---------- NAVY ----------

266 Phase I Selections from the 99.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
P.O. Box 24344
Minneapolis, MN 55424
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 935-2035
Ranga S. Ramanujan
NAVY 99-001
Title:Smart Active Networks for Mobile Wireless Environments
Abstract:Active networks break from the traditional networking paradigm by allowing for the injection of customized computations into the network. This technology enables the rapid deployment of new network services for future Navy applications. This Phase I SBIR effort proposes an innovative active network architecture that would provide mobile warfighters with two powerful capabilities: 1) truly ubiquitous networking and 2) location-aware wireless network services (LAWNS). Ubiquitous networking refers to the ability of mobile devices to access information and communicate with a worldwide network anytime and anywhere. This capability is critical to implement the network centric warfare strategy of tomorrow that relies on rapid dissemination of information across all levels of the warfighting force. Location aware wireless network services (LAWNS) exploits the widespread availability of low-cost GPS cards for mobile computers that make warfighter location information easily available. LAWNS uses GPS-based location information provided by warfighter equipment to implement innovative protocols to support capabilities such as geographically targeted multicasts of information, range- restricted information dissemination, and location-dependent access to distributed information services. Such a capability will enable future situational awareness systems where intelligence and tactical sensor data must be exploited to provide customized, location-specific information to the force.

COMPUTER COMMAND & CONTROL COMPAN
2400 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 854-0555
Caiqun Joan Xiao
NAVY 99-001
Title:Smart Active Networks
Abstract:A key problem with the Internet is the slowness with which the underlying IP protocol can evolve. Though this protocol is very successful, there are many things for which it is not well suited, and a variety of efforts have been initiated to revise the standard to address these shortcomings. About four years ago the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) launched an ambitious program to develop a technology, known generally as Active Networking (AN), intended to address this problem of slow deployment. An active network is one in which the routers can be customized to run communication- oriented protocols on a per-user, per-flow, or even per-packet basis. In particular, users are allowed to deploy or invoke programs within the network rather than just at endpoints. This allows a range of new protocols to be deployed quickly within the network by programming them using a more high-level interface. The goal of this proposal is to take steps to commercialize one of the most successful and widely-used active network technologies, and take a first step toward developing applications based on that technology through an experiment on the ABONE. The basic technology is that of PLAN, the Packet Language for Active Networks, designed by the SwitchWare Project at the University of Pennsylvania. The application is endpoint emulation, a service in which an active router serves as a proxy for a destination that becomes temporarily inaccessible. Such a service would allow certain kinds of communication between two endpoints even if they were never connected to one another at the same time due to erratic network connectivity or the unavailability of the endpoints themselves. The resulting service is much more general than an "answering-machine" since it does not require designation of specific proxy to hold the message.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Phillip J. Stout
NAVY 99-002
Title:An Advanced CAD Tool for Quantum Device Simulation
Abstract:The goal of the proposed study is to develop a commercial-quality CAD tool to aid in the development of quantum based semiconductor devices. Currently, there are no commercial computer aided design (CAD) tools available that incorporate the proper physics for designing quantum devices. In Phase I of the study an existing 1D steady-state quantum simulator, NEMO, will be enhanced to include small-signal AC analysis through S-parameter extraction for use in a circuit simulator. This effort will be performed in close collaboration with JPL and Raytheon, the original developers of the quantum simulator NEMO. The modified quantum simulator will be used for demonstration/validation studies on resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs). Also, a new CAD tool architecture will be designed for implementation in the Phase II effort. In the Phase I option drift-diffusion effects will be put in NEMO's contact models, and experimental measurements of RTDs will be carried out to validate the CAD tool. In Phase II the new architecture design will be implemented. The architecture will leverage existing grid generation, numerical solver, database, and GUI library technologies at CFDRC. The final CAD tool will be 2D/3D, steady-state/transient, allow for AC analysis, capable of S-parameter extraction, and coupled with an electronic hydrodynamic model. The completed cross-platform tool will have a new graphical front end to aid in mesh generation, problem set- up, execution, and analysis/visualization.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
P. O. Box 105830C Hebron Avenue
Glastonbury, CT 06033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 659-0333
Harold L. Grubin
NAVY 99-002
Title:High Speed Quantum Devices and Circuits: Modeling and Design
Abstract:This proposal describes the development of computer programs for circuit simulation based on quantum effect devices. Transient quantum effects are obtained through solutions to the time dependent Wigner equation from which device parameters will be extracted. The development of small signal and large signal applications will be simulated with input and output obtained through a newly developed Windows Graphical User Interface. The long-term goal is the development of Windows and Unix based software packages enabling engineering design of advanced devices and circuits to be realized. The device emphasized in this study is the Resonant Tunneling Diode, which has developed to the point where it is being considered for high speed digital circuits operating at 100 GHz, far beyond the upper frequency limits of silicon CMOS technology (i.e. 1 GHz). The emphasis in this study is the GUI development, incorporation of transient electron and hole transport, device hysterisis, small and large signal circuit elements, output power calculations, contributions from spatially dependent effective mass, the role of dissipation, contacts, coupled devices, and demonstration of the use of the simulation in a 100GHz logic circuit.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 829-9217
John M. Anderson
NAVY 99-003
Title:Integrated Electronics for Vertical (CPP) GMR MRAM
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal will demonstrate the feasibility of integrating current-perpendicular-to-the-plane (CPP), or vertical giant magnetoresistance (VGMR), memory cells with VLSI silicon electronics. VGMR memory technology enables ultra-high density storage capability which is predicted to surpass DRAM. Unlike DRAM, however, VGMR MRAM (magnetoresistive random access memory) is nonvolatile, meaning it retains its state even without power. In order to fully exploit the benefits of this emerging technology, it will need to be implemented using high density silicon electronics. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of building the VGMR memory the following four objectives will be met: a) identify vertical memory specifications and constraints; b) identify memory array and integrated circuit process limitations; c) design vertical memory architecture; and d) design vertical memory circuitry. With the close of the Phase I effort, NVE will have completed a preliminary VLSI circuit design, predicted device performance and yield requirements, and outlined a process for fabricating integrated VGMR memory arrays. Under Phase II, VGMR arrays will be tested and debugged using multi-chip integrated prototypes followed by fabrication and demonstration of single chip VGMR arrays fully integrated with silicon-based VLSI electronics.

SIENNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
19501 144th Avenue NE, Suite F
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 485-7272
Dr. Ender Savrun
NAVY 99-004
Title:High Thermal Conductivity Vacuum-Compatible Microwave Absorbers
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will establish the feasibility of vacuum compatible, electrically lossy high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride ceramics. Aluminum nitride will be doped to increase microwave absorption without adversely affecting its thermal conductivity, dielectric strength, and vacuum compatibility. Aluminum nitride disks with the selected dopant will be produced via pressureless sintering. Density, thermal conductivity, complex permittivity of the produced disks will be measured to assess their vacuum worthiness and microwave absorption. The effects of the dopant concentration on the density, thermal conductivity, and microwave absorption will be investigated.

PEREGRINE SEMICONDUCTOR
6175 Nancy Ridge Dr.
San Diego, CA 92106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 646-8880
Ronald E. Reedy
NAVY 99-005
Title:Silicon-on-Sapphire GPS System on a Chip
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a single chip GPS receiver with architecture and manufacturing process appropriate to both commercial and military applications. The project covers the design, manufacture and test of an integrated circuit, which requires only an input signal from a modular GPS antenna and will output geolocation information in a digital format. The chip will be manufactured in an advanced silicon on sapphire (SOS) technology called Ultra Thin Silicon (UTSi) CMOS. This advanced technology enables integration of all RF, IF and baseband functions in a single CMOS chip, a capability not possible in any other form of CMOS.

EMCORE CORP.
394 Elizabeth Ave
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 271-9090
Ian Ferguson/Choung Tran
NAVY 99-006
Title:Improved Efficiency of Multicolor Light Emitting Devices Based on Short-Wavelength LEDs with Down-Converting Phosphors or Polymers
Abstract:The development of high brightness LEDs based on the (AlInGa)N materials systems has led to the possibility of revolutionary new approaches to lighting and display fabrication. For the first time, this material system permits the fabrication of efficient UV solid state sources that can be coupled to phosphors for saturated visible color and white light generation. While the operation efficiency of these UV-LED sources can be high, the total lumen output is limited because typical LED operation is in the milliwatt regime. Conventional LED fabrication technologies lead to applications requiring hundreds if not thousands of LED chips to produce high lumen output. This proposal will explore the development of advanced UV-LED designs for operation at high current (power) operation for high lumen output. This will be accomplished by developing alternate growth technology on thick GaN/sapphire substrates which can be thinned to remove the sapphire, thus improving thermal management and light extraction for high efficiency, high lumen output.

ADVANCED REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGIES
P.O.Box 1361
Boulder, CO 80306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 447-2917
Ran Yaron
NAVY 99-007
Title:Free Refrigerator
Abstract:Superconducting devices such as the volt standard required to be economically, reliably and compactly refrigerated to around 10K. No such refrigerator to be found (yet). Advanced Refrigeration Technologies, Inc (ART) of Boulder Colorado brings an elegant cost efective approach to meet those challenging objectives.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) /92-7477
Dr. Myron E. Calkins
NAVY 99-007
Title:Improved Performance 10 Kelvin Refrigerator for Electronic Applications
Abstract:We propose an affordable, compact, reliable, lightweight, and efficient 10K refrigerator for superconducting electronics applications. Recent advances show an improved 10K refrigerator can be developed. Significant progress developing Gifford-McMahon, Stirling, and Pulse Tube refrigerators for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) electronic applications has demonstrated several characteristics needed for an improved 10K refrigerator. Improvements in regenerator materials such as textured neodymium ribbon offer enhanced regenerator performance at temperatures below 10K. We will integrate these and other recent developments into a single refrigerator concept. The thermodynamic cycle, compressor and expander technology, regenerator materials and geometry will be selected by comparing the performance of existing components to requirements for superconducting electronics applications. Critical thermodynamic and engineering choices will be modeled, and we will select a baseline approach for Phase II. To focus concept development and guide Phase II and Phase III planning, candidate applications will be selected in consultation with potential customers and the Navy. In Phase II, we will complete detailed design, build and test the baseline refrigerator, and verify that performance meets the requirements for the Phase III application(s). In Phase III, we will partner with a vendor of superconducting electronics to build a fully integrated system (e.g. voltage standard or analog-to-digital converter.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL
8660 Dakota Drive
Gaitersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-8342
Vladimir Dmitriev
NAVY 99-008
Title:Development of SiC and GaN IMPATT Diodes
Abstract:TDI proposes to develop silicon carbide and gallium nitride high power IMPATT diodes for the operation at 35 GHz. Silicon carbide IMPATT diodes will be fabricated based on epitaxial pn structures and gallium nitride devices will be fabricated based on Schottky diodes. Recently high quality SiC and GaN epitaxial structures have been demonstrated by TDI. Highly doped (>1020 cm-3) p-type SiC materials and abrupt p+/n junctions have been grown. High- quality GaN Schottky barriers were fabricated. These results open the opportunity to develop high-power high-efficiency IMPATT diodes. The goal of the Phase I is to prove the concept and demonstrate building blocks for SiC and GaN IMPATTs. SiC IMPATT diodes and GaN BARITT diodes will be modeled to determine the optimum device structure. These simulations will be based on the transport theory and characterization of SiC and GaN materials and on the results of the breakdown field measurements in these semiconductors. In the Phase II, we will focus on the fabrication of a packaged IMPATT operating at 35 GHz. Test samples will be delivered.

SIGTEK, INC.
9075 Guilford RoadSuite C-1
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 290-3918
George Aliftiras
NAVY 99-009
Title:High Data Rate CDMA Network for VSAT
Abstract:The demand for high data rate (HDR) very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks has been increasing in the last two years. Newer network applications require a minimum of T1 data rate (1.544 Mbps). The network must also be robust for the operating conditions of VSATs- small diameter dishes with inaccurate tracking and a cluttered terrain environment. Most commercial VSAT modems support data rates in the range of 64-128 kbps but those that do support higher data rates require significantly more transponder bandwidth and larger antenna sizes. CDMA is a perfect solution for VSATs where increased complexity and transponder bandwidth is not an option. Sigtek has identified the VSAT network market as a target ideal for the further development of our existing direct sequence modems. Using our CDMA technology, we can develop a CDMA network that solves these problems. Our existing hardware supports flexible spreading codes, variable data rates, and several types of FEC. Combined with further analysis and simulation we can develop the parameters for a VSAT network that solves many of these problems. Investigation of types of FEC, spreading codes, and interference reduction will be critical in achieving a Phase II deployment.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS, INC.
521 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Brian G. Pazol
NAVY 99-010
Title:Multi-Purpose Acoustic Imaging System for Shallow Water AUV Operations
Abstract:An advanced imaging system utilizing conformal piezocomposite transducer technology optimized for integration with AUV's is proposed for shallow water imaging. The proposed system is expected to offer a number of performance advantages over conventional designs including high bandwidth, reduced sidelobes, low self noise, and improved image resolution and SNR. The proposed effort includes the fabrication and demonstration of a high bandwidth composite transducer for integration and deployment on the Florida Atlantic University Ocean Explorer AUV.

NEPTUNE SCIENCES, INC.
150 Cleveland Avenue
Slidell, LA 70458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(504) 649-7252
Ronald T. Miles, PE
NAVY 99-010
Title:Micro Air-launched expandable Visibility Sonde
Abstract:Phase I research will be conducted to prove the feasibility of of developing a Micro Air-launched Expendable Visibility Sonde (MAXVS) to measure atmospheric visibility profiles for both military and research purposes. The proposed research will investigate unique visibility profile measurement requirements and engineering solutions, quantify the measurement accuracy that can be obtained using these micro-size instrument form factors, and develop a conceptual design for an instrument (microsonde) that can be launched from aircraft dispensers and that can achieve the required measurement accuracy. Optional work will validate conceptual designs to speed development of prototypes during Phase II.

OCEANIT
1100 Alakea Street, 31st Floor
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Patrick K. Sullivan, Ph.D
NAVY 99-010
Title:Internal Wave Surface Expression Sensing
Abstract:Under Office of Naval Research (ONR) sponsorship entitled "Investigations of Internal Waves Around Steep Slopes and Their Influence on Convergence Zone Formation," Oceanit measured internal waves two miles offshore of Sand Island in Mamala Bay, Oahu using a thermistor string and an acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP). "Internal Wave Surface Expression Sensing" will develop a system of integrated sensors in an attempt to demonstrate the relationship between internal wave activities measured in the water (as developed and demonstrated with ONR sponsorship) with surface expressions observed using x-band radar and optical sensors. The resulting technology can be incorporated into littoral zone surveillance networks as well as City & County of Honolulu's sewage treatment plant operations.

RD INSTRUMENTS
9855 Businesspark Ave.
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 693-1178
Blair Brumley
NAVY 99-010
Title:Directional Wave Measurement from Moving Platforms
Abstract:Knowledge of ocean surface wave spectra is important in a wide variety of military and civilian oceanographic applications. We propose a method of measuring the wave directional spectrum from a moving platform such as a submerged buoy, a submerged manned or unmanned vehicle (AUV or ROV), or a small surface vessel. Our method uses the depth cells of an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to form a virtual spatial array of velocity sensors. Platform motion is measured independently using instrumentation suitable to the platform. Wavelet analysis seems particularly well suited to meeting the challenges of this task. Our proposal builds upon a previously demonstrated capability of using an ADCP to measure wave spectra from stationary platforms.

IMAGE ACOUSTICS, INC.
97 Elm Street
Cohasset, MA 02025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 383-2002
Dr. John L. Butler
NAVY 99-011
Title:Directional Underwater Acoustic Communications Transducer
Abstract:A directional underwater acoustic transducer for modem use will be developed. The transducer will provide both vertical and horizontal directionality and operate in the 8 kHz to 20 kHz spectrum with a bandwidth of 5 kHz. The proposed transducer would provide vertical directionality through its length and horizontal directionality through multi-modal excitation of the cylinders. We plan to use a combination of omni-directional, dipole and possibly quadrupole modes of vibration to attain a directional and steerable beam. The modes will be excited and steered through selective electrical summing of the signals on the silver striping on the cylinder. It has been shown that highly directive beams may be obtained from spherical transducers [J. L. Butler and S. L. Ehrlich, " Superdirective spherical radiator," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 61, 1427-1431 (1977)]. We plan to extend this to the case of a cylindrical radiator. Analytical and finite element modeling will be performed to verify expectations before the design is implemented. We believe this approach will yield a design compatible with current acoustic modems and provide an approach that would yield production cost below $1,000.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS, INC.
521 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Gerald Schmidt
NAVY 99-011
Title:Directional 1-3 Piezocomposite Transducer for Underwater Modems
Abstract:A directional underwater transducer is proposed to improve the performance of wireless underwater acoustic modems and data networks. Conservation of power is a central requirement of battery-operated wireless modems and instrument networks. The proposed transducer employs spatial diversity to decrease unnecessary modem wake-up cycling and thereby conserves modem power, to conserve transmitter power, and to improve data throughput balancing among the network nodes. The transduction efficiency of 1-3 piezocomposite will serve to further conserve transmitter power andimprove modem endurance. Simplicity of transducer design and construction is a key feature of thedesign to realize low cost fabrication.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Div.20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Norbert Fruehauf, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-011
Title:Low Cost Electronically Steerable Acoustic Transducer Array
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an Electronically Steerable Acoustic Array Transducer (ESAAT) for acoustic underwater communication systems. The ESAAT overcomes present state-of-the-art transducer limitations on power requirement, interceptability, signal-to-noise ratio, and cost. The key innovations of the proposed system are (1) low cost RISC microcontroller-based intelligent acoustic transducer modules, (2) a low cost inertial orientation sensor, and (3) a distributed beamforming algorithm that exploits the combined computing power of the RISC microcontrollers, eliminating the need for a high performance central processor. This unique combination of sophisticated algorithms and advanced distributed computing hardware results in a low cost directional acoustic transducer with fully electronic low latency (~ 100 microsecond) beam steering capability. The system can generate complex azimuthal beam patterns optimized for the actual network topology. The Phase I research will include: a thorough design study of an ESAAT for operation in a 5 kHz band located in an 8 to 20 kHz acoustic spectrum; fabrication of a low cost transducer module; and demonstration of the superior beam steering capabilities of the system. In addition, Phase I will focus on issues such as tilt and motion sensitivity, and compatibility with the U.S. Navy telesonar testbed.

OCEANTEK, INC.
41-945 Kalanianaole Highway
Waimanalo, HI 96795
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 259-9102
Dr. Jose Andres
NAVY 99-012
Title:Modeling of Free Spans/Bend Radii for Cables/Pipes on Irregular Bottoms
Abstract:Oceantek proposes to develop and validate a numerical tool to incorporate into existing software systems that will allow the user to compute a true and accurate representation of the cable/pipe shape as it lays on an irregular bottom terrain. It would also include the spans and points of contact on the bottom as well as the bend radii (to compute induced stresses) developed at the contact points. As the cable/pipe is laid over the ocean bottom, it bends over obstacles and free spans are created. The severity of these bends and the length of these spans are a strong function of the bottom roughness. Given the values of water depth along specific bottom tracks, the cable/pipe properties (wet weight and bending stiffness) and the cable/pipe bottom tension, the proposed software would determine the bottom contact points, the length and locations of the free spans, and the bend radii and global forces at the contact points.

TECHNO-SCIENCES, INC.
10001 DEREKWOOD LANESUITE 204
LANHAM, MD 20706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 577-6000
Dr. Carole Teolis
NAVY 99-012
Title:MODELING UNDERWATER CABLES AND PIPELINES
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop algorithms and a software tool that will allow the user to have a true and accurate representation of a cable's shape as it lays on an irregular bottom terrain, including the unsupported spans and points of contact at the bottom, as well as the bend radii developed at the contact points (to compute induced stresses). We propose a two step iterative algorithm to find the supported and suspended segments of a cable along a sea floor route. The algorithm is simple to implement and computationally efficient. Software support moduels will be provided for graphical visualization of the cable shape, for accessing cable properties and design, and for accessing bathymetry data. We shall collaborate with a commercial communications cable company in the design and evaluation of the software system.

IAP RESEARCH, INC.
2763 Culver Avenue
Dayton, OH 45429
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 296-1806
Duane Newman
NAVY 99-013
Title:Metal/Water Based Energetic Materials for Use in Military and Commercial Demolition Operations
Abstract:IAP Research, Inc. proposes to integrate a (metal-water) energetic materials reaction with linear shaped charge technology. Our preliminary assessment of an aluminum-water reaction indicates that energy outputs of 15 KJ/cc, approximately twice conventional explosives, are attainable. The proposed Phase I will show the feasibility of achieving the required performance for use with military and commercial demolition munitions. The Phase II effort will focus on the full scale development for commercial and military demolition and salvage operations.

SHOCK TRANSIENTS, INC.
PO Box 5357
Hopkins, MN 55343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 944-3539
David Davison
NAVY 99-013
Title:Safe, Energetic Metafex Linear Shaped Charges for Salvage and Obstacle Clearance Operations
Abstract:Metafex (for metal-fueled explosive replacement) combines the technologies of explosive reaction thermochemistry and pulsed electrical power. The technology will make systems formerly requiring hazardous explosives not only safer and more energetic but also less environmentally disruptive and lower in cost. Analysis shows that Metafex energy densities are more than twice as great as those of conventional explosives. Because the energy density is greater, weapon components can be made smaller and/or more effective, yet safer, if they use Metafex in place of explosives. There are many US Navy applications, including linear shaped charges (LSC's) for salvage and obstacle clearance operations. By replacing the high explosive with Metafex, LSC's will be safer. Because they will be safer, they will be less costly to manufacture, to ship, and to use. Also, disposal of obsolete ordnance will be non-hazardous. In contrast to conventional ones, the proposed LSC's require no explosives. They are environmentally benign, can be safely shipped anywhere; and need no special handling. They will be inert until activated by energetic electrical pulses. In Phase I of the proposed project, Metafex test samples will be built and tested, and the technology will be adapted for use in LSC's.

POLYPLUS BATTERY CO. INC.
2431 Fifth Street
Berkeley, CA 94710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 841-7242
Dr. May-Ying Chu
NAVY 99-014
Title:Development of Advanced Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries
Abstract:PolyPlus Battery Company is developing advanced secondary batteries based on lithium polysulfide chemistry. The Navy has an immediate need for secondary batteries having energy densities superior to Ag/Zn cells. Given the high energy density of Ag/Zn chemistry, the Navy seeks alternative cathodes having theoretical energy densities in excess of 1500 Wh/kg. PolyPlus Battery Company is developing a battery based on the chemistry of lithium polysulfides. The reversible cell reaction is 2 Li + S = Li2S. The lithium polysulfide cathode has a gravimetric capacity of 1165 mAh/g and a nominal cell potential of 2.0 volts, giving a theoretical energy density of 2330 Wh/kg. The extremely high energy density of the Li/S system is 33 to 55% higher than that requested by the Navy. Furthermore, fully sealed, packaged 2 Ah cells tested at PolyPlus Battery Company's facility have demonstrated exceptionally high specific energies of 150 to 400 Wh/kg at moderate to low rate (C/3 to C/25). These cells have also demonstrated high power densities of over 800 W/kg at room temperature and over 1,000 W/kg (80 Wh/kg) at moderately elevated temperatures (60 ░C). The superior characteristics of this battery chemistry seem particularly well suited to the Navy's requirements.

RECHARGEABLE BATTERY CORP.
809 University DriveSuite 100-E
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 260-1120
Brendan Coffey
NAVY 99-014
Title:Development of Advanced Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries
Abstract:Rechargeable Battery Corporation has developed innovative bismuth modified manganese dioxide (BMMD) materials with unique electro- active properties. These BMMD materials could significantly enhance the performance of rechargeable lithium batteries, and are already the basis of an advanced Secondary Zinc Alkaline Manganese Dioxide (SZAMTM) battery technology. In the alkaline system the bismuth dopant confers deep (2-electron), reversible, cyclability to the MnO2. By complexing with soluble Mn(III) species, the bismuth serves as a redox catalyst, increasing the working voltage of the cell. Steric effects of the Bi-Mn complexes appear to prevent the formation of non-rechargeable MnO2 phases so that capacity fade in practical cells is low; 500 cycles are readily achieved. There is now direct evidence that BMMD materials can produce similar effects in rechargeable lithium systems, potentially translating into capacities of more than 500 Ah/kg and cell voltages of 3- 4+ Volts, if the same level of benefit can be achieved. Solution-phase structural stabilization constitutes an entirely new approach toward the development of manganese oxides for rechargeable lithium batteries. In this Phase I SBIR development program, various structural forms of BMMD will be incorporated into the cathode of button cells with lithium anodes and evaluated for specific capacity, cyclability and fade. Micro-structural analysis will be carried out on the material before and after cycling.

CARBOLEX, INC.
Adv. Sci.&Techn. Comm. CenterUniv. of Kentucky, AS
Lexington, KY 40506
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(606) 257-9488
Shaoli Fang
NAVY 99-015
Title:Carbon Nanotube - Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding
Abstract:Single wall carbon nanotube - polymer composites will be synthesized and investigated for EMI shielding applications. Bundles of nanotubes will be prepared by an arc discharge process and dispersed in several polymer hosts as a physical mixture. Composites made from as-grown and chemically purified nanotubes will be investigated as a function of the vol.% loading, as will composites formed by laminating large area sheets of nanotube paper between polymer sheets. The effects of enhanced nanotube conductivity (chemical doping) and ferromagnetic nanoparticle additives will also be addressed. Stripline cavities operating in the 0.075 - 6 GHz range will be used to measure the complex permittivity and permeability of the composites. When applicable, the results will be modeled using an effective medium theory for composites built from dielectric hosts containing high aspect ratio conducting rods.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4171
Dr. Patricia Wilson
NAVY 99-015
Title:Novel Applications for Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I proposal is to develop carbon nanotube composites for use in demanding electronic applications on Navy aircraft and ships. Foster-Miller proposes to meet this objective by developing an innovative conductive gap treatment system for stealth aircraft. To assist with identification of materials and requirements for low observable coatings, Foster-Miller has teamed with Northrop-Grumman, a leading manufacturer of stealth aircraft for the DoD. The proposed Foster-Miller gap sealant will be comprised of a unique combination of materials which focus on improving composite performance through the use of carbon nanotube technology. To improve nanotube adhesion to the matrix resin, and therefore further improve the mechanical and electrical properties of the composite, Foster-Miller will functionalize the nanotubes to react with and chemically bond to the matrix resin. In Phase I, Foster-Miller will complete preliminary electrical and mechanical evaluation on gap sealant test specimens and further investigate other EMI and low observable coating applications for carbon nanotube technology.

MOLECULAR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
270 Littleton Road, #29
Westford, MA 01852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 392-1304
Dr. Mario Cazeca
NAVY 99-016
Title:Erbium (III) Ion Containing Fluoropolymers as Optical Fiber/Waveguide Amplifiers
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I research will focus on the development of Erbium based Polymer Optical Fiber (POF) Amplifiers. POFs are potential candidates in short-haul (1000 m or less) telecommunication applications such as local area networks. Currently low bandwidth copper wires are used, which cannot support the bandwidth requirements of multimedia and internet technologies. Gradient Index POFs with a bandwidth of over 2.5 Gbits/sec have recently been fabricated, which will be enough to support most of the telecommunication applications. However, attenuation of polymers is very high at 1.55 micrometers, where most long distance fiber optic systems operate. Inexpensive polymeric optical amplifiers need to be developed to extend the operational range of POFs. MTI is proposing to develop inexpensive erbium (III) ion doped POF/waveguide amplifiers by either functionalizing or doping the amorphous fluoropolymers with erbium complexes. Multilayered fluoropolymer-erbium complex thin film waveguides will be fabricated using proprietary technique. The fluorescence lifetime of the erbium- polymer materials will be optimized from various proposed fluoropolymer- erbium complex compositions. Both fiber and waveguide optical amplifiers will be fabricated and tested. Optical gains of the amplifiers will be determined. Thermal stability and laser damage threshold of the amplifiers will also be studied.

PHOTON-X
106 Rock Rose Lane
Radnor, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 688-3243
A. F. Garito
NAVY 99-016
Title:High Gain Erbium Polymer Optical Fiber Amplifier
Abstract:Under the proposed project, Photon-X will demonstrate the feasibility of a compact, optically pumped, high gain, erbium perfluoro polymer optical fiber amplifier having low-loss at 1550 nm for operation in short and medium distance data communications network systems. The polymer amplifier will be based on the recent discovery at Photon-X of high performance rare earth polymer materials. The new rare earth polymers are directly synthesized at high rare earth ion concentrations (>10% wt of rare earth ion) with each metal ion encapsulated and physically buffered by insulating, covalently bonded, perfluorinated ligands that then form the polymer backbone matrix. This is distinctly different from heavily studied inorganic glasses and single crystals where rare earth ion salts are doped directly into the host but only to relatively low levels (<0.1% wt).

NASCENT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, LLC
P. O. Box 1470
Yorktown, VA 23692
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 872-0677
Christopher S. Domack
NAVY 99-017
Title:Aircraft Large Area Lamb Corrosion Mapping System
Abstract:As the naval aviation fleet continues to age, methods for accurately predicting the presence of structural flaws-- such as hidden corrosion-- that compromise airworthiness become increasingly necessary. Ultrasonic guided waves, Lamb waves, allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical waveguide physics. Our proposed work focuses on a variety of different tomographic reconstruction techniques to graphically represent the Lamb wave data in quantitative maps that can be easily interpreted by technicians. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, for example, we can convert the traveltimes of the fundamental Lamb modes into a thickness map of the inspection region. This proposal describes practical implementations of Lamb wave tomographic imaging techniques that will be person-portable and optimized for in-the-field testing of large-area aircraft structures.

SENSANT CORP.
650, Saratoga Ave.
San Jose, CA 95129
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 557-6840
Igal Ladabaum
NAVY 99-017
Title:MEMS Sensors for Large Area Hidden Corrosion Detection
Abstract:Sensant Corp intends to investigate the use of a new, non-contact ultrasound technology for the rapid detection of corrosion in large areas. Sensant Corp believes that recent improvements in transducer technology that now enable air-coupled inspection may overcome many of the traditional shortcomings of costly, time-consuming ultrasonic inspection systems for large areas. The recent application of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology to ultrasonic devices has created an advanced ultrasonic sensor with significantly improved dynamic range (110 db) and wide range of operating frequencies in air (2-12 MHz). These new ultrasonic transducers are fabricated in the same manner as a silicon chip using a technique known as micromachining. In many cases, these devices enable the possibility of air-coupled, non-contact inspection of materials as demonstrated by Sensant using aluminum and Plexiglas sheets. For this research, Sensant will characterize the acoustic properties of the multi-layer material to be inspected and will determine the required properties of an ultrasonic inspection system. Then, the company will develop a custom MEMS transducer to investigate the feasibility of ultrasonic inspection of multi-layer materials. To ensure rapid inspection of large areas, Sensant will evaluate both a longitudinal wave and lamb-wave approach using arrays of focused MEMS transducers.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4170
Nese Orby
NAVY 99-018
Title:ADHER: Adherent Durable Hydrophobic Epoxy Resin Formulation for Underwater Hull Touch-Up Repair
Abstract:Marine coatings are the key materials used to protect metals against corrosion and obtain the full design service life from ships. Marine anticorrosion coatings have a significant economic impact and any breach in the anticorrosion coating that may occur due to abrasion or during docking must be repaired as quickly as possible. The most difficult portion of a ship to recoat and repair with anticorrosion coatings is the underwater hull because repairs must be done under water by divers to avoid expensive dry- docking. The present repair coating formulation disintegrates during application causes the water to be cloudy, blurs the diver's vision and contaminates the marine life. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a high performance, environmentally compliant, non-toxic, no VOC (100% solids) hull touch up repair coating that can be applied underwater without hindering the performance of the application team. The proposed repair coating will adhere well to underwater substrates, cure while immersed in water and have sufficient water-resistance so that it doesn't disintegrate and obscure vision during application. Our proposed ADHER repair-coating formulation will also provide good adhesion, toughness, anti-blush and water resistance properties, and will readily accept additional coatings that can be applied during dry- docking.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2331
Dr. Bryan M. Smith
NAVY 99-018
Title:Underwater Epoxy Coating
Abstract:Navy vessels rely on epoxy coatings to protect the hull from the corrosive sea water environment, but scratches are frequently developed in these coatings during normal operations. Current formulations and application techniques used to repair damaged coatings under water produce unacceptable contamination of the water column. TDA Research, Inc. has identified novel hydrophobic curing agents which, when combined with new application methods, promise to eliminate water contamination during underwater application. Both Navy and commercial marine vessels will benefit from the availability of an environmentally acceptable repair coating suited to underwater application. In addition to repairing damaged coatings, the proposed formulation would also serve to protect dock block areas af

ADVANCED CERAMETRICS, INC.
P.O. Box 128245 N. Main Street
Lambertville, NJ 08530
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 397-2900
Jonathan D. French, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-019
Title:Development of a Low-Cost Technology to Form Long Single Crystal Piezoelectric Fibers
Abstract:Advanced Cerametrics, Inc. (ACI) has developed a process to manufacture continuous filaments of piezoelectric ceramic materials and had designed and delivered transducer and actuator devices using these fibers to commercial, military and research institutions. Piezoceramic fiber composites are more desirable than other technologies in many transducer and actuator applications. ACI intends to adapt its piezoelectric fiber manufacturing process to form long lengths of single-crystal relaxor ferroelectric materials at reasonable cost. The proposed reseach is broken into three steps: 1) process chemical compatability studies and initial fiber spinning, 2) spinning trials for texturing and/or melt growth along the fiber axis and 3) prototype device development. Congruently melting materials (non-lead based) will be spun and continuously sintered in a melt-zone furnace that ACI developed to make high-temperature superconducting fiber. Incongruently melting materials (lead-based) will be melt-textured using procedures requiring a controlled-atmosphere, which ACI developed for monolithic HTS materials. During the research ACI will build fiber composite transducers for ultrasound and underwater acoustic applications and active fiber composites for actuator applications. By the end of Phase II ACI will have relaxor ferroelectric single-crystal fiber composite sales to its existing commercial and military customers.

BLATEK, INC.
2820 E. College Ave. Suite F
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 231-2085
Dr. Xuecang Geng
NAVY 99-019
Title:Single Crystal Tonpilz-Type Power Transducers
Abstract:This SBIR will address the modeling, fabrication, and testing of single crystal tonpilz-type power transducers. In collaboration with TRS Ceramics, Inc., single crystal PZN-4.5% PT piezoelectric will be integrated into the tonpilz power transducer, providing ultra high electromechanical coupling (up to 90%), high dielectric constant (up to 5500), high mechanical Q factor (up to 360), low dielectric loss (0.002) and high strain level (up to 0.5%). A direct comparison between an optimally designed single crystal PZN-4.5% PT tonpilz power transducer and an optimally designed PZT tonpilz power transducer will be made to demonstrate the performance enhancement. This phase I research will provide a basis for further transducer optimization and cost effective manufacturing of an optimally designed transducer array in Phase II. A Phase I option for modeling, construction, and testing of a sonar array element will enhance the development of the Phase II proposal.

