---------- DTRA ----------

25 Phase I Selections from the 99.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Ave.
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Niansheng Qi
DTRA 99-001
Title:A Pulsed Laser Probe to Map Density and Velocity in z-Pinch Implosions
Abstract:Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are thought to limit the pulse-width compression ratio, power coupling from driver to pinch and radiation efficiency, for z-pinches at 4 MA (Double-Eagle), 9 MA (Saturn) and 18 MA (Z). Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation proposes to use a train of 150 ps laser pulses to capture snap-shots of the density structures in an imploding z-pinch. These snap-shots will reveal the structure of instabilities in the pinch and allow us to correlate improved power coupling to the pinch and higher radiation efficiency with mitigation of such instabilities. The technique we propose to use is called Laser Shearing Interferometry. LSI gives information on the sheath shape, stability and implosion velocity. The Phase-I project will concentrate on just these measurements on Double-Eagle. In Phase-II, the same hardware, with a few modifications, may be used to augment the sheath measurements to provide a detailed study of the implosion dynamics of the pinch. The Phase-II instrument will thus be a more comprehensive tool for z-pinch development. The Phase III effort will commercialize the instrument and supply models to DoD and DOE laboratories engaged in PRS research as well as modify the instrument for other commercial applications such as the combustion diagnostic tool. This program could improve the capabilities of existing and higher current simulators (Decade, Z and beyond) and provide design criteria for future simulators. Commercial applications include non-invasive monitoring of fuel droplet-vapor mixing in combustion chambers including rocket engines and of x-ray lithography and microscopy system reproducibility and reliability.

CORNERSTONE RES. GROUP, INC.
2792 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Patrick J. Hood
DTRA 99-001
Title:Self-Assembled Radiation Hardened Coatings
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. proposes to develop a new high-performance optical filter technology compatible with direct deposition onto a functioning detector array. This program addresses the need for a laser protection technology capable of mitigating a jamming level laser threat at a known wavelength. In this program, we focus on the development of the materials and process technology necessary to fabricate a self-assembled, high-performance optical filter onto an imaging detector array. The filter technology is based on new advances made at the University of Rochester in Chiral Cross-linked Liquid Crystalling Polymers (XLCP). These filters function in a similar manner to rugate filter technology. However, this technology has several advantages over rugates for the proposed application. The goal of this Phase I program is to demonstrate a high-performance rejection filter centered at 1064 nm formed in a process compatible with being deposited directly on a high-performance detector array. In addition, a demonstration of the anti-jamming performance will be conducted on a working CCD array. To achieve these goals the program will address materials synthesis. Film processing technology, an anti-jamming demonstration and the development of a detailed test plan to demonstrate both laser dazzle reduction and radiation hardness. Crosslinked liquid crystal polymer (XLCP) filters are a low cost, high yield alternative to high-performance interference technology for some applications. XLCP filters are capable of achieving optical densities over a wide field of view. Another advantage of this filter technology is the anticipated inherent durability to cryogenic cycling.

OZ ELECTRO-OPTICS, INC.
2043 De Mayo Rd.
Del Mar, CA 92014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 481-0218
Oved Zucker
DTRA 99-001
Title:High Energy Density Capacitors
Abstract:We propose a method to enhance the energy density of capacitors and other dielectrics by the creation of intermediate layers between the electrodes and the energy storing dielectric proper. The solution is applicable to applications where the charge and discharge time are defined. Once defined, a tailored layer is fashioned which will drastically reduce the field enhancements at imperfections for the specified charge an discharge times. Since most circuit installed capacitors operate in a fixed temporal region defined by the circuit designer, such a solution is applicable to most applications of capacitors. They do not apply to capacitors used experimentally where the operating regime changes from use to use. The successful application of this technology may increase energy storage by as much as an order of magnitude with application extending from major facilities and utility power factor corrects on application to MOS gates of semiconductors.

