Array Applications
Abstract:This program develops a novel fiber optic grating depth/pressure sensor that has greatly improved sensitivity relative to earlier state of the art fiber optic grating pressure sensors. Simple wavelength division multiplexing techniques may be used to support approximately 20 fiber optic grating depth/pressure sensors on a single fiber extending to at least 10 km with arbitrary placement. Time division multiplexing could be used in combination with wavelength division multiplexing to increase the number of fiber optic grating depth/pressure sensors that could be supported on a single line toward the range of 50 to 100. The Blue Road Research approach offers the simultaneous measurement of temperature and fundamental temperature compensation that is orders of magnitude better than that proposed in the literature for other fiber grating and fiber etalon based approaches. This for the first time enables the prospect of very high pressure resolution necessary for practical towed array depth/pressure sensors without extraordinary precision from fiber temperature sensors.

F&S, INC.
PO Box 11704
Blacksburg, VA 24062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4267
Michael B. Miller
NAVY 99-156
Title:Singlemode Fiber Optic Rotary Joint
Abstract:The Navy requires a hybrid fiber optic and electrical rotary joint for towed array applications in passive fiber optic sensors. The requirements of low loss and multiple channel capability in the fiber optic joint combine to make this singlemode design difficult, which explains why no such product is currently on the market. Litton Poly-Scientific pioneered the development of multimode and singlemode single channel and multimode multichannel fiber optic rotary joints in the 1980s, and has been the world leader in electrical rotary joint technology for more than 40 years. In the proposed Phase I program, F&S, Inc. and Litton will combine their technical expertise to develop a hybrid fiber optic and electrical rotary joint based on existing electrical slipring technology at Litton and existing and new fiber optic rotary joint design features. F&S provides the optical design capability, while Litton provides mechanical design capability. The resulting product will be co-manufactured at F&S and Litton, providing commercialization success for F&S and product line expansion for Litton. Due to the critical importance of such a product, cost sharing in Phase I is being provided by Litton, and additional Phase II and Phase III commercialization funding is also pledged.

MORGAN RESEARCH CORP.
2707 Artie Street, Suite 17
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 533-3233
Dr. C. Wayne Long
NAVY 99-156
Title:Fiber Optic Ribbon Cable Optical/Electronic Rotary Joint for Towed Array Application
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal is for the develop and test an optical/electronic rotary joint for Naval undersea towed array applications. The proposed concept employs a spiral wound fiber optic ribbon cable to achieve high optical transmission and low signal modulation in a rotary joint having a limited number of turns in a predetermined direction. The optimum configuration, brassboard design, fabrication, and integration of a rotary electronic joint capability will be addressed in the Phase I effort. The Phase I effort also includes laboratory performance testing of the optical, electronic, and mechanical characteristics. An Option to Phase I is also proposed for the preliminary design of the optical, electronic, mechanical interfaces for the towed array.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Joseph Murray
NAVY 99-157
Title:Development of Low Cost COTS Technology for Total Ship Monitoring
Abstract:The U.S. Navy has enjoyed a substantial submarine acoustic advantage for over four decades. However, improvements in the new classes of Russian submarines have significantly reduced generated noise levels, narrowing this advantage dramatically. The Navy is looking for highly innovative technologies to meet this challenge. This Phase I proposal brings highly innovative state-of-the-practice COTS technologies to the design of a Total Ship Monitoring System (TSM). This proposal will address the sensor telemetry and processing system for a TSM system and proposes a number of options for the sensor system. The proposed sensor telemetry system will be based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) COTS technology and the processing system will be based on the Advanced Processing Build (APB) processor model (i.e., Transportable Middleware and COTS Hardware and Software). The success of a TSM system rests with its ability to scale, evolve, and inter-operate with other ship systems. Use of proven COTS technologies and processes in this Phase I will provide the key building blocks for development of an architecture that will remain modern through evolutionary processor upgrades and increasingly capable software. These technologies also ensure an open system that will prove easily compatible with other ship's systems.

SABRINA TECHNOLOGY
757 Mediterranean Ln.
Redwood Shores, CA 94065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 654-6638
Mirna Urquidi-Macdonald
NAVY 99-158
Title:UUV Metal-Seawater Energy Source
Abstract:Among underwater applications lithium/water systems are the most attractive from the point of view of energy density. Lithium is generally considered to be too reactive, and evolves hydrogen as a parasitic reaction, but exhibits a very negative OCP (-3 VSCE). We have extensively studied the lithium/water system and have found that lithium in alkaline electrolytes forms a bilayer passive film (LiH and LiOH) at the metal/electrolyte interface. LiH forms as a thin, compact inner layer that forms on the surface of the lithium metal. The outer layer is a porous precipitated LiOH layer that forms on the LiH layer. The outer layer is found to regulate lithium dissolution. However, the passive film does not completely inhibit hydrogen evolution, leading to poor coulombic efficiency during discharge. We propose to substitute the naturally created passive layer with a cationically conducting polymer membrane, which is placed on the lithium surface. The role of the membrane is to suppress the hydrogen evolution while permitting lithium discharge. Our initial experiments performed with polyphosphazene membranes have been encouraging, but they point to a need to more carefully design the polymer in terms of the balance between hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. We believe that the extraordinary energy densities that are available with lithium, together with the fact that metal/water batteries can be mechanically (and hence rapidly) refuelled, renders them ideal for a wide range of stationary power applications in both domestic and military service.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Lee Krause
NAVY 99-159
Title:INSURE: INternet SURvey Environment
Abstract:The U.S. Navy relies on surveys for acquiring accurate information pertaining to a wide range of topics (e.g., troop readiness, morale). Thus, the collection of survey data is guided by a concern for minimizing Total Error. Factors contributing to Total Error include failure to collect a representative sample from the population being studied and vague or misleading survey questions. The Internet holds promise of addressing these and other concerns facing the survey community. To realize this promise Modus Operandi proposes to develop INSURE (INternet SURvey Environment), a standardized Internet-based multimedia survey HCI for performing both mobile and fixed-location surveys. The key innovations of INSURE include leveraging the best-of-breed technologies from web-based training, the use of Java to insure computer-independent (cross-platform) operation, the incorporation of a virtual assistant emulating a human survey interviewer providing on-line assistance with ambiguous or misleading questions, and the use of mobile hand-held computers with wireless Internet connections to realize a standardized survey HCI for performing both mobile and fixed-location surveys.

LEAPFROG SMART PRODUCTS, INC.
545 Delaney Ave.
Orlando, FL 32801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 872-1161
Nick Pileggi
NAVY 99-160
Title:Access Control and Personnel ID Verification for Training Applications Utilizing Smart Cards
Abstract:Problem Summary: There is a wide and varied range of students who participate in distributed Department of Defense (DoD) and commercial distance learning programs and training exercises. Verification of these student's participation, through biometric methods, such as finger print or retinal scans, is an important step in certification of the training. Verification of the student's identity is also an important requirement in situations where access to the training data must be controlled. The same identical problem exists commercially for "off-campus", continuing education and other forms of distance learning programs. Verifying that the participant is in fact the student being certified and not a "stand in", for whatever reason, and that this person is authorized to access the training data is important for many reasons. The use of Smart Cards, represents the latest technology to be used in the commercial world, for control and access to confidential data, such as for Internet commerce or retention of personal medical data. Smart Cards are "credit card" like devices, which utilize an embedded memory chip (rather than older technologies such as magnetic stripe cards). The chief advantage of the Smart Card is that it can support multiple functions and may even include Java "Cardlets". The use of Smart Card technology is being adopted rapidly by the DoD in many areas. The Department of the Navy is one of the leaders in the adoption of Smart Cards for DoD use. Several initiatives have been launched to date, which potentially will put Smart Cards in the hands of all Navy personnel. These developments will include the use of "Smart Dog Tags" which allow the storage of a sailor's complete military record as well as emergency medical data, to be carried with them at all times, and potential inclusion into the Smart Ship program to support the overall reduction of crews. Adapting these cards, to be used as the access keys for distance learning and distributed training exercises is a natural addition of the use of Smart Cards to the Navy's Smart Card program and will help with the integration of training system technology into the "smart base" program and for shipboard training programs. The Smart Card verifi

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
116 West 6th StreetSuite 200
Bloomington, IN 47404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 336-7576
Mr. Reed M. Adams
NAVY 99-160
Title:Access Control and Personnel ID Verification for Training Applications Utilizing Smart Cards
Abstract:Training of personnel throughout a large organization is an increasingly complex issue especially when the personnel are distributed over a wide geographic area and with various skill levels. Training, testing, and certifications requirements continue to grow with the complexity and variety of equipment that is operated and maintained by widespread organizations. At the same time there is substantial pressure to reduce the relative cost of training as these same organizations seek to be competitive in a global environment. Widely dispersed training audiences (particularly for WAN-based applications) require various levels of access control to training materials and verification of the identity of the person that is trained, tested, and certified. Smart card technology offers potential solutions to growing problems in the training industry. Smart cards can be used to verify the identity of the individual to be trained through the use of biometrics. The smart card can carry the prior training records and certifications of the individual that can be used to establish access rights and prerequisites for specific courses of instruction. Once training and certification is accomplished, the encryption keys stored on the smart card may be used to establish secure links over the network to enter the appropriate information into centralized databases for training management. With the completed testing and certifications stored on the card, it can be used as an on the spot verification of the holder's credentials when sensitive operation or maintenance functions demand on the spot verification of personnel qualifications.

3TEX, INC.
1017 Main Campus Dr, Ste 3200NC State Centennia
Raleigh, NC 27606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 755-1257
Larry C. Dickinson, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-161
Title:Low Cost 3D Woven CC Composites
Abstract:Carbon-carbon(CC)composite materials are materials that consist of carbon fiber reinforcing a matrix of carbon. Their properties can be tailored to produce varying levels of high thermal conductivity and thermal shock resistance, low thermal expansion, low porosity, low density, high wear resistance, and high or low surface friction, while remaining chemically inert and maintaining their properties at extremely high temperatures. Current state-of-the-art technology for large/thick 3D materials (10X10X6 inches) results in a cost of ~$1000/lb. The main objective of this work will be to adapt and couple high-performance/low-cost 3TEX 3D woven preforms with large scale batch densification by Carbon Vapor Infiltration (CVI). The resulting materials will be completely tailorable and cost an order of magnitude less. This objective will be accomplished by reducing the cost of 3D preforms with the use of the innovative 3TEX high-speed/low-cost 3D weaving process. The lower cost 3D preforms will be densified by CVI in a mass production batch process, by 3TEX partner SGL Carbon Composites Inc. (Hitco), the world leader in CC materials and CVI processing. In addition to DoD needs, this new technology will be used to exploit the huge commercial potential of low cost CC pistons for racing engines.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin StreetBiddeford Industrial Park
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Keith Meiler
NAVY 99-161
Title:Low-Cost Fabrication of Multi-Use, Multi-D, Carbon-Carbon Composites
Abstract:This program proposes to investigate and demonstrate novel low cost approaches to 3D Carbon-Carbon (C/C) manufacture. These novel processes will result in composites with at least the required properties and exhibit a uniform density with size capability of at least 6 x 6 x 10 inches. They will allow considerable cost and performance flexibility, e.g. modifications such as the substitution of higher performance fibers, altering the spacing array and/or fiber tow size, addition of densification process cycles, etc. will enable the manufacture of higher grade multidimensional C/C. Carbon fiber preform fabrication and densification currently account for 50% and 25% respectively of the cost of multidimensional C/C so they will be the major focus of cost reduction efforts. Recent programs at FMI have resulted in substantial incremental reduction in the costs of these processes. The proposed program will depart from traditional processing techniques in addition to building on the results of these programs. Phase I efforts will demonstrate the considerable cost benefits of these novel processes and confirm the C/C produced meets the mechanical and thermal properties required by the solicitation. In Phase II the novel processes will be automated and low cost and high performance composites will be fully characterized.

KANSAS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1500 Hayes Drive
Manhattan, KS 66502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 537-0110
Dr. Donghai Wang
NAVY 99-162
Title:Marine Degradable and Edible Gun Plugs
Abstract:About 30,000 gun plugs are used annually in Navy practice. The materials currently employed to produce these gun plugs are toluene diisocyanate and polyurethane resin. Although these materials meet the functional requirements for gun plugs, they are subsequently incompatible with the non-pollution requirements of the MARPOL treaty. The objective of this research proposal is to identify the feasibility of using protein-based resins and natural fiber to develop degradable and marine animal edible composites that will meet both the functional and post-use requirements for the gun plug applications. Proteins and fibers will be chemically modified to adjust the composite properties. Tensile and compressive strength, density, thermal expansion, voids, and storage stability will be evaluated at varying formulation and processing conditions. Feasible formulation and processing procedures will be identified throughout this proposal to obtain marine degradable composites with desirable properties for the gun plug application. Composites with optimal properties will be tested for marine degradability by the U.S. Army Natick RD&E Center.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Bryan Koene, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-162
Title:Environmentally-Safe, Marine Disposable Nanocomposite Gun Plugs
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes to combine environmentally-friendly natural biodegradable precursor materials with its innovative nanotechnology to develop environmentally-safe gun plugs for 5"/54 caliber (and other) propelling charges that can be safely disposed in marine environments in accord with the MARPOL treaty. Our innovative approach will produce Naval gun plugs that not only (i) successfully seal the gun barrel from the marine environment, and (ii) provide the required buffer for packing the projectile with propelling charge in the gun mount, but are also biodegradable. Our innovative strategy will therefore enhance the biodegradability and will also ensure that the gun plugs meets all the other property specifications. In Phase I, Triton will prepare ES-polyurethanes, optimize the performance level with respect to Naval Sea Systems Command Specifications, and produce prototype gun plugs. In the Phase II Program, we will optimize the ES-polyurethane formulation, and scale up to make full size gun plugs for the 5" barrel. Extensive mechanical and environmental testing will be performed on these prototypes. In Phase III, Triton will team with a Naval polyurethane supply house for the preparation of prototype gun plugs for field testing.

PARATEK, INC.
1202 Technology Dr.Suite C.
Aberdeen, MD 21001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 273-9077
Louise C. Sengupta
NAVY 99-164
Title:A Five-Resonator Ceramic Bandpass Filter
Abstract:The development of compact and high performance ceramic filters is very important for size-limited applications. Paratek has advanced technology to significantly decrease the dielectric losses of ferroelectric materials while maintaining dielectric constants of 100 to 3000 at microwave frequency ranges. Paratek proposes to develop and fabricate a five-1/4-coaxial ceramic resonator filter, 1.5x1.0x0.5 cm with a brick-wall, high rejection response at frequencies above 1GHz by using our developed high dielectric constant (300-400) and high-Q (10000) BaSrTiO3-MgO based ceramics. The high dielectric constant material will reduce the resonator size, therefore more resonators can be put into a ceratain size volume. The increased number of resonators will improve the rejection response performance of the filter. For Phase I, a proof-of-concept filter will be delivered based on the existing and newly developed materials. The improvement of the materials will focus on the temperature stability of the materials. For Phase II, the filter will be fabricated based on the newly developed material.

VIASAT
2290 Cosmos Ct.
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
Paul Baca
NAVY 99-165
Title:High Quality Low Data Rate (LDR) Secure Voice
Abstract:This Phase 1 SBIR effort will build upon today's most advanced voice data coding algorithms to develop a selection of efficient, robust low data rate voice options for Link-16. JTIDS/MIDS terminals currently provide 16 KBPS CVSD and/or 2.4 KBPS LPC-10 algorithms which are time-proven voice coding techniques that have been superseded in quality by Mixed Excitation Linear Predictive (MELP) and Code Excited Linear Predictive (CELP) algorithms. This proposed Phase 1 effort will explore various levels of Error Detection And Correction (EDAC) encoding options used in conjunction with CELP and MELP algorithms to provide high quality, low data rate voice in the harsh communication environments required for Link-16. In order to add EDAC, additional network capacity will be required to accommodate the added parity data. To overcome the effects of increasing the bandwidth, this effort will investigate the combination of coded low data rate voice algorithms and Link-16 Enhanced Throughput (ET). ViaSat has developed Link-16 ET Technology which provides up to a factor of 10 improvement in data rate over existing JTIDS/MIDS so the combination of coded voice and ET will provide a very bandwidth efficient solution to the Link-16 voice problem.

ADVANCED POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1250 24th Street, NW Suite 850
Washington, DC 20037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 223-8808
Thomas Wallace
NAVY 99-166
Title:Miniature Antennas for Submarine Advanced Boyant Cable Systems
Abstract:APTI proposes use of its Photonically Controlled Dynamically Re-configurable Circuits technology, developed under IR&D funding, to develop re-configurable, broadband, phased array antennas for receive/transmit applications in the Buoyant Cable Antenna (BCA) system. The technology is based on use of semiconductor wafers whose local conductivity is dynamically controlled by laser diode arrays. The photo-injected plasma alters the conductivity of the illuminated wafer; by controlling the individual elements of the illuminating array, the desired conducting regions can be drawn on the wafer. APTI has conducted theoretical studies as well as proof-of-principle experiments of these photo-conducting antennas. The overall objective is the development of re-configurable phased arrays in the UHF-EHF range, suitable for operation as BCA's. The Phase I objective is to perform design trade off studies of the array configurations, wafer materials and laser requirements that optimize the novel re-configurable array concepts. Broadband vs. narrow-band designs, size and performance characteristics will be analyzed for implementation in the Phase II laboratory tests.

ASTRON ANTENNA CO.
22560 Glenn DriveSuite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Joseph R. Jahoda
NAVY 99-166
Title:Miniature Antenna For Submarine Advanced Buoyant Cable Systems
Abstract:It is proposed to develop a series of antennas which are miniaturized by conventional, innovative, and dielectric material loading. They are specifically designed to be located in a small surface towed module or in the buoyant cable system to which it is attached. Three basic antenna configurations are porposed. They are RF (UHF to EHF - receive/transmit); ESM (2 to 40 GHz - receive only); Navigation/FPS (1227.6 and 1575.42 MHz - receive); IRIDIUM/INMARSAT (1535 to 1636.5 MHz - receive/transmit).

PROMIA, INC.
160 Spear St.Suite 320
San Francisco, CA 94105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 647-4671
Harold E. Jarboe
NAVY 99-167
Title:Intelligent Agent Security Module (IASM)
Abstract:Available commercially off the shelf software (COTS) has the potential to address the requirements for an intelligent security agent module. Agent software is designed to be deployed in remote computer systems in order to process at the desired location, or take advantage of available computing resources. Security of agent software is a primary concern for U.S. Government agencies and commercial businesses, including those that are planning to deploy agent-based systems on the Internet. This proposal presents a Phase I project for the implementation of an intelligent agent security module. It describes an approach that utilizes the distributed object middleware of the Object Management Group's (OMG's)Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) as the basis for secure agent messaging, coupled with available Neural Network agent software from Computer Associates. The goals of this project are; to develop an intelligent security agent module which integrates adaptable wrappers through CORBA facilities, use neural networks for security intrusion detection collection, interpretation, pattern recognition, adaptive learning capabilities and demonstrate an intelligent agent security module to the Navy. The resultant system can provide integrated network administration and security management reducing workload to manage an intelligent agent-based system.

VIASAT
2290 Cosmos Ct.
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
Jay Grove
NAVY 99-168
Title:Optimal Integration of MIDS/INS/GPS
Abstract:Precision navigation is key to future warfighting doctrine. The ability to accomplish extremely accurate en-route, targeting, and terminal operations based upon precision navigation has become an assumption of battle planning and warfighting operations. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the critical element for precision navigation. Fully exploiting its capability while ensuring the integrity of the navigation solution is the precision navigation imperative. Differential GPS has been selected by the DoD's Joint Precision Approach and Landing System (JPALS) program for implementation of the JPALS. The DoD recognizes that certain attributes of current, commercial differential GPS system require augmentation to establish navigation integrity for mission critical operations. The DoD's Multi-function Information Distribution System (MIDS) provides a secure communication link and relative navigation capability that can augment GPS for improved integrity and survivability of precision navigation operations. Phase I Tasking that investigates MIDS as a potential communication link for differential corrections, examines the optimal integration of MIDS, GPS, and INS data for a more robust nav solution, and explores the use of ground-based MIDS in conjunction with GPS as a secure back-up for differential GPS-based precision approach and landing systems is provided.

AEGIS RESEARCH CORP.
7799 Leesburg PikeSuite 1100 North
Falls Church, VA 22043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 610-9363
Edmund M. Glabus
NAVY 99-170
Title:Interactive Human Systems Interfaces and 3D Tools for IW Systems
Abstract:The Aegis Team proposes to join two highly innovative elements to solve the research problem presented in Navy Topic N99-170. We will bring together a unique information warfare (IW) wargame/simulation in use at various DOD organizations (e.g., the U.S. Army War College) called InfoChess(tm), and a leading-edge software design and development process called Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE), to "develop a set of 3D tools that will provide an innovative user interface for effective use of information." This approach will enable us to use the chess metaphor to map and visualize IW in a controlled environment; clearly depict 3D IW visualization principles in a low-cost, easily-perceived "black and white" wargame domain; keep those visualizations that indicate human performance improvement and migrate them to the real-world IW domain by developing an interactive storyboard suitable for a user walk-through; and then use this work as the basis to design and develop an innovative 3D user interface that can be economically joined to a library of DII COE compliant Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) tools.

ARGON ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
12701 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 650
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 995-4242
Dr. Robert L. Kellogg
NAVY 99-170
Title:Mission Visual Planner
Abstract:Argon Engineering Associates proposes to rapidly prototype and evaluate a 3D visualization interface for the Information Warfare (IW) battlespace of target selection, weapon engagement, environment monitoring and battle damage assessment. Current state-of-the-art commercial 3D rendering software will be evaluated, including VRML display engines. As part of developing an IW interface and set of graphic decision support tools, Argon will create a Visualization Laboratory for evaluating these innovative geographic information system (GIS), cyber network, and parametric 3D toolkit modules. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the most effective IW visualization tools and interactive database solutions to support the IW commander.

ENGINEERING MECHANICS CORP.O
4181 Maystar Way
Hilliard, OH 43026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 850-8792
Prabhat Krishnaswamy
NAVY 99-171
Title:A Novel Algorithm to Predict Near-Real-Time Behavior of Micro-Cable Orientation on the Ocean Floor
Abstract:The Navy requires a near-real-time algorithm to predict the location of the micro-cables with acoustic arrays on the seafloor so as to bring the sensor systems to operational status as quickly as possible. The existing methodology uses the computer program FOCAL-P that has worked satisfactorily with regards to accuracy of predictions. However, the speed of computations in FOCAL-P is an order of magnitude too slow for the Navy's needs. This proposal outlines three tasks that specifically address the need for a near real-time algorithm to predict the cable behavior during installation. The first is to study the computational efficiency of FOCAL-P. Understanding the computational bottlenecks in the present code is essential to making improvements. The second task involves a novel approach to predicting the micro-cable response in the marine environment. This approach applies numerical algorithms, such as choice of coordinate systems, coordinate transformations and equations of motion solutions that have been successfully used in the prediction of aircraft and missile trajectories to the current problem. The last task involves real-time graphical visualization of the cable as it is being installed on the seafloor. This last task is the precursor to closed-loop control of the cable laying process.

MAKAI OCEAN ENGINEERING
P.O. Box 1206
Kailua, HI 96734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 259-8871
Joseph Van Ryzin
NAVY 99-171
Title:Near Real Time Installation Modeling of Cables & Sensor Arrays Deployed From a Towed Body
Abstract:Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. proposes to evaluate the feasibility of developing a near real time modeling system to accurately determine the seafloor location of U.S. Navy acoustic arrays as they are deployed. The acoustic arrays and connected fiber-optic micro-cables will be deployed from a near bottom Towed Deployment Vehicle (TDV). Makai has previously developed a real-time cable deployment control system which has been used in a number of precision commercial and military cable lays. It is proposed that Makai's installation model and cable lay simulation software be modified and used as the primary analytical tool for this project. Cable location and array orientation results computed by existing models will be compared with measured experimental data. Discrepancies between model results and measurements will be subjected to a sensitivity analysis to identify the error source and to quantify the error magnitude. Discrepancies can be attributed to inaccuracy of input data (e.g. current meter and navigational equipment inaccuracy) and to the numerical approximations in the cable models. Several existing cable models will be evaluated to determine the modifications and effort that would be required to adapt them to Navy real-time operational and data acquisition requirements.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge ParkwaySuite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 859-9161
Todd C. Marek
NAVY 99-172
Title:Secure Voice Over Wide Area Networks
Abstract:Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a rapidly emerging commercial technology. This technology can be adapted to providing secure, digital compressed voice in unicast and multicast modes. The proposed SBIR research activity will lead to the development of a Networked Multipoint Secure Voice application that can be transparently overlaid on existing Navy ADNS networks to satisfy voice over wide area network requirements. Various voice compression algorithms will be explored for the best combination of voice quality and bandwidth utilization in the Navy's wireless environment. Requirements for a PC-based application will be defined to provide secure, multicast voice communications in a bandwidth efficient generic IP format. For the extreme narrowband circuit case (e.g. 2400 bps), methods will be explored to "spoof" the IP packet structure during call setup. Subsequent voice bits will then be streamed across the channel. The design will allow system interfacing to commercial routers, low-rate RF modems and multiplexers while still allowing the IP structure, as the LAN/WAN views it, to remain in standard format. Standard ATM switches with ethernet interfaces suffice for IP over AAL5 integration into the high speed ATM networks employed by the military. Security approaches for providing secure coding and secure call management will be identified. Encryption technologies to be considered include Fortezza variants, commercial encryption technologies, and legacy Navy encryption devices.

ARGON ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
12701 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 650
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 995-4221
Mr. William J. Carlin
NAVY 99-173
Title:Cryptologic Computer Architectures
Abstract:Argon Engineering Associates proposes a Cryptologic Component Architecture to the US Navy. The Cryptologic Component Architecture is required to identify the standards, practices and interfaces that support seamless technology transition and evolution while maintaining Information Operations (IO) dominance. Each identified technology will be characterized according to capacity, throughput, commonality with other Navy IO systems, ease of integration, projected technology trend, platform flexibility, mission flexibility and target flexibility. The proposed architecture is then comprised of the set of standards that will provide the fundamental infrastructure for the various components of the Navy's IO capability. Argon also proposes to assure the feasibility of the architecture by verifying its utility against complex threat signal classes.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge ParkwaySuite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 747-8766
John H Schwacke, Jr
NAVY 99-173
Title:Cryptologic Component Architecture Derivation Through Application Generalization
Abstract:A variety of technologies have been introduced which enhance our ability to develop large software systems using component-based designs. These technologies are, however, just methods and mechanisms by which these systems are stitched together. The problem of establishing an architecture which embodies an appropriate reusable design and an associated implementation framework still remains. The design of an architecture for cryptologic systems and, more specifically, those portions of the system performing signal processing must consider carefully performance issues. The proposed research applies component framework design techniques and the concept of an open implementation to derive and assess the merits of a component framework for Navy cryptologic system development through structured generalization of existing applications.

---------- AF ----------

405 Phase I Selections from the 99.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE, Ste 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Stephen C. Coy
AF 99-001
Title:Multi-Conjugate and Variable Conjugate Adaptive Optics for Distributed Turbulence
Abstract:Adaptive optics systems for imaging or beam projection through the atmosphere are designed to compensate for the optical effects of turbulence. These effects enter in as phase perturbations distributed along the propagation path. Conventional adaptive optics systems attempt to compensate for these effects by means of phase-only corrections applied at a plane conjugate to the aperture, or slightly behind it. This can be highly effective when much of the turbulence is relatively close to the aperture, as is the case in up-looking applications such as astronomy, but it is less effective when the turbulence is distributed more uniformly along the path, as is the case for the Airborne Laser. We propose to investigate the performance improvement achievable with VCAO and MCAO systems for applications involving near-horizontal paths, and the feasibility of implementing such systems. We would use simulation to investigate the potential performance improvement, and to attempt to develop a practical sensing and controls scheme for an MCAO system. In parallel with these simulation studies, we would attempt to develop a feasible design for an experiment to test the VCAO concept, to be conducted at the Airborne Laser Advanced Concepts Testbed (ABL-ACT).

OPTICAL SCIENCES CO. (GA TYLER)
1341 S. Sunkist St.
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Dr. Glenn A. Tyler
AF 99-001
Title:Development and Implementation of Advanced Wavefront Compensation Algorithms
Abstract:The proposed effort utilizes the experience gained from over 20 years of work performed by the Optical Sciences Company in the area of atmospheric propagation, wavefront sensing and adaptive optics technology to develop new wavefront compensation algorithms that advance the state-of-the-art and provide new improved levels of performance when propagation through the turbulence of interest introduces a high level of scintillation. In addition, to it's historically strong reputation in the theoretical arena, the Optical Sciences Company conceived, fabricated and delivered the NOP Adaptive Optics System. This experience will ensure that the algorithms developed under this effort are practical, easily implementable in existing hardware, and relevant to ABL and other programs that must deal with strong scintillation. A key feature of the proposed effort is that we believe that we have developed a concept that can improve the Strehl ratio by a factor of 2 when strong scintillation is present. In addition to benefiting ABL, this algorithm will find applications in extending the workable region of the sky for astronomy and commercial laser communication applications.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Dr
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Duane D. Smith
AF 99-002
Title:High-Power Ladar for Long-Range Ranging Applications
Abstract:The most cost-effective, scalable format for the development of high power ladar and directed energy systems is to combine medium power laser modules into a coherently phased array. To this end, CTI proposes to develop a coherent synthetic aperture, synthetic wavelength ladar system based upon modular, tunable fiber lasers/amps. It is suggested that high spatial and spectral coherence fiber lasers/amps are the enabling technology for practical arrays. Achieving commensurate power-aperture products with bulk media power oscillators and/or optical amplifiers would be challenging and costly. Moreover, phased arrays have proven to be challenging for semiconductor lasers. Phase I focuses on designing a sensor system and a matched optical phase control servo. The proposed system has similarities to radar, and provides a path to orbital-class detection ranges. Aperture synthesis and the inherent phased array baseline provide superior cross-range resolution. Synthetic wavelength interferometry and waveform coherence encoding provide line-of-sight range resolution (for CW operation). Precision phase control enables array focusing, steering, and adaptive optics at high temporal bandwidths without moving parts. Phase I will investigate innovative optical phase controls network and metering trusses. Risk reduction measurements will be performed. Phase II's goal is to build a first-of-kind phased array sensor and utilize CTI's flight-worthy systems experience to ensure a path to airborne hardware.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RES. ASSOC.
15261 Connector Ln
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. John T. Robinson
AF 99-003
Title:A/C EMI Diagnostics & Fault Isolation
Abstract:The ever increasing susceptibility of military and commercial aircraft, especially the fly-by-wire aircraft, to internal and external EMI sources has been well documented. The accelerated proliferation of personal electronic devices (PED) on board aircraft, increasing numbers and variety of commercial and military communication and radar transmitters, and ever present threat of RF terrorism and warfare necessitates the development of advanced aircraft EMI safety concepts. An advanced in-situ EMI monitoring system concept for future military and commercial aircraft will be designed and developed under this SBIR program. The system is capable of continuously monitoring the aircraft EMI and warn if the EMI susceptibility threshold has been exceeded on any mission critical LRU, localize the responsible internal EMI source, monitor and warn against hardening feature degradations, and detect and warn against external EMI threats.

TACAN CORP.
2330 Faraday Ave
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Yongqiang Shi
AF 99-003
Title:Novel All Dielectric EMI Probe and Sensor System
Abstract:A novel electric field sensor is proposed for electromagnetic interference diagnostic and location systems. The field probe of the proposed sensor will consist of electro-optic polymer integrated waveguides requiring no electrodes. This all dielectric sensor probe minimally disturbs the electric field distribution and is immune to electric discharging and arcing under an intense electric field. In combination with the fiber-optic readout, on-board aircraft monitoring and retrofitting to current system boards are possible. The thin film sheet-like sensor is lightweight, space saving, and electrically passive. The unique properties of the electro-optic polymers provide distinctive advantages over crystalline materials. The selective poling or push-pull poling of the polymer waveguide interferometer arm allows direct field sensing without any specially arranged electrodes or antenna. The low dielectric constant offers fast sensor response for transient phenomenon recording. The proposed research which is based on TACAN's electro-optic polymer device fabrication and test experience, will investigate the electro-optic polymer probe design and the material requirements. Prototype sensor probes will be fabricated and the critical experiment will be performed during Phase I research to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. The novel electro-optic polymer sensor has tremendous commercial potential in the aerospace, utilities, and communications industries.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
Post Office Drawer 719735 State St
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
Dr. Byron M. Welsh
AF 99-004
Title:Optical Tracking in the Presence of Turbulence Induced Scintillation
Abstract:Laser weapon systems currently under development, such as the Airborne Laser (ABL), must successfully fire laser beams over long horizontal paths through the atmosphere. Pointing the laser to hit the target in this scenario requires compensation for at least three effects: 1) target motion; 2) weapon platform motion; and 3) atmospheric turbulence effects. Pointing errors arising from atmospheric turbulence effects are random, and sensing these errors poses unique difficulties. Propagation over a long path causes the atmospheric induced phase errors to be converted into amplitude errors, which we refer to as scintillation. A potential solution to the problem of target tracking under conditions of strong scintillation is to use phase unwrapping techniques to reconstruct an estimate of the phase of the incident field which accounts for the discontinuities arising from branch points. Recent work in two-dimensional phase unwrapping techniques has shown that if the aperture is appropriately sampled by a Hartmann sensor, then it is possible to reconstruct the actual phase of the incident field. Under this program we propose to implement the latest phase unwrapping and branch point reconstruction problem, and use these new approaches to determine the optimal pointing angle for a laser beam.

TEMPEST TECHNOLOGIES LLC
4435 Coldwater Canyon AveSte 205
Studio City, CA 91604
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 752-6539
Ben G. Fitzpatrick
AF 99-004
Title:Tracking Through Optical Turbulence
Abstract:In this proposal we consider the incorporation of advanced image processing techniques into laser tracking algorithms to improve performance in systems such as the AirBorne Laser (ABL) tactical missile defense system. Based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistical ideas, and using computationally efficient wavelet filtering methods, our methods sharpen focal plane images allowing for more accurate tracking. Scintillation, the turbulence-induced fluctuation of image intensities, is widely regarded as a major problem for tracking algorithms. The image reconstruction methods we propose herein provide the potential to mitigate significantly the effects of scintillation, thus enhancing track performance. We also propose innovative filtering concepts for tracking algorithms. Collaborating with scientists and engineers at AFRL and at SVS R&D Systems, we will use wave propagation simulations data and data collected in tests at Lincoln Laboratory's Firepond facility to score the performance of these algorithms. Continuing our partnership with SVS, the leader in systems engineering for optical pointing and tracking systems, will allow us to leverage the results obtained in this effort into hardware systems in a most efficient and cost-effective manner.

APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4300 San Mateo Blvd NESuite A220
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 881-8074
C. Randy Jones
AF 99-005
Title:Development of a High Density Energetic Species Flow Reactor
Abstract:The objective of the overall SBIR effort is to design, demonstrate, and deliver to the AF a gaseous flow reactor capable of producing high-density flows of critical chemical species. Depending upon the results of a detailed flow analysis the reactor would be designed to support either a subsonic or a supersonic chemical iodine laser scaling experiment and demonstration at significant output power levels. The NC1/I transfer system is one of several promising advanced chemical iodine laser concepts. This concept has recently demonstrated laser gain. The next step on the critical technology path is the production of substantial flow rates of the key reactants-gaseous hydrazoic acid and chlorine atoms. During Phase I, we will evaluate several concepts generating both species and then integrate the selected concepts into an overall flow reactor design. Key small-scale hydrazoic acid experiments will also be conducted. The resulting high-density flow reactor, which can be the basis of a 100-W all-gas-phase chemical laser, will be delivered to AFRL/DELC at the completion of Phase II. Other chemical iodine laser concepts can also be explored using this reactive-flow apparatus. This enabling technology will permit the development of what may be the world's next major class of high-power lasers.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Ctr.
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Steven J. Davis
AF 99-005
Title:High Flux Source for Halogen Atoms and Diode Laser Dignostics for Advanced Iodine Lasers
Abstract:The Air Force has intense interest in developing efficient, high power laser sources for space-based applications. The NCl (a) pumped atomic iodine laser is a promising candidate system for this important application. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop two enabling technologies for this new laser system: high flux atomic halogen source and ultra sensitive diode laser based diagnostics for key species. The chemistry involved in the production of the relevant excited states required atomic halogen species: F, Cl, and I. We propose to develop novel, high flow rate sources for these species. This source is based upon our Microwave Driven Plasma Jet (MIDJet) device. This source has demonstrated high fluxes (19mmoles/s) of atomic fluorine and has the potential to produce comparable fluxes of Cl and I. In Phase I we will use a prototype MIDJet to test the feasibility for producing F, Cl, and I. In addition, we will demonstrate a diode laser based system for measuring NCl (X). These two technologies will be developed into deliverable hardware during Phase II.

PHYSITRON, INC.
3304A Westmill Dr
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 534-4844
Dr. Melvin Price
AF 99-006
Title:Cable Shielding Effectiveness Tester
Abstract:An in-situ cable shielding effectiveness tester (CSET) is proposed for use with aircraft cables. Using built-in components and an external analyzer, the CSET will be capable of conducting shielding effectiveness measurements simply and quickly with no need to disturb the cable being tested. The person conducting the test will simply connect the analyzer to an existing port, start the automated test program, and produce a frequency-dependent assessment of the shielding effectiveness highlighting any behavior that falls below a specified threshold. Development of the CSET will require research by Physitron in three different areas: in the area of the built-in components; in the area of the external analyzer; and in the integration of the two units into the final system. For Phase I, design and analysis of a prototype system will be conducted along with sufficient laboratory measurements to demonstrate feasibility of the concept. Then in Phase II a complete CSET will be built, tested, and demonstrated to the Air Force using aircraft cables. In addition, during Phase I, a commercialization plan will be initiated with an instrumentation manufacturer in preparation for incorporating the CSET into a newly produced aircraft.

SVS R&D SYSTEMS, INC.
6207 Pan American Freeway NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4600
Mike Kvasnak
AF 99-007
Title:Tracking/Wavefront Processor for High Bandwidth Control Applications
Abstract:The primary objective of this SBIR will be to design a processing system that will meet the high bandwidth, computationally intensive, requirements of real-time tracking through turbulence and wavefront tilt and scintillation measurement and compensation. The processing system design will consist of central processing unit(s), digital signal processor(s), high speed memory modules, input/output modules, operating system, data and control bus, application software, development environment, and a performance analysis/verification system. We will utilize our extensive experience designing acquisition, tracking, and pointing algorithms and systems for laser weapon systems, combined with our work on the ABL Beam Control/Fire Control (BC/FC) Preliminary Design Review and BC/FC Processor Throughput Demonstration along with Dr. Merritt's Advanced Tracking SBIR and Dr. Dillow's Kalman Filter Tracker Broad Agency Announcement. We will apply our knowledge of high-speed image processing systems with an awareness of ABL testing plans at North Oscura Peak and technology development plans from the ABL technology office.

STI OPTRONICS, INC.
2755 Northup Way
Bellevue, WA 98004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 827-0460
Dr. Richard D. Romea
AF 99-008
Title:Development of Advanced Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) Mixing Nozzles
Abstract:The intent of this research is to develop an advanced nozzle for mixing and reacting iodine (I (sub 2) or I) and singlet-delta oxygen [O (sub 2) ((sup 1) increment)] flows in COIL devices. The ultimate goal is to develop a more efficient COIL. Specific avenues for the proposed research are: (1) Current COIL nozzles typically inject a mixture of diluent gas and molecular iodine into the subsonic region of the O (sub 2) ((sup 1) increment) flow upstream of the nozzle throat. The resulting mixing leads non-uniform loading on the laser mirrors and to a non-uniform gain distribution ('sugar-scooping'). 'Tuning' the mixing and chemical reactions with an improved nozzle design may solve this problem and may also yield higher laser efficiency. (2) In the COIL mixing process, a significant amount of the energy stored in the singlet-delta oxygen is required to dissociate the molecular iodine to atoms. Analysis indicates that 4-6 O (sub 2) ((sup1) increment) molecules are required per I (sub 2) molecule. Injection of atomic iodine may result in an overall more efficient COIL system. (3) Heat release in the flow, both in the laser and due to deactivation of excited species, has a deleterious effect on laser performance, as well as on pressure recovery. An improved supersonic nozzle will mitigate this effect.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1120 Delaware Ave
Longmont, CO 80501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 684-8722
Stephen H. Osborn
AF 99-009
Title:LIDAR for Remote Sensing of Optical Turbulence
Abstract:The objective of the proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of a new LIDAR for remote sensing of optical turbulence and cirrus clouds aboard the Airborne Laser platform. The LIDAR employs common transmit/receive apertures, a pulse laser, and a range gated receiving system, and it has the following advantages. It is insensitive to aircraft vibrations, and it can operate over long distances in the strong scintillation regime. During the first phase, the following tasks will be accomplished: (1) develop conceptual design; (2) do performance analysis; (3) develop hardware and software for demonstration; (4) do field demonstration; (5) reduce and analyze the demo data; (6) write a scientific paper and final report. In addition to the Airborne Laser scenario, the sensor can be used for ground-based laser and space-object imaging applications. A small commercial LIDAR system could also be developed for sensing turbulence and thin clouds at astronomical sites. The project will be carried out by a team of researchers from Applied Technologies Inc, and Georgia Tech, who have broad experience in the developing and testing of optical sensors for measuring turbulence over very long distances, the development of LIDAR sensors and new technologies for astronomical adaptive optics.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Dr
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Philip Gatt
AF 99-009
Title:Lidar for Remote Sensing of Optical Turbulence
Abstract:The proposed program develops a novel, single-ended, range-resolved refractive turbulence profiler. This system is based on solid-state coherent laser radar technology and therefore has the potential for characterizing wind turbulence as well. The subject innovation provides real-time turbulence profiles that can benefit missile defense platforms, such as the Airborne Laser (ABL), by generating on-line risk assessments as a function of the engagement geometry. Refractive turbulence characterization, specifically as it relates to breaking wave structures near the tropopause, can also be performed. For the ABL, range-resolved Cn2 profiling to ranges of the order of 200 km is expected, with profile update rates of ~ 1 Hz. The proposed sensor will also be able to generate a single ABL risk parameter (such as rho zero) a much higher update rate (~10 Hz). In the Phase I program, CTI will extended (SIC) previous analyses, that has already been completed, to capture higher order effects that were ignored in the previous first order analysis. Laboratory demonstration experiments will be conducted to validate theory and calibration techniques. In Phase II CTI plans to build and demonstrate a coherent-array sensor using state-of-the-art solid-state laser technology.

CSA ENGINEERING
2565 Leghorn St.
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Dr. Roger M. Glaese
AF 99-010
Title:Active Acoustic Suppression for High Performance Aircraft
Abstract:The extreme conditions that a high performance fighter aircraft must operate in lead to harsh vibroacoustic environments that the various aircraft electronics and the precision optics of an airborne laser weapon must survive. Standard practice for reducing the effects of these environments is to beef up the support structure or use acoustic blankets, both of which impose severe weight penalties. CSA Engineering proposes to develop active acoustic suppression technologies, which have the potential for good performance without the severe weight penalties, for application to high performance fighter aircraft. The suitability of the numerous acoustic suppression techniques will be performed for fighter electronics/weapons bays. Structural-acoustic simulations of these bays integrated with models of the host aircraft will be used to evaluate performance levels of these acoustic suppression designs. The predicted attenuation levels, and the physical practicality and modularity of the designs will be selected for further evaluation in a hardware demonstration. In the demonstration, a mockup of the electronics bay will be constructed and tested for acoustically induced vibration. The measured acoustic and vibration reduction with the acoustic suppression applied will provide an indication of levels of improvement that are realistically achievable.

PIXELVISION, INC.
14964 NW Greenbrier Pkwy
Beaverton, OR 97006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 629-3210
Scott Way
AF 99-011
Title:High Frame Rate SWIR Camera
Abstract:A short wavelength infrared (SWIR) camera for high frame rate active tracking and wavefront sensing applications does not presently exist. PixelVision, Inc., a leader in high quantum efficiency, low noise, fast frame imaging systems, proposes development of a SWIR camera that will have the following characteristics: 1) quantum efficiency greater than 50% from 1.06 to 1.4 microns; 2) frame rate in excess of 5kHz; 3) 200x200 element resolution with 16 micron pitch; and 4) read noise less than 50 noise electrons per pixel. The focal plane array readout architecture will be a split frame transfer charge coupled device (CCD). Indium gallium arsenide will be fused to the backside silicon surface of the thinned CCD to provide the active SWIR detection material. A tri-level CCD clock waveform will be used to extract photocarriers from the InGaAs into the CCD charge storage wells and subsequently readout the photocarriers. A conceptual camera design will be developed from modifications to PixelVision's ADAPT3 (sup TM) adaptive optics visible camera.

CLARK-MXR, INC.
7300 W. Huron River Dr
Dexter, MI 48130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 426-0198
Dr. Mark Dugan
AF 99-012
Title:Reliable, Intense, Ultrafast, and Compact, Guide-Wave Laser for Cloud Penetration, Remote Sensing & Active Imaging
Abstract:The goal of this program is to develop reliable, compact, ultrafast, high peak-power lasers. These lasers will be used in the military for cloud penetration, reconnaissance, remote sensing, and active illumination, in the microelectronic industry for repair of photomasks, and for SRAM/DRAM yield improvement; in the automobile industry for sensors and fuel injector machining; and in the aerospace industry for turbine blade machining. Clark-MXR's design departs drastically from traditional free-space cavity approach that has been the basic of all ultra-high peak power lasers built to-date. Rather we will rely exclusively on guided-cavity components: optical fibers and ultra-large waveguides. These elements, coupled with diode-pumping, will be configured in a chirped pulse amplification geometry. They will provide ultra-high peak powers coupled with exceptional compactness and robustness. Clark-MXR has the in-house expertise to design this type of source and the support structure to manufacture and commercialize it. Clark-MXR has also a unique capability to micromachine the large waveguides necessary for this program. The University of Michigan (Professor K. Winick) will Provide the expertise in optical waveguide design and testing. Avalon Investment Inc. (MI) will provide funding for the commercialization phase (Phase III or Fast).

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge PkwySte 400 S.
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-9880
Dr. Joe Durham
AF 99-013
Title:Portable UHF or VHF Radar for Measuring Wind and the Refractive Index Structure
Abstract:AFRL/DE requires the development of a mobile UHF or VHF radar for measuring wind and the refractive index structure parameter C (sub n, sup 2) from the lower troposphere to 20 km. The system should have a 150m range resolution, <3 degrees antenna beamwidth, three-minute profiling intervals, and a greater than 100 million Wm (sub 2) power-aperture product. The system should be capable of being disassembled within a week, moved to a new site, and reassembled within a week. The team of Scientific Research Corporation, Radian Electronic Systems, and Sonoma Technology, Inc. proposes to develop an Operational Requirements Document (ORD) precisely defining the specifications of the mobile radar profiler. Working closely with the COTR, our team will take the approved ORD and conduct a cost/performance tradeoff study and identify significant technical issues and risks for further development of a subsequent Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) specification. The system design will use Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and Non-Developmental Item (NDI) components. We will utilize our knowledge of existing radar profilers, and our ability to field COTS profilers for specification compliance and C (Sub n, sup 2) calibration verification.

MECHANICAL & COMPOSITE ENGINEERING
59775 Spring Creek Rd
Montrose, CO 81401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 249-1751
Charles A. Richey
AF 99-015
Title:Advanced Portable Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM)
Abstract:MCE will investigate the possibility of using multiple collectors and detectors to develop a DIMM that is both portable and capable of obtaining atmospheric turbulence data from stellar sources and laser sources during nighttime and daytime hours. The proposers have many years experience in developing instruments for atmospheric turbulence measurements and in using such instruments to conduct research on horizontal/slant paths and on vertical paths through the atmosphere. MCE will produce a conceptual design and a prototype DIMM and will perform a detailed analysis to predict the performance characteristics of the device. MCE will conduct at least 2 field test with the prototype DIMM and will compare the experimental results with the predicted performance. During the final stages of Phase I, MCE will conduct a technical review to determine changes desirable for the Phase II DIMM. A primary objective of the hardware and software is to incorporate commercial off-the-shelf products wherever possible - consistent with the requirements for the performance desired.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1900 Randolph Rd SE
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1202
H.R. Sebesta
AF 99-016
Title:Small Inertial Attitude Reference System for Small High-Performance Aircraft Applications
Abstract:The Air Force has identified the need for a small, inexpensive inertial attitude reference system that functions as a two-axis optical reference in high performance aircraft applications. Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Inertial Reference Unit (MIRU) to meet the requirement. The MIRU will integrate innovative and emerging technologies of inexpensive, low-noise inertial sensors, electromagnetic actuators, electronics, and state-of-the-art digital processors and software to address the Air Force need. In the past year, ATA has achieved technology advances in MHD-based inertial angular motion sensing that directly contribute to the feasibility of developing the MIRU. ATA Sensors, the Company's commercial division, completed the design, manufacture, and successful market introduction of the Model ARS-12. This innovative product possesses the appropriate size, bandwidth, measurement noise and dynamic range, power consumption, ruggedness, and cost characteristics desired for an aircraft optical reference unit. The MIRU will use the model ARS-12 as the basis for achieving the requisite isolation of the telescope's optical line-of-sight (LOS) from the aircraft base motion, i.e., LOS jitter at 3 microradians or less. Other direct lessons learned and technology foundations from ATA's support to the Air Force High Altitude Balloon Experiment (HABE) will be exploited in constructing the MIRU.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Christopher M. Gittins
AF 99-017
Title:A Low Peak Power Differential Absorption LIDAR System for Remote Characterization of Chemical Vapor Plumes
Abstract:Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems have become extremely useful tools for remote sensing of atmospheric constituents. Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a compact, lightweight, quantum cascade (QC) laser-based DIAL transceiver for remote sensing of airborne chemical compounds. The QC laser-based transmitter will facilitate ground and UAV-based monitoring of trace chemical vapors presently difficult or impossible to quantify using other laser sources. QC lasers are compact, solid-state devices which provide access to infrared wavelengths unattainable using CO laser-based lidars, greater ease of use than emerging IR lidar technologies, e.g. optical parametric oscillators (OPO), and have the potential to be as ubiquitous and inexpensive as diode lasers are today. The DIAL system described here will provide range resolved molecular column density measurements and 100% duty cycle data acquisition. A prototype DIAL system based on currently available QC lasers will allow remote quantification of chemical effluents relevant to NBC counter proliferation from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms.