BURLEIGH INSTRUMENTS, INC.
Main Street
Fishers, NY 14453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 924-9355
David A. Henderson
NAVY 99-019
Title:Miniature High-Strain Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuator
Abstract:A miniature high-strain actuator is proposed that has low internal stresses and high efficiency while using single crystal piezoelectric (PZT) materials. Single crystal PZT materials provide at least 400 percent more strain than polycrystalline materials and make it possible to produce significantly smaller actuators while maintaining the same performance. Burleigh proposes to develop new design and assembly methods that that compensate for the higher strain and lower stiffness of single crystal PZT by using anisotropic composite material bonds, electrodes and interfaces. By using these anisotropic composite materials the internal stresses are minimized and the output efficiency maximized. At least these composite material concepts will be considered: (1) micro-machining (MEMS) thin arrays of support posts connected by flexible links, (2) mixing spherical particles with polymer adhesive prior to bonding, and (3) dicing thin disks from unidirectional composite rods. All these approaches have the same objective of maximizing the d33 stiffness and d31 yield strain. Practical manufacturing solutions will be investigated and identified. In the option phase, a single crystal PZT stack and flex- tensional amplifier will be designed and constructed, using the selected composite electrodes and bonds, and fully tested to characterize motion, creep, hysteresis, non-linearity, force, stiffness and resonant frequency.

IMAGE ACOUSTICS, INC.
97 Elm Street
Cohasset, MA 02025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 383-2002
Dr. John L. Butler
NAVY 99-019
Title:Actuators and Transducers from Single Crystal Piezoelectric Materials
Abstract:An innovative acoustic transducer/actuator using a single crystal piezoelectric driver will be developed. Single crystal piezoelectric materials such as PZN-4.5%PT are capable of near linear strains greater than 0.5% and a coupling coefficient as great as 92% allowing high output over a broad bandwidth. Accordingly, there is a desire to develop a transducer and/or actuator that capitalizes on these properties. Although large scale manufacturing of this material is not fully developed at this time, small sized pieces in small quantities are currently available. Because of this and because of the high cost of the small pieces, we have chosen a configuration that will allow both high displacement actuator and acoustic transducer operation with a minimum of adverse effects on the coupling coefficient. The design is based on U. S. Patent 4,845,688 and uses stiff lever arms to magnify the displacement without significant bending, which can reduce the coupling coefficient. With this design only small quantities of the single crystal should be needed to attain a high-output broad bandwidth acoustic transducer. We plan to develop a finite element model of the design and fabricate a laboratory model using single crystal material.

WILCOXON RESEARCH, INC.
21 Firstfield Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 947-7964
Paul A. Wlodkowski
NAVY 99-019
Title:Development of Mesoscale, Piezoelectric Single Crystal-Based Accelerometers
Abstract:The advent of single crystal piezoelectric materials is destined to have significant ramifications for the vibration instrumentation industry. Wilcoxon Research, Inc. believes, however, that one of the most promising and direct paths to commercialization is through the development of miniature, high sensitivity accelerometers. Moreover, miniature accelerometers will have overall physical dimensions in the mesoscale range, obviating the requirement of growing large diameter (> 1 cm) crystals. Wilcoxon Research, Inc. hereby proposes to demonstrate a miniature accelerometer design and prototype fabrication that makes use of piezoelectric single crystals with high electromechanical coupling. One of the major advantages of this new technology is the ability to significantly decrease the size of the sensor while maintaining the same performance when compared to conventional PZT based sensors. Due to the smaller size and unique packaging, the production cost for single crystal- based sensors has the potential of being much less than PZT sensors. Its use in embedded sensing applications, throughout the military and private sector, is expected to be widespread.

HOOD TECHNOLOGY CORP.
1750 Country Club Road
Hood River, OR 97031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 387-2288
Andreas von Flotow
NAVY 99-020
Title:High Cycle Fatigue Control Using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)
Abstract:This project will study the feasibility of using MEMS fabrication technology to replace classical mechanical actuators we are currenty using for active control of High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) in gas turbine rotor blades. Left unchecked, this flexing of the rotor blades can lead to blade and engine failure By modifying the stator wakes with deployable actuators, we are able to greatly reduce rotor blade vibration. Prototype actuators have been 1/2 mm tall bumps fastened to the stator blades. These bumps must be deployable, varying their deployment with engine RPM. The existence of MEMS technology provides a potentially versatile solution, which may enable us to reduce the drag cost of wake modification. Hood Technology is currently engaged in a NAVAIR-sponsored project to demonstrate such active control of HCF in an Air Force test rig. We hope to use the MEMS actuators we propose to build under this project, in this parallel demonstration.

ADROIT SYSTEMS, INC.
411 108th Ave. NE Suite 1080
Bellevue, WA 98004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 450-3930
Mr. Erik Christofferson
NAVY 99-021
Title:Advanced Fuel Additives for PDEs
Abstract:The development of a fuel additive that enhances the detonability of current missile fuels qualified for Naval missiles may enable the full potential of the PDE to be reached. Additives which increase energy density, allow for fuel cooling, enchance atomization and mixing, and decrease initiation requirements are the focus of this effort.

CSA ENGINEERING
2565 Leghorn St.
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Dr. Eric Anderson
NAVY 99-022
Title:Magnetostrictive-Piezoelectric Resonant (MPR) Stand Alone Pump
Abstract:The innovation and the resulting opportunity proposed here involves taking advantage of the increased reliability of solid state smart material actuators, coupled together with optimized electrical circuitry performance, to yield a highly efficient, compact standalone positive displacement pump. Specifically, it is proposed that piezo-electric and magnetostrictive smart material actuators based pumps be designed so that the capacitive and inductive natures of the smart materials are also properly harnessed and phased to yield a electrically resonant circuit for greater system efficiency. The benefit of this would be reduced power requirements, smaller power amplifiers, reduced heat dissipation, and in general a smaller, lighter, more affordable standalone pump system. Use of the solid state smart materials also helps increase system simplicity and reliability. While specifically focused on the dual use of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric actuators to create a more efficient total pump system, there is a great deal of freedom left to consider a wide range of specific pump types.

LAYERED MANUFACTURING, INC.
101A Phelps Ave.
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 445-7031
Bahram Jadidian
NAVY 99-022
Title:High Authority strain and force Piezoelectric Oval Actuator Driven Pump
Abstract:The fabrication of a new generation of high authority strain and force piezoelectric actuator driven pump is proposed. The pump comprises of a pump housing, a suction valve, a delivery valve, a liquid chamber communicating to the suction and delivery ports, and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the outer surface of a vibrating plate for closing the liquid chamber. This pump offers a new generation of high frequency and high strain piezoelectric actuator which vibrates due to the application of an AC voltage. The actuator is designed using a CAD based program and fabricated directly from the Cad file using layered manufacturing process. In this process, the Fused Deposition of Ceramic (FDC) technology will be used. In this method, the actuator is fabricated by depositing PZT powder loaded thermoplastic polymer, layer by layer, along a predefined tool path which is controlled by a computer. After binder removal, sintering, electroding, and poling, the device produces large strain under the application of an electric field.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0819
Mark Harris
NAVY 99-023
Title:Modular Rail Enclosure
Abstract:Traditional power electronics has evolved an ad-hoc packaging scheme. This, along with its challenging packaging requirements has tended to keep power electronic costs high and reliability low. The Power Electronic Building Block program has sponsored work in modular Power Electronics at various levels. One of these efforts is the Coordinated Interconnect System (CIS). The CIS is based on a cellular power bus that is simply interconnected by an array of clipped tabs at the cell perimeter. The proposed effort is to develop a modular enclosure system based on the CIS that will enable inverter designers to create custom drawers and cabinets from standard parts. The primary effort in phase one is to develop a detail design of the 'rails' for the modular enclosure, develop a low insertion force connector for the power tabs and do an overall study of the various support components for the Modular Rail Enclosure (MRE).

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
500 Office Center DriveSuite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Thomas Cassin
NAVY 99-024
Title:Nondestructive Evaluation of Composite Core Structures (MSC P0B16-901)
Abstract:Multifunctional cored composites have created the opportunity to design lighter, environmentally resistant and stealthier structures for use in the topside Navy. Typical multilayer applications, such as for the AEM/S, LPD 17 and DD21 platforms have challenged both the structural designer in defining what constitutes a critical structural anomaly, and the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) engineer to find where that critical flaw has occurred. Traditional techniques have had limited success in detecting and quantifying these structural anomalies and providing a cost-effective, timely approach to inspecting very large areas of structure. This proposal will address both of these issues. The innovation and opportunity offered in this proposal is to assemble a diverse team of material developers, composite designers, and nondestructive inspection technology experts into an Integrated Product Team (IPT) for the purpose of developing a solution that will address several levels of topside NDE simultaneously. We are proposing to change the paradigm of NDE in topside structures to allow for the definition, a priori, of quantifiable damage in composite materials. This will allow for the real time disposition of a composite structure, and provide to the Naval community a methodology and suite of inspection capabilities to maintain composite materials in the fleet.

TRILION QUALITY SYSTEMS LLC
241 Atlee Road
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 659-5363
John Tyson II
NAVY 99-024
Title:Shearography NDE of Composite Core Structures
Abstract:The Phase I program proposed will demonstrate the feasibility of using shearography to rapidly and effectively inspect the Navy's multi-layered composite core structures for critical defects that effect the integrity and/or performance of these structures. These advanced composite structures are used on ship board for superstructures and hulls, as well as for primary structure on naval aircraft. These materials provide high strength to weight ratios and signature reduction as long as no critical defects are present. Speckle interferometry, using the shearography method, has been successfully used for these inspections. The TQS proposed system will incorporate advances in the technology that will provide the capabilities desired, with a direct route to commercialization.

MOBERG RESEARCH, INC.
124 S. Maple Way
Ambler, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 283-0860
Richard Moberg
NAVY 99-025
Title:Medical Data Fusion Watchboard
Abstract:The overall goal of the project is to design and develop an interactive display system (a Watchboard) which integrates real- time information from a variety of sources. The Watchboard is used to track casualty movement, optimize utilization of resources, and enhance medical decision-making. The Watchboard would be an integral component of a medical information system designed to reduce combat related mortality. The computer science and multimedia capabilities of Moberg Research, Inc. will be combined in this project to produce and easy-to-use, interactive Watchboard. A feature of the Watchboard is the presentation of an increasing level of detailed information as one proceeds through the graphical "layers" of the Watchboard. Thus, part of the Phase I effort is a classification of information using object oriented techniques and the linking of object attributes to the various layers. A proof of concept prototype will be built to demonstrate these characteristics.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Annette Myjak
NAVY 99-025
Title:MedStat: A Web-based Medical Data Fusion Watchboard
Abstract:Modus Operandi, Inc. (MO) enthusiastically proposes MedStat: a Web-based Medical Data Fusion Watchboard. MedStat uses an innovative, unique combination of proven data visualization, internet, and agent technologies to provide casualty information. Our web-based solution takes advantage of the human ability to easily comprehend large, complex data sets when information is presented graphically, while leveraging existing efforts by the military medical community to create a shared medical data environment. The end result is a medical information technology that is small, mobile, flexible, and rapidly deployed to meet today's operational needs. With MedStat, a variety of watchboards can easily be created to support the information and decision making needs of many users: the nurse or physician monitoring one or several patients; the facility commander assessing the status of a medical treatment facility; or a shipboard medical command and control center theater-wide resource allocation. MedStat provides rapid assessment and casualty tracking capabilities - to anyone, anytime, anywhere.

SCENPRO, INC.
101 West Renner RoadSuite 170
Richardson, TX 75082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) /43-7500
Michael Gately
NAVY 99-025
Title:Real-Time/Predictive Medical Data Fusion Watchboard
Abstract:We propose to develop a Real-time/Predictive Medical Data Fusion Watchboard to enhance the medical care and readiness of a medical treatment facility by allowing medical care providers, support personnel and remote command staff to rapidly visualize and assess the tactical medical situation. The system will gather, fuse and display casualty related data on a watchboard. This will include patient status, patient location, en-route patients, space utilization, staff utilization, equipment status, and supply status. The tool will gather data from a variety of sources, including the Internet, and on-line databases. The system will include a predictive casualty management simulation and capture and record all data generated during a medical incident or exercise. Thus the system will also be usable for medical training activities and after-action reviews.

VIASAT
2290 Cosmos Ct.
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 635-9933
Kathleen Wetherby
NAVY 99-025
Title:Medical Data Fusion Watchboard
Abstract:Situational Awareness can mean the difference between success and failure in a conflict. It can also be the difference between life and death for a casualty in that conflict. The ViaSat MediWatch system is a medical data fusion watchboard designed to allow the user the greatest access to data, at the most appropriate level of detail, in a format that allows the fastest perception, so that awareness of the present situation can be maximized. This proposal describes the Graphical Interface For Information Cognition (GIFIC) display paradigm, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the robust software architecture employed here to create the MediWatch system. This system will benefit greatly from other synergistic programs that have or are presently taking place within ViaSat and the GIFIC Corp.

APTIMA, INC.
300 West Cummings ParkSuite 3050
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Donna L. Anastasi
NAVY 99-026
Title:A Case Resource for Cognitive Task Analysis
Abstract:Detailed cognitive task analysis (CTA) is an invaluable tool for system design, but it is extremely resource intensive and often the results are not transferable to other design projects. There are virtually no commercial tools to support CTA, and no methods or repositories for disseminating the results. We propose to develop a convenient computer-based resource for amassing, storing, and retrieving results and methods from CTA and other task analyses using a fresh, innovative, practical approach focused on user needs. Versatility and expandability are key features of the approach. We are not committed to any one approach to task analysis, but plan to create a flexible tool. Our schema for storing and retrieving information will be driven by the needs of the users (project managers, system designers, and CTA specialists). Extensive user interviews are a key feature of Phase I. We propose to use Latent Semantic Indexing as a powerful, practical, cost-effective means for storing and retrieving information. The case resource tool will be expandable, serving a community of users who contribute to its growth. Our interdisciplinary project team combines real world experience in applying a variety of task analysis techniques with state-of-the-art expertise in database indexing and retrieval technology.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd., N.
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Gary Klein, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-026
Title:Supporting CTA Practices and Products: A Case Resource Tool
Abstract:The number and diversity of Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) methods has grown rapidly over the past decade and continues to expand. A NATO-ONR workshop held in 1997 identified a number of issues that need to be addressed for continued growth and advancement of the CTA field. Among the needs identified is a resource that provides convenient, effective access to CTA practices and products, and access to examples of CTA. The Phase I SBIR proposed here would begin to develop that resource. Critically important to the success of such a resource will be to identify an overarching structure and set of indexing dimensions that are meaningful and valid for a range of users. We will work with CTA specialists and prospective users of the tool to identify and develop these elements, building functionality, case content and structure, representation formats, and search and retrieval processes designed around their information needs.

LOGOBOTS LLC
60 E 32nd Street, #203
Chicago, IL 60616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 836-0497
Dr. Narayan P. Murarka
NAVY 99-027
Title:Intelligent Agent-Based SSCGFs
Abstract:One of the open research issues in the incorporation of battlefield stressors into CGF technology, involves the interaction of the external stressors with the personality characteristics of the individual war fighter. Further complicating this issue is the fact that the personality traits of an individual are influenced by the personality traits and the actions of other individuals (both friends and foes). Capturing this aspect within CGF technology is essential for producing realistic behaviors. In addition, these complex interactions must be represented across a range of stressor types in an efficient and user-friendly manner. "Emergent" simulations enabled by autonomous agents can be used to address this deficiency in CGF technology. Complex global behaviors of a group of agents can result from simple local interactions of these agents. Such a framework would be robust since it does not rely on rigidly scripted rules. It would also be more realistic since the interactions of agents could result in unpredictable behavior much like on the battlefield. We propose to develop one such autonomous agent model using a mathematical optimization approach which lends itself to the formulation of objective and constraint functions which can represent a wide variety of stressor models.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4216
Dr. James Dill
NAVY 99-028
Title:Electric Actuator Prognostics System Development
Abstract:In this project, Foster-Miller will evaluate the likely failure modes, and the sensor and electrical signals available in the systems controllers for performing diagnostics evaluations on advanced aircraft electric actuation systems. An overall concept will be developed for a prognostics system for the electrical control and actuation systems on a More Electric Aircraft. This concept will include use of existing sensors, controller signals, and power draw signatures for prognostics. Methods for isolating the prognostics system from EMI produced by the actuators and other aircraft systems will also be investigated. Any additional sensors that may be needed for detecting specific critical failure modes will be defined. The applicability of smart sensor technology to this application will be evaluated. As part of this effort, nonlinear phase space reconstruction techniques that have been developed for vibration control and diagnostics on Navy helicopters will be investigated for their ability to define the operating regime of the aircraft and the actuator system. The ability of these techniques and other nonlinear instrument analysis techniques to provide prognostic information relative to actuator health will also be evaluated. Data on actual electromechanical actuation systems will be obtained from Sundstrand Aerospace for the feasibility evaluation.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Center Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-5530
Mr. Joel Bock
NAVY 99-028
Title:Prognostic Development Tools for Electric Actuation Systems
Abstract:New advances in electric motor technology coupled with dramatic reductions in life-cycle costs and weight have driven aircraft designers to incorporate new electric-powered actuation devices into their near-term designs. The failure of these electromechanical actuator (EMA) components is expected, but difficult to predict. Worst-case EMA failures can have tragic results, so detecting failure before it occurs is highly desirable. By analyzing both electrical modes, plus performance parameters of an operating EMA, one can determine the extent of degradation without adding additional sensors or requiring dismantling the EMA and performing a detailed inspection of its components. This "condition-based" maintenance will result in large cost savings by extending the useful life of mechanical components, extending normal maintenance cycles, and safeguarding against premature component failure. ORINCON proposes to develop a prognostic algorithm development system for automated detection and prediction of faults in an operating EMA. Our EMA Health Diagnostic (EHD) toolkit system uses advanced spectral estimation techniques, model-based condition algorithms, data fusion, and neural network processing to detect mechanical flaws and predict failures. The proposed system will enable advanced prognostic algorithm development based on operational EMA data using ORINCON's advanced spectral estimation techniques, neural net processing, and multisensor fusion.

ATHENA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 331-1051
Ben Motazed, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-029
Title:Fault-Tolerant Control for Multiple Correlated Failures
Abstract:This effort will develop fault- and damage-tolerant control for improving air vehicle survivability through identification of and recovery from multiple correlated failures of hardware redundant flight control sensors and actuators. The proposed concept builds on Athena's Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) technology, with proven demonstration in flight, real-time detection of single sensor and actuator failures. Athena's FTC achieves fault tolerance through analytic redundancy. The principles are based on deterministic non-linear control concepts and physical system dynamics, rather than genetic learning methods. The system model and failure detection filters are used to estimate the behavior of sensors and actuators, and compared to real measurements as the discriminating voting element. The proposed concept will resolve the ambiguity with multiple correlated hardware failures, while assuring stable and controllable authority throughout the flight envelope. Athena's elegant FTC implementation will enable an economical augmentation path onto current flight control systems. Subsonic air vehicles, whether strike system or commercial aircraft, are among the most vulnerable to man- portable air defense systems. The trend toward expensive survivability measures continues to strain diminishing defense budgets. Lower cost survivability options as those proposed here, are necessary to reverse this trend and assure maturation of an emerging generation of flight control systems.

CONDUCTING MATERIALS CORP.
6935, Oakland Mills Road,Suite, 'D'
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 312-5200
V.R.PaiVerneker, Ph.D. (M
NAVY 99-030
Title:Use of Electric field or microwaves in control of rate and magnitude of energy release from energetic materials
Abstract:A need exists for an energetic material whose energy release rate and magnitude can be controlled so that it can provide either high internal blast or high metal acceleration or a muted output. This material is needed in conjunction with an adaptable ordnance technology program intended to develop a single package capable of producing multiple kill mechanism. Conducting Materials Corp. (CMC) has experience in increasing the burn rate of a solid composite propellant by subjecting it to an external stimuli. In this proposal, CMC proposes to control the burn rate and the magnitude of a prefabricated energetic material by using this technology and tailoring the external stimulus. This will be the objective during Phase I. In Phase II, CMC will apply this to an energetic material propellant of Navy's choice and tailor the variable output

CUSTOM ANALYTICAL ENGINEERING SYS.
13000 Tensor Lane, N.E.
Flintstone, MD 21530
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 722-2013
Amos Alexander
NAVY 99-031
Title:Multi-Mission Rigid Penetrator Warhead
Abstract:The objectives of this proposed Phase I SBIR effort are to develop the deign methods, manufacturing approaches, and establish preliminary performance estimates for a warhead consisting of multiple rigid penetrator segments that can be selectively deployed as a single monolythic penetrator, a column of separated penetrator sections, or a dispersed distribution of rigid penetrator segments. The effort involves analyses and design activities aimed at developing the warhead structure to achieve controlled variations in dispense patterns by sequencing and timing separation of penetrator segment packs along the length of the penetrator and by bursting each penetrator segment pack to impart a radial velocity to the individual segments. Successful development of this rigid penetrator warhead provides capability of achieving required effectiveness against a broader spectrum of targets using a single warhead, and offers the potential for selecting or altering the warhead deployment configuration to maximize its effectiveness against a specific target that may be encountered while in flight.

BLAZETECH
24 Thorndike Street
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-0700
Dr. N. Albert Moussa
NAVY 99-032
Title:Prediction of Structural Response to Fragmentation/Blast/Firestarting Effects
Abstract:We will develop engineering models for the structural response of kill mechanisms such as multi-fragment impacts, internal blast, and fire when acting separately or in combinations. The project scope will cover a number of conventional and advanced weapons and surface targets such as vehicles, buildings, and other equipment. Particular emphasis will be placed on the synergy between various kill mechanisms. The approach will cover a review test data and models from the literature, the development semi- empirical correlations of these data, and the development of first principles based model that improve on and complement what is in the literature. The test data will be used to guide the model development and validate the predictions. The models will enable the design of critical tests; the improvement of test data interpretation, the accurate extrapolation from tested conditions to new situations; and the effective design of new weapon concepts. The models would benefit the tri-services communities concerned with weapon development, munition lethality, and target vulnerability/survivability. The benefits will include reduce costs and schedules for R&D, testing, and new weapon systems.

3DI (FORMERLY EARTH INFO SYS. CORP)
201 S College Ave., Suite 300
Ft. Collins, CO 80524
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 472-9000
Philip A. Davis
NAVY 99-034
Title:Intrinsic Earth Surface Material Classifier
Abstract:Currently, surface material classification is performed by manual interpretation of various enhanced images that accentuate local differences. This procedure requires analysts with in-depth knowledge of the surface and a great deal of time. The overall objective of this Phase I project is to develop an implementation plan for development of a nearly autonomous, reliable PC-based surface material classifier for visible to microwave wavelength image data. Project tasks include: (1) Develop a surface material classification scheme that is indexed to existing standard terrain attribution systems based on the abundance and importance of surface materials; (2) Establish the intrinsic properties of these materials (and typical values) that can be obtained from remote sensing data; (3) Define parameters and radiometric models that can produce surface intrinsic properties from recorded surface signals considering variable image acquisition conditions; and (4) Devise a quantitative measure of uncertainty associated with the determination of each surface element's identity. These tasks will be accomplished by leveraging our knowledge, expertise, and algorithms from 20 years of research and applications in terrain analysis and classification and from our collaborations with a number research organizations. This technology will be exported to numerous commercial applications, some of which do not yet exist.

AER, INC.
840 Memorial Drive
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 547-6207
Shelley Petroy
NAVY 99-034
Title:Intrinsic Earth Surface Material Classifier
Abstract:Sensor developers require the capability to easily generate scenes used to test sensor designs. As with model atmospheres used by MODTRAN/MOSART, the community recognized the need for model terrain materials with full optical/thermal specifications. This database would give users the ability to create realistic surfaces, complete with expected spectral responses at other wavelengths and environmental conditions. We propose to develop the underlying database(s) and software to use in conjunction with multiple radiative transfer models; thereby providing an enhanced surface rendering tool for simulation packages. Included will be a reclassification scheme of standard land surface types for the earth based on the abundance/importance and intrinsic physical properties. The baseline for the Master DB will be the IGBP/MODIS/NPOESS schemes. Overlying this database will be a software module that will allow the user to reclassify categories as needed or select specific categories or groups of categories. The Standard Surface Material Classifier Software will then create a dynamic, overlying Terrain Materials Database. This information is passed to surface rendering model(s) selected by the user. Surface-specific BRDF's will be calculated, if required by the selected Radiative Transfer Model(s). The user will also be able to specify viewing/illumination geometry and vary some environmental parameters.

ATEC, INC.
5575 Sterrett Place, Suite 260
Columbia, MD 21044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 715-9222
Tod A. Myrum, Ph.D., P.E.
NAVY 99-035
Title:EHD Enhanced Liquid/Air Carbon-Fiber Heat Exchanger
Abstract:Advanced Thermal and Environmental Concepts (ATEC) Inc. in collaboration with Refractory Composites Inc. (RCI) propose to develop an EHD- enhanced carbon-fiber heat exchanger that can demonstrate heat transfer enhancements substantially beyond the range of conventional technology for air/liquid compact heat exchangers of significance to the AAAV program. Phase I effort will quantify the potential for substantial size/weight savings and/or performance improvement, relative to the state-of-the art technology, for EHD-enhanced air/liquid heat exchangers of interest to the AAAV program. Evaluation will capitalize on the proposers team's extensive technical know-how and experience with EHD-enhanced heat transfer and carbon-fiber composites and will employ a combination of computations and experiments to identify the best candidate(s) application for the AAAV program. Technical obstacles associated with using an EHD-enhanced carbon-fiber-composite heat exchanger for AAAV uses, such as corrosion and/or erosion and EHD-induced working fluid decomposition, electromagnetic interference, and power conditioning and/or requirement problems, will be studied. While Phase I will demonstrate the technology in laboratory-scale test modules, it will provide the design information for full scale testing of the heat exchanger in Phase II and commercialization of the technology in Phase III of the effort.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4277
Thomas Lovell
NAVY 99-035
Title:Innovative Composite Heat Exchanger Technology Enhanced by Electrohydrodynamics
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes development of an ultra-compact composite radiator design capable of operating in both land and sea environments at temperatures in excess of 250*F. Foster-Miller's design will attain equivalent efficiencies to the best metallic radiators at 1/2 to 1/5th of the volume. We will employ electrohydrodynamics (EHD) to dramatically improve the heat transfer coefficient of air. EHD, combined with our experience in composite materials, electronics industry conductor technology and aerospace industry corrosion resistant coatings, will enable critical cooling system weight reductions for the next generation of assault vehicles. The Phase I program will demonstrate several of the critical fabrication techniques needed to implement the EHD concept on the AAAV main coolant heat exchangers. Foster-Miller will work with team partners, General Dynamics Amphibious Systems (GDAS) and Land Systems (GDLS), to identify the performance requirements. Foster-Miller will utilize experimental techniques to develop the EHD parameters for ultra-compact cross flow heat exchangers. The base program will fabricate a representative cross flow heat exchanger core segment to be tested in the option. A manufacturing plan for demonstrating a cost effective EHD heat exchanger core of robust construction will be recommended at the end of the Phase I base program for implementation in Phase II.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Ave.
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
NAVY 99-036
Title:Low Cost Navigator Based on Microelectromechanical (MEM) Sensors
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to design, fabricate, and evaluate a low cost, low size and weight navigator. This navigator utilizes state-of-the-art multiple microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors and optimal filtering technology to achieve high precision navigation accuracy. Recently, a great deal of advancement has been obtained in manufacturing processes that allow the monolithic integration of MEMS sensors with driving, controlling, and signal processing electronics. This integration promises to improve the performance of micromechanical devices as well as reduce the cost of manufacturing and packaging. Several innovative technical approaches are proposed in this Phase I project for the design and fabrication of the multiple MEMS sensors navigator. These approaches are: modeling and high fidelity simulation of the MEMS sensors, electronic filter design, sensor configuration and sensor optimal estimation, and using zero-velocity updating to enhance navigation accuracy. This high precision, new concept design navigator will find big commercial applications in marine navigation, automotive navigation, pleasure, and military sectors.

ARETE ASSOC.
333 North WilmotSuite 450
Tucson, AZ 85711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Brian Redman
NAVY 99-037
Title:Real-Time Obstacle Detection Using a Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR (STIL)
Abstract:Grazing incidence LIDAR has been demonstrated for detection of shallow objects at significant standoff ranges. Practical application of this technique for collision avoidance requires development and integration of a compact, rugged configuration that can provide high resolution imaging over a wide swath from a maneuvering platform, with sufficient standoff range to allow the operator to avoid the detected obstacle. Arete Associates has developed a novel 3-D Imaging LIDAR system, the Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR (STIL) which can provide high resolution imaging at significant standoff ranges. The patented STIL approach is based on application of mature technologies, and has been demonstrated in the laboratory, ship-based experiments, and airborne demonstrations. STIL uses fan beam illumination, push broom imaging, and electrostatic sweep to generate high resolution images with no moving parts, yielding a rugged compact configuration for vehicle integration. Arete proposes to directly demonstrate STIL for obstacle detection at near grazing incidence by adapting and utilizing existing, proven hardware for a cost-effective Phase I concept validation. Prototype system development will follow in Phase II, and include detailed design, fabrication, integration, and demonstration of a deployable configuration for vehicle mounted obstacle detection.

GORCA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
300 West Route 38
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 273-8200
Dr. Marc Olivieri
NAVY 99-037
Title:Marine Collision Avoidance Sonar
Abstract:A low-cost, lightweight, stealthy broadband acoustic sensor is proposed to achieve surface and subsurface obstacle avoidance (no-compromise) for Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicles (AAAV). The Marine Collision Avoidance Sonar (MARCAS) is based on a small size, retractable sparse planar array using a minimal number of commercial off-the-shelf transducers. The MARCAS provides both high vertical and high horizontal resolution over a wide aperture to provide AAAVs' drivers with WideViewTM detection without any moving parts. WideViewTM is important because drivers must make navigation decisions not only based on forward obstacles but also on potential obstacles on either side (similar to changing lanes on a highway). Thanks to the high vertical angular resolution and because of shallow water operation, the MARCAS will discern direct-paths from multipaths (reverberation) and differentiate obstacles above and below the 20-foot "safety-depth". Finally, the MARCAS is stealthy because it uses GORCA Technologies' proprietary concept, BiopulseTM, which is coded copies of naturally occurring biological transient pulses such as shrimp sounds. The broadband frequency content of these coded pulses drastically limits shallow water propagation interference and allows detection over a range of 400m. This distance represents the "safety cushion" that gives the AAAV driver approximately 30 seconds to avoid obstacles.

ARMORWORKS, INC.
1701 W. 10th Street #5
Tempe, AZ 85281
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 517-1150
William J. Perciballi
NAVY 99-039
Title:AAAV Multi-Threat Armor System
Abstract:This proposal describes an SBIR Phase I program that identifies a candidate AAAV armor system and provides design rationale for its performance advantages. Ceramic and composite armor technologies are discussed and design guidelines are explained using ballistic data to substantiate performance claims. Ceramic facing materials and composite backing materials are combined using innovative construction methods to meet the AAAV armor weight goal of 17.0 lb/ft2. Armor materials and construction details are discussed and quantified using ballistic data. A ballistic test plan is presented, along with phased program objectives, to demonstrate that AAAV armor weight, protection level, and multi-hit performance requirements are met.

CERADYNE, INC.
3169 Red Hill Avenue
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 549-0421
John P. Bird
NAVY 99-039
Title:Lightweight Armor Solution Proposal I
Abstract:A program is proposed to provide a lightweight, environmentally rugged, readily producile, low cost, modular solution to the armor requirements of the AAAV (Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle). This effort builds upon the known technology of the vehicle's current armor solution. By iteration into higher performing materials and through a build and test validation sequence, a demonstration of the required ballistic/weight performance is planned. The program involves a unique combination of highly experienced organizations and individuals who bring to bear state-of-the-art technology in ceramic materials, armor design, penetration mechanics phenomena understanding, and validation methodology. Finally, the Phase I report will include a thorough cost/weight reduction benefit analysis enabling the customer to make informed decisions regarding the utilization of alternate improved materials for AAAV armor.

PRINCETON POLYMER LABORATORIES
521 Lehigh Ave
Union, NJ 07083
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 687-7033
E. Allan Blair
NAVY 99-040
Title:Expedient Foam Technologies for Marine Corps Operations
Abstract:The objective of this project is to demonstrate the capability and affordability of rigid polyurethane foams (RPF) as an expedient construction material to improve operational capability of Marine Corps units conducting expeditionary operations. The function of this material is to fill gaps or crossings, serve as a barrier or channeling material, and stabilize beaches and marshes. It will serve the function of concrete or asphalt, but it requires less material, and is easier to mix and apply. In Phase I, we propose to develop the technical specifications for the material, develop a RPF meeting those specifications, and develop a prototype machine for dispensing and mixing the ingredients to make the RPF. With this machine, we will demonstrate our ability to make the RPF meeting the specifications of the project and will prepare a quantity of product RPF for evaluation by the client agency. In Phase II, we will modify the specifications of the RPF if necessary, based on the client agency's evaluation of the product from Phase I, develop a full scale machine for field application of large amounts of the RPF that we developed in Phase I, and will carry out a field demonstration of the apparatus and material.

ADVANCED REFRACTORY TECHNOLOGIES, I
699 Hertel Ave.Suite 290
Buffalo, NY 14207
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 875-4091
Richard Hexemer
NAVY 99-042
Title:Development and Implementation of a Lightweight/Durable Aluminum MMC Track System for the AAAV
Abstract:Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc (ART) is currently proposing the Development and Implementation of a Lightweight/Durable Aluminum MMC Track System for the AAAV. ART, teaming with Keweenaw Research Center (KRC) at Michigan Technological University is in an excellent position to supply an track system which meets the AAAV program office needs. ART is currently in the final stages of completing a lightweight MMC track system design (52 pounds/ft) for the M2 Bradley. It will be a direct replacement for their current T157I track system, but with a weight reduction of 25% and a doubling of track life (6000 miles). Shoe strength and wear are significantly enhanced utilizing selective SiC whisker reinforcement and high pressure squeeze casting. Shoe life is enhanced through improved shoe design and rubber components. It is proposed to leverage the technology and track design developed under this program to optimize a track system for the AAAV. Both single and double-pin track systems will be addressed to meet the weight requirements. This effort will commence by reviewing the requirements of the current track design and identifying changes/improvements which are not constrained by the AAAV. It is envisioned that the shoe body, track pins, track pad, and bushing sleeves can be lightened compared to the M2 track. Based on these considerations, the ART/KRC team feels confident that a track system can de developed in phase I and fabricated in Phase II meeting a 3000 mile track life, 42-45 pounds/ft weight (30% reduction compared to steel), and 21 inch width.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
500 Office Center DriveSuite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Anthony A. Caiazzo, P.E.
NAVY 99-042
Title:Development of Lightweight, Durable Composite Components for the AAAV (MSC P0A04-906)
Abstract:The Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV) program office has challenged the advanced materials community to develop durable and lightweight concepts for some of the aluminum and steel components of the vehicle. In this proposal, we have assembled an integrated product team (IPT) of design engineers that are familiar with the performance requirements of the AAAV, and design considerations and manufacturing techniques unique to fiber reinforced composite materials. The objectives of the proposed work is to develop a list of AAAV components where the application of composite materials could reduce the weight by at least 30% and to provide confidence that these materials can meet the durability requirements of the vehicle. To accomplish these objectives, the IPT will conduct preliminary design and manufacturing studies for candidate components and conduct laboratory evaluations of structural elements. The IPT approach proposed here is designed to reduce risk and facilitate transition of the advanced composite designs from concept and prototyping stages into implementation on the AAAV.