RUGATE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
72 Gray's Bridge Rd, Unit 1A
Brookfield, CT 06804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 775-0136
Thomas D. Rahmlow, Jr.
DTRA 99-001
Title:Rugate Filters for Radiation Hardened Applications
Abstract:Innovative filter designs can add capability and function to smart sensors while hardening the sensor against laser jamming and dazzle and the effects of nuclear radiation. Depositing these filters directly on a focal plane array can reduce the sensor's size, customize the detector to a specific application, and allow for retrofitting the capability and function of the smart sensor without the need to modify the optical train. Rugate optical interference filters provide high optical throughput while providing laser protection. By using low Z, thermally matched materials, these filters offer radiation and x-ray survivability as well as laser protection. The refractive index of rugate filters, continuously varied as a function of the film's optical thickness, is achieved by blending materials during deposition. In addition to refractive index, other physical properties can be adjusted to mitigate the effects of ionizing radiation and thermal gradients. For instance, a narrow bandpass coating can be applied to a focal plane array used in a scanning sensor. The wavelength of the passband can be varied from pixel to pixel, giving the array spectral discrimination across the scanning axis. This Phase I program will serve to develop a methodology for coating temperature-sensitive substrates. Several filters, using selected materials, will be fabricated to demonstrate spectral performance, low temperature compatibility, and low defects and stress. Innovative rugate filters improve spectral performance, add capability, and harden sensors to laser and nuclear radiation. In addition, depositing the filters directly on a focal plane array can reduce the sensor's size and customize the detector to specific applications. Applications are many and varied, from threat hardening to hyperspectral sensors to thermal control.

ENIG ASSOC., INC.
12501 Prosperity Dr., Suite 340
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 680-8600
D. John Pastine
DTRA 99-002
Title:New Penetrator Technology Against Deep, Hardened Targets
Abstract:Theoretical and computational modeling will be used to describe a new technology concept for designing penetrators for use against deep, hardened targets. The prototype design should produce metal ejecta with penetrating capability superior to conventional munitions of equivalent size and/or weight. Calculated performance characteristics will be compared with existing experimental data from other sources to estimate the lethality against selected targets. Alternative designs, not achievable with current warhead systems, will be compared in order to find the most promising design. The technology concept can be applied to the design of penetrators to defeat hardened, underground structures.

