---------- DARPA ----------

43 Phase I Selections from the 99.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
US NANOCORP, INC.
20 Washington Avenue, Suite 106
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 234-8024
Pritpal Singh
DARPA 99-032
Title:Fuzzy Logic-Based MicroBattery for MEMS Sensors
Abstract:Both energy storage and management are critical aspects of the development of practival MEMS sensors incorporating microbatteries. US Nanocorp has developed a patented fuzzy logic-based methodology to determine state-of-charge (SOC) in a wide variety of battery chemistries. Particularly for rechargeable batteries, the fuzzy logic approach is enabling in that it can analyze complex data which is intractable for traditional SOC determination methods. This represents an optimum opportunity to create a feasible battery management capability in a MEMS sensor. for its part, Bipolar Technologies Corp has successfully proven feasibility of microscopic batteries for both Ni-Zn and LiIon chemistries, and has a pioneering patent pending in this area. It is proposed under this collaboration to develop power generation, storage, and management strategies for powering them. the proposed program will fabricate a functional (u)battery, design a FL-based battery charge management system, assemble and demonstrate a PC-board-level device (interfaced with (u)battery), and demonstrate feasibility of the proposed concept to fully integrate a (u)battery and energy scavenger with a miniature charging system under FL control. The results of the Phase I program will position the collaborators to launch a fully integrated MEMS power supply in the Phase II program.

NEXTWAVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5485 Harpers Farm Road, Suite C
Columbia, MD 21044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 964-3326
Scott Hayes
DARPA 99-033
Title:Low-Cost, High-Speed, Efficient Generation of Commmunication Signals Using Chaotic Devices
Abstract:There is a need in both commercial and military applications for digital transmission methods that can operate at high data rates (several megabits per second end-user rate) in multi-user environments. Existing communication methods will be severely stressed by the requirements of such an environment: Propagation anomalies such as multipath fading and interference will require intensive digital processing to mitigate their effects. By developing a digital signaling approach based on the control of the natural complexity of the chaotic behavior of RF devices, alternative solutions to these fundamental problems emerge. We will develop in this proposal an approach for controlling an RF chaotic oscillator that preserves the natural properties of the waveform while encoding digital information at the highest rate possible. We call this approach dynamics-based signaling, and it is based on the fundamental connection between dynamics and communication theory and symbolic dynamics. We will also investigate frequency scaling, and the advantages of this approach over traditional methods for digital communication. We will show that our method provides extremely fast, smooth switching between unstable periodic orbits.

AEROTECH ENGINEERING & RESEARCH CORP.
3115 W 6th Street, Suite I
Lawrence, KS 66049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 841-9823
Saeed Farokhi
DARPA 99-034
Title:Development of Acoustic Bandgap Materials and Devices
Abstract:Acoustic bandgaps are frequency domains where the propagation of sound and phonons is forbidden. In the last few years, significant advances have been made, mostly in Europe in the area of theoretical characterization of these materials and devices. Experimental configurations have focused on materials with specific 2-D and 3-D internal geometries which exhibit bandgap properties. It is possible, therefore, to make a device with an intricate internal geometry using free form fabrication techniques. The proposed effort is aimed at developing theoretical models for the design and performance prediction of the acoustic bandgap (ABG) materials and devices, leading to the fabrication and testing of a prototype that exhibits acoustic bandgap properties. During Phase I, an analytical design tool for the design and performance prediction of an ABG device will be developed, modifying codes that have been successfully employed in past research. By the end of Phase I, a prototype will also have been fabricated andcharacterized. During Phase II, specific vibration isolation applications will be targeted for insertion of the ABG device technology. In addition, the design tool will be refined.

LASER FARE - ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY GROUP
70 Dean Knauss Dr.
Narragansett, RI 02882
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 737-7900
Paul Jacobs
DARPA 99-034
Title:Acoustic Bandgap Materials and Devices
Abstract:Laser Fare-Advanced Technology Group (LF-ATG) has teamed with Triton Systems, Inc. (Triton), and Molecular Geodesics, Inc. (MGI), to propose an innovative method for producing multi-material structures that arrest the propagation of acoustic or vibrational energy. The approach forms scattering centers using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS). The scattering elements will be intrinsically periodic due to their layered build format and geometric structure. With proper choice of material densities and elastic moduli, destructive interference of longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves over a specific frequency range has been demonstrated in simple periodic structures (Refs. 1-3). LF-ATG and Triton have applied the LENS solid freeform (SFF) method to generate titanium matrix composites (Ref. 4). We anticipate adapting LENS to provide a more diverse range of materials and periodic geometries in the design, fabrication and test of composite devices that are opaque to mechanical vibrations over a significantrange of frequencies. As shown in this proposal, our approach can achieve precise tailoring of the spatial distribution of the scattering / phase shifting materials in millimeter to tens of centimeter-scale structures. This will potentially enable acoustic and vibration isolation in multiple directions at frequencies ranging from the audible to the ultrasonic.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Division, 20600 Gramercy Pl
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Kevin Yu
DARPA 99-034
Title:High Efficiency Frequency Selective Acoustic Bandgap Composites Based on Volume Bragg Holography
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an advanced high efficiency, frequency selective acoustic bandgap composite (ABC) structure based on volume holography, in which characteristic acoustic impedance mismatch Bragg regions can be precisely designed to reflect specific portion of the impinging acoustic and vibration frequency. This ABC structure will be fabricated using the solid freeform fabrication (SFF) process, which can build complex 3-D Bragg holographic geometries with very small internal microcavities (i.e., resolution), allowing immediate application of previously developed POC multilayer photonic bandgap and Bragg reflection holographic technologies. In Phase I, POC will determine the best combination of available materials, multilayer Bragg structure and process parameters to produce the ABC structure for frequency selective, high efficiency filtering of acoustic waves. The selected process will be used to produce bandgap composite structure samples, which will be characterized for their frequency damping (to reflect above 5,000 Hz) and mechanical properties. Since ABC structures can be fabricated on the SFF machinery used for rapid prototyping, it is highly mass producible and will have a commercial potential.