Q-PEAK, INC.
135 South Rd
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Dr. Yelena Isyanova
AF 99-017
Title:Broadly Tunable, High Repetition Rate, 10-W Average Power IR Laser Source
Abstract:Q-Peak, Inc. proposes to develop a broadly tunable, 10-W-average-power IR source suitable for use as a DIAL system transmitter and based on the combination of a Nd-doped pulsed pump laser and optical parametric oscillators (OPO). The laser source, a compact, diode-pumped, 5-10 kHz pulse-repetition-rate, Q-switched Nd:YLF laser, will pump a tandem OPO system consisting of an angle-tuned, 3-5 (magnetic moment)m KTA OPO, and a pump-tuned, 8-12 (magnetic moment)m CdSe OPO pumped by the KTA OPO idler. Diode-pumping and nonlinear conversion will substantially increase the efficiency of the proposed source whereas high pulse rates (5-10 kHz) will allow the possibility of reducing the data acquisition time. The Phase I effort will demonstrate a laboratory breadboard 2.5-5 W IR transmitter and develop a design for a higher-efficiency 10-W, 3-12 (magnetic moment)m tuning range IR-source.

CYNOSURE, INC.
10 Elizabeth Dr.
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 256-4200
Frederic Durville
AF 99-018
Title:High-Efficiency, Coherent Combination of Fiber Lasers
Abstract:Over 35 W of power can be generated by a single fiber laser in a coherent, diffraction-limited beam, with a high quantum efficiency over 85%. The output power of a single fiber laser is however limited by intrinsic non-linear effects. We propose to coherently combine several fiber lasers in order to overcome such limitation. This work will build upon work by Rediker and Leger, and on the large effort in the computer field to have efficient fan-out of a laser beam. We will use a fan-in continuous phase grating to recombine the laser beams. Combination efficiency over 95% can theoretically be achieved for 3 beams, and over 99% for 9 beams. We will use our Excimer laser ablation system to fabricate the continuous phase grating in a 16-level approximation, thus allowing a quick turnaround for prototyping. The performance of the phase grating will first be evaluated in a fan-out configuration, and then in a fan-in configuration with a single fiber laser split into three beams. Three individual low-power fiber lasers will then be coherently combined. The coherence will be quantitatively evaluated and the influence of the individual fiber laser characteristics, such as frequency stability, will be analyzed in details.

INDUSTRIAL MICROPHOTONICS CO.
20 Point West
St. Charles, MO 63301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 916-5656
Dr. Ed Stephens
AF 99-018
Title:Highly Efficient, Diode Pumped Waveguide Laser
Abstract:We propose to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing a simple waveguide laser that would demonstrate all of the qualities of fiber lasers while utilizing the simple pumping scheme of an side pumped Nd:YAG laser. The Phase I effort will involve modeling of the system and Phase II will be construction of a prototype. We will investigate a wound single mode rare earth doped fiber such that each new wrap of fiber is in the same plane as the previous wrap. The fiber would then be encapsulated with optical clear material and placed between two thin SiO (sub 2) substrates to create a wrapped fiber sandwich. To optically excite the active ions in the fiber's core, the sandwich would be pumped from the edge by a close-coupled laser diode bar. The outside of the substrate material could be silvered in order to prevent the pump light escaping. As the pump light passses through each wrap of fiber core, some about of it will be absorbed by the active ions creating the population inversion needed for lasing action in the fiber.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 US Rte 1, Bldg 12
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-0610
Dr. Alan Sugg
AF 99-018
Title:Master Oscillator, Grating Coupled Power Amplifier (MO-GCPA) Diode Lasers for 0.97-1.10 um
Abstract:Sensors Unlimited will grow, fabricate and test Master Oscillator Grating Coupled Power Amplifier (MO-GCPA) lasers designed to operate with diffraction-limited beam divergence up to 5 W CW power in the 0.97-1.1 (magnetic moment)m wavelength range. The goal of this program is the delivery of the relevant basic material and device characterization necessary for the design of this new type of "MOPA" laser along with the MO-GCPA lasers operating at 5 W output power in a single spatial mode. The motivation for MO-GCPA device development is the commercial potential of diffraction-limited beam high power sources for free-space communications, laser radar applications, pumping and material processing systems. In order to achieve this goal, Sensors Unlimited will use the services of Sarnoff Corporation to grow low-loss broadened waveguide InGaAsP/InGaP laser structures and fabricate on their case high-power lasers with diffraction-limited beams. In Phase I we will design and test the main element of MO-GCPA lasers which is the master distributed Bragg reflector section with coupling grating. Data from these measurements will prove invaluable for the fabrication and testing of further designs in Phase II of the program.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Everett G. Farr
AF 99-019
Title:Airborne UWB Phased Array
Abstract:Ultra-Wideband (UWB) antennas for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been a challenge for some time, due to size and weight requirements. Such antennas can aid a number of missions in a cost-effective manner, including Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Foliage Penetration (FOPEN), Ground Moving Target Indicators (GMTI) and Counter-Camouflage Concealment and Deception (CC&D). UAVs have been shown to be a cost-effective method of carrying out these missions, but without the right antennas, these missions may fall short of their goals. The antennas required for these missions must be effective over a broad bandwidth, and they can induce only minimal drag on the surface of the aircraft. The frequencies of interest extend as low as 25 MHz. It is at the low end of the band where size constraints are most challenging. Obtaining a good antenna pattern is a challenge unless the antenna is the same size as a wavelength. Impedance matching over a broad bandwidth is also a challenge, because electrically small antennas normally have a matching circuit that provides a good match only within a very narrow band. Another challenge lies in steering the beam electronically. To address these challenges, we propose developing a crossed linear dipole array along the bottom of the fuselage and wing that is flush with the aircraft surface. We will explore antennas that reach as low as 25 MHz, with a decade of bandwidth. Designs that introduce minimal drag will be considered. We will calculate the antenna pattern, and we will calculate impedance match and radiation efficiency. We will also consider how to design systems with two polarizations. Finally, we will explore the patterns available after steering the beam using phase shifters. During Phase I we will build and test a scale model of a candidate array element.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
PO Drawer 719
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
Glen R. Salo
AF 99-019
Title:Lightweight Ultra-Wideband Antenna
Abstract:A clear need exists in military and commercial applications to improve the remote detection and identification targets. While a variety of ongoing efforts are focusing on signal exploitation and feature extraction of the return radar signal, potential antenna design performance enhancements are beginning to receive more interest. As radar bandwidths are increased to extract even more information, the performance of the radar system becomes more dependent on the performance of the antenna system. This proposal outlines an approach to measure and characterize the performance of IRA class antennas for potential use in UWB SAR applications. The performance of the IRA class antennas will be parameterized by established UWB antenna characterizations methods and compared with competing UWB antenna designs such as the TEM horn and LPDA antennas. In addition, measured data from a 1/16th scale model of a Bradley armored vehicle will be used to demonstrate the potential HRR down range profiles of an IRA based radar system. This program is designed to quickly identify the strengths and potential weaknesses of an IRA class UWB SAR radar system. Concept feasibility will be demonstrated in Phase I, and design optimization will occur in Phase II.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4165
Dr. Moshe Oren
AF 99-020
Title:Modulated Corner Cube Concept for Laser Communication
Abstract:The development of a high-speed corner cube laser beam modulator for free space communication is the subject of this proposal. Free space laser communication is considered to be a viable, cost-effective approach in many applications requiring point-to-point secure communication. In one such application, useful for small satellites constrained by power consumption, a ground CW laser is used and a reflecting corner cube modulator is placed onboard the satellite. For such a system to be accepted, a high-speed modulator operating at 1 MHz or higher rates is needed. Foster-Miller proposes to use a voltage controlled diffractive optical element (DOE) as a high-speed modulator for this application. When fully implemented, the modulator will achieve a megahertz modulation rate, will have a large active aperture of more than 50 mm, and will be wavelength insensitive from the visible to IR range. One of the most important characteristics of the proposed device, which distinguishes it from other designs, is its very short response time consistent with high contrast ratio of better than 100:1, and large aperture. The anticipated drive power requirement of the proposed modulator is less than 10 mW/cm (sup 2). The proposed modulator can be produced using established semiconductor manufacturing technology.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
14A Gill St
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2030
Hua Jiang
AF 99-020
Title:High Performance Retromodulator for Laser Communication
Abstract:Optroceramics hold promise to produce leading edge retromodulators; a critical component for laser communications. In this program, NZ Applied Technologies proposes to demonstrate and fabricate a high performance solid-state modulator possessing high speed, polarization insensitive operation, ceramic ruggedness, low optical loss, and low fabrication cost. The technology is based upon large electro-optic effect ceramic materials and innovative device architecture. The design is simple and compact with low fabrication cost potential. It is anticipated that state-of-the-art performance of several key specifications can be achieved through this program. These include high data rate, low optical insertion loss, wide temperature operation, broad band, and cost effectiveness. Prototype modulators will be fabricated to demonstrate feasibility in Phase I.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
500 Discovery Dr
Hunstville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-7821
James P. Paxton
AF 99-021
Title:Space Capable, Optically Transparent Thin Films
Abstract:Polymeric membrane optics are leading candidates for lightweight space-based optical systems. Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the shape distortion of the membrane. This Phase I proposal will couple the detailed analytical understanding with an innovative polymeric material and fabrication process. Test samples of the polyimized material will be fabricated to demonstrate the superior phase and amplitude distortion of the canopy material. Research in process improvement will be performed and implemented, leading to fabrication of an polyimide optic collector in Phase I. The test article will demonstrate the feasibility of the process and lay the ground work for Phase II work.

LIGHTWAVE ELECTRONICS CORP.
2400 Charleston Rd.
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 526-1281
Dr. Lawrence E. Myers
AF 99-022
Title:High-Power Frequency Conversion with Periodically-Poled Materials
Abstract:This program will develop high-power visible laser sources based on frequency conversion of 1 micron diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Improvements are needed in efficient and robust nonlinear materials. The technical objectives of our overall research program are to develop periodically-poled materials for use in commercial high-power visible devises, and for use in cascaded nonlinear output coupling configurations that have been studied at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. Our goals for the Phase I portion of the program are to demonstrate improved properties of periodically-poled materials using the same set-ups in order to fairly compare their performance. We will test the already commercially available materials and also investigate newly emerging materials. Tests will include absorption measurements and side-by-side nonlinear optical measurements in 532 nm second harmonic generation and 1 micron pumped optical parametric oscillators. Test results will be provided to nonlinear crystal suppliers.

APPLIED PULSE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3663 Syracuse Ct
San Diego, CA 92122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 453-2640
Allen Ramrus
AF 99-023
Title:High Average Power Modulator for Multi-Gigawatt HPM Sources
Abstract:Advances in microwave sources with high peak and average power depend on continued development of reliable modulators capable of testing high-voltage HPM sources at rep-rates up to 100 Hz. In light of budget limitations, new pulser development must be accomplished cost-effectively. This proposal is for a design study of a new 100Hz modulator which provides 600 kV, l (magnetic moment)s pulsewidth to discretely variable loads of 10 to 50 (omega particle). We propose to conduct the following tasks: (1) Design the optimum modulator meeting the specifications without regard to cost. In this task, the study will include the use of technology promising the highest performance and reliability. (2) Design the modulator meeting the above requirements with deference to budget limitations. Thus, for example, switches (as in the primary circuit of the pulse transformer) may be gas-blown spark-gaps as opposed to more costly high-voltage thyratrons. (3) List and establish availability of existing equipment and determine if a system can be assembled to the new specifications cost-effectively. In this case, performance requirements such as reduced pulse fall time and enhanced fault mode protection would be emphasized in anticipation of increased resources to address advanced development in specific areas.

MICROWAVE SCIENCES, INC.
1041 Los Arabis Ln
Lafayette, CA 94549
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 283-8454
James Benford
AF 99-023
Title:High Average Power Modulator for Multi-GW HPM Sources
Abstract:We propose a modulator which meets all the specifications of the AFRL SBIR announcement with these principal features: Variable electrical pulse duration, which will be very useful in avoiding wear-and-tear if pulse shortening occurs in the HPM source. The user can configure the Pulse Forming Network [PFN] to facilitate rapid re-configuration for a range of pulse durations at fixed impedance. Operation at several impedances from 8.3 (omega particle) to 50 (omega particle). Minimum cost: The design is based on the modulator now at HERTF. Among contemporary modulators, it is the closest in specification to the AFRL requirement. The minimum cost is obtained by using this existing design for the system architecture and for many of the key components and subsystems. At this point we believe all the specifications can be met within the cost objective. Reduces risk: Expanding on an existing design significantly reduces risk, and allows us to provide greatly increased performance within the given budget.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Dr
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Timothy J. Carrig
AF 99-026
Title:High Stability, Broadly Tunable, Single-Frequency Yb:YAG and Yb:YLF Lasers
Abstract:Highly stable, broadly tunable, single-frequency laser sources are needed for a variety of applications including high resolution optical spectroscopy, frequency standards, pumping and seeding of lasers and nonlinear devices, lidar, and hard target laser radar. In this effort, CTI proposes to build broadly tunable, ultra-narrow linewidth lasers capable of generating several hundred mW output power using the Yb:YAG and Yb:YLF hosts. This work will leverage CTI's successful efforts in manufacturing tunable single-frequency Yb:YAG, Tm:YAG, Tm,Ho:YLF, and Tm:LuAG lasers at the 1(magnetic moment)m and 2 (magnetic moment)m wavelengths. These existing lasers fit in the palm of one's hand and provide better than 10 kHz/msec short-term linewidth stability and 5% min peak-to-peak amplitude stability in a TEM (sub 00), near diffraction-limited beam. The Yb:YAG laser outputs over 200 mW and tunes about the 1.03 (magnetic moment)m wavelength region. In this program CTI will increase the output power, tuning range, and stability of our existing Yb:YAG master oscillator and extend the product line to include Yb:YLF. Additionally, to ensure that these lasers will meet the stability requirements needed for applications such as the development of optical frequency standards, CTI will collaborate with researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, CO, to establish performance criteria and investigate innovative passive and active stabilization techniques.

LIGHTWAVE ELECTRONICS CORP.
2400 Charleston Rd
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 526-1288
Dr. Mark Arbore
AF 99-026
Title:Ultra-Narrow Linewidth, Tunable Single-Frequency Ytterbium Laser
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I program is to design and demonstrate an ultra-stable single-frequency diode-pumped solid-state laser operating at <1030 nm. We propose to use Ytterbium (Yb) doped YAG and/or YLF as the laser gain medium. Unidirectional ring architecture allows single-frequency operation. A quasi-monolithic cavity design assures stable operation, while allowing use of the quasi-three-level Yb gain medium. The proposed architecture is suitable for both Yb:YAG and Yb:YLF, as well as for other laser gain media - thus, this program will provide an enabling technology for single-frequency lasers at a variety of wavelengths. Ytterbium-based single-frequency lasers have several advantages over Neodymium-based solid-state lasers. In particular, Yb offers more than an order of magnitude greater tunability, access to shorter wavelengths, and greater electrical-to-optical efficiency.

RYDAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, INC.
1523 Noble Rd
Rydal, PA 19046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 886-5678
Dr. Warren A. Rosen
AF 99-029
Title:High-Performance Optical Network for Satellite Applications
Abstract:Rydal Research proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of a high-speed, low-latency optical network for satellite applications capable of supporting data transfers at data rates in the range of 5-20 Gb/s with application-to-application latencies of less than 10 (micromicron)s. The network will support a commercial high-performance protocol that will provide full network services and be scaleable up to several hundred nodes. The network will be based on high-performance low-power optical networking components being developed by Rydal Research including a novel optical switch topology and low-power optical transceiver, clock recovery and serializer/deserializer circuits. Advanced modeling and simulation techniques will be used to model both the protocol and hardware to match the network characteristics to the protocol in order to achieve optimum throughput, latency, and system cost.

SPACE PHOTONICS, INC.
700 West 20th St.
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(501) 575-5316
Charles H. Chalfant
AF 99-029
Title:Spaceworthy 2.488 Gbps IEEE 1393 Fiber Optic Transceiver
Abstract:The innovation offered by this Phase I SBIR proposal is a 2.488 Gbps spaceborne fiber optic network operating at ATM OC-48 data rates, with the potential of yielding interconnect speeds as high as 4.98 Gbps. This innovation represents a significant improvement in the data handling capabilities of currently available spaceborne data networks. The fiber optic network will implement the IEEE 1393 Spaceborne Fiber Optic Data Bus (SFODB) protocol standard while providing a 2 to 4 times increase in data throughput capacity. Additionally, the proposed innovative protocol ASIC and fiber optic transceiver MCM designs have the potential to drastically reduce current spacecraft interconnect power consumption while providing enhanced EMI isolation, and significantly reducing spacecraft development, integration and test cost. The commercial aerospace market has exploded with demands for high speed data handling requirements; our fiber optic networks will meet this demand.

PADGETT-MARTIN TECHNOLOGY
c/o Philippe Pouliquen4222 Falls Rd.
Baltimore, MD 21211
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 516-0257
Philippe O. Pouliquen
AF 99-030
Title:Latch-Up Detection and Cancellation in CMOS VLSI Circuits
Abstract:Latch-up in a large digital system can be isolated to a small portion of the total die area. In success cases, the increase in current drawn from the supply is not distinguishable from the much larger average current consumed by normal operation. This makes it difficult to detect micro-latch-up by observing the current consumption of the entire chip. We propose a technique which senses the voltage differences across the source to bulk junction of the transistor. This signal in turn is used to control a local switch to the power supply of the effected circuits. When a micro-latch-up condition is detected the affected block of logic will be power cycled to alleviate the latch-up condition.

ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES, INC.
1675 W. Maple Rd.
Troy, MI 48084
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 362-4780
Dr. Scott J. Jones
AF 99-031
Title:Development of Ultralight, Thin-Film a-Si:H Based Solar Cells for Auxiliary Spacecraft Power Systems
Abstract:We propose to develop a novel, low-cost, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based modular to be integrated with a spacecraft thermal blanket for an auxiliary spacecraft power system. This new design is unique from ECD's present multi-junction module design in that an ultralight kapton substrate material and a monolithic cell interconnect design will be used which will allow for potential energy densities as high as 1000 W/kg. Small area (0.25 cm2) cells with this ultralight design have been fabricated with beginning-of-life AM0 efficiencies greater than 12%. Extensive tests have also demonstrated that the cell quality is resilient to electron and proton bombardment. In Phase I, we plan to scale-up the deposition process for 0.5 ft. x 0.5 ft. area cell fabrication. Deposition conditions will be optimized to achieve high cell performance and uniformity over large areas. Achievement of a highly reproducible process that produces 0.5 ft. x 0.5 ft. modules on kapton substrates with efficiencies greater than 8% will be achieved during the Phase I program. The process and module efficiencies will further be refined in Phase II of the program with the eventual goal of the implementation of the new module design and fabrication process into ECD's role-to role manufacturing line.

MATERIALS RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
12441 W 49th Ave, Ste 3
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 425-6688
Dr. Ingrid Eisgruber
AF 99-031
Title:Lightweight Large-Area Culn(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)Se(sub 2) Photovoltaic Modules on Steel Foil
Abstract:Flexible thin film photomoltaics offer a number of advantages over single crystal technologies for space power. Such advantages include a large number of watts per kilogram and watts per volume, superior radiation resistance, low cost and good temperature cycle stability. However, thin film photovoltaics on lightweight flexible substrates is not yet a mature technology. The use of non-glass substrates poses several challenges, including the requirement of modified scribing techniques due to the thin opaque substrate, the inability to deposit cells in a superstrate configuration due to the opaque substrate, differing film growth due to lack of Na from the glass, and possible limits on the process temperature if polymer substrates are used. Materials Research Group, Inc. (MRG, Inc.) proposes the development of thin-film polycrystalline CuIn(sub x)Ga(sub1-x)Se(sub 2) (CIGS) modules on stainless steel substrates to best provide the advantages listed above. CIGS photovoltaic devices on thin steel foil substrates provide excellent potential for high efficiency compared to other absorber materials, the ability to deposit high-quality material in high-temperature deposition steps, adequate tensile strength, demonstrated radiation hardness, a weight per area close to that of polymer substrates and far superior to that of crystalline cells, and the feasibility of simple external interconnects.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Cir., Ste 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir B. Markov
AF 99-032
Title:Phase Conjugate Laser System for Remote Object Tracking
Abstract:In this Phase I proposal we outline a plan to develop a novel phase conjugate laser system capable of locking and tracking remote objects. The proposed system uses a pulsed laser with an intra-cavity four-wave mixing configuration. In this proposal we outline the operational principles of the system, showing how velocity and position of the target can be accurately measured. During Phase I, we will perform additional theoretical analysis, design a laboratory system, and demonstrate the key aspects of the tracking system. During Phase II we will scale the technology up for field demonstration.

SPACE ENVIRONMENT CORP.
399 N Main, Ste 325
Logan, UT 84321
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 752-6567
J. Vincent Eccles
AF 99-033
Title:Regional Ionospheric Forecast and Specification (RIFS) for Low-Latitude Navigation and Communications
Abstract:The low-latitude ionosphere is highly variable from day-to-day. The day-to-day weather of the ionosphere and irregularity development impact Over-the-Horizon (OTH) radar applications, RF communication circuits, and L band satellite applications such as GPS and cellular phones. The use of these applications continues to expand, e.g., GPS as an aid to automated aircraft landing systems (WAAS). To date the monitoring and forecasting of ionospheric conditions that affect RF transmissions is either non-existent or based on empiricism. We propose to lay groundwork in Phase I for an innovative packaged system of instruments, models, and interpretive software to both monitor and forecast accurately in a geographic sector the ionosphere and the degree of ionospheric disturbance. The system would provide local monitoring for specification and 30-minute to 2-hour forecasts of signal scintillations. Since the system is deployed locally its output could be directly connected into user applications and hence maintain the forecast lead-time. The deployed sensors are off-the-shelf, and have been primarily developed for DOD applications. These sensors would be linked via INTERNET, where available, or other real-time communication links to a system computer, e.g. a Pentium-based PC. This computer carries out all required data analysis, interpretation, and provides monitoring and forecasting products autonomously.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Ave
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 671-0508
Jerry L. Mehlberg
AF 99-034
Title:Automated Adaptive Task Scheduling for Satellite Network
Abstract:Scheduling of the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) is key to its effective utilization. As demands increase and resources decrease, scheduling must become more efficient. Current AFSCN scheduling is manpower intensive and complicated. Since this process is mainly a manual one, it can take a new scheduler months to become fully trained. Computer automation and optimization of the process will improve efficiency by reducing the labor needed to prepare the schedules. Computerized scheduling could also find opportunities in those cases where emergencies or other anomalies require that the schedule be reworked quickly. In order for a computerized system to replace the current method, its algorithms must be both fast and accurate, and its solutions must be as good or better than those produced by the present system. The AFSCN scheduling problem is characterized by multiple objectives, priorities, resource allocations, and constraints. This proposal will describe several algorithms that will address the scheduling problem from a generalized standpoint. These algorithms, once developed during Phase I, could be applied to a broad range of scheduling problems, including that of the AFSCN. Any solution to the AFSCN problem could be a candidate to many other scheduling problems found in today's world.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Pl, Ste 202
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Mr. Jianhong Cai
AF 99-035
Title:Optoelectronic Thyristor Based High Bandwidth Photoreceiver
Abstract:A novel photoreceiver is proposed based upon the high optical sensitivity, gain and impedance transformation properties of an optoelectronic thyristor and HFET integrated circuit. As part of a monolithic optoelectronic technology, the thyristor is implemented as a vertical cavity device and is compatible with complementary HFET digital and analog electronics, with a complementary bipolar analog/digital gate configuration, and with vertical cavity lasers. The thyristor is based upon strained quantum well GaAs epitaxial growth with a natural emission frequency of 1 um. It is designed as a resonant vertical cavity detector with a three quantum well active absorbing region of about 300A and with current blocking barriers on either side resulting in detection which is highly resistant to radiation. With the absence of natural oxides in this structure, the HFET electronics is also radiation tolerant and implements high performance complementary logic because the natural threshold (+0.3V) are positive providing ample noise margins. The thyristor is unique in that it performs digital/analog detection in the off state and produces laser emission in the on state. By integrating with CHFET logic, a smart pixel may be designed to perform the functions of an emitter, modulator or detector depending on the logic levels applied to the resonant cavity device. In the integrated form, BER's of <10(sup -10) are expected based upon the dark current levels obtained in these devices. In this SBIR, the integrated receiver will be developed as a prototype with bandwidths >10GHz.

OCEANIT
1100 Alakea St., 31st Floor
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Daron L. Nishimoto
AF 99-036
Title:High Accuracy, Automated Satellite Surveillance Network
Abstract:The utilization of space is increasing as commercial, military/government, research, and academic entities discover new ways to exploit the use of this environment. With the increase in numbers of satellites and debris orbiting Earth, comes the increase in importance of protecting the safety of manned and unmanned space-based assets. This growth rate is expected to increase in the near-term with the deployment of large satellite constellations - both military and civilian/commercial. It is estimated that the telecommunication sector alone will be launching more than 1000 satellites in the next 10 years, with assets totaling approximately $50 billion. High accurate observations on space objects whether it's coming from radar, optical, and space-based sites have been historically high. Oceanit proposes to design and develop a low cost automated satellite surveillance network utilizing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology that will produce metric accuracy in the arcsecond regime - methodologies already accepted in the astronomical community. Oceanit also intends to further investigate the potential to design and develop an orbit determination system that could be utilized for real-time object propagation within their system.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Marek Turowski
AF 99-037
Title:Radiation-Hardening Design Tools for Modern Semiconductor Microelectronics
Abstract:Currently, most semiconductor manufactures rely on electronic design automation (EDA) tools to design advanced microelectronics. However, their use for radiation-hardened (rad-hard) microelectronics is limited, since there is no available set of rad-hard design rules. Therefore, there is a need to develop computational models, starting from high-fidelity physics to circuit-level models, and from them, derive design rules for advanced rad-hard integrated circuits. To address these problems, CFDRC in collaboration with Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Vanderbilt University (Dr. R. Schrimpf), and Tanner (EDA Division), is proposing to: 1) Develop guidelines and methodologies for existing microelectronics CAD systems; 2) Develop computational environment for generating rad-hard design rules from 2D and 3D device simulations, using unstructured, adaptive mesh technologies and advanced hydrodynamic (HD) semiconductor model, enhanced with radiation-effects models; and 3) Incorporate the radiation hardening design rules into a commercial ECAD system. This will also demonstrate the feasibility of automating this process. The success of Phase I work on submicron silicon transistors will set a good foundation for Phase II, where the methodology and computational environment for rad-hard design rules will be extended for: Quantum-Well Photonic Devices (VCSEL's) , MEMS, and Nano Devices (RTDs).

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Rd
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Dr. James C. Neidhoefer
AF 99-038
Title:Advanced Nonlinear Adaptive Controllers for Fault Tolerant Satellite Trajectory Control
Abstract:Accurate Automation Corporation (AAC) will apply the latest knowledge in optimal control, adaptive control, and learning control to develop a state-of-the-art, adaptive, nonlinear, package for robust satellite guidance and control. The guidance module will generate an optimal trajectory between pre-defined way-points and the control module will ensure robust and accurate trajectory tracking. The controller will be cased on an improved version of an n (sup th) order multivariate Neutral Adaptive Controller (NAC (sup TM)) developed at AAC. And the guidance system will use a neutral network based adaptive critic.

APPLIED MATERIAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3611 S Harbor Blvd, Ste 225
Santa Ana, CA 92704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 545-8825
Eyan Lee
AF 99-039
Title:Development of Test Procedures and Acceptance/Rejection Criteria for Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits in Space
Abstract:Hermetically sealed microcircuits, such as ceramics, have been used successfully in space, but there are potential cost, size, and weight advantages if plastic encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) packaging is used for space application. Approximately 98% of all microcircuits manufactured in the world are housed in plastic packages. Ceramics will not be available, or very costly in the future because private industry is moving toward plastic encapsulation. Unless test procedures and acceptance/rejection criteria for space qualification of PEMs are developed, hermetically sealed microcircuits will still be required even though they are very expensive and/or very limited in availability. The problem with plastic packaging is that plastic materials are hygroscopic and contain brittle passivation layers, which are susceptible to stress cracking mainly from thermal cycling. Small amounts of moisture will lead to corrosion and, hence, early failure of the electronics. Because of moisture absorption and package cracking, commercial plastic encapsulated microcircuits manufactured today cannot pass at least five of the MIL STL 883 tests which, currently ceramic packages need to pass. At present there are no standards or requirements for PEMs for use in space stations. This proposed effort will develop test procedures and acceptance/rejection criteria for use of PEMs in space.

ADVANCED PROJECTS RESEARCH, INC.
1925 McKinley Ave, Ste B
La Verne, CA 91750
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 392-3155
Dr. Thomas H. Sobota
AF 99-041
Title:Cell-Wise Battery Charge and Thermal Control System for Aerospace Batteries
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for monitoring and control of change and temperature at the cell level of battery energy storage systems. While battery energy storage systems based on any cell electrochemistry can benefit from this cell-wise monitoring and control, the lithium-ion electrochemistry requires cell-wise charge and thermal management. The proposed system specifically addresses the requirements of high-voltage (>24V) high power battery energy storage systems in several innovative ways. The modular approach, by providing sensors, charge management, and thermal management at each cell permits scaling of the system to any number of cells for any pack voltage. The system architecture provides voltage isolation for circuit protection and safety and it may be applied to battery energy storage systems that employ a wide range of cell electrochemistries. The implementation is lightweight and provides a means for cost effective production in high volumes to ultimately serve commercial markets. The proposed technology has application to battery energy storage systems for spacecraft, aircraft, electric vehicles, Power quality management systems, and uninteruptable power supplies as well as a host of other applications. APRI has assembled a multidisciplinary team with all of the requisite experience to engineer the proposed system.

VPT, INC.
PO Box 253
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5000
Dr. Glenn R. Skutt
AF 99-042
Title:Magnetic Material Characterization and Device Design for High Performance, High Temperature Applications
Abstract:The use of high-temperature electronic systems using new semiconductor materials such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) or Gallium Nitride (GaN) offers great promise for the expansion of high-efficiency high-power applications. The high temperature operation of these devices can greatly reduce the size and weight of a power system by reducing converter heatsinking requirements. In addition, the availability of high temperature electronics allows for the placement of electronic circuitry closer to the point of load for many applications, which can result in improved performance and smaller size. Such high temperature environments, however, require new tools for the design the accompanying magnetic devices and other passive components. VPT proposes to develop magnetic device characterization procedures and device design tools that accommodate a variety of electrical and thermal environments. These tools and guidelines will combine empirical material data with analytical and numerical computations. The unique aspect of this work is the comprehensive inclusion of environmental factors and device thermal management techniques in the overall design process. The proposed design approach represents an expansion of existing magnetic device design methods and will aid in the evaluation and development of new materials that can meet the needs of high temperature, high power applications.

INTERSCIENCE, INC.
105 Jordan Rd
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 283-7500
Adolfo Gutierrez
AF 99-043
Title:Electro-optic Probe Station for Single Event Effects Testing
Abstract:We describe the development of an affordable, tabletop Single Event Effect (SEE) Laser Probe Station that combines diode laser excitation of active areas of integrated circuits with conventional electrical probing. Laser-based SEE testing has been demonstrated as a meaningful alternative to supplement costly ion accelerator-based testing but has remained mainly as a laboratory technique not suitable for general use. Development of the proposed system would be of great value to microelectronic designers and test engineers, particularly during the development phase of radiation hardened devices. The proposed system is based on modification of an existing electro-optic probe station being commercialized by the proposing firm for non-contact wafer testing of micro-machined devices. The system architecture allows precise and reproducible positioning of the laser probe across a wafer with automated alignment and probe card positioning. During testing, the pulsed laser diode is positioned automatically to induce SEEs in sensitive areas of the device under test, and the response is monitored using standard IC testers. The Phase I effort will produce a functional prototype SEE Test system and tests performed to produce benchmark data of devices for which there is published SEE data obtained from accelerators for calibration of the testing results. The Phase I experience will result in the implementation in Phase II of a production model.

ON-LINE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
87 Church St
East Hartford, CT 06108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 291-0719
Victor Yakovlev
AF 99-044
Title:Method & Instrumentation for Thick-Film SOI Non-Destructive Characterization
Abstract:Thick-film Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers are now being used to manufacture a variety of electronic products. Reliable manufacturing of advanced SOI-based products requires accurate characterization tools. Presently, the semiconductor industry lacks the necessary instrumentation to non-destructively characterize and qualify SOI wafers with silicon layers thicker than several microns. To meet the demand, a joint venture of On-Line Technologies Inc. and ADE Corporation will develop a combined thick-film SOI characterization tool employing FTIR reflectometry and multi-laser light scatterometry. The system will be able to 1) measure thicknesses of the top silicon and the buried oxide (BOX) layers, resistively and macro-defect concentration in the silicon layer, density of the BOX layer, 2) evaluate the integrity of the interface bond between the silicon film and the BOX layer, and 3) detect defects generated by the wafer treatment. Three innovations will be combined in this project to render infrared practical for SOI characterization: 1) A breakthrough optical system from On-Line Technologies, eliminating spectral artifacts arising from the wafer backside reflections, and providing significantly higher accuracy than conventional FTIR. 2) Multi-layer model-based analysis software providing a flexible way to deduce unknown parameters of interest from the reflectance spectra. 3) Multi-spectral (visible and near-IR) laser scatterometry capable of probing both surface and buried interface quality. Phase I will demonstrate the ability of the proposed technique to non-destructively characterize the key properties of thick-film SOI. A system design for Phase II will be proposed.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
1720 Randolph Rd SE
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7632
Dr. David G. Mavis
AF 99-045
Title:Programmable Data Path Architecture
Abstract:A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) architecture is proposed that is specifically designed for digital signal processing (DSP) applications. It is called the PDPA (Programmable Data Path Array) architecture and is characterized by the following features: specific support for data path functions, programming of logic elements in groups of 8, programming of routing switches in groups of 8, significant reduction of routing to logic ratio, architectural provisions for vector processing and pipelining, and provisions for context switching (logic and routing) through register files. The PDPA allows logic and routing resources to be programmed in groups having a size equal to the bus width, reducing the number of programming bits needed to implement user functions. This specialization also reduces the routing to logic ratio permitting more computational logic resources. Vector processing and switching of both logic and routing are naturally incorporated by storing the programmation in register files. Because of the tight data coupling between computing elements, we fully expect the PDPA to perform data path signal processing functions at clock speeds of 50 MHz.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Rd
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 829-9217
Robert A. Sinclair
AF 99-045
Title:Digital Signal Processing Circuit with Embedded Reprogrammable Nonvolatile Memory
Abstract:An embedded reprogrammable nonvolatile memory will be developed and integrated with a high performance digital signal processor (DSP) to allow reprogramming in the field which is currently not possible. New opportunities will become available with this development to reprogram DSPs in satellites and other remote locations as new software and innovations evolve. Radiation hardness is important in these applications which is an inherent attribute of Magnetoresistance Random Access Memory (MRAM) along with a Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) process which is available to NVE both through IMP and Honeywell. Existing nonvolatile memory technologies will be evaluated to determine the suitability to the needs of this program including a 32K x 8 MRAM chip currently being developed for Eglin AFB for integration into high shock data recorders. MRAM is well suited to these applications since it is high speed, has no wear out mechanisms, is nonvolatile, and is fully CMOS and SOI process compatible. A preliminary design for reprogrammable nonvolatile memory embedded DSP circuits along with a prototype fabrication process for production will be developed. The basic DSP and nonvolatile memory technology selected will be merged and demonstrated during this Phase I program.

GREEN MOUNTAIN RADIO RESEARCH CO.
50 Vermont AveFort Ethan Allen
Colchester, VT 05446
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 655-9670
Dr. Frederick H. Raab
AF 99-046
Title:Wideband High-Efficiency Power-Amplifier Modules
Abstract:Modern satellite-communication transmitters use a single antenna array to form multiple beams. Each power-amplifier (PA) module must amplify multiple carriers simultaneously. The resultant high peak-to-average ratio causes conventional PAs to be very inefficient (5-10 percent). Kahn-technique (EER) transmitters combine nonlinear RF amplifiers with a high-level modulator to implement a high-efficiency linear transmitter. Such transmitters have recently been demonstrated from HF (250 W) through L band. Their average efficiency for multiracial signals is typically several times that of a conventional linear amplifier (e.g., 50-60 percent). Unfortunately, existing modulator designs limit the bandwidth to 50 to 100 kHz. This program will investigate techniques for wideband high-efficiency amplification. The preferred technique uses a high-level modulator that combines a class-S modulator with a class-B amplifier. The class-S modulator amplifies the low-frequency components of the envelope (which constitute most of the power). The class-B amplifier adds the high-frequency components. The result is a transmitter which is nearly as efficient as a Kahn-technique transmitter, but can operate with bandwidths suitable for satcom and other multicarrier applications. The Phase-I program will identify the preferred approach and determine its parameters.

ORMET CORP.
2236 Rutherford Rd, #109
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 931-7065
Dr. Lutz Brandt
AF 99-047
Title:Integration of Passive Components into Organic MCM Packages
Abstract:Integrating passive components into substrates is seen by both military and commercial organizations as a key enabling technology for next generation electronics. NEMI (National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative) projects that by 2001, 20% of the total resistors and capacitors needed will be integrated passives. The proposed program will therefore focus on developing widely applicable processes for incorporating passives into organic MCM-type packages. Integrated multilayer substrates will be built in a fully additive process using photodefineable polymeric dielectrics. The photopatterned dielectric will serve to narrowly define the dimensions of the integrated passive components. The approach is versatile in that it can employ a variety of passive and dielectric materials and is compatible with microvia technology. Only equipment that is already well-established in board and assembly houses will be used in order to obviate technology diffusion barriers. Apart from reduction of size, weight, power and cost factors, the development will eventually enable higher speed products, by providing termination and decoupling physically closer to drivers of high-speed signals. The current limit of signal speed using discrete resistors and capacitors is .5 GHz. Phase I will demonstrate feasibility by designing and building an MCM-prototype through cooperation with the Air Force to meet current needs.

GRATINGS, INC.
7104 Jefferson, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-9564
Saleem H. Zaidi
AF 99-048
Title:Si MOSFETs Using Nanoscale Gate Arrays
Abstract:This phase I proposal addresses fabrication and characterization of nanoscale Si MOSFETs on Si-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. A novel approach based on multiple channel gate arrays is proposed to improve radiation-tolerance against SEU events, and achieve low-threshold voltage operation. At nanoscale (<100 nm) dimensions, multiple gate channels will provide increased current flow as well as redundancy against radiation damage. The proposed gate channels will have sub-micrometer periodicity, and will be in the form of wires, or walls embedded in thermally grown oxide. The transistors can be operated either in partially, or fully-depleted mode by either a suitable choice of channel diameter, or gate metallization process. Gate all round transistors are formed by a directional, sidewall metallization process uniquely applicable to this multiple-channel approach. The gate arrays will be fabricated by using interferometric lithography and reactive ion etching. Channel dimensions will be controlled by conventional Si thermal oxidation. Device contacts will be formed using conventional optical lithography. Transistor response will be evaluated for single and multipl channel gate arrays. A cobalt 60 source at AFRL/Kirtland Air Force Base will be used for radiation treatments.

PICODYNE CORP.
801 University SE, Ste 206
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 272-7040
Geoff Giffin
AF 99-048
Title:Single Event Immune Ultra Low Power CMOS
Abstract:Minimization of power consumption in electronics is a key requirement as spacecraft shrink in size. Semiconductor industry trends are leading power levels, lower, but not quickly enough to meet the needs of advanced missions or the new generation of broad-band communications satellites. Commercial electronics, while trending to lower power levels, do not include mechanisms to mitigate against the effects of space radiation. This is an increasingly severe problem in space as SEU effects are enhanced by smaller geometries. The goal of this SBIR is to demonstrate radiation tolerant, ultra low power VLSI combining breakthrough techniques in ultra low power with SEU mitigation techniques using commercial processes. This activity leverages on an ultra low power technology demonstration program (CULPRiT) that is being undertaken under sponsorship of DoD. CULPRiT will produce CMOS technology that operates at supply voltages near 0.25 volts. A 400 fold reduction in power levels is realized in comparing 5 and 0.25 volt processes in digital electronics. Specifically, this SBIR proposes to demonstrate a RT version of a ULP circuit combining ULP and RT technologies for space use.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
1720 Randolph Rd SE
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7709
Jeffrey D. Black
AF 99-049
Title:Hardened VHSIC Hardware Description Language Digital Signal Processing Module Generator
Abstract:Digital Signal Processing ASICs can currently be created using Commercial Development Environments. However, none of them can produce Rad Hard ASICs. This project will expand an existing Commercial Development Environment so that it can develop digital signal processing ASICs at Lockheed Martin Federal Systems. This tool allows a user to develop the ASIC in block diagram format, verify its functionality, predict its radiation response, and produce the files necessary for production of the ASIC at the rad hard foundry. In this phase I effort, MRC will demonstrate the application of the Commercial Development Environment, develop the approach for the rad hard cells, and develop the methodology for functional and radiation response simulations.

OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS, INC.
470 San Antonio Rd, Ste 200
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 858-8585
Dr. Victor H. L. Cheng
AF 99-052
Title:Genetic Search Methods for Antenna Placement in a Satellite Support Network
Abstract:This proposal addresses the problem of placement or rearrangement of antennas and ground stations in a satellite support network that will provide good network performance at low cost. The problem is motivated by the economic concerns associated with consolidation of satellite support network resources. The solution to this problem is extremely complex and requires juggling many different constraints and performance requirements. Herein is proposed the development of a set of genetic search algorithms for automatic near-optimal solution of this problem. Genetic search methods are a type of directed trial-and-error, and therefore, as they are not gradient-based, are ideal for optimization problems with complex or non-smooth constraints or performance measures. Development of these algorithms must be preceded by an in-depth analysis of the problem, during which factors and constraints relevant to antenna placement can be identified. Performance criteria for evaluation of the antenna/ground station configurations produced by the algorithms will also be defined. The algorithms developed will then be implemented and tested on a representative set of placement scenarios.

CUSTOM MANUFACTURING & ENGINEERING
7887 Bryan Dairy Rd, Ste 110
Largo, FL 33777
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 547-9799
Mark A. Strain, MSEE
AF 99-053
Title:Lightweight, Automated Passive Propagation Sensor/Analyzer (APPSA)
Abstract:CME's Phase I Objective is to develop a multi-frequency microwave radiometer instrument to measure link-outage causing water vapor, liquid, and cloud propagation factors at frequencies of interest for military/commercial satellite communication (SATCOM) systems, thereby provide ground station operators with tools to automatically mitigate the effects of link outages. The instrument will operate at frequencies optimally selected for algorithm accuracy and correlation to the 20, 30, and 44 GHz bands. The design goal: Develop a ruffed, automatic, passive, continuously operating, Radiometer that is small, self-contained, remote-controllable, and man-portable with a design easily transferable to future SATCOM applications. The instrument will provide real-time meteorological analysis and fade slope data to intelligently minimize link outages due to weather effects. We will use available Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC), Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, low-noise InP HEMT chips, and a miniaturized calibration technique. In support of CME's efforts, Raytheon's C3 Segment will support them with SATCOM expertise as required. CME has invited DR. Rudolf Henning on our team in his role as a continuing ACTS Researcher and propagation expert. With these agreements, we can now access and leverage ACTS, NOAA, GBS, MILSTAR, and Teledesic, resources. Florida provides the ideal location for this effort. In Phase I, we will develop a preliminary design of a radiometer, fabricate a bench-top demonstrator, leading to a prototype design/test plan. Off-the-shelf MMICs will be used along with COTS hardware to minimize cost and enhance subsequent manufacturability. Finally, we will demonstrate key elements of the design to address USAF requirements.

OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS, INC.
470 San Antonio Rd, Ste 200
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 858-8585
Dr. Victor H. L. Cheng
AF 99-054
Title:Common Environment for Guidance and Control Studies (CEGACS)
Abstract:The traditional approach for guidance and control studies in aerospace applications typically involve the synthesis of a vehicle model, which would be used as a design model for the guidance and control design and/or as the truth model for evaluating the guidance and control laws. Although efforts are generally made to reuse previously proven models, the efforts normally would involve custom modifications, and often the modifications would reduce the performance of the computer code and consequently its usability. It is therefore desirable to have a computer program that can support development of new vehicle models with a flexible database of often-used subsystems. Proposed herein is a Common Environment for Guidance and Control Studies (CEGACS). The envisioned product is a computer program that will include subsystem functions for synthesizing most aerospace vehicles of interest to the Air Force, including launch vehicles, orbiting satellites, reentry vehicles, and aircraft. The overall concepts include the ability to evaluate the system within the environment, and the ability to extract the system model for use on other platforms or by other computer programs. The CEGACS product is also envisioned to support evaluation and control over a computer network.

JTA RESEARCH, INC.
3030 Old Ranch ParkwaySuite 210
Seal Beach, CA 90740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 795-9153
Maria Tirabassi
AF 99-055
Title:Advanced Embedded Test Processor
Abstract:Today's complex DoD and commercial satellite systems require a sophisticated test and fault monitoring approach for enhanced telemetry. Hence, an embedded test processor capable of monitoring faults in real-time and relaying the information to the satellite's control processor is needed. In addition, a smart processor capable of performing built-in test upon command would provide critical information necessary to isolate faulty units or circuitry within the spacecraft. This same technology is required in high-end consumer commercial hardware during manufacturing and in-field test. The convergence to systems-on-chip accelerates the need for a "smart" embedded processor capable of providing test access to complex blocks of logic now embedded within a single ASIC. The Advanced Embedded Test Processor satisfies the DoD, commercial satellite, and consumer market need for a programmable, real-time fault monitoring and built-in-test controller targeted for implementation in VHDL.

AZ TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4901 Corporate Dr, Suite 101
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 837-9877
David G. Crandall
AF 99-059
Title:Laboratory Portable Radiometric Calibration Source
Abstract:Sensor technology is developing to meet the demands of remote sensing, particularly hyperspectral imaging. Remote sensing as applied to object surveillance, detection discrimination, identification or other signature imaging requires spectroradiometric calibration of the sensors. AZ Technology proposes to develop a transportable standard calibration source for the spectral range 0.5 to 1.5 microns with sufficient spectral resolution to support at least 100 bands. In Phase I a survey of radiometric test chambers will be conducted and the feasibility of construction a system around an innovative diffuser design will be evaluated. This will prepare for the constructing of the prototype in Phase II. The source design will support calibration of State-of-the-art sensors capable of detecting spectral radiance 10^-10 Watts/cm^2-sr-micron.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Pkwy N, PO Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 442-4355
Kim Castro
AF 99-060
Title:Emerging Technologies in Training Development
Abstract:The Phase I effort will develop an innovative Satellite Operations Training System (SOTS) prototype that leverages advanced interactive multimedia instruction (IMI), intelligent tutoring system (ITS), and modeling and simulation (including advanced visualization and gaming) technologies to address satellite operator training requirements of AFSPC and USSPACECOM. The domain focus for Phase I is satellite operations tasks such as anomaly resolution, orbital maneuver, and spacecraft maneuver. Phase I will develop a generalized architecture for integrating modeling and simulation components and embedded intelligent agents with emerging COTS distributed learning, intelligent multimedia authoring, and instructional delivery components. The prototype system will demonstrate key features defined per mutual agreement. The project will (for a limited set of training objectives): 1) demonstrate an instructional design process that flows from mission essential task lists (METLs) and satellite operations core skills' requirements to specific training objectives at the satellite control level; 2) demonstrate intelligent tutoring technology that can deliver adaptive IMI based on student mastery of training objectives, instructional history, and other media attributes; and 3) demonstrate how modeling and simulation technologies can enhance understanding of non-intuitive satellite control tasks.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH CO.
.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Lev Tuchinskiy
AF 99-061
Title:Innovative Technology for High Performance Low Temperature Regenerators for Advanced Cryocoolers
Abstract:A new approach for fabricating high performance low temperature regenerators for use in advanced cryocoolers near and below 10K is proposed. Solid regenerator cartridges with microchannel structure (MCS) made of magnetic lanthanide-rich materials (e.g. Er(sub 3)Ni) are suggested instead of traditional regenerator beds packed with spheres. A regenerator cartridge with a microchannel structure offers the best design for cryocoolers because it has the highest ratio of heat transfer area to pressure drop. Its effectiveness is 20 to 25% higher than that of regenerator beds packed with spheres. Lack of technology for fabricating regenerators with microchannel structures from brittle magnetic intermetallics have prevented their use in the past. This project deals with a novel patented fabrication technique for making multichannel regenerators from brittle intermetallic compound Er(Sub 3)Ni, which exhibits sharp rise in heat capacity at temperatures slightly below 10K. The fabrication technique includes the co-extrusion of fine Er(sub 3)Ni powders together with a polymer binder and filler. It offers a possibility to fabricate cryocooler regenerator cartridges from brittle magnetic intermetallics with a controlled surface area and a low fluid flow resistance. The mechanical stability of MCS regenerators is expected to be much better than that of the beds packed with spherical particles. It is anticipated that the cost of manufacture using the MCS technology will be significantly lower because of much higher yields.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark CircleSuite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr Peter A DeBarber
AF 99-061
Title:Diode Laser Pumped Molecular Refrigeration
Abstract:We propose the development of a novel diode laser pumped cooling device. The device can be readily adapted to the high powered cooling requirements of gimbaled optics assemblies, detectors, and electronics. The cooling medium for our device is molecular-based and has inherent advantages over existing mechanical cryogenic coolers. The optical cooling effect is based on anti-Stokes fluorescence laser cooling in the near infrared spectral region. Our innovative features include no moving parts, operation at convenient laser wavelengths, inherent energy efficiency, solid state design, small size and weight, immunity from electromagnetic interferences, long operational lifetime, and inexpensive to manufacture. The Phase I program will theoretically and experimentally determine the feasibility of the concept.

REDSTONE ENGINEERING CONSULTING, INC.
4860 Meredith Way Apt 103
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 440-9052
James M. Lester
AF 99-061
Title:Variable Temperature Thermal Storage Unit for Space Cryocoolers
Abstract:Cryocoolers will be required to handle larger sensor heat loads in the future. These larger loads will also vary over time as the result of sensor duty cycles. These varying loads have brought about the concept of the Thermal Storage Unit (TSU). The TSU is added to the cooling system to average the heat load on the cryocooler. By averaging the load, the size of the cryocooler and the cooler input power are minimized while the sensor temperature is held constant. To date, development work has concentrated on fixed temperature TSUs. Fixed temperature TSUs work by absorbing heat by the mechanism of phase change in a solid cryogen located at the cooled sensor. Variable temperature TSUs have been studied very little. Variable temperature TSUs solve the variable heat load problem without the need for phase-change cryogens. They are particularly useful for very low temperature applications (below 12K) where there are no phase-change cryogens useful for TSUs. This proposed effort will examine variable temperature TSUs through analysis and test with concentration on the temperature range below 12K.

APPLIED ASTRONAUTICS CORP.
3077 Leeman Ferry Rd, Ste F
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 883-7614
Dr. Eugene Worley
AF 99-062
Title:Low-cost Reusable Conventional Launch Vehicle Using LOX/LNG Propellants
Abstract:Virtually every user of launch services is seeking methods to reduce launch costs. A reusable conventional launch vehicle configuration shows the potential to achieve this goal. The LOX/LNG propellant combination shows the potential to enhance both propulsion system reusability and launch system mass-to-orbit capability. This propellant combination also has the performance margins necessary to offset the increased mass required to achieve practical vehicle reusability. Integrating LOX/LNG propulsion into a reusable conventional vehicle system can positively address both of the competing goals of increasing launch system performance and lowering costs. One of the most likely sources of increased system performance comes from upper stage performance. An upper-stage thrust chamber performance of 360s Isp will be targeted in this investigation. Recovery system operations and vehicle and propulsion system reuse criteria will be investigated to establish overall vehicle feasibility and cost structure. A specific vehicle concept will be defined that will have the potential to offer useful mass-to-orbit capability and low costs. The "L-curve" cost structure of reusable launch vehicles will be investigated and defined including a comparison to expendable vehicle configurations.