KTECH CORP.
2201 Buena Vista SE, Suite 400
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 998-5830
Frank W. Davies
DTRA 99-002
Title:Magnetic Flyer Plate Technology
Abstract:A magnetic flyer plate impact can be designed to accurately simulate the x-ray induced stress profile in a re-entry body (RB) heat shield very near the irradiation surface. With the accurate simulation of the near surface stress history all subsequent vehicle responses must then be a good representation of those induced by the nuclear threat. A Mag Flyer impact at atmospheric pressure is the highest fidelity simulation shapes the induced stress wave profile. A major limitation on the accuracy and repeatability of magnetic flyer plate experiments is that the load magnitude and temporal history are sensitive functions of the flight distance. When operating in air, the desired loading conditions can only be achieved with short flight distances and the normal RB tolerances limit the accuracy of the experiment. This proposal presents unique experimental solutions that allow the flyer plate distance to be significantly increased while maintaining the desired load magnitude and temporal history. These changes decrease the sensitivity of the magnetic flyer technique to flight distance changes due to experiment assembly and/or within tolerance dimensional variations and eliminates a major limitation of the magnetic flyer technique. The feasibility of using alternate gases and modifying the capacitor bank to tailor the "gas spring" response to allow larger flight distances will be examined in Phase I. Ktech's analyses have determined that the flight distance can be doubled by the use of an alternate gas such as neon. Capacitor bank modifications that modify the ringing frequency of the bank and/or shape the current pulse will also be examined because achieving constant flyer velocity at early times also facilitates the use of large flight distances. A Phase Ii program plan will be developed that describes the necessary modification to the DTRA Mag Flyer Facility to implement gas spring technology and the required facility characterization program. The gas spring technology will decrease the sensitivity of mag flyer techniques to dimensional tolerances of the test articles and will significantly increase the Mag Flyer Facility capabilities to meet specific experiment requirements in terms of peak stress and specific impulse. Additionally, load uncertainties will be reduced. The improved facility will provide a cost effective AGT capability for selection and hardness evaluation of new materials and the certification of modified systems.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State St.
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 339-6500
Robert F. Gray
DTRA 99-003
Title:Electromagnetic Hardening Technology Development
Abstract:The proposed effort will develop and demonstrate an imbedded protection technique for integrated electromagnetic protection of military systems and COTS equipment. The proposed imbedded protection technique will apply to all electromagnetic environments but this research effort will focus on mitigating high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and high power microwave (HPM) effects. Under Phase I, the theoretical foundation for the new hardening technique will be thoroughly developed. This theoretical effort will leverage off of MRC's recent advances in the design of high power microwave loads using multiple tuned cavity chokes. The resulting theory will be applied to several typical system topologies to study the feasibility of imbedding the penetration port protection into the enclosure port. A complete design methodology will be developed and documented. This design methodology will be utilized in the Phase II demonstration effort where full scale imbedded protection devices will be produced and tested. The anticipated result of the proposed approach is the development of a new protection technique which will integrate penetration port hardening into the enclosure port (e.g. shield). If completely successful, the new protection technique will be imbedded in the enclosure port but the concept will also be developed for non-imbedded applications.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Rd.
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-0400
John Lennhoff
DTRA 99-003
Title:Integrated Material Technologies for Electromagnetic Shields
Abstract:Triton Systems responds to the DTRA need to ensure the survivability of military C3 and weapon systems by hardening them against damage from HEMP and HPM weapons, using primarily COTS shielding materials for electronic equipment. Triton's unique approach is to integrate its conductive polymer technology into new epoxy-carbon composites and adhesives that will strongly reflect and attenuate HEMP and HPM electromagnetic radiation. In Phase I, Triton will show the feasibility by making conductive-enhanced polymer composites for EM hardening, and will use an adhesive with matched properties to bond panels which will result in low Q enclosed structures. In Phase II, in cooperation with a major composite manufacturer, Triton will develop one or more prototype EM housings for DoD electronic hardware, products for the military and commercial sectors will be developed and sold late on a Phase II program, and on a Phase III program. This Phase I Program, and following programs, will develop new lightweight materials that will provide hardening protection against HEMP and HPM interference. The primary commercial application will be to the Military for use on aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles in potentially hostile environments. The secondary commercial market will be to civilian ground, air, and space equipment, for improved operations in strong EM fields.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
1720 Randolph Rd. SE
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7632
David G. Mavis
DTRA 99-004
Title:A Design Methodology for Preventing Single Event Disruptions in Deep Submicron Microcircuits
Abstract:Mission Research Corporation (MRC) proposes to develop and demonstrate a solution to the single event effects (SEE) problems which result in data loss in deep submicron microcircuits used in space environments. We describe a unique hardening technique, which we refer to as a "temporally redundant latch." This approach provides immunity to SEE related upset effects with a minimal impact on microcircuit design methods and circuit performance. The objective of our proposal is to demonstrate the viability of the temporally redundant latch technique in a microcircuit that is important to the military and commercial space industry. The selected microcircuit will be fully hardened for space applications. It will serve as a proof o principal for the hardening technique and lead to other temporal latch insertions in microcircuits developed for space missions. The temporally redundant latch will permit microcircuits with deep submicron feature sizes to be used in space environments. The design technique eliminates single event upsets (SEU) and prevents single event transients (SET0 generated in combinational logic from disrupting microcircuit operation.

PHOTOBIT CORP.
135 N. Los Robles Ave., 7th Floor
Pasadena, CA 91101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 683-2200
Eric R. Fossum
DTRA 99-004
Title:Radiation Hard CMOS APS Image Sensors
Abstract:The overall objective of this SBIR Phase I research project is to further explore the feasibility of a radiation hard CMOS APS image sensors. The vehicle for that exploration is a radiation hard CMOS APS test chip that has been designed, fabricated, and packaged. This test chip will be irradiated and then its performance will be evaluated. Based on the results from this test chip, a second generation of radiation hard CMOS APS image sensors will be designed, simulated, and made ready for submission for fabrication. Photobit has recently completed a research project that concluded that radiation hard CMOS APS image sensors are feasible. The combination of employing the physical design techniques of enclosed geometry and guard rings, and a deep sub-micron standard CMOS fabrication process provides the path to radiation hard CMOS APS image sensors. Utilizing commercial standard CMOS fabrication processes to realize radiation hard image sensors makes every economic sense. The cost element associated with these standard processes is less (by a factor of 2) than that associated with specialized radiation hard processes. The same amount of research dollars can go further when new design concepts are tested via the more cost-effective standard fabrication processes. Radiation hard CMOS APS image sensors will be a welcome alternative to the inherently radiation soft charge-coupled device (CCD) APS image sensors. Radiation hard CMOS APS image sensors perform as well as CCDs, with the added benefits of lower power (10 to 100 times less) and integration of electronics (enabling miniaturization). This allows them to not only compete in th same markets as CCDs, but also provide opportunities to expand the existing image sensor market. The proposed radiation hard image sensor and the technical advances associated with its development are extremely important for space applications (DoD, NASA, and commercial satellites) and ground-based radiation harsh environment systems such as nuclear power plants, particle accelerators, and radiation test facilities.