CAPE COD RESEARCH
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Brian Dixon
DARPA 99-035
Title:Pillared Bacteriorhodopsin Based Spatial Light
Abstract:Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is being studied for a number of optical processing and computing applications. Part of the proposed feasibility research will investigate BR films of high optical quality for spatial light modulation properties. Supramolecular chemistry will then be used to prepare a previously unknown modulation material. This material has been carefully designed to mimic the performance of the naturally occurring material, bacteriorhodopsin, but it will be significantly lower in cost.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Kristie Cooper
DARPA 99-035
Title:Electrostatically Self-Assembled Retinal Protein-Based Optoelectronic Devices
Abstract:The proposed DDARPASBIR program would demonstrate the synthesis of retinal protein-based optoelectronic arrays using self-assembly techniques. The proposed method utilizes NanoSonic's patented and exclusively licensed molecular-level electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) approach to biomimetically grow multilayered active electronic devices. The selection of specific molecules and their processing into individual device monolayers by alternate ionic attraction and bonding allows the formation of adjacent photoactive, electrode and packaging layers. Prior NanoSonic research has demonstrated our ability to form ultrauniform many-layer films of proteins, noble metal and metal oxide nanoclusters, cage structured molecules and other materials by this process. The photoactive and electrode elements may be patterned in two-dimensions at the nanolevel, through control of the local isoelectric point during ESA processing. During the Phase I program, NanoSonic would demonstrate the incorporation of retinal and related photoactive molecules into uniform multilayered thin films by the ESA process, investigate the self-assemby of nanostructured electrodes leading to the formation of two-dimensional optoelectronic device arrays, study ways in which spectral sensitivity may be modified, and fabricate devices and evaluate their spectral and temporal responses. During Phase II, NanoSonic would work with several identified larger companies to transition the ESA processing of biologically-inspired optoelectronic devices to commercial manufacturing.

STARZENT, INC.
PMB 301, 5765-F Burke Centre Parkway
Springfield, VA 22015
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 443-4460
Steve Redfield
DARPA 99-035
Title:Engineering of Biomaterials for a High-Performance Optical Processor
Abstract:This effort will demonstrate feasibility of an optical planar processor system based on a biomaterial, bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Planar processing has the potential to perform certain types of computation algorithms thousands to tens of thousands times faster than traditional Von Neuman processors (e.g. Pentium). Image recognition/classification and speech recognition is two such areas where planar processing would offer major computational advantages. Optics is ideal for planar processing because of its image nature. BR is a key enabling material to permit this form of optical processing due to its robust set of properties that are optically manipulated. BR has the advantage of being very sensitive, inexpensive to produce, has good dynamic range, and can be easily formed into many sizes and shapes. BR's parameters will be studied and enhanced for various optical computing functions. BR material samples will be made and the resulting parameter measurements made on an optical bench. A demonstration planar processing element utilizing BR will be constructed.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71, Etna Road
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
W. Dodd Stacey
DARPA 99-036
Title:Diesel Fueled Linear Actuator for Exoskeleton Applications
Abstract:Creare proposes to develop a light weight and highly efficient diesel fueled linear force actuator with low observables for powering long range walking machines and exoskeletons. In Phase I, we will develop and experimentally demonstrate a safe, stable, and controllable diesel heat source, and develop an actuator system package design suited to an infantry exoskeleton application. Phase I activities will include analysis, experimentation, and design. In Phase II, we will design, build, develop, and demonstrate a complete prototype personal amplification system powered by the actuator.

QUOIN, INC.
139 Balsam
Ridgecrest, CA 93555
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 384-5035
Michael Jacobson
DARPA 99-036
Title:Direct Chemo-Mechanical Actuation
Abstract:A high efficiency and precision control pneumatic/mechanical actuator which converts chemical to mechanical energy will extend human performance and provide advantages in reducing system weight and bulk. Quoin will analyze the concept of an actuator based on a central air compressor and distributed hot gas actuators - each with a small pulse burner. A single unit will be built in Phase I. The central power unit provides up to 1,500 watts of output in the form of compressed gas. This gas is distributed to feed control valves, which then feed micro burners. These burners increase the energy of the gas by a factor of 7-10 as they introduce and burn hydrocarbon fuels. The high pressure, high temperature gas drives a reversing turbine that, combined with a reduction gear set and a ball-screw, forms the high-energy dense actuator. This provides an exoskeleton with a highly responsive, small actuator and power supply package with extremely high power density. Molded ceramic components create high temperaturetolerance with very low production costs. The practical and economical potential of an exoskeleton powered by a chemo-mechanical actuator is far-reaching for both military and civilian commerce and industry.