ATTOTEK, INC.
21010 Southbank St, Ste 800
Sterling, VA 20165
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 444-0430
David L. Martin
AF 99-062
Title:Optimal Utilization of Cooperative, Cross-Program Reconnaissance Systems
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of automating and optimizing the placement and routing of surveillance and reconnaissance systems. These systems consist of dissimilar cross-program space, air, sea and land-based platforms performing cooperative, simultaneous collects against many targets over a theater-wide region. Quality metrics such as geolocation accuracy will be used in place of previous metrics such as line-of-sight access and revisit times. This research proposes using genetic algorithms to optimally (1) choose fixed assets (2) route and place variable assets and (3) choose the best geolocation technique. Heuristics will be developed to initialize the solution population and guide the genetic algorithm evolution. These heuristics will encapsulate problem specific information to ensure operational viability.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURES & MATERIALS, LLC
309 Williamson Sq
Nashville, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Jeffrey S. N. Paine
AF 99-062
Title:Dissipative Acoustic Arrays for Interior Noise Control in Payload Fairings
Abstract:Dynamic Structures and Materials proposes to develop dissipative acoustic arrays for the control of interior noise in launch vehicle payload fairings. The innovation in this work is the use of discrete noise control sources that utilize feedback control to dissipate acoustic energy. Acoustic energy dissipation is a robust method of reducing sound pressure levels in the interior of the payload fairings. The goal of the research is to provide payloads with a quieter ride to orbit through new methods of active acoustic suppression in launch vehicles. The motivation for this work is the control of low-frequency in small to medium-sized launch vehicle payload fairings. Low-frequency noise is a problem in launch vehicle fairings due to the lack of significant energy dissipation below 200 to 300 Hz. The conventional method for reducing fairing sound pressure levels is to line the interior with sound absorbing acoustic blankets. Although very effective at higher frequencies, acoustic blankets provide less sound absorption at frequencies in which the acoustic wavelength is large compared to the thickness of the material. The effectiveness of the passive acoustic treatment is limited at low frequencies by the thickness of the blanket material.

ELECTRIC PROPULSION LABORATORY, INC.
1040 Synthes Ave
Monument, CO 80132
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4411
Dr. Graeme Aston
AF 99-062
Title:Charging Hazard Event Controller (CHEC) System
Abstract:A stand alone plasma based Charging Hazard Event Controller (CHEC) system is proposed to enhance the survivability and usefulness of Air Force Spacecraft in the future battlespace environment. The CHEC system is defined as a multi-function device capable of controlling several forms of environmental and man made charging hazards which, if not neutralized, could disrupt and/or incapacitate the spacecraft. A proof-of-concept plasma source is proposed for assembly and performance testing during Phase I to validate the operational modes most suited to the charge control requirements of the Air Force. Based upon the results of these tests, a CHEC system will be designed for Phase II development and optimatization.

JAYCOR, INC.
9775 Towne Ctr Dr
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 837-9100
Charles H. Hill
AF 99-062
Title:Spacecraft Protection Design Guidelines (SPDG)
Abstract:The project objectives are: 1. Develop a paper Design Guideline outline which will form the basis of an electronic guideline for hardening spacecraft against laser and ratio frequency (RF) effects. 2. Select a database of laser and RF effects and hardening data. 3. Develop and demonstrate a prototype SPDG framework using HTML technology. 4. Develop selective interactive tools and embed them in SPDG to provide the capability of estimating laser and RF effects and the utility of hardening approaches. SPDG fulfills a significant shortfall in the capability of space vehicle designers and developers to address emerging directed energy threats. SPDG will: identify which spacecraft components are susceptible to which effects at a given DE environment level, identify and prioritize hardening approaches, and provide immediate feedback on the effect of hardening changes to design. The SPDG approach will take advantage of Microsoft's Internet development technologies to create a Windows-based, user-friendly electronic guideline, with links to embedded calculational tools. Using the Common Object Model (COM) architecture, modules can be rapidly built up, and the resulting tool can be used as a stand-alone program, or can be linked to other Air Force models, such as those that calculate DE generation or propagation. SPDG evaluates the environment interaction with the spacecraft, identifies potential effects, identifies appropriate hardening options, and calculates the effect of hardening options implemented. It provides an expert system approach with an intuitive interface.

NEA ELECTRONICS, INC.
9600 De Soto Ave
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 998-5788
Edwin Vega
AF 99-062
Title:Additional Development Testing for Model 9111 and Model VRBM 2500 Hold Down and Release Mechanisms
Abstract:NEA Electronics, Inc. (NEA) is a manufacturer of electro-mechanical products, specializing in the development of innovative hold down and release mechanisms for the aerospace industry. NEA has designed and manufactured two prototype release mechanisms with unique capabilities. The Model 9111 rod release mechanism is simple, highly reliable, light weight and cost effective. It is capable of restraining up to 2500 lbs. of tension and releasing the load instantaneously upon electrical command. The source shock output is extremely low (less than 500 g,s) at the 2500 lb. preload. The model 9111 weighs 80 grams. The Model VBRM 2500 is an electrically and mechanically redundant release mechanism. This mechanism is designed to restrain a V-Band or marmon clamp up to a rated tensile load of 2000 pounds. Upon electrical command, the V-Band separates, nearly instantaneously, to allow the two restrained structures to separate. Prototypes of each mechanism have been built and preliminary testing has shown that these devices meet technical requirements. NEA is proposing to conduct additional development testing over a range of environment parameters simulating launch and space. Numerous customers and programs have shown interest in these products. The test results are intended to validate the products design, leading to qualification testing.

PAYLOAD SYSTEMS
247 Third St
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 868-8086
Dr. Javier de Luis
AF 99-062
Title:Experiment Support Facility for Structures and Control
Abstract:The Experiment Support Facility will provide a common set of laboratory services, including signal conditioning, data storage, real time digital signal processing, and communications to Air Force Station Payloads. The ESF could be connected to a wide array of test articles representing a multitude of disciplines, including structures, robotics, fluids, and human factor experiments. In addition, when connected to an experiment the ESF would monitor the data as it is obtained, communicate with the ground and even alter the experiment parameters, basing its "decisions" on a series if parameters entered into it by the principal investigators. In a sense, the ESF will allow the PI to place some of his or her knowledge on orbit, leading to a much more efficient use of crew time and other station resources. Crew time, both on-orbit and training time on the ground, is quickly developing as the scarcest resource in crew flight activities. This has become true on the Space Shuttle, especially with regards to secondary payloads, and will be true on the Space Station. The ESF is based on the successful MACE Experiment Support Module, which is being reflown on the Shuttle by the AFRL in 1999.

STAR TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH, INC.
3213 Carmel Bay Dr, Ste 200
Mount Pleasant, SC 29466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 856-8875
Jerome Pearson
AF 99-062
Title:Mechanisms for Tether-Powered Space Vehicles
Abstract:The Air Force needs an autonomous service vehicle to inspect, repair, upgrade, or refuel future satellites configured for on-orbit servicing. Such a vehicle must be very low mass, with a high power output for electric propulsion. Conventional ion rockets or arcjets may not have the delta-V/mass ratio required for the mission. Star Technology and Research, Inc. proposes a concept of a maneuvering satellite that requires no expenditure of fuel for fulfilling Air Force orbital service missions. The mechanism to accomplish this is an advanced electrodynamic tether powered by lightweight solar panels to allow repeated orbital maneuvers without using propellant. Controlling the current flow in the tether allows complete control of the orbit. The vehicle could transport satellites from one orbit to another, and could service vehicles beyond low Earth orbit. In this Phase I investigation, the satellite concept is developed, its operational envelope is examined, and potential Air Force applications are evaluated. A proof-of-concept experiment is proposed for a low-cost space demonstration.

STARSYS RESEARCH, INC.
4909 Nautilus Ct N
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-1925
Kurt Lankford
AF 99-062
Title:Next Generation Non-Pyrotechnic Release Devices
Abstract:Pyro-pulse compatible, non-explosive release devices will be developed for separation of satellites from launch vehicles for next generation of small spacecraft missions. Two design prototypes will be developed which utilize redundant shape memory actuators to provide both pyro-pulse compatibility, and multiple operation capability without refurbishment. Both designs will provide: Low-shock, non-explosive separation Pyro-pulse actuation: 3.5-5 amps, 5-28 volts Pre-load capability to 3000 lbf. Multiple release without refurbishment or replacement Simultaneous release capability: < 50 milisecond release time The first prototype, the Linear Separation Nut (LSN), will be a next generation of the Lockheed Martin Low-Force Nut, modified to be pyro-pulse responsive. It will provide active shock mitigation and electrically powered remote reset. The second prototype (developed in parallel), the Rotary Separation Nut (RSN), is based on a Starsys Research proof-of-principal device. This device will be a low-mass, small profile design. Prototypes of both devices will be designed, manufactured, and tested in Phase I. In Phase II, a full micro-satellite dispensing system, capable of releasing multiple satellites, will be designed and developed around the optimum release device from Phase I. This adaptable modular system will dispense individual micro-satellites from a variety of launch vehicle platforms.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Ctr.
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Prakash B. Joshi
AF 99-063
Title:Consumable Spacecraft Materials and Structures for Orbital Propulsion
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc., Thiokol Propulsion, and Lockheed Martin Missile and Space propose to develop spacecraft structural materials which can withstand mechanical loads during launch and can be consumed as propellants for on-orbit propulsion. Spacecraft structural elements incorporated specifically to protect the payload from launch and separation loads represent parasitic mass after orbit insertion. Consumption of this structural mass to generate useful propulsive thrust will reduce the onboard propellant mass necessary for orbit maintenance and end-of-life operations, increase revenue-producing payload mass, and/or increase the orbital lifetime of telecommunications and other satellites. Traditional materials such as aluminum or graphite composites do not qualify as dual-function structural-propellant materials. We propose novel structural thermoplastic composites as promising candidates. Available commercially at low cost, these low density materials have good structural properties similar to those of aluminum. They also have desirable physicochemical characteristics as a monopropellant or bipropellant constituent. We will 1) analyze structural and chemical performance of the materials, 2) design a composite propulsive structural component for strength/stiffness, efficient volumetric heat addition, and routing of reaction products, and (iii) fabricate and test the component. At the conclusion of Phase I, we will deliver a small scale demonstration propulsive component to the Air Force.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 E Evelyn Ave, Ste 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7772
Dr. James J. Scherer
AF 99-064
Title:High Force Actuator for Micro-Spacecraft Systems
Abstract:This Small Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to employ a new phenomena, high pressure electrokinetic (HPEK) pumping, for the development of embedded electronically activated actuator assemblies. The Phase I research will demonstrate the ability to obtain controlled, high specific force actuation by combining HPEK pumps with micro/meso machined slave devices such as bellows. The Phase I effort will analyze various embedded architecture formats for HPEK pump/actuator assemblies, and identify applications of interest to the Air Force. For the Phase I Research effort, the key actuator components employed in such devices will be constructed and systematically tested in order to assess feasibility for operation as embedded devices.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Pkwy N, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4427
Dr. Charles D. E. Lakeman
AF 99-064
Title:Fabrication of Digital Microthruster Components from Refractory Ceramics using Soft Lithography
Abstract:The need for technologies to reduce the cost and time of getting civil and commercial space missions from the drawing board to orbit is driving research efforts towards lighter, cheaper and smaller satellites. As a result of this demand, technologies such as microfabrication technology, which originally emerged as the electronics industry demanded smaller features in integrated circuits, are finding new applications including in space systems. Current microfabrication technologies, however, are limited to use with silicon. This poses problems when considering high temperature applications such as rocket components, as silicon melts at only ~1410 degrees C. TPL Incorporated (TPL) proposes to develop a novel means of fabricating miniaturized digital propulsion components from refractory ceramics such as silicon carbide. The proposed innovation will employ a novel, low-cost process known as "Channel Stamping," using preceramic polymers to form the complex shapes. Successful completion of the Phase I effort will demonstrate, for the first time, the ability to fabricate micromachined MEMS devices from refractory, non-oxide ceramics, and will thereby allow micropropulsion components to be operated at higher temperatures, and enable more efficient operation. The proposed effort will exploit TPL's extensive experience in both high temperature materials and ceramic processing using preceramic polymer routes.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
500 Office Ctr Dr Ste 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 426-0320
Mark J. Montesano
AF 99-065
Title:Thermal Management for Advanced 3D Packaging of Payload Electronics
Abstract:k Technology Corporation (kTC) proposes to develop a unique 3D packaging configuration with high conductivity (> 900 W/mK), low coefficient of thermal expansion to match silicone or gallium arsenide, and low density (< 2.8 g/cm(sup 3)). This material can provide efficient conductive heat removal of the 3D segments for space, airborne and ground applications. The high conductivity and low CTE of the proposed material is ideal for many advanced packaging configurations such as multichip modules, high power processor integrated circuits and power converters. As in the rest of the electronics world, the range of applications and functions of spaceborne electronics is rapidly expanding. New applications like cellular phone systems, satellite TV links, and Global Positioning Units, as well as new technologies like multichip modules have increased the technical requirements of the electronics on satellites. Mission sophistication has increased dramatically for both commercial and government satellites, alike. Power requirements of a typical satellite launched even a few years ago were less than 8 kilowatts. Current systems will be deployed with up to 15 kilowatts. The proposed 3D packaging configuration uses a material system comprised of thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG) encapsulated within the metal matrix composite AlSiC. Immediate payoffs include improved thermal performance, and significant weight reductions. These payoffs will allow for increased reliability and support the trend toward smaller less expensive satellites.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow PlPines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 631-3550
Lawrence R. Grzyll
AF 99-065
Title:High-Efficiency, Low-Power, Two-Phase Pumped Loop
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I research is to design, fabricate, and test a high-efficiency, low-power, two-phase pumped loop. This high-efficiency, low-power, two-phase pumped loop will use a unique two-phase working fluid pair that offers the capability of higher efficiency and lower pumping power because of its heat of solution characteristic. This heat of solution characteristic, combined with the latent heat of vaporization, significantly increases the cooling capacity of the working fluid, resulting in significantly lower flow rates required for a given cooling load, decreasing the pumping power required. The Phase I effort will analyze various working fluid pairs, select the optimum fluid pair, design and fabricate a two-phase pumped loop test stand, and compare the performance of the two-phase pumped loop operating with the working fluid pair to the performance of the same loop operating with two-phase single-component fluid alone.

ATTOTEK, INC.
21010 Southbank St., Ste 800
Sterling, VA 20165
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 444-0430
David L. Martin
AF 99-066
Title:Autonomous Tasking of ISR Systems Using Intelligent Agents
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the tasking and reporting of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets in real-time. These ISR assets consist of multiple sensors onboard space, air, sea and land-based platforms performing cooperative, multi-INT, cross-program ISR activities. To achieve this objective and overcome the inherent information and time latencies of centralized, ground-based processing and control architectures, these autonomous agents will be installed onboard individual ISR platforms and be given the capability to (1) detect and recognize events, (2) monitor the state of the ISR environment, (3) make intelligent, autonomous decisions and (4) re-task their ISR assets. To provide autonomous tasking capability, the algorithms will provide a multi-tiered, cross-program decision process and demonstrate robustness, fault-tolerance and a comprehensive status monitoring capability.

PRINCETON SATELLITE SYSTEMS, INC.
33 Witherspoon St.
Princeton, NJ 08542
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 279-9606
Derek M. Surka
AF 99-066
Title:AgentOrg System for Multiple Satellite Constellations
Abstract:There is an increasing desire in many organizations, including the Department of Defense, NASA, and commercial satellite operators, to use constellations or fleets of autonomous spacecraft working together to accomplish complex mission objectives. Multiple satellite systems are envisioned because they are capable of higher performance, lower cost, better fault tolerance, reconfigurability and upgradability. This proposal describes the AgentOrg(sup TM) system that will enable agent-based multi-satellite systems to fulfill complex mission objectives by autonomously making high-and low-level decisions based on the information available to any and/or all agents in the satellite system. This is achieved through the use of hierarchical communication and decision-making paths among the agents that can be autonomously reconfigured as new agents are added and old agents are modified or removed. A graphical user interface (GUI) enables the satellite end users to initially configure the AgentOrg system and monitor the effectiveness of the decisions made by the agents.

CENTER FOR REMOTE SENSING, INC.
11350 Random Hills RdSte 710
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 385-7717
Suman Ganguly
AF 99-067
Title:Robust Dual Frequency GPS REceiver for Scintillation Measurement and Mitigation
Abstract:This proposal describes a plan to design and develop a robust dual frequency GPS receiver for measuring amplitude and phase scintillation under high dynamic conditions. The GPS receiver will also produce navigation solutions at a very high rate and the effects of scintillation on navigation solution may be studied using the proposed system. While the immediate application is in monitoring the equatorial and polar scintillation, the proposed technique, which ensures robust performance in the presence of severe amplitude and phase scintillations, will find numerous applications in providing reliable performance of GPS receivers. The technique can be scaled down to single frequency receivers as well. The novel multiresolution based technique has been proposed to achieve robustness in presence of severe scintillation. During Phase I we propose to perform numerical simulation and demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. We also provide limited hardware based demonstration of the use of GPS receiver for faster data acquisition during scintillation. Further analysis of the hardware/software requirements leading to the development of a complete system is also provided during Phase I.

GEOSPACE RESEARCH, INC.
550 N Continental BlvdSte 110
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 322-1160
Frank T. Djuth
AF 99-067
Title:Transformation of the HAARP HF Facility into an HF Radar: New Diagnostics for the Natural and Perturbed Environments
Abstract:The proposed project entails the design and construction of an HF digital multichannel radar receiver system and associated HF receiving array for HAARP. With this addition, the HARRP HF facility will become a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the natural ionosphere and monitoring changes in the ionospheric plasma arising from HF wave-plasma interactions. In addition, the radar receiver paves the way for meteor orbit astronomy from high geographical latitudes. The new system is intended to be a permanent facility addition to HAARP. Data acquired with the HF radar system will be accessible over the internet with the aid of a Java-based user interface. File formats will conform to the NetCDF standard. The suggested system will provide new opportunities for observers to conduct experiments at HAARP. As part of the enhanced facility capability, it will be possible to perform experiments dealing with artificial periodic inhomogeneities, stimulated electromagnetic emissions, meteor-radar measurements of mesospheric neutral winds, meteor orbit studies of cometary debris, neutral wind observations via partial reflection techniques, natural D region electron density and electron-neutral collision profiles also obtained through partial reflections, observations of the HF-induced D region heating through cross modulation techniques, the use of the HAARP HF facility of an extremely high resolution ionosonde, the mapping of HF-induced filaments caused by thermal self-focusing in the F region, and finally the passive monitoring of HF background transmissions and beacons to assess the background state of the neutral ionosphere.

ORONI, INC.
49 Dracut St
Dorchester, MA 02124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 822-9224
Dawari D. Dan-Harry
AF 99-068
Title:Point-of-Load Configurable Multiple Input-Adjustable Output DC-DC Converter
Abstract:Oroni Inc. Phase I, is a proposal to develop, design, build and demonstrate a prototype of a "remote and or Point-of-load configurable multiple input, Dc-dc-converter having a single adjustable output voltage". Recent progress in Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Aluminum Gallium Arsenid (AlGaAs) semiconductor electronics technology demonstrate the ability of these material to function under extreme high temperature, power, and radiation conditions. Therefore it is the object of this proposal to build a prototype converter using semiconductor fabricated with either or both of these materials. One of any number of input voltage level present at their respective input voltage port can be selected by a remote computer via a serial interface bus or by means of manual switch or jumper that is located at the galvanically isolated secondary side of the converter. The output voltage of the converter can also be adjusted by the same means. The prototype of the proposed dc-dc converter will be tested for functionality, efficiency, and immunity to SEE such as SEGR, SEG, SEL and for total dose levels above 1Mrad. Phase I effort will meet the objectives set forth in this proposal except for the SEE immunity. However Oroni Phase II effort will accomplish the SEE immunity objective.

PACIFIC ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
PO Box 3591000 Edison St
Santa Ynez, CA 93460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 688-2088
Michele Hinnrichs
AF 99-069
Title:Hyperspectral Imaging for Target Enhanced Contrast
Abstract:Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) brings their expertise in the area of spectral imaging which will allow for the evaluation of current state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging cameras and algorithms that are applicable to the detection of targets buried in deep clutter, gaseous species and effluent in the atmosphere. This evaluation will determine the specification of a hyperspectral camera system that will be developed during Phase II. PAT has several hyperspectral cameras that will be used during Phase I to collect hyperspectral data on different targets and backgrounds that will be used to evaluate the different spectral processing algorithms for their applicability to detecting targets from airborne and space based platforms. The Phase I program will concentrate on the evaluation of the technology, and the conceptual design of an instrument that will be developed during Phase II. PAT is confident in meeting the objectives of this program by drawing on previous successful development of infrared spectral imaging systems, smart readouts for infrared focal plane arrays, and real time spectral image processing with DSP technology.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technology Div.20600 Gramercy Pl, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Paul Shnitser
AF 99-069
Title:Spectrally Optimized Smart (SOS) Camera
Abstract:Space-based imaging techniques require optical techniques in order to optimize target-to-background contrast. To meet this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes a Spectrally Optimized Smart (SOS) Camera, that will exploit and build on POC's proprietary Spectrally Adaptive Light Filtering (SALF) technology. POC's smart camera will simultaneously provide hyperspectral image acquisition and target-to-background contrast enhancement. POC's SALF technology is unique in its microsecond adjustability to light transmission at several spectral intervals, and simultaneous "on-the-fly" atmospheric hyperspectral image corrections, which are made directly in optical channel. These truly unique features eliminate the need for cumbersome computer hyperspectral images postprocessing, and therefore enable real-time, practical operations. POC's SOS Camera will operate in spectral intervals ranging from the visible to the middle wave IR, and will be able to track "on-the-fly" or stationary, or slow moving low contrast targets. The prototype SOS Camera will provide 512x512 pixels spatial resolution, at 30 frames per second. During Phase I, POC will design, fabricate, assemble, and test a prototype SOS Camera. In Phases II and III, POC will refine and optimize the SOS Camera for mass production and commercial distribution.

MAXPOWER, INC.
220 Stahl Rd
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-4230
Dr. David Chua
AF 99-070
Title:High Cycle Life Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries with Ultra Low Temperature Capabilities
Abstract:MaxPower's Phase I program will develop new Li-ion polymer batteries based on innovative thin-film technology, innovative low temperature electrolyte solutions, and improved cathode materials for high capacities and high cycle life. The approaches for these objectives involve use of thin-film technology for cell components (graphite anode, polymer electrolyte and metal oxide cathode) to be carried out in 4 tasks. Task 1 involves selection of a highly stable and conductive polymer electrolyte over a wide temperature range. Task 2 involves selection of a high capacity lithium-intercalating metal oxide cathode based on LiCoO(sub 2) and LiNi(sub 1-x)Co(sub x)O(sub 2) materials. Task 3 is devoted to developing thin-film technology for electrode and electrolyte fabrication. The technology developed in Tasks 1-3 will be transferred to Task 4 where prototype thin-film Li-ion cells with fabricated, tested at MaxPower, and delivered to the Air Force for independent testing. Benefits: An expanded technology base with respect to thin-film technology, enhanced energy and rate capabilities and low temperature operability using new battery materials based on highly conductive polymer electrolytes will help push Li-ion rechargeable batteries toward wide dual (military and commercial) market acceptance. All types of portable devices and equipments, wireless communication devices, are key commercial applications. Flexible packaging inherent in the polymer-based technology provides another significant market dimension both commercially and militarily.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic St
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Grant M. Ehrlich
AF 99-070
Title:Thin Film, Flexible Space Battery
Abstract:Yardney Technical Products as the prime contractor and Professor Bruce Dunn of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), as a subcontractor, propose to develop a novel, thin film Li-ion battery technology. Unique to the innovation, the technology will incorporate an inorganic thin film polymer electrolyte which will permit the development of dimensionally and mechanically flexible thin film Li-ion cells appropriate for application in small satellites and related aerospace applications. The technology will offer high cycle life, high energy density and high specific energy, as required of satellite applications, in a dimensionally flexible, thin film device able to conform to virtually any configuration. Energy density will be enhanced through the use of less electrolyte, thinner separator and lighter weight packaging. Additional features of the thin film battery will be thermal stability, enhanced through the use of a silica based polymer, and low temperature performance, enhanced through both confinement effects and the use of materials with high ionic conductivity. Finally, the fabrication of the thin film cells addresses manufacturing issues which have inhibited the commercialization of gel polymer electrolyte systems and lead to the success of solid polymer electrolyte systems. The form factor of the resulting cells will be unrestricted.

MICROLAB, INC.
6401 E. Hummingbird Ln.
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 483-3458
Charles B. Wheeler
AF 99-071
Title:Latching Micro-Magnetic Relays
Abstract:We propose to develop latching micro-magnetic relays based on the geometry-dependant magnetization of permalloy cantilevers. Two stable states ("on" and "off") in a micro-relay controlled by an external magnet have been demonstrated. An integrated coil will be designed and fabricated with the relay to achieve the electronic switching between the two stable states. To meet the Air Force requirements, we will also demonstrate the computability of our micro-magnetic relays with the high density interconnect multichip module technology referenced in the solicitation.

NANOSYSTEMS, INC.
83 Prokop Rd.
Oxford, CT 06478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 881-2827
Charles P. Beetz
AF 99-071
Title:Latchable MEMS Microrelay
Abstract:Military information systems are becoming increasingly dispersed, appearing in weapon systems, satellites, and in the pockets and palms of combatants, they are perceiving the physical world closer than ever before, creating new opportunities for controlling the battlefield environment. In order to exploit these opportunities, information systems will need the ability to sense, compute, and act. This need is driving the development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Employing the fabrication techniques and materials of microelectronics, MEMS processes construct both electrical and mechanical components. A novel approach for a bi-stable MEMS based latching microswitch is proposed permitting the latching microrelay to be fabricated as an integral part of the microsatellite system bus architecture. This new approach will enable the bus architecture to be reconfigured in the event of hardware failures or to switch in back-up systems. The presence of many DC capable microswitches will also enable a higher degree of flexibility to be built into the multifunctional structure. This permits a more generic architecture to be fabricated and then tailored to an application when the specific hardware is mounted on the substrate. The Phase II program will demonstrate the MFS system in an MCM package.

ELECTRO ENERGY, INC.
22 Shelter Rock Ln
Danbury, CT 06810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 797-2699
John Cole
AF 99-072
Title:Integrated Power Cell
Abstract:The project will utilize Electro Energy's bipolar nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery technology, miniaturized power electronics and different photovoltaic (PV) technologies to introduce a novel "integrated power cell" (IPC) for space and remote terrestrial power applications. The calculated power density is 17 W/kg - - more than three time the state-of-the-art for the combined weight of the PV array, power electronics and battery subsystems. EEI's patented, low cost bipolar Ni-MH wafer cell and plastic bonded electrodes are unique in their ability to be produced as a thin, large area energy storage device necessary to optimize the IPC concept. As such EEI's wafer cell technology is ideally suited to be assembled directly to the PV cells as a weight and cost saving design. The PV technologies investigated will include conventional, high efficiency crystalline silicon cells, amorphous silicon cells and newer copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) thin film technology. A conventional power circuit will be used to control the charge and discharge of the IPC. Miniaturized power electronics will be selected and an experimental circuit will be developed for testing the integrated power cell and controlling the end-of-charge. An experimental IPC will be produced for laboratory testing on a low-earth-orbit test regime. Electrical and thermal performance data shall be collected using an automated test and data acquisition system.

SPIRE CORP.
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6000
Dr. Anton C. Greenwald
AF 99-072
Title:Integrated System for Low-Cost, Supplemental Satellite Power
Abstract:Spire Corporation and a subcontractor, Lithium Power Technologies, will develop an integrated power system that will combine state-of-the-art thin film solar cells, thin film batteries, and power conditioning electronics in flexible, lightweight modules. The design will emphasize high specific energy, low cost, wide temperature tolerance, electrical fault tolerance, and resistance to impact from space debris. Phase I will determine the best photovoltaic, thin film battery, and power conditioning approaches through design studies that will identify active and passive materials, electrical and electronic architectures, and find integrated system response under nominal and abnormal operating conditions. Key experiments will determine processing and environmental temperature limits for materials and components, and measure leakage currents and power losses in simple cell-battery and blocking diode circuits. Phase II will address scale-up, and a fully operational system will be built and tested. Spire's demonstrated expertise in space and terrestrial photovoltaics will be complemented by Lithium Power Technologies, a leader in development of rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

AERODYNE RESEARCH, INC.
45 Manning Rd
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 663-9500
Frank J. Iannarilli, Jr.
AF 99-073
Title:Non-cooperative Identification of Aircraft Using Spaceborne IR Polarimetric Hyperspectral Imaging
Abstract:The development of a completely passive technique for non-cooperative identification (NCID) of aircraft using a spaceborne, polarimetric hyperspectral imaging sensor is proposed. In addition to being passive, with the accompanying 1/r^2 standoff advantage compared to active methods, the proposed technique uses the observables, degree of linear polarization and angle of linear polarization, which have been shown by us in computer simulations to capable of yielding high probabilities of classification (>80%) even for visually similar aircraft such as the F14 and F15. The proposed effort makes use of Aerodyne's infrared polarimetric hyperspectral imaging sensor (IRPHSI) which uses a novel time-simultaneous polarimetric measurement technique which yields perfectly spatially registered polarimetric measurements. The time-simultaneity of the technique allows operation in the sub-pixel regime, which is essential for practical spaceborne applications, possible. The proposed effort consists of formulating a test plan for collection of surface-based field data with the IRPHSI sensor, extension of our existing air-to-air NCID performance analysis to spaceborne configurations, collection of field data, and quantification of the passive NCID effectiveness.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
99 S Bedford St., #7
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Steven Adler-Golden
AF 99-073
Title:Optimization of Hyperspectral Target Identification Alorightms via Atmospheric Effects Simulations
Abstract:Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) proposes to address shortcomings in current hyperspectral target identification algorithms and their evaluation by the novel approach of coupling the target identification process to first-principles radiation transport (RT) calculations that model atmospheric effects and atmospheric compensation errors. Several new and valuable results will emerge from this R&D program, including enhanced target identification methods and algorithms and a software suite, HITS, that will provide advanced atmospheric compensation, data simulation, target identification, and algorithm testing capabilities. The proposed work will be based on several state-of-the-art UV/visible/IR RT codes developed by SSI in collaboration with AFRL. In Phase I we will analyze hyperspectral data covering the 400-2500 nm wavelength region to investigate the impact of atmospheric effects on the performance of target material spectral identification algorithms. We will identify promising algorithms that can mitigate atmospheric effects, adapt an algorithm to incorporate atmospherically-related biases and variabilities, and demonstrate improved target identification. In Phase II we will develop the HITS software suite and exercise it with a variety of real and simulated data cubes, targets, and identification algorithms.

MENDEZ R&D ASSOC.
PO Box 2756
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 640-0497
Dr. Antonio J. Mendez
AF 99-074
Title:High Speed Optical CDMA for Satellite Local Area Networks
Abstract:The Project objective is the concept definition of a novel architecture for cross-linking a LEO cluster of small satellites, flying in close formation and collaboratively performing shared/distributed processing missions. This effort conceptualizes and evaluates satellite local area networks (S-LANs) employing a Central Network Administrator (MotherSat) for network control and a free-space digital optical communication link (DOCL) based on optical code division multiple access (CDMA) for data communication among the satellite nodes. The objective is simultaneous, asynchronous, reconfigurable addressing of all nodes in the S-LAN for high-data-rate, low-latency, low-probability-of-intercept communications. Two topologies/protocols are postulated where the MotherSat: 1) acts as the hub/switch for S-LAN connections, and 2) sets up point-to-point links among the satellite nodes. All-optical and synergistic RF (for command and control)/optical (for data transfer) technologies are considered. This effort will trade off S-LAN communication topologies, define optimal optical link differentiation techniques, determine minimum optical assemblies per node, and perform conceptual and preliminary designs of DOCL transceivers, optical pointing/tracking subassemblies, and onboard interfaces between them. This project will define a proof-of-concept prototype to be developed in Phase II.

MITECH, INC.
8484 Georgia Ave., Ste 950
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 282-8642
Dr. Klaus Schug
AF 99-074
Title:Satellite Local Area Network (LAN)
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to explore concepts and technologies for lightweight, low power, high data rate, secure and standards based satellite local area network (LAN) and associated inter-satellite link (ISLs) communication systems. An operational concept will be defined with realistic satellite LAN missions composed of clusters of satellites in close proximity and more distant locations joined through wireless ISLs to form a virtual spacecraft. Various combinations of satellites are linked into a LAN via ISLs to form different virtual spacecraft, each capable of conducting unique and required missions. Requirements from the operational scenarios will be used to identify, analyze and evaluate existing, in development and proposed concepts, architectures, hardware and software for implementing a satellite LAN and virtual satellites. Candidate architectures, hardware and software components will be identified from existing and in development wireless communication systems and components. Candidate architectures, hardware and software system concepts that appear to meet the satellite LAN and mission requirements will be selected for more detailed evaluation, specification and analysis. Analytical and simulation modeling will be used to validate final system implementation recommendations.

ADVANCED FUEL RESEARCH, INC.
87 Church St
East Hartford, CT 06108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 528-9806
Harri Latvakoski
AF 99-075
Title:Solid State Polarimeter
Abstract:The Air Force desires compact, intelligent optical sensors for use on satellites and other unmanned space vehicles. Intelligent sensors combine detection, processing, and control functions onto a single package to allow for autonomous detection and interpretation of optical signals. A specific case where an intelligent optical system is needed is in the detection, processing, and evaluation of infrared polarization imagery, which has shown potential for improved target discrimination over other infrared imaging techniques. To meet this need we propose to develop an intelligent, compact, imaging infrared polarimeter on a chip. The key innovation on which this polarimeter will be based is the recent development of efficient lithographic antennas at mid and far-infrared wavelengths. These antennas can be integrated monolithically with a detector on the same substrate, and since the shape of an antenna determines its response to incident ramification, an antenna and detector combination can be made polarization selective. By fabricating the proper set of antenna shapes with their attached detectors onto a single substrate, a "superpixel," which is capable of measuring the full Stokes vector can be developed. Reductions in size, cost, complexity, and improvement in speed over current systems are possible with a solid state polarimeter.

PHYSICS INNOVATIONS, INC.
PO Box 2171
Inver Grove Heigh, MN 55076
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 455-0565
Dr. Cornell Chun
AF 99-075
Title:Compact Autonomous Polarimetric Imaging Sensor
Abstract:Surveillance systems on-board unmanned space vehicles are required to have a wide field of regard and operate autonomously. Target detection, recognition, and tracking would be done using high-resolution imaging sensors cued by a lower resolution imaging sensor which is able to view the entire field of regard. This cueing system must be able to discriminate potential targets in clutter and transmit regions of interest to the high-resolution sensors. A promising sensor for the cueing function is an optical imaging polarimeter. Physics Innovations Inc. has developed an imaging sensor technique using a novel array of polarizers, which may be suitable for integration with an imaging sensor which can be compact and consumes low power. Such a system could be integrated on a single substrate to form an intelligent imaging polarimeter on a chip. In the Phase I project, we will explore concepts and technologies for the design of an intelligent optical imaging polarimeter on a chip. In the Phase II project, we will develop a prototype imaging polarimeter in a multichip module based on the technologies evaluated in Phase I.

MICROASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
PO Box 877825 Buckley Rd
San Luis Obispo, CA 93406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 520-8880
Joseph Kung
AF 99-078
Title:Self-aligned High Density Connectors Using VLSI Processing Techniques
Abstract:A high-density connector array is developed using a contact technology and novel self-aligning mechanism. The technology also allows for termination and/or passive components to be integrated into the connector.

RUSSELL DESIGN SERVICES
2616 Cross St
Riverside, CA 92503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 689-2309
Russell Abbott
AF 99-078
Title:Micron Scale Connector
Abstract:The development of a high-density connector system with self-aligning capability is undertaken. This research solves a problem to decrease the mass and weight of connectors used in space systems. This architecture defines a connector system with contacts on a .25mm pitch. Three types of contacts are provided: signal, RF, and power with 2-3 amp capacity. Utilizing shape memory alloy springs (SMA) to activate the aligning and engagement mechanism provides for a zero insertion force engagement.

OPTICOMP CORP.
PO Box 10779215 Elks Point Rd
Zephyr Cove, NV 89448
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 588-4176
Peter S. Guilfoyle
AF 99-079
Title:VCSEL/MEMS Micro Alignment Manipulator Architectures (MAMAs) for Fiber Arrays
Abstract:The primary goal of this Phase I program is to develop micro alignment manipulator architecture (MAMA). The proposed system consists of arrays of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) for coupling into single mode optical fiber. This architecture will simplify the integration of a standard 12 x 12 array of bundled fibers with VCSELs and will provide high coupling efficiency. Active micro alignment of the individually addressable MEMS enables the light to be accurately directed into the fibers and readjusted after thermal or mechanical shifts. During Phase I, a 1-D fiber coupler prototype will be fabricated to demonstrate the micro alignment technology using VCSELs, MEMS, and diffractive optical interconnect elements (DOIEs). During Phase II, a packaged 2-D device will be fabricated using standard optical ribbon cable and fiber connector technology for parallel data communications. This optical transmitter technology, which can be optimized for thermal and radiation tolerance, can be used in high performance optical interconnect systems. The MAMA has dual-use applicability in on-board communications for space vehicles and telecommunications satellites. Additionally, fiber optic links offer a significant weight savings over coaxial cable, which makes them ideal for utilization in space environments for high speed data communications.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
427 South 166th St.
Omaha, NE 68118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 683-1840
Joseph Chiara
AF 99-082
Title:Training for Space Operators Using a Distributed Mission Training Environment
Abstract:Our team will leverage its experience in the design, development and implementation of training technologies and materials and our innovative work in the design, development and implementation of intelligent technologies and real-time distributed environments for C2 training on Pentium class machine, intranets, and the Web. We will use our expertise to design and develop a DMT environment for the training of Space Operators. We will deliver a limited, but realistic prototype by the end of fifth month of a Phase I contract. Our software system will be developed in JAVA, and we will continue to develop flexible and portable software that can be easily applied to other domains. We will also focus on the commericalization and technology transfer dimensions of the SBIR program. Our system will offer easy of use, reliability, expandability, and multiple features for training, data collection, data analysis, evaluation, and decision support.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia RoadBuilding 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-1466
Timothy Choate
AF 99-082
Title:Training for Space Operators Using a Distributed Mission Training Environment
Abstract:We propose to apply significant experience and familiarity with the warfighter's needs in space, space environments, DMT, training requirements to the problem of identifying space requirements, and determining how DMT can support space training. We will develop an operational, networked training facility to evaluate the application of DMT technologies to space environments using our experience with DMT, distributed simulation, advanced software architecture development, long-haul networking, and training requirements. Our Phase I objectives are: (1) define space operator and warfighter training needs; (2) define DMT current and evolving capabilities; (3) define enhancements (to the DMT) for space and identify enabling technologies; and (4) identify commercialization opportunities. Our Phase I products are: (1) a DMT capabilities evaluation; (2) a space training requirements list; (3) technology assessment results; (4) a Phase II Development and Demonstration Plan; and (5) a Preliminary Commercialization Plan. In a continuation period, we will also provide implementation and demonstration requirements for Phase II and a preliminary (top-level) design of the architecture for Phase II. The overall result will be quantified assessment of feasibility within technology definitions and a sound plan to conduct development and demonstrations in Phase II to enhance the warfighter's effectiveness in space.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd, N
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Thomas E. Miller, Ph.D.
AF 99-083
Title:Preparing the U.S. Air Force for Operations Other Than War
Abstract:Since the Cold War the trend in military operations has increasingly moved toward Operations Other Than War (OOTW). However, military doctrine, practice and training have focused primarily on traditional combat operations, which differ fundamentally from OOTW. One requirement for training the Air Force with skills necessary for successful operation in OOTW environments is to understand the breath of OOTW requirements and how they differ from war-fighting situations. In the history of military operations, the frequency of OOTWs has been substantially lower than that of combat operations, making every OOTW a significant and critical data point. The goal of the proposed effort is help the U.S. Air Force understand and meet the unique training needs that OOTW impose. The opportunity with this proposal is to take advantage of three recent developments what will impact Air Force training for OOTW: 1) the emergence of the Naturalistic Decision Making framework using Cognitive Task Analysis to understand how people make decisions; 2) the work of Miller and Zsambok (1997) defining the unique cognitive demands of Commanders of OOTW; and 3) the development of a new approach to training skills in decision making called Decision Skills Training (DST).

MCDONALD RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
2431 Aloma AveSuite 223
Winter Park, FL 32792
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 644-1900
Dr. Bruce McDonald
AF 99-083
Title:Modeling and Simulation of Less Than War Scenarios
Abstract:Since the end of the Cold War, the probabilities of Major Regional Conflicts (MRCs) have been greatly reduced and Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW) have risen to a higher priority in claiming Air Force Resources. These changes are having significant impacts on Air Force readiness and training. McDonald Research Associates has developed an innovative reseach approach for developing a solution to the MOOTW impact on readiness. The technical objectives of Phase I are to: - Determine the impact of MOOTW on the ability of Air Force personnel to practive MRC tasks - Determine taining system capabilities that can mitigate these MRC training shortfalls - Propose training systems and technologies to achieve these MRC goals - Determine the differences between MOOTW tasks and their matching MRC tasks - Determine whether MRC training is sufficient to achieve mission success in MOOTW - Determine taining shorfalls that will lead to high risk of MOOTW mission failure - Determine training system capabilities that can mitigate these high risks of MOOTW mission failure - Propose training systems and technologies to achieve these MOOTW goals - Propose the development of innovative MRC and MOOTW training technology in Phase II

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4900 Pearl East CircleSuite 201E
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 347-6117
Tom Carolan
AF 99-084
Title:Tools for Assessing Human Warfighter Performance Readiness and Dist Joint Aircrew Trng Effectiveness
Abstract:Micro Analysis & Design, Inc. (MA&D) and the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) Human Factors Group have teamed to conduct innovative research and development aimed at demonstrating methods and tools for evaluating training effectiveness and assessing human warfighter performance readiness. The proposed approach will assess individual, team and inter-team warfighting skills that are exercised using simulator, flight training, Distributed Mission Training (DMT) and Joint DMT methods. Hierarhically organized Measures of Effectiveness (MOE) and Measures of Performance (MOP) will provide a common framework linking evaluation of task performance to evaluation of the impact of training on accepted measures of mission readiness. Training effectiveness research will be applied to recommend modifications of a commercial performance-modeling tool that, as modified, will improve prediction of training impact on warfighter mission performance. As assesment methodology and prototype instructor interfaces will be developed to support Air Force instructors in evaluating and diagnosing training performance and assessing training needs. The proposed Phase I will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration of the viability and feasibility of the identified methods and tools.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy PlaceBuilding 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Kevin Yu
AF 99-085
Title:Collimating Display Screen for Simulator Displays
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to design and develop a new single curvature collimating display screen (CDS) for out-the-window simulator applications. This proposed screen is based on a unique combination of two technologies: a holographic light shaping diffuser (LDStm) with predetermined diffusion properties, integratd with a microlens array. This proposed screen will be produced using mature technology for step and repeat replication of the holograhic LSD and microlens array into plastic substrates such as polycarbonate. This surface replication process can be scaled up by tiling to very large area for high volume production. The screen will be lightweight and tilable, and will be less than an inch thick, with highly efficient transmission. In Phase I, POC will show the feasibility of the proposed approach by design and analysis, by demonstrating componenet fabrication, and by integrating it into a functional display screen.

MONTEREY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
24600 Silver Cloud CourtSuite 103
Monterey, CA 93940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 648-0190
Michael E. McCauley, PhD
AF 99-086
Title:Advanced Interfaces for Space Operator Consoles
Abstract:Monterey Technologies, Inc. proposes a nine-month program to analyze, develop and demonstrate next-generation interfaces for space operator consoles. As space operations continue to grow in complexity, and as the capabilities of digital technology accelerate, the need for well-designed controls and displays, and appropriate implementation of innovative user interfaces becomes apparent. The limits of the operator's capabilities now can become exceeded by the overwhelming increase in the availability of displayed information. The objective of the project is to improve the space operator's situation awareness and mission performance through improvements to the functionality of their consoles. To that end, Monterey Technologies, Inc. will first conduct a technology survey, top-level mission analysis, function analysis and user needs analysis. The technical feasibility of technologies in the 2005 timeframe will be assessed. These analyses will lead to a preliminary specification of requirements for a prototype console interface. Finally, a rapid prototype demonstrating the feasibility of the selected technologies will be completed in Phase I.

NTI, INC.
4130 Linden AvenueSuite 235
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 254-3171
Robert D. O
AF 99-086
Title:Dev of a Generic Research Simulator for the Evaluation of Alternative Control/Display Technologies
Abstract:The inevitable near-term introduction of a wide range of alternative control and display technologies into aerospace systems has raised complex human factors reseach issues. Basic research has defined the physical and ergonomic parameters of many of these technologies. However, a gap exists between laboratory research and "real-world" testing. Outstanding expensive "simulators" exist, but a lower-cost, operationally valid simulation device is needed, capable of providing mission-related predictions of the impact of proposed control/display technologies. The effort will integrate a high-fidelity aeromodel into a motion-based simulator to answer this need. Operationally meaningful performance assessment metrics will also be included. The Phase I output will include complete designs and software specifications for developing a motion-based, aerodynamically realistic simulation of the F-16 aircraft, and a software interface capable of accepting many anticipated alternative control/display technologies envisioned for the aero- and space-environments. The proposed design is "generic" in that is can be easily adapted to other aircraft, many control/display technologies, and space applications with a minimum of modifications. Therefore, the commerical applications of this development extend to civil aircraft, all forms of transportation (cars, busses, trains) design of controls and displays in nuclear power plants, and the design of workplaces in any safety-sensitive environment.

ADROIT SYSTEMS, INC.
209 Madison StreetSuite 200
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-1220
Jeff Bradford
AF 99-087
Title:Imagery Analyst Interface for Ultra-Spectral Imaging Sensors
Abstract:Since the Persian Gulf War the demand for multi-, hyper- and ultra-spectral data has significantly increased. The key reason for this increased demand is the potential benefits of spectral imagery to aid in target detection, specifically area anomalies, targets employing camouflage, denial and deception techniques, and the identification of natural and chemical effluence. Apectral imagery has the greatest potential to provide accurate data to the operators in an Automatic Target Recognition environment due to the ability to determine minute spectral differences between targets. Nonetheless, spectral based technology has not been widely accepted or utilized in the operational community. This is primarily due to system limitations in the literal image detection ranges, user experience, sensor limitations, availability of tactical sensor data, and validated exploitation tools and methods. It is the goal of this Phase I to determine a methodolgy and process to identify and evaluate (qualitatively and quantitatively) technological advances in the multi-to ultra-spectral exploitation arena. Key elements of the study are determination of operational users requirements, compile a preliminary cognitive engineer design flow, review advances in visual psychophysics, ARTs, algorithms, spectral workstations, and determine appropriate means to measure advances and make solid recomendations for advancement exploitation techniques.

PROMETHEUS, INC.
103 Mansfield St.
Sharon, MA 02067
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 849-5389
Richard Tolimieri
AF 99-087
Title:PONS Interface for Ultra-Spectral Imagery
Abstract:Advances in sensor technology have significantly expanded the potential role of multi- and hyperspectral imaging in a wide range of military scenarios. However, for these advances to be of use of human interpreters, image display technologies must be developed requiring new image processing techniques. These must address the availability of increasing volumes of hyperspectral images, as well as the novel nature of the ultra-spectral data characteristics. We propose to develop a new class of image transforms, PONS-PCA transforms, for dealing with multi- and hyperspectral imagery. Our design strategy combines the novel uniresolution feature of PONS, the Prometheus Orthonormal Set, with PCA, principal component analysis. PONS is used to represent spatial information in a highly compressed version while retaining information over the entire image. PCA captures the dominant chromatic features of the image. The characterstics of PONS-PCA transforms are essential for meeting the challenges of dynamic range compression and spatial registration of multi-spectral static and moving image streams.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy PlaceBuilding 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dia Hyun Kim, Ph.D.
AF 99-088
Title:Parallel Genetic Algorithm-Based Look-Ahead Path Intercept Trajectory Methodology
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a real-time, autonomous, self-adjustable, and robust path intercept trajectory algorithm to guide pilots back to a predefined path. The proposed Autonomous Flight Path Maintainer (AFPM) is based on the POC's proprietary parallel adaptive genetic algorithm (PAGA) and look-ahead prediction methodology. The PAGA will provide adaptability and fast optimization to calculate the off-state between the current path and the predefined path, while the look-ahead prediction methodology predicts the next position. Embedding POC's PAGA optimization engine and look-ahead predictor into the current flight simulator MIL-AASPEM (Man-in-the-loop Air-to-Air System Performance Evaluator) will show the feasibility of the proposed AFPM. During Phase I, POC will focus on demonstrating the feasibility of the AFPM and designing the Phase II high-level specifications, including the hardware computing platform.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd. N
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Gary Klien, Ph.D.
AF 99-089
Title:Representing the Cognitive Demands of New Systems
Abstract:As information technologis develop, it becomes more critical to inject cognitive requirements into the design process. Otherwise, developers will generate expensive systems that either do not meet the needs of users, or compromise the decision making process of individuals and teams. We believe the solution is to develop tools for the system sponsors for front-end analysis, as well as for the designers and developers. To achieve this, we will take advantage of recent breakthroughs in the use of cognitive task analysis for designing information technologies, as well as the development of a new approach to team representation, Team Integrated Design Environment (TIDE). We will apply these techniques to the Joint Strike Fighter, to demonstrate that it is feasible to identify and represent individual and team cognitive requirements. Then we will design a prototype software tool to represent individual and team cognitive requirements. The tool will not be a simulation , but will be a support system for defining and displaying the cognitive features of decision makers so that they can be used as constraints in guiding the design and development process. During Phase II, we will construct a working prototype and evaluate its impact on representing cognitive requirements during conceptual design.