SPINNAKER SEMICONDUCTOR
Room 527 Shepherd Labs, 100 Union St. SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 626-8788
John Snyder
DTRA 99-004
Title:Radiation Tolerant Microelectronics and Photonics Technology Development
Abstract:Spinnaker Semiconductor will develop its proprietary Schottky barrier CMOS technology (SB-CMOS) for space and other radiation hard environments. SB-CMOS offers a dramatic reduction in parasitic bipolar gain and therefore unconditional immunity to latch-up. It also has greatly increased hardness to node-discharge and other single-event-effects. The proposed SB-CMOS technology features MOS devices with minimum channel lengths of 50 nm and will therefore be ideal for high-speed digital and mixed-signal applications. Anticipated Benefits: 1) Unconditional immunity to latch-up 2) Greatly increased tolerance to node-discharge and other single event effects 3) 50 nm minimum channel length devices for high unity gain frequency 4) Silicon based, planar technology.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State St.
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
Bernard D. Roth
DTRA 99-005
Title:Decision Aid for Nuclear Battleplanning and Risk Assessment
Abstract:To protect the US against limited nuclear attacks, the NMD system must operate successfully in nuclear-disturbed environments. A key to successfully negating nuclear threat is selecting a battleplan that ensures that NMD system performance is not too severely degraded by nuclear effects. While prompt nuclear effects are easy to plan around, persistent nuclear environments are more problematic, especially with the fast-running, lower-fidelity algorithms that BMC2 must use. MRC has long been among the nation's leaders in predicting nuclear environments and their impacts on system performance. We will combine this experience with expertise in artificial neural networks (ANN) to develop and train an ANN for use as a real-time decision aid in selecting optimal battleplans that minimize direct and collateral nuclear impacts. We will develop our decision aid so it can be used as an integral element in the BMC2 battleplanning process, dynamically responding to an evolving threat and providing risk assessments that would not otherwise be available. It will assess multiple battleplans, then inform a human in control (HIC) of the probability of success and costs/benefits of each plan so they will be adequately informed when selecting an actual battleplan. The Phase I effort will demonstrate that a neural network can be trained to predict the outcome of a candidate NMD battleplan in the presence of possible nuclear bursts. It will provide the human-in-control with an assessment of the nuclear-induced risks to the performance of vital elements in the system. Similar decision aids could be developed for other ballistic missile defense program, such as THAAD, Navy TMD, or even the Israeli Arrow program. The concept could also be applied to TMD deployment planning to minimize the risks of nuclear, biological, or chemical collateral damage to civilian or military assets.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RES. ASSOC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
John T. Robinson
DTRA 99-007
Title:Automated Data Entry into DARE
Abstract:There is a pressing need for simplified, user friendly, field level data management and archival tools with which data providers can efficiently archive all forms of test information and which will result in increased utilization of DARE asset. SARA proposes enhancements to the Test Information Management Enhancement (TIME) and similar systems which will benefit both the data provider (DP) at weapons effects simulators, and the archivist, also known as the Data Engineer (DE), responsible for maintaining the data archive. Our enhancements are designed such that the DP will benefit by being provided with reusable web-based tools which simplify logging and tracking of data products during test operations. DARE users will benefit from the prospect of a substantial increase in simulator data becoming available on DARE; and the program which use ARES, PHETS, LB/TS, and NTS facilities will benefit by having secure access to data; and by the potential for a reduction in the number of data management products which DTRA/AO or other DTRA agencies must support. The immediate benefits of this effort are the rapid availability of simulator data to DARE, and improved management and access to photos, test documents, and numeric data for test scientists, engineers, and program managers at DTRA/AO. The long term benefits include acceleration of data loading into DARE, an increase in the number of DARE data providers, an expected resulting increase in the number of DARE users, and reductions in the cost of simulator data management.