SARCOS RESEARCH CORP.
360 Wakara Way
Salt Lake City, UT 84108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 581-0155
Stephen Jacobsen
DARPA 99-036
Title:Direct Energy Conversion Acuators for Ambulatory Robotic Systems
Abstract:The use of actuation methods which capitalize on high density energy sources is essential for powering structures such as ambulatory robots, exoskeleton systems, and other machines. Most systems developed to date rely on electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic means for actuation. In such systems the actuator itself may be capable of high energy density, but at the expense of large and cumbersome battery arrays, pumps and or generators. For creating high power systems, a hydrocarbon fuel can be used to directly power an actuator to achieve superior power to weight ratio as compared to other energy sources. Phase 1 of this proposal concentrates on developing (1) concept architecture for direct combustion actuation and (2) testing a critical component of the actuator system.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71, Etna Road
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Michael Izenson
DARPA 99-037
Title:Miniature High Efficiency Piezoelectric Motor
Abstract:The objective is to efficiently convert electrical to mechanical energy in a meso-scale device. The approach is to develop an innovative piezoelectric motor that includes a direct, mechanical interference drive system along with an electronic charge recovery system for very high efficiency. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of the motor by (1) developing design analyses for the electro-mechanical drive system, (2) conducting proof-of-principle tests to qualify the design models, and (3) using the qualified design models to produce a conceptual design for a complete, prototype piezomotor. In Phase II we will build a prototype piezomotor that is sized to meet military requirements and measure the efficiency and power output of the motor in conditions that simulate both space and terrestrial operation.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Eric Anderson
DARPA 99-037
Title:High Efficiency Miniature Piezoelectric Motors
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I project is to demonstrate the feasibility of building small, piezoelectrically driven motors (piezomotors) that provide mechanically useful rotary drive speed and output torque at high overall efficiencies. The piezomotors proposed here incorporate genuine mechanical interference to transfer motion from electrically and mechanically resonant piezoelectric transducers to the motor output shaft. With appropriate design, the class of piezomotors proposed here can also operate at any speed up to that at which resonant drive is achieved. Feasibility of the motor concept will be demonstrated by simulation and test. Detailed engineering predictions of motor system performance will be made to quantify performance and efficiency of a prototype. Peak overall efficiency of the motor and its drive electronics will be optimized subject to a constraint on minimum power output. Bench-top tests of prototype components will also be conducted to demonstrate and quantify required electronic and mechanical subsystem functionality. Subsequent development of the high-efficiency, high-energy density piezomotors demonstrated under this project will focus on miniaturization of electronic elements and further increasing the energy density of the device.

WILCOXON RESEARCH, INC.
21 Firstfield Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 330-8811
Wayne Zavis
DARPA 99-037
Title:Miniature Piezomotors
Abstract:With the advent of digital signal processors and the miniaturization of electrical components, electromechanical control systems have undergone a revolution in complexity. Unfortunately these advances have not yet been applied to the field of piezoelectric motors and actuators, both of which require high-efficiency drive electronics to be competitive with conventional motors. The successful introduction of high-efficiency, miniature piezomotors would improve performance in existing aerospace systems, and create applications that are impossible with existing technologies. Wilcoxon Research, Inc. (WR) of Gaithersburg, Maryland, a manufacturer of piezoelectric-based actuators, sensors, and amplifiers, believes it has identified a solution to this technical problem. Phase I research will focus on developing a flexible, yet efficient electronic drive system for piezomotors. Utilizing existing piezomotors, as developed at Penn State and UCLA, WR will construct a generalized piezomotor drive amplifier that usesresonant energy transfer to maintain a high-degree of efficiency for a wide variety of piezomotor types. WR will characterize the electrical and mechanical power output, as well as efficiencies of the motor and drive electronics. Concurrent with the electronic development will be a mechanical engineering analysis focused on the miniaturization and optimization of existing piezomotors.

FOCUSED RESEARCH, INC.
555 Science Drive, Suite E
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 238-2455
Robert Marsland
DARPA 99-038
Title:Terahertz Source Using Heterodyned High-Power Lasers with Ultrafast Photodetector Array
Abstract:We propose, in this Phase I program, to study the feasibility of a high-power terahertz source using narrow-line width, high-power, visible diode lasers in combination with an ultrafast photodetector/deipole antenna array. This method should produce milliwatts of tunable terahertz radiation with a long-term frequency stability of less than 100 MHz. The Phase I program will focus on understanding two primary aspects: (1) Develop and refine techniques for frequency narrowing commercially-available, broadband laser diodes with output powers of several watts. (2) Design and model GaAs photodetector arrays with the requisite terahertz response and sensitivity. The development of these two critical components as well as the creation of the associated optical system will provide sufficient information to evaluate the feasibility of a complete high-power terahertz wave generator.

OVATION INDUSTRIES, INC.
300 First Street NE
Rochester, MN 55906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(507) 285-4490
David Braddock
DARPA 99-038
Title:Gate Oxide for High Speed GaAs IC Circuits
Abstract:We propose to take the first steps in demonstrating a new class of high frequency FETs by demonstrating a gate oxide for GaAs and InP MOSFETs. In this work, Gallium based oxides will be grown by MBE using a specially developed effusion cell that is uniquely capable of high temperature operation in the presence of oxygen. In addition, a new type of atomic oxygen source will be employed that does not damage the semiconductor-Oxide interface. We will use this new MBE technology to (1) optimize the nucleation of oxide on GaAs and InP, (2) grow bulk oxide films with a bandgap in excess of 4.5eV, (3) and produce oxide films that possess good interface properties and a low residual conductivity. The materials will be characterized using techniques including ellipsometry, Photoluminscence, C-V, and I-V measurements as a function of temperature. In addition, a new type of MBE system that is uniquely suited to the high quality growth of gate oxides on III-V semiconductors will also be designed during this Phase I effort.

QUANTUM APPLIED SCIENCE & RESEARCH, INC
7047 Carroll Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 535-9680
Andrew Hibbs
DARPA 99-038
Title:New Type of Josephson Junction Amplifier for Terahertz Receivers
Abstract:A novel amplification effect of order 30 dB has recently been observed in simple circuit comprised of two parallel Josephson junctions biased into a novel dynamic regime and readout out in a novel manner. This new phenomenon has been reproduced in all five low Tc superconducting devices tested to date. the benefit of the new approach is that while producing substantial gain the new devices has the input impedance, noise temperature, physical size and simplicity of two Josephson junctions. Numerical simulations and prior work on similar physical systems indicate that operation at frequencies greater than 1 THz may be possible with appropriate superconducting materials and device fabrication. Analytic expression, numerical simulations and corroborating experimental results valid below 100 GHz are presented. In Phase I we will extend the device analysis to consider effects up to 3 THz and predict the key amplifier operating parameters. We will also consider the fabrication process and operating temperaturerequirements and assess the implications of these for a practical, commercial device. In Phase II we will fabricate and test a complete device.