NTI, INC.
4130 Linden AvenueSuite 235
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 532-5723
Douglas R. Eddy, PhD
AF 99-089
Title:Air Crew Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool
Abstract:A great deal of research has been done to study the limits of human performance under sleep deprivation and experts can advise on how to best utilize crew members to avoid the disruptions of day-night rhythms and fatigue. Unfortunately, there is currently no system that permits the military planner to automatically consider the lessons of sleep and performance research when planning flight operations. This proposal describes the development of a computerized, user-friendly decision aid that can assist operational planners in scheduling work and rest to avoid or minimize the effects of fatigue on human performance. The project starts with a highly researched and recognized model of human sleep and performance. It then extends it, based on recent findings giving at user-centered GUI interface. With this computerized system, optimal performance can be arranged at critical times and degradations can be avoided, scheduled at times of minimal workload, or at times when they would potentially have a least impact on mission success. This product will be useful to planners and schedulers in the commercial sector who have workers preparing for tasks requiring humans operating at their highest performance levels in aviation, nuclear power plants, at night or in time shifted oipeations.

FLIGHT VISIONS, INC.
43W752 Route 30
Sugar Grove, IL 60554
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 466-2114
David Klinchuch
AF 99-090
Title:Advanced Multi-Function Head-Up Display
Abstract:Flight Visions, is a leader in the development of Head-Up Display Systems that are two times more accurate, half the weight and 2/3 the size of competitors HUDs. Considering this, the primary responsibility of this program is to discover a new technology to replace the CRT. Most CRT's are replaced because of degraded brightness. The CRT half-life is normally less than 1000 hours because they generally operate at relatively high brightness levels. Flight Visions proposes to do a feasibility study of three different technologies: AMLCD Light Valve, MEMS, and Laser. One technology will be selected for a further conceptual study and preliminary designs for implementation will be accomplished. Ultimately, a demonstration unit would evolve during Phase II. The selected technology must have proven reliability and provide: adequate luminance for operation in an open cockpit in bright sunlight, good contrast ratio, adequate resolution, good repeatability, and accuracy. Typically, the brightness requires 1600 ft-Lamberts minimum reflected light off of the HUD combiners into the pilot's eyes. Assuming a reflection coefficient of 30% for frequency selective combiners, the incident light intensity from the HUD lens system must be approximately 5000 ft-Lamberts. Accounting for efficiencies, transmissivity of the lens, and engineering margins; the technology must have luminance capability of at least 10,000 ft-Lamberts. Also, the resolution of the technology must be at least 1000 X 1000 pixels for accurate HUB aiming.

ENGINEERING MATTERS, INC.
18 Orchard St.
Medfield, MA 02052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 648-0468
Dr. Richard Fontana
AF 99-091
Title:Direct Drive Force Feedback Man-Machine Interface (Fly-by-Wire-Compatible Force Feedback Joystick)
Abstract:The innovation presented in the proposed research effort is the design of a direct drive, high performance, low cost, light weight, zero backlash, low friction, force feedback joystick with every high bandwidth and very high reliability. This high performance joystick will be designed utilizing a two-degree of freedom spherical motor for use as the force feedback actuator. The noncontact electromagnetic drive means that there are no components in contact with the joystick other than the bearings. Because the system has no gears, cables, transmissions or moving parts other than the stick itself, the system is very rugged and reliable. The system is also fail-safe since there are no transmission components to bind. The direct force feedback joystick will be capable of providing a stick feel that can do much more the simulate the most desirable traits of traditional stick aircraft. Haptic information provided through the high fidelity stick force feedback system can transfer critical information, such as navigation, stall onset, proximity to earth, or other parameters using the sense of feel, thus reducing demands on the pilot's visual system. This high performance joystick will be designed in close cooperation with a high volume commercial Fast Track partner named in the proposal. Through this association, the joystick will be rapidly brought to market.

VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2175 Park Blvd
Palo Alto, CA 04306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 321-4900
James F. Kramer
AF 99-091
Title:Virtual Hand Interaction with a Reconfigurable Control Panel for Pilot Trng and Ergonomic Assessment
Abstract:Upon completion of our Air Force SBIR Phase I and Phase II, contracts, the Air Force will have the necessary software and whole-hand feedback hardware for unprecedented simulation of haptic interaction between hands and control devices, paying back in multiples the Air Force's financial investment in the contracts. With the proposed high-fidelity control-panel simulator, the Air Force will be able to remotely train pilots, flight engineers and control-tower-operations personnel all over the world on the latest control panels and controls, with nothing more that a download of updated control-panel simulation software. Additionally, Air Force researchers will be able to quickly and efficiently test new control-panel layouts and flight-control paradigms, evaluating them for effectiveness and ergonomics. The aerospace-controls-toolkit (ACT) software technology to be developed under this SBIR provides significant comercial potential wherever humans use their hands to interact with control mechanisms. Such applications include commercial aircaft and control-tower simulators, automative simulators, processing-plant simulators, and many more. Importantly, development of the aerospace-controls-toolkit technology lays a strong groundwork for creation of a general hand-based simulator, where arbitrary graphical objects can be manipulated. Such a generic hand-based simulator is the panacea of virtual reality and would have tremendous commercial potential in numerous industries.

ILLGEN SIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
130 Robin Hill Road, Suite 200
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 348-6886
Ms. Nancy Beauregard
AF 99-092
Title:Biological Research Imaging System and Knowledge (BRISK)
Abstract:Illgen Simulation Technologies, Inc. (ISTI) will design and assemble a Parallel Processing System capable of supporting an unlimited variety of highly complex modeling projects. Using parallel system processing technology originally developed by NASA, complicated, mathematically intense models that typically take several days to run will be reduced to only a few hours. The ISTI team will build high speed parallel virtual machines (PVM) that will run parallelized versions of models, using standard message passing libraries and message passing interfaces (MPI), or the most current technology to ensure portability. Our software engineering team will modify or re-write government-owned source code, to run in a parallel processing environment. The system will be fully capable of supporting a wide variety of complex mathematical models, such as biological tissue, inorganic substances, human and animal anatomy and physiology, and biodynamic injury models. The high speed proessing capability of this system may be applied to any research project tht requires modeling. These include studies on acceleration impact injury, specific absorption rates (SAR) from exposure to radio frequency radiation, environmental impact studies, and biochemical defense.

POSITIVE LIGHT, INC.
101 Cooper Court
Los Gatos, CA 95030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 399-7744
Dr. Leigh J. Bromley
AF 99-092
Title:Highly Efficient, Environmentally Stable, Miniaturized, Ultrafast Amplifier System
Abstract:This proposal describes an innovative, ultrashort pulse laser system offering environmental stability, compactness and extremely high efficiency. This will be achieved by the use of a novel diode-pumped, mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser and fiber pulse stretcher, followed by a diode-pumped Yb:YAG amplifier and compact grating compressor. This system will deliver the >5mJ, subpicosecond pulses needed by the DoD, at the multi-kilohertz repetition rates required for commerical laser machining applications. While fiber-based CPA systems have been reported previously, effort has mainly centered on operation at 1550nm using erbium-doped fibers and output energies in these systems have been limited to microjoules. Amplification to higher energies in these systems is prevented by the incompatibility of the erbium emission wavelength with bulk diode-pumped materials operating at ~1um, such as Nd:Glass or Yb:YAG.

NCHRIS SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
13215 Poplar Glen Ln.
Houston, TX 77082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 496-7944
Neophytos Christodoulides
AF 99-095
Title:Altitude Decompression Sickness Risk Assessment Computer (ADRAC)
Abstract:NChris Software Solutions proposes to build a robust object oriented system that fulfills all the requirements and is written in Java. The objective is to build this system without any platform restrictions or any other type of limitations. The system architecture will guarantee maintainability, flexibility, and most of all scalability. The objects that will comprise this system will be designed so that they can be remotely instantiated. The client/server architecture will guarantee "thin client" the front end, with the computations being performed by the 'back end" objects. In order to plug in different reports (different ways of viewing data), the core architecture will enable dynamic instantiation of objects that implements the proposed interface.

APTIMA, INC.
600 W. Cummings ParkSuite 3050
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Jean MacMillan
AF 99-096
Title:A Streamlined Scenario-Based Methodology for Evaluation Distributed Team Performance
Abstract:Faster and more efficient methods are needed for developing scenario-based team and individual performance measures for distributed simulation environments. Aptima proposes a steamlined approach to identify critical team competencies, knowledge, and skills. This approach combines information about the nature of the tasks being performed with team theory and information about the structure and functions of the team to identify critical measurement points for more in-depth development of competency requirements and measures. Scenario events are then created to provide critical points for performance assessment. Because critical measurement points are scenario-bases, both automated and real-time observational measures are driven by scenario timing. This allows more efficienct measurement during the scenario and more rapid feedback to the team. At the end of Phase I, we will demonstrate an implementation of the measurement approach that uses a handheld data-input device synched to a simulation scenario to show how the data entry and feedback process can be streamlined. The proposed Aptima team has outstanding qualifications in developing, implementing, and assessing performance measures for distributed teams, supported by partnership with the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), with extensive experience in developing measures of performance and measures of effectiveness (MOPs/MOEs) for Air Force mission tasks.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Lee Krause
AF 99-096
Title:SNOWCAT: Scenario Knowledge Capture for Cognitive Analysis-Based Training
Abstract:SNOWCAT provides a cost-effective approach to the elicitation and representation of knowledge to support the training function. Our approach focuses on core competencies and is captured in the Scenario kNOWledge CAPture for Cognitive Analysis based Training (SNOWCAT) framework, which is based on the integration of MO's scenario-based knowledge capture technology with Dr. Alan Lesgold's cognitive analysis techniques. The MO team is combining a core set of proven technologies that focus on analyzing and storing the knowledge of why a particular learning pattern, task, or scenario should be used to achieve a desired goal. The key innovation of our approach is the ability to represent this "knowledge of why" in a robust form that captures task descriptions and performs cognitive analysis on the tasks.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 S. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 35
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Richard H. Stottler
AF 99-097
Title:An Intelligent Training Management System (ITMS)
Abstract:Air Force training units are in extreme need of advanced, intelligent training management systems to aid the training managers and schedulers in the performance of their duties. An intelligent training management system (ITMS) must address scheduling, tracking, evaluation, requirements identification, and completion and certification mangement of individuals and teams. The ITMS must be able to independently make decisions and recommendations but also accept input and overrides from training personnel. SHAI has extensive experience in intelligent scheduling, distributed collaboration between a mix of software agents and humans, general automated intelligent decision-making, and team training domains. Using an innovative combination of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, techniques we have used with much success for intelligent scheduling applications in 3 complex domains, several automated collaboration applications, and intelligent decision-making in dozens of applications, we will produce an automated, intelligent training mangement system with capabilities well beyond current methods. The goals of Phase I research are to thoroughly define the training management problem, elaborate the artificial intelligence techniques useful for automating it, prove the feasibility of these techniques through the development of a prototype, and develop a complete system.

APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4300 San Mateo Blvd., NESuite A220
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 795-8106
Michael J. White
AF 99-098
Title:Dev of Predictive Model for Rocket Launch Noise Footprint
Abstract:During Rocket launch significant noise can be generated and propagated to the surrounding environment that can be disrupting to both communities and wildlife. Assessment of these impacts requires knowledge of the acoustic source mechanisms, propagation effects, and requirements under the National Environmental Policy Act. In Phase I we will draw heavily on the rocket engine acoustic source investigative testing that we recently completed as well as expand our recent literature search on rocket engine acoustic sources. Our far field acoustic propagation techniques, developed from explosive charge detonation and large calibre gun firing tests, will be combined with our knowledge of rocket (engine noise and vehicle bow shock) sources to form a preliminary far field noise footprint prediction method. It is anticipated the results would be shown grahically using Air Force developed software, NMPLOT. Also, we intend to add IBON to our current noise ciriteria data base. In Phase II the nosie footprint software will be formalized, tested with field measurements and a graphical user interface will be added to complete the nosie assessment tool.

KELLY LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEMS, INC.
398 East DaytonYellow Springs Road
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 879-3483
Steven T. Powers
AF 99-099
Title:Autonomic Logistics
Abstract:As a part of the requirements definition process for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft, requirements analysts looked for new ways to improve the logistics processes. Autonomic Logistics was a term coined for these new processes that combined advanced on-board diagnostics and sensor systems to feed diagnostics results to ground-based information systems. It is envisioned that ground-based information systems will coordinate with Command and Control systems to assign the next mission and insure that the right replenishment stores and parts and technicians meet the aircraft when it lands. This concept has been discussed for years and has been briefed and approved at all levels of the Air Force. However, only the JSF contractors, who will attempt to develop an aircraft and support structure meeting the JSF requirements for Autonomic Logistics, are looking at the process. No Air Force agency has assumed the responsibility for fully defining the concept and insuring all aspects are covered with required research and evaluation. Without this research, Autonomic Logistics concepts will not meet all aircraft's future support requirements. This SBIR recommends an initial definition and technology evaluation to insure Autonomic Logistics can support all Air Force needs.

LOGOBOTS LLC
60 E 32nd Street, #203
Chicago, IL 60616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 836-0497
Dr. Narayan P. Murarka
AF 99-099
Title:Intelligent Agents for Agile Combat Support
Abstract:Agile combat support will require the ability to tie together the information systems of various service agencies to enable time-definite re-supply and delivery. The focused logistics objective outlined in Joint Vision 2010 calls for the establishment of an intranet environment to provide Global Combat Support System (GCSS) functionality to the war fighter. This will require a seamless fusion of information across the various computer systems from the depot in CONUS to the battlefield anywhere in the world. Such information fusion will enable reduced deployment footprint for weapon systems. Automation of the logistics supply chain workflow and the integration of the automated supply chain with the Internet are essential for accomplishing this objective. The proposed work aims to utilize intelligent agent technology along with emerging Internet technologies such as XML towards this end. The resulting software product will be applicable in a variety of domains ranging from military logistics to commercial manufacturing and financial houses. Phase I will yield a final report which documents a requirements analysis and a detailed design of the proposed software, among other things.

BIODYNAMIC RESEARCH CORP.
9901 IH 10 West, Suite 1000
San Antonio, TX 78230
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 691-0281
John B. Bomar, Jr. PhD
AF 99-100
Title:Design and Feasibility of Biomechanics Toolset
Abstract:BRC proposes to design and create a prototype software suite called "Biomechanics Assessment Toolbox (BAT) Software". This Software will comprise a set of software tools and utilities aimed at optimizing the processing and analysis of digitized biomechanical data. The Software will directly interact with the Air Force Biodynamic Data Bank (BDB) to calculate commonly used severity indices for implusive accelerations, derive statistical measures regarding injury probabilities, and, at its broadest, the proposed Software will be capable of operating on given time series of data with general pre-defined, and possibly user-defined, mathematical functions. The Phase I BAT Software will feature a preliminary user interface, an interaction capability with Air Force data stored in the BDB, and a preliminary output capability, in tabular and graphical formats. A successful Phase I project would provide a foundation for the full implementation of a comprehensive suite of analysis algorithms and the development of a fully functional software application in Phase II. The Software will be designed to operate as an integral part of the BDB, or as a stand-alone module commerically available to research institutions interested in accessing the BDB. No such application is presently available to the commerical accident resconstruction and injury prevention industries.

H. KOCH & SONS CO.
5410 E. La Palma Ave.
Anaheim, CA 92807
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 779-7000
M. Happ
AF 99-101
Title:Improved Seat Comfort for Extended Missions
Abstract:This project is intended to develop a number of technologies and specific solutions to the problem of providing enhanced aircrew comfort particularly during extended missions and in ejection seats. This program will specifically address the issue of physical comfort associated with crew seating as opposed to the general cockpit environment. Efforts will be concentrated on the seat cushion area as this is the essential man/seat interface. A two stage program is proposed. During the first phase, design concepts will be proposed and evaluated. During the second phase, selected designs will be prototyped and tested and where appropriate progressed to qualification. A range of proposals will be prepared; from those which can be retrofitted to existing seats without modification to those intended for incorporation into new seat designs. Supporting analyses will provide the customer with the information to develop cost effective implementation strategies.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
302 East Carillo Street, FL2
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Alan Spiker
AF 99-102
Title:Area of Interest & Image Warping Presentation of Large Schematics on Small Computer Displays
Abstract:The objective of the proposed effort is to determine the feasibility of squeezing a large schematic or diagram image onto a small physical display using a high-resolution area-of-interest in conjunction with warping of the remaining imagery. The resulting, hybrid image can then be viewed by maintenance personnel as they perform their tasks using portable computers. The specification of the area-of-interest size and shape, the algorithms used to warp the background, and the pointing methods used to interact with the images are collectively referred to as the EyeWarp system. This approach to economizing a large image is supported by our knowledge of how we view our visual world and our reliance on awareness of the entire scene. Analogously, the presence of the total image is important in maintaining awareness of what we are looking at, and where we are located in a large complex computer-based schematic or diagram. In Phase I, we will survey the range of maintenance schematics and diagrams and candidate portable displays, evaluate the feasibility of the EyeWarp concept, and perform a series of user experiments to identify parameters that optimize the usability of the concept. Evaluation of key area-of-interest and warping parameters will be accomplished using computer graphics and image processing software with a desktop monitor, as will the simulation of pointing and warping. Deliverables will include a final technical report and demonstration EyeWarp software.

TRANSDIMENSION INTERNATIONAL CORPOR
3637 Canyon Crest Drive, J100C
Riverside, CA 92507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 683-3600
Jing Wang
AF 99-102
Title:Advanced Methods for Displaying Large Schematics on Small Screen Devices
Abstract:This SBIR topic is timely and of great importance. It identifies a significant need for both military and civilian applications that will become more and more prevalent in the immediate future. In response to this SBIR topic, we propose here an innovative presentation concept and the associated technologies to meet all the challenges posed in this SBIR topic. The overall objective of the project is the development of and advanced method for presenting large schematics/graphics on small screen computer devices that will improve the efficiency and effectiveness of aircraft maintenance personnel in their tasks. In Phase I, the objective is to define and prove the feasibility of the variable resolution and mixed scale concept and the associated technologies for presenting large schematics and complex graphics on small screens. The proposed method represents a significant advance over the generalized fisheye method. The focus of the proposed effort is not enhanced software graphics, but rather innovative presentation concepts for displaying large, complex schematics/graphics on a small screen. This new technology will find widespread application in any scenario where the schematics/graphics is too large for the screen.

BIOACOUSTICS TECHNOLOGY CORP.
Whip-Poor-Will WalkP.O. Box 1579
Grantham, NH 03753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 863-9854
Tom Callahan
AF 99-103
Title:Advanced Audio Interfaces, Advanced Flight Deck Headset
Abstract:Most commercial of-the-shelf (COTS) headset systems utilize a combination of Passive and analog active noise reduction (AANR) to improve voice communication reception and intelligibility in high noise aircraft environments. These system do not satisfy USAF needs. The USAF has defined the need for high performance headsets: (1) Noise attenuation bandwidth needs to be extended to include higher frequencies 2,500 Hz. (2) There is a need for further intelligibility improvements. The BioAcoustics concept integrates: three important performance features: (1) unique "high-damping earcup cushions" (hybrid material arrangement) in an anthropomorphically correct cushion configuration to significantly improve passive noise attenuation in low frequency bands; (2) adjustable position, low impedance, receiver to enhance the audio-receiver-to-ear-canal coupling; an (3) Digital Active Noise Attenuation to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The fully integrated system concept is expected to attenuate greater noise levels (40 to 45 dB) in a broader band (20-2500 Hz), reduce the signal level required for audibility, and, thus, significantly improve user comfort and intelligibility. Special attention is given to noise cancellation algorithms to deal with random noise. We will domonstrate that the proposed Audio-Comfort EarSearl(tm) is a more effective passive noise barrier and more comfortable than their SOA circumaural earcup cushion counterpart.

STANDARD OBJECT SYSTEMS, INC.
105 Lisa Marie Place
Shalimar, FL 32579
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 609-4457
Henry L. Pfister
AF 99-103
Title:Advanced Audio Interface for Phonetic Speech Recognition in a High Noise Environment
Abstract:Standard Object Systems, Inc. (SOS) will use its existing phonetic speech recognition (SPRS) tool kit to develop an advanced audio interface for speech recognition in a high noise military environment. A requirement exists for audio command, control, and communications systems in a noisy environment based on natural interfaces, such as speech recognition, which require no training for efficient intuitive operation. That existing speech recognition systems fail in even moderate noise environments was identified as a critical issue at the military workshop on Spoken Human-Machine Dialogue in 1995. As a potential SOS product, noisy speech recognition is of great commercial value in vehicles, offices and factories. To reduce noise effects in speech recognition, SOS will modify the SPSR processing in three ways: Add an adaptive filter to remove noise prior to speech processing; compute auditory based EIH data to create robust speech recognition features; and apply a genetic optimization algorithm imitating the human evolution of speech to improve noise rejection. These changes will be tested, with both off the shelf commercial speech software and the SPSR system, in a digital audio laboratory with controlled speech and noise to evaluate affects on speech recognition performance.

HORN LABORATORIES
35 Lucille Drive
South Setauket, NY 11720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 737-2559
Michael Horn
AF 99-104
Title:Sunglasses with Selective Light Modulation
Abstract:The preposed project addresses the problem of glare from the sun and other optical sources. The concept is to adaptively block sources of bright light in a scene while allowing the light from dimly lit areas to pass through with relatively little attenuation. The technical approach, based on a prototype of a patented technology, is to image the scene with a low cost CMOS imaging sensor. After the scene is scanned, areas of high light intensity, compared to some threshold, are identifed and the 2-diminsional coordinates are transferred to an addressable lens. The lens, a light transmissive liquid crystal display with addressable pixels, is direced to blank out the areas in its array that correspond to the bright areas in the original scene. The effect is to eclipse the bright light sources in the scene while leaving the balance of the scene clear. The project will have the assistance of the Kent State Liquid Crystal Institute. NY State will be providing funding support for development of the CMOS imaging sensor by the Center for Advanced Technology in Sensor Systems and Technologies at SUNY Stony Brook.

LUMIN, INC.
1936 Huntington DriveSuite 208
South Pasadena, CA 91030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 799-9065
Dr. Hua-Kuang Liu
AF 99-104
Title:Smart Wide-Field Broadband Filters for Eye Protection
Abstract:The Lumim, Inc. proposes to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of a new eye protection device called a Smart Wide Field Broadband Filter (SWBF). The SWBF has a new optical architecture that is uniquely different from any other existing eye protection devices. Basically the SWBF consists of a liquid crystal spatial filter which is electrically addressed by a photo-sensor. The photo-sensor serves dual functions. It is used to detect the position and intensity of the dangerous light source. The sensed photo-voltage is used to directly control the opacity of the selected part of the pixels in the liquid crystal filter. The opacity of the specifically chosen pixels will reduce the intensity of the light originating from the corresponding dangerous source. The degree of reduction is adaptively proportional to the intensity of the light source. In the meantime, the filter will allow the surrounding objects of normal brightness be visible by the eye with little attenuation. The SWBF is self-reliant, adaptive, and smart. None of the existing eye protection devices has these unique characteristics and capabilities. Advantages of the device include wide field-of-view, broadband transmission, and large dynamic range. Due to the impressive business potential and significant profit expectations, companies from California, Mississippi an Florida have shown interests to support future commercialization effort. The Principal Investigator, Dr. Hau-Kuange Liu, a Fellow of both the OSA and SPIE, has published over 28 US patents and 200 papers. The research team has competent optical and electronic scientists. The cooperative academic, industrial, and business effort poses good probability of success of technology transfer for the enhancement of US competitiveness in the world economy.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Divisio20600 Grammercy Plac
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Mingjun Zhao
AF 99-104
Title:Adaptive Dual-Layer Eye Protection Device
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an innovative protection device for human eyes and opticl sensors that performs regionally adaptive glare reduction. The critical elements are an ultracompact off-axis telescope, a microlens array-based limiter, and a regionally adaptive attenuator. The advantages of this innovative concept include its simple and compact structure, broadband response (400-700 nm), fast protection, high dynamic range, regionally adaptive dimming, effective glare reduction, and high transmission for dimmer objects. The major innovation of this proposal is that it combines the advantages of a high speed and high dynamic range optical limiter with the smooth adaptation characteristic of a glare reduction attenuator. This breakthrough technology has important potential applications because it can be manufactured using low-cost materials and mature fabrication techniques. In Phase I, POC will design and build key components and analyze their performance; the concept will be demonstrated by means of a laboratory prototype.

SELECTIVE LIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM,
2075 Byberry RoadThe Atrium, Suite 109
Bensalem, PA 19020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 593-6454
E. E. Barnes
AF 99-104
Title:Use of Segmented LCD Array to Reduce the Range of Light Intensity in the Field of View of a User
Abstract:The purpose of this Phase I SBIR study is to show the feasibility of an eye protection device that adaptively changes in response to varying levels of light intensity. It selectively darkens regions in the user's field of view to improve visual performance over a range of light conditions. The proposed mechanism reduces light intensity in bright regions of the field of view. This is accomplished by varying the amount of attentuation of appropriate elements in a segmented LCD array that is located in front of the user's eye. Light intensity from non-bright areas is not materially affected. Current means of protecting vision are either totally static or else attenuate all light globally by slow chmeical means. The proposed technology is implemented by combining optics, electronics, and processing capabilities in a wearable apparatus. To be effective, this device should be implemented using small, rapidly responding elements in the field of view. This SBIR will investigate development of methods that will increase the number of elements in this LCD array. In addition, it will explore techniques to decrease LCD response time to changes in light intensity. These solutions need to be implemented in a self-contained unit.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin, Ph.D.
AF 99-107
Title:Advanced Multispectral/Hyperspectral Imagery Exploitation for Global Awareness
Abstract:This Phase I project develops an advanced imagery anaiysis/exploitation system with multispectral and hyperspectral data sets for global awareness. The proposed technology incorporates methods from Evolutionary Computing that includes an Artificial Neural Network in combination with an Evolutionary Algorithm to automatically solve the materials detection and subpixel spectral mixing problem. Novel signature processing performs spectral mixing and sensitivities analysis, and band pass filtering and normalization of pixel vectors. The processed pixel vector is forwarded into innovative Self-Organizing Artificial Neural Networks based automated endmember and category selection subsystem to identify what categories are related to the sensed data. The proposed Evolutionary Computing approach provides a non-parametric search of the solution space which is guided by a model-based cost function that allows for rapid and flexible exploitation of the imagery data. The solution to this problem permits the identification of the constituent materials that comprise a pixel subtense (footprint) on the terrain from remotely sensed data. The end product to be developed during this project is a commercial software application that will provide end user visualization of multispectral and hyperspectral imagery and automated target detection and identification in a user friendly environment.

ARGTEC, INC.
5525 Twin Knolls RoadSuite 330-B
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-5882
Dr. Monndy A. Eshera
AF 99-107
Title:Content-Based Indexing and Retrieval in Global Information Databases Using Attributed Relational Graphs (ARG)
Abstract:ARGTEC is pioneering the use of a new, innovative technology based on the theory of Attributed Relational Graph for content-based indexing and retrieval in large information databases. We have achieved several breakthroughs in the development of this technology. We applied this approach to indexing and retrieval in Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) with a remarkable success. When tested on large fingerprint databases provided by the FBI and the British Home Office, it delivered > 99% identification accuracy (i.e., < 1% Type I error) and close to zero false alarm rate. In benchmarks conducted by the customer, it achieved better than one order-of-magnitude reduction in the rate of false alarms in comparison with other competing state-of-the-art approaches, especially when presented with partial information, e.g., poor quality latent fingerprints collected from crime scenes or similar uncontrolled environments. ARGTEC proposes to develop and implement a generalized content-based indexing and retrieval system for global information databases. We will expand the ARG technology used successfully in AFIS to a hierarchical ARG scheme capable of processing more generalized global information that contains textual and non-alphanumeric information at multiple levels of detail and resolution. We will show that the hierarchical ARG representation scheme, coupled with our suites of matching algorithms are especially effective in handling noisy and partial information. ARGTEC is working with several industrial partners in both defense and commercial arenas. Our commercialization strategy lies in converting our R&D effort into system innovations, then teaming with large system integrators to infuse it into fielded, operational systems.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord AvenueCambridge
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Paul G. Gonsalves
AF 99-107
Title:AMPLE: Agent-Based Mission Planning and Evaluation
Abstract:Rapid developments in information technology and the associated application and assimilation of this technology provide a tremendous opportunity to enhance the mission planning and evaluation capabilities of Air Force commanders. An architecture employing multiple intelligent software agents can facilitate enhanced mission planning by automating: the collection and structuring of relevant tactical C4I data; the development, simulation, and evaluation of appropriate mission plans; and the assessment of the current and potential tactical situational states. Here, we propose the development of an Agent-based Mission Planning and Evaluation environment (AMPLE) for Air Force tactical missions. The innovation is the incorporation of several synergistic characteristics of multi-agent systems: the structuring of combat data in semantic structures that support complex cognitive processes, such as planning and assessment; the use of agent situatedness and reactiveness to simulate and evaluate alternative mission plans; the dynamic assessment of potential tactical situations created through planning and agent interaction; and the dynamic mission progress visualization and the associated plan editing capabilities. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing existing Air Force tactical mission planning systems and addressing future information dominated battlespace requirements.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research PlaceSuite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Dr. ChiMan Kwan
AF 99-107
Title:Phased Array Time0Modulated Ultra-Wide Band Radar and Communication
Abstract:The key innovation of this proposal is use of Time Modulated Ultra-wideband (TM-UWB) transmissions to implement low cost, low power phased array radar and radio. Within the last few years low cost ultra-high precision oscillators have become available, and these now make it possible to build TM-UWB radar and communication systems which have no baseband frequency. The only signals transmitted are single pulses which can be generated by a single transistor which is either on or off. Impulses in the time domain generate very wide bandwidth signals in the frequency domain, and the signals generated by our current hardware have bandwidths in the gigahertz range. Since the transmission effectively happens over gigahertz bandwidth, this type of radar and radio is virtually impossible to detect and infeasible to jam. TM-UWB radio requires no frequency allocation since energy is effectively transmitted on a wide band of frequencies simultaneously. Likewise, as long as users use a different pseudo-random pulse timing, there will be no interference between users, and there is no problem with multipath transmission. Gigahertz transmission rates are achievable. Because all that is transmitted is binary pulses, implementation of phased array system is easy and effective.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3337
Lee Krause
AF 99-107
Title:C-FOM: Conceptual FOM Design Tool
Abstract:The Conceptual FOM (C-FOM) Design Tool's objective is to provide domain and subject matter experts, such as scenario developers, automated support for understanding and utilizing available simulation assets during HLA Federation development. The C-FOM Design Tool will import Simulation Object Models (SOMs) from HLA reuse repositories, such as the MSSR, to populate the domain space that will contain all the objects and their supported interactions. Domain experts will be able to build scenarios based on the domain objects and interactions in both a text and graphical form and export a minimal FOM. The ability for domain and subject matter to effectively access HLA assets is critical to the long-term acceptance of the HLA initiative. Under this effort, we will validate our approach through a proof-of-concept that will allow us to gain program and commercial support for our phase II and phase III commercialization efforts.

NET SQUARED, INC.
4324 Vista Way
Davis, CA 95616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 758-4338
Todd Heberlein
AF 99-107
Title:Audit Workbench
Abstract:Net Squared proposes developing a programming system, or framework, for processing and analyzing audit trails generated by host operating systems. This programming system, called the Audit Workbench, will provide (1) configuration and management for the collection of audit records, (2) the processing and presentation of audit records, (3) communication infrastructure for distributed deployment as well as integration with external IDS components and security management systems, (4) core intrusion detection capability, and (5) a platform for future DOD-sponsored research, development, and deployment of intrusion detection technologies. The goal is to do for host-based audit trails what our Network Radar is providing for network traffic analysis: a complete and robust platform on which to deploy leading edge technologies.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technology Division20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Freddie Lin
AF 99-107
Title:Distributed Video Image Information System Technology for Information Grid Applications
Abstract:The Air Force Information Directorate is soliciting innovative technologies for Global Information Exchange that can simultaneously handle command, control, communication, computers, and intelligence data. In response, the Applied Technology Division of Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes a unique video image information processing technology that will provide the following benefits: (1) high-fidelity image representation operation for narrowband communication applications; (2) high level image understanding and analysis operations for intelligent command, control, and intelligence applications; (3) no need for a variety of data processing techniques to perform global information distribution and services; and (4) significant savings in time and complexity in handling video images and databases. In Phase I, POC will implement a prototype laboratory system to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technology. Phase II will continue the technological development and evolve a complete digital (video) image processing workstation with high digital video quality, excellent resolution, exceptional modularity, completely automated operation, and remarkable adaptation. In Phase III, this system will be reconfigured for numerous commercial application scenarios. Because of the close relationship of the proposed technology with POC's existing product line, product development efforts for this project will support the near-term business expansion of our data communications products.

RELAXATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
16794 Charmel Lane
Pacific Palisades, CA 90272
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 459-4314
Wesley W. Chu
AF 99-107
Title:Activate: Intelligent Information Management Technologies to COTS RDBMSs and Legacy Databases
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop a product which will significantly enhance the capability of commerical off-the-shelf (COTS) RDBMS systems to provide decision makers with the ability to exploit information in a timely manner. The product will enable database users to use advanced technologies to obtain better, more complete answers to queries and to implement effective change management processes. The product is focused on users of complex, dynamic, legacy databases who need advanced information management capabilities to identify and act on changes in critical data. Militaty command and control systems are dominated by legacy, stovepipe databases which yield critical information only to highly skilled database technicians. Similarly, many businesses rely on legacy database systems which contain all of the information critical to running their business. Decision makers seldom understand the capabilities and limitations of the databases, or have the time and skills necessary to extract critical information in a timely manner. This project is to apply active database technologies, query relaxation technologies, advanced human-computer interface technologies, and tools to automatically configure those three technologies to provide intelligent information management. This product can be operated on top of the (COTS) RDBMS and legacy databases and has direct applicability to both military and commerical users.

SCENPRO, INC.
101 W. Renner RoadSuite 170
Richardson, TX 75082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 437-5001
Michael Gately
AF 99-107
Title:Chemical/Biological Incident Response Tool
Abstract:We Propose to develop a Real-time/Predictive Chemical/Biological Incident Response Tool to enhance the effectiveness of the Incident Commander in planning for and management of chemical and biological warfare incidents. The tool will automatically track the execution of the incident response plan, predict resource shortfalls, propose solutions to resource shortages, and dynamically tailor the medical treatment protocols and incident response plans to provide an effective course of action for the incident at hand. The proposed tool will have the flexibility required to support both U.S. and coalition forces and will be extensible to the civilian emergency incident response domain. The proposed tool will also have the ability to significantly impact the training of the incident responders in the areas of course material, student assessment, and student progress. Similarly exercise planning, exercise monitoring, and exercise evaluation will be improved using the tool. Finally, there will also be benefits in the assessment of current incident response procedures and doctrine.

SIGNATRON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
29 Domino Drive
Concord, MA 01742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 371-0550
Dr. Steen A. Parl
AF 99-107
Title:Advanced High Data Rate Adaptive HF Modem for Global Wireless Information Systems
Abstract:The object of the proposed effort is to develop a new improved serial-tone HF modem capable of two-way data communications at variable rates up to 64 kb/s over a single frequency band. The proposing company has recently developed a serial-tone 64 kb/s modem using two frequencies for full duplex operation. The new single-frequency approach addresses improved bandwidth efficiency and adds both a secure and a non-secure orderwire mode. The new modem will result in an order of magnitude increase in HF link capacity permitting a more efficient integration of HF radio links into a broad range of backbone networks, such as TCP/IP, ATM, or X.25. The serial-tone waveform will allow much more efficient use of HF power amplifiers. The modem will also be designed to be resistant to narrowband interference and impulse noise. The Phase I effort will analyze and simulate performance of the most promising approaches to the difficult proposed objectives, including coding tradeoffs improving bandwidth efficiency, data interface types, and the new duplex operational mode, when interfaced with the adaptive equalizer, the link protocol, and the amplifier interface. Detailed computer simulations will be used to validate the design choices. A prototype will be designed, with a view towards a Phase II implementation and test.

THE ULTRA CORP.
P. O. Box 50University Station
Syracuse, NY 13210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 438-8122
Donald M. Leskiw
AF 99-107
Title:C4ISR Global Network Simulator
Abstract:The emerging global information infrastructure comprises wire-based and wireless networks of vast complexity that will provide internetworking services using Next Generation Internet (NGI) technologies: revolutionary applications, gigabit capacity wireless networking, internetworking satellites, and deeply networked systems. New communication network simulations are needed in C4ISR to demonstrate ensuing advances in global operations and distributed resource management. These include full-scale simulation of networklng, protocols, information distribution, and display (including visualization of the global grid itself). We propose a research and development effort that will lead to integrated demonstrations of full-scale land-, air-, and space-based internets with explicit modeling of network dynamics, links, antennas, protocols, physical (fading wideband) channels, and traffic. Realistic models of information sources and sinks (such as sensor to shooter) together with scenarios and concept-of-operations (CONOPS) will support C2 concept and technology evaluation, device emulation, and drive interfaces for hardware in-the-loop demonstrations. The simulation framework is based on object-oriented software technology and uses a runtime system for dlstributed high performance computing and networking.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Ronald D. Chaney
AF 99-108
Title:Threat Prediction Fusion
Abstract:Alphatech proposes an innovative threat prediction fusion engine that will help the battlefield commander develop an accurate assessment of the threat presented by the opposing forces. This assessment of threat will include (1) estimating enemy capabilities, (2) identifying threat opportunities, (3) estimating enemy intent, and (4) determining the levels of danger. ALPHATECH proposes to take a probabilistic approach to threat prediction and will use hierarchical models to create an efficient representation of the battlespace. This hierarchical approach to modeling also facilitates successfully scaling to larger scenarios without adding prohibitive computational costs and without sacrificing model fidelity. ALPHATECH is currently developing hierarchical battlespace models in the AFOSR New World Vistas program. These battlespace state models will process incoming data using algorithms that combine theory from hidden Markov modeling and Bayesian networks. The use of hidden Markov modeling techniques will allow us to accurately project the current battlespace state into the future. Decision trees will be used to predict the threat presented by the opposing forces using the model for the battlespace state. These decision trees can be updated automatically as better models for engagement outcomes become available.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Paul G. Gonsalves
AF 99-108
Title:Intelligent Threat Assessment Processor (ITAP)
Abstract:The explosive growth of information technology provides a tremendous opportunity for enhancing U.S. military warfighting capabilities. The management and processing of military intelligence information and the requisite assessment of enemy capabilities, intent, and objectives form a critical element of Air Force battlespace operations. Here, we propose an Intelligent Threat Assessment Processor (ITAP). Our novel system integrates a genetic algorithm approach to predicting enemy courses of action (eCOAs), a fuzzy logic-based analysis of predicted eCOAs to infer enemy intent and objectives, and in conjunction with our on-going development of an Intelligent Fusion and Asset Management Processor (IFAMP), provides the necessary functionality to support multi-level data fusion. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing existing Air Force tactical C4I systems and addressing future information dominated battlespace requirements. The Phase I effort will focus on feasibility assessment. We expect to: 1) identify system requirements and define the scope of the effort; 2) formulate and design a prototype ITAP for the requirements and the application scenario; 3) develop a working concept prototype integrated with our IFAMP system; 4) demonstrate its use and assess overall feasibility in a selected tactical battlefield scenario; and 5) develop requirements for follow-on development and product commercialization.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings ParkSuite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Raman Mehra/Dr. Adel
AF 99-109
Title:Fusion Performance Evaluation Based on Multisource-Multitarget Information Theory
Abstract:The ability to measure an algorithm's competence is a vital part in developing practical systems at all levels of data fusion. This aspect of metrology in data fusion is currently poorly understood and often relies on ad hoc techniques. Fusion algorithms have been developed with sound statistical reasoning but metrics often appear as afterthoughts of the development of particular fusion algorithms. This is true even in Level 1 fusion, where the standard approach is to use metrics which measure some particular ("local") aspect of algorithm's competence. Such metrics often produce more confusion since optimization with respect to one particular local metric can result in algorithm degradation as measured by another iocai metric. In Levels 2, 3, and 4 fusion the situation is even worse: There are few metrics of any kind, ad hoc or otherwise. We believe that a systematic and scientifically defensible approach to data fusion metrology at all levels 1, 2, 3, and 4 is now feasible, based on a direct generalization of Shannon information theory to the multisource-multitarget realm based on finite-set statistics (FISST). This new approach computes mathematical information based on user-defined concepts of "informativeness" even if these concepts are subjective or possibly conflicting. Specific Phase I tasks are: (1) Extend the FISST approach to Levels 2, 3, and 4 fusion performance estimation, (2) Implement prototype information-based metrics software, (3) Evaluate the effectiveness of the approach. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin. Lockheed Martin will provide both technical and commercialization support in the application of the sensor fusion technologies.

DISPLAYTECH, INC.
2602 Clover Basin Drive
Longmont, CA 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 772-2192
Christopher M. Walker, Ph
AF 99-110
Title:Phase Mask for High Throughput Volumetric Memories
Abstract:We propose to construct a novel random phase mask that takes advantage of new gray-scale lithography to improve the performance of high throughput volumetric memories. The focus of the effort will be to produce a phase mask prototype during Phase I that can be integrated onto a Displaytech megapixel spatial light modulator to form an optical write head during Phase II. The proposed Phase II device would be capable of around 3 Gbit/sec throughput. Although this is much faster than the capacity of current recording media, its availability will remove another obstacle to constructing high performance volumetric memory systems and will spur the development of better recording media.

RADIANT RESEARCH, INC.
3006 Longhorn BoulevardSuite 105
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-0500
Bipin Bihaari, Ph.D.
AF 99-110
Title:Multi-Wavelength Guided-wave Optoelectronic Interconnects for High-throughput Optical Memories
Abstract:Optical storage systems and memories are emerging rapidly as a solution to address the next generation requirement of high data-density and fast access time, and have created demand for high-speed and large-volume data handling interconnects between optical memory devices and processors. Electrical interconnects fail to keep up with this new demand due to their basic limitations. Optical interconnects and devices inherently offer large bandwidth and hence high-speed operation. Radiant Research, Inc., proposes to construct a multi-wavelength-based interconnect for interfacing optical memories and processors using guided-wave technology in conjunction with VCSELs, Photodiodes, wavelength division (de)multiplexing (W(D)DM) devices and multimode fibers. Employment of the WDDM device significantly increases the aggregate bandwidth to well above 10 Gb/sec while minimizing the latency of data transfer. Furthermore, the employment of an innovative three-dimensionally-tapered waveguide will significantly reduce the system insertion loss and thus achieve high fidelity of data transmission. Experimental result shows that each WDDM wavelength channel can provide 2,500 Gb/sec. Consequently, the projected target of throughput enhancement will be achieved. Important benefits of this approach are significantly improved device performance in the context of data transfer for 3D-optical memory, relaxed fabrication tolerance and reduced cost.

EN GARDE SYSTEMS, INC.
8500 Menaul Blvd NESte A-335
Albuquerque, NM 87112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 275-8655
Michael Neuman
AF 99-111
Title:Binary Insertion Tool for a Computer Forensics Toolkit
Abstract:As cyber criminals become more wiley and sophisticated, it becomes necessary to upgrade and improve the tools needed to track and identify them. Consequently, this proposal addresses research needed to prove the feasibility and implement a prototype of a Binary Insertion Tool for Computer Forensics Toolkits. This tool will unobtrusively insert a piece of programing code into an existing program. An insertion of this kind will aid in the identifying and tracking of computer criminals by: (I) inserting "tracking" code into a hacker toolkit that will emit e-mail back to an investigator's account when the toolkit is reactivated, therefore identifying the hacker's activities and whereabouts; (ii) inserting a "tagging virus" into a program that, when dowloaded by a hacker, will tag his machine, therefore creating a concrete piece of physical evidence; and (iii) inserting a "tagging virus" into a hacker toolkit to identify which files, machines, or systems he invades.

HOUSTON ASSOC., INC.
10675 Treena StreetSuite 103
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 284-8700
David Fraser
AF 99-113
Title:Internet Protocol (IP) Over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Through Narrowband Common Data Link (CDL)
Abstract:- Investigate the use of currently defined RFC's to facilitate internetworking between airborne platforms and ground-based systems. - Determine if an ATM based solution is viable given the error intolerant nature of ATM and the requirement to re-send an entire IP datagram due to one ATM cell being received in error. - Investigate use of emerging technologies like Mobile IP, Gigabit Ethernet, Firewire, Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS), IP Multicasting, and Wireless ATM in conjunction with CDL. - Create a testbed to emulate IP based applications and various networking technologies utilizing symmetric and asymmetric CDL links. - Determine the specific parameters necessary to optimize performance of the IP based internetworking over the CDL links. - Determine what modifications to exiting commercial code can be made by vendors that will support communication over the CDL links. - Determine the scope of development effort required to implement new protocols specifically targeted toward reliable transmission of data over asymmetric or symmetric links in noisy environments.

KHORAL RESEARCH, INC.
6200 Uptown Blvd NESuite 200
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 837-6500
Pete Humphrey
AF 99-114
Title:Visual Interactive Programming for Enterprise Research (VIPER)
Abstract:The need to support collaborative development efforts in the field of modeling and simulation is widely recognized. Although recently developed technologies and systems address this issue, a large number of legacy systems and applications are still in use throughout DoD that are neither inherently collaborative nor easily reusable within collaborative environments. A need, therefore, exists to bring these existing systems and applications into the collaborative environment. The effort proposed here addresses this need by utilizing the Collaborative Enterprise Environment (CEE), currently under development by AFRL, as a platform for extending Advanced Khoros, a powerful software development environment and suite of tools for image and signal processing that has been widely used for the development of DoD M&S applications. The result will be a version of Advanced Khoros that supports collaborative development and component reuse. Key technologies that will make this effort possible include CORBA, the Khoros workspace compiler, and Java. The resulting system, which we call the Visual Interactive Programming for Enterprise Research, or VIPER, will allow Advanced Khoros development tools to operate within a multi-platform collaborative environment and enable existing legacy systems to be used with this environment.

SCS ENGINEERING, INC.
23430 Hawthorne BlvdSuite 240
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 373-4243
Jerry F. Shaw
AF 99-114
Title:Real-Time Integrated Planner/Player (RIPP)
Abstract:The development of modern weapon systems requires complex dynamic subsystems that must be coherently developed and integrated. Today technology systems tend to be developed at a technology development facility, tested in collocated test bed facilities, and then flight tested or deployed at another facility. The Real-Time Integrated Planner/Player (RIPP) provides a distributed engineering environment with the capabilities to flight test and/or mission rehearse subsystems and weapon systems directly in their development and integration facilities utilizing a common synthetic battle space. RIPP will provide a Real-Time "Sensor - Decision Maker - Shooter" tool set (self-contained) and development environment that will support single development facilities as well as physically distributed ones. To extensively test a weapon system, the system must be capable of accepting mission scenarios from all candidate test and user communities. All participants must be provided with a common theater/engagement environment. All participants and observers must have the capabilities of viewing In-Cockpit displays, Out-the-Window displays and theater level displays. Planners must be capable of interacting with all planning sites/nodes as well as receive real-time reconnaissance data from RIPP vehicles.

INFO VALLEY CORP.
1027 Valley Forge RoadSuite 83
Devon, PA 19333
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 687-8720
Sakunthala Gnanamgari
AF 99-115
Title:MSUIT - Multiple Simultaneous User Interface Technologies for C4I Systems
Abstract:Advances in information technologies are significantly impacting present and future military operations. Computer systems are becoming complex for a single user to effectively operate. Multi-user systems seem to have a solution where a team of operators can work simultaneously accessing various types of information. The objective of the project is to study issues and find solution for multi-user interactions with single display systems. InfoValley proposes to study specific needs of user community at the sponsor's lab to understand the requirements clearly and investigate state of the art technologies either available or being developed at the academic institutions and research labs. This pursuit is to identify innovative techniques for supporting multi-user/multi-input interfaces. The desired interface should allow users to simultaneously interact with a large display that is serving as a user interface to various complex systems displaying information to a team of users. Exploration of non-conventional user-interfaces, multi-user applications and their underlying technologies appear to have applicable techniques. Findings of this research effort will be methodologies for concurrent interactions with a complex system, paving the way for developing a middleware component, MSUIT, that can be integrated with an application, transforming single-user/single-input systems into multi-user/multi-input systems.

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1555 Wilson BoulevardSuite 320
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-0990
Dr. G. Minot Clements
AF 99-116
Title:Mixed Resolution Modeling & Simulation for JWARS C41SR
Abstract:Dynamics Technology, Inc. will develop a mixed resolution modeling (MRM) framework that supports the "consistent" computation and use of JETARS intel/surveillance/reconnaissance (ISR) information across variable levels of aggregation. This framework transfers information between processes at different resolution levels by passing data through an external process that exploits statistical or other appropriate methods to aggregate/disaggregate information to a form suitable for interrelated models. The approach emphasizes the need to retain essential elements of information used by JWARS across resolution levels. The construction of a such a "resolution interface" has at least three advantages: 1) a statistical characterization of a process leads to well established techniques for maintaining consistency between models operating at different resolutions; 2) it eliminates the need to modify validated legacy models/codes, since the "resolution adjustment" process is constructed as an external interface between models; and 3) the construct of this interface lends itself to implementation as a software object in the High Level Architecture. Phase I research will: 1) define the approach to MRM and demonstrate its feasibility on a simple proof-of-concept model of the JWARS ISR collection process; and 2) determine the detailed requirements for Phase II development of a prototype MRM formalism.

NETWORK DYNAMIC, INC.
128 Wheeler Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 270-4120
Gregory W.W. Diehl
AF 99-116
Title:Stochastic Fidelity Preservation in Mixed Resolution Simulation Modeling
Abstract:This proposal responds to the stated goals of AF SBIR topic 99-116 entitled "Mixed Resolution Modeling and Simulation for JWARS" by proposing a generic approach for preserving the stochastic fidelity between simulation models having different resolutions. We have been working on hierarchical combat simulation modeling issues for several years and have developed effective and theoretically solid methods for passing information from one resolution level to another. Our Phase I goal is to establish the feasibility of our novel approach through theoretical analysis and demonstrations of prototype models that include a special-purpose neural network.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOC., INC.
2 Eaton StreetSuite 500
Hampton, VA 23669
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. Joseph H. Discenza
AF 99-117
Title:Optimal Response Decision Aid for Time Critical Targets
Abstract:In the proposed research and development effort, Wagner Associates, a long-time leader in data fusion and tactinsl decision aid development, will develop a Time Critical Target Decision Support System (TCTDSS) that will have many desirable qualities. We will use state-of-the-art algorithms and techniques to develop a low cost and highly capable system to augment present capahility against the theater missile threat. Our approach is low in risk because we will build upon our successful systems such as the Surveillance and Search Planning System (SSPS), Anti-Surface Warfare Tactical Decision Aid (ASUWTDA) MELIAN II search decision aid, and Computer-Assisted Search Planning (CASP) decision aid for Search and Rescue. Each of these systems has features and functions developed specifically for a single search and surveillance audience. We will combine the best features of these decision aids into a single program that will be immediately applicable to the TCT target problem, be supported on multiple platforms, and be easy to learn and use. We will also target the package to commercial and other government customers as an affordable alternative to limited-audience, custom-developed search packages.