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS CORP.
6000 Uptown Blvd., NE, Suite 300
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 872-1089
Ahti Suo-Anttila
DTRA 99-009
Title:Fast-Running, 3-D Fire Analysis Code for Nuclear and WMD Risk Threat Analysis
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for a fast running, multi-purpose fire simulation computer code for Weapon System Safety Assessments (WSSAs), with direct applicability to the evaluation of threats to/from weapons of mass destruction (WMD). This proposal would extend the Isis-2D fire code to 3-dimensions while maintaining its "fast running" attributes essential to practical risk analysis. The proposed effort would also extend the code's existing flexibility to address issues related to hazards associated with WMD. In its present form as a 2-dimensional code, Isis-2D has limitation relative to accurately representing complex "real world" problems. Due to (a) the highly 3-dimensional nature of fires, (b) the 3-dimensional complexity of "real world" environments, and (c) the 3-dimensional interactions between the fires and the real world, the evaluation of "real world" fires requires a 3-dimensional mechanistic code. In addition, to support the scoping nature and thus the requirement for large number of risk-compatible evaluation, Isis also satisfies the necessary requirement of flexible modeling attributes and fast computational run times. The results from this research have several anticipated benefits to DTRA. First, a fast-running, 3-dimensional fire model would help reduce uncertainties and reliance on engineering judgment. Second, we have identified many conditions or phenomena where a 3-dimensional tool would provide a defensible method to reduce requirements for conservatism. The ultimate objective is to reduce the likelihood of needless recommendations for costly procedure or hardware changes. Finally, completion of such a tool will allow, with little additional effort, a general-purpose code for the analysis of fire challenges and subsequent behavior (e.g., transport, decomposition, inhalation, and deposition) of biological and chemical agents in weapons of mass destruction.

KRISPIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1370 Piccard Dr., Suite 210
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 947-9600
Jacob Krispin
DTRA 99-009
Title:Vortex Method Analysis of Bio/Chem Nautralization Through Turbulent Mixing
Abstract:The objective of this Small business Innovation Research Phase I project is to devise accurate techniques for predicting turbulent mixing with a view toward estimating the effectiveness of strategies for neutralizing bio/chem hazards. Recent, substantial progress by Krispin Technologies, Inc., in developing 3D vortex methods for turbulent flow simulation as part of a DOE supported SBIR Phase II project will be leveraged to yield immediate application to realistic hazard scenarios of interest to DTRA. Among these are scalar plumes emanating from multiple sites within confined or open air domains. The unique capabilities of vortex methods derive from the versatility of their grid-free character; their computational speed; and, their capacity to represent essential physical properties of turbulent flow. In particular, they are better positioned to model the essential effect of small scale vortices on scalar mixing than traditional grid-based closure and large eddy simulation techniques relying on unphysical diffusive models. The accuracy of the proposed methodology will be tested for scalar plumes in atmospheric flows under a variety of conditions as well as for turbulent jets. Subsequently, methods for quantifying mixing between species will be devised and then applied to problems for which scalars originate from separate sources. The proposed new technology is important to DTRA interests and is applicable to a broad range of DTRA and defense applications. It can be readily adapted for civilian use; it can be utilized for better analysis and control of numerous industrial activities, ranging from chemical to energy applications, natural and industrial pollution, and other health hazards.