NANODEVICE, INC.
516 E. Gutierrez, Suite E
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 884-0240
Stephen Minne, Ph.D.
DARPA 99-039
Title:Micromachines for Microchips: Bringing the AFM up to Speed
Abstract:We propose an AFM system that images orders of magnitude faster than conventional AFMs, yet maintains the same horizontal and vertical resolutions. This system will operate in both the contact and intermittent contact mode. It will optimize the AFM's operation, and it will give engineers active control over imaging dynamics. The composite system will allow researchers to probe sub-nanometer scale phenomena, over micron scale topography, at speeds never before accessible. The technical approach directly assaults the fundamental rate limiting parameters of the AFM: 1) the piezotube's resonance, and 2) the quality factor (Q) of the oscillating cantilever. By fabricating a microelectrical mechanical system (MEMS) onto the AFM's sensing element, these two problems can be simultaneously overcome. The MEMS actuator will obviate the piezotube's resonant limitation because it is small and therefore fast. The cantilever's Q limitation will be overcome by using the MEMS actuator to actively control the cantileverdynamics. If the objectives put forward in this Phase I proposal are successful, for the first time, a platform that is capable of high resolution, large z-range, high speed atomic force microscopy will be available to industry and researchers alike.

TERRASIM, INC.
4620 Henry St., Third Floor
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 681-3703
Jeffrey Shufelt
DARPA 99-040
Title:Computer Assisted Modeling of Urban Environments
Abstract:This project will result in a realistic specification and development plan for a commercial software product for automated and semi-automated building model extraction from imagery of complex urban environments. These building models, along with features derived from existing GIS or cartographic data, will then be used to construct a detailed 3D visual simulation of the scene. The building extraction capability will be tightly integrated with our current commercial product, Terratools (R). TerraTools is a state-of-the-art simulation database construction system and also contains the basic geospatial data import and export functionality required by such a next-generation data extraction workstation. Our proposal will result in a product where visualizations of complex 3D urban environments can be directly compiled and manipulated using advanced visualization techniques without leaving the overall workstation environment.

HEXAGON INTERACTIVE
6750 Wedgewood Place
Los Angeles, CA 90068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 709-3812
Joseph Miranda
DARPA 99-041
Title:Modeling The Terrorist Threat
Abstract:Design for a simulation that provides a family of adaptive cognitive and behavioral models to represent different types of terrorist organizations, as well as their capabilities and vulnerabilities. The proposal capitalizes on the extensive design experience of Mr. Joseph Miranda in the commercial and military wargaming market specializing in unconventional warfare, and the expertise of Dr. Lewis Johnson and Dr. Stacy Marsella in the area of sophisticated autonomous agents to create a predictive model of human decision making, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of this decision making. Sample quantitative outputs for specific examples will be provided, especially the complex political-military environment in which terrorists operate. A holistic approach will account for cascading effects across political, military, economic and diplomatic forms of conflict. This prototype tool to help plan future terrorism counteraction strategies and tactics will feature a user-friendly interface and programmability, allowing flexible insertion of new genres of terrorist threats and development of new terrorist counteraction weapons, organization, tactics and strategies. Mr. Miranda will research historical and hypothetical terrorist/terrorism counteraction force performance and their impact on all forms of modern conflict, then develop the simulations algorithms. Dr. Johnson and Dr. Marsella will develop a simple computer demo to illustrate the potential for a full computer simulation. The work is expected to lead to a Phase II proposal to develop functioning simulation software.

NATURAL SELECTION, INC.
3333 N. Torrey Pines Ct., Suite 200
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-6449
David Fogel, Ph.D.
DARPA 99-041
Title:Evolutionary Models of the Terrorist Threat
Abstract:Our nation faces a growing threat from terrorist organizations. The proposed Phase I effort provides the fundamental required research and development for a system that can provide realistic insight into future actions of terrorist organizations and their sponsors. The purpose of such organizations and sponsors will be delineated using the Valuated State Space Approach. Models to assist in filtering and understanding the fast array of data that is collected across many different factors regarding terrorist activities will be designed using evolutionary algorithms. Success in Phase I sets the stage for generating more detailed models in Phase II to assay "what if" conditions and anticipate possible actions and reactions to terrorist activities.