DE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3620 Horizon Drive
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 270-9700
William J. Clark
NAVY 99-043
Title:Armored Composite Ammunition Pressure Vessel
Abstract:We propose to develop an advanced ammunition container system that not only meets environmental and handling requirements but also provides armor protection against impacting threats and reduces the response of the stowed ammunition to an acceptable level when encountering an overmatched threat. The design of the ammunition boxes will be accomplished by an integration of advanced armor-system and composite rocket motor casing technologies. The integration of these two technologies is essential since both ballistic protection and containment of high pressure gases are simultaneously required for proper function of this component. The desired result of an overmatch threat engagement is to contain the stowed munition by preventing ejection from the container, while at the same time venting any gases to the exterior of the vehicle. There are three elements that must be addressed in the design effort; armor protection from external medium-level threats, containment of the reacting 30mm ammunition, and venting of overpressure gases. This increased protection of ammunition within the combat vehicle will improve the vehicle's ability to carry out its mission with a reduction in both the risk to the crew and the vulnerability of the system. This will also lead to satisfying IM specifications and vehicle survivability requirements.

STRATEGIC JOINT DESIGN INNOVATIONS
16 Via Belmonte
Rancho Santa Marg, CA 92688
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 589-6547
Steven Bishop
NAVY 99-043
Title:Titanium Sandwich Overpressurization Containment Ammunition Box
Abstract:This project will investigate the use of titanium sandwich panels for use on an overpressurization containment system. The manufacturing technique used will allow material to be added to the box in an efficient way and is cost effective. The joining method used is a one step process that creates no discernable change in material properties. It also has the advantage of allowing easy forming of contoured shapes. This lowers maximum pressure, allows incorporation of blast vents, accommodates a variety of interfaces, and allows a structurally efficient pressure resistant design. A series of parametric computer models will be used to analyze the maximum pressure and required vent activation pressure and cross-sectional area, after determination of the maximum credible incident for the AAAV box. A prototype cross-section test specimen will be manufactured to validate and demonstrate key features of the optimized design.

GINER, INC.
14 Spring Street
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 899-7270
Larry L. Swette
NAVY 99-044
Title:High Pressure, Electrochemical Oxygen System Trickle Charger
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is directed to development of a prototype oxygen generation system design capable of delivering oxygen at 2 to 4 ambient liters per minute and generated at a pressure level of 2500 psig to trickle- charge a storage source. The technology proposed is derived from the life-support oxygen generator system developed by the team of Giner, Inc. and Treadwell Corp. (Thomaston, CT) for the U.S. Navy's Seawolf Submarine. This high-pressure electrolyzer design, based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) to serve as an immobilized electrolyte and to separate the gases, will be modified as necessary to meet the requirements of a military aircraft application, specifically for trickle-charging a high- pressure gaseous oxygen supply. Trade-off studies will be performed on the current state-of-the-art in PEM electrolyzer technology and the conceptual design will consider material selection, size, weight, geometry, failure modes/effects, startup characteristics, safety and a performance assessment over aircraft altitude and temperature ranges. The Phase I goal will be to establish a conceptual design that meets all of the requirements for a full-scale, flight-test prototype 2500-psi Oxygen System Trickle Charger. The design process and trade-off studies will be based on in-house technology and supported by laboratory data from a working benchtop model.

ICET, INC.
916 Pleasant St., Unit 12
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-6064
Srinivasan Sarangapani
NAVY 99-044
Title:Electrochemical oxygen system for trickle charger
Abstract:Many types of military and commercial aircraft rely on the use of high-pressure oxygen cylinders to provide respiratory oxygen to crew members during emergency conditions. These cylinders require frequent replenishment to "top off" the oxygen gas lost during testing, inspection or use. Maintenance crews must refill cylinders on the ground. Cylinders are removed from the aircraft for refilling or are refilled in place using land based equipment. The procedures are time consuming, expensive and hazardous. There is a real danger of accidents and fire as a result of oxygen cylinder refilling. The overall goal of this program is to develop an aircraft oxygen generator for trickle-charging high-pressure gaseous oxygen supplies. The Phase I feasibility program will attempt to provide a conceptual design of the proposed system using a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) based electrochemical stack as oxygen generator. A bench-top model capable of generating oxygen at a rate of 1 liter per minute will be built and tested to provide performance data. A study of compressor technology that can meet the requirements of size, weight and input power for this application will be conducted and a conceptual design for aircraft system would be presented.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive, Suite 202
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 693-0017
Dr. Craig C. Andrews
NAVY 99-044
Title:On-Board Electrolyzer Based High-Pressure Oxygen Generator System for Aircrew Breathing Oxygen
Abstract:An available source of pure oxygen, usually in the form of high pressure oxygen gas in storage cylinders, is especially important for military aircraft crews. On-board generation of high- pressure oxygen gas can decrease the ground support requirements for military (and commercial) aircraft by reducing the need for high-pressure oxygen transfer cylinders. Following preflight validation and in-flight qualification, the proposed oxygen "trickle charger" may be used to automatically replace oxygen in storage cylinders that has been consumed by aircrew personnel and/or lost through system leaks. The use of a water electrolyzer system as a "trickle charger" is ideal since the oxygen is generated from easily obtained consumables (electricity and a small amount of water). Such a system may be arbitrarily cycled on and off, oxygen generation and pressurization is accomplished with a minimal number of moving components, and the system is essentially maintenance free. The proposed system is compatible with the rigors of flight, including altitude, temperature extremes, orientation, dynamic loading, and is fully capable of performing real-time on-board diagnostics. In addition, the system is compact, lightweight, reliable, has a relatively low electrical power demand, and requires no special handling. This Phase I project will result in the development and performance testing of a breadboard electrolyzer oxygen generation system having an output of 0.5 liters per minute at a pressure of 500 psi. The system will be tested at temperature extremes including starting from a frozen state. In preparation for the development of a high pressure system (2500 psi) in Phase II, critical design aspects will be addressed as part of the Phase I effort.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) /42-9330
Sam Boykin
NAVY 99-045
Title:Cost Estimating Model for Aircraft Weapons Integration
Abstract:Developers and planners are required to prioritize the development of technologies and systems relative to user needs. Designs for new sys-tems typically only exist at the conceptual level, yet trade studies musts be performed to assess cost and effectiveness, as well as overall affordability. As new systems become more sophisticated and automated, integration costs and test/certification costs become an ever increasing proportion of the total system cost as well as schedule drivers. Devel-opers and planners require a methodology and tool-set to not only esti- mate integration and test costs and their associated schedules; but, to conduct trades between the amount of sophistication/automation and the resulting integration/test costs and schedule to derive effective, af-fordable systems. This SBIR will modify an existing methodology that currently estimates system life-cycle affordability based on performance and operational re-quirements. The estimating tool developed during this research project will be based on an existing cost tool developed for the Air Force. The tool will be capable of operating separately or as a functional element of a more detailed model. The Phase I program will demonstrate feasi- bility of the approach, develop the top-level affordability relation-ships and provide a prototype. The Phase II program will fully develop the tool and validate its accuracy.

TECHNOMICS, INC.
5290 Overpass Rd #206
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 964-9894
John A. Horak
NAVY 99-045
Title:Aircraft Integration and Certification Cost Model
Abstract:This proposal address the development of an automated methodology that estimates the cost, both research and development as well as production, of aircraft integration and certification (i.e. an aircraft modification program). This automated tool will provide the capability to interact with aircraft design models to give a complete evaluation of the capabilities and affordability of aircraft modifications. The methodology that we are proposing will yield cost estimating relationships (CERs) that estimate the activities performed in the acquisition phase of an aircraft integration and certification program. The activities comprising an integration program include the development, production and installation of the hardware (i.e. Group A equipment), the development and/or modification of the software (e.g. electronic box integration and OFP)and the testing and certification of the hardware and software (i.e. the flight test program).

APPLIED SCIENCES, INC.
141 W. Xenia Ave. PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 766-2020
Ronald L. Jacobsen
NAVY 99-046
Title:Nanocomposite Applique Lightning Protection
Abstract:Applique containing a few percent carbon nanofiber additive can have excellent lightning strike protection while also having a very low electromagnetic cross section, making such appliques useful for aerospace assets with reduced signatures. The carbon nanofibers additive is relatively inexpensive, costing from $50 to $100 per pound depending on its form, or in other words a few dollars additional cost per pound for applique containing a few percent carbon nanofibers.

INTEGUMENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10 East Fourth StreetP.O. Box 507
Jamestown, NY 14702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 875-5597
Dr. Terrence G. Vargo
NAVY 99-046
Title:Lightning Strike Protection
Abstract:Naval and Marine Corps aircraft systems, subsystems, and components are typically designed to minimize failure due to severe lightning strikes. To minimize the effects of lightning strikes, the aircraft's exterior surface incorporates a copper mesh that is covered with an anti-static paint. This technology suffers from the high cost and difficulty of depainting and repairing damaged regions due to wear, tear, or corrosion. The depainting process is especially costly because it routinely damages the underlying copper mesh. A cost saving solution to the above problem is provided through the use of an environmentally stable, anti-corrosive polymeric/conducting metal composite appliques that can be readily applied via a peel and stick method. This proposal will demonstrate a composite applique that will consist of 1) a thin film of conducting polymer bonded to 2) an underlying low dielectric fluoropolymeric material bonded to 3) a thin film of copper metal that is 4) undercoated with an adhesive for application to metallic surfaces. This composite film is an excellent, cost savings candidate for paint replacement due to its inherent excellent thermal stability from -50 deg. C to +150 deg. C, resistance to chemical or physical corrosion, and low surface energy for reduced drag.

M. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
440 Horsham Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 322-3057
Dr. Phillip E. Whitley
NAVY 99-047
Title:Crew Centered Armament System for the Future (2025) Cockpit
Abstract:Technological advancements projected for the 2025 period will potentially give the pilot a substantial increase in targeting and weapons delivery capability. In addition to technology, the 2025 force structure, warfighting strategy, platform capability and platform mission roles form the framework in which force in employed in the future. This Phase 1 effort will produce a conceptual armament system based on the 2025 capabilities for head-mounted displays, sensors, information transfer, data fusion, avionics, stores management and release, and weaponry that concentrates on optimizing the "shooter" as the key factor in mission success.

AMERICAS PHENIX
121 Tennessee Ave, N.E.
Washington,, DC 20002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 546-7442
Marcio C. Duffles/Dr. Sta
NAVY 99-048
Title:Gas Turbine Hot Section Parts Innovative NDI Systems Research
Abstract:The Team of America's Phenix, Bayesian Systems and Gryphon Technologies proposes applying Bayes'Engine (TM) as an innovative non-destructive inspection (NDI) technique for increasing the number of successfully reworked gas turbine engine nozzle guide vane (NGV) segments. The proposed applications is based on the premise of consolidating available post-assembly (rework) data for the NGV segments on the Rolls Royce F402 and General Electric F404 engines that are reworked at the Naval Engine Airfoil Center (Cherry Point, NC). Bayes Theorem is the fundamental mathematical/logical principle governing the process of using logical inference or reasoning from available data to drawing a conclusion. Applying Bayes Theorem to the NGV segment rework process will account for all available relevant information (such as engine history, usage and maintenance data). Using this information and applying the Bayesian logic, the tool will develop probability curves for the possible outcomes at each available decision option. These curves, along with cost information, are input to a Decision Theory module which quantifies the associated risk in continuing the rework process (whether at the inception point or the end of the process) and recommends the optimal decision on whether to rework, continue rework or scrap the NGV segment.

BALES SCIENTIFIC, INC.
1620 TICE VALLEY BLVD.
WALNUT CREEK, CA 94595
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 945-0144
MAURICE BALES
NAVY 99-048
Title:INNOVATIVE GAS TURBINE COMPONENT INSPECTION AND THERMAL EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION USING IR IMAGING
Abstract:In an era of declining budgets, techniques that promote faster, cheaper and better performance without compromising reliability or safety are the most sought after by the aircraft industry. The large costs associated with maintenance of gas turbines is a primary motivator for evaluating methods to detect problems before and during service with the intention of extending the overall life of these systems. Efficient cooling is also a mandatory requirement and the complex cooling designs of hot section components have become an even more critical function of the proper operation of the engine. Traditional NDT techniques are labor intensive, sometimes lack quantification, may not be able to represent problems in 3D and in many cases cannot properly test these new and/or complicated geometries. In this Phase I effort, we propose using an infrared system in conjunction with controlled stimulation sources along with integrated hardware and software to more accurately and cost effectively determine the quality of cooling circuits in these advanced cooled components. Hot section components can be tested for defects such as blocked cooling holes and passages, incompletely drilled holes, delamination of bonded components and thermal barrier coating bond integrity in a more effective manner using level 1 operators at tremendous cost savings. By comparing each component to a standard that has been previously determined to be acceptable/good, discrepancies can be identified and all test results compared and archived. With constructive improvements during Phase II, this system will provide an automated, cost effective inspection of modern and future gas turbine hot section components.

HEATCON COMPOSITE SYSTEMS
600 Andover Park East
Seattle, WA 98188
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 939-0554
David Brewer
NAVY 99-049
Title:Heating System for Curing Composite Repairs on Complex-Shaped Structures
Abstract:Conventional composite repair technologies utilizing electrical heat blankets are generally limited to flat or near flat surfaces and not feasible for irregular shapes or double contoured surfaces. Currently a need exists in developing a new heating system that is capable of applying controlled heat to advance the curing of resin systems in the repair of complex shaped structures and larger areas. A new heating system capable of achieving higher temperature cures over a larger irregular geometry is proposed. The proposed tasks include evaluation of existing technology, design and analysis of prototype heating system, and performing a market search. Details of each task, related work and key personnel are described in the proposal. The result of these tasks will lead to development of a new heating system for the repair of U.S. Navy and commercial aircraft made of high temperature composites.

JONA GROUP
33 Laurie Boulevard
Bethpage, NY 11714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 935-2673
Ronald Rothchild
NAVY 99-049
Title:Portable Heating System for Uniformly Heating Arbitrarily Shaped Surfaces Having Non-Uniform Properties
Abstract:Repairs to composite structural parts on aircraft require cure by temperature cycling to precise specifications. The environment is not isothermal, and standard heat blankets applied to complex shapes have non-uniform heat transfer characteristics. The presence of metallic structure contiguous to the repair area makes heat capacity effectively non-uniform as well. Consequently there is a need for practical means to provide uniform temperature cycling of such parts in field repairs. Jona proposes to address this need with a system that independently measures temperature at multiple zones in a control grid over the repair area, and applies heat as required at each grid point to follow a specified cycle. Compensation for heat transfer coefficients and heat capacity that vary with position is automatic. Objectives of Phase I are: 1. Identify other, comparably demanding field applications and determine what technologies and/or components may be transferable to the current application. 2. Determine the minimum density of grid points with which temperature uniformity can be maintained within specifications. 3. Develop alternative approaches to the conceptual design stage for comparative evaluation. 4. Compare and rate the design alternatives against specifications and select one concept for development to the prototype stage.

CENTER FOR REMOTE SENSING, INC.
11350 Random Hills Rd.Suite 710
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 385-7717
Suman Ganguly
NAVY 99-050
Title:Microwave Detection of Corrosion
Abstract:Electromagnetic probes covering frequency bands of kHz to tens of GHz are known to detect corrosion, cracks, and flaws hidden under paint and other materials. These probes, however, are not uniquely responsive towards corrosion. The nonlinear response of the corrosion products could be easily combined with the microwave surface resistance measurement technique and an innovative system using combinations of these techniques is proposed. The handheld probe will provide realtime detection of corrosion hidden under paints and other materials, will be robust and will be able to discriminate corrosion from other flaws. During Phase I, we propose to perform laboratory experiments and numerical analysis to determine the optimized parameters. We provide a proof-of-concept demonstration and a plan for prototype construction.

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS TESTING TECHNO
1209 Northwestern Avenue
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 233-2458
Tianhe Ouyang
NAVY 99-050
Title:Travelling Magnetic Field Method for Detection of Aircraft Corrosion under Paint and Appliques
Abstract:Early detection of corrosion hidden by aircraft paint and appliques is a concern for ensuring minimum cost and a long service period for naval aircraft operation. Current aircraft corrosion nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are not sensitive enough to detect the earliest stages of the onset of corrosion. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the Travelling Magnetic Field Method (TMFM) for early detection of corrosion hidden by aircraft paint and appliques. The TMFM uses a novel combination of five techniques. They are highly sensitive IMTT-RF01 system; eddy-current resonance probe (ECRP); travelling magnetic wave (TMW) scanning system; giant magneto-resistance (GMR) element array, and artificial neural network (ANN). A TMFM probe will look like a large carpet that can be placed on top of the aircraft skin . A TMW is generated that moves along the X and Y directions. The ECRP makes the field extremely sensitive to samll variations in materials and geometry. The GMR element array picks up the signals. The IMTT-RF01 system amplifies the signals. The ANN provides signal analysis capabilities for defect classification and characterization. GMR field gradient sensors is used for lift-off compensation. Successful completion of the proposed research goals will result in a novel technique that will enable early detection of corrosion hidden by aircraft paint and appliques. The new technique is applicable to both military and civil aircraft.

SMRC (SYSTEMS & MATERIALS)
113 S. Cuernavaca
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-0822
Alan V. Bray
NAVY 99-050
Title:Coating/Microwave Interaction (C/MI) NDE
Abstract:Microwave NDE methods show promise in detecting corrosion under coatings, but have failed to demonstrate the senstivity to detect onset levels of corrosion, a requirement for aircraft inspection. To improve microwave NDE senstivity SMRC proposes to modify aircraft coatings, both paint and appliques, to reduce microwave return energy in the bands containng aluminum corrosion products. This coating-microwave interaction (C/MI) NDE innovation should improve microwave senstitivy to onset corrosion levels in aluminum, as demonstrated in similar tests at Sandia Labs using millimeter waves. Phase I paint modifications will include pigment re-blending using low microwave return constituents identified through materials characterization. Appliques provided by 3M Corporation will be tested in a variety of thickness and colors, and guidance for modifications will be developed via microwave characterization of applique base materials and pigments. Boeing's Electromagnetic Properties Laboratory will characterize coating materials and constituents, and conduct sensitivity testing of Phase I coated aluminum panels. Focused microwave NDE methods used at Boeing for aircraft windshield NDE will be explored for enhancing C/MI corrosion sensitivity. Coated corroded specimens will be prepared at Southwest Texas State University. Phase I includes a full C/MI NDE Navy cost model and commercialization planning for both DoD and commercial air NDE product introductions.

AIRTRAX CORP.
1830 Gallagher DriveSuite 104A
Vineland, NJ 08360
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 205-0890
Barney Harris
NAVY 99-051
Title:Airtrax Corporation Presents a Proposal to Develop the Multiple Purpose Mobility Platform
Abstract:Airtrax Corporation proposes to develop the Multiple Purpose Mobility Platform (MP)2 incorporating its own proprietary omni directional vehicle technology. Airtrax's approach is to review all pertinent performance requirements, perform analysis and design and prepare a final report during Phase I. Airtrax has been addressing the well known wheel vibration problem of all omni directional wheel types for the past two years with a proprietary combined analytical and empirical approach, and has made significant improvements. Airtrax intends on using its own off the shelf components to design the MP2 including wheel hub, shafts, bearings, and rollers, vehicle power and control system. Airtrax also maintains proprietary omni directional vehicle design software. The availability of these components, systems, and design software frees up resources to concentrate on minimizing wheel vibration.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
W. Dodd Stacy
NAVY 99-051
Title:Compact, Omni-Directional Materiel Handling System for Shipboard Applications
Abstract:Creare proposes to develop a compact and highly versatile system to move aviation support materiel safely and rapidly throughout shipboard spaces with a minimum of personnel. The self-powered materiel handling unit is reconfigurable on-the-fly and employs rubber-shod holonomic wheels and a hybrid electric drive system with onboard engine-generator set for operational flexibility. In Phase I, we will develop a preliminary design for a Multipurpose Mobility Platform (MP)2 through engineering design and trade studies to optimize the holonomic wheels and their drive and control, the power system, and the architecture of mission-specific structural adaptations. In Phase II, we will design, fabricate, and test a working prototype (MP)2, including shipboard testing.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Terry Cussen
NAVY 99-051
Title:Omnidirectional Transport Platform
Abstract:One of the most important elements contributing to the effectiveness and efficiency of Navy and Marine corps sea-based aviation support systems is the movement of aircraft components, munitions, and other aviation support materiel on the flight deck, hangar deck, and throughout the other spaces on the ship. On a typical large deck aircraft carrier, this function consumes many thousands of labor hours, ties up hundreds of personnel, and has hundreds of equipment items dedicated for this purpose. This project will begin the development of an Omnidirectional Transport Platform (OTP) to improve materiel transport throughout the aircraft carrier. This platform features powered, omnidirectional wheels, a remote control operator interface, and compatibility with existing lift and materiel transfer equipment such as engine lifts and munitions carriers. With Cybernet's background in the development of multi-axis robots, coordinated motor control, human-machine interface, and control electronics, we will focus on the omnidirectional wheel technology during the course of the Phase I effort, culminating in the creation of a prototype omnidirectional platform. This omnidirectional platform will demonstrate core technologies relevant to the development of a full scale Omnidirectional Transport Platform during the Phase II activity.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark CircleSuite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) /55-3068
James D. Trolinger, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-052
Title:A Hybrid Active/Passive Optical Avoidance System for Helicopters
Abstract:Low-flying aircraft such as helicopters are exposed to the danger of flying into suspended electrical and telephone cables. We propose a hybrid passive/active optical system that can detect and range thin cables, thereby enabling the prevention of potentially catastrophic accidents. Our system makes use of a (mid-wave infrared) sensitive CCD camera and sophisticated image processing software to passively detect suspended cables. Under some conditions, it is expected that an active source will be required for cable illumination, hence, the dual nature of our system. Cables are actively located by scanning the field-of-view with a laser beam, imaging the scattered light with the same CCD camera used in the passive system, and processing the data. In addition to being able to alert the pilot to the presence of a cable, the active system permits ranging so that the distance to the cable becomes known. Our system will be able to examine at least a 10-degree field-of-view and be able to detect a 1-cm diameter wire at a range of greater than 600 m in a time less than 1 second.

SVS R&D SYSTEMS, INC.
6207 Pan American Freeway NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 373-8859
Mark Gudaitis
NAVY 99-052
Title:Low Cost Obstacle Avoidance System
Abstract:A low cost obstacle avoidance system for low flying airborne platforms will be developed. This system contains a passive infrared camera, a ranging sensor, obstacle detection and identification algorithms, obstacle location, processor electronics, and an end-user interface. These are all off-the-shelf components (hardware and software) that have been used in commercial applications, making for a low cost system. The Infrared camera will have a wide field of regard to allow for wide area detection. The system will be capable of autonomously detecting objects as small as one centimeter in diameter (i.e. wires) at a range of at least 600 meters. It will operate in day/night and in all weather conditions. Height, width, and range of the obstacle is determined with minimal processing time to allow ample time for the pilot or crew to avoid the obstacle. An audio and visual alarm will be provided to the pilot or crew. Packaging for this system will be designed for a low risk and low cost retrofit to existing fixed and rotary wing aircraft. All the hardware will be designed to work in a military aircraft, meeting the vibration, temperature, EMI/EMP, and environmental conditions.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness AvenueSuite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(312) /21-2772
Dr. Lev Sadovnik
NAVY 99-052
Title:Helicopter Obstacle Visualization Radar System
Abstract:WaveBand Corporation (WaveBand) in collaboration with Marconi Astronics proposes to develop a helicopter obstacle-warning sensor capable of detecting power line wires (down to 1 cm in diameter) at a distance sufficient for a safety maneuver (not less than 600 m). Toward this goal, the Phase I project will establish the feasibility of the proposed sensor through: (1) Numerical modeling of the sensor performance including resolution, S/N and signal-to-clutter ratio; (2) Establishing detailed specification- and design- requirements of the sensor; (3) Experimental demonstration of the obstacle wire detection phenomenology. The proposed sensor, once developed, will provide all-weather day/night operation, plus a potential multifunctional capability of the imaging system that will include target mapping, navigation aid, and fire control. The sensor will be low in cost due to the use of our proprietary scanning technique, and to capitalizing on a growing commercial market for automotive and avionic obstacle detection sensors.

LEEOAT CO.
2631 Colibri Lane
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1439
Dr. Eli Wiener-Avnear
NAVY 99-053
Title:In-Line Fuel Sensor
Abstract:In Phase I of the program, LEEOAT Company will develop and optimize the design and fabrication strategy of a portable cost- effective, high-performance remote chemical sensor for the identification and quatatization of the concentrations of contaminants in fuel lines. We will demonstrate the fabrication feasibility of the device and verify its performance for field applications. We will theoretically model the device, to predict the systems expected performance. We will estimate the cost/effort for the fabrication and testing of the prototype in Phase II of the program.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Michael C. Kimble
NAVY 99-053
Title:Electrochemical In-line Fuel Analyzer
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I Project develops and demonstrates an electrochemical sensor for detecting and quantifying the concentration level of water in aviation fuel. Sediment and water degrade the quality of aircraft fuel at concentration levels as low as 2 mg/l and 5 ppm, respectively. Frequent fuel sampling is presently used where samples are analyzed using on-board analytical equipment. It is desired to lower the cost of maintaining the high quality fuel by using an array of sensors located throughout the fuel delivery system. An electrochemical sensor is proposed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) to detect and quantify the concentration of water in the fuel. Additionally, the sensor will also assess the level of sediment in the fuel. The PSI sensor approach is based upon using a multi-array of micro-electrochemical sensors where each sensor in the array has a unique electrochemical response to the fuel stream. A pattern recognition methodology such as principal component analysis is used to identify an empirical relationship between the sensor array response and the fuel stream composition.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Bruce R. Pilvelait, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-054
Title:An Optical Sensor for Verifying Launch Bar Seating Alignment
Abstract:The proposed innovation is an autonomous device for verifying proper alignment between the launch bar of a Navy aircraft and the carrier-based catapult assembly. It is based on a robust, low cost mechanical position sensor and visual indicator located on the catapult spreader. In addition, a remotely located optical scanner detects the presence of the indicator and automatically prevents the catapult from firing until verification. The innovation addresses the stated subtopic requirements of eliminating the dangerous Hookup Petty Officer role, improving the reliability of the alignment observation, performing the verification with a wireless approach under all possible conditions, withstanding extreme force and acceleration, giving fast response, and having high durability. With the proposed approach, there are no modifications to the aircraft, nor are there electronics located on the catapult. In Phase I, we will develop the mechanical catapult sensor as well as the optical scanner. We will demonstrate the feasibility of making the verification reliably in extreme conditions. In Phase II, we will produce field deployable units for shipboard evaluation. The long distance identification hardware developed in this program has significant potential for commercial applications such as automated tollbooths, smart highways, high-speed manufacturing, freight transportation, and security systems.

MSE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.
200 Technology WayP. O. Box 4078
Butte, MT 59702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 494-7393
Jim McConnell
NAVY 99-054
Title:Machine Vision Confirmation of Launch Bar Engagement
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project will develop a system that provides a positive indication to the catapult officer when an aircraft launch bar is properly seated in the catapult shuttle of an aircraft carrier. Improper launch bar seating has resulted in the loss of numerous aircraft. The proposed system will employ a two dimensional machine vision system based on charged coupled device (CCD) camera technology and pattern recognition software. The machine vision system will provide highly reliable indication of launchbar seating during day and night operations, in all weather conditions. The proposed system will require no alteration to the aircraft, and requires no attachment of any components to moving parts of the catapult. The machine vision system will not protrude above deck, will provide its own source of collimated red light for illumination of the target, and will compensate for variations in shuttle position after tensioning. The machine vision system proposed will work with any present or future aircraft, as the system can easily "learn" the correct seating configuration of any aircraft launchbar.

ADVANCED WIRELESS & TELECOM CORP.
4721 Cornell Road
Cincinnati, OH 45241
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 489-6008
Jeff W. Marshall
NAVY 99-055
Title:Miniature Wireless Transceiver
Abstract:The need to add wireless capability to many different types of devices continues to grow. This has been primarily due to the need to add mobility to devices or due to the high cost of installing and maintaining cabling between separate pieces of equipment. A focus on new radio frequency (RF) circuit design is required that meets the functional, physical, and environmental requirements of these applications. A miniature radio transceiver that can support the WICS requirement and that can be adapted to meet the requirements of many other target applications, both military and commercial, is described in this proposal. Key areas of reliability are identified that ensure the design can be manufactured in significant quantities. The engineering team's experience in producing RF circuits for high-rel military products makes it particularly capable of producing a solution for the WICS and other government applications.

MULTISPECTRAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
202 Perry Parkway, Suite 7
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3978
Robert J. Fontana, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-055
Title:A Novel Ultra Wideband Wireless Intercommunications System
Abstract:Current Intercommunications System (ICS) designs utilize lengthy and cumbersome cords to attach a crewman's headset to a distributed audio (intercom) system. These cords require constant attention thereby reducing mission effectiveness while increasing the potential for accident or injury. Replacing the communications cord with a covert radio frequency (RF) link will improve operational effectiveness without subjecting the aircraft to interception by electronic warfare threats. Under Phase I, Multispectral Solutions, Inc. (MSSI) will develop a novel ultra wideband RF ICS link. The link will be compatible with existing headsets and intercom control boxes. The UWB wireless ICS will permit unimpeded movement throughout the cabin and to a limited distance outside of the aircraft. Key advantages of MSSI's UWB approach include the use of a very low probability of intercept and detection (LPI/D) waveform, multipath immunity, low power consumption, small size and low cost. Under Phase II, several prototype UWB WICS will be developed for use in testing onboard selected aircraft. The size of the modules will be significantly reduced and voice encryption will be added to further improve performance against intercept threats. Phase II will reduce technical risks thereby establishing a strong basis for Phase III follow-on efforts.

CONTINENTAL COMPUTER
1891 N. Gaffey Suite 232
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 514-0194
Jim Hynes
NAVY 99-056
Title:Narrow Band MEMS Sensors for Object Tracking
Abstract:Recently, MEMS inertial sensors have been recognized as valuable components for tracking body parts and objects in many applications including the development of realistic virtual reality simulations. We propose to optimize low cost MEMS inertial sensors to capture the relativity low bandwidth of human dynamics. Laser trimming of vibrating sensor elements can enhance the signal level by an order of magnitude for band limited motion, proportionally reducing electronics errors and allowing mass produced sensors to be used for demanding augmented reality applications. All inertial sensors measure rates of change, so eventually have to be calibrated with direct angular and positional measurements. Rather than rediscover optimal sensor fusion, in this project we apply knowledge developed by the guided missile and inertial navigation communities. For latency correction, we will use GINI, a COTS computer code developed for tightly coupled, GPS/Inertial Navigation system integration. The new AHRS grade Endevco Micromachined Accelerometer Gyro (MAG), and a Systron Donnor QRS will be analyzed in this new inertially aided tracker with optimal prediction capability.

INTERSENSE, INC.
73 Second Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 270-0090
Eric Foxlin
NAVY 99-056
Title:Inertial Sensor Technology
Abstract:Head-mounted displays (HMDs) play a vital role in military and commercial simulation and training systems. They allow the user to interact with and navigate through virtual worlds before encountering them for real. This has proven to save lives and increase effectiveness in military applications such as flight simulation, dismounted infantry simulation, hazardous materials handling, mission planning and rehearsal. Immersive HMDs also have valuable commercial applications in education, architecture, medicine, entertainment, virtual prototyping, teleconferencing, scientific and financial data visualization and web-based experiences. All of the previously existing motion-tracking technologies (magnetic, acoustic, optical, mechanical, gravimetric) have significant problems with jitter, latency, interference, line-of-sight, accuracy, and/or range. These deficiencies lead to simulator sickness which can erase all the benefits of the immersive application. In addition to HMDs, many other applications (i.e. weapon aiming, camera tracking, personal navigation, etc.), require improved tracking technology as well. InterSense has patented, developed, and successfully commercialized the world's first inertial and sensor-fusion-based motion tracking systems. This technology offers very low jitter and latency, large range, immunity to environmental interference, and high-quality motion prediction to combat latency in the computer graphics rendering system. In this Phase 1 SBIR, we propose to research the technologies for a new generation of micro-miniature integrated inertial measurement units, and appropriate calibration and sensor fusion algorithms. Capitalizing on recent advances in micro-machining technology, sensor fusion algorithms, and electronic packaging, the new InertiaCubeÍ will offer substantially improved performance, smaller size, and lower manufacturing cost.

DIAMOND VISIONICS CO.
400 Plaza Drive, Suite D
Vestal, NY 13850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 729-8593
David L. Peters
NAVY 99-057
Title:Advanced Control Features to Adapt Low-Cost Digital Display Based Projectors to Training Simulation
Abstract:Display systems for training devices and other applications that have the need for channel to channel seam matching impose stringent image mapping requirements. In high performance visual systems, image matching functions are typically performed in the image generator (IG) or the projection system. In CRT projection systems, image mapping is implemented using analog raster shaping. In digital display based projectors and monitors, pixel location is invariant, which, although providing the blessing of lifetime stability, precludes adjustment for seam matching. For such applications, high performance IGs can perform the image mapping functions. In application where low cost IGs or 3-D accelerator cards drive digital display based projectors and monitors, the image mapping function can be performed in an intermediate image-mapping system. Since such a system operates by processing video content, it is a logical place to include other desired video processing, such as multiple image suppression, and intensity modification to correct system nonuniformities and blend edges. Under this Phase I SBIR, DVC applies its extensive digital display and image mapping experience to define and recommend cost effective digital system solutions for mapping and other desired processing. They includes algorithms, software/firmware functions, electronic modules, with performance specifications for such an image-processing system.

SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
3404 Technological AveSutie 10
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 282-4432
Dr. Dutch Guckenberger
NAVY 99-057
Title:Shadow Buffer Control Module for Digital Warp, Intensity Transforms, and Filtering Advanced Control Features
Abstract:Shadow Buffer Control Module Research and Design will include software prototyping to identify which adjustments of Low-Cost Digital Display Based Projectors can be effectively user- controlled or automated. Initial research directions will explore utilization of per pixel parallel buffers that will modify simulation calculated pixels for intensity, position offsets and warping prior to the digital information being output to the digital display device. Rapid prototyping of control algorithms will leverage an existing low-cost testbed with COTS multiple graphics board which currently implements 4 digital buffers to produce full screen anti-aliasing. Research will include investigation of algorithms from simple linear transforms to innovative concepts using Condition Logic, Neural Network and Genetic algorithms. It is envisioned that the more advanced algorithms can be utilized as initialization functions (i.e., learning modes) in an automated methodology similar to the auto convergence features on existing CRT projectors. Critical requirements will be driven by Human Factors and Human sensor limits so as to "right size" the effective adjustments, for digital displays including helmet-mounted. Further, the reuse of this technology may have direct benefits for related research. The research and design efforts will include reuse of the Shadow Buffer Control Module for Sensor Fusion and Synthetic Vision Applications.