F&S, INC.
P. O. Box 11704
Blacksburg, VA 24062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4269
Jonathan A. Greene
DTRA 99-010
Title:Optical Fiber Sensors for the Detection of Biological and Chemical Agents
Abstract:F&S along with its development partners propose to commercialize a fluorescent-based fiber sensor and signal conditioning system that is capable of measuring low levels of biological warfare agents. With the proliferation of biological weapons, the outbreak of food poisoning occurrences, and the spread of antibiotic resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria, the demand has arisen for portable systems capable of rapid, specific, and quantitative detection of biological agents. The ability to detect minute quantities of toxic biological and organisms will provide the means to quickly assess a situation so that the appropriate response can be orchestrated. Conventional test results generally take hours or even several days to be reported, and there is no chance for real-time feedback. Because rapid diagnosis of medical situations can result in better patient care and a more efficient medical system, there is a great need for portable sensing facilities that can produce analytical results instantaneously. Advantages of the proposed technology include 1) low-cost mass fabrication techniques, 2) robust field-portable implementation, and 3) multiple-target capabilities. Research concerning fiber optic-based biosensors will yield high-resolution, low-cost, multi-analyte, systems for applications in 1) biological agent detection, 2) drinking and wastewater monitoring, 3) large-scale, high-speed testing in the medical field, 4) chemical analysis, and 5) intelligent process monitoring of advanced materials.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2530 W. 237th St.
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
Lothar Kempen
DTRA 99-010
Title:Massively Parallel Field-usable Biosensor for Rapid BW Detection
Abstract:A field-usable multi-analyte BW sensing system employing an integrated sample preconcentration stage is proposed. To enable operation in real-world environments, the system employs a particle filter and magnetic immunobeads to clean and concentrate the target analytes in the solution. A highly compact, imaging, optical arrangement subsequently monitors the sample fluid for a large number of analytes in parallel. By using a photo induced immobilization technique, a multitude of different antibodies is immobilized on the surface of a glass carrier, each type being located at a specific position on the chip. When sample fluid containing the analytes is flowed over the sensor surface, the top plane of the optical carrier chip is interrogated by an imaging ellipsometer to provide a spatially resolved measurement of the sample surface. This allows precise monitoring of binding events to the individual sensor fields. Use of semiconductor sources enables highly compact realization; employing several wavelengths further enhance the sensitivity. The imaging technique yields highly resolved information about the binding status of a vast number of different antibody fields without the need for labeling reagents. This system will be of high commercial interest for chemical and biological screening and for environmental monitoring applications. The proposed system is intended to serve as a compact, sensitive tool for analyzing environments on site for a large number of reagents. Combining sample pre-processing with the high sensitivity and labeless operation of multi-spectral ellipsometry methods and the fast readout of an extremely high number of parallel channels, this setup will find multiple commercial applications in drug screening, environmental monitoring, and DNA analysis applications.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Bus. Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Mitchel R. Zakin
DTRA 99-010
Title:Polymeric Detector System for Treaty Verification
Abstract:The threat of proliferation of chemical and biological weapons has increased alarmingly in recent years. Treaty monitoring and verification activities require the rapid collection and chemical analysis of samples at suspected chemical warfare (CW) agent-producing facilities. Current on-site analysis procedures are slow, thus hindering the effectiveness of verification operations. Sensor devices for both accurate prescreening of collected samples for the presence of signature chemicals associated with CW agents, and for selectively pinpointing areas to be sampled, are needed. Such sensors should be inexpensive, have low logistics burden, and use very little power. Sensitive, specific detection of signature compounds under these demanding conditions requires a novel approach. Physical Sciences, Inc. proposes to develop a small, inexpensive, and rugged microsensor device for chemical warfare agents and associated signature chemicals which can actively sample an environment and selectively indicate the identity and quantity of these species. These signature compounds include live G, V, and H agents, agent precursors (used in agent production) such as dichlor and difluor, and agent decomposition products such as the phosphonic acids. In Phase I a prototype microsensor wil be demonstrated and a preliminary design of the Phase II device will be completed. The proposed microsensor will provide a significant improvement in the detection of signature chemicals associated with chemical warfare agents, and thus will enhance the protection of the civilian and military population. The underlying technology is versatile and can be readily adapted to specific detection of commercially important species including pesticides, environmental pollutants, biomolecules, and odorants. Dual use will be particularly applicable for the chemical medical, agricultural, food, and fragrance industries.

POLYCHIP, INC.
4812 Auburn Ave.
Bethesda, MD 20814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 656-7600
David B. Salzman
DTRA 99-010
Title:Trace Tracer
Abstract:This project will design and develop a handheld mass spectrometer combining wide response, ppm sensitivity, and the selectivity to unambiguously identify and quantify the large and growing list of target CW agents, by-products, and breakdown products. The technology is FTICRMS. The system will be handheld and self-contained. It will remove a bottleneck on centralized, batch mass analysis and offer inspectors better tools and fewer distractions.