ECLECTIC COMPUTING CONCEPTS, INC.
2222 W. Spring Creek ParkwaySuite 207
Plano, TX 75023
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 964-2655
Robert Bechtel, Ph.D.
AF 99-117
Title:Time Critical Command and Control Decision Aid
Abstract:A critical element in the prosecution of time critical targets (TCTs) is the identification, selection, and prioritization of TCT search regions and actual targets. Since search resources, weapons platforms, and weapons must be allocated between various mission needs and can be expected to be scarce in future conflicts, care must be taken to ensure that all targets are nominated, prioritized, and tasked carefully. Timely exploitation of national intelligence products at the theater level, advanced sensing and processing concepts, intelligence processing and exploitation, and the rapid application of command and control to support time critical operations are required to ameliorate the threat from TCTs. ECC proposes to investigate the requirements for combined arms TCT Command and Control (C2). ECC will first conduct research in new tools and techniques for situation analysis, planning, resource allocation, and execution monitoring in near real time. Based on this research and its expertise in targeting, mission planning, data fusion, and situation assessment/visualizaton, ECC will develop a prototype Time Critical Target C2 Decision Aid (TC2DA) which could become a segment of the Joint Targeting Toolbox (JTT) system currently under development to AFRL.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 260-5274
Madhav Erraguntla, Ph.D.
AF 99-119
Title:Knowledge Discovery Wizard (KDWizard)
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will design and develop an innovative framework for knowledge discovery that addresses the technical challenges commonly found in today's exploratory knowledge discovery-systems. The framework will encompass the overall knowledge discovery process starting with the definition of the problem to the delivery of valuable decision support information to the end user. The proposed "life cycle" approach to knowledge discovery will be validated by designing, developing, and demonstrating an integrated toolkit called the Knowledge Discovery Wizard (KDWizard). The key innovative feature of this proposed solution is that it provides advanced mechanisms to combine a variety of techniques and tools including soft-computing paradigms (such as neural networks, fuzzy-logic, and genetic algorithms), computational statistics, and a catalogue of reasoning mechanisms within a single unifying framework to deliver robust decision support capabilities. Unique contributions include i)novel mechanisms to combine data-driven machine learning techniques with an ontology-driven knowledge based systems approach, and ii) novel adaptive mechanisms that enable the knowledge discovery system to monitor itself and improve its performance over an extended period of time.v The expected product of this research effort, when commercially viable, will reduce the kind of effort and expertise required in developing automated knowledge discovery applications to address complex real world problems.

MOUNTAIN WAVE, INC.
6542 Tucker Avenue
McLean, VA 22101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 790-7295
Bob Ller/Juanita Koilpill
AF 99-121
Title:Intrusion Detection and Monitoring of Large-Scale Networks
Abstract:Mountain Wave proposes to develop an adaptive intrusion delection and monitoring framework that enables the timely response to network faults and IW attacks, and will decrease the manpower and expertise required to manage large-scale networks. The framework will provide the rules of engagement by which components and agents will work together to meet the above objectives. The framework will be designed to provide a simple means of controlling the configuration and monitoring of heterogeneous sets of COTS intrusion detection and network security management tools based upon definition of high-level policy statements. A single, unified human computer interface will be applied for both control of COTS tool configuration and for automatic aggregation and correlation of large quantities of real-time events flowing in from these tools. The resulting software set will offer the potential for unprecedented levels of sophistication in automated intrusion detection and incident tracking and interdiction. The framework will: - Use existing standards-based management platforms, intrusion detection systerns, and security tools, - Substantially reduce the training and workload of network security managers, - Facilitate rapid and easy communication to command and control personnel, - Scale to accommodate large-scale networks and detect long-term trends that indicate attacks and/or impending failures.

ENKIA CORP.
P. O. Box 250716
Atlanta, GA 30325
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 351-4574
Anthony G. Francis, Jr.
AF 99-122
Title:IRIA: Information Research Intelligent Assistant
Abstract:We propose to develop an intelligent research assistant system for harvesting and display of knowledge from the World Wide Web. The proposed application, IRIA (Internet Research Intelligent Assistant), aids and automates a user's search for information by autonomously querying multiple knowledge resources, by organizing and presenting information as it is found, by modifying and extending the ongoing search based on unobtrusive inspection of user browsing, and by integrating data from research sessions into a knowledge base of relevant information resources. IRIA employs a human-like model of knowledge-base search, traversing a semantic map of available information resources in an autonomous and context-sensitive way. Innovative machine learning techniques are then applied to collate and analyze retrieved information for presentation to the user. The combination of these two techniques allows both "fire and forget" web search, in which the system collects and analyzes information offline, and "incremental" web search, in which user browsing of retrieved pages is used to automatically adjust the search in a context-sensitive way. The results of these searches and user responses are stored in the semantic map, both to improve the results of future queries and to provide a searchable directory to the information resources available.

CYMFONY NET, INC.
5500 Main StreetSuite 206
Williamsville, NY 14221
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-9114
Wei Li
AF 99-123
Title:Flexible Information Extraction Learning Algorithm
Abstract:This task seeks to develop a prototype system for information extraction (IE) by effectively employing statistical learning techniques. Statistical learning algorithms represent a "cutting edge" approach to tasks involving natural language processing. Currently, their use has been restricted to shallow extraction tasks such as named entity tagging. This research will focus on developing a hierarchical, modular system for high-level event extraction. These are characterized as meaningful relationships between entities; these relationships could be contained within sentence boundaries, or span the entire text. A unique, hybrid approach, combining the best of both paradigms, namely, statistical learning and rule-based systems using finite state transducers (FST) is proposed. The latter has the advantage of being intuitive as well as efficient. However, knowledge acquisition is laborious and incomplete, especially when domain portability is involved. Statistical learning techniques address this deficiency by automated learning from an annotated corpus. Statistical techniques such as Hidden Markov Models, transformation-based learning and grammar induction will be employed. The final deliverable includes (i) a working prototype of intermediate-level extraction for multiple relationships between entities; and (ii) a feasibility demonstration of high-level event extraction based on (i), as well as new algorithms that will be developed.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Eric K. Jones, Ph.D.
AF 99-124
Title:Knowledge-Based Support for Time Critical Targeting
Abstract:Targeting of units supporting Theater Ballistic Missiles (TBMs) requires rapid, accurate, continuous Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (IPB). Key steps of this process include identifying areas of interest where enemy activity may occur, and analyzing enemy activities at these areas to determine enemy courses of action and identify time critical targets. This proposal explores a knowledge based approach to providing automated support for these steps. Knowledge bases provide rapid access to and reasoning over large quantities of battlespace information. We will develop algorithms that exploit this information to refine hypotheses of enemy courses of action (COAs), identify IPB areas of interest, and identify patterns of enemy activity. Key technical challenges include developing knowledge base representations of the battlespace and enemy activity, correlating enemy COAs with these representations to identify IPB areas of interest, and identifying physical patterns of activity within large quantities of intelligence data. In phase I, we demonstrate the feasibility of artificial intelligence for representing and reasoning about the battlespace, and probabilistic inferencing for matching activity to templates of enemy behavior. Phase II will implement tools that can be integrated with existing systems.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings ParkSuite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Joao B.D. Cabrera
AF 99-126
Title:Data Classification and Data Clustering Algorithms for Intrusion Detection in Computer Networks
Abstract:The overall objective of the effort (Phase I and Phase II) is to develop a data classification and clustering algorithm especially tailored for intrusion detection in information systems. In the course of the Phase I effort we will investigate the use of Temporal Sequence Learning for the design of anomaly detectors/classifiers based on Machine Learning, Statistical Pattern Recognition, and Genetic Algorithms. The TSL approach transforms temporal sequences of discrete, unordered observations into a metric space via a similarity measure that encodes intra-attribute dependencies. Once working in a metric space with moderate dimensionality, the whole machinery of data classification can then be applied. For developing and testing of the algorithms we will utilize the dataset prepared by the Information Systems Technology Group of MIT Lincoln Laboratory. BBN Technologies will provide consulting in the areas of network security and intrusion. Prof. Carla E. Brodley (COAST group - Purdue) will support us in the area of anomaly detection for computer security.

LINCOM CORP.
300 West Main Street
Northboro, MA 01532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 393-6959
Jerome L. Schonhoff
AF 99-127
Title:Adaptive Data Rate Control
Abstract:In this Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I proposal LinCom Corporation describes how state-of-the-art coding and modulation techniques can be used to increase the data rate on the Space Ground Link System (SGLS). LinCom describes how punctured Turbo Codes can be concatenated with Reed-Solomon Codes to provide coding gains for increased data throughput for those SGLS links that are power limited. For the SGLS links that are band limited, LinCom identifies how bandwidth efficient modulations such as Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) can be used to increase throughput. Together these techniques can double the data rate for the SGLS carrier 2 downlink. Finally, LinCom presents an innovative technique for seamlessly modifying coding/data rate by using coding to directly measure link performance. This technique allows data rate to vary as link conditions change.

SYGENEX, INC.
15446 Bel-Red RoadSuite 450
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 523-2166
James Hawker
AF 99-128
Title:ATM Network Modlule for Satellite Tool Kit (STK)
Abstract:We propose to create a design for an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Network module for the commercially available analysis tool, Satellite Tool Kit (STK) made by Analytical Graphics, Inc. This module will facilitate an architecture analysis of mobile, and therefore wireless, ATM networks (including space-based networks). Models will be based on currently available ATM Forum and ITU algorithms and specifications (such as Quality of Service [QoS] parameters) to the extent that they do not require actual modeling of individual packets or cells. The design will primarily use statistical and analytical models for the network data. The proposed effort will include a software description and design for 2D/3D visualization, graphs, plots, Call Admission Control algorithms, resource allocation algorithms, routing algorithms, and user interface screens using STK's Programmer's Library. The software will initially be designed for a PC, but could be ported to UNIX workstations by creating Motif user interface screens at a later time. The Phase I effort is only to design the module. The Phase II effort, if we are invited and win, will actually generate and test the softwsro for tho ATM Network module for STK.

VIASAT
2290 Cosmos Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
Mark Johnson
AF 99-129
Title:Reduced Complexity Receivers for GMSK Modulation
Abstract:Maximizing the use of available frequency spectrum is crucial for both military and commercial systems today. The class of waveforms called Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) signaling, with Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) as a specific instantiation, have been shown to be highly efficient in both spectral and power use. Such time-bandwidth efficient receivers are typically very complex, however, particularly when real-world effects are taken into account. Reduced complexity implementations are required for any practical applications of these waveforms. A recent, novel approach to time-bandwidth efficiency utilizing Per Survivor Processing (PSP) offers the opportunity to achieve large capacity improvements in real-world environments (including interference/jamming, dynamics, multipath, and channel non-linearities) while simultaneously reducing implementation complexity. PSP will be combined with other reduced complexity techniques to provide a highly efficient, yet practical design. In addition to analysis, simulation, and architecture development, a hardware demonstration of key aspects of the derived approach will be supplied.

VIASAT
2290 Cosmos Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
Mark Miller
AF 99-130
Title:Turbo Code Decoders
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I effort is the design of a flexible Codec (COder/DECoder) based upon the theory in recent literature termed "Turbo Codes". The Codec shall be applicable for ground base equipment as well as be space qualified to enable incorporation into future space segments. The objective of this multi-phase SBIR is to develop and demonstrate the Turbo codec in an existing product such as our VM-300 UHF satcom terminal. Both Parallel Concatenated Convolutional Codes (PCCC) and Serial Concatenated Convolutional Codes (SCCC) will be considered during the effort. The main Codec parameters, such as encoder architecture, encoder polynomial, interleaver type and size, and iterative decoding algorithms and architectures will be evaluated against performance measures such as BER, block error rate, throughput delay, and packet sizes. The set, or sets, of Codec parameters which are best suited to the Government's candidate multimedia applications; such as e-mail, video conferencing, and internet applications; will be chosen for realization in a Turbo Coded ASIC.

PREDICTION SYSTEMS, INC.
309 Morris AvenueSuite G
Spring Lake, NJ 07762
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 449-6800
Kenneth Irvine
AF 99-132
Title:High Throughput Terminal/CDMA Modem for Satellite Communications
Abstract:Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is currently being applied to satellite technology to support communications requiring large areas of remote coverage. CDMA technology can be used to provide cost-effective satellite network communications by increasing throughput capacity and providing better signal quality. Spreading the signal using CDMA also provides inherent military advantages such as secure communications and denying enemy attacks such as jamming, ranging, and direction finding. It is very desirable to develop CDMA based systems that can be implemented using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) available hardware components. Within this proposal, PSI proposes the development of a CDMA Satellite Modem Design Facility that can be used to design and analyze CDMA technology for use over satellite systems. This simulation facility can be used to optimize the implementation of CDMA satellite modems to support military communications on the bafflefield as well as other comrnunication requirements that cannot be supported by terrestrial communications. The facility will also be able to support the stimulation of CDMA modem prototypes as they are developed. This technology is also being sought by the commercial sector. The Design Facility can be used by commercial providers of satellite services to optimize the use of their systems. Maximizing the performance of satellite system usage will reduce the number of satellites that need to be launched. This will greatly reduce setup and operation costs as well as reduce the depletion of available satellite orbits.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Div20600 Gramercy Place, Bl
Torrance, C 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Andrew Kostrzewski, Ph.D.
AF 99-133
Title:Frame Management Video Hypercompression
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an innovative compression technique that combines high compression ratio (4,000:1, for NTSC/VGA), high image quality, and low internal system latency. The compression ratio is at least 10 times higher than current technology. The proposed Frame Management Video Hypercompression (FMVH) is a soft computing (information theory) algorithm and runs on the newest IC chip-sets (graphic ICs: 12-layer; 3.3 V power supply; 256 processors in parallel). It will enhance Air Force C3 capabilities with live video and multi-media (video, audio, data), transmitting TV through 64 kbps telephone communication channels; continuous video imagery (T1 and fraction T1); low latency (<250 ms total); operator-transparent remote-controlled by RS232 visual communication with a sensor; very low bandwidth (<8 kbps) by "cartooning," 3 hour flash memory storage of video; real-time motion picture communication with AWACS, operational aircraft, helicopters, UAVs, UGVs, etc., "last moment" surface/aerial target updating; and real-time damage assessment. While Phase I efforts will focus on demonstrating the feasibility of a frame management hypercompression (FMVH) narrowband channel communication system, Phase II will be expanded to a full FMVH preproduction system prototype; including software, chipset hardware, with a physical layer and user application layer adapted to a specific Air Force communication network.

BCL COMPUTERS
19925 Stevens Creek BoulevardSuite 126
Cupertino, CA 95014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 973-7218
Hassan Alam
AF 99-134
Title:Spoken Language Generic User Interface
Abstract:BCL proposes investigating SpoKen Language input for a Generlc User Interface (SLGUI) to computer systems. The BCL SLGUI system would serve as an infrastructure that would allow end-users to use normal day-to-day spoken language to interact with existing off-the-shelf applications with minimal training. In its Phase I work, after investigating how BCL's existing spoken language technology can be integrated with the Air Force's research in generic user interfaces under the GESIA, PESKI, and IeDEA projects, BCL proposes demonstrating a prototype version of the SLGUI. The goal of the demonstration is to explore the feasibility of incorporating spoken language input into existing Air Force applications such as the Interactive Datawall and the Virtual Reality Helmet. BCL's spoken language input system is currently under development on an SBIR contract from DARPA.

INTELLIGENT INVESTMENTS, INC.
First Flight Venture CenterP. O. Box 12069
Research Triangle, NC 27709
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(336) 274-3316
David Goldstein, Ph.D.
AF 99-134
Title:Knowledge Reuse in Intelligent Cooperative Interface Agents (KRICIA)
Abstract:Intelligent User interface agents have demonstrated promise for reducing operator workload and improving visualization of tasks for 20 years. Intelligent user interface agents can automate routine tasks or highlight critical phenomena. Their chief failures include dependence upon 1) platform, 2) domain, or 3) task. Intelligent Investments proposes KRICIA, which will capture operator behaviors related to virtually any task, form user profiles based upon pretesting a population in any domain, and operate on any platform. The proposed work utilizos all open architecture facilitating extensible interoperahlc agcnts. Thc variety of agcnts include: I. Wrappers 2. Task-specific servers 3. Visualization agents. The proposed system will adapt to data from existing, emerging, and forthcoming external software (e.g., CTA software). The proposed system guarantees level 3 Common Operating Environment (Dll COE) compliance, and is anticipated to far exceed this threshold level. Our staff will demonstrate the capability on small-scale prototypes on multiple systems during Phase I and a Phase 11 visualization prototype suitable for transition to the Rome Laboratory lnteractive Data Wall.

CYCORP, INC.
3721 Executive Center DriveSuite 100
Austin, TX 78731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-4001
Dr. Douglas Lenat
AF 99-136
Title:Using Cyc(R) Tech to Create an Intelligent Web Assistant
Abstract:Investigate the use of Cyc(R) large common sense knowledge base technology to improve the precision and accuaracy of web search assistants. Keyword- and synonym-based web searchers are limited in their ability to locate and integrate relevant documents, as they rely on statistical word frequency rather than actual understanding. In contrast, Cyc's semantic approach will allow a web assistant to filter unwanted documents that happen to mention the keywords, to locate relevant documents that do not use the keywords or their synonyms, and to semantically combine the retrieved documents for presentation to the user. The heart of this approach is the creation of metadata, either automatically from the text of the source documents or semi-automatically via a natural-language dialogue tool.

KNOWLEDGELINK INTERACTIVE, INC.
901 Elkridge Landing RdSuite 350
Linthicum, MD 21090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 684-3800
Dr. Kathleen Romanik
AF 99-136
Title:Precision Web Searching
Abstract:A revolutionary method for precision web searching will be developed and tested. The new method combines knowledge bases of meta-data with a unified searching strategy and intelligent filtering and processing of results. It uses three innovative techniques, called knowledge links, search wizards, and distillation, to achieve superior searching precision over existing methods. A prototype of this method, called Knowledge Extractor (KnExt), will be tested on a combination of the entire web using multiple search engines and "hidden" web sites, the former IBM infoMarket, commercial databases and news-feeds (including Dialog, NewsEdge, Lexis-Nexis and Dow Jones), and private information stored in Excalibur's RetrievalWare, Lotus Notes, Documentum, Verity's Information Server, and Oracle databases. Experiments will be conducted to identify the most useful extensions to the knowledge base and the best natural language and artificial intelligence techniques to integrate into the distillation process to improve the searching precision of the prototype.

ARROWLLOGICS CORP.
848 Corvallis Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 795-7027
Y.V. Srinivas
AF 99-137
Title:Flexible Integration of Complex Systems
Abstract:The project objective is to create an environment for formally specifying, composing, and refining software systems at the architecture level. These capabilities will extend our formal design infrastructure, Quiver, whose development is ongoing. Integration of large systems is difficult and expensive. A one-time solution to integration, such as glue code, is not sufficient: components evolve, invariably leading to incompatibilities and new interface requirements. We propose a comprehensive solution to this problem via the use of formally defined interfaces that capture enough semantics to allow correct integration of components and software architectures, formally represented as coherent collections of components that allow system refinement and evolution. Our approach introduces formality incrementally into the integration process: only parts relevant to specific integration issues need be formalized. In other words, system measures such as evolvability will be proportional to the degree of formalization. This flexible incremental approach to the integration problem provides a valuable opportunity to demonstrate the efficacy of formal methods in large-scale software systems. The innovative aspects of our technology lies in the creative combination of concepts from several mathematical disciplines; the realization of the combined theoretical framework using leading-edge, mainstream technologies; and the visual interface to the semantic design structures.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
2161 Blanton Drive
Miamisburg, OH 45342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(374) 330-0477
Dr. Praveen Chawla
AF 99-138
Title:A Partitioner for ULSI Synthesis Engineering (PAUSE)
Abstract:EDAptive Computing, Inc. (EDAptive) and Dr. Ranga Vemuri of the University of Cincinnati (UC) present a unique and commercially-viable solution to the problem of implementing ULSI ASIC system functionality using VHDL-level partitioning. Our PArtitioner for ULSI Synthesis Engineering (PAUSE) program will apply innovative genetic partitioning algorithms to solve this problem. Given functional or structural specifications in VHDL at various levels of abstraction (behavioral, RTL, or gate) and multichip constraints (pinout, die speed, multichip packaqe speed, die area, multichip package area, timing constraints including clock speed and throughput), our proposed partitioning tool will generate a partitioned multichip design meeting those constraints in VHDL. In this proposal we present a focused approach to establish feasibility of our partitioning algorithms in Phase I, and to (1) prove the concept through interaction with synthesis tools to partition high-level design in VHDL, and (2) prepare for technology transition in Phase II. The major Phase I results will be (1) A Demonstration of critical design aspects, and (2) A Final Report documenting all the investigations, decisions, findings, commercialization strategy, and demonstrations occurring during the Phase I program.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
2161 Blanton Drive
Miamisburg, OH 45342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Dr. Praveen Chawla
AF 99-139
Title:A Command, Control, and Communications (C3) Enhanced Network Technology Simulation (CENTS)
Abstract:EDAptive Computing, Inc., Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, and Dr. Robert Klenke of the Virginia Commonwealth University present a unique and commercially-viable solution to the problem of effectively modeling C3 networks to ensure optimal performance is obtained through design and implementation. Our C3 Enhanced Network Technology Simulation (CENTS) program will apply proven and viable performance modeling techniques, developed by the electronic design automation industry, to the problem of accurately modeling the performance of C3. Specifically, we propose to use the VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) as the standard modeling language. Upon this VHDL foundation we would develop a GUI set in the C3 user's context, so that the VHDL engine would function transparently under the C3 analyst's command. To this VHDL foundation we would connect an HLA interface to permit access to models in other formats, including legacy models. Further, we will leverage AFRL-sponsored Advanced Collaborative Engineering Environment for Electronic Design (ACEED) program to create a collaborative simulation environment, thereby including models in remote locations. The major Phase I results will be (1) A Demonstration of critical design aspects, and (2) A Final Report documenting all the investigations, decisions, findings, commercialization strategy, and demonstrations occurring during the Phase I program.

GNOSYS, INC.
92 Poplar Street
Watertown, MA 02742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 924-8342
James Panagos
AF 99-140
Title:Immersive Wargamer
Abstract:Imagine the opportunity to change history. The countless times the Battle of Waterloo or the Battle of Gettysburg have been reeisited in detail to identify the pivotal engagement that has altered the course of events. Recent technological developments have enabled the construction of an engine by which history can be explored, critical factors of military science identified, and the nature of conflict understood. This engine will be the Gnosys Wargamer in which the user will be immersed in clashes of history exploring and influencing outcomes as they are replayed in a realistic, synthetic environment. The Gnosys Wargamer will promote team building and unit cohesion and additionally promote research into the concept of "dynamic campaign assessment" and otherwise allow for the realistic simulation of the "fog of war."

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 S. Amphlett BoulevardSuite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Daniel Fu
AF 99-140
Title:Intelligent Coordination and Control for Immersive Wargaming
Abstract:We propose an innovative combination of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques in the design of an intelligent coordination and control system. By drawing on our experience with autonomous agents, mobile robotics, planning, and behavior modeling we have devised an integrated approach that will demonstrate complex behavior in the face of adversity. Specifically, we propose to build intelligent agents at the entity-level that will (1) act in a goal-directed manner, (2) exploit available knowledge of the domain to embark on appropriate courses of action, (3) coordinate with fellow agents, and (4) anticipate adversarial actions and circumvent them. The agents will function as entity-level simulation and be initially instructed by a higher-level commander who devises a solution to a situation. We will prove the feasibility of our approach by developing and demonstrating a proof-of-concept prototype in Phase I.

PREDICTION SYSTEMS, INC.
309 Morris AvenueSuite G
Spring Lake, NJ 07762
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 449-6800
William C. Cave
AF 99-141
Title:Defensive Information Operations Planning Tool
Abstract:PSI has evolved an approach for developing automated tools rapidly. It is directly applicable to the development of an IS planning tool to minimize vulnerabilities and corresponding risks to operations, and interfaces with existing equipment security monitors and agents running autonomously or cooperatively. PSI's new technology affords implementation on a laptop computer, providing sufficient speeds of computation and graphics to accommodate the hardware-in-the-loop functional capabilities required for real-time data acquisition, simulation, and optimization. Given operational plans for deploying an Information System (IS), a simulation of the IS can be constructed in the field using graphical icons depicting parameterized models tailored to specific scenarios to be represented. IS planners can construct the simulation by interconnecting icons representing IS nodes and links that the planner understands. Models of threats can be used to assess vulnerabilities of the system to various attacks. Planners can determine how the IS architecture can be improved to reduce vulnerabilities and predetermine best courses of action to counter an attack. The tool can be plugged into operationally deployed systems to capture real-time data on IS architecture changes, malfunctions or suspected intrusions/attacks, and set off alarms to summon the planner.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge ParkwaySuite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 859-9161
Peter Sholander
AF 99-142
Title:Media and Medium Control (IP)
Abstract:Ad-hoc networking encompasses communication environments with highly reconfigurable topology. This model is well suited for military communications. Previous work in this area concentrated on either data or voice commu-nications, without an attempt to integrate the different traffic types. Multimedia communications is a central mode of operation for many of today's applications, both for military and commercial markets. For instance, projects such as Global Awareness or Digitized Battlefield require many different and differing traffic streams to be conveyed over the same tactical network. These different traffic streams are characterized by different requirements, such as delay, jitter, bit error rate, outage probability, etc. Quality-of-Service (QoS) metrics attached to different traffic types, and effective methods for utilizing these metrics in routing and multimedia algorithms, do not yet provide adequate solutions to these problems. This proposal addresses exactly this issue - provision of QoS in the ad-hoc communication environment to support multimedia traffic. In particular, we will study: 1) QoS needs and requirements for DoD's tactical applications, 2) previously proposed and implemented schemes to support QoS in both fixed and wireless networks, 3) incorporation of QoS parameters into ad-hoc networks, 4) effective link-sensing techniques for QoS-based routing, and 5) how Alternate Path Routing can be employed within ad-hoc networks.

APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4300 San Mateo Boulevard, N.E.Suite A220
Albuquerque, NM 97110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 878-0018
Peter H. Mills
AF 99-143
Title:An XML-Based DII-COE Component Framework
Abstract:We propose to develop an XML-based distributed component framework for DII-COE as a means to enabling the seamless composition and interoperation of components from diverse distributed component platforms (DCP's) such as CORBA, DCOM, and RMI. The key features of our approach are a unified notation for the specification of component interfaces (a meta-IDL) together with automated tools and techniques which map this high-level specification into existing DCP infrastructures in such a way as to support the assembly of components from any DCP and the guided use of bridges for cross-DCP interoperation. A key facet of our approach is the use of the Extensible Markup Language (XML) as the basis for the meta-IDL. The design of the component framework will be driven by the demonstration of a DII-COE-compliant application which uses DCOM, CORBA, and Java based components and, in Phase II, the demonstration of its bridging cross diverse DCP's. The use of distributed component technologies is, we posit, vital to the DII-COE framework for software reuse and interoperability, and nascent bridges have great potential in enabling a unified component framework. Our efforts seek to fill the gaps in the seamless use of these vital technologies, and will have significant impact in the realization of a distributed component architecture for defense systems that leverages commercial standards.

METSS CORP.
720 G Lakeview Plaza Blvd
Columbus, OH 43085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6600
Dr Kenneth J. Heater
AF 99-145
Title:Low Temperature Compression Set Resistant O-Ring Materials
Abstract:Materials used in the construction of aircraft hydraulic and fuel systems o-rings must provide long term performance in aggressive chemical environments over a wide range of temperatures and loads. Current o-ring materials, while chemically compatible with existing aircraft fuels and hydraulic fluids, are subject to both low temperature and high temperature performance deficiencies and failure. New o-ring materials are needed that exhibit good low temperature performance characteristics at -40 degrees F, with a preference for -65 degrees F performance, while maintaining durability and service life requirements at operating temperatures up to 250 degrees F in fuels systems and 275 degrees F in hydraulic systems. Under the Phase I program, METSS will demonstrate the technical feasibility of using available material technologies to develop low temperature compression set resistant o-ring materials for use in aircraft hydraulic and fuel systems. The program plan presented by METSS will build on recent developments in rubber chemistry that have resulted in the extension of performance properties at both low and high temperatures. While the major program challenge, and hence emphasis, is addressing low temperature performance and service requirements, selected materials must perform over a broad temperature range in very aggressive chemical environments. As such, these factors will be of equal consideration in the selection of candidate replacement materials.

EEONYX CORP.
750 BELMONT WAY
PINOLE, CA 94564
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 741-3632
Dr. Jamshid Avlyanov
AF 99-146
Title:Development of Static Dissipative Hard Laminate Surfaces
Abstract:The melamine formaldehyde laminates are known to be most suitable for the production of hard and long-lasting working surfaces. These laminates are typically produced at high pressure using a heated press at about 150 degrees C for 20 to 30 minutes. It is suspected that, when using traditional fillers, the high surface resistance of the very topmost layer may be a key to poor static dissipative performance. Being more compatible with the resin than traditional conductive fillers, ICP additives should improve the conductivitiy of the working surfaces mainly due to enhanced additive/resin dispersion. Using specially generated criteria the ICP additives suitable for the task will be selected and designed. Initial laboratory tests will be used for screening of pre-selected (commercially available and custom synthesized at Eeonyx Corporation) ICP additives. The ICP additives will be first tested for compatibility (dispersion) with the MF resin. Secondly, experimental laminates will be formed and tested for electrical and mechanical performance. Several routes will be investigated. One of the ways to improve the dispersion of the additive and the mechanical integrity of the laminate surfaces will be chemical bonding of the ICP additive with the MF resin.

METSS CORP.
720 G LAKEVIEW PLAZA BLVD.
COLUMBUS, OH 43085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6600
Dr. Kenneth J. Heater
AF 99-146
Title:Development of Static Dissipative Hard Laminate Surfaces
Abstract:Current materials used for static discharge applications in hard worksurface laminates do not provide the required levels of charge dissipation under all conditions. The need exists for an integrated conductive laminate system that enables static charge to be safely and effectively dissipated from equipment and components placed in contact with the worksurface, thereby affording ESD protection to equipment and personnel. Although current laminates possess satisfactory electrical resistivity, efficient charge dissipation has been hampered by the inability of the systems to overcome the small contact area between equipment and hard worksurfaces in conditions of low humidity. Under the proposed program, METSS will investigate incorporating recent advances in nanophase materials processing, polymer blend technology, and polymer synthesis techniques to create improved technologies for hard laminate worksurfaces. Nanophase additives and/or careful control of polymer blending conditions with compatibilizers offer the potential to maximize the amount of conductive phase in the resin yet minimize additive weight and volume, thereby providing homogeneous and stable ESD protection beyond that currently available without adversely effecting mechanical properties. METSS is uniquely qualified to develop the new laminate system, possessing the necessary expertise in polymers and polymer processing, testing and evaluation of composite materials and expertise and practical experience in developing advanced additives for resin systems and formulating resins with advanced properties.

SUPERIOR MICROPOWDERS LLC
3740 HAWKINS NE
ALBUQUERQUE, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-1492
Mr. Audunn Ludviksson
AF 99-147
Title:Selective and Dry Nickel-Based Superalloy Etch Process
Abstract:Current gas turbines and turbine components utilize robust Ni-based superalloys. Harsh operating conditions such as corrosive environments and high temperatures result in superalloy fatigue and failure due in part to fractured (cracked) surfaces and subsequent oxide film growth, all detrimental to critical parts performance and longevity. For these reasons, there is a strong need to develop a super-alloy oxide removal method allowing for failure analysis testing and routine cleaning of Ni-based superalloy structures. Through this Phase I effort, SMP plans on developing a selective, dry chemical etching process. This process will have the ability to selectively dry etch superalloy oxide films from the internal fracture surface while leaving the non-oxidized metal alloy surface untouched. SMP plans to utilize its experience in chemical processing and precursor design to develop novel, tailored chemical approaches for superalloy oxide etching. The successful completion of this effort will result in an etching methodology which affords an opportunity to conduct failure analysis experiments and routine cleaning of critical Ni-based superalloy systems.

ULTRAMET
12173 MONTAGUE STREET
PACOIMA, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Dr. Alfred A. Zinn
AF 99-147
Title:Novel Room Temperature Method for Rapid In-Situ Removal of Oxide Layers from Superalloy Surfaces
Abstract:The failure analysis of nickel superalloy gas turbines and rocket components is plagued by a major problem: the masking of the unprotected fracture surfaces by thin oxide films formed during operation of the system. Such oxide films mask the fracture surfaces and make them very difficult, if not impossible, to analyze. Current fracture surface cleaning techniques (acetate film replication and plasma etching) are inadequate for removal of the oxide films and preservation of the fracture surface respectively. Inhibited chemical etchants to remove oxide films from steels have been developed to preserve the base metal during pickling in the manufacturing processes. No similar process is required during nickel superalloy production and, therefore, no such inhibitor has been developed to date. In this project, Ultramet proposes to use activated atomic hydrogen gas to rapidly remove all the oxide ions from superalloy fracture surfaces, thus producing exclusively water as a byproduct and reducing the metal ions back to the metal. The proposed two approaches are universally applicable to almost any metal/metal oxide surface.

ATMI, INC.
7 COMMERCE DRIVE
DANBURY, CT 06810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 794-1100
Mr. Paul V. Chayka
AF 99-148
Title:Integration of On-Line Sensors with the CVD Fiber-Coating Process
Abstract:This research project addresses a major processing obstacle to the development and commercialization of high temperature ceramic and metal matrix composites (CMC/MMC) for both military and industrial applications. Interface coatings are required to avoid reaction between fiber and matrix portions of the composites, thereby permitting translation of the fiber reinforcing characteristics to the matrix component. The lack of adequate control over the coating of fibers by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) continues to hinder progress in this field. Appropriate process sensors are a necessity in pursuing real process control and, ultimately, intelligent processing. In a prior Phase 2 program, funded by the Air Force, ATMI identified several combined FTIR techniques that provided excellent diagnostic capabilities for the CVD fiber coating process. ATMI also made significant progress in establishing the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to integrate such sensors into the process. Although several FTIR tools were purchased, their integration with the process remains to be performed. ATMI will integrate FTIR tools, for on-line gas and coating analysis, with its computer-controlled CVD fiber coating process. Key features of the FTIR spectra from the exhaust gas and/or the coatings will be related to specific input parameters and a simple model will be constructed. In Phase II, the model will be expanded and used to establish closed-loop control over the CVD process, guided by a computer-run algorithm.

UES, INC.
4401 DAYTON-XENIA ROAD
DAYTON, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-1319
Dr. Bhaskar Majumdar
AF 99-148
Title:Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating
Abstract:Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) offer significant military and commercial cost savings to the turbine industry. However, the benefits have not been realized yet, largely because of inadequate reliability and low thermal cycles to failure. The biggest problem lies with oxidation of the metallic bond-coat. UES proposes to use a patented filtered cathodic arc deposition system to produce a novel TBC system of high performance. The proposed approach involves depositing a 5 um MCrAlY layer on the superalloy substrate, followed by deposition of a high quality Y-doped alumina coating of 0.5 - 1 um thickness. Processing parameters will be controlled to obtain primarily alpha-alumina, whose main purpose is to drastically reduce oxidation of the underlying metal. The alumina will be coated with yttria stabilized zirconia using the electron beam physical vapor deposition method. In Phase I, we shall concentrate on obtaining a durable alumina layer, that also retards oxide scale formation of the underlying metal. Oxidation tests will be performed to measure its response to isothermal and cyclic exposures. Successful evidence of these capabilities will provide justification for a Phase II effort. The program involves teaming with Chromalloy, a major TBC manufacturer, who would like to install UES's equipment on successful demonstration of the program.

DWA ALUMINUM COMPOSITES
21130 SUPERIOR STREET
CHATSWORTH, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 998-1504
Mr. Cory A. Smith
AF 99-150
Title:Affordable Nanophase Aluminum for Launch Vehicle Propulsion
Abstract:Nanophase aluminum alloys are powder metallurgy aluminum alloys processed to provide very fine grain size, high strength, ductility, and toughness. The high strength is due to the combined contributions of fine grain size, alloying, and deformation substructure. Rocketdyne initiated a nanophase aluminum development effort in 1992 to provide alternatives to titanium for high-pressure hydrogen propulsion systems for launch vehicles, with the potential advantages of higher performance, lighter weight, and improved reliability. The baseline nanophase process developed by Rocketdyne, although capable of producing the nanophase aluminum required to support property data generation and prototype hardware fabrication, is not cost effective for commercial production. The Phase I program proposed by DWA Aluminum Composites seeks to establish a foundation for nanophase aluminum cost reduction by 1) demonstrating a flash degas process that will significantly reduce canned powder degas cycles, 2) showing that conventional hot pressing can be used to produce fully dense nanophase aluminum billets thereby eliminating the need for costly degas/HIP cans and HIP processing, and 3) that a process simplification is achievable through integration of the copper extrusion jacket with the billet consolidation step.

A2Z TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
4516 HIGHWAY 20 EASTSUITE 210
NICEVILLE, FL 32578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 974-1509
Mr. Michael C. Zari
AF 99-152
Title:A Non-Invasive Vibration Sensor for the Machine Shop Environment
Abstract:Machine tool vibrations induce a number of difficulties including poor surface finish, reduced dimensional accuracy, and damage to the machine itself. Present day production machine tools control vibrations by optimizing characteristics of the structure and by adjusting process throughput. Unfortunately, the latter tends to result in overly conservative metal removal rates. A2Z Technologies Corporation proposes a Laser Vibrometer for optimizing machine tool feed rates. Our approach specifically solves the complex issues of 1) providing vibration amplitude measurements to an accuracy of 0.0001, 2) operating in the harsh oil/coolant environment of most machine shops, 3) providing up to 10 vibration sensors operating on a single network, and 4) providing means to operate under the wide range of surface conditions typically encountered in the machining environment. During Phase I, a prototype system will be designed, fabricated and tested. Testing will be performed both in the laboratory and in an operating machine shop. The Phase I prototype design and the testing activities will provide a low-risk, rapid transition into pre-production prototype to be developed in Phase II.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 HOLLISTER AVENUE
GOLETA, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Sam Boykin
AF 99-154
Title:Web-based Collaborative Warfighting Cost per Flying Hour
Abstract:Weapon system planners are required to prioritize many developments for new and existing combat systems. Often it is difficult to determine the actual operating costs of a system to make meaningful comparisons of the operating cost of one system compared to another. Developers and planners require a methodology and tool-set that will enable cost and affordability estimations based on industry standards for system operating costs. Objectives of this SBIR are to develop a methodology, data model, and web-based computer tool for estimating the cost per flying hour of combat systems. The effort will focus on determining the fixed and variable costs associated with operating combat systems. The methodology will enable comparisons of different systems to determine the most cost-effective approach for operation. The estimating tool developed for this research will be demonstrated as a standalone prototype and will have the capability to be integrated into the Weapon System Integrated Cost Model. The Phase I research will result in an initial prototype of the tool which will be used to gain user comments to guide the Phase II development. The Phase II effort will fully develop and test the prototype, with the objective of a commercial tool in Phase III.

TECHNOSOFT, INC.
4434 CARVER WOODS DRIVE
CINCINNATI, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 985-9877
Mr. Adel Chemaly
AF 99-154
Title:Web-based Collaborative Environment with Knowledge Driven Agents
Abstract:Product design is a multidisciplinary process involving real-time team interaction. Participants explore and refine design concepts following design rationale and guidelines reflecting years of expertise. Recording the design rationale provides a basis for learning and gathering knowledge for future decisions. The objective of this proposal is the development of a web-based collaborative environment incorporating a design support system. This framework employs distributed agents technology for capturing, recording, organizing, and delivering design rationale as identified through the users' multidisciplinary interactions and interdependencies of the design activities. An innovative approach is proposed and implemented on an object-oriented framework to create a commercially viable product. A well-structured mechanism for pattern correlation implemented within a knowledge-base allows the system to provide services that support design activities in a multi-user and multidisciplinary environment. This facilitates trade studies for competing cost versus performance while assuring producability, maintainability, and quality as part of reducing the design cycle. The environment will be used for engineering design decision support and application management in a variety of existing commercial and DoD applications. In Phase I, the system architecture will be completed and its feasibility and impact will be validated on two present DoD applications.

WIZDOM SYSTEMS, INC.
1300 IROQUOIS AVENUE
NAPERVILLE, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 357-3000
Dr. Leslie K. Sanders
AF 99-154
Title:WEBADE: The WEB-enabled Agent-based Design Environment
Abstract:The proposed research will investigate the use of autonomous software agents to observe activities within the design process. These agents will be trained to monitor the transactions among and between design teams to establish a "standard" or "accepted" practice. This standard will be based on the history of the activities monitored by the agents, and will evolve over time as new activities are observed. These agents can then be trained to assist users by observing their activities, to infer their intentions, and to suggest to the user potential methods, techniques, tools, formats, or any other aid that might be useful in performing the intended task.

APPLIED POLERAMIC, INC.
850 TEAL DRIVE
VACAVILLE, CA 94510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 747-6738
Mr. Richard Moulton
AF 99-155
Title:Advanced Resin System for RTM/VARTM Processing
Abstract:Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) and RTM are emerging as favored low cost, out-of-autoclave manufacturing methods. To date, the VARTM process has been primarily used for industrial and marine applications where lower performing resins have dominated. API has been very successful in developing several VARTM resin systems. Applications have included ballistic adhesives and structural resins for the 'Composite Armor Vehicle (CAV)' and 'Crusader' artillery vehicle. For VARTM to succeed in military and commercial applications, higher performance resins must be developed. The technical objective of this program is to formulate VARTM/RTM resins that will meet current military and commercial aircraft material specifications. Two systems will be developed: one for E-beam post-cure, another for thermal post-cure. Resins must meet the low viscosity, long pot-life VARTM process requirements as well as vitrify below 80 degrees C with adequate dimensional stability to allow freestanding post-cure. Potential resin chemistries will be selected using API proprietary down-selection criteria. Epoxies, bismalimides, cyanates, and IPN's of two different chemistries will all be considered in early stages of the program.

SHADE, INC.
5049 RUSSELL CIRCLE
LINCOLN, NE 68507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(402) 466-3393
Dr. A. John Ayorinde
AF 99-155
Title:Advanced Resin System for RTM/VARTM Processing
Abstract:The use of fiber reinforced polymer composite on commercial and military applications are increasing rapidly as replacement for aluminum. To make composites affordable and improve quality, several manufacturing methods, such as, filament winding, pultrusion, resin transfer molding (RTM), and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VaRTM) have been developed for resin systems that cure at 350 degrees F and have a service temperature in the 250 to 350 degrees F range. The VaRTM process has been shown to significantly reduce manufacturing and tooling costs. However, the full benefit of VaRTM/RTM would not be realized until resin systems curable at 180 degrees F or less with performance that rivals those cured at 350 degrees F are developed. The innovation presented in this proposal is to develop an affordable, low viscosity resin system curable thermally at 180 degrees F or less or with electron beam (EB). Using 3501-6 as the baseline, several resin systems will be formulated and curing process developed. This Phase I program will focus on formulating and evaluating resins that meet the criteria noted above. Physical, thermal, rheological, kinetics, and chemical resistance data of the resin will be developed in "neat" form. Carbon cloth reinforced with the developed resin will be evaluated for physical, thermal, and permanency properties.

SINC, INC.
680 TERRACE HILLS DRIVE
SALT LAKE CITY, UT 84103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 585-7462
Mr. Frank Stenger
AF 99-157
Title:Three Dimensional Hybrid BEM - Sinc Analysis of Bonded/Bolted Composite Joints with Discrete Cracks
Abstract:A 9 month Phase I research program is proposed for studying the three-dimensional state of stresses at bolted/bonded joints in composite laminates, by using a new layer-by-layer hybrid BEM (Boundary Element method)-Sinc interpolation technique. The primary goal of this research is to (i) mimic the singular behavior of the three-dimensional stresses in the vicinity of a vertex (i.e., junction corner point of a laminated plate or surface corner point of a bi-material interface crack), and (ii) perform elastic stress analyses of bolted/bonded joints of practical composites having anisotropic layers, interacting cracks and arbitrary geometries. A Sinc interpolation coupled with boundary integral formulation is proposed as a replacement of the conventional isoparametric polynomial based BEM. This is intended to capture the accurate distribution of interlaminar stresses in the vicinity of singularities, such as those due to free edge, corner or a combination of both. Finally, since any three-dimensional numerical procedure is highly computation intensive, a singular perturbation method will be employed in conjunction with the aforementioned hybrid BEM-Sinc approach. Neither this type of computational procedure nor any numerical result is currently unavailable in the literature.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 DOWNEY STREET
NORWOOD, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Mr. Fei Wang
AF 99-158
Title:Highly Ordered Conductive Polymer Coatings for Electrostatic Charge Dissipation
Abstract:The objective of this program is to develop an all polymer material with a surface resistance less than 10 6 ohm/square, and having optical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable for use in aircraft transparencies. These transparencies are typically acrylic and polycarbonate laminates to which various optical conductive coatings are applied. To reach the goals of optical transparency, conductivity and environmental stability, we propose, in collaboration with Carnegie Mellon University, to develop novel conductive polymer coatings. These polymers have an amphiphilic structure permitting them to form highly ordered monolayers and multilayers through specific surface interactions. The increased order gives rise to similar increases in conductivity, which translates to thinner, less absorbing films being required to effect ESD. Phase I will have the goal of synthesizing candidate polymers, developing uniform coating protocols for acrylic and polycarbonate, and evaluating the optical, electrical and stability properties of the resulting layers. A Phase I goal is an environmentally robust coating having a luminous transmittance of >75% and a sheet resistivity of <10 6 ohms per square.

EIKOS LLC
2 MASTER DRIVESUITE 2
FRANKLIN, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Mr. Paul J. Glatkowski
AF 99-158
Title:Novel Transparent Coating for Canopy ESD Protection
Abstract:Eikos L.L.C. will use single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in a highly abrasion resistant matrix as a novel transparent electrostatic dissipation coating (ESD) for aircraft canopies. This technology will provide environmentally stable ESD monolayer coating while protecting the surface from scratches and erosion. This sol-gel coating is formed at low temperatures using traditional coating techniques. The matrix material is an organic/inorganic hybrid tuned to match the mechanical, chemical, and optical properties of the substrate. To this matrix is added highly conductive carbon nanotubes to form interpenetrated network which is conductive and tough. Furthermore, this coating system can be utilized on virtually any surface to impart ESD. The use of carbon nanotubes within the matrix to form a conductive layer offers the best approach to a durable solution for a wide array of substrate.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 SECOND AVENUE
WALTHAM, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4191
Dr. Paul Osenar
AF 99-159
Title:Robust Rod-Coil Films for MEMS Lubrication
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to employ a revolutionary approach involving organic, self-assembling multilayer coatings to promote lubrication in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Such coatings would reduce the adhesive forces that lead to stiction and the frictional forces that lead to system inefficiencies and wear-related failure. Such a coating has the potential to improve the reliability of MEMS devices, increase their operational life-time, and raise their overall mechanical efficiency. The coatings proposed are based on novel self-assembling molecules. Unlike surface-modifying layers based on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanes, these films can be formed into multilayers that continuously expose a hydrophobic surface that is inherently robust. Like SAM-based surface modifiers, these molecules will be deposited onto all of the exposed surfaces (not just those open to line-of-sight deposition) via solution. Due to the stability of these molecules and their ability to form multilayers, they should drastically improve the wear characteristics of MEMS devices while improving device yields as well.

SURMET CORP.
33 B STREET
BURLINGTON, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-3250
Dr. Prashant Karandikar
AF 99-159
Title:Innovative Coatings for High Reliability MEMS
Abstract:Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are micron to millimeter size devices that replicate the structure and function of meter-scale devices used in day-to-day life for various electro-mechanical functions. The size of MEMS devices will enable integrating these with microelectronics to do a variety of sensing and actuation functions to produce a variety of useful devices that can be mass-produced at low cost. Several studies have projected MEMS market size in tens of billions of dollars by the turn of the century. Although a variety of MEMS devices have been demonstrated, a major limitation is the failure due to wear and stiction (permanent adhesion) of the micro moving parts. Surmet proposes to develop a coating based on its UltraC coating for MEMS devices to prolong the device life and increase their reliability. In Phase I, fabrication of MEMS, deposition of coatings and thorough microstructural and reliability characterization will demonstrate feasibility of the proposed approach. In Phase II, several devices of military and commercial interest will be selected for development. Coating process and properties will be optimized and extensive characterization will be conducted to establish reliability. In Phase III the technology will be transferred to DoD and commercial MEMS producers.

MOTORCARBON RESEARCH LLC
720 MOUND AVENUE COS 316PO BOX 856
MIAMISBURG, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-4429
Mr. Joseph W. Hager
AF 99-160
Title:Oxidation Resistant Carbon Matrix Composites for Use at 550 to 1200 Degrees F
Abstract:A major limitation in the usefulness of carbon at elevated temperatures is susceptibility to oxidation. The overall goal of the proposed three-phase STTR project is to exploit a recent university research finding that nanocrystalline silicon carbide inclusions impart excellent oxidation resistance to carbon phases in which they are embedded. The primary Phase I research objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing this oxidation-resistant duplex microstructure in a form that also exhibits good mechanical and thermal properties. Nanoscale silicon carbide inclusions will be produced in a continuous carbon phase using several variants of a unique processing approach, namely the blending of a silicon-containing polymer with various carbon precursors followed by pyrolysis. Appropriate precursor choices will enable the evaluation of SiC inclusions in amorphous, turbostratic and graphitic carbon matrices. The two-phase microstructure will be optimized for oxidation resistance and mechanical properties by varying the composition of the blend and the preparation conditions. Carbon fiber reinforced composite specimens incorporating the optimum matrix will be fabricated and tested for thermal and mechanical properties.

CREE RESEARCH, INC.
4600 SILICON DRIVE
DURHAM, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 313-5435
Mr. Michael James Paisley
AF 99-161
Title:Uniform Silicon Carbide Epitaxial Layers by Hot Wall Chemical Vapor Deposition
Abstract:It is herein proposed to grow SiC epitaxial layers via hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a rotation system to greatly improve thickness and doping uniformities. This will improve device performance and yield for all application areas. The advantage of highly uniform epitaxial SiC will be greatest for microwave MESFETs and high power devices. Epitaxy for these two types of devices will be the focus of this program. Recent attempts to improve uniformity have been encouraging in hot wall systems without rotation and cold wall systems with rotation, however, still fall short of what is required for device production. At the end of Phase I, we should be able to produce SiC epitaxial layers up to 10 um with uniformity of <5% in thickness and <20% in doping. An additional benefit will be the ability to deposit on three wafers per reactor run. At the end of Phase II, we should be able to produce layers with uniformity of <1% in thickness and <7% in doping with a capacity of six wafers per deposition cycle. Wafers of both Schottky diodes and MESFET devices will be mapped to verify the uniformity achieved.