SYNERGIA LLC
2400 Broadway, Suite 203
Redwood City, CA 94063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 569-4999
Michael Fehling
DARPA 99-041
Title:Computational Psycho-Social Models of Terrorist Threat
Abstract:The scale and impact of terrorism increased dramatically from the 1950s through the 1980s. During this time, damage to property while severe was local, and casualties usually ran in the 10s to 100s. Unfortunately, it has entered a qualitatively new regime in the last decade; now, the effects of a single act can be global. Indications for the future are even more serious. The capabilities developed over the last few decades to address terrorism are biased toward response/pursuit. This bias is inadequate and dangerous, given that the potential consequences are now so serious. A new, preemptive capability that augments existing ones is required. We need a technology to support a quantum advance in our understanding of terrorist behavior - both individual and social/organizational. Such a technology, by rigorously treating the psychological (e.g., personality) and social structure (e.g., organization, ideology, culture) of terrorists and their organizations, enables us to understand how they see the world, predict what they are disposed to do, assess our weaknesses, and identify their vulnerabilities. This modeling technology also underwrites intelligence gathering, response planning, and intervention to preempt action. We propose to specialize the Synergia's computational technology for psycho-social modeling to create this capability.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8716 North Mopac Expressway, Suite 310
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Sherry Marcus
DARPA 99-042
Title:MAPMS: Multi Agent Performance Monitoring System
Abstract:CoABS, a major research and development effort of the DDARPAControl of Agent Based Systems program (CoABS) supports enabling technologies for the integration of architectures and distributed systems of agents, objects, and legacy systems. CoABS is designed to eliminate traditionally stove piped systems. It is a self-assembling collection of dynamic heterogeneous, distributed components for the current application at hand. In the Internet, object and agent usage and trends must be mined and analyzed in order to satisfy customer requirements under normal and surge conditions. Web sites track the numbers of hits per time interval, and during peak times, sites are replicated in order to satisfy user demand. Analogously, we propose to develop a Multi Agent Performance Monitoring System (MAPMS) prototype to be inserted as a Grid Ready Component (GRC) into CoABS that shall demonstrate a GENERIC method of predicting surges before they occur, and RECTIFY such surges once they have been predicted, thus avoiding lockouts. We outline two scenarios related to logistics and terrorism that leverages our efforts with Rome Laboratories and Wright-Patterson AFB. We shall design a Phase I prototype with current and proposed CoABS technologies based on one of these scenarios.

CRYSTALIZ, INC.
9 Damon Mill Square, Suite 4D
Concord, MA 01719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 371-0404
Sankar Virdhagriswaran
DARPA 99-042
Title:Java Assembly, Deployment, Control, Environment for Agents (JADCEA)
Abstract:The proposed SBIR project, at the end of Phase II, will deliver a beta version of a graphical (GUI based) assembly, deployment, and control environment for different types of agents that could be developed in Java. This environment will be developed such that non sophisticated develop can create and deploy large agent based applications.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Joseph Discenza
DARPA 99-042
Title:Human Interaction with Software Agents
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR project is to provide a means by which users can easily create software agents for performing data discovery and retrieval. We will accomplish this goal by creating a tool for creating software agents and by providing a framework for future work on developing software agents in the military information space. We will create a tool, which we will call the Agent Wizard, for creating and controlling intelligent software agents. Agents, in general, are software components capable of adapting to changing situations. The agents created by the Agent Wizard will be responsible for locating and retrieving data from information resources on heterogeneous networked systems according to a set of rules and preferences created by the user. The Agent Wizard will allow the user to control the agents he creates and the information they discover. Performance of intelligent agents is greatly increased with the use of standard schemas and object management systems. In this project we will recommend one or more schemas and object management systems for future standardization in the military and commercial information spaces.

OPEN GROUP & JXML, INC.
29B Montvale Avenue
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-5965
Bill laForge
DARPA 99-042
Title:Interactive Construction of Mobile Agents
Abstract:This proposal describes a software research and advanced development project that will demonstrate the feasibility of providing a toolkit that will allow users of the toolkit to dynamically compose, deploy, and modify trustable software agents. This approach, called Interactive Construction of Mobile Agents, will allow end users to rapidly and easily construct powerful software agents by describing the agent intent (the expected actions the agent will take at runtime) in a human-readable text-based XML format. These intents will be passed to the target system, transformed into an implementation specific to that target system, and executed by the agent platform. The proposed implementation builds on XML and Java, using XML documents to define agents which move between systems, and Java to implement those agents on the target system. The implementation will support multiple application-specific composition languages, and will allow other documents to be incorporated by URL, allowing agents to be constructedas a web of interconnected documents instantiating a structure of Java components when transmitted to the target system.

APPLIED VISIONS, INC.
6 Bayview Avenue
Northport, NY 11768
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 754-4920
Anita Amico
DARPA 99-043
Title:Visual Representation of Cyber Defense
Abstract:Applied Visions, Inc. (AVI) proposes to design visualization aids to significantly enhance cyber defense situational awareness. Building upon our existing body of work on the visualization of network security events, we will design, demonstrate and assess visual representations of two categories of information: 1) the relationships between cyber security events (e.g. probes, intrusions) and military mission areas (e.g. logistics, intelligence); and 2) temporal changes in cyber security events. In addition, AVI will identify methods to facilitate the rapid association of security breaches to critical mission operations. The automated or semi-automated association of mission areas to security events will streamline the process of assessing the impact of security breaches on mission areas and support the visual representation of that information. Phase I will be devoted to defining the key information needed in the visual representations, designing several alternative visual representations, and demonstrating selected visualizations using test scenarios and a test data base developed by AVI. Phase I will also include the assessment of available tools and methods for rapid association of the mission areas and security events. Phase II will scale up the most promising visual representations into a working system that can be evaluated in a real world environment.

LOGOBOTS, LLC
60 E 32nd Street, #203
Chicago, IL 60616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 836-0497
Narayan Murarka
DARPA 99-043
Title:A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Defense Situation Modeling
Abstract:Integration of information networks on a global scale has helped most enterprise systems and applications improve their efficiency of operation, management and control. However, it has opened new avenues for malicious attacks by adversaries. Information security research efforts have concentrated on devising host, network or system level defensive mechanisms that can either prevent, or detect and eliminate such attacks so that system impacts are minimized. However, a decision tool that considers the cost and performance degradations of defensive mechanisms, and that recognizes resource constraints of both parties, should assist deployment of defensive strategies. Moreover, an effective representation of the defense situation in the face of ongoing and potential assaults and deployed countermeasures will help the security manager to identify the need for improvement of system security. We propose to develop a game theory based software tool that provides an effective representation of the current and expected nature of future security situation of an enterprise system. The proposed system will model a wide range of adversaries and assist in the strategic selection of defense mechanisms to deploy such that the enterprise mission impacts (in terms of resource consumption) are minimized.