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING ASSOC.
P. O. Box 3722
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 688-1188
W. R. Seebaugh
DTRA 99-010
Title:Experimental Methodology and data for Collateral Effects from Secondary Evaporation of Chemical Warfare Agents
Abstract:Secondary evaporation of chemical warfare agents released from structures onto concrete and/or soil surfaces during attacks on chemical production and storage facilities can persist for long periods relative to the lifetimes of expulsion plumes and can account for substantial agent release. The DTRA Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) and engineering model Structural Expulsion Plume (STEP) include source terms for the amount of chemical agent introduced into the environment by secondary evaporation. A requirement exists for an experimental methodology to determine the amount of chemical agent introduced into the environment by secondary evaporation and for data for chemical agent simulants for the nerve agents GB, GD, and VX. The objectives of the proposed Phase I program are (1) to develop an experimental methodology for determining the rate of secondary evaporation of chemical agent simulant vapor when liquid simulant is released onto surfaces and (2) to implement the methodology for three chemical agent simulants and two surfaces (concrete and compacted soil) for several liquid deposition densities and atmospheric conditions. The methodology will be expanded to address actual chemical agents and additional chemical agent simulants and their transfer hazard during Phase II. The experimental methodology and data will be directly usable by DTRA in its source model development for the HPAC and STEP programs. The experimental methodology will be usable by other military and civilian agencies and industries in their hazardous waste management activities and for simulations of accidental releases of hazardous materials from structures or transport vehicles.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Rd.
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
John Lennhoff
DTRA 99-010
Title:Improved Chemical Warfare Agent Sensors Using a Novel Fabrication Method
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc., proposes to apply its innovative electrochemical deposition method for fabricating field use-compatible vapor and aerosol concentrations monitors that provide significantly improved species selectivity. This proprietary process, with which we have succeeded in upgrading dramatically the performance of an electrochromic polymer-based switch for rf electromagnetic waves, allows formation from its appropriately functional group-altered monomer of virtually any electroactive polymer, rather than the very few that lend themselves to casting from solution. Triton is therefore able to design miniaturized conductimetric chemisensors with bandgaps tailored for differential response to the redox potentials of chemical-biological warfare components and ambient interferents. We are able to confine deposition of the polymer film to the spaces between interdigitated metallic electrodes by making use of a company-developed thermally activated mask. This production method both allows precise control of the (submicron) thickness of this volatiles-sensitive layer and further increases its change in resistance with analyte arrival rate by giving it a highly porous exposed surface. The objective of Triton's research will be to formulate robust, long shelflife sub-ppm threshold response microsensors with enhanced discrimination of specific airborne CBW agents and precursors. Conductive polymer-based vapor concentration sensors are currently being applied for assessing the quality of food products and their as-received raw materials, the protection provided by packaging, and the threat from noxious and hazardous gases or aerosols in workplaces (among others, pesticide-treated areas and the ESA / MIR Space Station crew cabin). Further applications in chemical process control and olfactory medical diagnosis are under development, as are those in the several aspects of detecting toxic agents. The improved species selectivity, threshold sensitivity, and overall robustness of Triton's innovative chemisensor will significantly improve the effectiveness and broaden the scope of this automatic concentration monitoring.

GEOPHEX
325 W. Main St.
Northborough, MA 01532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 393-4600
Delaine Reiter
DTRA 99-012
Title:Improved Regional Seismic Event Locations Using 3-D Velocity Models
Abstract:The purpose of this research is to develop improved methods for regional and local seismic event locations from 3-D velocity models. Improved hypocenter estimates and high-resolution velocity models are critical to the successful seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. During Phase I of the study we will demonstrate a nonlinear, multiple event location technique which uses both P and S arrival times and a pre-determined or hypothetical 3-D velocity model to estimate the hypocenters. Travel times for the regional phases are calculated using a sophisticated eikonal finite-difference scheme, and the locations are determined using an efficient grid-search algorithm for 3-D media. We propose to demonstrate its capabilities using synthetic data and a 3-D velocity model from a region of US monitoring concern. We will also begin to develop the capacity to incorporate secondary phase arrival information as part of the location estimation procedure. The methods proposed in this study can have immediate dual use application in both seismic monitoring and underground facility characterization. The overall goal of the research is to develop a sophisticated set of commercial tools for improving hypocenter estimation using 3-D velocity models which could be used in multiple seismic applications.