EMCORE CORP.
394 ELIZABETH AVENUE
SOMERSET, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 271-9090
Mr. Ian Ferguson
AF 99-161
Title:Epitaxial Growth of Silicon Carbide (SiC)
Abstract:Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an attractive material for use in high power and high temperature devices. We are proposing to develop novel growth systems and growth processes for the 2" wafer growth of SiC. Experiment and calculations performed have demonstrated that 250-300 degrees C is lost at each structural element (filament/susceptor, susceptor/wafer) located between the heater filament and SiC wafer in SiC reactors. These interfaces are responsible for high filament temperatures and, hence, low lifetimes, <100 hours. The ultimate solution for this problem is to eliminate all thermal interfaces in the SiC reactor design. An innovative design is proposed by combining the wafer carrier and filament in one element so that the filament, susceptor and wafer are all at the same temperature. The growth process will focus on 4H SiC films grown on SiC for electronic applications. These new processes will take advantage of the innovative features of our growth reactor. Various electrical, structural and chemical charaterization techniques will be employed in order to demonstrate the advantages of the new design. This program will result in the innovative development of growth technology, deposition process and a cheap, reliable, SiC reactor system that will be widely available through a commercial vendor.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 SECOND AVENUE
WALTHAM, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4046
Dr. Suneet Chadha
AF 99-161
Title:Laser Induced Flourescence Imager for Closed Loop Epitaxial Growth Process Monitoring
Abstract:Military and more recently commercial electronic systems have greatly benefited from superior performance of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)grown devices for two-way paging, satellite communication, cellular communication, millimiter and microwave radar, defense electronic and infrared imaging (IR) applications. The challenge faced by the MBE industry has been to offer highly reliable cost-effective epiwafers to justify the insertion of MBE-based devices into commercial wireless communication and sensor applications over other GaAs and Si/SiC solutions as well as reduce production costs for DoD platforms. This proposal addresses a DoD and industry identified need for closed loop composition and thickness control for viable cost-effective production yield and reliability requirements. Foster-Miller will develop an in-situ real-time imaging flux monitor for MBE growth processes. The diagnostic sensor based on Doppler Resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence (DOPLIF) measurements extends the current art of in-situ monitoring by providing real-time position and velocity distribution of atomic species over the wafer growth substrate. Phase I will provide the proof-of-concept for the ability to obtain real-time deposition and composition information from 2-D fluorescence images. The Phase II will include the complete functionality of the DOPLIF monitor to the imaging monitor and validate performance on a commercial Gen-II MBE reactor.

BEAM ENG. FOR ADVANCED MEASUREMENTS
100 ALEXANDRIA BLVD.SUITE 5
OVIEDO, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 977-5359
Mr. Nelson V. Tabirian
AF 99-162
Title:Photosensitive Liquid Crystals: Next Generation Materials for Dynamic Holography and Electro-Optics
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop newly discovered highly nonlinear Photosensitive Liquid Crystalline (PLC) materials that a) possess photosensitivity comparable to that of photoconductive semiconductors used in LC spatial light modulators, and b) allow extremely strong modulation of the refractive index (modulation of birefringence) typical of LC. Such unique combination of photosensitivity and large optically induced index modulation property of LC will make PLC the prime candidate material for a new generation of high performance holographic devices, optical limiters, spatial light modulators (SLM) and other signal/image processing and optically or electronically tunable diffractive devices. PLC materials, by integrating the phase modulating capability and photosensitivity into a single medium, would dramatically simplify the SLM manufacturing technology by eliminating the most costly and troublesome process of incorporating semiconductor layer onto the substrate of the LC-cell. In PLC materials, the nonlinear index modulation is caused by photogenerated space charge fields throughout the bulk of the film enabling large phase modulation, higher spatial resolution and faster response times. Our main effort in Phase I would be to fully develop the material, and identify the optimum material composition through quantitative studies of the underlying nonlinear index modulation mechanisms and dynamic holographic processes.

APPLIED OPTOELECTRONICS, INC.
242 KINGFISHER DRIVE
SUGARLAND, TX 77478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 242-2588
Mr. Chih-Hsiang Lin
AF 99-163
Title:InAs/InGaSb Type-II Superlattice for Mid-IR Photodetectors
Abstract:Photodetectors operating at 8-15 um and beyond are of great importance for commercial and military applications in infrared (IR) thermal imaging. InAs/InGaSb type-II quantum wells (QWs) have advantages over HgCdTe for applications requiring higher temperature and longer wavelength operation. The type-II QW photodiodes would have comparable quantum efficiency and smaller dark current due to a larger effective mass and enhanced lifetimes due much slower Auger recombination rates, and hence much longer carrier lifetime. Through careful bandgap engineering, we have suppressed the Auger coefficient by a factor > 8 for 4.5-um type-II QW mid-IR lasers at 300 K. Recently, p-i-n photodiodes using InAs/InGaSb type-II QWs have achieved detectivities larger than 1 x 10 10 cmHz 1/2/W at 8.8 um and 78 K, with a peak detectivities of 2.1 x 10 10 cmHz 1/2/W at 6 um. We have studied InAs/InGaSb type-II QW photoconductors. With improved MBE growth technology, we have improved the responsivity of type-II photoconductors by a factor 50, due to the improved interface quality and material quality, and hence the better optical properties and longer carrier lifetime. Currently, we have demonstrated among the best performance of photoconductors using III-V materials up to 14 um. In the program, we will develop large two-dimensional arrays of IR photodetectors based on InAs/InGaSb type-II QWs at 8 to 20 um.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 EXECUTIVE DRIVE
EDEN PRAIRIE, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
Mr. Peter Chow
AF 99-163
Title:Gallium Indium Antimonide - Indium Arsenide Superlattices for Long Wavelength Infrared Detection
Abstract:GaInSb/InAs superlattices show great promise as materials for use in very long wavelength infrared detectors (VLWIR). This III-V compound offers advantages over current HgCdTe technology in both anticipated performance level and ancillary support systems (cryogenic cooling) costs. In this proposal, we seek to advance this superlattice material and its growth on (111)B oriented GaSb substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. Combining arsenic and antimony valved-crackers with desorption mass spectroscopic monitoring and control will yield superlattices with exceptional structural, optical, and electrical quality.

EXCITON, INC.
PO BOX 31126
DAYTON, OH 45437
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2989
Mr. Paul A. Cahill
AF 99-164
Title:Next Generation Narrow Band Absorbers for Laser Eye Protection
Abstract:Exciton proposes new dyes for laser eye protection for both the Notch and Tri-Stim approaches. Exciton's simulations and experiments support the synthesis of dyes with FWHM values of 4 nm. This value is one-half to one-fifth that previously observed. This value is also substantially less than the FWHM of reflection bands of rugates, holograms, or layered dielectrics because of the bandwidth requirements placed on such reflective technologies by the dimensions of the eye box. These new absorber dyes will also have absorption coefficients 2-5 times greater than those of current absorbers; therefore, proportionally lower dye concentrations will be required. As a result, processing and compatibility issues should be reduced and dye/host systems should demonstrate either a decrease in, or the absence of, interference from short wavelength bands. These dyes can be applied to both in-band and out-of-band solutions. Finally, eye protection incorporating these unusually narrow absorbers will have substantially less impact on color perception than either reflection or previous absorber technologies. Color balance may be within the human perceptual system's own adaptation range, or may be supplemented with only minor amounts of additional absorbers for critical color balance applications.

EPION CORP.
4R ALFRED CIRCLE
BEDFORD, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3703
Dr. L. P. Allen
AF 99-165
Title:Gate Oxide Screening Methodology and Surface Smoothing for Advanced SOI Space System Applications
Abstract:Special technology and circuit architecture is under investigation for implementation of radiation hard low power electronics (LPE) which operate at low supply voltages and consume low power levels without sacrificing performance. Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrates have advantages which make it attractive for applications that require tolerance to radiation effects. A significant aspect regarding commercial application of SOI is the inconsistency of the gate oxide integrity (GOI) of CMOS circuitry. The variation in the gate oxide breakdown may be attributed to such material factors as surface roughness, defect density or metallics. Testing is typically expensive and time consuming. An opportunity exists to establish a test methodology for starting SOI material using pseudo gate oxide structures and a polysilicon or metallic dot method of ramped voltage stress testing. In addition, a detailed examination of pseudo gate oxide integrity will be examined as a function of SOI surface roughness. A matrix of as-received and smoothed SOI surfaces will be examined using a 3-point pseudo gate oxide test method that requires a simple oxidation and dot contact process. Surface smoothing will be implemented using a novel gas cluster ion beam technology (GCIB). Commercialization of both the GOI test methodology and the GCIB smoothing is regarded with high probability.

CRYSTAL ASSOC., INC.
31 FARINELLA DRIVE
EAST HANOVER, NJ 07936
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 581-1717
Dr. Michael Scripsick
AF 99-166
Title:KTiOPO4 (KTP) for High Repetition Rate and Continuous Wave Applications
Abstract:KTiOPO4 (KTP) is an important material for nonlinear optical and electro-optical applications. However, many applications have been limited by laser-induced absorption commonly referred to as gray tracking. While significant improvements have been made in the damage resistance of KTP, many users still report laser induced damage in high average-power, high repetition-rate or continuous wave applications. Recent advancements in the understanding of laser induced gray tracking in KTP and improvements in crystal growth indicate that the damage susceptibility in these applications can be significantly reduced or eliminated. We propose to implement new growth techniques to produce KTP that will be superior to currently available material. Improvements in crystal quality will be determined through measurement of relevant fundamental materials properties as well as through high rep-rate and cw laser operation.

SPIRE CORP.
ONE PATRIOTS PARK
BEDFORD, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6000
Dr. Anton C. Greenwald
AF 99-166
Title:Homoepitaxial MOCVD ZnGeP2 Films for IR Optical Parametric Oscillators
Abstract:ZnGeP2 is an important non-linear optical material currently in use for frequency shifting high power lasers to cover the mid-IR band between 2 to 10 microns. Material defects and impurities in currently available material limit laser power, total spectral range, efficiency, and produce absorption bands. Spire proposes to develop superior quality material by deposition of homoepitaxial films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using a variable pressure reactor and high purity sources with low cracking temperatures and high vapor pressures. New materials and techniques are expected to give greatly improved results and low defect material. In Phase II, in-situ diagnostics using multiple wavelength ellipsometry will give optimal compositional control further reducing defect density and giving material with properties superior to bulk grown crystals, analogous to homoepitaxial GaAs films on GaAs substrates. Reduced absorption and increased laser damage thresholds are expected.

ENVIRONMENTAL ELEMENTS CORP.
3700 KOPPERS STREET
BALTIMORE, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 368-7275
Mr. Dennis J. Helfritch
AF 99-167
Title:The Regeneration of a Ceramic Filter for Combustion Exhausts by Means of Plasma Promoted Oxidation
Abstract:The key to the acceptability of barrier filters for combustion exhausts is the ability of the filter to be regenerated, or cleared, of trapped particulates, such that exhaust back pressure remains low. Since soot is combustible as carbon, most regeneration methods attempt to oxidize the soot to CO2. Current regeneration methods rely on heating the filter element to the combustion temperature or on oxidation catalysts. These methods are not favored due to their hazardous nature and the potential for catalyst poisoning. It has been demonstrated that plasma very effectively cleans surfaces of oxidizable, organic substances. Oxidation occurs because the plasma creates oxygenating radical molecules. It is therefore proposed to demonstrate that plasma can be used to remove the deposited soot through oxidation. Constructing a ceramic filter containing electrodes that produce surface plasma when electrically energized will do this. Soot particles from combustion exhaust are thus removed by a ceramic filter, which would be subjected to periodic plasma exposures for soot removal.

SUPER-PULSE
1452 HANSHAW ROAD
ITHACA, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 255-6474
Dr. Czeslaw Golkowski
AF 99-167
Title:Soot Removal from Diesel Exhaust Engine Using Microwaves
Abstract:Responding to the need to decrease soot emission from combustion engines, we propose the development of an innovative method for an effective, low cost destruction and removal of soot from diesel engine exhaust. Unlike other conventional methods which first separate soot from the exhaust gas and then burn it by raising the temperature of the trapped soot, the proposed method uses properties of non-thermal plasma to generate free radicals to oxidize the soot directly in the exhaust gas. The potential of the approach for soot oxidation presented here stems from the fact that free radicals react with diesel particulates (soot) in a way normally associated with a very high temperature, much higher than the actual ignition temperature for these particulates. The free radicals will be generated in the exhaust gas containing soot. The proposed device will cause a minimal, if any, pressure drop in the exhaust stream; moreover, its only energy requirement is the relatively low average power supply to its magnetron. It is expected that this device will operate in a wide range of temperatures of the engine cycle, and will be maintenance free.

IA, INC.
PO BOX 1306
ANN ARBOR, MI 48106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 995-9338
Mr. Richard Smith
AF 99-168
Title:Perchlorate Monitoring by Portable Sensing Technology
Abstract:EPA directives have mandated detection of perchlorate contamination at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in groundwater. The current laboratory method requires anion separation by ion chromatography (IC), followed by detection of conductivity. The IC method provides sufficient selectivity, but conductometric detection requires suppression of the background mobile phase conductance. The proposed research program will couple ion chromatography (IC), to separate perchlorate from interfering anions, and a perchlorate selective sensing element to detect the presence of ppb perchlorate in the column effluent. The greatly improved selectivity of the proposed technology over the conventional IC-suppressed conductivity method, affords a simplified instrument capable of detecting ppb levels of perchlorate even in water samples containing much higher concentrations of interfering anions. The proposed technology consists of a miniaturized, self-contained, waterproof, microprocessor controlled instrument that will provide DoD a convenient means for in situ detection of groundwater perchlorate via standard monitoring wells.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 NEW ENGLAND BUSINESS CENTER
ANDOVER, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Mr. Mark E. Fraser
AF 99-168
Title:Automatic Extractive Flow Injection Analysis for Perchlorate Sensing
Abstract:The development of a sensitive laboratory perchlorate detection methodology in April 1997 led to the discovery of measurable quantities of this contaminant in various manufacturing sites and in well-water and drinking water supplies in California, Nevada, and Utah. Since perchlorate interferes with the thyroid gland's ability to utilize iodine to produce thyroid hormones, the EPA and the Department of Health Services Drinking Water Program in California have set an action level of 18 ppb. Federal agencies, state governments, and the armed services are now involved in an effort to charaterize the contamination, close those water supplies that threaten human health, and to clean up contaminated sites. A necessary tool for this process is a field portable, in situ perchlorate sensor. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in collaboration with Nomadics, Inc. proposes to develop such a monitor based on a sensitive spectrophotometric detection technique. The Phase I program will develop the prototype hardware and will demonstrate the feasibility of this technique for ppb detection of perchlorate in groundwater. In Phase II, PSI will deliver a prototype sensor to the Air Force.

HONTEK CORP.
161 SOUTH SATELLITE ROAD
SOUTH WINDSOR, CT 06074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 282-1776
Mr. Shek C. Hong
AF 99-169
Title:Advanced Rain and Dust Erosion Resistant Coating Systems
Abstract:Solvent-based primers and topcoats have been used as the primary aircraft coating systems. For corrosion protection, highly toxic heavy-metal based corrosion inhibitors were used and are still present in many of the most popular primers. With the environmental compliance regulations getting more and more strict, the cost of aircraft painting/stripping/repainting processes and waste disposal have become very expensive for the Air Force. In the new Air Force Coating System Strategy, both environmental compliance and long-term coating system performance are to be fulfilled with development of new advanced coating systems. This proposal involves with the research of two areas: 1) Low/no VOC matte coating systems that will lead to highly durable, rain and dust erosion resistant and weatherable coatings, and 2) Polymeric sprayable/rollable environmentally robust 30+ years primer materials. The contractor proposes to develop low VOC or water-based corrosion resistant epoxy primers and low VOC or water-based erosion resistant urethane topcoats. Corrosion inhibitors and special matting agents will be evaluated. Rain erosion tests will be conducted. Among materials to be tried are new erosion resistant urethane coatings developed by this contractor for helicopter rotor blade applications and other new coating chemistries.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52ND AVENUE
WHEAT RIDGE, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2302
Dr. Ronald L. Cook
AF 99-169
Title:A Durable Primer for Aircraft Applications
Abstract:The painting, stripping, and repainting processes for existing aircraft account for 70-90% of the U.S. Air Force's generation of hazardous wastes and air pollution. The costs for paint repaint maintenance of aircraft range from ~$250,000 for a C-135 to ~$1 million for a C-5. Due to declining budgets, the Air Force expects that ~80% of the older aircraft will still be in the flight inventory to at least 2020. Aircraft replacement costs are on the order of $10 million to $100 million each. Therefore, there are strong incentives (and high payoff potential) to identify long-life coatings that provide high levels of protection so that the aircraft are not grounded prior to their desired retirement dates and, in addition, that significantly reduce the need for frequent painting/stripping/repainting and the associated maintenance costs. To meet this need a new durable primer system based on the combination of flexible epoxies and reactive fillers known as alumoxanes will be developed. The flexible epoxy primers will offer increased performance under adverse conditions in addition to greater service life. The flexible epoxies will be modified using tailored alumoxanes that will provide enhanced barrier properties, antioxidant protection and corrosion protection.

AMSEN TECHNOLOGIES
1181 N. EL DORADO PLACESUITE 319
TUCSON, AZ 85715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 546-6944
Mr. Ayyasamy Aruchamy
AF 99-171
Title:High-Efficiency, High-Capacity Regenerable Filter for Fine Dusts and Sticky Mists
Abstract:Increased awareness of health effects caused by airborne contaminants has incurred increased use of various kinds of air filters. However, filters for the specific application as identified in the solicitation of this SBIR topic are not currently available. Moreover, filter development often faces a technical dilemma between the three major performance criteria: filtration efficiency, holding capacity, and pressure drop. Amsen proposes an innovative idea for the filter design, which uses a new type of material as the filter medium. The filter performance will be enhanced by the coupling of electrostatic and electrochemical effects. This idea may lead to a new type of robust, high-efficiency, high-capacity regenerable filters for fine dusts and sticky mists. Amsen will pursue to establish the concept feasibility in the Phase I work. In Phase II, a pilot-scale-engineering model of the technology will be developed and tested on actual sources.

ULTRAMET
12173 MONTAGUE STREET
PACOIMA, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Mr. David J. Scott
AF 99-171
Title:Novel Regenerable Catalytic Filter for Removal of VOCs and Particulates
Abstract:Room temperature oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and removal of particulates presents a major challenge, given that the most active catalysts do not show appreciable hydrocarbon oxidation activity below 250 degrees C. High catalytic activity at room temperature may be induced by non-Faradaic electrochemical modification of catalytic activity (NEMCA). The NEMCA effect has been demonstrated by Ultramet to provide significant increases in the catalytic activity of a wide range of metal catalyst surfaces using a non-optimized system. This effect, which involves the controlled in-situ promotion of catalyst surfaces via a solid electrolyte washcoat, has been described for over 25 catalyzed reactions using a variety of metal catalysts. In the proposed project, Ultramet will apply NEMCA to produce a catalytic filtration element for the removal of dusts and sticky mists generated during spray-painting operations. The filtration system will use a support fabricated of Ultramet's open-cell reticulated vitreous carbon or silicon carbide foam, coated with a high surface area solid electrolyte and catalyst phase, to which a very low electrical potential is applied. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the rapid and complete oxidation of VOCs at room temperature to carbon dioxide and water using various catalysts and solid electrolyte materials deposited on the ceramic catalyst substrate while exploiting the innate properties of the foam structure to remove particulates.

DIGITAL OPTICS CORP.
5900 NORTHWOODS BUSINESS PKWYSUITE J
CHARLOTTE, NC 28269
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 599-9191
Dr. Eric Johnson
AF 99-174
Title:Highly Anti-Reflective Surfaces for Infrared Semiconductor Materials
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project builds upon Digital Optics Corporation's experience in the design, fabrication, and integration of micro-optics and its partners' expertise with semi-conductor plasma etching to provide an innovative approach to the manufacture of anti-reflective surface structures in infrared optical materials. Under this project, DOC and the Rockwell Science Center will develop design and fabrication technology to effectively manufacture dual band infrared AR structures in semiconductor compounds such as Cadmium Telluride and Mercury Cadmium Telluride. The proposed approach offers potential performance, cost, and manufacturability benefits over traditional AR coating methods. Both analytical and experimental work will be performed to verify the objectives of the proposed project.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
654 DISCOVERY DRIVE
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9095
Mr. Michele R. Banish
AF 99-174
Title:Development of High Anti-Reflective Surfaces for Semiconductor Wafers
Abstract:SY Technology, Inc. can develop the ability to design and fabricate surface microstructures that function as anti-reflective coatings in infrared materials including the III-IV and group IV semiconductors and ceramics. Through experiments, SY has developed lithography processes for InSb, InAs, GaP, Ge, Si, TiO2, SrTiO2, and YSZ. We propose to use our optical design tools, laboratories, photoresists, spinners, mask aligners, reactive ion etchers and ion mills to develop the processes required to fabricate sub-micron anti-reflective features in HgCdTe, InSb, PtSi, and Si:As IBC. Sub-micron features will be etched into InSb and its reflectance experimentally verified as part of the Phase I effort. Processes for fabricating anti-reflective structures in HgCdTe will address human safety issues. Interest in HgCdTe, PtSi, InSb, and Si:As IBC process development stems from the materials' broad-band spectral performance as detector materials. Including sub-micron anti-reflective structures on these materials increases the coupling efficiency (air to material), thus increasing device responsivity. Birefringence properties of sub-micron anti-reflective structures can be avoided with two-dimensional designs. A 1-D Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis Code, currently operated at SY Technology, Inc., will be modified to 2-D. The Phase I results will be used to develop a rapid prototyping capability to respond to identified market demands.

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 VIA VERA CRUZSUITE 107
SAN MARCOS, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-1194
Dr. Sherry Zhu
AF 99-175
Title:Nano-Engineered Magnetic Materials for High Temperature Operation
Abstract:The US Air Force has initiated a More Electric Aircraft (MEA) program to demonstrate electrically-driven power subsystems to replace hydraulic, pneumatic, and mechanical components. Essential to the MEA is an Integrated Power Unit (IPU). The IPU involves a rotor on magnetic bearings and a switched reluctance motor/generator requiring a high strength soft magnetic material capable of sustained use at 550 - 600 degrees C and 60,000 rpm rotation speed that creates stresses up to 90 ksi. The material must sustain this for 5,000 hours with less than 1% creep. Also, the hard magnets in the bearings must maintain magnetic properties at these elevated temperatures. Evaluations of soft magnetic materials indicate that though the magnetic properties are acceptable, the best materials suffer excessive creep. The need is for improved soft magnets capable of these conditions and ideally having maximal permeability with minimal core losses. For magnetic bearings, the need is for improvements in the magnetic properties of hard magnets at 500 degrees C. The proposal approaches the problem by using an inexpensive new method to constructing the desired materials chemically. The plan is to create microstructures with entirely new properties not possible with current magnetic engineering techniques.

ASTROPOWER, INC.
SOLAR PARK
NEWARK, DE 19716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 366-0400
Mr. Michael G. Mauk
AF 99-177
Title:Solution Growth Adapted for Low-BandgapTernary and Quaternary III-V Alloy Bulk Crystals
Abstract:An advanced solution growth process is proposed for the growth of thick (2- to 3 -mm) bulk crystals of low-bandgap (mid-infrared) III-V ternary and quaternary alloys including InAsSb, InGaAsSb, AlGaAsSb, and InAsSbP with diameters larger than 2.5 cm. The solution growth process represents several new adaptations of state-of-the-art liquid-phase epitaxy and bulk growth techniques, and incorporates a combination of optimized growth solution compositions, epitaxial lateral overgrowth on patterned, masked substrate seeds, solute feeding with source materials, temperature gradient growth, temperature cycling of the growth solution, and current-induced solute electromigration. These features are utilized to achieve a wider range of alloy compositions, reduced defects and impurities, high growth rates, and controlled solute segregation for improved compositional uniformity.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 SECOND AVENUE
WALTHAM, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4146
Dr. Lawrence Domash
AF 99-178
Title:Switchable Microlenses Using Improved Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Composite Optical Materials
Abstract:Switchable diffractive micro-lenses have many applications for military laser hardening, optical information processing, and switching and control of fiber optic signals. Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) is an important new composite optical material incorporating nanodroplets of nematic liquid crystal in a polymer host, enabling switchable Bragg gratings (ESBG). However, existing H-PDLC materials have limited utility due to unstable polymerization, high conductivity, unpredictable shelf life, and unacceptable dynamic range and switching voltage characteristics. Foster-Miller proposes to demonstrate switchable micro-optical lenses, filters and waveguide WDM add/drop filters using an improved formulation H-PDLC better adapted to demanding military and commercial requirements. The proposed new class of H-PDLC is expected to yield > 45 dB dynamic on/off ratio for switching of diffraction efficiency, <2 V/um switching voltage, and diffractive characteristics optimized for holographic lens applications. Phase I will prepare the new materials and verify their properties in simple device tests. Phase II will produce high performance micro-optical applications including arrays of switchable microlenses and waveguide switchable add-drop filters for WDM optical networks.

DYNETICS, INC.
P.O. Box 5500
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 964-4297
Mark S. Miller
AF 99-179
Title:Compressed Tailkit Development for Advanced Munitions
Abstract:Dynetics proposes a joint effort with the Boeing Company to develop a highly compressed tailkit to meet Air Force needs for compact air-launch weapon designs. Design trades studies will be conducted to integrate a suite of both existing and emerging subsystem technologies that will lead to the development of a highly compressed tailkit. Subsystem technologies which will be considered will include: electro-mechanical and piezoelectric actuators, advanced power supply units, a Boeing developed low cost miniaturized guidance control unit and a Dynetics developed lattice fin design. Aircraft integration as well as tailkit design and cost analyses will be performed. Lattice fin design development will be conducted in parallel with the aircraft integration and tailkit design effort. Once the tailkit and lattice fin designs are completed, the flight performance of the candidate munition will be assessed. The Phase I effort will result in a conceptual design of a highly compressed tailkit which will provide the starting point for a Phase II hardware development and technology demonstration effort.

DYNETICS, INC.
P.O. Box 5500
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 244-5550
David Fralish
AF 99-179
Title:Commercial Tool Based Vulnerability Modeling and Simulation
Abstract:Dynetics, Incorporated proposes to design (Phase I) and develop (Phase I and Phase II) an infrastructure within which the Air Force Research Lab Munitions Directorate can integrate software modules for vulnerability and lethality assessment. The objective of this effort is to address and solve the directorate's problems with the proprietary, limited purpose, executable only tool Modular Effectiveness Vulnerability Assessment (MEVA). Dynetics proposes an effort that would culminate both with the delivery of an entirely new infrastructure to enable the directorate's continued evolution of the MEVA replacement. This infrastructure will support the following engineering and research and development activities: Interpreted development environment; 'Smart' input parameter checking; Interactive analysis of results; Distributed execution of the separate modules; Validation efforts for the separate modules; distributed simulation; C++ code generation; Maintain state-of-the-art technology; Conversion to PC platforms.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RES. ASSOC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
John P. Dering
AF 99-179
Title:Munition Modeling and Technology Integration Research
Abstract:In the 21st century the United States will face military scenarios requiring weapons with unprecedented capabilities including nonlethal force projection and potentially countering releases of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). High Power Acoustic Beam (HPAB) technology (i.e., weapons bases upon the effects of high intensity sound waves) can enable such diverse military operations as nonlethal force projection for area clearing, facility denial, landing zone clearout and acoustically settling airborne WMD agents. Advancements in acoustic weapons technology hardware have underscored the need to begin to address the payload packaging and interfacing overall systems engineering design strategy for a viable acoustic munition or sub-munition. SARA proposes to develop a packaging concept for an air delivered acoustic beam weapon for Air Force use during this Phase I program. This design will through follow on programs provide the foundation for the eventual development and production of acoustic munitions.

TECHNICAL DIRECTIONS, INC.
1210 Oakbrook Drive
Ortonville, MI 48462
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 625-2990
Vern E. Brooks
AF 99-179
Title:Low-Cost Propulsion System for Smart Munitions
Abstract:This program will provide a unique low-cost propulsion system for the Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (LOCAAS) weapon and other smart miniature munition systems. The initial phase of this program will start prior to the SBIR program and will be supported by commercial funding to accelerate the schedule for the design and hardware fabrication. The commercial funding will continue on a parallel basis during the SBIR Phase I effort so that this development program can keep pace with a critical vehicle development schedule. The combined program will provide operational engine-generator hardware that is ready for performance development and environmental testing during the SBIR Phase II portion of the program. This new turbojet engine will use existing production turbocharger rotating components, and a direct shaft mounted generator that will provide all of the vehicle electrical power for the 30-minute operating life. The engine will be configured from a proven base technology that has already demonstrated the features of compact configuration, easy starting, and fuel lubricated bearings. The current state-of-the-art for the cost of these small engines is 20% of the total vehicle cost, and the long-range cost objective for this engine system is to approach 10% of the total vehicle cost.

WINTEC, INC.
220 Eglin Parkway, SE, Ste 4
Ft Walton Beach, FL 32548
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 664-6203
Fred L. Benedick
AF 99-179
Title:Munition Modeling & Technology Integration Research: Common Adaptable Electronics Suite for Tactical Munitions Dispenser and Other Miniature Storeage
Abstract:A new generation of miniature munitions/stores including the Low Cost Autonomous Attack System, the Small Bomb System, and the Miniature Air Launched Decoy is entering development. These stores are to be carried and released by a variety of platforms including aircraft carried captive dispensers, flyout type canister dispensers, and independent platforms such as Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles. Electronics suites with close functional similarity are required in the various carriage platforms to provide interfacing to and control of the miniature store loadout. Significant economies across programs and logistics benefits could be achieved through development of a common electronics suite with tailorable variants for the different carriage platform applications, particularly if open system architecture and commercial off-the-shelf component use were inherent in the implementation approach. Development of such a common electronics suite requires a thorough understanding of the individual platform functional requirements and physical/packaging constraints. The effort proposed here would document miniature store carriage platform electronics requirements, investigate candidate implementation technologies, define a common electronics suite implementation concept, and develop a plan for concept verification in a representative implementation example such as a Tactical Munitions Dispenser (TMD).

CERACON, INC.
555 University Ave.
Sacramento, CA 95825
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 929-2927
Henry S. Meeks
AF 99-180
Title:Application of Functionally Gradient Materials (FGM) to Hard Target Penetrators (HTP)
Abstract:The constant demand to improve the dynamic ballistic performance of tungsten based Hard Target penetrator (HTP) materials has forced the emergence of both new material systems and manufacturing processes. The use of functionally gradient materials (FGM) will provide both design and performance advantages over existing materials. Monolithic tungsten and tungsten-nickel-iron heavy alloys (WHA) have relied upon such manufacturing routes as hot forging and powder metallurgy (P/M) to provide useable end products. These methods however are plagued by significant processing problems, the most notable of which are forging strain cracks and loss of dimensional integrity using high temperature liquid phase sintering (LFS). Solid state densification via a well established and more flexible F/M forging route, The Coercion Technology, has emerged as an enabling technology capable of producing fully dense, near-net-shape components at cycle times as low as 3 to 5 minutes. Application of the Ceracon P/M forging technology to a combination of ballistic materials to yield a functionally gradient micro-structure will provide the next generation of high performance ballistic components.

GRADIENT TECHNOLOGY
2500 Shadywood RdSuite 139
Excelsior, MN 55331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 471-8804
William J. Taylor
AF 99-180
Title:Recovery and Reuse of Valuable Explosive Components from Plastic Bonded Explosives
Abstract:Gradient Technology proposes to continue to develop its cost effective environmentally friendly process for recycling plastic bonded explosives. This project will test explosive particle compatibility with Gradient's plastic bonded explosive recovery process. A laboratory scale demonstration of the recovery process will be performed with real plastic bonded explosive. The proposed resource recovery and reuse process recovers all components of plastic bonded explosives. The valuable explosive components are recovered for reuse and the plastic binder is converted to polyurethane monomer precursors for resale to polyurethane monomer manufacturers. Gradient Technology has demonstrated that polyurethane coatings can be removed from surrogate particles in an artificial plastic bonded explosive.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
437 Second StreetSuite B
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 693-9600
Mark A. Massie
AF 99-180
Title:Focal Geometric Array Design for Guidance
Abstract:This effort proposes a true innovation in the combined areas of missile guidance and ordnance fuzing that will lead to the development of a single imaging detector array with the capability of performing both functions simultaneously. A coordinated effort between Nova Research, Inc. and Optics 1, Inc. is proposed that will result in the development of a "Guidance Integrated Fusing" (GIF) systems requiring no gimbals, and which has essentially a full 4 steradian filed of view. Elimination of the sensor gimbal, and combining he guidance and fusing functions heretofore two independent detection systems will reduce complexity, weight and cost, and will greatly improve the overall reliability of the systems. Revolutionary optical and infrared detection design techniques must be used to design a "Focal Geometric Array" (FGA) that achieved the combined GFI functions by virtue of its unique design. The purpose of this effort will be to define requirements and produce initial design for the GFA, which will be influenced by the system's optical characteristics. Nova proposes a synergy under this effort with Optics 1, Inc. (see proposal titled "Missile Guidance and Fusing Using a Single Optical Systems and Aerodynamic Domes" by Mike Couture of Optics 1).

OPTICS 1, INC.
3050 Hillcrest DriveSuite 100
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 432-2148
Michael E. Couture
AF 99-180
Title:Missile Guidance and Fusing Using a Single Optical System and Aerodynamic Domes
Abstract:Infrared guided missiles generally use two distinct optical systems to intercept enemy targets - a guidance system and a fusing system. The guidance system usually consists of a moderate field of view (FOV), moderate resolution optical system. The fusing system usually covers a significantly larger FOV at coarser resolution. A "hand-off' or cueing from guidance to fusing is required. In addition, while some research has been implemented toward utilizing domes with aerodynamic shapes, little implementation has taken place. OPTICS 1 proposes the use of a single zoom optical system for both guidance and fusing, eliminating the need for multiple optical systems and saving system cost and complexity. Such an optical system, if used with newly developed "foveal vision" focal plane arrays (FPAs) and on-chip signal processing, can likely perform all of the functions of the currently implemented systems. This technology, combined with aerodynamic dome shapes will allow operation over the existing flight envelopes of today's missiles with a single optical system. In this phase of the program, OPTICS 1 will leverage from work performed under previous programs including F08630-98-C-0022 (wide angle and zoom IR optics) and F08630-91-C-005 1 (aerodynamic dome shapes). In addition, O~CS 1 would propose investigating combination of this technology with "smart FPA" technology under development by NOVA Research and Amherst Technologies (see proposal titled "Focal Geometric Array Design for Guidance Integrated Fusing" submitted under topic number AF99-l80 by Mark Massie of NOVA Research).

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RES. ASSOC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Jay B. Clecker
AF 99-180
Title:Ordnance Research
Abstract:New weapon capabilities identified for the 21st century include countering weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and non-explosive force projection. Current weapon systems do not have capabilities that can meet these objectives. High intensity acoustic weapons can meet any new requirements such as nonlethal effects and removing suspended WMD agents from the air. High intensity sound sources packaged into a compact, air delivered ordnance will provide the warfighter with an ability to counter many new threat scenarios. Prior acoustic weapons developed for ground operations don't meet the weight/volume restrictions for air delivered warhead missions. SARA proposed a seminal demonstration, at the laboratory level, of a compact, high energy, acoustic source that will be the key enabling technology in harnessing acoustic weapons for compact air delivered/air dispensed weapons. This technology (on follow on programs) when scaled up and fully integrated into a warhead will provide the ability to project nonlethal force and to control collateral chemical/biological agent releases.

FREESTYLE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4152 Aldrich Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55409
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 823-7734
Kevin S. Schweiker, Ph.D.
AF 99-181
Title:Three Algorithms and a Topcoat: Novel Techniques for Laser Radars
Abstract:The development of efficient algorithms to process laser radar returns is required by the dramatic increases in capabilities of laser radar hardware. Freestyle Technologies, Inc. will develop and demonstrate three innovative algorithms that will characterize clutter, aid in the detection of occluded targets, and provide aimpoint selection. In addition, Freestyle Technologies, Inc. will design and test a new topcoat for vehicles that will form the basis of a semi-cooperative identification Friend or Foe (Semi-IFF).

H.N. BURNS ENGINEERING CORP.
3275 Progress DriveSuite A
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 273-3770
H.N. Burns
AF 99-181
Title:Critical EO Technology Development for Next Generation Autonomous Weapon Guidance
Abstract:Traditional imaging laser radar (IRL) systems perform a variety of mission-critical functions, including target detection and recognition, and precision weapon delivery. The recent decade has produced significant advances in ILR capabilities. New components, such as diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers and InGaAs avalanche photodetectors (APDs), have enabled construction of compact, high-performance ILRs that operate at eye-safe wavelengths. There have been significant advances in related support technology such as fiber optics, high-speed microelectronics, and diffractive optics. These advances present opportunities to expand the conventional role of IRLs. The new high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) lasers and high performance multichannel optical receivers can provide convert communication, formation station keeping, collision avoidance, threat warning, and automated landing capabilities. Multichannel, fiber-optic "backbones" can connect a single central optical processor to multiple, perimeter-distributed conformal apertures. The Phase I research will focus on a multichannel, fiber optic, signal distribution scheme. We will apply a variation of this basic concept to a compact focal plan scanner. We will investigate a new concept for a compact lens system, with consideration of replicated diffractive optics to further reduce the weight and cost. Our goal is to develop a versatile, robust, active IR system architecture, along with several critical components for the next generation autonomous laser-guided weapons.

OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS, INC.
470 San Antonio Rd, Ste 200
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 858-8585
Dr. P.K. Menon
AF 99-181
Title:Real-Time, SDRE-Based Nonlinear Control Technology
Abstract:SDRE technique is a recently developed approach for designing nonlinear control laws and estimation algorithms for any general nonlinear dynamic system. Although it has the potential to revolutionize control technology the industry acceptance of the technique has been slow. The primary reason appears to be due to the fact that it is computationally expensive to implement. This proposal advances the development of a software/hardware solution that will enable the rapid design and deployment of the SDRE control method in general purpose applications. The proposed systems will be configured using commercial off-the-shelf subsystems, and C/C++ software during Phase I research. Phase I research will demonstrate the prototype software/hardware solution. The commercialization of the technology will also be initiated during the Phase I research. Phase II work will develop a software/hardware solution that can be used in hardware-in-the-loop simulations, in the geometric form-factor suitable for eventual use as a flight-test article. The software/hardware solution will be specialize to an Air Force identified airframe and real-time operation will be demonstrated during Phase II work. This SDRE solution will be further developed into a flight-test article during Phase II research.

SEEKER TECHNOLOGIES INCORP.
838 North Eglin ParkwaySuite 408
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32547
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 863-5351
David S. Flynn
AF 99-181
Title:Resolution Enhancement through Direct Spectral Extrapolation
Abstract:The proliferation of the World Wide Web, high "resolution" printers, and inexpensive imaging equipment have recently made graphics and image processing a routine part of many common activities. Commercial software abounds to manipulate digital images. This proposal deals with a particular image processing function that has been much pursued in the scientific literature over the last several decades - image restoration or superresolution. The desire to see, display, or print small details with high "resolution" is common. In scientific applications, improved resolution of measurements may mean the difference between solving a particular problem, or not. However, real physical equipment is limited by physical considerations that make high resolution expensive or seemingly impossible. SeeTec proposes an unconventional approach to superresolution processing. Current methods provide modest resolution improvement, even under favorable conditions. These iterative methods are sometimes slow to converge, and require significant processing resources. SeeTec will study and implement a new method based on direct extrapolation of the measured image in some suitable basis or coordinate system. We will compare Fourier, Prolate Spheroidal Wavefunctions, and Wavelet bases for developing these new algorithms. The method will attempt to reconstruct information not passed by an imaging system, based on information that is passed, and a priori information about the allowable class of solution images, or constraints such as non-negativity of passively-sensed images. If successful, this prototype software will be refined and marketed as a useful tool in the graphics and image processing arenas.

BLUE LOTUS MICRO DEVICES
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
Robert Hickman II
AF 99-183
Title:High Power Switching Transistors
Abstract:Proposed here is the development of high temperature and high power vertical switching transistors for inductive load switching and pulse width or frequency modulation power converter applications. The single most important factor limiting high temperature wide bandgap power electronics is the availability of inexpensive large diameter substrates. The fast, high voltage power transistors will be fabricated from conducting GaN substrates. The program will target development of high temperature GaN vertical power transistors capable of >425ŗC operation with performance exceeding that of other semiconductor technologies. Effort will concentrate on designing a family of scalable devices which are capable of 10-100 Amperes absolute current, 2000-5000 V breakdown, <50 ns transient switch delay and >10MNz switching. Significant costs savings for power converter and management systems can be achieved by reduced thermal management hardware requirements and increased frequency of operation.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4436
Tom Schilling
AF 99-184
Title:A Continuous Rod Electromagnetically Pulsed Warhead
Abstract:Warhead technology could be furthered by a quantum step by incorporating electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects. The EMP generating warheads would disrupt electronic countermeasure (ECM) devices or disable communications centers without the necessity of significant collateral damage. TPL proposes to explore a Continuous Rod Electromagnetically Pulsed (CREMP) warhead which will extend the radius of influence by suing the Continuous Rod (CR) warhead as an "antenna" for EMP. Explosive flux compression generators are proposed to supply the necessary power. The dual package, warhead an power generator, is expected to fit within the typical constraints of a standard missile platform. The CREMP concept viability, feasibility, and effectiveness will be examined. Various preliminary design concepts will be investigated. Lethality estimates will be made for a range of engagement scenarios with respect to the CREMP warhead function. Limitations will be noted. Results of simulations will be used to design a strategy for advanced development. TPL has assembled an outstanding tem to conduct the proposed effort. Mr. T. Schilling will lead the effort assigned by Mr. D. Kennedy a celebrated authority in warhead design, and Mr. F. Williams a noted expert in the area of explosive flux compressors.

REYNOLDS SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 122918649 Hwy 175
Middletown, CA 95461
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 928-5244
Tom Reynolds
AF 99-185
Title:Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Technology for Systems Safety and Control
Abstract:A concept is proposed for a unique, electronically activated low energy micro-initiator for use with MEMS type SAF devices. It is anticipated that the concept will require lower initiation energies for functioning secondary explosives than presently required by existing design, thus providing a "safe" low energy mechanism for either generating mechanical movement or providing explosive train initiation.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Blvd
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Patrick Chu, Ph.D.
AF 99-185
Title:Chemical Energy Enhanced MEMS Safing Device
Abstract:Tanner Research proposed to develop a novel safe, arm, and fire (SAF) system based on micro elector-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Our innovation is to incorporate a chemical energy source and an novel safety mechanism into a SAF device to minimize power consumption, increase reliability and safety, and reduce system cost. Our chemical energy enhanced MEMS SAF device will be made of micro-gears, cavities, and channels created by applying deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) and wafer bonding techniques to silicon chemical energy source and low-power trigger interruption mechanisms. Our device will be fabricated using commonly available fabrication equipment to ensure low-cost production and ease of manufacturing and technology transfer. The low-power requirement and extreme reliability of the Tanner Research SAF system are assets that will make it attractive for broad use. During Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed concept by developing device specifications and component designs. During Phase II, we will develop and deliver a prototype SAF device.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
21 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-7267
Mitch Shifrin
AF 99-186
Title:Wireless Data Transmission Through Various Media
Abstract:Effectiveness of weapons designed to inflict damages to underground targets cannot be assessed in real time without a data link between the penetrating body and a receiver on the surface. To implement a radio link, the radio transmitter output power must be sufficiently large to overcome the signal absorption in the ground. The radio signal absorption in the ground has been studied in the past, and a preliminary data base has been established. For direct assessment of penetrating weapons, however, a transmitter designed specifically for this application is desired. This proposal describes an approach to design and demonstrate a transmitter suitable for applications in penetrating weapons. Problems and issues unique to this application include: G-hardening and frequency stability during the penetration phase, frequency selection for optimum signal transmission, and the power output estimated to acquire and maintain a link. The proposed approach is to design a single transmitter signal source into a single chip and combine it with a power amplifier operating at output levels of 100 watts or more. The preferred frequency of what operation is in the VHF ban of 225-300 MHz. The operating scenario assumes that there will be an airborne receiver in a relay station deployed near the penetrating point. The signal loss from the transmitter to the receiver is expected to be of 140dB. A directive antenna conformal to the penetrating body is assumed for the transmitter. The proposed program plan includes: link budget analysis, MMIC source design, amplifier assessment, heat-sinking and power supply requirements analysis, and development of antenna concepts.

OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS, INC.
470 San Antonio RoadSte 200
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 585-8585
Dr. P.K. Menon
AF 99-187
Title:Integrated Guidance-Autopilot Logics for Anti-Jam Operation of Precision Munitions
Abstract:Rapid advances in GPS technology and the development of micro-mechanical inertial sensors have made it feasible to develop low-cost/high-accuracy navigation systems for applications such as the guidance of precision munitions. While the integrated GPS/INS technology offers an inexpensive navigation solution, the weapons systems relying on this technology are susceptible to jamming from external sources. If the jamming sources are localized, it is feasible to direct the flight vehicle in such a way as to shield the GPS antenna from jamming sources during its flight towards the target. Since this would involve the synergistic control of the vehicle flight path and attitude, the resulting control task is an integrated guidance-autopilot logic synthesis problem. This proposal advances tow approaches for deriving solutions to this integrated guidance-autopilot problem. Phase I research will demonstrate the integrated design methodology, and will illustrate the performance of the body-shading guidance-autopilot logics using a six degrees-of-freedom precision munitions simulation. Phase I research will also identify the sensor and estimation requirements for implementing the body-shading guidance technology. Phase II work will apply the integrated guidance algorithm to precision munitions identified by the Air Force. Application of advanced signal processing methodologies will also be explored during Phase II research.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
11000 Cedar Ave #170
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 791-6749
Ravi Vaidyanathan
AF 99-188
Title:Biologically Inspired Target Seeking Reflex for Autonomous Munitions
Abstract:Animals must integrate large amounts of sensor information to orient movement towards goals and away from threats, often in milliseconds, to survive. Identical directives are faced by autonomous munitions; particularly rapid assimilation of surroundings and instantaneous target seeking. Nature, through evolution and natural selection, has optimized this behavior. In particular, insects initiate actions reflexively in situations where no time for detailed information processing or planned decision making is possible. Possession of similar capabilities would increase the performance, speed and accuracy of all weapons systems. Orbital Research proposes developing an insect-like set of artificial reflexes - BioSeek - to enable autonomous munitions instant targeting and replanning capability. BioSeek will unionize two innovative biologically inspired technologies. The first, the Biologically Inspired Autonomous Vehicle Escape Reflex Tactic, or BioAVERT is a.neural map of an insect's motion reflex. The second, the Mulitresolution Automated Path Planning Evolutionary Routing or MAPPER genetic algorithm, is an automated path planner mimicking natural selection. The BioSeek targeting reflex will invert BiOAVERT for instantaneous targeting for autonomous munitions by implementing MAPPER to generate base sets of targeting patterns, then feeding them to BioAVERT to instantly elicit appropriate targeting patterns while still avoiding collisions with obstacles other than the target. Feasibility will be demonstrated by constructing a vehicle showing insect-like reflexes.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Magus S Snorrason
AF 99-189
Title:Situation-Adaptive Sensor Fusion for Autonomous Target Acquisition
Abstract:The proposed research seeks to design a superior Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) algorithm by combining the best features of ladar-based and MMW-based (active/passive) ATA systems. We hope to overcome specific limitations of each system by incorporating complementary information from the other system. The thrust of our approach will be to determine specific regions of the sensors' mutual operational space where opportunities exist for synergistic fusion. Rather than first specifying a fusion approach and then testing it on various imagery, we will first analyze imagery to determine situations where detection rates can be increased and/or false alarm rates decreased by combining information from both sensors. For each such situation, we will test various promising fusion approaches and rank their effects on detection and false alarm rates using only imagery that is representative for the given situation. Finally, to automate the switching of fusion approaches, we will design a situation-adaptive expert system that determines when the missile enters a given situation based on sensed contextual information and on-board exogenous data sources. All sensor fusion approaches require co-registered imagery, but real-world sensors are frequently misaligned. We propose a highly robust, computationally efficient image registration solution based on the Quadrature Disambiguation algorithm.

DPD, INC.
2000 Turner Street
Lansing, MI 48906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 349-5653
Ken Ostowari
AF 99-190
Title:Quantitative Microstructural Investigation of Concrete
Abstract:We propose to synthesize modem techniques of image analysis with the existing knowledge of concrete deterioration and failure processes in order to develop a comprehensive and efficient basis for quantitative microscopic analysis of the damage mechanisms in concrete. The focus of this research is on microstructural attributes which best characterize damage mechanisms in concrete; these include: (1) the volume, spatial distribution, networking, tortuosity, orientation, number, width and spacing of microcracks and cracks; (2) volume, spatial distribution, number, continuity, shape and size of voids; and (3) contiguity relationships of microcracks, cracks, voids, aggregates, and aggregate-paste interfaces. The following objectives are proposed to be accomplished in Phase I research: (1) identify the quantifiable micro structural features which reflect on prevalent damage mechanisms; (2) select image analysis and statistics principles and tools for evaluation of the quantifiable features; (3) develop a sampling plan for quantification and statistical inference of microstructural damage; (4) select suitable sample preparation and microscopy techniques; (5) experimentally verify the approach; and (6) devise an integrated computer-based system dedicated to the implementation of the new approach to micro structural damage quantification of concrete.

GLOBAL TECHNOLGOY CONNECTION, INC.
2690 Spencers Trace #108
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 971-4084
Dr. A.B. Thakker
AF 99-190
Title:Concrete Building Materials Microstructural Damage Quantification
Abstract:Recent advances in image analysis techniques have opened up exciting new opportunities for studying concrete materials at micro scales and using quantitative measures obtained with these methods to provide new insight into the macro-scale behavior. The overall goal of the proposed program is to develop low cost commercially viable experimental and computer based automated algorithms that can relate concrete micro-structural attribute to bulk physical properties. This development will have wide applicability in both attributes to bulk physical properties. This development will have wide applicability in both military and civilian structures. Additionally, other advances in ballistic penetration behavior, earthquake and explosive damage assessment as well as improved concrete formulations are also envisioned. Phase I will primarily deal with development of visualization and quantification techniques including computerized data reduction algorithms for concrete. Phase II will target correlation of micro and macro properties and development of commercial automated computerized data reduction package. Commercialization of this technology as well as third party funding will be emphasized throughout the program. An eminently qualified interdisciplinary team with years of experience in image analysis, experimental and analytical damage assessment techniques in metallic, inter-metallic, geo-materials and concrete structure property relationship is proposed for this program.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 7488
Boulder, CO 80306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Wayne S. Pelouch
AF 99-191
Title:Nonlinear Optical Image Enhancement for LADAR
Abstract:Active imaging in the short- and mid-wave infrared has well-known benefits versus shorter wavelengths: eye safety, better visibility through battlefield obscurants, high atmospheric. transmission, and reduced background emission. However, detectors in this spectral region suffer from low bandwidths and poor sensitivity, often requiring cryogenic cooling to achieve a modest detectivity. CTI proposes to enhance the active imaging capability in the 1.5 to 4 -um region by utilizing a nonlinear optical (NLO) converter which provides frequency shifting to shorter wavelengths where cheaper, faster, lower noise, and room-temperature detectors exist. In addition, it provides optical gain, spectral filtering, controlled field-of-view, and superior rejection of background radiation. This results in an increase in performance to nearly the shot-noise limit without sacrificing ranging capability. Modern NLO materials can operate with high efficiency using modest pump sources in a compact design. The enhanced receiver capability reduces the pump power constraints resulting in a more compact overall system. Advanced sensor functionality including range-gating can be performed optically by modulating the pump source. In Phase I, CTI will conduct detailed analyses and laboratory demonstrations to validate the proposed concept. In Phase II, an enhanced-imaging breadboard receiver will be tested and delivered.