ISERA GROUP
5370 Hollister Ave. #5
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 967-3820
Richard Reeves
NAVY 99-058
Title:Master Training Plan (MTP) Generator for Fleet Replacement Squadrons (FRSs)
Abstract:Navy Fleet Replacement Squadrons (FRSs) provide advanced training to Fleet-bound pilots and aircrew. FRS training operations are complicated by major factors such as different skill levels among individual trainees, the use of scarce equipment (simulators, operational aircraft), and the occurrence of variable training setbacks arising from bad weather, equipment failure, or diversion of squadron resources to support operational Fleet activities. Each FRS generates a Master Training Plan (MTP) as an idealized curriculum schedule to help measure class completion dates, individual student progress, and average time-to-train. Currently, the MTP is a relatively inflexible, paper-based tool that requires significant man-hours to create and maintain. This Phase I SBIR proposes to investigate the feasibility of creating a software tool that could create, update, and maintain the MTP of an FRS while providing more analytical power than current methods. Our effort will research data requirements and sources and the statistical and other analytical modeling requirements needed by such a tool. In addition, we will conduct a Software Requirements Analysis to define the functional needs of the MTP generator and to plan Phase II software development, as well as implementation at a Navy FRS. We also propose a Phase I option to build a prototype MTP database.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Dr. Andres Rudmik
NAVY 99-058
Title:AERODYNE: Automated Expert Resource Optimization in Dynamic Environments
Abstract:Modus Operandi, Inc. (MO) enthusiastically proposes an innovative strategy for managing and optimizing the allocation of scarce flight training resources that enhances management's decision making and planning capabilities through the innovative use of modeling and decision analysis techniques. Our innovation is called AERODYNE: Automated Expert Resource Optimization in Dynamic Environments. AERODYNE uses an innovative, unique combination of proven system dynamic modeling and analysis, expert systems, utility theory, and legacy system integration to facilitate the forecasting of training throughput and resource requirements in conjunction with creating a Master Training Plan for Navy flight training planners and managers at Fleet Replacement Squadrons. This will lead to an improved understanding of the relationships among the diverse factors that impact training capacity and military readiness, leading to optimal resource utilization.

MALIBU RESEARCH ASSOC.
26670 Agoura Road
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-5494
Anand Kelkar
NAVY 99-059
Title:MULTISPECTRAL HIGH-FIDELITY RADAR SCENE GENERATOR
Abstract:RADAR performance simulators today fall into 1 of 2 categories. The first rely on terrain data from DTED type databases to address siting issues, and the second on high fidelity physics based target models that can descibe RADAR performance against targets. Neither address RADAR performance issues stemming from clutter rejecton capabilities and variation in target and clutter cross-section due to weather and RF propagation effects. These are the issues which tend to dominate real world RADAR performance. This SBIR addresses a simulator architecture that allows models from various sources and measured data as applicable to be integrated to provide a complete RADAR environment. The physics based Radar Scene Generator (RSG) approach provides extremely high fidelity output that can be used to assess real world RADAR performance accurately.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 331-6322
Fred Ganz
NAVY 99-059
Title:Multispectral High-Fidelity Radar Scene Generator
Abstract:A high fidelity, wide area, multi-spectral scene generation capability incorporating the advanced VTRPE propagation code is proposed for radar and ESM system applications. The physics-based approach employs material and feature typing at the individual pixel level to produce high resolution RCS maps, which can be used in both monostatic and bistatic applications. The scenes are deterministic and geospecific, enabling true end-to-end sensor simulations in real-world conditions to be conducted. The major benefit of the underlying physics-based approach is that the common scene data bases support multiple sensors operating at different frequencies, and that reflectivity characteristics from the scene can be rapidly recomputed as each sensor platform moves relative to the scene. Sensor/ scene interfaces will produce inputs to sensor models in both the frequency domain (spectral representation) and in the time domain (coherent I,Q pulse generation). The scene generation software will be modular, using Object Oriented Programming techniques, to facilitate upgrades, integration with large scale simulations, and interoperability with various sensor models. During the Phase l activity, a sample scene will be developed using the new scene generation algorithms, and validated against measure data.

JIL INFORMATION SYSTEMS, INC.
1608 Spring Hill Road
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 470-9997
William F. Cunningham
NAVY 99-060
Title:HUMAN SENSORY PHYSIOLOGY MODELS FOR CENTRIFUGE-BASED FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT TRAINING FOR RECOGNITION OF DISORIENTATION AND RECOVERY FROM OUT-OF-CONTROL
Abstract:JIL Information Systems proposes to develop an instructional program to provide cognitive and perceptual motor training for recognition of disorientation and for the recovery from out-of-control flight situations. The Centrifuge-Based Flight Environment Trainer (CFET) will be the training platform. Glick and Holyoak (1987) reported that positive training transfer is highly correlated with simulator fidelity. The CFET's 8 meter rotational arm and roll and pitch capabilities provide a degree of fidelity in flight simulation that exceeds off-the-shelf short arm demonstrators. . Lazarus and Deese (1952) found that emotional stress induced before skills have been well-organized negatively impacted learning. The CFET will enable the pilot the benefit of repetitive practice that simulates real world flight conditions, minus the debilitating fear of pushing the flight envelope and losing an aircraft. JIL experts will develop and validate Sensory Physiology Models that are adaptable to the CFET to achieve training objectives. Mental modeling of expert performance for recovery techniques will be incorporated in the training scenarios, resulting in a more effective pilot response and standardization of the curriculum. The completed training package can be marketed to foreign and domestic users of CFET type centrifuges.

M. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
440 Horsham Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 322-3057
Dr. Phillip E. Whitley
NAVY 99-060
Title:Out of Control Flight Recovery and Disorientation Recognition Training on a Centrifuge
Abstract:Traditional training in recovery from out of control flight situations will not be possible in modern military training aircraft. In addition a safe method of spatial disorientation training is increasingly important. The Navy has a training centrifuge that is potentially capable of performing these tasks. Using the indicated out of control events as a starting point, this Phase 1 effort will define out of control flight profiles and spatial disorientation illusions that may be used on the Navy's centrifuge and then evaluate these profiles for use with a methodology developed in this effort to assess usability, feasibility and human compatibility.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Karen A. Harper
NAVY 99-061
Title:Intelligent Hostile Urban Threat (IHUT) Agents for Urban Combat Simulation
Abstract:With more military engagements focusing on suppression of rebel and guerilla insurgences in developing nations and politically unstable climates, the need for well-trained troops in close urban combat becomes increasingly vital. The nature of the battlefield changes dramatically in an urban setting, due to the complexities introduced by the environment. To meet the demanding simulation-based training requirements of the DoD in these urban battlespaces, we propose to develop a set of Intelligent Hostile Urban Threat (IHUT) agents to be implemented within DoD training simulators. Our proposed IHUT agents will comprise the integration of two software components: 1) a reactive intelligent agent representing the key human activities of visual perception, event detection, information processing, situation assessment and procedurally-driven decision-making; and 2) a physical model of dismounted infantry soldiers capable of emulating realistic movement and action within a simulated urban combat environment. Our proposed approach to the development of the IHUT agents will provide for realistic representation of human movement through the simulated environment in real time, and reflect skill-based reactive behavior in that environment as well as higher level cognitive task behaviors of situation assessment and planning to accomplish key MOUT mission objectives.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Rukmini Vijaykumar, Ph.D
NAVY 99-061
Title:An Advanced Behavior Model Repository for Hostile Urban Entities for Simulators
Abstract:DoD plans to acquire new simulators for training warfighters to operate in hostile urban environments. These simulators need computer-controlled urban-oriented entities to interact with trainees realistically, taking into account: physical models of human movement and performance degradation; reactive behaviors for selecting immediate actions; and reasoning for providing situation assessment and planning. To foster re-use of these entities, their software models must be stored in a repository. Traditional CGFs' modeling approaches, oriented towards representing platforms, not people, are inappropriate to meet these challenges. We propose a divide-and-conquer approach. We separate the repository and the UHE simulation from the training simulator to foster re-use. We further divide the UHE representations into "behaviors" and "bodies," each of which is stored in the repository. We use existing COTS products to implement the "body," and use the ONR-funded "Subsumption Architecture" developed at MIT's AI Lab to implement the behaviors. The resulting repository will contain UHE behaviors that are more realistic, more efficient, more numerous, and easier for subject matter experts to audit, than competing approaches. Reliance on COTS software lowers cost, time, and risk. We propose to obtain sample individual and group UHE behaviors from the sponsor. We will classify these sample behaviors according to Subsumption Architecture levels and test them in its Behavior Language environment. We will define sensor and actuator APIs so that other CGFs can re-use the behaviors written to that API. At the customer's option, we will retarget the back end of the BL compiler to be compatible with C/C++ code. Finally, we will document our findings in a Final Report.

DUAL, INC.
30 Skyline Drive
Lake Mary, FL 32746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 333-8880
Brian Cahill
NAVY 99-062
Title:Virtual Environment for Weapons Effects Visualization (VEWEV)
Abstract:Dual, Incorporated proposes the innovative use of Virtual Reality Visualization (VRV) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technologies to develop a low cost tool enabling the presentation of weapons effects on simulated combat systems in real time. Using the unique ability of the virtual environment to present complex multi-dimensional and multivariate data (such as FEA output files) in an intuitive format tailored to user needs, this tool allows a person to observe and quickly comprehend the effects of a weapon impact on a simulated ship, aircraft or land- based target. Traditional methods using raw FEA data to describe weapons damage are cumbersome for typical users to employ. The Virtual Environment for Weapons Effects Visualization (VEWEV) tool enables a person to observe weapon penetration, fragmentation, stress, and heat distribution via three dimensional deformational presentations of external and internal views of the target. These views are augmented with color coded stress gradients, and a capability for specialized graphical displays to provide supplementary information in a format meaningful to the user. The virtual environment provides the observer with a unique ability to navigate into and through a structure, and to perceive details and data unavailable with any other inspection method.

XTENSORY, INC.
140 Sunridge Drive
Scotts Valley, CA 95066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 439-0600
Paul Cutt
NAVY 99-063
Title:Enhanced Multiplatform, Integrated Virtual Urban Warfare Simulation
Abstract:Xtensory is uniquely qualified to integrate multiple simulated vehicle platforms into single simulator platforms for testbeds for virtual warfare simulation or for training because it already has developed key components, the device interfaces and device integration server. This can be used for provide multiple vehicle platform simulators for virtual warfare software with its unique approach to integration of devices to the software. The device API is designed to be easily extensible to new device hardware and software. We will be able to deliver a working prototype for multiple vehicle platforms for evaluation. Xtensory provides all the device interfaces for Paradigm Simulation's Vega simulation as well as Transom's virtual human software so is intimately familiar with interfacing devices to simulation software. Our integration of sound (audio) for Schlumberger provides experience in sound integration. Finally our involvement in NASA's distributed virtual hospital project provides experience in integrating multiple distributed devices. Tools developed for this project are readily adaptable to other simulation-oriented tasks in the military and civilian worlds. Due to our commercial experience we anticipate pursuing the Fast Track funding option which will aid in commercialization of this system.

AECHELON TECHNOLOGY, INC.
454 Ives Terrace
Sunnyvale, CA 94087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 593-0218
Ignacio Sanz-Pastor
NAVY 99-064
Title:Cell-based Adaptive Terrain Fitting Technique
Abstract:Traditionally two methods have been applied to terrain rendering: 1. Cell-based rendering of pre-computed, decimated levels of detail (LOD), and 2. Real-time creation of a terrain skin with continuous LOD whereby only required polygons are drawn based on distance from eye-point. The objective of this research is to investigate a terrain rendering technique that combines benefits of both prior methods, without incurring the high compute costs of a full, real-time meshing solution, given the current cost/performance trends in graphic versus cpu subsystems. Factors other than distance, such as angle of incidence and complexity will be evaluated to select the structure of the image to be rendered.

CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS & SOFTWARE
PO BOX 1129
CHINO VALLEY, AZ 86323
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 636-2600
Ed P. Andert Jr.
NAVY 99-064
Title:Advanced Terrain Modeling and Rendering
Abstract:The military and Navy have found modeling and simulation cost effective for training, design, testing, development, and mission rehearsal as operational equipment has become more complex and costly to operate. Distributed simulations are being fielded to allow a wide range of simulators, simulations, platforms, sensors, and live forces to participate in common exercises. The realism and effectiveness of such simulations is improved through the incorporation of synthetic representation of terrain. A realistic synthetic representation of terrain is a critical element of simulations for training, planning and decision making. This project will develop an advanced feature correlation and terrain rendering approach that alleviates known problems with traditional terrain generation techniques. The Phase I technical objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of an advanced terrain modeling and rendering approach that provides realistic synthetic terrain for training simulation applications.

AECHELON TECHNOLOGY, INC.
454 Ives Terrace
Sunnyvale, CA 94087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 593-022
Javier Castellar-Arribas
NAVY 99-065
Title:GIS-based Satellite/Photographic Imagery Enhancement
Abstract:The objective of this research is to investigate the use of vector geographic data to enhance satellite imagery at close viewing ranges, by means of artificial creation of additional levels in the texture mipmap pyramid. Key points of the study are the application of image orthocorrection techniques to vector data and the development of high quality scanline rendering with multitap texture filtering for texture instantiation from vector data, with smooth transition facilitated by alpha blending. Aerial photographs will be used to derive geo-typical texture patterns that give the appearance of geo-specific imagery for insertion where geo-specific imagery 'smears' as the eye-point approaches.

MULTIGEN-PARADIGM, INC.
Suite 40014900 Landmark Blvd.
Dallas, TX 75240
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 960-2301
Dan Brockway
NAVY 99-065
Title:Generation of High Resolution Clip Textures through SPLOT Processing
Abstract:A method has been developed for improving the appearance, performance, and overall quality of visual scenes rendered in real time from large area terrain databases. An innovative modeling and database development technique called Splotting, provides for the building of high-resolution databases comprised of high-resolution models incorporated into lower resolution source imagery. Splotting is a process of capturing orthographic geo-specific "imagery" of a geo-typical terrain database, then creating a clip mapped texture of that imagery to be mapped to a terrain contour. Through this technique high resolution textures can be inserted into the clip stack of a run-time database to provide high resolution geo-specific imagery with an optimized geometry (reduced polygons). By utilizing this technique, the appearance of textured terrain can be improved dramatically while improving the throughput of the rendering system. This approach overcomes many of the deficiencies associated with image resolution and source data. For this phase I program, MultiGen-Paradigm, Inc. will further develop the Splotting process and address the commercialization of splotting software tools into existing COTS products.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
14A GILL STREET
WOBURN, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2030
Dr. Jian Xu
NAVY 99-066
Title:Dual Polarization White Light Interferometer for the Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (FOG)
Abstract:Stress-induced birefringent fibers are critical components for fiber sensor systems such as fiber-optic gyroscopes. An advanced technique to precisely align the principal axes of the fibers is required. Especially in fiber optic gyroscopes, the principal axes of a fiber optic coupler and sensing fiber loop should be aligned as exactly as possible. NZ Applied Technologies proposes to develop an innovative method for an accurately alignment of two birefringent fibers. The method employs a scanning Michelson interferometer, a scanning Retro-reflector and a special arrangement of a Wallaston prism to measure the dual interference signals. This type of device overcomes the major drawbacks of current devices and simultaneously possesses the desirable charateristics of highly accurate, rapid and continuous scanning with low cost of manufacturing. An advanced signal processing method will enable us to reach a measurement dynamic of 80dB which corresponds to an angular misalignment of 0.057░. With the existing signal processing program a display in the wavelength spectrum is possible by a Fourier transformation. In phase I, a breadboard device with available input and output optical couplers will be constructed and its functionality will be demonstrated on an optical table for testing a variety of the Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (FOG) devices.

OPTIPHASE, INC.
7652 HASKELL AVE
VAN NUYS, CA 91406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 782-0997
JEFF BUSH
NAVY 99-066
Title:WHITE LIGHT ANALYZER
Abstract:We propose a unique design approach for a White Light Analyzer for high resolution measurements of polarization scattering in fiber optic components and devices. In Phase I, we will demonstrate an unprecedented signal measurement dynamic range exceeding 10,000:1 or 80 dB. Such performance represents close to a tenfold improvement over existing technology; and is highly suited for analyzing precision components used in the manufacture of Interferometric Fiber Gyros, and is the requirement cited in the solicitation. The most unique aspect of the proposed design incorporates an optical pick-off method for precisely determining the zero path position of the scanning interferometer, which provides a twofold benefit: 1) Data collection for both scan directions becomes correlated which effectively doubles the measurement rate; and 2) Coherence averaging is enabled, providing the potential for measurement resolutions approaching 100 dB. The proposed White Light Analyzer will also be capable of providing high resolution coherence and optical spectrum measurements, where we project wavelength resolution of 0.002 nm and a high absolute accuracy. In Phase I, a breadboard system will be constructed to demonstrate the design performance claims. In Phase II, a full featured prototype system will be developed.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
7923 Jones Branch Drive
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 734-3424
James F. Forren
NAVY 99-067
Title:Off-board Processing for Air-Deployed-Acoustic ASW Sensors
Abstract:With the advent of quieter threats and the shift in operational emphasis from deep-ocean to literal areas future airborne ASW systems will increasingly rely on acoustic-receiving buoys with increased spatial discrimination to combat increased ambient noise, reverberation and multi-path effects. The implication is that signal detection and classification must now be performed on the time series outputs of a large number of beams. Current and planned buoy to aircraft communications channels cannot accomodate this increased load. Current multiple beam sensors (ADAR) address this by reduced frequency band coverage relative to the former DIFAR full band. Even with this reduced coverage, which may cause signals of interest (SOI) to be missed, transmitting raw acoustic data from all beams and sensors would overwhelm the operators. This effort addresses the problem by defining innovative system-level concepts and algorithms for autonomous in-buoy detection and contact processing of the beam time series such that only critical target information is transmitted to the monitoring aircraft. A goal will be to restore the full band of acoustic signal processing while minimizing power consumption. Although the emphasis is on active search processing the concepts are extensible to passive search and nontraditional methods as well.

RDA, INC.
P.O. Box 49
Doylestown, PA 18901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 340-9514
Eugene Macur
NAVY 99-067
Title:In-Buoy Processing for Active Systems
Abstract:The Air-ASW Navy's current bistatic active processing system consists of the ADAR sonobuoy as a receiver for the IEER incoherent source. However, buoy to aircraft bandwidth limitations restrict the buoy's data band over which the aircraft processing can take place. In-Buoy Processing, however, eliminates that limitation, since it can access the data directly from the individual hydrophones, and thus have access to the full bandwidth of the individual sensors. This Phase I proposal provides an innovative approach to performance improvement by utilizing the extended data band to demonstrate gains in detection, bearing estimation, buoy and target location accuracy and classification performance.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
962 Wayne AvenueSuite 800
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 565-2970
Mary Heimer
NAVY 99-068
Title:Integration of Mode S into Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) Systems
Abstract:Deficiencies in the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS) have lead to the development and use of the Mode S Beacon System, which is backward compatible with the ATCRBS. In the U.S. and Europe, Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radars (SSRs) have been installed at many land-based sites and most commercial aircraft carry the requisite Mode S transponders. Navy shipboard and airborne IFF systems are designed to detect aircraft using the ATCRBS (with Mode 4 for friendly detection). The Navy must evaluate the feasibility and benefits of adding a Mode S capability to these IFF systems. Mode S is expected to improve detection of beacon replies and bring enhanced situational awareness in hostile environments where civilian platforms are present in the battle space. In Phase I and the Phase I Option, TSC will identify the benefits of various Mode S implementation options, construct a table of trade-offs, and generate a preliminary architecture for two primary options. The analysis will include study of the modifications required to the associated platform interfaces, displays, and data distribution functions. TSC will then refine the architecture for the one most feasible option in preparation for Phase II prototyping of critical components.

ZAI/AMELEX
8229 Boone BlvdSuite 300
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 862-5500
Vern Parde
NAVY 99-068
Title:Integration of Mode S into Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) Systems
Abstract:Mode S provides a means whereby a ground air traffic control (ATC) system may interrogate an aircraft equipped with a transponder. The response of the transponder allows the ground system to determine the aircraft's identity and position for ATC purposes. Mode S provides numerous improvements over previous systems, particularly in terms of ability to resolve closely spaced targets and to provide a unique aircraft identification (ID). The unique ID of Mode S is perceived to be beneficial to Navy combat identification systems in order to identify commercial aircraft (neutrals). The Navy Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems currently don't have a capability to perform Mode S interrogation and processing. ZAI/AMELEX proposes to provide this capability by developing a circuit board that will essentially "plug and play" in the existing Navy interrogator/processor IFF systems that employ a common open system architecture (VME). The Phase I study will investigate what benefits for Navy combat identification can be derived from the Mode S capability and how best to achieve them without loss of existing Navy IFF capability or interference with civilian systems. The board design will meet the specific requirements determined by the study as well as civilian ATC requirements.

FOTRON, INC.
7 S 515 OAK TRAILS DRIVE
NAPERVILLE, IL 60540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 983-4146
GREGORY J. SELLERS
NAVY 99-069
Title:AIRCRAFT OPTICAL CABLE PLANT (OCP)
Abstract:We propose to develop a family of modular components for a second-generation fiber optical cable plant that is optimized for aerospace and shipboard applications. Specifically, designs will be proposed for connectors, splices, break-out boxes, backplane interfaces and fiber optic couplers. These components will be designed to terminate fiber ribbon cables. Together, they will permit the creation of an OCP consisting of cables and harnesses that can be configured to satisfy the requirements for fiber optic interconnection. We intend to use etched silicon micromachined components for the multi-fiber positioners that will position the optical fibers and waveguides. For the break-out box, we intend to develop a prototype design that can accommodate both ribbon and simplex cables; we intend to produce and evaluate prototype hardware for this break-out box. For connector components, we intend to employ the "floating contact" concept to allow for realistic tolerances on the packaging components. We intend to offer additional design versions for the FOTRON Aerospace Bulkhead Connector: a right-angle version, an advanced polymeric composite version for lower cost and a four-cable version for greater number of optical channels with greater routing flexibility. We intend to provide an updated backplane connector design that will use the MFPs to accommodate both optical fiber and polymeric waveguides.

TACAN CORP.
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Charles B. Morrison
NAVY 99-069
Title:Optical Cable Plant for Fly-by-Light Applications
Abstract:TACAN will develop a new optical cable plant for avionics applications and identify cables and harnesses, connectors, splices, break-out boxes, backplane interfaces, and fiberoptic couplers for this avionics application. The scope of this work includes all manner of waveguides including single mode and multimode glass fibers and waveguides, plastic clad silica fibers and waveguides, and all plastic fibers and waveguides. Test and maintenance concepts are developed, and manufacturing, installation, and repair tools, processes, and training programs are also identified. The analysis of these definitions will lead to a comprehensive and optimized design for an optical cable plant which will provide an advanced high-density interconnect system based on emerging technology concepts. This optimized cable plant, when coupled with photonic transceiver modules already available at TACAN, forms an integrated information distribution system capable of transferring all information on military and civilian aircraft with dramatic improvements in affordability, reliability, fault tolerance, EMI/EMP immunity, and safety throughout the lifetime of the product. Because of its light weight and high speed, this cable plant will improve aircraft performance and fuel economy while reducing aircraft certification costs.

ARCON CORP.
260 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-3330
Dr. Muralidhar Rangaswamy
NAVY 99-070
Title:Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) for an Electronically Scanned Circular Array
Abstract:This research presents the development and performance analysis of space-time adaptive processing(STAP) algorithms for circular array radars. The algorithms developed here result in reduced training data support and computational requirements utilizing a priori information regarding the structure underlying the interference. Because these algorithms are based on interference consisting of a small number of strong low rank interferers plus white noise, they permit development of powerful data matrix-based methods that also offer potential for considerably reduced training data support and computational complexity. The algorithms afford the capability of a constant false alarm rate(CFAR) and permit the design of robust receiver structures. Performance analysis using realistic simulated data and real data from experiments using a UESA circular array is presented. Simulation techniques for data generation from an idealized circular array and a practical circular array, including relevant radar parameters, are developed. The algorithms resulting from this research permit rapid localization of dominant interference subspaces, enabling fast adaptation intervals which are fractions of a coherent processing interval(CPI). Consequently, these algorithms are suitable for use in severely non-homogeneous and nonstationary interference backgrounds. This work outlines the differences between uniform linear arrays and circular arrays and discusses the resulting impact on STAP signal processing.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
6515 Main Street
Trumbull, CT 06611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Dr. Douglas Page
NAVY 99-070
Title:Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) for an Electronically Scanned Circular Array
Abstract:The application of space-time adaptive processing (STAP) to circular antenna arrays presents additional challenges when compared to the ideal case of a linear array oriented along the aircraft velocity vector. This is primarily due to the fact that the spatial characteristics of the radar returns depend on two cone angles, rather than one for the linear array. This increases the clutter rank and also introduces range de-pendence to the covariance matrix of clutter at a particular Doppler frequency. Thus, when covariance estimation is performed through range averaging, an error exists that affects the STAP performance. The challenges become greater when one includes effects such as aircraft interference and mutual coupling. The proposed research will provide greater insight as to how the differences between radar returns in cir-cular arrays and linear arrays impact the various components of STAP algorithms. Novel adaptive signal processing approaches that overcome the challenges present in the circular array problem will be investi- gated. These techniques will lead to STAP algorithms that provide both enhanced mitigation of clutter and ECM, and enhanced target detectability over conventional STAP approaches. Three basic compo-nents of STAP processing will be investigated: 1) Pre- processing techniques, 2) Covariance matrix esti-mation and 3) Weight formation. The causes of performance degradation of conventional STAP algo-rithms in circular arrays will be investigated and will be related to particular aspects of the target, clutter and jamming returns. Different techniques in each of the three components of STAP algorithms will be examined and their impact on the performance of the algorithms in different scenarios employing circular arrays determined. A table of promising techniques versus their performance impact and processing load requirements will be generated.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway SoutSuite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Jeffrey Pierce
NAVY 99-071
Title:Compact Diode Driver
Abstract:Laser sources are required to achieve many National Defense requirements for range finders, illuminators, mid-IR sources for countermeasures (IRCM), and solid state optical radars for range gated imaging, autonomous piloting, targeting and guidance. Significant advancements have been made over the last few years in laser capability such as wavelength coverage and output power, but these sources are rarely deployed in operational systems due to the significant problems of cost, reliability and size. Aculight is a key player developing lower cost diode pumped solid state lasers with Navy and Air Force funding. This proposal describes the development of a compact, low cost diode driver that will enable Aculight to deliver a complete source to the Navy for a Tomahawk LIDAR system.

VPT, INC.
P.O. Box 253
Blacksburg, VA 24063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5000
Steve Butler
NAVY 99-071
Title:A High Density, Multi-Output, Low-Cost, Thick-Film Hybrid Power Supply for a Diode Laser Application
Abstract:VPT Inc. proposes to develop a low cost, ultra-compact, thick-film hybrid dc-dc converter for a diode laser application. The converter will employ state-of-the-art chip and wire technology, high frequency switching, reliable magnetic feedback, in a hermetically sealed package. The converter will be triple output; with power for the diode laser, a thermo-electric cooler, and a Q-switch with a PRF frequency in the tens of kilohertz. The power supply will feature low output voltage ripple to minimum phase and amplitude noise in the intended LIDAR or LADAR application and an EMI filter designed to meet Mil Std 461. However, because it will be based on a VPT standard product design, it will also be very low cost. These standard products are designed to meet Class H military screening levels. This combination of features is unique in the industry and is made possible by an innovative multi-layer hybrid structure. In Phase I, VPT Inc. will develop detailed design requirements, build a breadboard, verify operation, perform a thick-film hybrid layout, fabricate a dummy load to simulate the characteristics of the diode laser, and test the breadboard with the simulated load. In the Phase I option, VPT will build a triple output hybrid dc-dc converter module.

MICROFAB (WASVA MILLIMETER WAVE)
706 Forest Street, Suite D
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 295-4994
Philip Koh
NAVY 99-072
Title:Silicon pulsed IMPATT diodes for W-band
Abstract:We propose to develop fabrication and packaging procedures for W-band high-power pulsed IMPATT diodes.

QUINSTAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
Dr. John Kuno
NAVY 99-072
Title:W-Band Short Pulse IMPATT Diode Development
Abstract:Many military and commercial radar, weapon guidance, and imaging systems require solid state transmitter power sources. IMPATT devices have been serving as the primary transmitter source for applications such as W-band high peak power, short pulse radar and guidance systems. Currently, there exists an acute need to develop U.S. production capabilities for low cost, short pulse, high power millimeter-wave IMPATT diodes to meet the weapon system requirements. Silicon IMPATT diodes are capable of generating short pulse (100 ns typical), high power (40 - 50 watts) output power at W-band (75 - 110 GHz). However, the traditional suppliers of IMPATT diodes such as Hughes Aircraft Company and Raytheon Company are no longer producing the devices. QuinStar Technology has recently acquired from Hughes/Raytheon the license and equipment to produce and sell millimeter-wave IMPATT diodes. The proposed program will develop IMPATT diodes capable of high power (40 to 50 watt peak output power), short pulse (100 nanosecond) at W-band frequencies. This will serve as a vehicle to develop not only the enabling technology but also the US capability to produce high performance, low cost IMPATT diodes, both required for insertion into the existing systems and for the development of the next generation systems.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4127
Richard Formato
NAVY 99-074
Title:Robust, Long Life Submarine Outboard Electrical Cable Connector
Abstract:The Navy's submarine fleet continues to experience premature failures in submarine outboard electrical cable connectors across many CWS and HM&E systems due to water ingress into the connector. Foster-Miller, Inc. a specialist in advanced materials technologies, with strong support from D. G. O'Brien (DGO), a leading developer and supplier of submarine outboard electrical cable and connector systems to the Navy, proposes to replace the current water permeable polyurethane overboot and water permeable epoxy backfill materials with advanced "hydrophobic" polymeric materials whose properties can be tailored to meet the exacting requirements for more reliable, longer service life underwater connectors. The Foster-Miller team will be strengthened by the addition of two leading experts in outboard cable systems: Dick Hugus, formerly with NRL and Ray Haworth, formerly with General Dynamics Electric Boat Division. During Phase I the Foster-Miller team will demonstrate the feasibility of using "hydrophobic" materials and new design concepts to produce a generic solution to both the primary and secondary sealing problems of outboard electrical cable connectors. Phase I materials and designs will be further refined in Phase II, leading to the fabrication and testing of prototype connectors under simulated operating conditions by DGO in anticipation of Phase III commercialization.

SEA CON BRANTNER & ASSOC.
1240 Vernon Way
El Cajon, CA 92020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 562-7070
Don Pepper
NAVY 99-074
Title:Improving Submarine Electrical Cable Outboard Connectors
Abstract:SEA CON proposes a Fleet requirements driven modification and re-design project for submarine outboard connectors. Fleet failure modes are reviewed in early taksing to establish the priority and direction of the Phase I engineering design effort. Methods are propoesed to integrate historical Fleet connector failure mode information and current Fleet data into a summary of outboard connector problems. This information is analysed and design priorities established for the project. Modifications to connectors are suggested using grommets to eliminate cable hosing, and an extended GRE insert and overmold are suggested as possible re-design concepts. The commercialization strategy is directed at the Navy in the early stages, then branches to offshore, ROV, DSRV, and water utility markets.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Steven A. Africk
NAVY 99-075
Title:Advanced Submarine Coatings
Abstract:This program will evaluate three submarine coating concepts, one that optimizes current systems and two representing entirely new classes of treatments. These are based on the precept that the limiting factor for coatings is the fundamental connection between static and dynamic properties which often requires that the most effective treatments have the greatest ship impact. The fundamental governing relationships are (for treatments in which the properties vary slowly with frequency, including modern designs) dictated by the requirement that the static modulus cannot exceed the dynamic modulus. This consequence of linear system causality is difficult to circumvent. The first concept is an optimization of the ratio of static to dynamic moduli of current coating concepts by crosslinking during or immediately after installation. The second employs embedded resonant structures with rapidly varying properties with frequency which can be stiffer statically than dynamically. Both macroscopic and microscopic resonant structures (using MEMS technology) will be evaluated. The third concept is a radically different coating system which decouples the submarine in a manner which may have controllable ship impact and may be amenable to mechanical attachment methods. The result of Phase I will be a downselect to one or possibly two concepts for demonstration in Phase II.

INDUSTRIAL QUALITY, INC.
640 E. Diamond AvenueSuite C
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 948-2460
Thomas S. Jones
NAVY 99-076
Title:An Electronic Three-Dimensional Radiographic Technique for Detecting and Locating Defects in Elastomer Materials
Abstract:Industrial Quality, Inc. proposes to develop a novel three-dimensional radiographic approach for the detection of voids and other discontinuities in thick elastomer components. The proposed technique utilizes a high-resolution flat panel electronic x-ray detector to collect multiple images of the component using different source locations/angles for each image. The images are processed concurrently to permit viewing of the internal structure of the subject along any arbitrarily selected plane. A film-based predecessor to this electronic technique has been used successfully in a wide variety of applications but has been limited by the difficulties associated with exposing, processing, digitizing, registering and analyzing these film images. The full process often required several hours to complete. With the newly available large-area flat panel imagers, the prospect for rapid collection and processing of the images is now available. Many of the difficult steps of processing and registering the films are completely eliminated. Even the exposure of the images is made considerably quicker by the significantly more efficient flat-panel detectors. During the Phase I program a flat-panel detector will be integrated into a special test fixture and used to develop techniques to evaluate Navy-supplied elastomer test components.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
P.O. Box 24344
Minneapolis, MN 55424
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 935-2035
Jordan C. Bonney
NAVY 99-078
Title:Testability and Certification of Complex Software in Total Ship Computer Environments
Abstract:A concept to provide advanced test and certification capabilities for shipboard systems is provided, the ScoreCARD Software System. ScoreCARD Software provides unique facilities to be focussed on the issues of test/certification functional testing, real-time response measurement and availability factors for systems comprised of software intensive COTS-based dynamic distributed systems. This certification capability will significantly increase the system reliability with reduced schedule requirements and cost savings (installation and life cycle maintenance).

VIATEC RESEARCH, LLC
59 Chesterfield Dr.
New Castle, DE 19720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 272-0025
Anthony T. Rivers Ph.D.
NAVY 99-078
Title:"Testability and Certification of Complex Software in Total Ship Computer Environments"
Abstract:The Navy has demonstrated a need for technologies to address the testability and certification of complex software-intensive applications/systems within a total ship computing environment. Viatec Research proposes to determine the feasibility of developing a set of "accurate" risk-based software testing and reliability predictors and guides that are based on our "award winning" Resource Constrained Testing (RCT) methodologies. Our goals are to develop methods, metrics, process enablers, heuristics and models to be applied in "COTS Integrated" distributed software intensive systems. We propose to demonstrate how our methodologies will be used to guide the software testing process, assess the testability of software, identify which software items may be problem prone, and certify the availability and reliability in terms of functionality and real time response of a software system. Our RCT Testing-Efficiency (TE) metric will allow construction of fault-rate performance graphs that demonstrate whether a testing process is performing as expected. Our RCT residual fault-models will estimate the number of faults expected during operational use (e.g., in the next two years). Our RCT technology already has been successful in forecasting field quality and providing testing process decision support using real data from complex tele- and data communications software intensive systems.