MULTIMAX, INC.
1441McCormick Dr.
Largo, MD 20774
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 777-2234
Ivan H. Henson
DTRA 99-012
Title:A Seismic Location Method for 3-D Structures Using Initial and Secondary Arrivals from Gaussian Beam Seismograms
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop a seismic event location procedure that utilizes initial and secondary seismic arrival times computed with the Gaussian beam method. Software to compute Gaussian beam synthetic seismograms for complex three-dimensional velocity structures will be developed. This software will be integrated with existing hypocenter inversion software to produce new event location programs. The Phase I project will use th iterative least-squares inversion method. Software to compute phase travel times and travel-time derivatives from Gaussian beam synthetic seismograms will be developed. A travel-time grid method based on Gaussian beam seismograms will be developed in Phase II. The nonlinear inversion method of Tarantola and Valette will be used to compute the hypocenter and location error estimates. The two location programs using Gaussian beam travel times will be compared to other methods of computing event locations for three-dimensional velocity models. The software developed will have immediate application in the CTBT monitoring effort. Commercial applications include monitoring the induced seismicity in oil fields as well as rock-bursts and collapses in mines, and earthquake hazards reduction.

ARCON CORP.
260 Bear Hill Rd.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-3330
Freeman C. Lin
DTRA 99-016
Title:Wide Area Detection and Mapping Technologies for Locating Minefields Containing Anti-Personnel Landmines
Abstract:We describe a new approach for identification and location of buried non-metallic mines from backscatter data from a wide-footprint microwave source. A method based on the Feynman diagram model is described that permits discrimination between multiply scattered field data and data arising fro discrete scatterers such as mines. The limited backscatter data associated with discrete but multiply scattering objects is then processed using a nonlinear filter to remove multiple scattering effects. The resulting poorly resolved estimate for each discrete object is further processed using our spectral estimation technique, the Prior Discrete Fourier Transform (PDFT). This technique requires that some prior knowledge about the targets, i.e. size, approximate shape. Using this PDFT information allows discrimination between targets based on a simple calculation of the magnitude of the coefficients of the PDFT estimate derived from each possible choice of prior knowledge. In Phase I we propose to develop the first version of a complete software package enabling mine detection based on these models. We will conduct trials of the effectiveness of our approach applied to simulated and real data. We will specify a complete system, including the required radar hardware and signal processing capability, to be constructed and tested in Phase II. The proposed real-time microwave imaging algorithm is not only useful for the mine detection application, but also for application in : (1) medical imaging, real-time monitoring of tumor growth where the microwave or higher frequencies that would be employed provide a non-intrusive, innocuous means for tumor detection and monitoring; and (2) industrial applications such as non-destructive testing (crack detection and dislocation identification) in material structures. A further application of our imaging algorithm might be to provide an imaging training and teaching device for use in academic institutions in both the medical imaging and engineering fields.

DESC, INC.
17624 Durbin Park Rd.
Edmond, OK 73003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 330-9212
Jim Howard
DTRA 99-017
Title:Mission Adapting Graphics for Risk and Injury Prediction Platform
Abstract:The purpose of this proposal is to develop a portable and easy to learn suite of graphical decision aids for First Responders, to mitigate and respond to multiple hazard and threat incidents. Our experience as responders to the Oklahoma City Bombing in 1995, and our involvement in the OKC Bombing Injury Study just completed, has provided us with an insight into the community of responders and their unique needs. Our proposal will consist of a unique blend of commercial off the shelf software (COTS) and a common interface stripped of technical menus and verbiage. The user will interface with Computer-Assisted Design (CAD) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) through a simple front end and common database. This gives the user the flexibility to move from architectural detail to geographic information without duplicating common data. Users will not only have standard symbol libraries and databases, but will also have the ability to add their own particular mission requirements. Predictive analysis plug-ins will have the option of a graphical interface to CAD, GIS or both. This approach will allow integration of different threat specific plug-ins to a common interface, thus reducing the learning curves and placing decision aids in the hands of true first responders. The benefits of this proposal are to empower Incident Commanders with traditional engineering knowledge in preplanning or the first critical hours of a disaster. Commercial applications will include metropolitan Public Safety Services such as Fire and Police Departments, Urban Search and Rescue teams and the National Guard.