AEGIS RESEARCH CORP.
6703 Odyssey DriveSuite 200
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Michael C. Cornell
AF 99-192
Title:LADAR Scene Projection for Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR effort is develop a LADAR Scene Projector to meet the demands of closed-loop weapon testing in a Hardware-In-The-Loop simulation environment. The goal of the Phase I research is to develop a conceptual design of the LADAR Scene Projector, which, at a minimum, can accurately simulate the optical return signals of a LADAR seeker and deliver the optical signals directly to the detectors of the sensor. In addition, this research will determine if it is feasible for the projector to deliver the optical signals at the precise angular position of the seeker's optical receiver, which is determined by the seeker gimbal position and the attitude position synthesized by a flight motion simulator. The proposal details the various tasks to be done along with the technical approaches to be considered to meet the stated goal. The results of the Phase I research will lead directly to the development of a LADAR scene projection system during Phase II.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
654 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9095
David Chenault
AF 99-193
Title:Fast Imaging Polarimetry
Abstract:Polarization imaging holds promise for providing significant improvements in contrast in a number of target detection and discrimination applications. It has been demonstrated that manmade objects have a significantly stronger polarization signal than natural backgrounds. There is also strong promise for improved target-background contrast with active imaging polarimeters, instruments with capabilities similar to polarimetric ladar systems. However, these experimental systems frequently require long data acquisition times resulting in polarization artifacts. Additionally, calibration and investigation of systematic errors in these systems has not been satisfactorily demonstrated. SY Technology, Inc. proposes to develop a fast (>30 Hz) imaging polarimeter with passive and active mode capability in the near-infrared (0.9 - 1.7 mm). The active mode will further understanding of phenomenology of interest to polarimetric ladar systems, while the passive mode will provide additional information on target signatures under ambient light The polarimeter design, to be completed for Phase I, will include component specifications, schematics data reduction algorithms, calibration procedures, and a thorough performance analysis. The prototype instrument will be built in Phase II. The near-infrared instrument will be designed to be compatible with a polarimetric sensor architecture, a modular system that will expand the fast polarimeter capability to other wavebands.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic BlvdSuite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Raymond L. Durand
AF 99-194
Title:Visible Wavelength Scene Projection for Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Abstract:The Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware In the Loop Simulation (KHILS) facility requires a Visible Wavelength Scene Projection system for HIL testing of visible sensors. The Visible Projector must meet stressing performance requirements in order to provide valid and credible test results on a wide variety of sensors. The Visible Projector must generate a frame of at least 1,000 by 1,000 pixels at rates exceeding 100 Hz. Moreover, the projected image must be free of temporal fluctuations during the frame, a requirement that commercial TV displays fail to meet TSC has designed a Visible Projector that meets these stringent requirements. The TSC design is based entirely on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment, principally the digital light projectorTM of Texas Instruments and laboratory optical components. We also describe methods that decrease the number of system components while simultaneously increasing the performance of the Visible Projector.

MODERN ALLOY CO.L.L.C.
29777 Telegraph Rd, Ste 2475
Southfield, MI 48034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 799-2885
Dr. Vladimir Fedchun
AF 99-195
Title:Innovative Methods for Improving Strength and Fracture Toughness of Steel
Abstract:The proposal submitted herein is based on many years of research by the principal investigator into effects of various groups of alloying elements on structure and properties of alfa- and gamma- iron based steels subjected to various types of heat and chemical treatment. Test results of the proprietary alloying system developed from this research, which is based on a particular combination of three alloying elements - (Si + Cu) / V, indicate that a complex of mechanical characteristics (strength, ductility and fracture toughness) superior to the best currently available low and medium alloy steels can be achieved. The cost of this new steel should remain low, approximately 10-20% below such popular grade as 300M. Flexibility and predictability of the above alloying system exhibited in earlier experiments allows to project with reasonable degree of confidence characteristics of an alloy optimized for impact resistance and fracture toughness. It is expected that the proposed alloy will show strength and ductility characteristics equal or better than 300M, with fracture toughness being better than HP9-4-25 steel. Processing characteristics - formability, hardenability, machinability and weldability of the new steel are expected to be comparable to medium-carbon grades like AISI 1045, 1050 and 4340.

ARETE ASSOC.
333 North WilmotSuite 450
Tucson, AZ 85711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Brian Redman
AF 99-196
Title:Missile Seeker 3D Imaging Ladar using a Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR (STIL)
Abstract:The Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR (STIL) is a high resolution 3-D imaging system that improves automatic target acquisition/recognition (ATAIR) at significant standoff ranges. The patented STIL approach is based on application of mature, commercial technologies, and has been demonstrated in the laboratory, ship-based experiments, and airborne demonstrations. STIL uses a fan beam laser illuminator, 1-D scanning or scannerless push broom imaging, and electrostatic sweep to generate high resolution 3-D images in a rugged compact configuration suitable for autonomous missile seeker applications. STIL is an ideal sensor for missile seeker automatic target acquisition/recognition in both the direct attack and wide area search scenarios. Conceptual designs indicate that an eye-safe configuration at 1.5 µm wavelength can achieve 6 inch range measurement resolution and sub-milliradian angular resolution with an operational stand-off range of 1 km. Physical configuration (volume, weight, power) is well suited for the missile seeker platform. Arete proposes to directly demonstrate STIL's ability to achieve the necessary 3-D image resolution for missile seeker ATAIR applications by adapting and utilizing existing, proven hardware for a cost-effective Phase I concept validation. Prototype system development will follow in Phase II, and include detailed design, fabrication, integration, and demonstration of a compact, rugged prototype configuration suitable for missile seeker deployment. Results of the Phase II effort are directly applicable to machine vision, and other commercial imaging applications.

PIXELVISION, INC.
14964 NW Greenbrier Pkwy
Beaverton, OR 97006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 629-3210
George Williams
AF 99-197
Title:Optimization and Stabilization of Thinned CCD Back Surface Allowing Gain Modulation of EBCCD Sensors
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing an optimized electron bombarded charge coupled device (EBCCD) imager which has nearly ideal gain characteristics and stability. Additionally. we intend to demonstrate the feasibility of gating and modulating the back surface of the CCD at MHZ rates - eliminating the need to modulate the EBCCD photocathode. Current accumulation techniques used to accumulate the back surface of thinned CCDS are inadequate for optimized EBCCD performance because standard processes leave a depletion region at the back surface that cause some electron holes pairs to recombine and not be detected. We will use MBE 'delta doping" and a "biased flash gate" back surface preparation of ten high speed, back-illuminated CCDs provided to the program on a cost sharing basis. The surface techniques have been demonstrated to have characteristics that make them better suited to EBCCD operation. Moreover, biased flash gates will permit modulation of the EBCCD gain. Optimization of the CCD back-surface is important for the following reasons: 1) non-electrically-pinned CCD back-surfaces exhibit hysterisis and instabilities, 2) improperly passivated CCD back surfaces result in "dead layers" that have poor gain versus voltage performance (this is important because voltages above 1.8 keV cause resulting k-alpha x-rays to damage the CCD) - higher gain at the requisite low voltages permits better signal-to-noise, 3) for reliable manufacturing. control is needed over the back-surface characteristics, and 4) gain and modulation control - independent of photocathode greatly reduces high voltage power supply complexity and is ideal for LADAR applications.

JOHNSON ROCKETS, INC.
359 Fairview Drive
Carson City, NV 89701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 885-0139
Curtis W. Johnson
AF 99-204
Title:High Aspect Ratio Coolant Channels for Regeneratively Cooled Combustion Chambers
Abstract:In high heat flux applications, typical regeneratively-cooled combustion chambers have very high pressure drops which significantly increase the demands on turbomachinery. These high pressure drops are largely due to high coolant velocities in the regen circuits caused by the use of low-aspect ratio coolant channels (4:1). In addition, low aspect ratio coolant lines cannot be tailored to optimize heat transfer throughout the regen circuit, this results in overcooling near the injector and nozzle exit. Adopting coolant channels with higher aspect ratios (15:1 instead of 4:1) would significantly reduce the pressure drop of the combustion chamber. However, in high aspect ratio channels, flow stratification causes heated coolant to stay near the hot gas wall, resulting in higher wall temperatures, reduced cycle life, and potential chamber failure. Flow stratification must be understood and eliminated if higher aspect ratio cooling channels are to become a practical technology. This effort will develop a theoretical model of flow stratification and a methodology for its mitigation in coolant channels by: 1) performing combined CFD/Heat Transfer analyses of channels with various aspect ratios to obtain an initial assessment of flow stratification, 2) anchoring the numerical results with experimental testing, and 3) developing technologies to mitigate the stratification of the coolant in the channels.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
56 Rogers Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 252-0660
Dr M.C. van Schoor
AF 99-204
Title:Piezo Propellant Ignition Device
Abstract:Propellant technologies are of the most crucial to revolutionize aerospace propulsion in the next century. New propellants strive to make spacecraft safer, more operable and higher performing. Propellant technologies have the power to make space flight more affordable and deliver higher performance. Propellants for in space maneuvering need to be ignited to release its chemical energy. The ignition concepts used today deplete spacecraft auxiliary power. Mono and Bi propellants uses catalysts for ignition. The disadvantages of these propellants are their susceptibility to spontaneoud decomposition due to leakage and their toxicity. The innovation described here utilizes a piezoelectrical element for the ignition of propellants. The device uses the dynamic pressure of the propellant in the feed line to strain a piezo element and thus generate an electrical charge. The charge is used for ignition by means of a spark or other ignition concepts. The advantage is a low cost simple and reliable concept that does not deplete spacecraft power.

MSE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.
200 Technology WayP.O. Box 4078
Butte, MT 59702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 494-7177
Vladimir Balepin
AF 99-204
Title:A New Rocket-based Combined Cycle for Reusable Launch Vehicles
Abstract:MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE), with United Technologies Research Center and HyperTech Concepts Company proposes to develop combine propulsion for a small reusable launch vehicle (RLV), known as the KLINtm Cycle, consisting of a thermally integrated deeply cooled turbojet and liquid rocket engine. The objective of this approach is to achieve a high pressure ratio in a simple, lightweight turbojet engine. The result is an exceptional engine thrust-to-weight ratio and improved specific impulse and mass fraction of the launcher. For a heavy launcher, the KLINtm Cycle promises RLV gross takeoff weight (GTOW) reduction by a factor of two with prospects of lower dry weight. If based on the FL-10 engine family, the KLINtm Cycle makes a small single-stage-to-orbit and two-stage-to-orbit RLV feasible and economically very attractive. Specific objectives of the initial portion of the study are to demonstrate: 1) the performance and mass of a KLINtm Cycle based on an existing rocket engine of the RL-10 family applied to a small RLV; 2) the advantages of integrating a KLINtm Cycle into a small RLV (50-100 ton of GTOW); 3) the core technology development program. The benefit to the Air Force is low life-cycle cost combined propulsion for a space plan which can double existing rocket propulsion capabilities by the year 2010.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Brian E. Williams
AF 99-204
Title:Practical Application of Low-Cost Carbon/Carbon Structures in Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:In order for solid rocket motors (SRMs) to achieve Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) goals of cost, reliability, mass fraction, and specific impulse, a significant improvement in throat materials must be made. Lightweight, economical, low-no/erosion throat materials are critical to achievement of those goals. Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites are used in this application; however, in tactical motors using advanced propellants, these components exhibit unacceptably high erosion and oxidation rates. And although the cost of C/C is lower than that of most ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), the relatively long densification times (weeks) coupled with the cost of fibers and preform fabrication makes the material too expensive for many applications. Therefore, the two primary problems preventing more extensive use of C/C in SRMs are survivability and cost. In previous work for the Air Force and NASA, Ultramet has demonstrated the outstanding thermal and oxidation performance of its patented Ultra2000TM hafnium carbide/silicon (Hfc/SiC) coating through arcjet testing of various coated carbon and CMC structures at the Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center and NASA's Ames Research Center. Surface temperatures as high as 4600 deg F have been achieved with no mass or dimensional change. The potential exists to increase the highly refractory HfC content within the coating in order to survive greater temperatures over the lifetime of an SRM. In this project, Ultramet proposes to team with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), which has developed a rapid and cost-effective means of producing quality C/C material, and the Chemical Systems Division of Pratt & Whitney, which will provide test facilities and commercialization expertise, in order to fabricate and test a coated C/C SRM nozzle with economic and performance capabilities that far exceed those of current materials.

CONCEPTS ETI, INC.
217 Billings Farm Road
White River Jct., VT 05001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 296-2321
Tsukasa Yoshinaka
AF 99-205
Title:Combustor with Integrated Diffuser and Turbine Inlet for compact Advanced Gas Turbines
Abstract:The synergistic design of the combustor, compressor diffuser, and turbine inlet guide vane is proposed to maintain angular momentum (swirl knietic energy) from the compressor rotor discharge while permitting bulk swirl witnin the combustor at relatively high Mach number. This innovation extends a demonstation of the variable residence time (VRT) combustor, which exploited a circumferentially bulk swirling flow within the combustor, to establish a high performance combustion process. Because combustion iwht swirl and gigher Mach number, the last compressor vane row and the first turbine vane are modified to provide less aerodynamic turning and less velocity change, thus reducing losses through all reduced with improved efficiency in support of the IHPTET initiative. phase I work includes combustor rig tests with varying degrees of swirl (0 to 60) and high Mach number (0.2 to 0.6). The rig test results will be used for comprehensive cycle evaluations to quantify the impact from high swirl/Mach number on cycle performance and size. Phase I test and analysis results will demonstrate that reduced losses lead to at least two tofour more points of compressor efficiency and one or two more points of turbine efficiency.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4247
Jeffrey H. Eveson
AF 99-205
Title:High Temperature, Multiple Purpose MEMS Sensors
Abstract:Foster-Miller and Cornell University propose to develop very small, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) sensors based on silicon nitride. These sensors can operate at very high temperatures (600C), considerably past the point where silicon sensors fail. due to the laser-based readout mechanism of the proposed MEMS sensor configuration, simultaneous measurements of pressure, vibration and temperature are feasible. These are important advantages of sensors that will be required to assist inthe desing process of advanced unmanned air vehicles (UAVs).

RESEARCH APPLICATIONS, INC.
11772 Sorrento Valley Road, Su
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 259-7541
Jalees Ahmad, PH. D
AF 99-205
Title:Life Prediction Software for Ceramic Composite Components with Environmental Barrier Coatings
Abstract:There is a need for a fundamentally sound and experimentally validated methodology and software for life prediction for ceramic matrix composite (CMC) propulsion system components and attachments with environmental barrier coatings (EBCs). The present proposal is for a reserach and development project focused on developing the needed methodology would be implemented in a software package for use by design engineers. A mechanistic framework is proposed for developing the methodology which includes explicit consideration of damage mechanisms relevant to EB Coated CMCs. Phase I involves model development and preliminary validate of the methodology; mainly to assess the viability of a more comprehensive software development effort in Phase II. The proposed product is timely for IHPTET applications, and readily marketable to military and commercial aerospace industries and to land based gas turbine manufacturers. The development effort directly complements Air Force's ongoing activities in CMC components development for advanced jet engine and rocket propulsion systems.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
500 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-7813
Charles B. DePlachett
AF 99-205
Title:Innovative Visual Modeling Environment for the Turbine Engine Reverse Modeling Aid Program
Abstract:The proposed innivation is a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI), or Visual Modeling Environment (VME) for the Turbine Engine Reverse Modeling Aid Program (TERMAP). Although TERMAP is the primary modeling tool used by the Air Force and DoD to model gas turbine engine propulsion systems, it is cumbersome, difficult to learn, and time consuming to use. The purposed innovation meets the requirement of AF99-205, Aero Propulsion and Poser Technology, by developing a powerful, innovation, and time-saving analysis technique for the design of gas turbine engines and threby supports the Integrated Ghigh performance turbine Engine Technology (IGPTET) initiative. The objectives of this effort are to design and develop a software packagte that demonstrates significant effectiveness and utility. The Phase I software will include: an engine cycle component drag and drop interface, scaling and display of analysis results using integrated graphing package. A final report will also be delivered detailing the Phase I approach, software architecture, object-oriented design, and results. This innovation will likewise reduce engine development times and associated costs to the Air Force and DoD for manned and unmanned air vehicles (UAV) applications.

TAITECH, INC.
2372 Lakeview Dr. Ste H
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-414
Dr. Susan K. cox-Stouffer
AF 99-205
Title:An Innovative Fuel Injection System for Improvied Mixing and Penetration in Scramjet Combustors
Abstract:The importance of a low-drag, efficient fuel injection systemfor scramjet combusion cannot be overstated. Fuel injection and mixing have been identified by the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Office as significant "technological challneges," which must be addressed as a prerequisite for "succeccful scramjet operation." To this end, the primary ofjective of the proposed research program is to provide the engine designer with scramjet fuel injectors that achieve better penetration, lower performance losses, and higher mixing efficiencies than previously tested fuel injections. This will be accomplished through the use of narrow, flush-mounted, locally pressure-matched injectors that would produce little drafg, require no active colling,and produce only a small region of high heat flux on the combustor wall. The military and private-sector markets for a dramatically improved scarmjet injector are substantial, and the development of such an injector would greatly strenghten the position of the developing organization within the niche area of hypersonic propulsion. Indeed, such an achievement would allow a small business to pursue strategic alliance with major propulsion system developers and integrators, placing revolutionary scramjet technology in the hands of organizations with the potential for successful application of that technology and giving the small business an opportunity to broaden its involvement in the aerospace industry.

AMERICAN SUPERCONDUCTOR CORP.
Two Technology Drive
Westborough, MA 01581
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 836-4200
Dr. C.L.H. Thieme
AF 99-206
Title:Manufacture of YBCO Coated Conductors with High Engineering Critical Currents
Abstract:High power motors and generators can be made very compact when run under cryogenic conditions. For further enhancements in power densities it is highly desirable to use High Temperature Superconductors with a greatly enhanced critical current densigy Jc at 3T at 77K, which would allow the use of liquid nitrogen as a coolant. Under these operating conditions the superconductor YBa2Cu30x (YBCO) can become the enabling material for these devices as it has excellent magnetic field retention of Jc at 77K. For high Jc-YBCO the superconductor needs to be bi-axially textured, achievable by epitaxial deposition of a buffer and YBCO layer on a bi-axially textured metal substrate. This substrate shoud be non-magnetic to reduce ac losses, and thin to obtain high engineering critical current densities Je and rduce conductor cost. This Project will produce long lengths of very thin, non-magnetic substrates with excellent control over substrate dimensions and texture quality. In the Phase I one meter lengths will be coated with an epitaxial buffer and MOD YBCO layer, aiming at a Je of 2500 A/cm2 at 77K, 3T. In the Phase II 25m of a more complex conductor will be produced, with an increased Je 10,000 A/ cm2 at 77K, 3T.

ELECTRODYNAMICS ASSOC., INC.
409 Eastbridge Drive
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 977-1825
Jay Vaidya
AF 99-206
Title:High Voltage 100-500 kW Power System for Directed Energy Weapons
Abstract:High voltage power sources will be required for Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) on future fighter planes, staellites, and space planes. Our proposal focuses on the 100-500 kW power range at 100's kV dc voltage level. Generator technology capable of producing high levels of ac voltage, step-up transformer, and power conditioning unit are covered. The disign goals are: high power density, releability, cycle efficiency, and quality of electric power. Permanent Magnet (PM) synchronous and induction generator technologies as well as improved winding insulation and cooling schemes will be evaluated. The Integrated Poer Unit (IPU), which is currently under development at WPAFB is considered the baseline. This allows use of existing mechanical hardware from the IPU for the development testing during Phase II. A number of options for the controller topologies for the 2 generator types are discussed. The optimim topology will be down-selected after complete evaluation. Electric Start function will be included. Final report comprising the generator and controller design will be submitted at the end of the first 6 monlth period. Following 3 months Phase I Option period will be utilized for generator design layout, system simulation and cost estimates. The entire activity will be executed by an inter-disciplinary team of experts assempled by Electrodynamics.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-2923
Peter Bletzinger, Ph.D.
AF 99-207
Title:Robust MEMS Structures for Flow Control and Engine Sensors
Abstract:Aircraft-turbine-engine operation can greatly benefit from the development of sensors and actuators (pressure sensors, flow controllers, etc) that can withstand the gigh-temperature environment at various close-in locations. In this Phase I proposal, ISSI, in collaboration with the University of Cincinnati, will determine the feasibility of using SiC for high-timperature turbine engine fan and compressor-blade air-flow control and sensor structures. SiC is a refractory semiconductor material that has been used to fabricate robust electronic devices operating at temperatures higher than 600C. A plan will be drafted and executed for specific SiC sensor and flow-control structure and technology development during a subsequent Phase II program.

GINER, INC.
14 Spring Street
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 899-7270
Richard J. Lawrance
AF 99-208
Title:Integrated, Light-Weight Regenerative Fuel Cell-Electrolyzer System
Abstract:Combining proton exchange membrane fuel cells with electrolyzers (PEMFC/EC) can offer higher efficiencies, higher power, long endurance missions. However, current proton exchange membrane fuel cell/electrolyzer PEMFC/ED systems need to improve the projected power and energy densities. PEMFC/EC systems, have previously been investigated for providing regenerative power based on one stack for the electrolysis of water and one for the PEMFC. Combining Giner, Inc. unique stack designs containing low cost molded light weight cell bipolar plates with integral flow fields with a cell spacing of 10 cells per inch and our innovative bi-directional electrodes will result in a stack projected to produce 1.1 kW/L and 0.7 kW/kg. Adapting our innovative stack designsto an existing UAV woudl expand tremendously the knowledge base for development of future UAFBs. Wehave teamed with AeroVironment Inc., designers and builders of serveral UAVs, including themost recent "Centurion". The Centurion willinitially use Li/SO2 battery, but has limited flight times. The UAV of the future will have greater thatn three months flying time using a regenrative fuel cell system.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Ave.
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Sam Boykin
AF 99-209
Title:Power Generation and Thermal Management
Abstract:This research project will result in the development of a cost analysis tool used for critical design trades early in the development process of new systems. The tool will enable the engineer, analyst, scientiest, or system planner to conduct life-cycle cost evaluations duringthe development process. The cost evaluations will contribute to effective design trades ensuring integral affordability considerations are part of th performance design factors. The tool integrates several detailed cost models that are accepted standards within the financial management community. A computer graphical interface guides the user through detailed cost model interactions to provide quick and easy life-cycle cost estimates. This tool will have data available for numerous system types; however, a primary focus of this research is to identify, collect and organize data applicable to aerospace power systems and tailor the database structure for integration with accepted cost models used in the tool. The Phase I research will result in an initial prototype of the tool which will be used to gain user comments to guide the Phase II development. The Phase II effort will fully develop and test the prototype, with the objective of a commercial tool in Phase III.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow PlacePines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 631-3550
Lawrence R. Grzyll
AF 99-209
Title:A High-Efficiency, Low-Power, Two-Phase Pumped Loop (MEC Prop No. 901LG2002)
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I research is to design, fabricate, and test a high-effeciency, low-power, two-phase pumped loop. This high-efficiency, low-power, two-phase pumped loop will use a unique two-phase working fluid pair that offers the capability of higher efficiency and lower pumping power becuase of its heat of solution characteristic. This heat of solution characteristic, combined with the latent heat of vaporazation, significantly increases the cooling capacity of the working fluid, resulting in significantly lower flow rates required for a given cooling load, decreasing the pumping power required. The Phase I effort will analyze varous working fluid pairs, select the optimum fluid pair, design and fabricate a two-phase pumped loop test stand, and compare the performance of the two-phase pumped loop operating with the working fluid pair to the performance of the same loop operating with two-phase single-component fluid alone.

CRYO ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
24 Boston Ave
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 483-3100
Ellery Schempp
AF 99-210
Title:Engineering Development of Cryogenic Capacitors
Abstract:This research project willresult inthe development of a cost analysis tool used for critical design trades early inthe development process of new systems. The tool will enable the engineer, analyst, scientist, or system planner to conduct life-cycle cost evaluationsduring the development process. The cost evaluations will contribute to effective design trades ensuring integral affordability consideratons are part of the performance design factors. The tool integrates several detailed cost models that are accepted standards within the financial management community. A computer graphical interface guides ther user through detailed cost model interactions to provide quickand easy life-cycle cost estimates. This tool will have data available for numerous system types; however, a primary focus of this research is to identify, collect and organize data applicable to aerospace power systems and tailro the database structure for integration with accepted cost models used in the tool. The Phase I research will result in an initial prototype of the tool which will be used to gain user comments to guide the Phase II development. The Phase II effort will fully develop and test the prototype, with the objective of a commercial tool in Phase III.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4139
William Dorogy
AF 99-210
Title:Novel Class of Polymers for Energy Storage Capacitors
Abstract:Pulsed power systems need capacitors with energy densities inexcess of 10 kJ/kg (preferably 30 kJ/kg to keep the size of power conditioning systems manageable. Current dielectric materials are the major limiting factor inaccomplishing this goal. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a true polymeric dielectric material with extremely hgih deilectric constant, good dielectric strentgh and low loss, typical of high polymers. OUr approach is based on creating a dielectric which mimics the highly polarizable perovskite structure of titanatesi a true polymer. This propsal describes two classes of materials, and appropriate polymerization techniques to achieve this goal. In Phase I, we will synthesize monomers,and verify that they contain highly posarizable configuratesn via X-ray crystallography and dielectric measurements, and create a high molecurlar weight polymer with these monomers. In Phase II, we will scale-up the precesses, and teaming with Aerovox fabricate capacitors with energy density in excess of 10 kJ/kg, and energy storage above 2 kJ.

HESTON CONSULTING CO., INC.
430 Lebanon Road
West Mifflin, PA 15122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 462-9877
Lawrence John Long
AF 99-211
Title:Integral Superconducting Electrical Power
Abstract:Existing rocket engines use multiple auxiliary power systems (electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic) to provide power for valves, actuators, flight controls, propellant pumps and electrical systems. The size, weight and complexity of these systems detracts from many aspects of rocket performance. A lightweight source of abundant electrical power could allow us to replace these multiple hydraulic and pneumatic systems with a lightweight electrical generator driving electrically operated valves, actuators and other devices. Recent advances in superconductor technology combined with the unique environment aboard rockets with cryogenic propellants may make it possible to build a lightweight cryogenic generator to provide abundant electrical power needed to "electrify" conventional rocket systems. The generator would become an intergal part of the cryogenic boost pump and would be driven by the existing turbine. Such a system could significantly reduce the size, weight and complexity of traditional auxiliary systems, resulting in higher reliability, lower cost and easier control, monitoring and maintenance. In this SBIR program we will work with engine and vehicle and superconductor manufacturers to develop the preliminary design of a 300 kelowatt cryogenic generator that is integrated into a LH2 turbopump. The generator will be built and tested in Phase II.

ECOTECH
3239 Monier CircleSuite #4
Rancho Cordova, CA 95742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 631-6310
Charles E. Grix
AF 99-212
Title:Injectable Solution Solid Propellant
Abstract:This program will develop aluminum filled crosslinked organic polymers into which a liquid oxidizer such as a hydroxylammonium nitrate eutectic can be swollen. These beads can then be used as an injectable solution solid propellant, having many of the advantages of solids and liquids with few of the disadvantages. Higher motor mass fractions can be realized because no insulation, liners or motor cores are required. Also, this propellant system in inherently safe because the beads and the oxidizer do not have to be combined in the storage chamber until a short time prior to use. The beads will make possible the distribution of dense solid powders in a polymer matrix such that the composite density of the beads will be close to that of the liquid oxidizer and, as a consequence, will remain permanently suspended in the excess liquid oxidizer used. Performance should be comparable to aluminized solid propellants.

ENVIRONMENTAL AEROSCIENCE CORP.
7290 SW 42 St.
Miami, FL 33155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 267-7588
Korey R. Kline
AF 99-212
Title:High Performance Oxidizer System for Hybrid Missiles
Abstract:Hybrid rocket motors based on gaseous and liquid oxidizers have been successfully demonstrated in the past. The offeror's proposed design consists of the consolidation of high performance solid or semi-solid oxidizers into individual high density sealed packages. These packets would be stored in the oxidizer section of the rocket and could be delivered at a controlled rate to the hybrid combustion chamber. Throttling and start/stop capabilities which are inherent characteristics of hybrid propulsion systems would be realized in this design. Delivery of these packets could be accomplished by a number of means such as pyrotechnics and gas charge or either method in combination with acceleration forces. Geometry of the packages can be tailored to optimize packaging, structural efficiency, delivery systems and storage (pressurization). Storage, stability, safety and munition sensitivity could be improved while realizing the benefits of these high performance oxidizers. Hybrid propulsion systems offer a number of advantages over conventional solid motors when used in conjunction with high performance oxidizers. Because the oxidizer is stored separately from the fuel component until use, the need to compound the oxidizer with the appropriate fuel/binder system is eliminated. This is a definite advantage because high performance oxidizers such as HNF have been shown to react with a number of common curative agents used in solid propellant binder systems. Hermetically sealed oxidizer packets minimize environmental exposure of the oxidizer compound and offer the potential for improved storage, deployment and long term stability. A successful packetized hybrid motor design has the potential of improving bulk loading limitations found in conventional hybrids. Hybrid rocket motors utilizing high performance storable oxidizers have commercial applications in military tactical missiles, ballistic targets and non-military aerospace propulsion systems.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
500 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-7819
Kent Gunter
AF 99-213
Title:Inflatable Solar Concentrator Flight Experiment
Abstract:Thin film inflatable concentrators, via ground testing, have shown to be a viable alternative to current systems. Joint efforts between SRS, AFRL, Thiokol, and NASA have demonstrated the effectiveness of these technologies throough deployment, photogrammatic shape measurement, and on-sun testing. For long term space power, propulsion, and communication applications, long concentrator lifetime is essential. Micrometeoroid penetration and UV degradation become important issues. In Phase I, tasks including incorporating an innovative leak sealing technology, and proving the feasibility of a flight demonstration involving the deployment and solar concentration of a 5 meter aperture inflatable concentrator are proposed. Phase II efforts will focus on the fabrication, integration and testing of a near term inflatable concentrator experiment.

ECOTECH
3239 Monier CircleSuite #4
Rancho Cordova, CA 95742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 631-6310
Arthur Katzakian, Jr
AF 99-214
Title:Electrically Controlled Solid Propellant Propulsion
Abstract:The proposed nine month Phase I program will further develop, at a lab bench scale, a demonstrated solid rocket motor propellant whose combustion and propulsion properties are controlled by the application of electrical voltage. Multiple ignition and extinguishment tests have been demonstrated on a single test specimen by the application and removal of electrical voltage. The objectives of this program will be to 1) develop the formulation technology that permits control of electrical conductivity in the propellant over a wide temperature range, 2) measure the speed of ignition and extinguishment, 3) determine the electrical power required to ignite and control the propellant's burning properties and 4) measure the effect of voltage on thrust for small motor grains. Measurments will be made of the power required for ignition and at least two differing wire insulations will be tested to control the flux surface area during combustion. Tests will be made to demonstrate the control of propellant burning and motor thrust by varying the applied voltage. These tests will be videotaped and the test results will be utilized to design, develop and test a small scale motor configuration on a Phase II program.

W. E. RESEARCH
4360 San Juan Ct
Rosamond, CA 93560
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(213) 747-2527
John Schilling
AF 99-214
Title:Advanced PPT Development
Abstract:Pulsed plasma thrusters are a possible propulsion system for all small satelites of the future, specially the USAF TechSat-21 program. They probably represent the key enabling technology for future spacecraft in the 20-100 kg class. Current PPT systems are characterized by extremely por efficiency, utilizing only ten percent of the energy and twenty percent of the propellent. Low fuel is caused by late-time vaporization and particulate emission, a result of less than ideal thermal management in the PPT design and the mechanical properties of current propellants. Energy inefficiency is due to magnetic field-diffusion after the first half-cycle of discharge. A PPT, using semiconductor switching of the discharge current in place of the present spark triggering offers the potential to overcome two fo these problems. With no voltage across the electrodes prior to the discharge after the first half cycle will prevent the loss of energy to magnetic field diffusion. Other research has demonstrated the concept of semiconductor control, but not with alternate propellants, or improved acceleration mechanisms. Changes in the physical design of the PPT will improve the passive cooling of the fuel, and make active cooling of the thruster a possibility.

INNOV. MAGNETIC TECH. (CALNETIX)
363 Van Ness Way #401
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 782-2585
Patrick McMullen
AF 99-215
Title:Cryogenic Boost Pump with Integral Electric Motor
Abstract:This Phase I effort will apply CALNETIX extensive expertise in developing high-speed and cryogenic motor systems to the development of an electriclly driven rocket engine boost pump. With a second stage engine in the 50,000 to 250,000 lb. thrust range as the preliminary target for this initial application, the pump motor will be capable of providing 100 to 500 Hp at 20,000 to 50,000 rpm. The system must take maximum advantage of the cryogenic liquid cooling for maximum power density, i.e. minimum size and weight. The design parameters will be defined in the initial task of the program by working with rocket engine manufacturers Pratt & Whitney and Boeing-Rocketdyne. The Phase I program would then perform a design study to determine the feasibility and the optimum system approach to incorporate this technology into the engine fuel system. Following the selection of the most promising approach, a conceptual design will be developed for the electric motor driven pump. A detailed analysis to verify magnetic, electrical, and mechanical performance will then be performed. A test plan to verify performance in a simulated environment will be developed for the Phase II effort, as well as a Phase II work plan. A final report of this Phase I effort will be submitted as the program deliverable.

ENIGMATICS, INC.
P.O. Box 39111
Washington, DC 20016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 244-4392
David L. Book
AF 99-216
Title:Development, Validation and Application of a Pulsed Detonation Engine Design Capability
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal is aimed at developing a design capability and comprehensive set of simulation tools for exploring the feasibility and making a realistic assessment of the potential for advanced rocket propulsion based on the Pulsed Detonation Engine (PDE) cycle. The PDE is a new engine concept that provides higher specific impulse than conventional rockets because of its constant-volume, nonsteady operating cycle. It also has several advantages because of its simple design. In PDEs a detonation wave initiated in a fuel-oxidizer mixture propagates exially in the detonation chamber, producing thrust when it loads the thrust wall. In Phase I we will identify the codes needed for modeling PDE operation and benchmark them against a previously developed prototype engine. In Phase II we will calibrate and test them in connection with all the key PDE processes: injection, mixing, detonation initiation, evolution, and propagation, venting of exhaust products, and the acoustic signature and structural response of a multiple-chamber PDE, thus enabling realistic end-to-end PDE performance simulation. Using these tools we will design and build a flight-capable full-scale propulsion system.

HYPERCOMP, INC.
31255 Cedar Valley Drive, Ste.
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 865-3713
Dr. Vijayva Shankar
AF 99-217
Title:Development of multi-mode Propulsion Technology for High Performance Applications
Abstract:Technology required to creat a pulsed detonation engine (PDE) has been maturing rapidly inthe recent past. The airbreathing and rocket modes of operation of such a device can potentially b combined to result ina performance leader for long range, low cost and high mach number propulsion needs. As such, the efficiency of PDEs is augmented by the flesibility offered by the multi-mode operation. In this proposal HyPerComp, a small business and leader inthe development and application of computational technologies to aerospace engineering problems, together with the University of Texas a Arlington and Lockheed-Martin Tactical Aircraft systems in Fort Worth, proposes to validate an innovative design based on these concepts. This team has well established and internationally reowned strengths in the areas of aerodynamics, airframe integration, design and simulation of pulse detonation devices. it has a capability to conduct large scale computatios of fluid mechanics problems with finite rate chemistry includig detonation. Individual team members have extensive experience inthe area of pulse detonation both from analytical and epxerimental perspectives, have numerous publications and patents directly concerning pulsed detonationand are ideally suited to undertake research to further the frontiers in this area.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
Space Center1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 827-5000
Dr Martin J. Chiaverini
AF 99-217
Title:Vortex-Combustin Combined Cycle (VCCC) Engine
Abstract:ORBITEC proposes to assess an innovative multi-mode propulsion system based on a unique new vortex combustion technology. The basic operational modes include vortex hybrid rocket, cool-wall ramjet/scramjet, and cool-wall liquid propellant rocket. The Vortex-Combustion Combined Cycle (VCCC) engine has several important advantages: high volumetric loading, simple combustion chamber construction, stable, efficient combustion, reduced thermal failure modes, low-weight, low-cost, and full trajectory operational capability in a single engine. Phase I will involve selecting various propulsion system cycles, analyzing key subsystems, determining overall system performance and physical characteristics, comparing the VCCC cycles to competitive rocket and airbreathing cycles, and identifying key demonstration technologies. In Phase II experiments will be conducted to demonstrate the key technologies identified in Phase I. Additional analysis will also be performed, and vehicle designs will be produced.

MAXDEM, INC.
140 E. Arrow Highway
San Dimas, CA 91773
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 394-0644
Matthew Marrocco
AF 99-218
Title:POSS Modified Polyphenylenes for Lightweight Rocket Components
Abstract:There is a need for new lightweight materials from which rocket and missile components can be economiclly mass produced (e.g., by molding or extrusion). Maxdem has developed a unique family of self-reinforced thermoplastic polyparaphenylenes, parmaxTM resins, combining exceptional strength, stiffness, thermal stability, and processability. The ParmaxTM materials are 2-3 times stronger and 3-5 times stiffer than any other un-reinforced isotropic plastic. We propose to modify ParmaxTM resin with POSS groups to increase Tg, heat distortion temperature, hardness, oxidative stability, and ablative properties. The properties of ParmaxTM enhanced with POSS will be ideal for the desired rocket and missile applications. During Phase I, processing characteristics of the Poly-XTM materials will be evaluated. Related efforts include developing an initial database of relevant properties such as mechanical performance at cryogenic and elevated temperatures, determining resistance to rocket fluids (e.g.liquid oxygen and hydrogen), and initial scale-up of optimized resins.

NORTH DANCER LABS, INC.
P.O. Box 99
Shelburne, VT 05482
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 985-1045
Charles Lysogorski
AF 99-219
Title:Gated Holographic Imaging (GHI)
Abstract:The ability to form images through densely scattering media has been highly desirable in medical diagnostics. The "gating" approach utilizes the principle that scattered light will travel farther than unscattered, ballistic light. A laser, with a very short pulse width or coherence length, can make a holographic recording of the light traversing the volume, and only the ballistic light will interfere with the reference beam, creating an image without scatter. Applied to propulsion diagnostics, this technology will yield images from dense flows which are surrounded by a scattering medium through which images cannot be obtained by conventional means. The recent development of photorefractive multiple quantum well (MQW) crystals has provided a breakthrough in recording materials for image gating. These crystals have an extremely high dynamic range, allowing a hologram to be recorded despite noise many orders of magnitude greater than the signal. They are also capable of continuous image capture at kHz repetition rates, making them ideal for flow analysis. North Dancer Labs, Inc. (NDL) will, in Phase I, design and build a test bed for Gated Holographic Imaging (GHI) to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for a high-speed, MQW-based recorder. A copper vapor laser with a dye cell will provide sufficient power and short coherence (spatial and temporal) at kHz recording rates. Beyond simple visualization, NDL will also investigate the ability to provide quantitative data by applying shearing interferometry, Schlieren photography, particle imaging velocimetry, or resonant holography to prove diagnostic capabilities of the GHI system.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-8373
Gregory J. Fiechtner PhD
AF 99-220
Title:Integrated Measurement System for Characterizing Advanced Propulsion Systems
Abstract:The proposed Phase I program targets the development of an integrated measurement system for characterizing advanced propuslion systems. Key to this system will be the use of computational modeling inconjunction with the development of advanced instrumentation. The modeling program will consist of two portions. First, a combustor kinetics code willbe implemented to predict combustor performance and emissions with higher hydrocarbon fuels, with calculations being applied both to the combustion tube of a pulse detonation engne and to a high-equivalence-ratio gas-turbine combustorwithconventional jet fueland air. Secod, a multi-dimensional computational code will be implemented to study important spatial and temporal behavior of relevance to instrumentation designand application. Advanced instrumentation willalso be demonstrated after choosing the most relevant techniques. A demonstration measurement of pressure and temperature is planned usng the dual-pump CARS technique. In addition, filtered Rayleigh scattering and laser-induced fluorescence will be applied. In each case, the test will be performed on a laboratory researc combustor. A fiber-optic-based probe willalso bedesigned for concentration measurements in cases where optical access is limited.

ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH COR
18 Mason
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 859-8851
Dr. Vladimir Zamansky
AF 99-221
Title:Chemical Additives for Maximizing Fuel Reactivity
Abstract:For the ignition of fuel in an engine, the chemical time scale is defined by chemical kinetics and charactorized by the ignition delay time, which is the time it takes a fuel-oxidizer mixture to achieve the status of ignition. Specific US Air Force applications require advanced fuels with significantly improved combustion kinetics and reduced ignition delay times. The objectives of this SBIR project are to: (1) develop a knietic model to identify additives providing minimum ignition delay and predict their performance; (2) measure ignition delays and other characteristcs of fuels with most prospective additives in laboratory facilities; and, (3) demonstrate the benefits of proposed fuel additives in a research prototype. Phase I of the project is a feasibility study utilizig fuel additives that will provide minimum ignition delay and maximum fuel reactivity. The Phase Istudy will deliverthe results of shock tube and flow systemexperiments with selected additives that will provide minimum igition delay and maximum fuel reactivity. The Phase I study will deliver the results of shock tube and flow system experiments with selected additives as well as modeling results on promising additives.

TAITECH, INC.
2372 Lakeview Drive Suite H
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-4141
Dr Robert Baurle
AF 99-222
Title:Development of Instrumenttion and Computational Tools for Supersonic Cavity Flameholder Design
Abstract:A combined model and experiment based method is proposed for the design of cavity flameholders in a supersonic environment. Recessed cavities play an important role in many scramjet propulsion systems as a low drag flameholder. These flowfields are remarkably complicated with internal and external regions that are coupled via self-sustained shear layer oscillations. A CFD design tool based on large eddy simulations (LES) will be developed for the design and analysis of the cavity flameholder. The development of the design tool and the flameholder will be carried out in parallel with dynamic pressure measurements spanning the length of the cavity using an optically interrogated MEMS based pressure sensor array. The proposed concept will lead to an LES based cavity design tool and rugged surface pressure mapping instrumentation with spatial and temporal resolution that is currently unavailable. The proposed LES/MEMS model for cavity flameholder design will allow a detailed analysis of highly turbulent unsteady flows that cannot be properly captured with traditional RANS methodologies, empirical models, or standard measurement techniques. The proposed model and instrumentation will be of great interest to scientists and engineers involved with the analysis and design of advanced propulsion components which are dominated by large scale turbulence and unsteady effects.

DIVERSITECH, INC.
110 Boggs Lane
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 772-4447
Carl Grant
AF 99-223
Title:Shrink Fit Bling Shroud
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal is focused on shrouds for wide chord, low aspect ratio stage 1 fan blades. A tip shroud ring and a part span shroud bling. Both shroud types use BMI/Graphite composites and both types are attached to the blade tips by an interference shrink-fit which pins the blade tip in the radial, axial, and tangential directions. Type 1 BMI/Graphite tip shroud rings were successfully demonstrated to 1818 ft/sec tip speed on wide chord, low aspect ratio, transonic Wright Labs Parametric Blade Study Rotor 2 PBSR2. The tip shrouded PBSR2 was also bench tested and produced significant increases in the fundamental blade frequencies; Campbell Diagram 1F 2rev margins, and blade damping. An innovative design coceppt si presented in this SBIR Phase I proposal that eliminates tip leakage re-circulationwhile retainingthe jamor aeromechanic benefits associated with the tip shroud ring previously tested. the new concept is a Type 2 part span, shrink fit BMI/Graphite shroud bling is proposed. Alternate, 3D, reinforced BMI/Graphite configurations will be studied as well as a range of bling span geights. FEM and FEA willbe made of each configuration. A supplementary aerodynamic study of bling configurations by Wright Laboratories and/or NASA Lewis is suggested. Such aerodynamic studies would be separately funded.

CFD RESERACH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Clifford E. Smith
AF 99-224
Title:LES Software for Predicting and Controlling Combustion Dynamics in High Performance Gas Turbine Combustors
Abstract:The high performance, high power density combustors being proposed for IHPTET III must operate without exhinbintng combustion instability. There is a need to develop a time-accurate CFD combustion dynamics code that provides improved understanding of the acoustic/heat-release coupling and is able t predict the frequency and limit cycle of the instability. The code also needs to be practical enough to be used as a designtool to assess passive or active fixes in a timely manner. In Phase I of this SBIR, the feasibility of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code that captures heat release/acoustic coupling will be demonstrated. Having previously shown the feasibility of capturng gaseous-fueled combustion instability, this Phase I effort will focus on liquid-fueld combustion instability analysis. Prediction will be compared to Pratt & Whitney single nozzle experiments that utilize the high shear fuel injector. In order to acount for the temporal variation of fuel spray, the liquid spray boundary conditions will be changed (i.e. drop velocity, SMD, etc.) based on local (temporal) airflow conditions. Also, a reduced chemical model will be developed and incorporated to describe the heat release of JP fuels. In Phase II, the LES methodology willbeimproved by incorporating Linear Eddy based subgrid models for chemical reaction and vaperization,and further validated. The LES code will then be applied to IHPTET III combustor configurations fromPratt & Whitneyand General Electric.

AERODYNE RESEARCH, INC.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 663-9500
David B. Stickler
AF 99-225
Title:Return Flow Cascade Cooling of Turbine Rotor Blades
Abstract:The Return Flow Cascade (RFC) is a new technology which provides stable cooling of rotating turbine blades to much lower temperature than the combustion gas. Liquid coolant, searld withinthe blade structure, is driven by radial aceleration to a series of cascade shelves within the blade, resulting in uniform evaporative cooling. The vapor is condensed by heat exchange to low pressure cooling air at the blade root, and the liqued recycled. Stable cooling at very high heat flux has been experimentally demonstrated, usng a circular cylinder as the heat transfer structure. This program will develop RFC technology with realistic blade and condensor geometries, selected for rapid transition to gas turbine utilization. The Phase I program will develop a detailed blade and condenser hardware design, with measurements planned for the Phase II effort. The overall result will be demonstration of high temperature, high heat flux RFC operaton, providing a baseline blade design an system definitionfor integration into an engine. Mit and Pratt & Whitney will provide technical support and review. This cooling technology enables engine operation at higher combustion temperature, with corresponding increase in engine specific power. Also, a wide range of relatively low cost, high strength blade materials become viable.

SCIENTIFIC MONITORING, INC.
4801 S. Lakeshore Dr., #103
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 752-7909
Link Jaw PhD
AF 99-226
Title:Smart Material Actuators for High-Response Flow Control
Abstract:The firm porposes to conduct a research and development program on distributed control of smart components. The distributed control will be targeted at high-response flow actuation components to suppress gas turbine engine instabilities. The goal of this program is to develop actuation technology for high response (beyond 500 Hz) and high authority (large-amplitude flow modulation beyond 10%). In Phase 1, we will design and build a proof-of concept actuator using mostly commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. This prototype will be tested on a flow benchat the end of Phase 1. In Phase 2, we propose to refine the design, address potential packaging and relability challenges, develop control logic, and build several rig-qualified actuators for further testing and evaluation.

GREY FOX TECHNOLOGIES
33 Dascomb Road
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 772-7425
Harold Brown
AF 99-227
Title:Extended Life Control Modes
Abstract:Steady-state and transient control modes for extending aircraft engine life will be defined and evaluated to determine their effectiveness in a typical military engine program. The steady-state modes will include an approach which adds temperature compensation to existing controls and a model-based control approach which operates the engine at the minimum high pressure turbine inlet temperature for the selected thrust level. The transient mode uses stator reset to minimize the transient temperature rise. The proposed program will define each mode and estimate its potential for extending engine life. The most attractive concepts will be identified for further development in a subsequent program.

SCIENTIFIC MONITORING, INC.
4801 S. Lakeshore Dr., #103
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 752-7909
David J. Bryg PhD
AF 99-228
Title:A Pressure Transducer Telesensor for Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:It is difficult to measure pressures and temperatures on turbomachinery during engine development because of the difficulty of transmitting information from a rotating piece of equipment to a stationary recording station. The traditional method for measurements on rotating machinery is with a slip-ring, which has an expensive up-front cost as well as a short life, lasting as little as 25 hours of testing. We propose to develop a new technology for wireless transmission of pressure signals using a low power data link. Sending pressure or temperature signals through these data links would have a range of 2 meters, which should be sufficient to cover the distances necessary for turbine engines.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2706
Dennis F. Grosjean
AF 99-230
Title:Development of Inexpensive Method for Detection of Partial-Discharge Activity in High-Power Modules
Abstract:The objective of this program is the development of a method of detecting the presence of partial discharges in high-power electrical modules. By partial evacuation of the module, the residual mass spectra is analyzed for contaminants that indicate gaseous byproducts of partial discharges. Initially, a standard residual-gas-analyzer system will be employed for determining the gaseous species that is most indicative of partial discharge activity. The instrumental design will be cost-effective through utilization on inexpensive thin-and thick-film gas sensors.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin
AF 99-235
Title:Advanced Correlator GPS Receiver and IMU Integration
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to develop and evaluate an innovative GPS receiver which allows the correlator output (i.e. in-phase and quadrature samples) to be directly used in a combined demodulation and navigation algorithm. Because this method makes full use of the intersatellite statistical properties of phase, frequency, and delay processes, as well as the correlator dynamic characteristics and the satellite geometry, this conventional tracking loop-free GPS receiver has enhance navigation accuracy and anti-jamming performance. Several new technologies are utilized to develop and evaluate this kind of GPS receiver in this project. First, a combined demodulation and navigation algorithm with or without IMU aiding is developed. Then, a Virtual GPS Receiver Environment, which will be applied to the combined demodulation and navigation algorithm, is investigated and developed. Finally, a correlator GPS modeling and simulation is conducted to evaluate the navigation accuracy and anti-jamming performance.