ZAXEL SYSTEMS, INC.
11666 Dawson Drive
Los Altos, CA 94024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 682-2862
Peter Rander
DARPA 99-044
Title:Voxel-Based Immersive Environments
Abstract:We propose to develop real-time 3D reconstruction, transmission, and immersive display systems for "virtual" teleportation. Development of these systems would greatly improve the realism of remote collaboration, dissolving the boundaries between the local and remote physical worlds and between the virtual and physical environments. Research in 3D reconstruction of remote environments has shown that it is possible to recover both object appearance and auditory stimuli in remote environments. The past methods for modeling object appearance, however, consume enormous computational and communication resources, and require far too many sensors to be economically feasible. These traits make real-time applications nearly impossible without fundamental algorithmic improvements. We therefore focus our attention on techniques for modeling and rendering object appearance. Recent advances at the Virtualized Reality TM laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) demonstrate that real-time 3D shape reconstruction is possible. CMU and others have also shown that video-based view generation algorithms produce high-quality results, even in the presence of small geometric errors. We propose to combine these components with computationally efficient algorithms for video manipulation using multi-processors and SIMD instructions to construct real-time, remote immersive collaboration systems.

MARINE ACOUSTICS, INC.
809 Aquidneck Ave
Middletown, RI 02842
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 757-5321
Ace Sarich
DARPA 99-045
Title:Handheld One-Way Voice Communication System
Abstract:To communicate vocally in another language it is necessary for a person to be bilingual or to use an interpreter. Recently, a handheld, machine based voice-to-voice phrase translation system (PTS) has been demonstrated. However, there are a number of deficiencies that need to be addressed in order for the PTS to be a viable product which include: reliability and robustness; operation in a noisy environment; ease of use and training; speaker independence; software size and portability; and computer hardware and peripherals. Marine Acoustics, In.c, will team with Dragon Systems, Inc. to develop a concept of operations and preliminary design for a handheld PTS. Drawing upon lessons learned from operational and functional testing and from recent advances in the speech recognizer, the current PTS design functionality will be refined and improved. Concurrently, machine translation and speech recognition technology will be assessed and a concept of operations will be developed for the operationa nd use of the PTS. A preliminary design for a handheld PTS will be developed and used as the basis for the Phase II engineering prototype PTS.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Joseph Fernando
DARPA 99-045
Title:Handheld One-Way Voice Communications System
Abstract:Systran Federal Corporation (SFC), the newly spun-off sister company of Systran Corporation, a Products Development Company with worldwide marketing and sales, and Wright State University (WSU), Dayton, Ohio, with expertise in reconfigurable mapping of algorithms are proposing to develop a hand-held one-way voice communication system. We have proposed to solve the speech recognition and the speech translator problem. We have proposed two feasible approaches. In the first approach, we have proposed to use Hidden Markov Models and its enhanced versions for speech recognition. We have proposed to enhance the speech signal because of the presence of high levels of noise in the target situations. The speech recognition as well as the speech enhancement functions will be mapped to hardware and will reside in a FPGA board. We have proposed to use systolic arrays to implement the Hidden Markov Model based speech recognition function. In the second approach, an existing integrated circuit which is built using neural networks for speech recognition will be used. It also contains all the ancillary circuits that are required for speech processing. In Phase I, both approaches will be assessed for performance, accuracy and other relevant requirements.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 501-2880
Egbert Tse
DARPA 99-046
Title:Stand-Off Biosensors and Air-Motion Sensors
Abstract:We propose to design a laser-induced fluorescence lidar, based on Arete's STIL (Streak Tube Imaging Lidar), for standoff detection of biological agents disseminated into the air. This system will transmit at UV wavelengths and receive several channels of induced fluorescence returns from the biological cloud. Leveraging on the STIL equipment and experience in Arete's electro-optics laboratory in Tucson, AZ, we will assemble a laboratory system and carry out necessary testing in the laboratory to demonstrate the imaging and biological agent discrimination capabilities of the system. Because of the innovative use of streak tubes as receivers, 3-D imaging can be achieved with a simple scanning mechanism. A system with both computer controllable multi-spectral and multi-scan capabilities will be able to collect both 3-D and temporally evolving images of potential biological agents in several spectral bands. This system will be capable of detection, discrimination and characterization of the biological agent.Simple discrimination procedures will be developed during Phase I and a more robust multi-spectral (multi-channel) processing and decision theory-based discrimination algorithm will be developed in the later Phase.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Timothy Craig
DARPA 99-046
Title:Eyesafe Lidar for Stand-Off Bioaerosol Detection and Plume Tracking
Abstract:A portable, eye safe multi-spectral lidar system for remote detection and tracking of bioaerosol clouds is proposed. The sensor will provide volumetric range-resolved wind velocity and aerosol concentration measurements to ranges of several kilometers. The backbone of the sensor is a pulsed SWIR coherent Doppler lidar that has been demonstrated as able to detect and track bioaerosol simulant plumes. This existing technology will be augmented with a nonlinear frequency converter to output in the MWIR. This enhanced lidar sensor will enable multi-color aerosol characterization for improved bioaerosol discrimination. A growth path to a frequency-agile MWIR-LWIR differential absorption lidar that will provide additional ability to discriminate aerosol and tracer gas clouds will be provided. In Phase I, CTI will conduct system performance modeling to establish sensitivity and spatial and temporal resolution capability for various system configurations. Hardware design trades will be conducted to develop a low-risk path enabling multi-functionality (Doppler lidar, DISC, and DIAL). A Phase I demonstration of a multi-color transmitter will also be provided to demonstrate the feasibility of the baseline transmitter. A preliminary sensor design will then be developed with technical risk areas and associated mitigation strategies identified. The proposed technology development path is aimed at the Phase II demonstration of a prototype multi-spectral biosensor and the Phase III deployment of a compact, user-friendly ground based or airborne multi-function chem/bio sensor.