AST ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
12200 E. Briarwood Ave.Ste. 260
Englewood, CO 80112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 790-4242
George L. Krasovec
NAVY 99-079
Title:Managing Dynamic MLS Information Systems with SNMP-Enabled Security Brokers
Abstract:The objective of the proposed R&D is to expand the capabilities of AES' CORBA-based MLS Security Services (CMSS) prototype to address the stringent information security requirements of complex, advanced computing architectures. In contrast to conventional solutions for MLS problems which involve fixed hardware, software and data configurations, advanced computing architectures will adapt dynamically to changing mission, configuration, and resource requirements while protecting data, classified at multiple security levels, from compromise. Our Phase I technical approach is based on the augmentation of AES' CMSS prototype by enhancing its CORBA security broker with interfaces, logic and a management information base (MIB) to support the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). This SNMP interface will provide an open pathway to mission-specific network management functions which can not only monitor the current configuration of all CORBA objects, but also dynamically control and alter the distribution of those objects on specific network resources. A proof-of-concept prototype will be developed to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing an SNMP interface for our CMSS security broker without compromising underlying CMSS security mechanisms. An optional Phase I effort will be conducted to develop and verify a MIB for application to the Total Ship Computing Environment during Phases II and III.

MPI SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1 Research BlvdSuite 201
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(601) 320-4300
Darwin E. Ammala
NAVY 99-079
Title:A Next Generation Dynamic, Adaptive Multi-Level Security Framework for Computer Intensive Environments
Abstract:The 21st Century Naval Combat environment will be computer-intensive and will place greater demands on the computing infrastructure to adapt to changing mission requirements. This environment must also be capable of providing Multi-Level Security services and protection since the computing resources will not be dedicated to a single task. Resource management and control, task migration, and quick recovery capabilities along with fault management will all be required. The existing DOD standards in this area are not adequate to fully address this scenario. In this work, a technical roadmap will be built to move the Navy into this new high performance environment. High performance computing is immature in security protection, hence new and innovative approaches must be made to bring the technology, security protections, and MLS capabilities to the Navy customer. MPI Software Technology, the proposer, has expertise in developing computer intensive environments, and has personnel available who are familiar with computing security practice and theory. These elements will enable an innovative solution strategy to meet the security challenges that the Navy must meet to remain the pre-eminent military force on the planet.

PHOTONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
1800 Penn Street, Suite 6
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-8181
Dennis R. Pape
NAVY 99-080
Title:Photonically Controlled True-Time-Delay Wideband Phased Array Antenna Controller using Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Abstract:The next generation Navy radar systems will require shared active phased array antennas (PAA). PAAs offer may advantages including steering without physical movement, accurate beam pointing, increased scan flexibility in two dimensions, precise PAA element phase and amplitude control to obtain low sidelobes, and reduced power consumption and weight. The complexity associated with controlling the many thousand array elements, while handling the broad bandwidth required of a shared antenna, makes the marriage of photonics and microwave radar attractive - especially when true-time-delay (TTD) is required for wide bandwidth and large scan angle steering. Our analysis has shown, however, that despite the attractiveness of utilizing photonics, the excessive complexity and cost and in some cases performance limitations of current photonic beamformer approaches will limit their acceptance in deployed systems. The novel TTD photonic beamformer proposed here offers a high performance but lower complexity and cost photonic TTD system using a novel combination of commercially available wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) components which we call WDM Delay Broadcasting TTD. In this approach fixed delays are encoded with wavelength and broadcast to all of the antenna subarrays. Our approach uses a simple tunable optical filter at the antenna element to decode the delay.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
116 West Sixth StreetSuite 200
Bloomington, IN 47404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 336-7576
Dr. William A. Wood
NAVY 99-080
Title:Affordable Wideband Radar Receiver
Abstract:Future naval combat systems will include wideband radars for high range resolution (HRR) target detection and discrimination functions. However, such functions in large arrays cannot be supported by conventional narrowband beamsteering techniques. TSC proposes a new approach to beamforming in which photonic wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology is used to implement an affordable true time-delay (TTD)-assisted synthetic wideband (SWB) HRR radar receiver. SWB processing is a means of increasing the effective bandwidth of existing narrowband phased arrays through time-domain multiplexed radar waveforms. However, SWB alone poses severe technical challenges in radar resource allocation, dwell times, and overall accuracy. Full TTD beamforming, on the other hand, is intrinsically wideband but has proven prohibitively costly to implement on a large scale. By combining the two beamforming approaches, a HRR radar receiver will be developed requiring only partial TTD implementation to achieve performance comparable to a truly instantaneously wideband system. This will involve synthetic wideband processing to reduce the level of instantaneous bandwidth required for HRR, while implementing partial TTD to reduce the difficulties inherent in the SWB approach by effectively reducing the aperture size. Photonic WDM technology for partial TTD offers significant advantages in cost, performance and availability over other techniques.

LIGHT BYTES, INC.
12024 Moccasin Court
Orlando, FL 32828
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 249-2875
Nicholas Madamopoulos, Ph
NAVY 99-081
Title:High-Speed High-Isolation 2X2 Fiber-Optic Switch for RadarHigh-Speed High-Isolation 2'2 Fiber-Optic Switch for Radar
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project deals with a unique 2X2 fiber-optic switching structure using acousto-optic (AO) device technology. The proposed switch is fully inertialess as it uses electronically programmable sub-microsecond speed bulk AO devices to implement optical switching suitable for high optical power applications. The switch delivers desirable capabilities in one optically reversible unit, making an ultra-fast, high optical isolation, broadband operation, self-aligning robust module. The switch is independent of the optical polarization of the incident light and uses a unique orthogonal drive configuration to suppress leakage noise to the desired levels for radar applications such as true time delay control. Phase I research will concentrate on the basic proposed switch structure and a proof of concept experimental demonstration will be performed to study, analyze and optimize switch performance at the 1300 nm optical band suited for high-optical-power fiber-optic microwave distribution applications. Groundwork will be laid to indicate technical concept feasibility that will lead to a Phase II plan for prototyping and development of the 2'2 optical switch.This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project deals with a unique 2'2 fiber-optic switching structure using acousto-optic (AO) device technology. The proposed switch is fully inertialess as it uses electronically programmable sub-microsecond speed bulk AO devices to implement optical switching suitable for high optical power applications. The switch delivers desirable capabilities in one optically reversible unit, making an ultra-fast, high optical isolation, broadband operation, self-aligning robust module. The switch is independent of the optical polarization of the incident light and uses a unique orthogonal drive configuration to suppress leakage noise to the desired levels for radar applications such as true time delay control. Phase I research will concentrate on the basic proposed switch structure and a proof of concept experimental demonstration will be performed to study, analyze and optimize switch performance at the 1300 nm optical band suited for high-optical-power fiber-optic microwave distrib

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
14A GILL STREET
WOBURN, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2030
Dr. Jing Zhao
NAVY 99-081
Title:Electro-optic 2X2 Switch
Abstract:High performance fiberoptic switches are in great demand for use in the information super-highway and modern defense systems. Current fiberoptic switches do not simultaneously meet the requirements of high speed, low loss, high extinction ratio, and high reliability. Based on the successful development of a state-of-the-art high speed and highly stable 1x1 switch, NZ Applied Technologies proposes to fabricate a novel solid-state 2x2 switch, based upon ceramic materials with large electro-optic effect and an innovative device architecture. This fiberoptic switch has leading edge performance attributes which include electro-optic high speed operation, polarization insensitivity and low insertion loss fiberoptic loss, as well as ceramic ruggedness for high optical power handling and long term stability. The design eliminates the need for mechanical movement, organic materials, and waveguides which introduce intrinsic drawbacks. Moreover, the design is simple, compact, and cost effective. It is anticipated that state-of-the-art performance in several key specifications can be achieved through this program. These include high data rate, low optical insertion loss, wide temperature range, high optical power handling, high stability, and cost effectiveness. Prototype optoceramic 2x2 switches will be fabricated to demonstrate functionality in Phase I.

CARLOW INTERNATIONAL, INC.
3141 Fairview Park DriveSuite 575
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 208-3451
Thomas B. Malone, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-082
Title:Assessment of Reduced Manning Impacts on Ship Crew Operational Effectiveness and Computer Resources
Abstract:Carlow International Incorporated (Carlow) and AST Engineering Services, Inc. are pleased to submit this SBIR Phase I proposal to the Naval Sea Systems Command to develop modeling and simulation (M&S) technology to assess reduced manning impacts on ship crew operational effectiveness and computer resources. The M&S technology required to ensure effective and responsive human performance in a reduced manning operational environment should include the following capabilities: (a) the ability to conduct what-if analyses in real time to assess the impact of different mission scenarios on ship, system, computer plant requirements, and personnel capabilities, including human error potential, crew workloads in an operational, reduced manning environment; (b) support of real-time mission planning exercises where the emphasis is on ensuring that available resources, including manpower and computer resources, are most effectively employed and deployed for specified missions; (c) provide real-time manpower assignment during periods of conflict where crew incapacitation or system degradation will further impact crew workloads and workload distributions; and (d) support determination of the impact of proposed modifications to existing or projected ship systems on personnel performance. The Carlow/AES team will assess the state-of-the-art M&S tools and will adapt existing technology or develop new technology to meet the needs of this effort. In the Option period an initial validation will be conducted of the selected tool by demonstrating the tool displays to Navy line personnel for selected scenarios, and obtaining insights and critiques on the feasibility of presenting such information to operational personnel in a tactical situation, as defined by selected scenarios.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd., No
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Gary Klein, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-082
Title:Increasing the Robustness of Reduced Manning Concepts
Abstract:One risk of using advanced technology to reduce the crew size of Navy ships is that even if the crew members are able to perform their primary missions, they may be unable to handle collateral missions such as damage control. We will address this problem in several ways. First, we will define the prototype emergencies that ships face. Then we will use the powerful and versatile simulation platform Micro Saint to represent the workload demands for several of these prototypes. Next, we will conduct Cognitive Task Analyses to define the cognitive demands on planners during damage control incidents, to identify the requirements for a planning support system. Finally, we will use these findings to generate a conceptual design, represented in storyboard form, for a planning support system to handle damage control events. The option task will include a review of the technology and a reverse engineering study of a significant damage control incident, using Micro Saint to study the impact of different technologies on reducing the workload requirements.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8807 Sudley RoadSuite 210
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 846-5047
Ronald G. Murdock
NAVY 99-083
Title:Multi-Disciplinary and Multi-Sensor Integrated Display Development
Abstract:The SC-21 Mission Needs Statement (MNS) has invoked requirements upon the ship design which include manpower reductions of 70% relative to current DDG manning. Reduction in manpower requirements to conduct combat control operations can only be achieved if highly effective and efficient operator machine interfaces are available. Sonar, electronic warfare, and radar systems provide data that must be combined in a common format which presents a data independent, common tactical picture for any operator. DoD initiatives to incorporate COTS in military systems are a key enabler for the accelerated growth of technological capabilities. Combat system development efforts are able to exploit technology trends to rapidly improve performance. Although these efforts have and will continue to yield results which enable the fleet to maintain tactical superiority, improvements to the operator interface for these systems have not kept pace with the flood of raw data driven by new sensors and new processing techniques that have been made available for management and interpretation. This research will establish new techniques and tools for reducing operator workload and fusing that with other information sources by managing and presenting information to support the SC21 platform goals.

SPECIALTY DEVICES, INC.
1104 Summit Ave.Suite 104
Plano, TX 75074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 578-7501
Paul D. Higley
NAVY 99-083
Title:Multi-Disciplinary and Multi-Sensor Integrated Display Development
Abstract:Recent developments in volumetric display technology have yielded displays capable of presenting full color, three-dimensional images. The objectives of this proposal is to modify this volumetric display to integrate multi-disciplinary and multi-sensor data. The volumetric display that will be built requires no goggles of headgear to present real time three-dimensional data, and can be used by many different viewers simultaneously. The proposed display would have the capability of presenting three-dimensional images of the ship, sub-surface threats, and three-dimensional representations of subsurface terrain. Volumetric representations of water current and intuitive and easy to understand manner. Radar images and electronic warfare data would also be shown in full three-dimensional detail about the ship. The information in this display would be scalable and color coded, allowing the user to use a simple computer interface to turn various display elements on and off. The display will have the capability to zoom in and out on any given situation or theater using simple controls.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 Court StreetSuite 210
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 798-1377
Walter Szczepanski
NAVY 99-084
Title:Adaptive Mainbeam Cancellation Technique
Abstract:Integrated Sensors, Inc has teamed with Lockheed Martin Ocean, Radar and Sensor Systems to develop techniques that effect practical, operationally meaningful, mainbeam jamming cancellation in solid state, active array radar and passive receive systems. A sequential adaptation scheme for MLC/SLC will be extended due to its superior ability to separately cancel mainlobe and sidelobe jammers while preserving the monopulse accuracy. Measures of performance and measures of effectiveness will be developed to provide a basis for performance comparison. Extension of existing simulations, RLSTAP/ADT and ECCM Nulling Simulation, will provide validation and evidence of feasibility of the resultant mainlobe jammer rejection techniques against both narrowband and wideband jammers. A state-of-the-art active array testbed radar will be available for efforts during follow-on phases.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
962 Wayne AvenueSuite 800
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 565-2970
Dr. Menachem Levitas
NAVY 99-084
Title:Adaptive Mainbeam Cancellation Technique
Abstract:Conventional Mainbeam cancellation is a more difficult technique to implement than sidelobe cancellation, due to two principal reasons. First, it requires at least one high-gain auxiliary channel (each such channel entails an independent, full gain, beamformer,) and second, the post-cancellation main-beam residues are normally too distorted to allow for a meaningful angle measurement capability. The mainbeam cancellation approach that we propose below obviates these difficulties. It utilizes an innovative beamforming technique that provides several major advantages. First, it enables the radar to steer the pattern difference nulls toward the jammer within the same dwell at which jamming is first detected, and to implement the steering more accurately than is possible via the antenna phase shifters. Second, it makes it possible to adaptively cancel jamming residues in the difference patterns using multiple available high gain channels, without incurring undue pattern distortions. Third, it enables target detection in the jamming sanitized difference channels. Fourth, it enables a measure of angle estimation based on difference channel ratios sanitized from jamming. And fifth, it accomplishes all of the above using only minor modifications to the conventional monopulse beamforming architecture, and increasing the number of receive channels by a modest amount.

ISL
8130 Boone Blvd. Suite 500
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
Paul M. Techau
NAVY 99-085
Title:Space-time Adaptive Processing for Advanced Phased Array Radar Systems
Abstract:Solid state active array (SSAA) radars are expected to play an increasing role in the development of future surveillance, acquisition, and tracking systems. They provide the advantage of being able to schedule beams arbitrarily, thus facilitating performance-enhancing functions such as increasing the scan rate on high-priority sectors or performing track-while-scan operations. In addition, the use of digital beamforming allows for the application of adaptive array processing techniques for use in interference mitigation. This includes space-time adaptive processing (STAP) techniques comparable to those developed for airborne radar for mitigating both Doppler-shifted cold clutter and mainlobe scattered interference (MSI or hot clutter). In this proposal we address the issues associated with implementing STAP in SSAA systems such as system bandwidth effects, computational complexity, and degree of freedom (DoF) reduction techniques. We outline a program for the development and optimization of SSAA architectures together with STAP algorithm development to achieve the objectives of improved sensitivity and robustness to interference sources. In addition, we illustrate the need for site-specific clutter models to provide a meaningful simulation environment for this development.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
6515 Main Street
Trumbull, CT 06611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Dr. Douglas Page
NAVY 99-085
Title:STAP for Advanced Phased Array Radar Systems
Abstract:The next generation of Navy shipborne radars must be designed to improve the detection low observable (LO) targets such as sea skimming missiles in littoral environments. These radars will be designed using solid state active array (SSAA) antenna technology. SSAAs utilizing space-time adaptive processing (STAP) can simultaneously reject land clutter, EMI and jam-ming, significantly enhancing the radar's ability to detect LO targets. The Phase 1 research that is being proposed by Technology Service Corporation (TSC) will in-vestigate the transition of STAP into both a notional S-band area defense and an X-band self-defense shipborne radar. The requirements for these radars will be specified, the best-suited STAP algorithms will be selected and optimized for shipborne applications, and the performance enhancements will be assessed. An adapt-on-transmit (i.e. Inverse STAP) concept will also be investigated. A transition task and a Phase 2 follow-on effort will select available software tools, perform de-tailed analyses of the STAP techniques and define experiments that can be performed using NSWCCD and other Navy facilities to validate the STAP algorithms' performance.

MECHANICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
1719 Route 10 ESuite 205
Parsippany, NJ 07054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 326-9920
Chang-Wei Jen
NAVY 99-086
Title:An Automatic Self-Cleaning 5 Micron Fuel Oil Filter
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative design that combines centrifugal separation, cross-flow filtration (CFF), Dean flow surface cleaning, and back-flush techniques into an effective micro-filtration unit. The centrifugal separation is effective in separating debris which has higher specific gravity than that of the DFM for particles as small as 20 microns. CFF is especially effective for feed flow with colloidal solids. Unlike dead-end filtration, the surface dynamics of CFF does not make gelatinous colloidal solids (which often get carried into fuel oil by seawater) extrude through filter pores, and thus does not compromise the performance of filtration. CFF makes use of the shear force parallel to the filter medium to reduce the cake formation on the filter surface. Dean flow is a secondary flow created in a curved flow passage. The resulting flow profile takes the form of a toroidal vortex. The vortex profile generates a high shear rate which acts to transport material such as colloidal solids and fine silts away from the membrane surface. The combination of these features with an automatic back-flushing device forms a compact, self-cleaning, and continuously operable unit suitable for pre-filtration in Navy shipboard fuel oil systems.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Patrick J. Magari, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-087
Title:Plasma-Sprayed, Non-Skid, Wear, Erosion, and Corrosion Resistant Ship Deck Coatings
Abstract:Creare proposes to use a plasma-spray process to deposit non-skid ship deck coatings. Plasma-sprayed coatings can have unique properties that are far superior to conventional coatings (paint, plating, etc.) in terms of wear and corrosion resistance. The plasma-sprayed coating would either entirely replace or be used in conjunction with more conventional paint-like coatings to achieve the desired color. The roughness of the plasma-sprayed coating would be controlled to provide the desired non-skid characteristics. The adhesion of the paint-like coating, if used, would be highly enhanced by the roughness and high corrosion resistance of the plasma-sprayed coating. Plasma spraying offers many advantages over other techniques for applying coatings, because it is inherently inexpensive, environmentally benign, easily scaled to production scenarios, and features high, easily controllable deposition rates. The approach has modest equipment and operator skill requirements and should be easily integrated with the present repair infrastructure. In Phase I, we propose to prepare and test sample coupons with various plasma-sprayed coatings to provide a basis for initial assessment of the suitability of these materials. We will also perform simulated shipboard environmental testing to assess corrosion resistance, hardness tests of the films, and abrasion tests to assess wear resistance.

APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
811 Spring Forest RoadSuite 100
Raleigh, NC 27609
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 876-0018
Qiang Xiao, Ph.D., P.E.
NAVY 99-088
Title:Reliability Assessment of Watertight Boundaries
Abstract:This proposal will develop a feasible framework for reliability assessment of existing watertight decks and bulkheads of vital spaces and establish reliability levels inherent in present design codes for these structural components. Applied Research Associates, Inc. brings over fifteen years of experience in reliability and risk assessment, and reliability-based design methodology. ARA has teamed with industry partners ABS Americas and Designers & Planners, Inc., who will bring valuable expertise in ship structural analysis and design. In this proposal, we will present innovative and feasible solution strategies for reliability assessment, including: (1) use of a simplified load model with consideration of uncertainty in ship motion, wave action and various sea states as well as hydrostatic pressure, and (2) use of simple and basic element models. The load model proposed will be consistent with damaged stability criteria. Modes of failure will be identified for structural components under flooding conditions. The successful completion of this study will provide a basis for further calibration of the current design codes and development of reliability-based design criteria for these structural boundaries in Phase II. Use of these new criteria will result in a uniform reliability level for the structural components forming vital spaces.

RH LYON CORP.
691 Concord Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 864-7260
David L. Bowen
NAVY 99-090
Title:Advanced Monitoring and Diagnostics of Motor-Operated Valves and Actuators
Abstract:A motor-operated valve (MOV) diagnostic system, originally researched at MIT with sponsorship from a nuclear power industry consortium, has been further developed at RH Lyon Corp with sponsorship by the NRC. This "MIT/RHL system" is non-invasive and may be implemented in either a remote or roving configuration. It uses supply voltage and current signals to determine instantaneous motor torque, and housing vibrations to determine gear meshing and therefore valve travel or position. The resulting "torque vs. travel" signature has been shown to correlate well with important valve faults such as poor seating, obstructions, tight packing, poor stem nut lubrication, and is expected to diagnose worn or bent stems. This system does not at present detect and classify motor or gearing faults (not a priority in the previous application), but the vibration and electrical signals now captured by the system are the signals of choice for such diagnostics. We propose to augment the current system with gearing and motor diagnostics, and then demonstrate its ability to operate in a shipboard environment. Although the present system is quite portable, we propose to design a board level embedded version, compatible with ICAS, as a Phase I option, for construction and implementation as part of the Phase II effort.

NOESIS, INC.
10363 Bear Creek Drive
Manassas, VA 20111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 741-0300
Dr. Robert Henderson
NAVY 99-092
Title:Prediction of Prototype Hydrodynamic Performance
Abstract:The objective of the proposed effort is to define and demonstrate a methodology to confidently predict the hydrodynamic performance of a prototype marine vehicle using data from small-scale experiments. Traditionally, the scaling of small-scale data to estimate prototype performance assumes that the major issue is the friction drag change with Reynolds number and usually for the hull alone. This process ignores important conditions, such as acceleration, deceleration and maneuver. The proposed Phase I effort will develop a computer-based process that consists of a series of existing boundary layer estimation codes whose physical modeling has been carefully validated. The feasibility of the process will initially be demonstrated by focusing on the scaling of friction drag. If successful, the process can be adapted to address pressure drag and lift. A "smart" process will be defined that applies the different boundary layer codes to the flow regime that they are best suited to model. This smart process will be used to post-process small-scale data to reflect the effects of boundary layer changes between small scale and prototype Reynolds numbers. With an accurate knowledge of both the small-scale and prototype boundary layers the prototype system performance can be confidently estimated.

BRIDGER-OET, INC.
114 State Road
Bourne, MA 02532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 637-4715
Lars S. Ostlie
NAVY 99-093
Title:Non-Toxic Antifouling System Based on AC Electric Fields
Abstract:The primary objectives of the proposed effort are to further develop a novel, proprietary technology (Alternating Current Anti Fouling "ACAF") which applies a rapidly alternating electric field to layers of conductive and insulating films to minimize or prevent attachment of aquatic organisms to a submerged surface. Principals of this technology have been proven under laboratory conditions utilizing barnacle larvae (Balanus Amphritete) as the target species. Results indicate that high frequency electric fields disrupt the settlement process of cyprid larvae, resulting in substantially reduced fouling coverage on treated surfaces. The Phase I effort will focus on further optimization of the electrical properties of films, of the electric field variables (frequency, voltage, duty cycle) and methods of connecting and transferring power. The project will incorporate a field validation trial using static immersion panels deployed at a test site with heavy macro fouling. Subsequent efforts will be directed toward a progressive "scale up" of the technology for ship and industrial applications.

SURVICE ENGINEERING CO.
1003 Old Philadelphia RoadSte. 103
Aberdeen, MD 21001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 699-5137
William A. Hockberger
NAVY 99-094
Title:Development of Total Ownership Cost Parametric Assessment Software Baseline Models for Ship R&D Concepts
Abstract:When considering future ship R&D needs, the Navy must determine both the benefits to be obtained if particular new technologies are selected for development, acquisition, and operational deployment as well as the complete set of costs that will have to be borne. Total Ownership Cost (TOC) is an element of the acquisition reform and business practice reengineering currently being pursued within the Navy. TOC is a broadened definition of Life Cycle Cost with the addition of an array of costs previously excluded because they were not directly and exclusively connected with the particular system being acquired. It is now recognized that these additional costs are in fact relevant to the decisions being made regarding development or acquisition. The Parametric Assessment of Ship Systems (PASS) design synthesis model embodies methodologies for examining the whole ship impact of new technologies and design concepts. This effort will combine the synthesis and costing models to provide a powerful and efficient tool for determining the characteristics of the best ship capable of meeting specified requirements, determining the impacts on a ship resulting from use of a particular new technology, and determining the full cost of that ship or technology over its life cycle.

FERN ENGINEERING, INC.
55 Portside DriveP.O. Box 3380
Pocasset, MA 02559
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 563-7181
Philip Levine
NAVY 99-095
Title:Application of Direct Evaporative Spray Cooling Techniques to Augment the Power of GE LM2500 Gas Turbines in Marine Service
Abstract:Use of fine evaporating water sprays directly injected into the inlet of a gas turbine have been shown to provide significant increases in power production in land-based applications. By providing evaporative cooing inside the compressor, the sprays act an an "in-situ intercooler" to reduce the amount of work required to compress the air flow. The increased mass flow from the injected water also serves to increase the power delivered by the expander sections of the turbine. The diameter of the water droplets in the sprays are a critical factor in determining the impact on gas turbine performance. Smaller droplets evaporate faster and are more likely to follow the streamlines of the flow. Further, smaller droplets serve to decrease the potential for droplets impacting the compressor blades and causing erosion. A recently developed spray technology, swirl-flash nozzles, shows promise of yielding droplet diameters an order of magnitude smaller than standard high pressure nozzles can currently deliver. The proposed work will evaluate the impact of using standard spray nozzles, as well as swirl-flash spray injection on a Navy LM2500 gas turbine. The cost and performance of these options will be compared to other water and steam injection power augmentation techniques. In addition, the constraints imposed by shipboard installation will be examined to determine the feasibility of using this technology in a Navy ship.

KAZAK COMPOSITES
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Jerome Fanucci
NAVY 99-096
Title:Pultrusion of Damage-Resistant Polyurethane Composite Deck Stanchions
Abstract:KCI proposes to design and prototype pultruded polyurethane matrix composite stanchions to replace the steel tubing currently used for shipboard safety railings. They key technical challenge is establishment of commercially-robust processing technology that will allow routine pultrusion of polyurethane matrix composite structures. KCI will evaluate the range of available urethane matrix materials with the goal of identifying the best resin for KCI's modifications to formulate it as a pultrudable system. KCI will work with our formulation subcontractor, Science Research Laboratory, to specially blend a polyurethane system that simultaneously meets the wet out and curing characteristics required of a pultrudable resin and the ultimate service requirements of the composite stanchion. KCI will select reinforcing fiber materials, design a composite from these fibers and our formulated pultrudable polyurethane, and perform finite element analysis to verify performance of the stanchion when exposed to critical design loading. KCI plans to investigate both conventional tubular stanchion configurations and other, more novel open section designs that would simplify tooling, ease process development and ultimately reduce production cost. Prototype polyurethane matrix parts will be pultruded and tested, and initial project ions of the production cost for the stanchion developed during Phase I.

SUNREZ CORP.
392 Coogan Way
El Cajon, CA 92020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 442-3353
Novis Smith
NAVY 99-097
Title:AFFORDABLE NDM (Non-Distribution Media) VACUUM ASSISTED RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING (VARTM)FOR LARGE NAVAL STRUCTURES
Abstract:An improved VARTM (vacuum resin transfer molding) process for the fabrication of large scale composite parts and ships is needed by the Navy. Sunrez has conceived and is developing the new LS VARTM Process which eliminates all of the under bag flow media usually associated with current VARTM processes. The currently used VARTM Processes require an inordinate amount of "under the bag" resin distribution media and tubes and excess resin, which are thrown away after the part is fabricated creating higher material and labor costs. The desired VARTM process will be lower cost with respect to labor and materials and have no under the bag resin distribution media. Sunrez has conceived of the LS VARTM Process which meets these requirements and is very low cost. In Phase I of this program, the LS VARTM Process will be developed and key demonstration parts made which will prove the viability of this process to meet all of the Navy requirements for this program. Cost estimates will also be done showing other low cost advantages of this process. It is anticipated that this LS VARTM Process will become one of the dominate commercial composite fabrication processes fro large structures

WEBCORE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
591 Congress Park Drive
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-5034
Rich Rydin, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-097
Title:Innovative VARTM Process and Core Systems for Affordable Composite Sandwich Structures
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project combines the processing capabilities of a resin permeable fiber reinforced foam (FRF) core and a unique vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process. The proposed VARTM system does not use a distribution medium and therefore eliminates the labor and waste associated with traditional VARTM processes. A series of laminates and sandwich panels with FRF and balsa cores will be molded. Structural testing will be performed on the panels to determine their bending and compression properties. Additionally, resin flow studies will be conducted to characterize resin flow front progression. A large sandwich panel representative of a Navy ship topside structure or a vehicular bridge deck will be molded to demonstrate the scalability of the process. Valuable information will be gained about the cost and technical challenges associated with molding large cored composite structures.

DPD, INC.
2000 Turner Street
Lansing, MI 48906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 349-5653
Ken Ostowari
NAVY 99-098
Title:Pseudoelastic-Based Holders for Advanced Metal Foil and Fiber Brushes
Abstract:The proposed research seeks to develop new constant force brush holders incorporating pseudoelastic alloys for use with advanced metal foil and fiber brushes. The new brush holders satisfy requirements relevant to brush pressure and wear movements; they are also compact, resistant to prevalent operating temperatures and lateral forces, and capable of minimizing electrical losses while transferring high current densities. Incorporaition of pseudoelastic springs is the distinguishing feature of the new holder design. Pseudoelastic alloys can be strained orders of magnitude more than normal spring materials without being plastically deformed; the stress level associated with these large pseudoelastic strains is practically constant. The proposed Phase I research will: (1) select geometric configuraitons, compatible pseudoelastic alloys and detailed deisgns for satisfying the targeted requirements in different circumstances; and (2) manufacture pseudoelastic-based mechanical holders, and verify their performance through simulated laboratory tests. The Phase I Option would quantify the competitive technical and cost advantages of the new brush holders. The proposing group includes a leading manufacturer of brush holders and a major supplier of pseudoelastic alloys.

NOVATEK
2185 S Larsen Parkway
Provo, UT 84606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 374-6222
David R., Hall
NAVY 99-099
Title:High-Speed 'Hot Chip' Motherboard with Low-Cost High-Pressure Polycrystalline Diamond Heat Spreader.
Abstract:Presently as much as 80% of the heat generated in a microprocessor "hot chip" is conducted to the motherboard through the leads. A better approach would be to remove most of the heat directly from the entire surface of the die via an efficient heat spreader. Diamond has the highest thermal conductivity of all materials, but single crystal diamond is much too expensive for use with microprocessor chips, which are from 5 to 15 mm square. Vapor deposited diamond is also too expensive in any grade having high thermal conductivity. An advanced polycrystalline diamond ceramic material exhibiting thermal conductivity approaching that of single crystal diamond can be made inexpensively in thick pieces to near net shape at ultra-high pressures and high temperatures. This proposal envisions manufacture of a novel polycrystalline diamond heat spreader which will efficiently couple the entire surface of the die to all metal planes in the motherboard and optionally to an external heat spreader on the back plane. Board assembly is facilitated via a straightforward adaptation of present Tape Carrier Package technology. Phase I goal is to demonstrate cool operation of a high performance desktop Pentium processor "hot chip" in a convection-cooled motherboard.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8807 Sudley RoadSuite 210
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 846-6824
Kenneth M. Anderson
NAVY 99-100
Title:Cost Effective Integration Methods for Large Complex Systems
Abstract:The introduction of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) products into ship systems represents an enormous challenge that impacts virtually all elements of Integration and Test (I&T). While the use of COTS products is not a new concept to the Navy, its application to highly elaborate weapon system developments such as the USS Virginia (SSN774) Class New Attack Submarine (NSSN) Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) System surpasses earlier complexity. Adding to this complexity is the fact that the majority of the NSSN Non-Propulsion Electronics System (NPES) subsystems, of which the NSSN C3I subsystems are a subset, will be interfaced together for the first time at the Command and Control System Module Off-Hull Assembly and Test Site (COATS) in the shipyard at Electric Boat (EB). Following the I&T efforts at COATS the NPES subsystems will be installed on the submarine platform which will require some additional I&T effort. I&T at the COATS and on the NSSN platform will undoubtedly be fraught with technical and resource challenges that will demand new and innovative I&T techniques and concepts. The goal of this SBIR is to determine the I&T techniques and concepts that meet those challenges.

CONTINENTAL COMPUTER
1891 N. Gaffey Suite 232
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 514-0194
Jim Hynes
NAVY 99-101
Title:Submersible Data Acquisition System
Abstract:The Navy currently validates performance of torpedo tubes using pressure transducers and a tape spooler that that requires penetration of a subsafe boundary. We propose to build, using MEMS sensors, microcontroller technology and simulation modeling, a flexible data acquisition and communications system that gives clean multidimensional data without requiring penetration of the sub safe boundary.

BCO, INC.
799 Middlesex Turnpike
Billerica, AL 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 262-2882
Robert Hartwell
NAVY 99-102
Title:Automated Test & Integration Methods for COTS Hardware & Software
Abstract:SBIR N99-102, Automated Test & Integation Methods for COTS Hardware & Software Components, seeks an innovative approach to testing COTS using a "Hot Box" or alternative concept for pre-integration testing. The solution is expected to: 1. Reduce logistics material and testing associated with Combat System supportability. 2. Result in a significant cost and time savings to the Navy logistics supportability system. Under the proposed Phase I effort, experienced BCO Inc. engineers will 1) Select a representative Combat Support System for analysis such as the Non- Propulsion System of the Virginia Class Submarine, 2) Perform a Test Requirements Analysis of the COTS components associated with pre-integration automated testing 3) Define the requirements and architecture for the "Hotbox" Tester and Test Software and 4) Determine the supportability benefits and versatility of this approach. The option phase will include a modest demonstration of critical technologies. The BCO, Inc. personnel are uniquely qualified to perform this task because of extensive experience in COTS VMEbus Systems, board/system testability, test software, automated test equipment, and system software development. Our experience transcends VMEbus architecture to include VXI, 1553, ethernet and other bus architectures. This experience gives us a unique perspective to solving the Combat System supportability problem.