TRACKING & IMAGING, INC.
418 N. Linden Street
Bloomington, IL 61701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(309) 827-9555
James W. Sennott
AF 99-235
Title:Exploitation of integrated Demodulation/Navigation Processing for Enhancement in GPS Systems Which Employ Aiding and Spatial nulling A/J Techniques
Abstract:Vector waveform estimation theory implies that a GPS signal processor be constructed as a centralized estimator, in which inter-path statistical information is utilized in extracting state dynamics information from the spread spectrum signals. TISI has developed and implemented such a scheme, known as Integrated Demodulation Navigation (IDN), which addresses robust carrier phase tracking in high Dynamics and blockage. In extending this development to the tactical jamming environment, specific challenges must be surmounted including estimation of signal amplitudes and compensation for deleterious amplitude and phase effects introduced by front-end spatial nulling. In its Phase I effort an enhanced amplitude estimation scheme for IDN will be developed, which will be evaluated in non-linear tracking simulations. TISI's simulator environment will be extended to include antenna pattern and vehicle blockage effects, as well as multiple jammer sources. A simplified model of spatial nulling disturbances will also be introduced. In preparation for RF testing of a prototype receiver in Phase II, MacAulay-Brown will develop a virtual GPS receiver environment concept for capture and playback of actual jammer and spatial pre-filtering scenarios produced by the AWFS. Finally, TISI will identify and compare options for implementing IDN in the GRAM-SAASM framework.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
David A. Logan
AF 99-237
Title:SAR Clutter Characterization for ATR Performance Prediction
Abstract:We propose a comprehensive program to develop a mathematical characterization of clutter environments in SAR imagery. In contrast to conventional characterizations of SAR clutter, which use simple statistical models for targets and background to predict the receiver operation characteristics of front-end detectors (e.g., CFAR algorithms), we develop a more general notion of clutter complexity that also considers the significant screening power afforded by target type-specific back-end processing. Our complexity measure may be computed over sample clutter image sets, and used to predict the false alarm rates likely to be incurred by generic ATR algorithms over comparable imagery. Our approach is based on constructing estimators for the density of target-like objects in the clutter set. In Phase I, we develop a range of estimators that provide different computational cost vs. estimation performance trade-offs, and empirically evaluate their performance. In Phase II we will extend our methodology to better address situations where inadequate example clutter imagery is available on which to base good empirical estimates of complexity. We expect that our research will provide useful tools to support ATR evaluation and performance benchmarking, as well as insights and theoretical advances that

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1555 Wilson BoulevardSuite 320
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-0990
G. Minot Clements
AF 99-237
Title:Clutter Models for SAR and LADAR ATR Development
Abstract:Dynamics Technology, Inc. (DTI) will develop an improved parametric statistical model of SAR and/or LADAR range image clutter to support development and performance characterization of ATR algorithms. The model will account for both the large-scale occurrence statistics and the local spatial structure of clutter objects. Model development will emphasize correct geometric scaling properties with sensor resolution as well as support for additional sensor characteristics such as polarization and frequency (for SAR clutter). An prototype algorithm for estimating cutter model parameters from SAR and/or LADAR imagery will be developed and implemented as part of the effort. The algorithm will be applied to actual clutter imagery, and synthetic imagery will be generted based on the estimated clutter parameter values. The synthetic imagery may be made available or testing with working ATR algorithms. In Phase I, we will: (1) survey parametric statistical models and identify an initial candidate clutter model (2) develop an algorithm for estimating clutter model parameters from data, (3) implement the parameter estimation algorithm, generate synthetic clutter imagery, and test this imagery in a working ATR algorithm, and (4) define requirements for further development and implementation in Phase II.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
Post Office Drawer719735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
William J. Kent
AF 99-238
Title:Space-Based Targeting Technologies
Abstract:In this Phase I proposal, we present a plan for the improvement, development, and integration of accurate signature modeling into existing Modeling & Simulation (M&S) tools that support space-based sensors. While existing M&S tools can presently model complex scenarios, multiple sensors and targets, accurate sensor motion, and targets with articulation, they do not necessarily incorporate high fidelity, accurate, wideband monostatic and bistatic signatures in the RF, IR, and spectral regions. Our plan includes the use, extension, and fixing of signature modeling approaches that have been developed, but whose performance levels need improvement. Our emphasis is on accuracy of the signature data, with particular attention to data compression techniques for monostatic and bistatic data sets. The entire approach pivots on the interplay of target tack information, which can be correlated to dynamic articulation (position of control surfaces, vector thrust geometry, etc.) to produce -via model-based methods - highly accurate time-varying signature data. This plan paves the way for a new set of tools that allow accurate, detailed modeling of targeting issues for space-based sensors, directly address data fusion, allow optimization of intelligence collection scenarios, provide cost reduction by replacing most testing with credible M&S, and provide EW effectiveness assessments.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings ParkSuite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
B. Ravichandran
AF 99-238
Title:Unified Robust Multisource-Multitarget Targeting and Identification
Abstract:Scientific Systems Co., Inc. (SSCI) and its subcontractor Lockheed Martin Tactical Defense Systems (LMTDS) propose a direct, systematic, and principled generalization of Bayesian filtering and estimation theory to the problem of multisource, multitarget, multi-evidence unified joint detection, tracking, and target I.D. recursive Bayesian nonlinear filtering and estimation is the most accepted standard for developing algorithms that are optimal, theoretically defensible, and practical. However, the success of any optimal Bayes technique hinges on a number of subtle issues and in recent years shortcoming in conventional Bayesian thinking have become evident. In response to these, the SSCI-LMTDS approach is capable of addressing: (1) the ambiguity that is present in real-world ATR problems involving sources such as SAR, HRR, and datalink messages; (2) the real-time computational issues in single-target filtering, especially in low-SNR regimes; and (3) the unique conceptual and computational difficulties associated with optimal multitarget filtering. This approach finds its basis in finite set statistics (FISST_ a methodology developed at LMTDS. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin TDS the originator of FISST. Lockheed Martin will provide technical and commercialization support in the application of these technologies.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
14A Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2030
Hua Jiang
AF 99-239
Title:Miniature and Electrically Tunable Evanescent-Mode Filters
Abstract:The development of advanced communication or electronic warfare systems requires high performance miniaturized microwave filters. Miniaturized high-Q evanescent (EV) is one of the most desirable filters due to its wide stopband and small size, especially for satellite down-converter applications where a few hundred EV filters are used. Currently, EV filters are made using very small capacitors in parallel with real or virtual inductors. The inductor size is directly related to the filter size. To reduce the size of current EV filters, the capacitance of resonate capacitors must increase significantly by employing film dielectric capacitors to replace the bulk alumina or quartz capacitors. Metal-Organic Chemical Liquid Deposition (MOCLD) technology is very promising for the growth of high quality dielectric thick film. In this Phase I proposal, NZ Applied Technologies proposes an innovative miniature and electrically tunable evanescent-mode filter. In our approach, high quality capacitors made by MOCLD technology will e implement3ed into evanescent-mode filter to realize a significant filter size reduction. Our innovative electrical tunable design of the filter will lead to a new generation of EV filters which are superb in performance compare to any EV filters currently available.

WIDEGAP TECHNOLOGY, LLC
5655 Lindero Canyon RoadSuite 404
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 967-9433
Primit Parikh
AF 99-240
Title:High Power, High Voltage AlGaN/GaN HEMT Circuits
Abstract:High power microwave and millimeter-wave amplifiers for wireless communication base stations, wireless local area networks, digital radio, and airborne or space-based applications like phased array radar, satellites communications are increasingly utilizing solid state power amplifiers. Nitride based wide bandgap semiconductors have demonstrated potential (theoretically proposed and experimentally demonstrated) for realization of high power, high frequency transistors, due to their superior material properties and the existence of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. This is due to the combination of the wide-band gap and heterostructure in the AlGaN/GaN system, where high voltage, high current and low on-resistance can be simultaneously achieved, resulting in high power-high efficiency operation. In this program, WiTech proposes to develop a reliable high power AlGaN/GaN HEMT based microwave/millimeter wave device and circuit technology, capable of operating under harsh environments such as high temperatures up to 300*C. The demonstration vehicle shall be an efficient, linear power amplifier circuit operating at X-band, with ~5 W power level at > 20 Volts (Phase I) and 20-50 W power levels at 28 Volts (Phase II). Operation at 28 Volts eliminates the need for dc-dc voltage conversion in certain airforce applications, improving system efficiency and reducing cost. Further, WiTech will investigate components for GaN MMICs (Metal Resistors, MIM Capacitors, Spiral Inductors, CPW Transmission Line Wiring). Flip-chip technology for thermal management will be addressed in the option plan with a view of achieving higher throughput and lower cost. Power amplifier circuits on SiC and Sapphire substrates will be compared based on a performance/cost analysis in Phase II.

SRICO, INC.
2724 Sawbury Blvd.
Columbus, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 799-0664
S.A. Kingsley
AF 99-241
Title:Sub-Volt V-pi Integrated Optic modulator
Abstract:A technique is proposed for reducing the Noise Figure of a wideband fiber optic link by using an external intensity modulator incorporated within a microwave resonant cavity. The proposed innovation is expected to lead to a decrease in passive system Noise Figure by 10-20 dB and is applicable to modulation from low or moderate FR frequency to frequency in excess of 100 GHz. The modulator can be completely passive, thereby requiring no electrical power. In optical communication links, it is important to minimize the system noise floor and maximize the dynamic range. One of the key parameters for improved performance is VO, the voltage required to produce O radians phase shift in the modulator. This proposal addresses methods to reduce this VO value by using lithium niobate electro-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometers to demonstrate feasibility. However, the technique may also be used with modulators constructed out of other electro-optic materials, such as polymers. The program will develop a compact, low mass intensity modulates system ideal for space-based phased array systems.

TACAN CORP.
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Yongqiang Shi
AF 99-241
Title:Novel 130 GHz High Dynamic Range Laser Modulator for Space and Airborne RF Distribution and Phased Array Antennas
Abstract:TACAN proposes a novel low voltage, low cost, high performance 130 GHz continuous bandwidth EO modulator architecture that uses a balanced two section modulator, one for input RF up to 65 GHz, and the other section for 65 -130 GHz, using currently available V connectors and no metal waveguides. We further propose to fabricate two such external laser modulators to integrate into a dual-parallel laser modulator with extraordinarily large dynamic range. These antenna remoting links in the 44-100 GHz frequency range will use fiber optic transmission facilities that must handle microwave carrier-based digital modulation schemes requiring very high modulator linearity to minimize the interference that results from spectral regrowth. Use of a single laser and high dynamic range electrooptic modulator capable of covering the entire spectrum to 130 GHz rather than multiple laser and modulators that cover a fraction of the frequency range will greatly lower the cost for such applications. Very important immediate application of low cost to manufacture RF photonic laser modulators include remoting of antennas for cellular and micro-cellular radio systems for use in military and commercial applications, all of which are part of TACAN'' present and continuing marketing and sales agenda. Of particular commercial interest are space-based and airborne platforms such as true time delay beam formation and beam steering subsystems in phased array antennas. We are also now developing and marketing antenna downlinks from L-Band through Ka-band up to 47 GHz.

ALPHA OMEGA ELECTROMAGNETICS, LLC
24 Cascade Road
Arnold, MD 21012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 626-7682
Robert G. Schmier
AF 99-244
Title:Omnidirectional Hemispherical Phased Array Antenna
Abstract:Satellites are linked to an earth station by transmitting and receiving a microwave beam through antennas. The current antennas of choice for earth stations are parabolic reflector antennas such as those used for tracking telemetry and control (TT&C) for the AFSCN. These antennas are required to have horizon-to-horizon, full-hemispherical coverage and often several antennas are required at each remote tracking station site. A single active hemispherical phased array antenna composed of flat panel subarrays could replace all the reflector antennas at a remote tracking station site. The objective of this SBIR effort is to develop and demonstrate the technical feasibility of a low-cost passive subarray of radiating elements that will meet the requirement s for TT&C in satellite control operations. Alpha Omega Electromagnetics, LLC (AOE) will conduct a systematic and rigorous EM-based investigation of several new radiating element candidates that promise to meet the needs of the AFSCN system. AOE will employ proprietary finite element and moment method electromagnetic simulation software to accurately predict the radiating element's performance in the array environment. The results of this investigation will yield low-cost radiating aperture technology that is suitable for implementation in a passive subarray. The technology will be demonstrated with hardware during Phase II of this effort.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Systems, Inc.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 275-3100
Vernon Shrauger
AF 99-245
Title:Feedback Based, High-Speed Smart-Pixel Wavefront Corrector
Abstract:We propose to design and build an analog VLSI smart-pixel wavefront-sensor chip that will drive a deformable membrane mirror to correct rapidly changing wavefront distortions. On-chip detectors will sense the error signal in local wavefront tilts using a Hartmann-sensor within a feedback loop. The error signal is then used to drive the membrane mirror to the phase conjugate of the incoming distorted field. The chip wil use a massivley parallel analgo computation algorithm to determine the error signal present during closed loop operation, when the turbulence is probed with light from a glint or a with a guide star. Our approach integrates the Hartman sensor, membrane mirror, and analog computation onto a single die substrate allowing for a high-speed, ultra-light weight, compact, low-power adaptive optic system. Our chip-driven membrane-mirror approach promises up to 8p radians of stroke, 10us response time and true-piston modulation. In Phase I, we will simulate, fabricate and test separately a proof-of-concept 10x10 smart-pixel chip. We will interface a membrane mirror modulator to the chip to demonstrate an optical wavefront correction system capable of 100 Khz operation. In Phase II we will scale the device to a 256x256-element array and demonstrate wavefront correction for atmospheric turbulence and retinal imaging. We plan to market this device for military countermeasures, seeker systems, and low-cost commercial retinal imagers.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
14 Union Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 924-1009
William H. Weedon III
AF 99-246
Title:MEMS-Switched Reconfigurable Multi-Band Phased-Array Antennas for UAVs
Abstract:We propose to use microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches to develop reconfigurable antenna concepts for the Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The current need is an antenna that can relay communications from HF to K band, and serve radar functions from VHF to X band. Reconfigurable antennas will be developed that can serve multiple frequency bands using a common aperture. In addition, the antenna could be reconfigures to change polarization and form multiple beams for phased-array functionality. A tile architecture will be developed so that the antenna could ultimately be structurally integrated with the UAV. In Phase I, we will develop Reconfigurable Patch modules (RPMs) that will form the basic building blocks in the tile architecture. Various microstrip patch elements and configurations will be investigated as candidates for the RPMs. A general Adaptive Reconfigurable Feed (GARF) methodology will be utilized to allow the various antenna configurations to have independent feed structures, and hence be tuned independently. Computer simulations will be used to validate designs. A small prototype RPM will be built and tested to show functionality. Finally, a preliminary reconfigurable antenna will be designed for the Global Hawk UAV. The UAV antenna will be refined in Phase II with additional prototypes. Wireless communication repeaters; satellite antennas; satellite reception antennas for automobiles, homes and boats; commercial aircraft antennas; airborne electron intel sensors; mobile Army troop antennas; Naval ship antennas; military ground based communications, sensing, and weapons-control antennas

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Glenn t. Bennett
AF 99-247
Title:A novel Solid State Raman Laser Architecture for Short Pulse Laser Radar Transmitters
Abstract:Long-range, non-cooperative identification techniques such as one-dimensional shape echoes require sources that are compact, eyesafe and produce temporally short pulses to provide fast accurate target identification in the field. To meet these requirements, CTI proposes a solid state Raman laser (SSRL) with an innovative architecture that produces 1.5 um output in short 1 ns length pulses. This architecture is calculated to compress the pump laser pulse by factors of five or greater thereby eliminating the need for short pulse pump lasers. Moreover, this Raman laser provides beam cleanup, efficiently converting and improving the spatial beam quality of the pump laser. The pump laser design is based on previous work at CTI and is a rugged, efficient design suited for pumping this SSRL. The architecture can also be modified to produce adaptive waveforms such as the pulse doublet, permitting microDoppler and wind measurement capability with the same transmitter and therefore multipurpose instrument capability. This program will tie together our experience in flightworthy lidar systems with recent advances in SSRLs. The proposed effort will model and design the 1ns transmitter, produce 1 ns long pulses by compression of the pump pulses in a lab demonstration, and perform a preliminary transceiver design.

APPLIED MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS RES.
420 Bedford St.Suite 230
Lexington, MA 02420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 862-6357
Brian Hatfield
AF 99-248
Title:Non-iterative Registratoin and High Resolution Image Reconstruction Algorithm sofr Microscanning
Abstract:Microscanning is the process of using multiple low resolution frames differing by small rotations and translations to constrain a mapping from a higher resolution grid to the observed frame grid. This mapping can be used to reconstruct higher resolution mages from the observed low resolution frames thereby increasing the optical system resolution without changing the hardware. To be useful under operational conditions, the microscanning algorithms must work in real-time. Presently employed registration and reconstruction algorithms use iterations that slow the process down. The goal of this project is to increase the speed of the algorithms by removing the iterations. This will be accomplished by identifying local constraints that conserve the image properties. We have already successfully employed local constraints to remove the interations from segmented adaptive optics control algorithms. To further increase the speed of the microscanning process, we will also parallelize the non-iterative image registration algorithm. We will demonstrate that the parallel computation is well suited to handle cases where the images contain moving objects. Finally, we will develop a completely new non-iterative approach to microscanning processing based on orthonormal scaled functions or wavelets as apodization functions for the detector array. .

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Rd
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 675-7404
Mark S. Dombrowski
AF 99-249
Title:Multispectral Infrared Ohenomenology for Combined Threat Warning and Reconnaissance Sensors
Abstract:A program to demonstrate the feasibility of a single multi-hyperspectral infrared sensor capable of both missile threat warning and subpixel ground target detection is proposed. The effort will first identify candidate spectral bands/subbands for both missile threat warning and subpixel ground target detection applications. From these results, clutter rejection and subpixel target detection algorithms shall be defined. The best candidate algorithms will be further developed to enhance their performance for use as embedded algorithms in SOC's real-time hyperspectral imaging and multispectral data processor. Based upon the warning and reconnaissance sensor requirements, SOC will conduct a preliminary design of the Threat Warning and Reconnaissance Sensor (TWARS) which will include a common TWARS sensor or sensor modules plus the real-time HIS/multispectral data processor. The processor to be delivered as a Phase I option effort is a currently available real-time HIS processor developed by Surface Optics Corporation over the last seven years. The 1/3 Gbyte /sec throughput rate of the processor will easily support three spectral imaging sensor modules and can be readily expanded to process additional HIS/multispectral sensors at increased data rates. By building on Spectral Sciences, Inc. and Analytical imaging and Geoophysics decades of experience in spectra bands / subbands selection and algorithms development, and SOC's seven years experience in instrument and algorithm development in the HIS field, the proposed program will produce a new TWARS system of unsurpassed capability, with varied military and commercial applications.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
PO Box 7488
Boulder, CO 80306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Wayne S. Pelouch
AF 99-250
Title:Optical Waveguide Amplifier for Modular EO Sensors
Abstract:The design of LADAR systems varies widely with application and platform requiring custom designs which increase cost and complexity and limit the commercial applicability. To address this issue, CTI proposes a unique, modular optical waveguide amplifier (WGA) based transmitter which can be adapted to coherent and direct detection transceivers over a wide range of repetition rates and average powers. When compared to traditional lasers, the WGA has many exceptional properties: (1) compact, light weight, efficient, and highly manufacturable; (2) distributed thermal load that does not introduce serious optical distortions and allows passive conduction cooling; (3) mechanically flexible similar to fibers, but preserving spatial/spectral coherence and polarization; (4) each module is potentially scalable to kilowatts of cw power or tens of millijoules pulsed output; (5) geometry amenable to being pumped by high power laser diode arrays with minimal coupling optics. The WGA is ideal for eye-safe, multi-function, space-based and tactical airborne LADAR where resources are at a premium. This novel waveguide design is radically different from standard waveguide and fiber designs and will find wide commercial applicability and provide a path to multidiscriminant remote sensing modules. CTI's experience in flight-worthy EO systems helps ensure a successful PhaseI/II program.

MAGNETIC SCIENCES
367 Arlington Street
Acton, MA 01720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 266-9355
Paul G. Elliot
AF 99-251
Title:GPS Antenna for Spinning Satellite
Abstract:There is a need for satellite position determination during launch and in orbit. During different phases of operation the satellite could be spinning up to 60 revolutions per minute and spin axis tumbling. The satellite position can be determined by an onboard GPS receiver that continuously tracks all-in-view GPS satellites. The objective of this effort is to complete the design of the GPS antenna system and evaluate how well it will meet the Air Force requirements. A low profile GPS microstrip antenna element was designed for this proposal, producing circular polarization at both GPS frequencies L1 and L2. Microstrip patch GPS antennas are often used on missiles, the proposed element is adapted from that demonstrated design. Preliminary impedance match and pattern data was computed for the element which shows good impedance match and element patterns at L1 and L2. The element would be placed at several locations on the satellite. Antenna architectures, element location, and beam control are discussed, with advantages of several architectures compared. This effort will be performed by a Principal Investigator with extensive antenna design experience including patch antennas on missiles, GPS antennas, satellite tracking and communications antennas, and computer-aided design of antennas.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Alison Brown
AF 99-251
Title:Digital Spaceborne Antenna System for All-in-View GPS Satellite Visibility
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR effort is to develop and demonstrate an innovative digital beamforming antenna array suitable for installation on a space vehicle. GPS can provide a cost effective method of tracking space vehicles during launch and orbit entry. However, an antenna is needed that can track the GPS satellites while the space vehicle is spinning to leverage this advantage. NAVSYS proposes to develop a digital beamforming antenna array that can provide all-around GPS satellite visibility from a spinning space-vehicle and will also provide gain directivity to the GPS satellites. This approach leverages the commercial digital GPS antenna array that has already been developed by NAVSYS and has demonstrated 10 dB gain improvements for tracking GPS satellites. We will also leverage our experience with spaceborne antennas and GPS tracking from the Falcon Gold Experiment. This used a NAVSYS' antenna and GPS sensor (TIDGETä) to show that the GPS signals could be received at altitudes from 1500 to 33000 km. In Phase I, the antenna design will developed and prototyped using our existing technology. Under Phase II, the digital beamforming array will be built, integrated with a suitable GPS receiver, and tested on a spinning platform.

ATLANTIC AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS CORP.
6404 Ivy LaneSuite 300
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 982-5264
Andy Humen
AF 99-253
Title:Low Cost Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna (L-CRPA)
Abstract:A novel anti-jam GPS antenna concept is proposed that is an alternative to the complex and expensive Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna (CRPA) currently in use. This approach, called the L-CRPA, can utilize installation foot prints as small as a Fixed Reception Pattern Antenna (FRPA) and provide three modes of operation. Mode-1 provides a typical broad-coverage FRPA pattern for situations when no jamming is present. Mode-2 and Mode-3 provide two anti-jam patterns. Mose-2 provides a steerable null in azimuth with potentially greater than 25 dB J/S. Mode -3 provides enhanced elevation pattern rolloff at all azimuth angles, for situations when a large number of jammers are present at many different azimuth angels. The antenna electronics required to produce these modes is simple and inexpensive. Passive pattern control technologies are also offered to provide additional anti-jam performance. The development of L-CRPA offers a cost effective alternative to CRPA hardware and the potential for a significant enhancement to in-situ FRPA systems.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
Post Office Drawer 719735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
Peter A. Beyerle
AF 99-253
Title:Global Positioning System Advanced Controlled Reception Antenna and Electronics
Abstract:The purpose of this proposed effort is to provide a design for a new generation of GPS CRPA antennas which will have superior anti-am performance against a larger number of intentional or unintentional interfering sources than is presently possible. At the same time, this new antenna system (including electronics) will be designed for minimum cost in commercially production quantities. This proposal demonstrates in-depth understanding of the GPS system as it relates and responds to jamming and interfacing signals, and will highlight experience in antenna design, measurement, and fabrication. MRC, allied with Compton Research Corporation and the University of Michigan, provides a unique capability to analyze, design, and (in later phases of this work) fabricate and measure new integrated GPS hardware. MRC is well known for its unique special purpose antenna design and fabrication, but MRC has also designed and built Large Scale Integrated electronics which are actually GPS anti-jam filters. This effort is proposed to investigate antenna configurations, given the satellite, GPS receiver, and interfering signal spatial envelopes. Antenna performance will be predicted by the most advanced computational methods available. An array of designs and cost trade-offs will be delivered.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC.
1430 Oak Ct
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-1644
Ronald Clericus
AF 99-255
Title:Real-time Multi-spectral Synthetic Battlespace
Abstract:Man/hardware-in-the-loop laboratory simulation is the most cost-effective methodology for maturing advanced sensor technologies because the battlefield can be brought to the laboratory through multi-spectral synthetic battlespace simulation. Current laboratory simulation technologies cannot generate the real-time high fidelity multi-spectral environment required to advance multi-spectral sensor technology development. The limitation is the real-time generation of the high fidelity IR/EO part of the multi-spectral environment for IR/EO missile warning sensor development. DRA proposes to solve this challenging technology limitation by applying commercial scene rendering processing concepts to the problem with an innovative architecture that will provide a flexible IR/EO missile warning sensor development requirements, define key simulation technologies required for generation a real-time high fidelity IR/EO scene and develop a simulation architecture that integrates these key technologies. DRA will utilize the real-time simulation capability in the Sensors Directorate Integrated demonstrations and Applications Laboratory (IDAL) to demonstrate the architecture's feasibility. During Phase II.. DRA will implement a prototype capability into the IDAL and demonstrate key performance characteristics. The Phase II effort will provide a building block capability for rapid evolution of advanced IR/EO missile warning sensor technology.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Ave.
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Michael VonPlinsky
AF 99-256
Title:"System of Systems" Network-Centric Sensors Demonstration Testbed
Abstract:Joint Vision 2010 utilized operational concepts of Dominant Maneuver, Precision Engagement, Focused Logistics and Full Dimensional Protection with Information Superiority for join warfighting. A key challenge in this vision is understanding how advanced sensors combined with information Superiority can be exploited for a "system of systems" (SoS) approach. The AFRL vision is to provide "networks" of sensors, C3 (command, control, and communications) systems, and shooters to enable "Network-Centric Warfare." Virtual simulation technologies, leveraged through the collaborative enterprise environment (CEE) concept. The AFRL Sensors Directorate "Integrated Demonstrations and Applications Laboratory" (IDAL) has the critical CEE simulation technology building blocks to enable a virtual SoS research capability. This proposed effort will provide a cost-effective research capability for evolving these SoS concepts. Phase I & Phase II SBIR research will leverage CEE technologies to integrate the IDAL sensor simulation components with FTI-developed AFRL Information Directorate Global Awareness Virtual Testbed (GAVTB) components to form a distributed virtual simulation environment. An experiment linking the IDAL to other government/industry research facilities will be conducted to demonstrate the utility and benefits of a distributed virtual simulation environment for evolving SoS sensor concepts and technologies.

CYBERDYNAMICS, INC.
1860 Embarcadero Rd.Suite 155
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 856-6188
Frederick L. Beckner
AF 99-257
Title:Telescience Radar for Lower-Cost Data Collection
Abstract:There is current need for a lower-cost method of acquiring ultra high range resolution (UHRR) radar signatures for a variety of aircraft. The proposed research will produce a conceptual telescience system design suitable for the remotely-supervised semi-autonomous operation of a portable data collection radar. This radar data collection concept will reduce the costs of acquiring measured signature data by eliminating the ned to bring the aircraft to a stationary measurement radar, by reducing the need for dedicated aircraft assets, and by eliminating the need for on-site radar operator personnel. At the same time, it will enhance the utility of the radar measurement system by allowing remote observers to view the radar data as it is collected and by allowing remote experimenters to use these data in real time. A demonstration plan will be produced which will show how this concept can be demonstrated using an existing data collection radar.

MCA
1513 Hillhaven Drive
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 973-9409
Marvin N. Cohen
AF 99-257
Title:Innovations in Air-to-Air Target Identification
Abstract:The proposed effort will investigate the feasibility of both improving identification performance of high-range-resolution (HRR) Non-Cooperative Target Identification (NCTI) algorithmic systems and greatly reducing the time necessary to develop them. The effort will focus on developing a feature-based approach that will rely on analysis and characterization to determine those features of the HRR signatures of air targets that are well-predicted, stable, and useful in the identification problem.

TKA
313 Appletree Avenue
Camarillo, CA 93012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 484-1266
C. Long Yu
AF 99-259
Title:Innovative Planning Tool for Urban Electromagnetic Environment Characterization
Abstract:Today's dense and rapidly evolving threat environments have increased the requirements that are being placed on tools necessary for characterizing urban electromagnetic (EM) environments. Although effective tools for urban EM environment characterization exist for simple 2-D models, the more challenging problem of characterizing the EM environment of a large densely populated region entailing numerous heterogeneous buildings and varying terrain remains largely unsolved. Revolutionary tools are required to address the complexity of these problems. These tools must also address the optimization of competing modeling and simulation capabilities, especially at the fidelity levels of EM and computer-aided design (CAD) models. The objective of this proposed research is to initiate the development of an urban EM environment characterization tool that uses advanced 3-D computational EM algorithms and CAD modeling techniques to optimize the seemingly conflicting requirements placed on the accurate characterization of the dense urban environment encountered by today's warfighter. This urban tool will provide means to accurately characterize the EM environment of densely populated urban regions, and will thereby significantly impact the warfighter's task of surveillance, reconnaissance, and tracking. It is anticipated that successful completion of the proposed research will revolutionize current urban EM environment characterization simulation paradigms for ground, airborne, and space-based radar systems.

HYPERTECH SYSTEMS
4 Dickens Court
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 856-1338
David Slater
AF 99-263
Title:Invariant Subpixel Material Identification in Space-based Thermal Hyperspectral Images
Abstract:In this project, we will develop new algorithms for invariant subpixel material identification in thermal infrared hyperspectral images obtained from space-based sensors. Systems based on these algorithms have the potential to achieve high probabilities of detection in combination with low false alarm rates for the identification of small low contrast targets in the presence of camouflage, concealment, and deception. The algorithms will exploit a target subspace model that is based on intrinsic material properties and infrared phenomenology as well as a background model that is estimated from the data. These models will be used as the foundation of statistical tests for identifying subpixel instances of target materials. Since the approach is based on physical models, the algorithms can be configured according to ranges of thermal conditions and scene geometries, target/background spectral properties, and sensor characteristics. This will allow us to determine fundamental limits on performance. We will also examine the accuracy of the models and the performance of the algorithms over a range of available thermal spectral data.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
99 south Bedford Street#7
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Hohn Gruninger
AF 99-263
Title:A Phenomenological Approach for IR Hyperspectral Sub-pixel Detection and classification
Abstract:This proposal addresses USAF needs for innovative sub-pixel detection, classification, and identification methods for hyperspectral sensors operating at thermal infrared wavelengths. Development of suitable algorithms for these wavelengths has been hampered by the spectral mixing of the reflected downwelling atmospheric radiance with transmitted emissions and atmospheric path radiance. Spectral Sciences, Inc. proposes to overcome these mixing ambiguities with a novel approach based on an atmospheric path transmittance and radiance correction procedure. Target and background source spectra are separated using subspace projection procedures that include physical constraints. Advantages of this technique include computational efficiency, discrimination against noise and lack of a priori spectral assumptions. In Phase I we will create necessary data bases (tasks1, 2 and 5) to evaluate the approaches to atmospheric corrections (task 3) and the algorithms for sub-pixel target detection and identification (tasks 4 and 6). This work will lead to an improved understanding of the performance limitations of LWIR hyperspectral sensors. In Phase II we will develop and optimize detection and classification algorithms for selected sensors and determine sensor performance specifications. The Phase II software will be delivered to the USAF for evaluation in sensor system design.

ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERTS, INC.
215 FIRST STREET
CAMBRIDGE, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 577-0700
DAVID WARKENTIN, PHD
AF 99-265
Title:Reliable High Performance Directional Piezoceramic Actuator
Abstract:Herein, a Phase I program is proposed to design, build, and evaluate actuator for a high field, high strain, dynamic environment to ultimately support a buffet load alleviation system. These actuator improvements include high field and dynamic field testing of Active Control experts (ACX), Inc. current interdigitated design, as well as the inclusion of fine grain piezoceramic elements, produced by TRS Ceramics. ACX will incorporate these fine grain materials produced by TRS Ceramics, and evaluate them in both standard and interdigitated QuickPackID devices. ACX will do extensive characterization testing and evaluation of these enhanced actuators. These tests will determine reliability and performance of these actuators through the environmental conditions of aircraft buffet and vibration control. Two different actuator systems will be designed and tested to demonstrate enhanced performance induced strain actuation. An additional option is proposed to design full scale actuators based on the favored design for use in a full scale Ground Vibration Test.

CONTINUUM CONTROL CORP.
169 BENT STREET
CAMBRIDGE, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
( ) -

AF 99-265
Title:Development of Active Structural Hybrid Composites
Abstract:A number of shortcomings in current active control systems preclude their widespread use: 1) need for higher actuator authority, 2) need for robust compact actuators with ease of implementation, and 3) need for improved power handling and driving electronics. The innovation proposed is a new approach to active material and electronic systems for the control of vibrations in aeroelastic structures. Specifically, the use - of a new form of Active Fiber Composites and advanced electronics to: increase damping performance, improve actuator robustness, and reduce associated electronics weight and complexity over previous approaches. The proposed program will focus on two major areas: 1) the development of a model for a systems level feasibility study, and 2) the development of higher robustness Active Fiber Composite actuators. The first task will develop a dynamic system model that incorporates structural modal information, unsteady aerodynamics, actuators, and electronics. Feasibility will be determined by the improvements in performance versus weight and cost penalties, in comparison to previous approaches. The second task will investigate the potential for improving robustness through the addition of integral reinforcements to AFCs. In Phase I, feasibility will be studied by evaluating the performance of the proposed material in the Buffet Load Alleviation problem.

HIGH ENERGY METALS, INC.
419 HAINES PLACE
PORT TOWNSEND, WA 98368
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 385-1710
DAVID G. BRASHER
AF 99-266
Title:Explosion Welding of Aluminum-Beryllium (AlBeMet)/Aluminum Composites for Satellite and Space Structures
Abstract:Aluminum-Beryllium alloys (A1BeMet) are binary alloys that combine the high modulus and low density characteristics of beryllium with the fabrication and mechanical property behavior of aluminum. These characteristics are extremely desirable for advanced satellite and space applications. Cost($2000/lb) of the alloys has been the main drawback to their use. By combining thin A1BeMet sheets to a core of conventional high strength aluminum alloy by the use of explosive welding, structural beams and honeycombed sheets can then be fabricated at reasonable costs. .040" thick sheets of A1BeMet will be bonded to .125" 7050 aluminum alloy and then used as face sheets joined to a 7050 aluminum honeycomb core. I-Beams will also be fabricated from .040" A1BeMet explosion bonded to two sides of 2" x 2" wrought 7050 aluminum bar.

COMPOSITE OPTICS, INC.
9617 DISTRIBUTION AVENUE
SAN DIEGO, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 621-6954
FRANK TAYLOR
AF 99-267
Title:Structurally Integrated Thermal Protection System
Abstract:An advanced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) system will be used to develop concepts for a lightweight and economical thermal protection system for hypersonic air vehicles. The concept will be based on COI's oxide-oxide CMC that has been shown to retain its structure properties at extreme temperatures. The low cost manufacturing approach and its inherent resistance to environmental exposure make this CMC system economically viable for future commercial reusable launch vehicles. During the project, structurally integrated TPS concepts will be developed that take advantage of the CMK's ability to carry load, thereby reducing the added weight of parasitic TPS treatments and their associated strain isolation systems.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 SECOND AVENUE
WALTHAM, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4125
UDAY KASHALIKAR
AF 99-267
Title:Extreme Environments Support/Space Applications
Abstract:Foster-Miller, Inc. with their team members will evaluate and demonstrate the potential uses of continuous fiber reinforced hafnium carbide composites for larger scale TPS and leading edge components for the next generation of reentry and hypersonic vehicles. Foster-Miller has demonstrated fabrication of ceramic matrix composite components via the low cost and net shape preceramic polymer route. We propose using this approach to produce CMC specimens and test them under simulated service conditions. This will be followed by fabrication of a TPS demo article for characterization. Our team includes a major aerospace systems integration partner who has identified improved and cost-effective TPS as a key enabling technology for several near term aerospace systems. The follow-on Phase II program will involve scale-up and demonstration of repeatability in properties and development of a model that correlates materials level properties to component level performance.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH, CO.
3591 APPLE GROVE DRIVE.
BEAVERCREEK, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
( ) -

AF 99-267
Title:Fabrication of High Temperature Sandwich Structures Using Microcellular Graphitic Foam as Core Material
Abstract:Lightweight structures are demanding for high inach vehicles and engine exhaust impinged structures subjected to high temperatures. Currently used polyimide composites have limited service temperatures whereas titanium alloys have much higher densities than those of advanced composites. This Phase I research proposes the processing of high temperature sandwich structures using microcellular graphitic foam as the core material. The core will be processed from a carbon fiber precursor material like mesophase pitch. After heat treatments, the foam will be a lightweight (solid graphite is 3.5 times lighter than titanium), high strength high stiffness material. It will have superior mechanical properties, and thermal stability up to 1000"F without oxidation protection coatings. Sandwich specimens will be fabricated to demonstrate the use of this foam as sandwich core. They can be tailored to possess very low thermal @ conductivity that is ideal for tank applications. A series of mechanical testing, thermal and morphological analyses will be performed to evaluate the construction and integrity of the proposed high temperature sandwich material and structures. Since we have successfully process microcellular carbon foams with, excellent mechanical properties we will focus on sandwich construction and. evaluation in this proposed research.

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
2555 NE 205TH AVENUE
FAIRVIEW, OR 97024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
ERIC UDD
AF 99-268
Title:Deformation Measurement for Conformal Load Bearing Antenna Structure Arrays Using Fiber Optic Grating Strain Sensors
Abstract:An innovative multi-point fiber grating strain sensor deformation measurement system is described. This novel system has the potential to provide accurate multidimensional measurement of radar platform deformations while having the advantages of being immune to electromagnetic interference and having small size and very low weight. The sensors associated with this system are non-intrusive and embeddable. A combination of axial and transverse strain sensing fiber gating sensors are used to determine deformation. Several of these sensors may be multiplexed along a single fiber line. The sensors and demodulation equipment in this system are compatible with other fiber grating sensors used for structural health monitoring. Phase I of this program will demonstrate the feasibility of this system to measure the out-of-plane deformation in a composite part.

ZONA TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7430 E. STETSON DR, STE 205
SCOTTSDALE, AZ 85251
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 945-9988
PING CHIH CHEN
AF 99-269
Title:Formulation and Application of a Stochastic Fatigue Damage Accumulation Model for the Acoustic Response of Buckled Composite Panels
Abstract:A methodology for the estimation of the fatigue life of thermally buckled composite panels subjected to acoustic loading is proposed. The approach uses existing fatigue damage accumulation models but accounts for both damages created by the snap-throughs and in between snap-throughs. The proposed strategy relies on the decomposition of the response fields, i.e. displacements, stresses, and strains, into "jump" processes (modeling the snap-throughs) and "fluctuation" processes (modeling the vibrations around the buckled states). Further, a computationally efficient technique for the reliable determination of the characteristics of these processes in the presence of an arbitrary number of modes is suggested so that the proposed approach is applicable to both phenomenological studies for design considerations and detailed postmortem analyses. The validation of this strategy to the estimation of the fatigue life of a composite panel is proposed. Finally, parametric studies are planned to evaluate the effects of surface temperature, temperature gradient across the panel. orientation of the fibers, acoustic excitation level (SPL) on the fatigue life.

AUSTRAL ENGINEERING & SOFTWARE, INC.
408 RICHLAND AVE, STE 102
ATHENS, OH 45701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
( ) -

AF 99-271
Title:A Software Tool for the Development of Aerodynamic Models Using Indicial Response Theory and System Identification Techniques
Abstract:Austral Engineering and Software, Inc. proposes to develop a methodology and computer tool that uses experimental data to create high-fidelity models for unsteady aerodynamic loading. This approach addresses the need for advanced models that accurately represent loading responses of air vehicles under varied flight conditions. This is particularly important for cost-effective development of uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) due to their increased agility and autonomy requirements. The Phase I theoretical development consists of two major elements. First is the development of a new indicial response formulation that appropriately reflects the interrelationships between aerodynamic loading and flow mechanisms. In particular, effects of vortex breakdown, critical state crossings, and control surface deflections will be addressed. For critical state crossings, a novel model scheduling approach will be developed. Second, advanced system identification techniques will be used to populate the components of the mathematical formulation. In Phase I, this approach will be validated using the developed software and experimental data to model the body-axis rolling moment of a 65-degree delta wing studied by researchers at AFRL. Military, industrial, academic, and research organizations will be contacted to establish channels for validation during planning and development. Responsive organizations will be the basis for technology transfer and commercialization in Phases II and III.

HOH AERONAUTICS, INC.
VISTA VERDE CENTER #2172075 PALOS VERDES DR. NORTH
LOMITA, CA 90717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 325-7280
DAVID G. MITCHELL
AF 99-271
Title:Design Criteria for UCAV Operations from a Remore Airplane
Abstract:The operator of Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles (UCAVs) may be located at a ground station, on a maneuvering airplane, or on a moving ship. Design criteria are required that specify the allowable uncorrelated motions encountered by the UCAV operator during periods of high-workload manual control. In addition, the optimum characteristics of the cockpit controllers will be highly dependent upon the operator's location. In Phase I a research program will be conducted to investigate the impact on pilot performance, handling qualities, and comfort resulting from uncorrelated visual and motion cues. Pilot subjects will operate a simulated UCAV in tracking and ground attack missions while riding in a maneuvering airplane. Tracking error and other objective performance measurements will be made and subjective pilot opinions will be obtained. The UCAV operator's environment will consist of a ground station (fixed base), and airborne in an airplane in straight flight, steady turns, and rapid rolling maneuvers. A single sidestick (PCtype) joystick controller will be used for Phase I. In Phase II, both the scope of the UCAV tasks and the characteristics of the controller will be expanded.

TECHNOLOGY IN BLACKSBURG, INC.
2000 KRAFT DR., STE 1210
BLACKSBURG, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
( ) -

AF 99-272
Title:Active Flow Control to Improve Inlet Performance
Abstract:Technology in Blacksburg (Techsburg) is proposing an innovative method to reduce inlet distortion and improve the performance of propulsion systems in unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). These vehicles (as well as other tactical aircraft) use serpentine inlets to improve the stealth characteristics of the plane. Unfortunately, these serpentine ducts cause flow separation and increase the distortion at the engine and reduce its stability and performance. In this research program, fluidic actuators will be used for active flow control to prevent flow separation in serpentine gas turbine inlet ducts. Miniature ejector pumps, operated by bleeding high-pressure air from the engine, will provide boundary layer suction and blowing near the separation-prone areas in the inlet. An innovative approach of using MEMS-based microphones flush-mounted on the internal surface of the inlet to detect separated flow will be used to provide the error signal for the controller. Active control will then be used to operate miniature ejector pumps to ensure that the section/blowing scheme is most efficiently applied and that the maximum system benefit can be achieved. Recent experiments at Techsburg have demonstrated that boundary layer suction near separation-prone areas on gas turbine stator vanes can reduce the flow separation and the losses across the blade by as much as 40 percent. In addition, personnel at Techsburg have coupled active control with MEMS-based microvalves to reduce high-cycle fatigue (HCF) in gas turbine engines. Noise reductions of 10 dB were recorded. Using active flow control in UAV inlets will significantly improve the engine performance that can lead to improved speed, maneuverability, range, and survivability.

ADVATECH PACIFIC, INC.
2015 PARK AVENUE, SUITE 8
REDLANDS, CA 92373
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 307-6218
WESLEY ROBINSON, PHD
AF 99-273
Title:Magnetohydrodynamic Control System for Hypersonic Vehicles
Abstract:Missile and other aerospace vehicles are being developed to perform increasingly more demanding missions in terms of speed and accuracy. As the speed of these systems increase, traditional means of vehicle control and thermal protection are reaching their effective limits. New methods of control and thermal protection are required for these hypervelocity vehicles. It is proposed to take advantage of the physical characteristics of the hypervelocity flowfields by manipulating the plasma that forms behind the hypersonic shock of real gases. A magnetic field will be generated by the vehicle, which will enable direct control of the ions in the dissociated gases. Magnetohydrodynamic control of the ions will supplement the vehicle's aerodynamics, allowing an alternative and possibly more efficient control mechanism. At the same time, the ability to influence the motion of the hot gases without physically contacting the surface of the vehicle will enable alternatives to traditional thermal protection systems.

ERC, INC.
1940 ELK RIVER DAM ROADP.O. BOX 937
TULLAHOMA, TN 37388
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
( ) -

AF 99-273
Title:MGD/MHD Inlet Flow Control for Advanced Hypersonic Vehicles
Abstract:Utilizing plasma interactions on hypersonic vehicles for aerodynamic control, drag reduction, thermal management and propulsion are proposed by-US agencies, industry and foreign interests (Russian AJAX). These schemes address the Air Force's need for future hypersonic vehicles. This SBIR will develop a plasma MGD/MHD system designed to enable ' hypersonic propulsion by electromagnetic flow interactions with the inlet capture stream. This system is coined the "MGD Inlet' is a non-intrusive means for enhancement of scramjet operation. The MGD inlet is defined from experimental and analytical studies of plasma assisted propulsion concepts. It is conceived for the first generation plasma augmented scramjet to use those interactions considered realizable in the near term. The interactions exploited with this inlet are pre-compression of the capture stream, internal flow compression, and scramjet entrance flowfield conditioning. Phase I will perform R&D for the MHD inlet to refine its design and identify test requirements. Phase I combines analysis of hypersonics and plasma/MGD/MHD phenomena with system engineering and integration to include trade-off and vehicle integration studies. Phase I will evaluate sub-systems for an MHD inlet design for test and evaluation in Phase II. Phase II will produce design criteria for a flight hardware inlet for Phase III.

RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS
4325-B FORBES BLVD
LANHAM, MD 20706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 306-0010
JOHN F. KLINE
AF 99-273
Title:Electron Beam-Controlled Microwave-Driven Plasmas for Hypersonic Flow Control
Abstract:A very promising method of controlling hypersonic flows is through the use of a remotely-driven air plasma. The remotely driven plasma avoids the necessity of bringing the air to stagnation and also permits energy deposition at locations both near and far from vehicle or wind tunnel surfaces. The challenge is to generate the plasma with sufficient energy, and with sufficient control, to achieve the desired result. This proposal explores the use of an electron beam to localize and control a microwave-driven air plasma. Driving an electric discharge with an electron beam alone is attractive since the electron beam's position can be controlled using magnets and its penetration into the gas by changing the voltage. The main problem is that the electron beam cannot carry with it high power, since it must physically pass through a window in order to enter the air. Research Support Instruments (RSI) has developed a new method of producing microwave glow discharges without resorting to confining electrodes. This investigation proposes to couple that device with electron beam control. The Phase I research effort will be directed towards establishing the feasibility of controlling a microwave discharge with an electron beam.

ULTRAMET
12173 MONTAGUE STREET
PACOIMA, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
JERRY W. BROCKMEYER
AF 99-274
Title:High Temperture, Multifunctional Composite Heat Exchanger Structures for Hypersonic Air Vehicles
Abstract:Hypersonic flight creates intense heating on the leading edges of aerostructures, thus mandating low-mass structures to accommodate the high temperatures generated by atmospheric drag and propulsion system exhausts. Even higher heat loads are imposed on structures heated by propulsion systems. Scramjet/airframe structures are exposed to heat fluxes as high as 10 Btu/in 2-sec. Typically, cooling is provided by liquid propellants. The combined coolant pressure and aerodynamic forces impose high structural demands. Performance goals require that these structures have low masses (<4 lb/ft2). Conventional materials and structures cannot meet these requirements. New materials and processes are available and can provide multifunctional structures to meet these challenges. Ultramet's innovative approach provides new methods of accommodating the weight and temperature challenges associated with hypersonic flight. The multifunctional structures to be evaluated in this project combine low-density, high temperature capability foam cores that function as both heat exchangers and rigid structural members. The open-celled foams would be closed out with tough ceramic or carbon composite layers, including high temperature oxidation and corrosion protection coatings as required. Also, for hydrocarbon-fueled hypersonic structures,: the foam core could eventually be evaluated with catalyst coatings that enhance decomposition of the endothermic fuel coolant, resulting in additional functionality.

MICROMATERIALS, INC.
6604 HARNEY RD, STE F
TAMPA, FL 33610
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
( ) -

AF 99-275
Title:Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor with Microsecond Response and 2,000 C Capability
Abstract:A novel concept for a sapphire fiber-optic temperature sensor with microsecond response time and maximum operating temperature a-s high as 2,000 C is proposed. Two approaches, both based on optically excited fluorescence from the sensors, will be evaluated. Data will be obtained in the Phase 1 program to enable the selection of one of the approaches for further development. Preliminary investigations will also be conducted to optimize the fabrication procedure for the sensor's probe. The sensor will be shock resistant, minimally intrusive, immune to electromagnetic interference, and not sensitive to the configuration of the system to be diagnosed. It will have submillimeter spatial resolution and the ability to operate in a fluid environment. The Phase I work will result in a baseline design for a prototype of the temperature measurement system.

TETRA TECH DATA SYSTEMS, INC.
2451 IMPALA DRIVE
CARLSBAD, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 930-2220
DAVID SCHAAFSMA
AF 99-275
Title:Fast Fiber Optic Pyrometer (PR99-013)
Abstract:We propose a fiber optic temperature probe which would provide data on extremely rapid processes such as combustion and explosion. This probe would be an optical pyrometer, capable of measurement from 400 C or less to at least 2000 C with high accuracy. The system would be based on our commercial fiber optic thermometer, which is capable of temperature readings from 400 to 1900 C, with absolute accuracy of I 'C (NIST traceable) and resolution of 0.01 'C. Since the probe fiber can be made very long, the probe itself would be highly adaptable to different mounting configurations and environments such as watertight windowless containers and military aircraft. The optical nature of the measurement would make it immune to electromagnetic interference, electrical discharges, and water. Using very sensitive, low-noise detectors, the system could obtain thermal data at rates up to 1MHz, sufficient to characterize dynamic processes like explosions. The control chassis itself would support multiple probes, so that three-dimensional data could be obtained by placing several probes at different locations. By providing rapid, accurate, 3-D data, a system such as this could be a key element in any developmental or diagnostic system where fast thermal dynamics are involved.

BOSCH AEROSPACE, INC.
7501 S. MEMORIAL PARKWAYSUITE 207
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 882-9394
JAMES H. BOSCHMA
AF 99-276
Title:Hyper-Conducting Carbons for Space Vehicle Cooling
Abstract:We propose a Phase I study to examine the potential for a lightweight carbon thermal management system, for hi-altitude aircraft and space vehicles. Thermal Hyperconducting carbons have demonstrated performance as high as 2000 W/mK. They are in use in some limited heat sink application at.this time, however this effort will look at a systems approach to conduct comprehensive thermal management of the flight vehicle, from heat source identification, thermal- transport, and radiation to the ether. We intend to study unidirectional carbon fibers in matrix, and in flexible rope forms, incorporated into a system to transport thermal energy in a rapid and efficient manner to carbon radiators. We have past experience in this technology in the IR decoy technology development area, and are well equipped to fabricate and test structures in Phase 1. The study will consist of three (3) segments. 1), an analytical study that includes mathematical modeling, a limited systems analysis and literature search. 2), a thermal management system design effort that will consider applications/configurations in space vehicles, and 3) fabrication of a prototype thermal transport device, and a test series to verify performance. Documentation will include study and test results, designs, and detailed plans for P