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
4032 Blackburn Ln
Burtonsville, MD 20866
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 989-1896
Coorg Prasad
DARPA 99-046
Title:A Portable Digital Fluorescence and Aerosol Lidar for Stand-Off Detection of Biological Agents
Abstract:We propose to develop a novel portable digital lidar (PDL) for detection of bio-agent aerosols by monitoring laser-induced fluorescence and multi-wavelength backscatter. It will utilize digital detection technique, to achieve orders of magnitude improvement in lidar performance over analog detection. Hence a compact lidar with a much smaller laser and receiver will provide superior range and sensitivity compared to a conventional fluorescence lidar. The proposed PDL equipped with a compact low energy, high PRF diode-pumped uv laser and a 14" telescope will be able to detect bio-aerosol fluorescence from 102p/1 at 2km and 104p/1 at 4.5km. Simultaneous measurements made in the visible (532nm) and ir (1.06um) wavelengths will provide long range (>215km) aerosol detection and differentiation. Our innovations will result in a rugged, low power, maintenance-free portable, high performance lidar system that offers above all a ten fold reduction in cost over other candidate systems. In Phase I, lidar system simulation and design will be performed, and a bread-board lidar will be setup and experiments will be carried out to establish the feasibility. In Phase II a prototype aerosol and fluorescence lidar will be fabricated and stand-off detection and discrimination will be demonstrated with special software developed for analysis.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES
8130 Boone Blvd., Suite 500
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
John Don Carlos
DARPA 99-047
Title:Wide-Area Terrain Mapping Using Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI)
Abstract:Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar is designed to suppress returns from stationary background (clutter) in order to detect and track moving objects which would otherwise be obscured. However, many applications of GMTI, such as the military applications of tracking and targeting and civilian applications such as traffic monitoring and support to disaster relief, require accurate knowledge of terrain elevation and terrain feature positions (e.g. roads) which is up to date and accurately registered with the target track. Normally suppressed stationary clutter contains such information. The objective of this project is to characterize the terrain elevation information inherent in the clutter, to devise and validate algorithms for recovering elevation profiles of the terrain, and to recommend signal processing techniques to process the ground clutter as an applique to existing GMTI sensors. Our approach uses the effects of propagation (shadowing and possibly diffraction and multipath) together with a model of terrain scattering to reconstruct the terrain elevation profile based on clutter information contained in a sequence of GMTI scans.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
6515 Main Street
Trumbull, CT 06611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Steven Jaroszewski
DARPA 99-047
Title:Real-Time Digital Elevation Model Generation from MTI Clutter Data
Abstract:Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are critical to numerous military and civilian applications. They are required for eliminating terrain-induced MTI position errors, and distortion in SAR imagery, as well as for performing vehicle cross-country mobility analysis and enhanced ground target tracking. However, high quality DEMs are often difficult or impossible to obtain. Since current techniques to produce DEMs have significant drawbacks, TSC proposes to develop methods that extract DEMs directly from MTI clutter data. Two techniques will be investigated during Phase I, including interferometric and stereo processing of MTI clutter. Interferometric processing of MTI clutter data is applicable to all MTI systems that produce multiple looks of the same ground patch from different aspects. During Phase I, these techniques will be investigated for feasibility and evaluated for performance. The applicability of each technique will then be assessed using simulation models of radar systems such as Joint STARS, Global Hawk and ARL. TSC will leverage existing Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) techniques and software, Automatic Terrain Classification (ATC) software developed for DDARPA, photogrammetry experience gained in urban database development contracts for the FAA, and image processing and general classification techniques developed during numerous efforts.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 379-3137
Duane Smith
DARPA 99-048
Title:Multispectral Imaging Laser Radar
Abstract:Multispectral imaging offers significant advantages over conventional imaging by providing diversity data to detect camouflaged or low-contrast targets, reduce complex scene clutter and identify materials. Passive multispectral imaging is susceptible to undesirable and often uncontrollable effects such as changes in illumination angle and intensity, diurnal cycles, and varying material emissivities. Active sensors overcome these limitations and also provide discriminates not readily available in passive sensors, such as degree of polarization and range information. In Phase I, CTI will develop an optical scattermodel that combines physics-based scattering phenomena (diffuse and glint reflections, depolarization, etc.) with empirical data (bidirectional reflectance) to determine an optimal feature vector for materials classification. The model will be incorporated into CTI's existing comprehensive coherent and direct detection laser radar performance modeling suit to determine the optimal multispectral sensor design for enhanced contrast target detection. In Phase II, an active imaging sensor based upon the optimal architecture chosen in Phase I will be designed and fabricated for initial laboratory and field tests. The proposed work leverages CTI's expertise in developing frequency agile lasers, flight-worthy transceivers and signal processors.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street, Suite #246
Northglenn, CO 80234
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
John Thomas
DARPA 99-048
Title:Active Spectral Sensors
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) and Lockheed Martin Tactical Defense Systems Egan proposes to develop a scattering theory and material classification technology specific to active illumination for an active, broadly tunable spectral sensor. DFC plans to incorporate the following technology elements: - Point-scatterer models for prediction of glint phenomenology, - Polarization invariants for active sensing, - Matched Subspace Filtering (MSF) to detect linearly mixed targets. DFC has already developed MSF for passive hyperspectral sensing, and has successfully used point-scatterer models for analysis and prediction of pathologies occurring in interferometric synthetic aperture radar imagery (IFSAR). Lockheed has recently developed polarization-based invariants for active laser sensing. Technical risk is minimized by already having these technology elements in place, thereby allowing the proposed effort to concentrate on the effective synthesis of these elements. Moreover, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control - Dallas has built a candidate tunable laser system, which will be used in Phase-II.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Jose Pecina
DARPA 99-049
Title:Autonomous Docking with the Laser Dynamic Range Imager Optical Sensor and the Point Tracking Software
Abstract:This Phase I proposal develops a pioneering technology to automate the docking process of unmanned micro shuttles to the satellites to be serviced. This technology is based on the Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) which is a dynamic version of the Scannerless Range Imager (SRI), and the Point Tracking (PT) algorithm. The SRI provides the range measurement from the laser unit to the field of view for far or near inspection distances, but it functions only on static scenes. The Point Tracking (PT) software package provides the cross-plane time history motion, while a dynamic adaptation of the SRI generates the range measurements from the laser unit to the field of view. the advantage of this technology over the conventional photogrammetric methods resides in the feasibility in obtaining, simultaneously, the 3-D motion of multiple points without the necessity of using multiple cameras and specific targets. The resolution of the position of a point is dramatically improved, and the elimination of special illuminating conditions in the scene are unnecessaries. This proposal will provide a software package for an automated docking. Commercial applications exist in flight vehicle docking automated navigation, flight refueling, precision materials fabrication, collision avoidance, and modal analysis.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Richard Samms
DARPA 99-049
Title:Advanced Geomotries for Vision-Based Satellite Docking
Abstract:One of these technical challenges that needs to be overcome for an unmanned servicing vehicle to be practical is to provide for robotic docking of the service shuttle to the satellite. In order to achieve docking, new technology is needed to measure precisely the relative positions of two bodies in space, where the availability of cooperative mechanisms may be limited. In this proposed research, we will develop advanced approaches for the first of these problems, position measurement, using the most flexible of all sensors, machine vision. With today's and tomorrow's fast, cheap computers, we can equip those small video cameras with extremely advanced processing, including the most advanced mathematical techniques for solving the difficult problem of passive tracking in six degrees of freedom.