CHESAPEAKE SCIENCES CORP.
1127B Benfield Blvd.
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 445-8461
Robert O. Hauptmann
NAVY 99-103
Title:Design Improvements to Enhance Towed Array Robustness and Reliability
Abstract:The towed arrays used by the U.S. Navy have no equal in acoustic performance. They are longer, have smaller diameters, can be towed faster, and have higher break point speeds than arrays towed by the rest of the world's Navies. But these superlatives are of no use if the array is unreliable and not working when needed. The proposed Phase I effort will evaluate five areas of known system design weaknesses, and develop innovative solutions that will increase the towed array robustness and reliability. The technology areas to be evaluated are: 1) the adaptation of solid filled seismic streamers to fleet tactical and/or surveillance arrays, 2) the inclusion of vibration isolation module (VIM) functions into the array tow cable so the unreliable features of the VIM can be eliminated, 3) the development of improved TB-16 hose wall strength member by substituting Vectran for Kevlar, 4) developing a thicker, more rugged, TB-29 hose wall, by improving the material matrix, assessing the benefits of "bend limiters", and minimizing heavy internal components, and 5) developing a more flexible, elongated, stress-relieved, TB-29 E/M coupler. The results of these analytical studies will be to identify specific design improvements that will greatly increase array reliability, while in many cases reduce system costs.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. Michael Dingus
NAVY 99-104
Title:Towed System Marine Life Attack Reduction
Abstract:Navy Submarine Towed Acoustical Array Systems are experiencing loss and damage due to attacks from marine life such as sharks and other fish. During the period of 1993 to1995, over 20 TB-16 Kings Bay Georgia based arrays were replaced due to suspected marine life attack, costing millions of dollars. Research into the cause of these attacks is needed, along with solutions and/or countermeasures the can be implemented without reducing performance. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. will team with Dr. Philip Motta of the University of South Florida and Dr. Timothy Tricas of the Florida Institute of Technology to investigate this problem. Information acquired from NAVSEA will be used to determine possible features of the array that attract fishbite. Array segment test articles will be prepared and exposed to sharks during static and towed tests. An underwater projector will be used to introduce acoustic signals to the sharks and their response observed. Attraction by odor will be investigated using static test articles fabricated from array materials. Damaged test articles will be analyzed to identify the responsible marine species. A Phase II test plan will be prepared that includes attractant masking and active deterrents during actual towed array field tests.

IMT, INC.
5895 Gleneagles Circle
San Jose, CA 95138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 531-9832
Keith Briggs
NAVY 99-105
Title:Compact Terabyte RAID Disk Subsystem
Abstract:iMT Incorporated proposes to construct a Compact Terabyte RAID Disk System that provides 0.5 Terabytes of storage in a rugged 10U rack mount package. The baseline proposal is for a RAID Level 2 system with full on-the-fly error recovery, hot swappable disks, and dual bit error detection. The system will rely on a fully redundant commercial controller design. It is expected that the Year 2000 cost of the storage modules will be approximately $24,000 for a total system cost significantly less than $50,000. The electronics and software design will be fully prototyped during the first phase of the effort allowing tests to be conducted to verify critical functionality and performance. The design and development will be completed as part of a future Phase II effort. As part of Phase I, trade studies on the following subjects will be conducted: - RAID Comparison Study, - Firewire, UltraSCSI and SCSI tradeoff analysis, - Input buffering analysis, - Output buffering analysis, and - Disk drive recovery modeling. A SRR and PDR of the resulting design will be conducted.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee HighwaySuite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7785
Kevin Fitzpatrick
NAVY 99-106
Title:Maintenance and Telepresence System
Abstract:The Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774) Program Office faces an unprecedented challenge in the development of maintenance mechanisms for what promises to be the most advanced and complex submarine ever developed. Drawing on our experience with software engineering; image compression, sound and video on ATM networks, and the Virginia class submarine program, Trident will develop an untethered, man-wearable computer system capable of providing NPES sub-system access equal to that available to NPES laptop systems. This includes full access to the Non-tactical Data Processing System (NTDPS) Digital Library. Additionally, the Maintenance and Telepresence System (MATS) will be capable of transmitting and receiving compressed audio and video over the Virginia class submarine's NTDPS local area network (LAN). Under Phase I of this SBIR, Trident will develop the requirements for the system, establish the system design, and produce a proof-of-concept demonstration. Phase II will extend the requirements based on program office feedback, further refine the design, and produce a full-scale prototype system. During Phase III of this SBIR a robust, fully tested, version of the system ready for use by the Virginia Class Submarine Program will be developed and delivered.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4110
Justyna Teverovsky
NAVY 99-107
Title:Environmentally Friendly Fill Fluid
Abstract:The U.S. Navy uses fill fluids in their sonar towed arrays to provide high quality sonar performance, proper buoyancy, and corrosion protection for the sonar electronic components. The currently used fluid, Isopar L, poses two environmental hazards, the first to humans during the filling operation, and the second to the marine environment as a result of accidental leakage. In this Phase I program, Foster-Miller proposes to identify an inherently more environmentally friendly fill fluid using a computer model based on group contribution theory. The five most promising candidates will then be tested in the laboratory for key physical, chemical, and environmental properties. After identifying a new fill fluid, Foster-Miller will then develop one or more innovative additives for the fill fluid that will minimize the environmental impact of a leak or spill in the marine environment. These additives will create a fill fluid system that is self-remediating, making the fluid non-persistent. At the conclusion of the Phase I program with Option, a new fluid will have been identified and several concepts for self-remediation will have been surveyed for further development. In the Phase II program, the development and optimization of the self-remediating additives will be performed.

COMNETICS, INC.
22421 Sweetleaf Lane
Gaithersburg, MD 20882
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 482-0894
Daniel Solomich
NAVY 99-108
Title:Networked Naval Trainer
Abstract:ComNetics, Inc. is proposing to develop a network centric training device capable of providing realistic sonar and other naval sensor analysis, as well as command and control, electronic control measures, and weapons training. The signal processing subsystem will readily receive real-time analog acoustic target data and output it to the student workstations over standard Ethernet networks. The device will provide individual and team training with a configurable number of student and instructor stations. The trainer will be designed using the latest Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) PC hardware, Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology, Network Interface Cards, and C++ software development tools. The goal of the PC based hardware platform will be to provide low purchase, maintenance, and upgrade costs. The proposed system will demonstrate the realism and advanced capabilities that currently available COTS hardware can provide. The anticipated capabilities and pricing of these network centric trainers are expected to cause a revolution within the training community. The fresh and innovative approaches taken to solve classic problems will benefit the Navy by affording more training capabilities without the high costs historically incurred.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd. #300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Joseph Salzman
NAVY 99-109
Title:Enhanced EWS Receiver Design for the Detection of LPI Signals
Abstract:Modern low probability of intercept (LPI) radars utilize large time-bandwidth product pulse compression waveforms, such as linear or non-linear frequency modulation (FM) and binary- or multi-phase coded signals, in order to reduce the peak transmitted power. These radars, example of which are Philips/Signaal's PILOT and Signaal's SCOUT coastal surveillance radars, pose a challenge to conventional EW support (EWS) receivers, which will typically detect the radar signal at ranges shorter than the radar detection range. This negative detection margin makes naval vessels such as submarines vulnerable to attack, since the radar can detect the periscope, other masts, or the sail, before the radar signal is detected and jammed. Technology Service Corporation (TSC) has investigated and developed a variety of LPI waveforms, as well as specialized feature detectors designed to intercept them. During Phase I of the present study, TSC proposes to investigate the feasibility of applying a variety of feature detection techniques, designed to detect the presence of a number of LPI waveforms, to an EWS receiver design concept that is built around a fast digital processor. In the Phase I Option, TSC will design a proof-of-concept EWS receiver, and develop a test plan to demonstrate the concept in Phase II.

DARLINGTON, INC.
2800 Shirlington RoadSuite 950
Arlington, VA 22206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 931-9300
Stephen M. Kurak
NAVY 99-110
Title:Investigation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Radio Products for Submarine Communications Support
Abstract:We propose to conduct an investigation of current and developing technologies related to wireless communications and networking for the purpose of identifying Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies and products that can be used to replace existing legacy submarine communications equipment on VIRGINIA CLASS (SSN 774) submarines. In order to accomplish this we will implement a process that prioritizes user requirements, provides a means of quantitatively comparing key parameters of candidate technologies, and then applies the results of the analysis to create decision support data. This investigation will depart from past studies of this type because, in addition to identifying systems which fully meet all VIRGINIA CLASS (SSN 774) functional, environmental, and cost requirements, we will focus on identifying systems which provide the greatest capacity for achieving interoperability with the evolving global commercial wireless networks. We believe that by obtaining a system that provides seamless interface with the commercial communications infrastructure, as well as meeting all current and projected military requirements, the likelihood of premature obsolescence or eventual "stovepiping" of the system will be avoided.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8807 Sudley RoadSuite 210
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Ronald D. Ghen
NAVY 99-111
Title:Improved Sonar Detection Displays and Interfaces
Abstract:Combat system development efforts in sensors and signal processing continue to provide added capability to detect and track challenging contacts. Although these efforts have and will continue to yield results which enable the fleet to maintain acoustic and tactical superiority, improvements to the operator interface for these systems have not kept pace with the flood of raw data driven by new sensors and new processing techniques that have been made available for management and interpretation. No significant effort to reduce workload or manning has been made to date, nor has 3D data visualization been seriously examined for tactical contact fusion applications. These conditions have established a significant opportunity to improve the "effectiveness" of the submarine. Automation has recently entered the tactical community; however, advancements in OMI to use the automation effectively have not been introduced. Manual and automatic data correlation tools need to be provided to reduce sonar operator workload and provide Decision Support for the Officer of the Deck (OOD). This research will establish new techniques and tools for reducing sonar operator workload as well as fusing that with other sources for use by the OOD through information management to allow full exploitation of today's system improvements.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Robert J. Kline-Schoder
NAVY 99-112
Title:System for Optimization of Very Low Frequency Audio Signals
Abstract:Very low frequency (VLF) sonar signals are advantageous because target detection and tracking can occur at very large distances. Visual displays which transform the time-domain signals into the frequency domain and which average the signals over time are currently used for target detection and tracking. However, by averaging, important information about transients and other ocean acoustic events is lost. Sonar operators do not listen to the VLF signals because current hardware and signal processing techniques are not effective in this frequency range. Creare will develop a hardware and signal processing system to optimize VLF audio signals for human operator hearing. The system will enable frequency translation and compensation so that the optimized signal can be calibrated to the hearing response of a specific sonar operator. In addition, we will provide a suite of signal processing algorithms that can be used to determine the optimal method for aurally presenting VLF acoustic signals to sonar operators. During the Phase I project, we will develop the required technology to optimize the VLF audio signal, build a bench top system, and perform experiments to demonstrate the capability. During Phase II, we will build prototypes that can be tested dockside and at sea.

CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS & SOFTWARE
PO BOX 1129
CHINO VALLEY, AZ 86323
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 636-2600
Russell L. Carter
NAVY 99-113
Title:Reusable and Maintainable Java Components for Naval Combat Systems
Abstract:The continued use of Commercial Off-the Shelf (COTS) hardware and software in Navy systems can cause substantial integration issues when these COTS products are upgraded. Recent technologies, such as the Java programming language, have made great strides toward painless incremental updates of software. The Java languages Object-Oriented (OO) design and the use of component-based architectures, such as JavaBeans and Enterprise JavaBeans, make software reuse practical in Navy shipboard systems. The software used in the Navy's New Attack Submarine (NSSN) contains opportunities for using the Java language's strengths to achieve a high level of reuse and ease the burden of periodic updates. This SBIR proposes an innovative Java component architecture utilizing JavaBeans and Enterprise JavaBeans components capable of implementing naval foreground and background systems. Cost savings will be realized because of the architectures inherent flexibility, extensibility, and dynamic distribution allowing high levels of reuse and easy integration. The proposed component architecture will decrease the cost of creating, deploying and maintaining naval combat systems. The approach includes Java real-time solution for allowing the component architecture to meet real-time performance requirements.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Joseph Murray
NAVY 99-113
Title:JAVA Applications for Naval Combat Systems
Abstract:The Navy has made applying Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies to the development of naval combat systems a critical priority. Under this new development paradigm, as combat system data processing components become obsolete or requirements grow, faster and less expensive COTS hardware can be rapidly introduced through technology refresh programs. Transportable Middleware (TM) provides the critical mechanism allowing complex military application software to be ported and scaled to new COTS platforms quickly. TM provides a layer of software that completely isolates the application software from the underlying hardware and operating systems. DSR proposes developing a processing architecture that will provide a pure Java interface into existing TM developed real-time systems. DSR will focus on the development of HMIs for embedded real-time systems in pure Java to ensure: (1) application portability, (2) the development of a pure Java interface into the existing publish-subscribe Transportable Middleware, and (3) the development of tools to verify that pure Java applications can inter-operate with the embedded processor regardless of the current processor, operating system, and Java Virtual Machine. Emphasis will be placed on the development of reusable objects (Java Beans) common to military applications, promoting code reuse, and fast and effective HMI development.

JACKPINE TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
1700 Four Oaks Road, Suite 227
Eagan, MN 55121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 414-4379
Robert J. Shepherd
NAVY 99-113
Title:Java Portability for the New Attack Submarine
Abstract:The purpose of this research is to investigate ways of using Java to address the issues of software portability and reuse in Naval combat systems. Our primary focus will be on the NSSN (Virginia Class Submarine) Exterior Communication System (ECS). In subsequent phases, our results can be applied to a wide variety of DoD and commercial systems. Jackpine Technologies has teamed with Lockheed Martin for a Phase I effort to: 1) Determine the risks of using Java in the ECS environment, including potential incompatibilities and performance problems related to integration with hardware/OS, existing protocols, communication paths, data bases, etc. 2) Analyze ECS applications to determine their suitability for Java implementation. Identify areas of risk where migration to Java will be difficult. Explain the fundamental reasons for the risks, and offer potential solutions to the problems. 3) Develop a software specification for a set of candidate applications described in task 2. In Phase II we will develop the Java and supporting software outlined in Phase I, and demonstrate its portability and performance while integrated with the NSSN ECS test facility.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH
3292 East Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Dragan Popovich
NAVY 99-114
Title:Ultra-Fast, Affordable, Portable Tool for Concrete/Steel Cutting in Rescue/Salvage Operations
Abstract:The proposed solution to ultra-fast concrete and steel cutting is to simultaneously increase hardness and toughness of a cutting tool. Novel cellular cermet cutting tool inserts offer an order of magnitude increase in cutting rates compared to traditional carbide or ceramic cutting tool inserts. The actual form of a cellular insert will be in form of a coating (between 0.5mm and 1mm thick) on a cutting face of a solid carbide insert. The cellular coating provides the fracture toughness, abrasion resistance, and resistance to chipping, while the solid carbide body underneath provides high flexural and compressive strength. This approach has already been demonstrated in ACR's work on oil well drill inserts with Smith International of Houston, TX, a leading manufacturer of oil exploration equipment. This collaboration has led to the development of drill inserts that allow well drilling in rock formations that were previously considered to be impossible to drill, such as granite. Both laboratory and field testing of novel cellular cermet drill bit inserts have demonstrated that a new paradigm in abrasive cutting is achievable through careful engineering of the microstructure of a cutting tool. More importantly, novel cellular cutting inserts can be effectively and inexpensively integrated into traditional portable devices, such as circular or chain saws.

CERAMIC & MATERIALS PROCESSING
4921 E. Pineledge Dr.
Clarence, NY 14031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 759-8211
Vladimir Hlavacek
NAVY 99-114
Title:Ultra-fast Portable Metallic/Concrete Plate Cutting
Abstract:New methods of very fast cutting of steel plates will be proposed. Following processes will be considered: 1) Use of ultrafine metallic powders to increase the speed of propagation of the cutting flame. 2) Use of new type of solid phase oxidizers to boost the exothermic reaction. 3) Use of additives, which convert the liquid iron pool into gas. 4) Use of metallic jet to increase the cutting speed. For cutting of concrete a novel method is proposed which converts concrete into gaseous products. Both batch and continuous portable equipment will be considered.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Nabil A. Elkouh
NAVY 99-115
Title:Flexible Corrosion Preventative Coverings
Abstract:Creare proposes to develop a family of temporary storage systems based on an innovative corrosion preventive composite covering. These protective coverings are unique in that they not only offer protection from the environmental elements with an impervious, waterproof outer shell, but also absorb and wick away large volumes of water that may leak between the covering and equipment surface. Such a system would keep the surface of protected equipment dry and significantly reduce the occurrence of corrosion. The proposed composite coverings consist of (1) an outer waterproof membrane, (2) an optional radar absorbent layer, (3) a highly absorbent matrix, and (4) a mesh retaining layer. The highly absorbent matrix can retain up to 400 times its weight in water. Regeneration of the coverings is also possible, enabling the absorbed moisture to evaporate during dry intervals. In Phase I, we will develop prototype coverings and demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. We will evaluate our innovation's corrosion protection ability, facility of use, maintenance requirements, and cost. In Phase II, we will construct a broad range of storage system configurations for field-testing and evaluation.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
900 Middlesex TurnpikeBuilding 8
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 436-9600
Dr. Triveni N. Upadhyay
NAVY 99-116
Title:Augmented Joint Precision Automatic Landing System (AJPALS)
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal is responsive to the Navy Precision Automatic Landing System (PALS) requirements for the new class of stealth aircraft carriers, designated as CVX. The PALS system must be at least functionally equivalent to ACLS+ and must meet the signature requirements of stealth CVX. The new DoD JPALS system, based on FAA LDGPS architecture, meets all the CVX requirements, however the vulnerability of GPS satellites signal- in-space to enemy jamming in battlespace environment presents a major concern. This proposal addresses this concern directly and proposes two levels of augmentation to JPALS: (1) an anti-jam augmentation to mitigate degradation in the receiver signal-to- noise power due to jamming and (2) a robust overlay signal architecture augmentation to address satellite's signal denial in worst case jamming. The Augmented JPALS, AJPALS, will be analyzed in Phase I through modeling and simulation and using experimental hardware measurements to validate the feasibility of AJPALS architecture. The Phase I program will also investigate the effects of these two levels of augmentation to JPALS in meeting the guidance requirements for shipboard CAT II landing. The Phase II program will implement and demonstrate the AJPALS architecture and will develop design-to-cost goals for this product in the context of both military and commercial viability.

EMF TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4121 Jacks Hollow Road
Williamsport, PA 17702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 745-3555
Gareth Knowles
NAVY 99-117
Title:Induced Strain Linear Motors
Abstract:In a highly attractive development, the U.S. Navy has been developing compact, heavy duty motors based on magneto-mechanical systems using metastable alloys(such as magnetostrictive or magnetic shape memory). However, a major obstacle to transferring these advances to practical systems for vertical and horizontal motion of deck systems such as bay doors, helicopters and stores has been clearly identified as the electronics. The fundamental operation of magneto-mechanical system mandates high energization at fast slew rates. The present use of linear power electronics is not capable of meeting specifications and incurs prohibitively large weight and power penalties for almost all ship deck applications such as machinery isolation or valve control that require the unique ability of magneto-mechanical systems to achieve actuation authority not available in ferroelectric mechanisms and devices. The goal of the project is to provide a full solution design of a compact and lightweight system capable of replacing heavy maintenance and power intensive hydraulic systems for ship deck operations. The proposed system introduces advances in switching topologies, components and subsystem designs for inductive loads as to minimize the weight and power costs.

MAGNEMOTION
142-V North Road
Sudbury, MA 01776
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 369-7600
Richard D. Thornton
NAVY 99-117
Title:Modular Linear Motor Driven Shipboard Material Handling System
Abstract:The development of a Navy linear motor driven material handling system will require extensive knowledge of linear motor design, careful consideration ship integration issues and considerable innovation. MagneMotion is focused on linear motor systems and on their application to a variety of demanding material handling missions. MagneMotion will work with the Navy and engineers at Bath Iron Works to determine operational requirements for this system. Against these requirements we will establish design criteria to conduct trade-offs of different motor technologies. MagneMotion's personnel are experts with all types of motors and are highly qualified to assess the options. Once the choice of motor type is made, a design activity will commence to develop a system capable of moving 12,000 lb. loads horizontally and vertically in a ship. This design will be scalable to the laboratory demonstrator model in Phase II. In addition, MagneMotion will develop preliminary concepts for: modularity by using standard motor modules rated at some minimum power level that can be stacked to meet higher power requirements; handling of oversized loads by linking multiple vehicles in a train; plane-to-plane transfer with either in-line or off-line concepts; and split lifts that can operate independently or in tandem.

POWER SUPERCONDUCTOR APPLICATIONS
930 Cass Street
New Castle, PA 16101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 657-9450
Dr. Stephen Kuznetsov
NAVY 99-117
Title:Linear Motor Technology in the Vertical Plane
Abstract:PSA has experience in the manufacture of both transverse flux linear induction machines (termed TFMs) and in conventional longitudinal flux LIMs (LFMs). The application of linear motors for vertical elevators for Navy ships involves a combination of transverse flux and longitudinal flux machines. Specifically, the single-sided, self-levitating "Magnetic River" TFM is ideal for the horizontal movement applications and couples to a double-sided LFM for vertical lift capability with multiple lift stations. This in our experience combines the optimum characteristics for both machines for maximizing the power to weight ratio, power factor, efficiency and specific thrust. Herein is provided a baseline design for a 12,000 lb (5454 kg) lift system operating at a typical service speed of 10-20 m/s and yielding a baseline power rating of 1.07 Megawatts for a vertical thrust of 53,500 Newtons.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
427 South 166th St.
Omaha, NE 68118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 683-1840
Joseph Chiara
NAVY 99-118
Title:Innovative Solutions to Improve Combat Information Center
Abstract:We plan to use and develop appropriate technology and techniques to enhance information management, display of information, judgement and decision support, and individual and team performance in CIC environments. We think our approach will result in reducing the number of personnel needed to effectively operate these systems, while maintaining or increasing situational awareness and enhancing operator and team performance. Our technical approach includes the use of intelligent technologies, information/data fusion and advanced displays and controls.

AEPTEC MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
15800 Crabbs Branch Way, #300
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 670-6770
Steven C. Chen
NAVY 99-118
Title:Advanced Connectivity for CIC Operations
Abstract:AEPTEC proposes to provide a COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE to all surface combatants operating in a battle group, by implementing advanced connectivity technologies that will support the sharing of a 3D tactical picture. AEPTEC has teamed with Lockheed Martin, and Multispectral Solutions, Inc. (MSSI) to offer a high bandwidth connectivity solution that will enable every ship's CIC to share a COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE of the battlefield. We will further develop our revolutionary Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radio which uses water as a wave guide and is currently being used by Special Forces to send T1 packets of data and imagery up to 20 miles over water. We plan to upgrade this technology to offer T1 connectivity for up to 60 miles over salt water to allow ships in a battle group to send each other the COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE in a real time, secure and low-cost manner that independent of satellites. We will also research the feasibility of 1) developing a low-cost flat antenna kit which could enable a ship's fire control antenna to receive T1 bandwidth connectivity, and 2) of utilizing low-cost kites to expand a ship's connectivity range.

APTIMA, INC.
300 West Cummings ParkSuite 3050
Wodburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Dr. Jean MacMillan
NAVY 99-118
Title:(CODE): A Mission-Driven, Human-Centered Quantitative Approach
Abstract:The driving force for technology and innovation for next generation aircraft carriers (CVX) is a 50 percent reduction in traditional ship manning. The need exists for a comprehensive methodology to optimize decision making organizations (e.g., carrier CDC/CVIC) to complete complex missions in the face of these reductions. We propose to develop an innovative tool to design optimal organizational structures to accommodate reduced manning. We will build on an existing team modeling approach that has been used to design an optimized CIC for future Navy surface ships, based on missions requirements, resources available, information networked, and doctrinal rules. Our method relies on practical design principles to guide the mission-driven specification of team members' roles task distribution, communication networks and physical layouts for command organizations. This process relies heavily on input from the warfighter and subject matter experts to define realistic mission characteristics, and to serve as evaluators of the optimized organizational structures. We plan to extend this methodology and develop an innovative CODE and Carrier Operations Design Environment, a team design an modeling tool for carrier systems developers. With this computer-based tool, we aim to move the method of organizational design from a heuristic based procedure to a scientifically based process.

RSL TECHNOLOGY CENTER, INC.
975 Second Street Pikeoffice G
Richboro, PA 18954
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) /35-7811
J. Barton Boodey
NAVY 99-119
Title:Rapid, Low-Cost Screening of High Strength Corrosion Resistant Fastener Materials for Critical Naval Marine Applications
Abstract:The overall objectives of this proposal are: a) to demonstrate the feasibility of using rapid, low-cost test methods for screening materials to be used as fasteners in critical assemblies; and b) to rapidly screen existing and new high-strength (120-150ksi) corrosion resistant materials to replace K-Monel, which is unacceptable for critical application at these strength levels due to electrochemical incompatibility with Ti-6Al-4V and Inco 625 and susceptibility to Environmental Assisted Cracking (EAC). The proposed test methods will screen these high-strength materials for significant plasticity and resistance to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) as outlined in the fracture mechanics approach described in the Fracture Toughness Review Process Document. The materials chosen for this proposal were: Inconel 718, A286, MP35N, and MP159. In addition, three newer materials were selected based upon their potential for good strength and toughness and significantly improved EAC resistance. These three alloys are Carpenter Custom 625 plus, Carpenter PH-465, and Inco 725. In addition Phase I Option testing will be conducted on Monel K-500 fabricated to the same yield strength range for comparison to data previously determined as validation of rapid testing methods and with the results of the testing on the alloy systems for selection for Phase II.

BNI
6325 W. 55th Ave
Arvada, CO 80002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 421-8111
Kenneth E. Nichols
NAVY 99-121
Title:Sewage Discharge Pumps
Abstract:A highly innovative pump concept for Navy wastewater disposal systems is proposed that will greatly increase reliability and maintainability over present systems. This innovative design concept incorporates a hermetic design that completely eliminates the troublesome pump seal and utilizes a unique mechanism chopping solids at the pump inlet. The pump motor and bearing system is cooled, lubricated, and purged with readily available seawater thus eliminating the typical oil system. After researching and defining requirements for the high reliability/maintainability CHT pump, Barber-Nichols will design, develop and test several configurations of the chopper mechanism to optimize the design of the Phase II effort. Final preliminary analysis, material selection, and a conceptual design layout will be completed that incorporated the findings of this effort. The Phase I effort will be completed with a detailed final report.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4283
Robert L. Cardenas
NAVY 99-121
Title:Nonclogging Sewage Discharge Pump
Abstract:The comminutors and transfer pumps used to process and discharge sewage from Navy vessels are the two primary components requiring the most service/maintenance. When the comminutors fail, oversized solids enter into the Collection, Holding and Transfer (CHT) system used to process shipboard soil and waste drain discharge. These large solids can subsequently clog the sewage discharge pump (SDP), disrupting system functionality and forcing sewage to be discharged into restricted waterways which is in direct violation with Secretary of Defense promulgated regulations. To correct this situation a new or modified pump must be engineered that will eliminate the need for the communitor. This new pump must be capable of either passing the largest solids that can flow through system piping or reducing the size of incoming solids using integral chopping mechanisms. In Phase I, system requirements will be established and a design for an advanced SDP will be developed. The proposed principles of operation for this new SDP will be verified through proof of feasibility testing using modified pumps tested on simulated waste streams. The Phase I results will provide the baseline foundation for developing prototype SDPs that can be tested on actual shipboard waste in a follow-on Phase II program.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 679-1791
Daniel K. Patton
NAVY 99-122
Title:Total Ship Training Concept
Abstract:New naval ship classes will be manned with fewer personnel, creating a near-term requirement for new tactical and training system technologies that can reduce crew workload. Current Navy embedded training systems, such as the Battle Force Tactical Training (BFTT) system and the AEGIS Combat Training System (ACTS), provide excellent examples of embedded training systems that incorporate traditional stand-alone shipboard training systems under a comprehensive systems architecture to create an expanded Combat Information Center (CIC) training system capability. DSR proposes exploring the feasibility of using these embedded combat mission training systems as a Total Ship Training core and developing a system architecture that would allow for the integration of existing onboard trainers that support ship's navigation, propulsion, damage control, and embarked Marine and aviation components to create a system. The goal would be to provide the Afloat Training Group and Shipboard training teams with a coordinated training simulation capability for the entire ship that supports shipboard readiness objectives, minimizes personnel requirements, and is cost-effective.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway NorthP.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 663-9034
Milton L. Stretton
NAVY 99-122
Title:Total Ship Training Concept
Abstract:Sonalysts, Inc. proposes to meld our extensive research and development and applied training application experience with state-of-the-art approaches to distributed team training management in developing an innovative training concept of operations and architecture for Total Ship Training. Sonalysts will conduct architectural requirements research to support distributed training management of disparate, highly-variable training systems; differing missions and disciplines; variable observer/controller skill levels; a wide range of training objectives; extensive training resources; and differing data collection and performance measurement needs within a total ship training environment. Phase I key tasks include identification of the following: Scope of integrated Marine Detachment and Navy host training requirements Range of training objectives/requirements Characteristics and capabilities of current Marine and Navy systems Levels of distribution for training Range of training environments Levels of complexity to be supported Measures and measurement schemes to quantify performance for objectives Data collection requirements Feedback processes required for combined Navy and Marine force training Sonalysts will also assess future and developmental training system efforts to round out functional requirements. This assessment, combined with a state-of-the-art review of tools and methods such as intelligent agents and expert systems within an open architecture, will be integrated into a concept of operations and system architecture for recommended recipients.

TECHNOVATIONS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
215 WINDY HILL ROAD
COATESVILLE, PA 19320
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 469-2563
DR. JOHN H. BUCHER
NAVY 99-123
Title:CORROSION PREVENTION METHODS FOR STRUCTURAL STEELS
Abstract:The feasibility of a metallurgical process for developing an adherent corrosion preventive surface film on structural steels containing certain alloying elements is proposed. This film will allow steel products to remain in open outside storage areas while minimizing corrosion or oxidation. The range of specified corrosion inhibiting elements in steel will be determined based on a metallurgical model which takes into consideration the total property requirement of the steel products. Cost-effective practices and processes will be designed to introduce the specified corrosion inhibiting elements in steel. By developing an innovative process, the surface of the steel product will be provided with an adherent, stable, corrosion and scratch resistant surface film. Determination of the processing conditions for large scale commercial applications will also be studied.

THE S. MAIN CO. L.L.C.
P.O. Box 577
Milford, MI 48381
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 684-9259
Edmund J. Swain
NAVY 99-123
Title:Ferritic Nitrocarburization-Based Method for Corrosion Prevention
Abstract:This project will analyze the feasibility of utilizing a thermochemical process that is based on ferritic nitrocarburization for the purpose of developing a new corrosion preventative method. A sample set of structural steel components will be examined and treated to help characterize the new process. In addition, the process control parameters will be developed and analyzed to aid in generalizing the method for other material types.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive, Suite 202
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 693-0017
Dr. Thomas D. Rogers
NAVY 99-124
Title:A Novel On-Board Wastewater Treatment System for Naval Vessels
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I Project is the development of an on-board wastewater treatment system for naval vessels. Presently, ships collect and hold all sewage and wastewater, then discharge the waste while in port at pierside connections. While at sea, waste is emptied directly into the ocean. Because of the rising cost of pierside off-loading and stricter environmental regulations, a water treatment system is needed on the ship that provides independence from shore facilities and produces and environmentally benign discharge. Lynntech's proposed method for water treatment is based on a unique combination of microwave technology, membrane filtration, and ozone disinfection. This integrated system will meet all effluent discharge goals including total suspended solids of 100 mg/liter, biological oxygen demand of 50 mg/liter, and fecal coliform of 200 colonies/100 mL. It is affordable, compact, safe, and can be easily installed and integrated with the Navy's present collection, hold, and transfer system (CHT). In Phase I, we will design and optimize the waste treatment system to produce an environmentally safe discharge. In Phase II, we will build and install the new microwave treatment facility on a ship to handle all the sewage and gray water streams in an environmentally safe manner.

WASTECH INTERNATIONAL, INC.
210 West Road, #7
Portsmouth, NH 03801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 436-2809
Guy Marchesseault, PhD
NAVY 99-124
Title:Microwave Technology Treatment for Sewage System
Abstract:In order to comply with environmental regulations an maintain its operational effectiveness, the U.S. Navy must examine alternative technologies for wastewater treatment, disposal, and reuse. WASTECH International, Inc. has developed a number of innovative and alternative treatment technologies that are directly applicable to the U.S. Navy's sewage and gray water treatment needs. These treatment technologies are potentially capable of eliminating sludge and producing an effluent suitable for overboard discharge. Under Phase I of this project, WASTECH proposes to design a prototype wastewater treatment system that will provide the most economical means of shipboard treatment of sewage and gray water for overboard discharge and/or reuse, as appropriate. WASTECH's treatment technology involves the microwave incineration of toilet solids, resulting in no sludge generation, as well as ceramic filtration of effluent to significantly reduce the suspended solids concentration in discharge effluent. In addition, WASTECH has developed complementary technologies to disinfect the effluent and reduce dissolved organic matter. It is expected that information obtained from Phase I will make it possible to design integrated wastwater treatment and management systems for all appropriate classes of Navy ships under SBIR Phase II and III.

DECISION DYNAMICS, INC.
4600 East West HighwaySuite 410
Bethesda, MD 20814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 657-8500
Louis E. Alfeld, ScD.
NAVY 99-125
Title:Advanced Verification and Validation Techniques
Abstract:This proposal presents a unique technical opportunity for NAVSEA to build on an existing body of knowledge to create both metrics and the quantifying techniques used to assess model performance. DDI has pioneered the development of complex dynamic simulation models for the USN over the past eight years, many under the SBIR program. During this time, DDI has often provided V&V assurances to its software users as well as examined third-party software developed by others, including client-server applications. DDI's strength, however, lies in its extensive experience in judging the validity of complex models and modeling systems and in its experience in the development of metrics for the most complex type of simulation models, those involving multiple, non-linear feedback relationships with multi-variable interdependencies. DDI intends to apply its expertise into the development of a method for determining and describing the degree to which intricate simulations emulate reality. DDI will categorize specific purposes for model use; identify critical aspects models must satisfy for validity; and, define metrics to measure model performance. In addition, DDI will identify potential approaches for quantifying model performance against such metrics and demonstrate how at least one of the approaches might be applied in practice.

VISITECH LTD.
3107 North 18th Street
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 391-6264
Steven Kasputis
NAVY 99-125
Title:Advanced Validation Techniques
Abstract:As the use of complex simulation representations becomes more widespread, it is imperative that their accuracy be precisely defined. At the same time, however, the very nature of their increased complexity progressively prohibits the use of conventional methods of measuring or assuring such precision. The statistical validation methods proposed by VisiTech would complement and augment the traditional verification and validation methods. Those methods would still be required at the more fundamental level such as the individual production rule for knowledge-based models or the constituent model used in complex simulations. The statistical methods developed under this SBIR would be used to measure performance when these more fundamental constructs are combined in ways that result in non-deterministic aspects during execution.

CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS & SOFTWARE
PO BOX 1129
CHINO VALLEY, AZ 86323
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 636-2600
Ed P. Andert Jr.
NAVY 99-126
Title:Distributed Synthetic Environment Data and Effects Server
Abstract:The military is developing distributed simulations to allow a wide range of simulators, simulations, platforms, sensors, and live forces to participate in common training, planning and decision making exercises. This reduces training costs while improving readiness. The Navy Battle Force Tactical Training (BFTT) system is an example of distributed embedded simulation application that stimulates ship combat system sensors to cause ship systems to act as virtual trainers. Incorporation of dynamic synthetic environment representations of ocean, surf-zone, atmosphere, terrain, and near-space improves the realism of such training simulations. A consistent and realistic synthetic environment is a critical element of such distributed and embedded simulations. This project will develop an E-Server distributed synthetic environment data and effects server that provides consistent and realistic environment services for HLA-based distributed simulations. The synthetic environment server enables environment "services" to be accessed from anywhere on a networked simulation. The Phase I technical objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of the E-Server distributed environment server approach that provides a realistic and consistent synthetic environment for distributed and embedded training simulation applications.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(618) 876-8085
Brian Spaulding
NAVY 99-126
Title:The Smart Server -- An Application for Distributed SNE Processing
Abstract:Traditionally, simulations have handled the modeling of the synthetic natural environment (SNE) internally, creating closed, stovepipe environments. While this was sufficient for stand-alone systems, it is not sufficient to support today's distributed simulation environments. Systems, once used for individual training, are being reused in distributed exercises to support collective training, mission planning, and mission rehearsal. These systems, of varying fidelity and data requirements, need to interact together in a shared synthetic environment. To support these systems, an open, flexible, distributed processing environment is needed. The system must provide a consistent representation of the SNE while supporting a wide array of source data and simulation systems. M─K Technologies will establish a robust SNE architecture that supports both embedded and distributed SNE calculations. The architecture is based on two primary components; the SNE Application Programmers Interface (API) and the Smart Server. The SNE API supports the incorporation of many different authoritative data sources, while insulating the simulation from changes in the underlying data formats and data distribution mechanisms. The SNE Smart Server will be capable of providing SNE calculations for end systems with different modeling requirements, and performing load balancing by distributing the SNE related processing across other network resources.

I-KINETICS
17 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 270-1300
Bruce H. Cottman
NAVY 99-127
Title:Universal Modeling and Simulation Data Exchange
Abstract:The key barrier to realizing new capabilities in Modeling & Simulation (M&S) is integrating existing M&S assets from such valuable resources such as weapon simulations and mission planning data. In practice, almost 100% of M&S systems are custom software driven by domain and mission-specific requirements. Mission changes result in system requirement change and thus integration of new capabilities is the most significant problem. The promise of component-based M&S systems is to enable developers and end-users to "snap together" new applications by mixing and matching external simulation data and components. A major innovation of this effort is the design of universal M&S data exchange language based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). The major capabilities of the M&S data exchange language are (1) new M&S language terms can be added without effecting the reliability of existing terms; (2) term structures can be nested to any level of complexity; (3) any M&S data object can contain an optional description of its grammar. Another major innovation dynamic (run-time) transformation of legacy M&S software interfaces into standards-based services. The result is the ability to adapt quickly to different user and mission demands, while achieving reliability through the reuse of verified components.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
3085 Woodman DriveSuite 200
Dayton, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 299-5999
Mary Lou Fricke
NAVY 99-127
Title:Multi-Resolution Mapping Framework
Abstract:The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's High Level Architecture (HLA) supports implementation of advanced distributed weapons system analysis and training systems by linking dissimilar simulations. One of the grand challenges in HLA stems from the desire to represent large-scale operations in a single simulation and yet retain the ability to investigate certain aspects of the battle space in greater detail. In order to link simulations implemented at substantially different levels of resolution, a multi-resolution mapping framework is needed. Spectra Research, Inc. (S*R) and Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) propose to prototype a Multi-Resolution Mapping Framework (MRMF) tool and demonstrate it with a HLA toolsuite called Federate Connect. Federate Connect is under development to map the source code of a simulation to an HLA object model, build a Simulation Object Model, and generate a HLA compliant federate including middleware to connect to the HLA Run-time Infrastructure. The proposed MRMF tool will replace a simpler Object Model Resolver tool included in Federate Connect. By building on this existing baseline, we will be able to focus on developing a very robust MRMF in Phase II. The MRMF will be compatible with the evolving Joint Simulation System and Joint Modeling and Simulation System implementation.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Dr. Jacqueline A. Haynes
NAVY 99-128
Title:Team Readiness Assessment Program
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes to develop the Team Readiness Assessment Program" (TRAP). TRAP will be an assessment tool to measure the effectiveness of training battle groups in the performance of mission essential tasks as individuals or as a team. TRAP will use Latent Semantic Analysis, a powerful new machine-learning technology, to provide a numerical index of the similarity between textual descriptions of tactics, tasks and other elements of task performance with a description of the trainee's decisions and response, with after-action reviews of training exercises, and with scenarios having desirable outcomes. The goal is to develop TRAP as a reliable method of assessing battle group readiness, and to aid in planning needed training programs. TRAP will enable the Navy to measure performance of trainees and effectiveness of training using LSA-based similarity metrics by matching descriptions of training exercise outcomes with descriptions of ideal outcomes, and by matching trainees' consideration of factors such as weather, sea state, relevant tactics and doctrine to experts. The numerical scores provided by these comparisons will be scaled along a continuum indicating the readiness of the individual or Battle Group to effectively plan and implement mission essential tasks. TRAP will enable trainees to receive real-time feedback on their decisions, and provide them with descriptions of choices that match more closely to optimal choices. TRAP will be designed for individual or group use, and for local as well as distributed training environments.

MULTI-MEDIA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
6610 Rockledge Dr.Suite 168
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 897-8777
Robert Wei-Cheng Tung
NAVY 99-129
Title:QoS Optimization Tool for Internet Protocol Based Integrated Services Internet
Abstract:Today's Internet operates basically with one class of service, called "best effort." The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), in response to the demands of industry, has published two "integrated services" (Intserv) standards that define additional service classes in an effort to provide a framework for the vendors to implement quality of service (QoS) guarantees. These two classes--Guaranteed Service and Controlled Load--do not adequately support the end-to-end quality of service requirements that the Navy has for command-and-control and mission-critical applications under stringent battle conditions. Fundamentally, these two Intserv QoS classes do not take advantages of the statistical nature of communication traffic. We propose to develop a coherent set of statistical QoS criteria (delay, jitter and loss) that will work within the Intserv QoS framework and will enhance the Intserv traffic management capabilities. Our goal is to develop an end-to-end QoS Optimzation (IP QO) tool that will allow Navy network managers to set router and switch parameters to achieve maximum possible network bandwidth utilization, end-to-end, in a heterogeneous network environment. The proposed IP QO tool will work with HP OpenView and IBM's Trivoli, the Navy's Network Management System's of choice. Through these NMSs, it will allow network managers to control and configure the shipboard networks to guarantee end-to-end QoS services.

MULTI-MEDIA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
6610 Rockledge Dr.Suite 168
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 897-8777
Robert Wei-Cheng Tung
NAVY 99-130
Title:Navy Command System: A Quality of Service (QoS) Management Tool Over Internet Protocol (IP) Based Networks
Abstract:Today, overall network performance and guaranteed end-to-end QoS delivery are affected adversely by lack of interoperability. Moreover, the networking challenges of the Web era demand a new generation of management systems featuring tighter linkage among user-, network- and application-level management information. It is plain that effective allocation of network resources cannot be devised unless the network elements fully understand the required performance and mission criticality of the various applications and of users roaming the network. To address these concerns, we propose a framework for developing a Policy Manager (PM) that consistently and coherently implements the Network Policy (NP) of an organization in a multi-vendor network infrastructure. The NP organizes the QoS levels of potential connections (and relevant attributes) into a Policy Directory from which an Absolute Ranking is generated. Used in conjunction with a set of Implementation Script Generators, this approach leads to a streamlined prioritization of network resources, transparently and coherently across multiple vendor implementations, in support of organizationally driven QoS provisioning as is imperative in Navy shipboard and shore-side networks. The PM will be compliant with existing and emerging protocol suites, including ATM and IETF standards (e.g., Intserv, Diffserv and LDAP); its modular structure allows easy upgrades in response to technological changes.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Center Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 455-5530
Dr. Vivek Samant
NAVY 99-131
Title:Distributed Simulation Based Acquisition (DSBA) Framework Using Distributed Computing Architectures and Java/CORBA Infrastructures
Abstract:Our objective is to develop and demonstrate a model for the Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) process. The concept is that the SBA framework is an associative network of interdependent objects implementing the underlying information model. We propose an integrated architecture for this purpose using the Java/CORBA Object Web in phase I, and integrate it with an initial implementation of the HLA/RTI in phase II. The Object Web provides the distributed infrastructure and associated services needed to facilitate the evolution of the SBA process as the product evolves from concept to its disposition. The output of this SBIR project will be a demonstration software framework that will provide initial software component implementations and interfaces required to create an application suite that will facilitate phases of the acquisition process throughout the total product life cycle. In Phase I, we will develop object models, the Object Web, and demonstrate a limited set of these capabilities using an initial implementation of a set of simulation object models. In phase II, we will develop and integrate a more complete set of models in a distributed environment. In Phase III, we will transfer technology to support DoD applications and to develop commerical products.

MOUNTAIN WAVE, INC.
6542 Tucker Ave.
McLean, VA 22101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 790-7295
Robert Iler / Juanita Koi
NAVY 99-132
Title:Security Mode Verification for Untrusted Workstation
Abstract:Mountain Wave, Inc. proposes to investigate the development of an automated security mode verification scheme that would allow independent verification that a group of networked "untrusted" workstations with embedded encryption is configured properly. This scheme will include the following components: " Intelligent Agents on each workstation that run autonomously to achieve the goal of maintaining a baseline configuration of the network layer, the operating system, the security layer and the application layer " A private and secure communications method that allows remote communications with the Intelligent Agents " A Security Information Server that performs status checks and administration of the Intelligent Agents including the verification of the authenticity of the Intelligent Agents " Automation methods that reduce the administration task of configuring and maintaining the proposed scheme in a production environment Phase I of this SBIR will focus on developing the Intelligent Agents and demonstrate that these agents cannot be subverted by the workstation operators. In Phase II, the whole automated security mode verification scheme will be prototyped along with a study on the associated cost and reliability issues. The automated features of this scheme are necessary to keep pace with the rapid security client-server exchanges of future shipboard systems.

MULTI-MEDIA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
6610 Rockledge Dr.Suite 168
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 897-8777
Robert Wei-Cheng Tung
NAVY 99-133
Title:Performance Interoperability in Internet Protocol (IP) / Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networks
Abstract:The main challenge of today's heterogeneous networks is concerned with interoperability, that is, to deliver end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) among various networking technologies and equipment from different vendors while achieving maximum possible network performance. Standard protocols provide a common ground for the equipment to communicate; however, the network performance is always lower than would be expected from its original network design. The causes of this performance degradation are subtle and can be traced, fundamentally, to a vendor's proprietary design schemes, e.g., packet scheduling, buffering, and call admission control, and inappropriate parameters setting on the network elements and their interfaces. We will investigate these root causes and their associated network design and operational difficulties. Our goal is to develop a Rules-based Expert System (RES) that will provide extensive 'expert experiences', known as knowledge rules, to assist designing and operating highly efficient heterogeneous networks. It will work with HP OPENVIEW or IBM TIVOLI, the Navy Network Management Systems of choice, so that RES can be remotely controlled and operated through a uniform Navy platform. RES will achieve Navy's stringent interoperability goals such as those in the IT-21 and DD-21 programs.

PICOLIGHT, INC.
4665 Nautilus Court SouthSuite 3
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-3189
Jack Jewell
NAVY 99-134
Title:Viable 2.5-10 GHz 1300nm VCSEL Arrays
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research proposal describes the development of the most viable technology for 1300nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The technical approach overcomes the problems encountered by the many other approaches being pursued and published. Futhermore, it will minimize development time and is compatible with commercially available manufacturing systems. Picolight's ongoing progress in longwave VCSEL technology will be leveraged. The Phase I program has the agressive goal to demonstrate and evaluate 2.5GHz modulation in a 1300nm VCSEL. Compatibility with Picolight driver circuitry will also be evaluated. Additionally, designs will be made for mil-spec-compliant, Gigabit-Ethernet-compliant, and reliable VCSELs for datacom in both multi- and single-mode packages. The Phase II program will develop commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) 1300nm VCSELs suitable for shipboard data links over distances at least 1km and at speeds and arrays at least 1x12 in size. The 1300nm VCSEL effort will be a materials development, and will be in concert with synergistic Picolight efforts in VCSEL design, packaging, driver/receiver circuits, and small-form-factor transceivers.

PRINCETON ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
196 Princeton-Hightstown Road
Cranbury, NJ 08512
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 716-9212
Kaiyan Zhang, PhD
NAVY 99-134
Title:High Performance Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers at 1300nm Using Patterned Growth
Abstract:A low cost, high performance, 1300nm VCSEL will be a very desirable device for telecommunications as well as data communications applications. However, there is no low cost process for manufacturing of the 1300 or 1550nm devices at present because of the smaller refractive index difference between the InP/InGaAsP material systems compared to the GaAs/AlGaAs systems at shorter wavelengths. Princeton Electronic Systems, in collaboration with University of Michigan proposes to develop a low cost fabrication technology for 1300nm VCSELs using patterned growth approach which has been extremely successful for 1550nm devices. The VCSEL structure can be grown on patterned GaAs substrate, with no regrowth or multi-wafer growth/bonding process. The wide-band GaAs/AlxGaAs-oxide DBR mirror will reduce the growth time by 3-5 times. It will be possible to fabricate multi-wavelength emitters from a single wafer growth by simply controlling the mesa dimension. In phase I of this SBIR, we propose to design the VCSEL structure, grow the wafers by MBE, and fabricate the VCSEL devices. The devices will be tested for their performance including the high speed performance. We will demonstrate the feasibility of the devices in phase I and perfect them in phase II. We want to manufacture the devices in phase III.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1Building 12
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-0610
Dr. Alan R. Sugg
NAVY 99-134
Title:Flip-Bonded, Substrate-Removed, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Arrays at 1.3 Ám
Abstract:We propose to design, demonstrate and develop highly stable, single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) in 1 x N arrays (N > 8) operating at 1.3 Ám at 1GHz bandwidths. Sensors Unlimited will use a novel design based upon flip-bonding, substrate removal and dielectric stacks for both VCSEL mirrors. We will deliver individual VCSELs operating in a single mode at a 1.3 Ám-wavelength capable of 1GHz bandwidth operation at the end of Phase I. This will include complete characterization of the device including operating wavelength, threshold current, output power, far-field pattern, thermal and current tuning of the lasers as well as bandwidth characterization. The dependence of laser threshold upon the nature of the Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) mirrors will also be studied. In Phase II, we will complete the optimization of the device in terms of the lasing threshold and wall-plug efficiency. We will also fabricate and deliver a 1 x 8 array of VCSELs. Prof. S. R. Forrest (Princeton University) and Milind Gokhale (Princeton University) will consult on this project.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge ParkwaySuite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9543
Mark Jensen
NAVY 99-135
Title:Survivable Multi Level Security (MLS) Architecture for Dynamic Resource Allocation
Abstract:This proposal prescribes an approach for developing a Survivable Multi Level Secure (MLS) Architecture (SMA). This survivable computing architecture will allow a DD21 class platform to rapidly prepare in real time for the recovery and protection of critical C2 and C4I applications in the event of a pending threat such as an incoming missile or to respond to abnormal operating loads by load balancing processes and applications across distributed platforms. This architecture will allow processes to be rapidly moved from one computing platform, which is expected to become inoperable or overloaded, to a safer platform physically located in another part of the vessel. In performing this dynamic reallocation, the SMA will execute in a secure fashion that will allow multi-level secure operations to be restored within the new distributed processing configuration. The architecture developed under this SBIR will meet the requirements for survivable Navy shipboard, mission critical, multi-level secure networks and will leverage commercial standards and technology such as CORBA, JAVA, and Modula-3. This proposal outlines the Phase I SBIR tasks to be performed that will define the SMA architecture and its implementation details.

CRYOGENIC MATERIALS, INC.
2625 Iliff
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 494-1852
Richard P. Reed
NAVY 99-136
Title:Development of Low-Cost, Composite Isogrid Support Strauctures for Large-Scale Naval Applications of Supercoanductivity
Abstract:Composite tubes for cryogenic cold-to-warm support structures with an isogrid structure will be developed that have lighter weight, lower thermal conductance, and equivalent compressive strength to those currently in use. Previous attempts to produce composite isogrid tubes, using the filament-winding process, have resulted in nonparallel and bent glass tows in the grid elements and considerable radial expansion (tow bending) at the grid nodes (intersections). Composite fabrication techniques will be emphasized to eliminate nonparallel glass tows in grid ribs and at nodes (intersections) and to minimize setup and winding costs. Several isogrid tube structures from two distinct glass/epoxy composite fabrication processes will be produced. Complete tubes having equivalent material cross-sectional areas will also be fabricated. Axial compression tests will be conducted for all produced types at room temperature and 77 K for comparison. Optimized isogrid structure and fabrication process will be assessed based on tube performance and fabrication cost.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5504
Thomas Campbell
NAVY 99-136
Title:Development of Low-Cost, Composite Isogrid Support Structures for Large-Scale Naval Applications of Superconductivity
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes development of an ultra-compact composite radiator design capable of operating in both land and sea environments at temperatures in excess of 250*F. Foster-Miller's design will attain equivalent efficiencies to the best metallic radiators at 1/2 to 1/5th of the volume. Foster-Miller will employ electrohydrodynamics (EHD) to dramatically improve the heat transfer coefficient of air. EHD, combined with our experience in composite materials, electronics industry conductor technology and aerospace industry corrosion resistant coatings, will enable critical cooling system weight reductions for the next generation of assault vehicles. The Phase I program will demonstrate several of the critical fabrication techniques needed to implement the EHD concept on the AAAV main coolant heat exchangers. Foster-Miller will work with our team partners, General Dynamics Amphibious Systems (GDAS) and Land Systems (GDLS), to identify the performance requirements. Foster-Miller will utilize experimental techniques to develop the EHD parameters for ultra-compact cross flow heat exchangers. The base program will fabricate a representative cross flow heat exchanger core segment to be tested in the option. A manufacturing plan for demonstrating a cost effective EHD heat exchanger core of robust construction will be recommended at the end of Phase I base program for implementation in Phase II.

AEPTEC MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
15800 Crabbs Branch Way, #300
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 670-6770
Steven C. Chen
NAVY 99-137
Title:Advanced Connectivity for CIC Operations
Abstract:AEPTEC proposes to provide a COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE to all surface combatants operating in a battle group, by implementing advanced connectivity technologies that will support the sharing of a 3D tactical picture. AEPTEC has teamed with Lockheed Martin, and Multispectral Solutions, Inc. (MSSI) to offer a high bandwidth connectivity solution that will enable every ship's CIC to share a COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE of the battlefield. We will further develop our revolutionary Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radio which uses water as a wave guide and is currently being used by Special Forces to send T1 packets of data and imagery up to 20 miles over water. We plan to upgrade this technology to offer T1 connectivity for up to 60 miles over salt water to allow ships in a battle group to send each other the COMMON TACTICAL 3D PICTURE in a real time, secure and low-cost manner that independent of satellites. We will also research the feasibility of 1) developing a low-cost flat antenna kit which could enable a ship's fire control antenna to receive T1 bandwidth connectivity, and 2) of utilizing low-cost kites to expand a ship's connectivity range.

SPATIAL INTEGRATED SYSTEMS, INC.
7564 Standish PlaceSuite 123
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 610-7965
Dr. Ali Farsaie
NAVY 99-137
Title:A Three-Dimensional Video Targeting System
Abstract:We propose to design a new 3-D targeting system for reduced manning of Combat Information Center Support. The system will provide an enhanced-confidence, more accurate device for use with existing and future combat systems. We will develop a biologically inspired 3-D video processing system to accurately capture the physical scene and objects within the scene; to construct a 3-D view of the captured scene; and to provide range information for any target within the scene. The 3D view of the scene and all the objects within the scene will provide the operator with a photo-realistic view of the area of interest. In Phase I, a laboratory prototype unit will be constructed to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed concept. Our commercial partner, Lockheed Martin, is the integrator of the Aegis Combat System and a leading contender for the integration role on the DD-21 and CVX platforms. Lockheed has teamed with SIS, Inc. to jointly develop advanced 3-D targeting techniques for surface ship combat systems. We intend to leverage the results of this SBIR contract into a commercial offering that Lockheed will sell to other Government agencies as well as to commercial market.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 S. Amphlett Blvd. Ste 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Richard Stottler
NAVY 99-137
Title:Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Automating CIC Tactical Operations
Abstract:AI and Expert System technology offer the capability of capturing human decision processes. Developing a general schema for capturing the knowledge required for each CIC position facilitates the development of Intelligent Watch Station Software Modules to automatically perform the associated watch station's tasks, including filtering, collecting, correlating, interpreting, identifying, processing, evaluating, and fusing the data from the sensor systems while controlling, monitoring, adjusting, configuring and optimizing their equipment. These software modules represent a layer of intelligence between the tactical decision makers and the equipment. But the representation and automatic execution of CIC knowledge is a complex problem. What is needed is an integrated approach using a broad range of technologies. We will develop a general schema for CIC knowledge representation using AI techniques such as task transition diagrams, knowledge-based representations (rules, objects), case-based reasoning, intelligent entities, tactical diagrams, constraint-satisfaction, and fuzzy logic. The primary goal is to support a radically reduced manning concept in the CIC. In Phase I, we will design an intelligent CIC watch station automation system which includes a general CIC knowledge representation schema, investigate the knowledge required for several watch stations, implement a limited prototype CIC knowledge representation and execution system, and implement three limited automated watch station prototypes for different CIC positions using the schema

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 339-6500
Dr. John H. McAdoo
NAVY 99-138
Title:A High-Average-Power Limiter Based On Silicon Carbide
Abstract:The objective of SAL (silicon-carbide adjustable limiter) is to design a replacement limiter for the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) transceiver upgrade. The SAL will withstand 250 W while occupying no more space than the present limiter. More than twice as much power has to be transferred to the heat sink through a limiter with the same foot print as the present CEC limiter. This will be accomplished by designing the limiter from silicon carbide (SiC). The high thermal conductivity and high operating temperature of SiC solves the heat-transfer problem. To avoid problems experienced by others using bipolar SiC devices, Mission Research Corporation will design the limiter with n-type field-effect transistors (FETs). A working prototype will be made with chip and wire technology and tested for feasibility. We have successfully performed this type of design in gallium arsenide (GAL) and are presently teamed with Raytheon to develop and market a commercial product. The SAL approach can be used to design compact limiters for any system. The flexibility of the FET circuit can be utilized to design limiters with adjustable insertion loss for avoiding pulsed interference; hence the acronym SAL for SiC Adjustable Limiter. Since the field-effect transistor is amenable to monolithic integrated circuit techniques, this work will set the stage for the production of integrated receiver front ends when SiC technology matures sufficiently to support low-noise amplifier design.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4110
Justyna Teverovsky
NAVY 99-139
Title:High-Strength, UV Resistant, Lightweight LCP Cords Suitable for Deck Edge Safety Nets
Abstract:Netting is presently used on U.S. Navy ships to provide fall protection for landing/maintenance crews. This netting in past years was fabricated using metallic cord and at present is constructed from nylon braid. The metal nets were quite durable, but added to the ship radar cross-section and were heavy. Presently used nylon is lightweight and has no radar signature, but must be replaced every 12 to 18 months due to UV degradation and abrasion. Foster-Miller proposes to use Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) fiber technology to address the Navy's need for an advanced deck-edge safety net with a 5+ year life-cycle. In Phase I lightweight LCP cords will be developed and tested for their ability to withstand harsh marine environments and loading conditions. The use of fiber infiltration/coating processes combined with braided sleeves will be used to provide two levels of protection against UV degradation and abrasive wear. Furthermore, the outstanding strength and inherent non-flammability of LCP cords will enhance it applicability for use as a safety net. In Phase II the successful technology identified and developed in Phase I will be refined/optimized, and integrated into our teaming partners netting production facilities for fabrication into pre-production LCP netting suitable for shipboard testing.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Michael Dingus/John Bullu
NAVY 99-139
Title:Non-Metallic Netting for Deck Edge Safety Nets
Abstract:Deck edge safety nets surround the perimeter of surface ships and are critical to the prevention of crew injury or loss of life. The nets prevent personnel knocked down by helicopter downwash or jet blast from falling into the ocean or on to the next lower deck. Current material is nylon impregnated with neoprene latex. Due to a short service life, material replacement and installation costs are 92% of the life cycle costs. Texas Research Institute Austin will team with Murdock Webbing Company, Inc. to produce the most economical and longest lasting material for safety nets. Advanced nylon and polyester fibers are available with high tenacity and high modulus that also meet the cost restraints of the project. Dyes and coating for fibers that show enhanced UV resistance will be identified and incorporated into the webbing for better resistance to degradation due to sunlight. Candidate materials will be exposed to UV radiation and salt-water spray then tested for physical properties to determine their physical attributes.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Joseph Murray
NAVY 99-140
Title:Virtual Distributed Real-Time OS for Real-Time Combat Systems and Joint Systems Like CEC
Abstract:Combat systems have historically been developed through a process that focuses on insular subsystems. This process has resulted in severe limitations on system interoperability and technical obsolescence. In addition, excessive life cycle costs are associated with maintaining multiple configurations to ensure some level of interoperability. To overcome these limitations, new emphasis has been placed on the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies. To support the use of COTS, DSR has developed a real-time middleware framework for integrated combat systems and joint warfare coordination systems that is becoming widely used in the Navy. Transportable Middleware (TM) permits software developers to take advantage of the continuing technology advances in the commercial computing industry, because application software can be ported quickly. TM is being applied to the Cooperative Engagement Capability Processor (CEP) because of the desire to use a common software baseline on many different hosts located on different platforms. The overall objective of this Phase I research is to extend TM by designing a suite of test and performance analysis tools that will minimize the need for complete regression testing when introducing new hardware and software. The ultimate goal is minimizing life-cycle cost, which is particularly crucial to the CEC Program.

TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 71735 Water Street
Wiscasset, ME 04578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 882-7589
Mr. Charles Benton
NAVY 99-141
Title:Optimized Structural Component Assembly Manager
Abstract:The application of industrial lasers in producing structural shapes for shipbuilding will create enormous savings (in excess of $1,000,000 per Aegis Destroyer), plus result in a higher quality product than produced by present methods. This is because components fabricated from plate steel are inherently more precise and of lower weight than those produced from traditional rolled steel. A major requirement is the need for automatic categorization, nesting, and handling of steel plate used in fabricating structural shapes (i.e. I-beams, T-beams). The key issue underlying this capability is that the flow of raw materials through the cutting and welding process requires management of many components to create an optimized delivery of end product (fabricated parts) with minimal material waste and labor expense. Development of an Optimized Structural Component Assembly Manager (OSCAM) is proposed. The proposed approach will create a modular system compatible with emerging CAD standards, commercial cutting and welding systems, and suitable for adaptation to various manufacturing requirements, with emphasis on shipbuilding. This effort focuses on identifying existing and emerging capability in collaboration with leading research and end use organizations to produce a comprehensive implementation plan which can be integrated into ongoing shipbuilding capabilities in the near term.

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
25 Cord Dr.
Latham, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) /27-6249
Dr. Glen A. Slack
NAVY 99-143
Title:Aluminum Nitride Crystal Growth for IR Window Applications
Abstract:We propose to grow single crystals of AlN to be DoD IR window applications. Sublimation-recondensation will be used as the crystal growth mechanism. In this program, we will explore approaches to this growth technique in order to achieve large windows. We will also measure basic material properties to qualify single-crystal AlN for this application.

MER CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. J.C. Withers
NAVY 99-143
Title:Development Of Processing To Produce Transparent Aluminum Nitride For Infra-red Windows In Hypersonic Missiles.
Abstract:Aluminum nitride (AlN) has the potential to meet the requirements of mid-wave infrared seeker windows on high-speed missiles. However, ALN has not been produced with the required optical properties of less than 2% scatter at a wavelength of 4 microns, an absorption coefficiency less than 0.1/cm at a wavelength of 4 microns and a transmittance of 74% at 4 microns. Transparent AlN has been produced in very thin films but not in required thickness of 2mm or greater required for seeker windows. In cursory experiments, MER has demonstrated a deposition process for producing transparent AlN and this deposition process has produced other materials in thicknesses up to 12mm thick. This economical rapid deposition process will be optimized to produce AlN with 2 mm or greater thicknesses with the desired optical properties.

SIENNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
19501 144th Avenue NE, Suite F
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 485-7272
Dr. Ender Savrun
NAVY 99-143
Title:A Novel Flux Growth Technology for Growing Aluminum Nitride Single Crystals
Abstract:This project will investigate a novel method for growing single aluminum nitride crystals by a modified top seeded flux growth technique. A flux material will be selected to dissolve the aluminum and aluminum nitride powders. Solubility limit of aluminum nitride in potential flux materials will be determined. Flux material will form a temporary media between the molten metal and nitrogen atmosphere for precipitation of single crystal under a temperature gradient. Single crystals will be grown on a seed crystal rotating at the flux surface in nitrogen gas atmosphere. Crystal growth parameters will be studied to enhance the crystal quality and the growth rate.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Robert M. Pap
NAVY 99-144
Title:Advanced Projectile Targeting Method
Abstract:Recent developments in the plasma aerodynamics area suggest that the shape of the shockwave produced by a hypersonic aircraft can be modified, in flight, by weakly ionizing the air flowing around the aircraft. The purpose of the present proposal is to investigate the feasibility of using this phenomenon to guide a gun shell, in lieu of mechanically actuated control, while simultaneously reducing the drag of the gun shell. Accurate Automation is actively involved in investigating this technology in the context of of its hypersonic flight programs. The goal of the proposed program is to investigate the feasibility of adapting the weakly ionized gas technology for: directional guidance and drag reduction of a gun shell. AAC will perform a preliminary design of a prototype gun shell including: selection of the plasma generation technology the preliminary design of the required electronics and power source, the guidance system, the required gun hardening; and theoretical basis necessary to "optimize" the design. AAC will examine how this can be used with a metal Matrix Composite Gun Barrel.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. James Burnett
NAVY 99-144
Title:Aimable 200 Caliber MMC Gun for Naval Surface Fire Support
Abstract:Naval Surface Fire Support NSFS initiatives require a 160-200 caliber 5" gun barrel that 1), can be installed and operated below deck 2), allows active and passive reduction of thermal, radar, and muzzle blast signatures and 3), allows elevation and train over a limited arc without dominating the ship through its shear size and weight. The "key feature of this barrel is a vertical mounting, with a bendable barrel to provide train and elevation over a limited arc of approximately 20 degrees". This configuration meets thermal, and radar signature requirements for this advanced system. Triton Systems proposes to design this "bendable barrel" using an innovative structure of silicon carbide reinforced titanium metal matrix composite combined with an active cooling layer in aluminum alloy. The proposed structure will withstand the hoop stress of the shot firing and the strain produced by the bending of the barrel. The strain limited fatigue property of the Ti/SiC at elevated temperature will be determined experimentally. Processing protocols for application of the aluminum alloy active cooling channels to the barrel will be determined. At the end of the program, the feasibility of creating a "bendable barrel" and adding active cooling to the composite barrel will be determined.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Kirk Harrison
NAVY 99-145
Title:Multi-Sensor Correlation Displays
Abstract:DSR proposes development of new innovative display formats that will facilitate multi-disciplinary and multi-sensor presentation of data in surface combatant combat systems. The results of this Phase I effort will provide prototype displays that efficiently present, manage, and evaluate high volume bearing-only, range-less information such as Electronic Warfare data. DSR will also develop displays that effectively present this bearing-only, range-less data with localized Combat System data that has bearing and range. The proposed display development process will be structured to ensure that operator requirements for access to data, display configuration, and system flexibility are addressed. Consideration will be given to the ability to overlay multiple data types (at the contact or data level) effectively and the presentation of logical guides to orient the operator to the scenario quickly. The effort will define automation tools to help operators manage and follow multiple data types on the display. The results of this Phase I effort will be directly applicable to COTS state-of-the-art implementation within an open system architecture framework. DSR's tools provide direct support for developing the Software Requirements Specification for implementation in Phase II.

APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4300 San Mateo Blvd., NESuite A220
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 795-8106
Jerome D. Yatteau, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-146
Title:Body-to-Body Penetration and Damage Models
Abstract:The Navy is improving its anti-air missile systems to defeat missiles and aircraft. Direct hits by one missile against another (body-to-body impact) is the primary defeat mechanism for some new concepts. Fast-running, analytical penetration and damage prediction methodologies are required to evaluate and optimize these new designs. Current methodologies do not adequately account for inertial and strength effects or for the temporal resolution of terminal ballistic loading and responses associated with impacts, between complex, spatially extended structures. The overall objective of this SBIR effort is to develop a fast-running, analytical/engineering methodology and computer code to predict high velocity, terminal ballistic interactions between complex, structures. The Phase I study objectives include, Identifying the loading and response characteristics associated with high speed impacts between complex structures, and a detailed plan for developing the objective prediction methodology which will include time-resolved interceptor and target geometry models and physics-based terminal ballistic loading and response models. A limited demonstration of the new methodology will also be accomplished during the Phase I study.

PIEZO TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2525 Shader Road,P.O.Box 32854-7859
Orlando, FL 32804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 298-2000
David A. Symonds
NAVY 99-148
Title:Improved Time and Frequency Standards for Gun-Launched Projectiles
Abstract:Crystal oscillators, whether simple clocks or precision frequency references, are used in almost every present-day electronic system, and this is expected to remain true for the foreseeable future. The success of numerous weapons systems now under active development depends upon electronics packages capable of withstanding very high acceleration and mechanical shock, most of which will also use crystal oscillators. Applications include guided munitions, smart fuzes, and penetrating weapons. For this program we are interested in the application to Extended Range Guided Munition (ERGM), which will incorporate on-board GPS receivers as part of the guidance system. The receiver requires a frequency source whose accuracy determines the time to acquire the first satellite. To meet the allowable thermally induced frequency shift this will be a TCXO - - a temperature-compensated crystal oscillator. Although the circuitry of a crystal oscillator is relatively shock inert, the conventional crystal resonators used are inherently susceptible to shock. To manufacture crystal oscillators shock-hardened up to 30,000 G there is a corresponding need for hardened resonators. PTI has been intimately involved over the past decade in the development of resonator shock-hardening technology. Each technique developed to date has certain limitations, different for each. By combining techniques we feel that inherent failure mechanisms can be eliminated. This first phase of this program will demonstrate that the combination of techniques which we have mastered, can produce a much more rugged but still economical resonator. In this program PTI will develop the solutions needed to meet the objectives of this solicitation in an economical manner.

CREARE, INC.
Etna RoadP.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mr. Christopher J. Crowle
NAVY 99-149
Title:Thermal Spray Process for Manufacturing Thin-Film Electrodes in Thermal Batteries
Abstract:We propose a thermal spray process to deposit thin-film cathodes and anodes on rugged substrates to replace the thick, fragile, pressed pellets currently used in thermal batteries. Plasma- spraying is an innovative alternative to slurry techniques to manufacture such thin-film electrodes. We have previous experience demonstrating that the plasma-spray approach works with lithiated-cathode materials and works at high temperature, two aspects of interest in this application. Specifically, we have plasma-sprayed: (1) Lithium-compatible cathode materials (LiCoO2) for batteries, and (2) Selective emitter materials (rare-earth oxides) which retain the correct crystal structure and operate at high temperature up to 1700 K. The plasma-spray process is readily transitioned to the production environment; our existing plasma-spray equipment is the same equipment as used in production facilities. We propose to deposit cathode and anode materials in Phase I and to characterize their morphologies to demonstrate that the thermal spray process is a feasible approach to manufacturing thin components for thermal batteries. We will also develop a preliminary battery design, estimate performance benefits, and estimate production costs. Optional activities include testing sample cells. In Phase II we will complete the battery design and build working prototypes.