MICHIGAN AEROSPACE CORP.
1050 Highland Drive, Suite E
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 975-8777
Michael Dobbs
DARPA 99-049
Title:Autonomous Satellite Docking System
Abstract:Six years ago, a low Earth orbit (LEO) demonstration for autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) was developed that provided a near-term option for validating many of the enabling technologies and concepts required for satellite re-supply and servicing. Flight hardware currently exists in the form of a target spacecraft payload intended for a small satellite. The hardware includes a docking mechanism, sensor targets, avionics, gas and payload re-supply interfaces for the target spacecraft, as well as a prototype of the docking system for the chaser spacecraft. The on-orbit demonstration was intended to validate that technology existed for performing autonomous rendezvous and docking that could lead to propellant re-supply for satellites, fluid/gas re-supply for orbiting laboratories, and payload exchange for satellites or servicing missions. The existing hardware and mission planning results will be described in this proposal. Because of the work performed on this previous ARD mission, many of the Phase I tasks have already been addressed. Phase I would be used to upgrade our system design and engineering drawings to incorporate improvements in technology that have taken place over the past six years as well as update the docking scenario, mission planning and analysis, and performance estimates to reflect these technology improvements.

NRG RESOURCE SYSTEMS, INC.
7467 W. Nichols Place
Littleton, CO 80128
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 904-1326
Andrew Poulter
DARPA 99-050
Title:Reconfiguring Surface Terrain Robot
Abstract:The goal for this effort is to deliver a detailed design approach for the development of a rugged and portable (man-packable) shape shifting robotic platform. Our platform will have the ability to not only change shape to gain access and function efficiently within confined spaces in urban environments, but will have means of changing locomotion to be able to traverse more difficult terrain. This platform will have polymorphic locomotion/maneuvering system which includes a novel drive and articulation system that will have the ability to act as a wheeled robot to traverse terrain quickly, a crawling mode to enter buildings through narrow openings and also have the ability to articulate. This self righting robot will be able to traverse a wide range of environmental conditions such as; level ground, compound slopes, steps, building obstacles, building debris, sand, rocks, and ice surfaces. The platform will have the ability to divide and act independently to gain access or cover more territory during a mission. This robotic platform is based on a single unit and is easily expandable depending on mission parameters. DDARPAwould benefit from the existence of this lightweight, fully reconfigurable robot with payload options, tele-operation and partial autonomous navigation.

VISIONARY PRODUCTS, INC.
40 W Skyridge Circle, Suite #4
Logan, UT 84341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 755-9500
Robert Gunderson
DARPA 99-050
Title:A Modified ANT Shape Shifting Portable Robot
Abstract:Visionary Products, Inc. (80%) proposes to collaborate with Utah State university (20%) to develop a novel, articulated, shape shifting portable robot (SSRP), possessing a unique hybrid walking and rolling locomotion capability and a highly terrain-conformable 3-degree of freedom structural geometry. The concept employs snap-together lightweight modules, each with two extendable-retractable legs attached to an instrument chassis at rotatable hip joints. Independently controlled omni-directional wheels are attached to each leg to provide speed and agility when walking or climbing locomotion is not necessary. By rotating, extending or retracting its legs, the VPI concept (MANTIS) can also modify its geometry to clear high objects and pass under combinations of low clearances and narrow openings. Importantly, it can maximize range and duration of a mission by using legged locomotion only when necessary, relying upon highly mobile and fast ODV locomotion when it is not. The objective of Phase I will be to demonstrate that the MANTIS is technologically feasible and to show by DADS simulation that it is capable of meeting, or exceeding, solicitation performance specifications. The team will be headed by Dr. Robert Gunderson, who recently retired from USU and joined VPI as its Chief Technology Officer.