US NANOCORP, INC.
20 Washington Ave.Suite 106
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 234-8024
T. Danny Xiao, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-149
Title:High Rate Thermal Battery Using Thin Film Thermal Sprayed Cathode
Abstract:Li-Alloy/FeS2 thermal batteries are the predominant thermal cell chemistry today. Despite progress, the use of pressed powders for thermal battery cathodes, anodes, and separators has several intrinsic limitations, including high labor costs associated with material processing (blending, pelletizing, and QC of thickness and weight). A more efficient means of providing thin electrodes would dramatically increase the volumetric and gravimetric efficiency as well as the rate capability of thermal batteries. In another Phase I program, US Nanocorp (USN) and Sandia successfully demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating viable thin film large-area FeS2 cathodes for thin cell thermal batteries using the industrial technique of thermal spray. USN developed a patent pending process (to repress pyrite decomposition in the plasma) to spray FeS2 cathodes. The proposed program leverages the remarkable success of that effort to optimize thermal battery electrode structures for high rate applications using DC arc plasma spray, specifically with regard to controlling porosity and pore size, in a continuous low-cost manufacturing process. USN has engaged Sandia in the Phase I program to assemble and evaluate thermal battery cells using USN's thermal sprayed electrodes.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Art Hoffman
NAVY 99-150
Title:Enhanced Platform Tracking Based on Multiple Emitter Reports Detected by a Single Sensor System
Abstract:DSR proposes to develop and validate innovative techniques for effectively performing emitter contact tracking and correlation. The proposed approach will provide the capability to track intermittent emitters effectively, reduce emitter history loss, and mitigate subsequent re-correlation requirements. DSR has identified two primary approaches for Enhanced Multi-emitter tracking in an intermittent environment: (1) Data Synchronization; and (2) Tracker Interval Modification with associated enhanced inputs. The proposed research will test the algorithms using simulated data to establish baseline performance and real data to validate the algorithm against a realistic environment. DSR has developed an Engagement Defense Tracking Model (EDTM) that will be used to provide a realistic simulation of the track association process; realistic simulation is essential to the development of enhanced tracker concepts. It is a passive tracking model based on EW signals received on spatially separated AIEWS arrays and consisting of time series of estimated (and platform stabilized) azimuth and elevation angles for emitter (source) detections (threshold crossings).

LET CORP.
4431 MacArthur Blvd
Washington, DC 20007
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 337-8349
C. A. Kapetanakos
NAVY 99-151
Title:Optimization of High Average Power Ultra-Broadband IR Radiation Source
Abstract:In 1997, LET Corporation, under contract with the Naval Sea Systems Command completed the conceptual design of a novel source that is capable of providing an ultra broadband radiation spectrum that extends from approximately 2 to 16 microns. These studies show that the source can produce high average power radiation in every IR atmospheric transmission window of interest and therefore, it has the potential to provide efficacious countermeasures for high value, high signature platforms, which presently have only very limited protection. The novel source is based on the interaction of a beat wave with non-linear media. The beat wave is formed from the mixing of two carbon dioxide laser beams with closely spaced wavelengths, such as 9.5 and 9.6 microns. The studies by LET Corporation, as well as the original studies of the IR source are based on the supposition that the beat wave is formed by two distinct carbon dioxide lasers that provide two closely spaced wavelengths. Since the weight, size and cost of the driver exceed, by far, the weight, size and cost of any other component of the IR source, replacing the two carbon dioxide lasers with a single laser would substantially reduce the weight, size and cost of the system. A scheme is proposed that has the potential to produced two closely spaced wavelengths from a single carbon dioxide laser line. The scheme is based on the modulation instability, which is a general characteristic of many dispersive, non-linear media.

ADVANCED POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1250 24th Street, NW Suite 850
Washington, DC 20037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 223-8808
Dr. Peter Koert
NAVY 99-152
Title:Power Beaming of Millimeter-Waves for UAVs
Abstract:The Navy has a requirement for remotely powering UAV's to permit prolonged duration missions; and to eliminate the requirement for tethering during near-ship operations. A capability to power UAV's by beaming millimeter-wave power from a transmitter to the UAV, and converting the received energy into electrical power by means of a rectenna (a half-wave dipole array with integrated diode rectifiers) offers a uniquely versatile solution to both requirements. APTI possesses unique knowledge and expertise in rectenna technology; and has been granted two patents on mm-wave rectenna. APTI proposes to apply unique knowledge, patented rectenna technology and related mmw expertise to these requirements. The application of APTI's extensive high power microwave and millimeter wave technology expertise and of its experience with complex system integration will enable full consideration to the system design and operating frequency determination. Through the use of innovative high density designs and advanced materials APTI will address the critical issues of high efficiency and very lightweight packaging. APTI will use experience gained in previous 35 GHz and 94 GHz rectennas to assure optimal performance capabilities. This will lead to lightweight high efficiency power systems suitable for UAV and Micro-UAV sustained mission applications.

LAKOTA TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
PO Box 2378
Ellicott City, MD 21041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 461-1045
John R. Moore
NAVY 99-153
Title:Battlegroup AAW System Software Analysis of Sneak Circuits
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR study is to produce a detailed examination of the Cooperative Engagement Capability with respect to identifying the areas in which system problems, such as sneak circuits, exist. Primary emphasis will be on the Cooperative Engagement Processor design that resulted in the creation of sneak circuits and the test procedures that failed to identify them at an early stage in the development. Consideration will also be given to the associated combat systems and tactical data links. A secondary objective of the proposed Phase I study is to investigate object-oriented analysis and design techniques that may be used to develop future CEP functionality (e.g., unit/sensor independence) in such a way as to avoid the creation of sneak circuits.

STI
6000 Executive Blvd.Suite #205
Rockville, MD 20852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 881-2111
Jim Farmer
NAVY 99-153
Title:Sneak Circuit Analysis For Software
Abstract:Large scale integrated systems are often plagued by sneak conditions because they are comprised of several different components that are designed independently by different groups. Design reuse, cross-pollination of requirements, insufficient system component modeling, continual requirements changes and inherent design process weaknesses make sneak paths more likely to occur and more difficult to detect in these complex systems. Software sneak paths in particular are typically not caught by evaluation or test, resulting in operational errors and outright failures in fielded systems. Sneak Circuit Analysis (SCA) is a proven process that eliminates unwanted paths in electronic systems and has been successfully applied to Software Sneak Path Analysis (SSPA). STi proposes to study present design process and available case reports of integrated combat and warfare systems to identify root causes of software sneak paths. Based on our research, coupled with our extensive SCA experience, we will: (1) recommend changes to design procedures and processes; (2) determine whether analysis techniques can be developed around existing models; (3) identify minimum system modeling requirements; and (4) define requirements for software tools to be developed and tested in Phase II that have potential to eliminate the hidden effects and enable designers to focus on performance.

AMERICANELECTRONICS, INC.
8229 Boone BlvdSuite 300
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 883-0506
James J. Lascody
NAVY 99-154
Title:Acoustic Technology Enhancement for 3
Abstract:The Acoustic Device, Countermeasure (ADC) MK2 three inch submarine launched expendable countermeasure device has been deployed on submarines for over twenty years and has demonstrated exceptional operational effectiveness in support of submarine defensive warfare mission areas. The expected effectiveness of the new Mobile MK2 will provide significant tactical value by providing as much separation between the launching submarine and countermeasure as possible through the capability to preprogram the device for optimum positioning. In order to realize the full effectiveness potential of the Mobile MK2 device, cost effective integration of new technologies in acoustics, programming, micro processing and associated electronics packaging must be developed. This Phase I project will identify and evaluate acoustic technology enhancements, programmable methods including download link and reactive methods and produce a design approach for a direct form and fit replacement of electronics and packaging contained in the Mobile ADC MK2 baseline. Specifically, the work to be accomplished under this Phase I project will identify and evaluate the range and combinations of acoustic missions, associated acoustic technologies, trajectory variables and programming techniques in addition to the formulation of electronic packaging alternatives and approaches (such as surface mount technology) for integration with the Mobile MK2 platform.

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
2555 NE 205th Avenue
Fairview, OR 97024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
Eric Udd
NAVY 99-155
Title:Fiber Optic Grating Depth Sensor for Towed Array Applications
Abstract:This program develops a novel fiber optic grating depth/pressure sensor that has greatly improved sensitivity relative to earlier state of the art fiber optic grating pressure sensors. Simple wavelength division multiplexing techniques may be used to support approximately 20 fiber optic grating depth/pressure sensors on a single fiber extending to at least 10 km with arbitrary placement. Time division multiplexing could be used in combination with wavelength division multiplexing to increase the number of fiber optic grating depth/pressure sensors that could be supported on a single line toward the range of 50 to 100. The Blue Road Research approach offers the simultaneous measurement of temperature and fundamental temperature compensation that is orders of magnitude better than that proposed in the literature for other fiber grating and fiber etalon based approaches. This for the first time enables the prospect of very high pressure resolution necessary for practical towed array depth/pressure sensors without extraordinary precision from fiber temperature sensors.

F&S, INC.
PO Box 11704
Blacksburg, VA 24062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4267
Michael B. Miller
NAVY 99-156
Title:Singlemode Fiber Optic Rotary Joint
Abstract:The Navy requires a hybrid fiber optic and electrical rotary joint for towed array applications in passive fiber optic sensors. The requirements of low loss and multiple channel capability in the fiber optic joint combine to make this singlemode design difficult, which explains why no such product is currently on the market. Litton Poly-Scientific pioneered the development of multimode and singlemode single channel and multimode multichannel fiber optic rotary joints in the 1980s, and has been the world leader in electrical rotary joint technology for more than 40 years. In the proposed Phase I program, F&S, Inc. and Litton will combine their technical expertise to develop a hybrid fiber optic and electrical rotary joint based on existing electrical slipring technology at Litton and existing and new fiber optic rotary joint design features. F&S provides the optical design capability, while Litton provides mechanical design capability. The resulting product will be co-manufactured at F&S and Litton, providing commercialization success for F&S and product line expansion for Litton. Due to the critical importance of such a product, cost sharing in Phase I is being provided by Litton, and additional Phase II and Phase III commercialization funding is also pledged.

MORGAN RESEARCH CORP.
2707 Artie Street, Suite 17
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 533-3233
Dr. C. Wayne Long
NAVY 99-156
Title:Fiber Optic Ribbon Cable Optical/Electronic Rotary Joint for Towed Array Application
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal is for the develop and test an optical/electronic rotary joint for Naval undersea towed array applications. The proposed concept employs a spiral wound fiber optic ribbon cable to achieve high optical transmission and low signal modulation in a rotary joint having a limited number of turns in a predetermined direction. The optimum configuration, brassboard design, fabrication, and integration of a rotary electronic joint capability will be addressed in the Phase I effort. The Phase I effort also includes laboratory performance testing of the optical, electronic, and mechanical characteristics. An Option to Phase I is also proposed for the preliminary design of the optical, electronic, mechanical interfaces for the towed array.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Joseph Murray
NAVY 99-157
Title:Development of Low Cost COTS Technology for Total Ship Monitoring
Abstract:The U.S. Navy has enjoyed a substantial submarine acoustic advantage for over four decades. However, improvements in the new classes of Russian submarines have significantly reduced generated noise levels, narrowing this advantage dramatically. The Navy is looking for highly innovative technologies to meet this challenge. This Phase I proposal brings highly innovative state-of-the-practice COTS technologies to the design of a Total Ship Monitoring System (TSM). This proposal will address the sensor telemetry and processing system for a TSM system and proposes a number of options for the sensor system. The proposed sensor telemetry system will be based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) COTS technology and the processing system will be based on the Advanced Processing Build (APB) processor model (i.e., Transportable Middleware and COTS Hardware and Software). The success of a TSM system rests with its ability to scale, evolve, and inter-operate with other ship systems. Use of proven COTS technologies and processes in this Phase I will provide the key building blocks for development of an architecture that will remain modern through evolutionary processor upgrades and increasingly capable software. These technologies also ensure an open system that will prove easily compatible with other ship's systems.

SABRINA TECHNOLOGY
757 Mediterranean Ln.
Redwood Shores, CA 94065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 654-6638
Mirna Urquidi-Macdonald
NAVY 99-158
Title:UUV Metal-Seawater Energy Source
Abstract:Among underwater applications lithium/water systems are the most attractive from the point of view of energy density. Lithium is generally considered to be too reactive, and evolves hydrogen as a parasitic reaction, but exhibits a very negative OCP (-3 VSCE). We have extensively studied the lithium/water system and have found that lithium in alkaline electrolytes forms a bilayer passive film (LiH and LiOH) at the metal/electrolyte interface. LiH forms as a thin, compact inner layer that forms on the surface of the lithium metal. The outer layer is a porous precipitated LiOH layer that forms on the LiH layer. The outer layer is found to regulate lithium dissolution. However, the passive film does not completely inhibit hydrogen evolution, leading to poor coulombic efficiency during discharge. We propose to substitute the naturally created passive layer with a cationically conducting polymer membrane, which is placed on the lithium surface. The role of the membrane is to suppress the hydrogen evolution while permitting lithium discharge. Our initial experiments performed with polyphosphazene membranes have been encouraging, but they point to a need to more carefully design the polymer in terms of the balance between hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. We believe that the extraordinary energy densities that are available with lithium, together with the fact that metal/water batteries can be mechanically (and hence rapidly) refuelled, renders them ideal for a wide range of stationary power applications in both domestic and military service.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 984-3370
Lee Krause
NAVY 99-159
Title:INSURE: INternet SURvey Environment
Abstract:The U.S. Navy relies on surveys for acquiring accurate information pertaining to a wide range of topics (e.g., troop readiness, morale). Thus, the collection of survey data is guided by a concern for minimizing Total Error. Factors contributing to Total Error include failure to collect a representative sample from the population being studied and vague or misleading survey questions. The Internet holds promise of addressing these and other concerns facing the survey community. To realize this promise Modus Operandi proposes to develop INSURE (INternet SURvey Environment), a standardized Internet-based multimedia survey HCI for performing both mobile and fixed-location surveys. The key innovations of INSURE include leveraging the best-of-breed technologies from web-based training, the use of Java to insure computer-independent (cross-platform) operation, the incorporation of a virtual assistant emulating a human survey interviewer providing on-line assistance with ambiguous or misleading questions, and the use of mobile hand-held computers with wireless Internet connections to realize a standardized survey HCI for performing both mobile and fixed-location surveys.

LEAPFROG SMART PRODUCTS, INC.
545 Delaney Ave.
Orlando, FL 32801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 872-1161
Nick Pileggi
NAVY 99-160
Title:Access Control and Personnel ID Verification for Training Applications Utilizing Smart Cards
Abstract:Problem Summary: There is a wide and varied range of students who participate in distributed Department of Defense (DoD) and commercial distance learning programs and training exercises. Verification of these student's participation, through biometric methods, such as finger print or retinal scans, is an important step in certification of the training. Verification of the student's identity is also an important requirement in situations where access to the training data must be controlled. The same identical problem exists commercially for "off-campus", continuing education and other forms of distance learning programs. Verifying that the participant is in fact the student being certified and not a "stand in", for whatever reason, and that this person is authorized to access the training data is important for many reasons. The use of Smart Cards, represents the latest technology to be used in the commercial world, for control and access to confidential data, such as for Internet commerce or retention of personal medical data. Smart Cards are "credit card" like devices, which utilize an embedded memory chip (rather than older technologies such as magnetic stripe cards). The chief advantage of the Smart Card is that it can support multiple functions and may even include Java "Cardlets". The use of Smart Card technology is being adopted rapidly by the DoD in many areas. The Department of the Navy is one of the leaders in the adoption of Smart Cards for DoD use. Several initiatives have been launched to date, which potentially will put Smart Cards in the hands of all Navy personnel. These developments will include the use of "Smart Dog Tags" which allow the storage of a sailor's complete military record as well as emergency medical data, to be carried with them at all times, and potential inclusion into the Smart Ship program to support the overall reduction of crews. Adapting these cards, to be used as the access keys for distance learning and distributed training exercises is a natural addition of the use of Smart Cards to the Navy's Smart Card program and will help with the integration of training system technology into the "smart base" program and for shipboard training programs. The Smart Card verifi

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
116 West 6th StreetSuite 200
Bloomington, IN 47404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 336-7576
Mr. Reed M. Adams
NAVY 99-160
Title:Access Control and Personnel ID Verification for Training Applications Utilizing Smart Cards
Abstract:Training of personnel throughout a large organization is an increasingly complex issue especially when the personnel are distributed over a wide geographic area and with various skill levels. Training, testing, and certifications requirements continue to grow with the complexity and variety of equipment that is operated and maintained by widespread organizations. At the same time there is substantial pressure to reduce the relative cost of training as these same organizations seek to be competitive in a global environment. Widely dispersed training audiences (particularly for WAN-based applications) require various levels of access control to training materials and verification of the identity of the person that is trained, tested, and certified. Smart card technology offers potential solutions to growing problems in the training industry. Smart cards can be used to verify the identity of the individual to be trained through the use of biometrics. The smart card can carry the prior training records and certifications of the individual that can be used to establish access rights and prerequisites for specific courses of instruction. Once training and certification is accomplished, the encryption keys stored on the smart card may be used to establish secure links over the network to enter the appropriate information into centralized databases for training management. With the completed testing and certifications stored on the card, it can be used as an on the spot verification of the holder's credentials when sensitive operation or maintenance functions demand on the spot verification of personnel qualifications.

3TEX, INC.
1017 Main Campus Dr, Ste 3200NC State Centennia
Raleigh, NC 27606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 755-1257
Larry C. Dickinson, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-161
Title:Low Cost 3D Woven CC Composites
Abstract:Carbon-carbon(CC)composite materials are materials that consist of carbon fiber reinforcing a matrix of carbon. Their properties can be tailored to produce varying levels of high thermal conductivity and thermal shock resistance, low thermal expansion, low porosity, low density, high wear resistance, and high or low surface friction, while remaining chemically inert and maintaining their properties at extremely high temperatures. Current state-of-the-art technology for large/thick 3D materials (10X10X6 inches) results in a cost of ~$1000/lb. The main objective of this work will be to adapt and couple high-performance/low-cost 3TEX 3D woven preforms with large scale batch densification by Carbon Vapor Infiltration (CVI). The resulting materials will be completely tailorable and cost an order of magnitude less. This objective will be accomplished by reducing the cost of 3D preforms with the use of the innovative 3TEX high-speed/low-cost 3D weaving process. The lower cost 3D preforms will be densified by CVI in a mass production batch process, by 3TEX partner SGL Carbon Composites Inc. (Hitco), the world leader in CC materials and CVI processing. In addition to DoD needs, this new technology will be used to exploit the huge commercial potential of low cost CC pistons for racing engines.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin StreetBiddeford Industrial Park
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Keith Meiler
NAVY 99-161
Title:Low-Cost Fabrication of Multi-Use, Multi-D, Carbon-Carbon Composites
Abstract:This program proposes to investigate and demonstrate novel low cost approaches to 3D Carbon-Carbon (C/C) manufacture. These novel processes will result in composites with at least the required properties and exhibit a uniform density with size capability of at least 6 x 6 x 10 inches. They will allow considerable cost and performance flexibility, e.g. modifications such as the substitution of higher performance fibers, altering the spacing array and/or fiber tow size, addition of densification process cycles, etc. will enable the manufacture of higher grade multidimensional C/C. Carbon fiber preform fabrication and densification currently account for 50% and 25% respectively of the cost of multidimensional C/C so they will be the major focus of cost reduction efforts. Recent programs at FMI have resulted in substantial incremental reduction in the costs of these processes. The proposed program will depart from traditional processing techniques in addition to building on the results of these programs. Phase I efforts will demonstrate the considerable cost benefits of these novel processes and confirm the C/C produced meets the mechanical and thermal properties required by the solicitation. In Phase II the novel processes will be automated and low cost and high performance composites will be fully characterized.

KANSAS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1500 Hayes Drive
Manhattan, KS 66502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 537-0110
Dr. Donghai Wang
NAVY 99-162
Title:Marine Degradable and Edible Gun Plugs
Abstract:About 30,000 gun plugs are used annually in Navy practice. The materials currently employed to produce these gun plugs are toluene diisocyanate and polyurethane resin. Although these materials meet the functional requirements for gun plugs, they are subsequently incompatible with the non-pollution requirements of the MARPOL treaty. The objective of this research proposal is to identify the feasibility of using protein-based resins and natural fiber to develop degradable and marine animal edible composites that will meet both the functional and post-use requirements for the gun plug applications. Proteins and fibers will be chemically modified to adjust the composite properties. Tensile and compressive strength, density, thermal expansion, voids, and storage stability will be evaluated at varying formulation and processing conditions. Feasible formulation and processing procedures will be identified throughout this proposal to obtain marine degradable composites with desirable properties for the gun plug application. Composites with optimal properties will be tested for marine degradability by the U.S. Army Natick RD&E Center.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Bryan Koene, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-162
Title:Environmentally-Safe, Marine Disposable Nanocomposite Gun Plugs
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes to combine environmentally-friendly natural biodegradable precursor materials with its innovative nanotechnology to develop environmentally-safe gun plugs for 5"/54 caliber (and other) propelling charges that can be safely disposed in marine environments in accord with the MARPOL treaty. Our innovative approach will produce Naval gun plugs that not only (i) successfully seal the gun barrel from the marine environment, and (ii) provide the required buffer for packing the projectile with propelling charge in the gun mount, but are also biodegradable. Our innovative strategy will therefore enhance the biodegradability and will also ensure that the gun plugs meets all the other property specifications. In Phase I, Triton will prepare ES-polyurethanes, optimize the performance level with respect to Naval Sea Systems Command Specifications, and produce prototype gun plugs. In the Phase II Program, we will optimize the ES-polyurethane formulation, and scale up to make full size gun plugs for the 5" barrel. Extensive mechanical and environmental testing will be performed on these prototypes. In Phase III, Triton will team with a Naval polyurethane supply house for the preparation of prototype gun plugs for field testing.

PARATEK, INC.
1202 Technology Dr.Suite C.
Aberdeen, MD 21001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 273-9077
Louise C. Sengupta
NAVY 99-164
Title:A Five-Resonator Ceramic Bandpass Filter
Abstract:The development of compact and high performance ceramic filters is very important for size-limited applications. Paratek has advanced technology to significantly decrease the dielectric losses of ferroelectric materials while maintaining dielectric constants of 100 to 3000 at microwave frequency ranges. Paratek proposes to develop and fabricate a five-1/4-coaxial ceramic resonator filter, 1.5x1.0x0.5 cm with a brick-wall, high rejection response at frequencies above 1GHz by using our developed high dielectric constant (300-400) and high-Q (10000) BaSrTiO3-MgO based ceramics. The high dielectric constant material will reduce the resonator size, therefore more resonators can be put into a ceratain size volume. The increased number of resonators will improve the rejection response performance of the filter. For Phase I, a proof-of-concept filter will be delivered based on the existing and newly developed materials. The improvement of the materials will focus on the temperature stability of the materials. For Phase II, the filter will be fabricated based on the newly developed material.

VIASAT
2290 Cosmos Ct.
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
Paul Baca
NAVY 99-165
Title:High Quality Low Data Rate (LDR) Secure Voice
Abstract:This Phase 1 SBIR effort will build upon today's most advanced voice data coding algorithms to develop a selection of efficient, robust low data rate voice options for Link-16. JTIDS/MIDS terminals currently provide 16 KBPS CVSD and/or 2.4 KBPS LPC-10 algorithms which are time-proven voice coding techniques that have been superseded in quality by Mixed Excitation Linear Predictive (MELP) and Code Excited Linear Predictive (CELP) algorithms. This proposed Phase 1 effort will explore various levels of Error Detection And Correction (EDAC) encoding options used in conjunction with CELP and MELP algorithms to provide high quality, low data rate voice in the harsh communication environments required for Link-16. In order to add EDAC, additional network capacity will be required to accommodate the added parity data. To overcome the effects of increasing the bandwidth, this effort will investigate the combination of coded low data rate voice algorithms and Link-16 Enhanced Throughput (ET). ViaSat has developed Link-16 ET Technology which provides up to a factor of 10 improvement in data rate over existing JTIDS/MIDS so the combination of coded voice and ET will provide a very bandwidth efficient solution to the Link-16 voice problem.

ADVANCED POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1250 24th Street, NW Suite 850
Washington, DC 20037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 223-8808
Thomas Wallace
NAVY 99-166
Title:Miniature Antennas for Submarine Advanced Boyant Cable Systems
Abstract:APTI proposes use of its Photonically Controlled Dynamically Re-configurable Circuits technology, developed under IR&D funding, to develop re-configurable, broadband, phased array antennas for receive/transmit applications in the Buoyant Cable Antenna (BCA) system. The technology is based on use of semiconductor wafers whose local conductivity is dynamically controlled by laser diode arrays. The photo-injected plasma alters the conductivity of the illuminated wafer; by controlling the individual elements of the illuminating array, the desired conducting regions can be drawn on the wafer. APTI has conducted theoretical studies as well as proof-of-principle experiments of these photo-conducting antennas. The overall objective is the development of re-configurable phased arrays in the UHF-EHF range, suitable for operation as BCA's. The Phase I objective is to perform design trade off studies of the array configurations, wafer materials and laser requirements that optimize the novel re-configurable array concepts. Broadband vs. narrow-band designs, size and performance characteristics will be analyzed for implementation in the Phase II laboratory tests.

ASTRON ANTENNA CO.
22560 Glenn DriveSuite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Joseph R. Jahoda
NAVY 99-166
Title:Miniature Antenna For Submarine Advanced Buoyant Cable Systems
Abstract:It is proposed to develop a series of antennas which are miniaturized by conventional, innovative, and dielectric material loading. They are specifically designed to be located in a small surface towed module or in the buoyant cable system to which it is attached. Three basic antenna configurations are porposed. They are RF (UHF to EHF - receive/transmit); ESM (2 to 40 GHz - receive only); Navigation/FPS (1227.6 and 1575.42 MHz - receive); IRIDIUM/INMARSAT (1535 to 1636.5 MHz - receive/transmit).

PROMIA, INC.
160 Spear St.Suite 320
San Francisco, CA 94105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 647-4671
Harold E. Jarboe
NAVY 99-167
Title:Intelligent Agent Security Module (IASM)
Abstract:Available commercially off the shelf software (COTS) has the potential to address the requirements for an intelligent security agent module. Agent software is designed to be deployed in remote computer systems in order to process at the desired location, or take advantage of available computing resources. Security of agent software is a primary concern for U.S. Government agencies and commercial businesses, including those that are planning to deploy agent-based systems on the Internet. This proposal presents a Phase I project for the implementation of an intelligent agent security module. It describes an approach that utilizes the distributed object middleware of the Object Management Group's (OMG's)Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) as the basis for secure agent messaging, coupled with available Neural Network agent software from Computer Associates. The goals of this project are; to develop an intelligent security agent module which integrates adaptable wrappers through CORBA facilities, use neural networks for security intrusion detection collection, interpretation, pattern recognition, adaptive learning capabilities and demonstrate an intelligent agent security module to the Navy. The resultant system can provide integrated network administration and security management reducing workload to manage an intelligent agent-based system.

VIASAT
2290 Cosmos Ct.
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
Jay Grove
NAVY 99-168
Title:Optimal Integration of MIDS/INS/GPS
Abstract:Precision navigation is key to future warfighting doctrine. The ability to accomplish extremely accurate en-route, targeting, and terminal operations based upon precision navigation has become an assumption of battle planning and warfighting operations. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the critical element for precision navigation. Fully exploiting its capability while ensuring the integrity of the navigation solution is the precision navigation imperative. Differential GPS has been selected by the DoD's Joint Precision Approach and Landing System (JPALS) program for implementation of the JPALS. The DoD recognizes that certain attributes of current, commercial differential GPS system require augmentation to establish navigation integrity for mission critical operations. The DoD's Multi-function Information Distribution System (MIDS) provides a secure communication link and relative navigation capability that can augment GPS for improved integrity and survivability of precision navigation operations. Phase I Tasking that investigates MIDS as a potential communication link for differential corrections, examines the optimal integration of MIDS, GPS, and INS data for a more robust nav solution, and explores the use of ground-based MIDS in conjunction with GPS as a secure back-up for differential GPS-based precision approach and landing systems is provided.

AEGIS RESEARCH CORP.
7799 Leesburg PikeSuite 1100 North
Falls Church, VA 22043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 610-9363
Edmund M. Glabus
NAVY 99-170
Title:Interactive Human Systems Interfaces and 3D Tools for IW Systems
Abstract:The Aegis Team proposes to join two highly innovative elements to solve the research problem presented in Navy Topic N99-170. We will bring together a unique information warfare (IW) wargame/simulation in use at various DOD organizations (e.g., the U.S. Army War College) called InfoChess(tm), and a leading-edge software design and development process called Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE), to "develop a set of 3D tools that will provide an innovative user interface for effective use of information." This approach will enable us to use the chess metaphor to map and visualize IW in a controlled environment; clearly depict 3D IW visualization principles in a low-cost, easily-perceived "black and white" wargame domain; keep those visualizations that indicate human performance improvement and migrate them to the real-world IW domain by developing an interactive storyboard suitable for a user walk-through; and then use this work as the basis to design and develop an innovative 3D user interface that can be economically joined to a library of DII COE compliant Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) tools.

ARGON ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
12701 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 650
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 995-4242
Dr. Robert L. Kellogg
NAVY 99-170
Title:Mission Visual Planner
Abstract:Argon Engineering Associates proposes to rapidly prototype and evaluate a 3D visualization interface for the Information Warfare (IW) battlespace of target selection, weapon engagement, environment monitoring and battle damage assessment. Current state-of-the-art commercial 3D rendering software will be evaluated, including VRML display engines. As part of developing an IW interface and set of graphic decision support tools, Argon will create a Visualization Laboratory for evaluating these innovative geographic information system (GIS), cyber network, and parametric 3D toolkit modules. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the most effective IW visualization tools and interactive database solutions to support the IW commander.

ENGINEERING MECHANICS CORP.O
4181 Maystar Way
Hilliard, OH 43026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 850-8792
Prabhat Krishnaswamy
NAVY 99-171
Title:A Novel Algorithm to Predict Near-Real-Time Behavior of Micro-Cable Orientation on the Ocean Floor
Abstract:The Navy requires a near-real-time algorithm to predict the location of the micro-cables with acoustic arrays on the seafloor so as to bring the sensor systems to operational status as quickly as possible. The existing methodology uses the computer program FOCAL-P that has worked satisfactorily with regards to accuracy of predictions. However, the speed of computations in FOCAL-P is an order of magnitude too slow for the Navy's needs. This proposal outlines three tasks that specifically address the need for a near real-time algorithm to predict the cable behavior during installation. The first is to study the computational efficiency of FOCAL-P. Understanding the computational bottlenecks in the present code is essential to making improvements. The second task involves a novel approach to predicting the micro-cable response in the marine environment. This approach applies numerical algorithms, such as choice of coordinate systems, coordinate transformations and equations of motion solutions that have been successfully used in the prediction of aircraft and missile trajectories to the current problem. The last task involves real-time graphical visualization of the cable as it is being installed on the seafloor. This last task is the precursor to closed-loop control of the cable laying process.

MAKAI OCEAN ENGINEERING
P.O. Box 1206
Kailua, HI 96734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 259-8871
Joseph Van Ryzin
NAVY 99-171
Title:Near Real Time Installation Modeling of Cables & Sensor Arrays Deployed From a Towed Body
Abstract:Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. proposes to evaluate the feasibility of developing a near real time modeling system to accurately determine the seafloor location of U.S. Navy acoustic arrays as they are deployed. The acoustic arrays and connected fiber-optic micro-cables will be deployed from a near bottom Towed Deployment Vehicle (TDV). Makai has previously developed a real-time cable deployment control system which has been used in a number of precision commercial and military cable lays. It is proposed that Makai's installation model and cable lay simulation software be modified and used as the primary analytical tool for this project. Cable location and array orientation results computed by existing models will be compared with measured experimental data. Discrepancies between model results and measurements will be subjected to a sensitivity analysis to identify the error source and to quantify the error magnitude. Discrepancies can be attributed to inaccuracy of input data (e.g. current meter and navigational equipment inaccuracy) and to the numerical approximations in the cable models. Several existing cable models will be evaluated to determine the modifications and effort that would be required to adapt them to Navy real-time operational and data acquisition requirements.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge ParkwaySuite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 859-9161
Todd C. Marek
NAVY 99-172
Title:Secure Voice Over Wide Area Networks
Abstract:Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a rapidly emerging commercial technology. This technology can be adapted to providing secure, digital compressed voice in unicast and multicast modes. The proposed SBIR research activity will lead to the development of a Networked Multipoint Secure Voice application that can be transparently overlaid on existing Navy ADNS networks to satisfy voice over wide area network requirements. Various voice compression algorithms will be explored for the best combination of voice quality and bandwidth utilization in the Navy's wireless environment. Requirements for a PC-based application will be defined to provide secure, multicast voice communications in a bandwidth efficient generic IP format. For the extreme narrowband circuit case (e.g. 2400 bps), methods will be explored to "spoof" the IP packet structure during call setup. Subsequent voice bits will then be streamed across the channel. The design will allow system interfacing to commercial routers, low-rate RF modems and multiplexers while still allowing the IP structure, as the LAN/WAN views it, to remain in standard format. Standard ATM switches with ethernet interfaces suffice for IP over AAL5 integration into the high speed ATM networks employed by the military. Security approaches for providing secure coding and secure call management will be identified. Encryption technologies to be considered include Fortezza variants, commercial encryption technologies, and legacy Navy encryption devices.

ARGON ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
12701 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 650
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 995-4221
Mr. William J. Carlin
NAVY 99-173
Title:Cryptologic Computer Architectures
Abstract:Argon Engineering Associates proposes a Cryptologic Component Architecture to the US Navy. The Cryptologic Component Architecture is required to identify the standards, practices and interfaces that support seamless technology transition and evolution while maintaining Information Operations (IO) dominance. Each identified technology will be characterized according to capacity, throughput, commonality with other Navy IO systems, ease of integration, projected technology trend, platform flexibility, mission flexibility and target flexibility. The proposed architecture is then comprised of the set of standards that will provide the fundamental infrastructure for the various components of the Navy's IO capability. Argon also proposes to assure the feasibility of the architecture by verifying its utility against complex threat signal classes.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge ParkwaySuite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 747-8766
John H Schwacke, Jr
NAVY 99-173
Title:Cryptologic Component Architecture Derivation Through Application Generalization
Abstract:A variety of technologies have been introduced which enhance our ability to develop large software systems using component-based designs. These technologies are, however, just methods and mechanisms by which these systems are stitched together. The problem of establishing an architecture which embodies an appropriate reusable design and an associated implementation framework still remains. The design of an architecture for cryptologic systems and, more specifically, those portions of the system performing signal processing must consider carefully performance issues. The proposed research applies component framework design techniques and the concept of an open implementation to derive and assess the merits of a component framework for Navy cryptologic system development through structured generalization of existing applications.