DoD SBIR FY99.2 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Army - Navy - DARPA - OSD - SOCOM

---------- ARMY ----------

198 Phase I Selections from the 99.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 675-7404
James M. Lorenz
ARMY 99-001
Title:Hyperspectral Data Fusion
Abstract:A program to demonstrate the feasibility of reducing the size and cost of the Surface Optics Corporation (SOC) MIDIS hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data processing electronics by implementing these hyperspectral data fusion electronics in application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technology is proposed. The proposed MIDIS electronics ASIC development (MEAD) investigation will utilize the existing, commerically available, MIDIS electronics design, which is implemented using FPGAs and discrete memories as a starting point for the effort. The Phase I task will be to modify and partition the MIDIS electronics design for optimum implementation in an ASIC. The results of the Phase I plus Fast Track option tasks will be the selection of a target silicon technology and libraries for the ASIC, an HDL design database for the ASIC at the RTL level ready for synthesis into the target technology, a proposed system architecture based on the ASIC, and ASIC NRE and production cost estimates. All of these items shall be targeted to result in an ASIC MIDIS electronics design that will meet or exceed the small volume goal of 6 cubic inches maximum. By building on SOC's eight years of experience in real-time HSI instrument and algorithm development, SOC's lead digital engineer's ASIC design experience at TRW, and Octera Corporation's extensive and proven ASIC design experience, the proposed program will produce a miniaturized MIDIS electronics design which will fit in a small volume and be less costly to produce so as to satisfy a variety of military and commercial applications. BENEFITS: Development of the MIDIS electronics ASIC chip will significantly enhance the potential of hyperspectral sensing technology to be utilized in a multitude of commercial and military applications. By reducing the size of the system, the processor can be included in truly mobile applications. By reducing the cost, many more areas for commercialization will be opened up. Applications include infrared HSI, hyperspectral X-ray and data fusion in general. Specific applications are military target ID and classification, damage assessment, friend or foe discrimination, non-destructive inspection, smart sensors/munitions, medical diagnostics and smart cars.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
101 West 6th Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Gary McMillian, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-001
Title:HYPERspectral Fusion ASIC (HYPER-ASIC)
Abstract:Systems and Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes to build 0.18 m or 0.25 m CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) to process and store Hyperspectral Imaging data. The ASICs will be able to process hyperspectral images up to 512 x 512 16 bit pixels spatial, by 256 values spectral data. It will be able to perform algorithms using the hardware currently implemented in FPGAs for match filtering and convolution. The use of ASICs can represent space savings of approximately 10:1 over FPGAs. The ASICs will be able to process a throughput greater than 1giga-pixel(16 gigabits) per second with a parallel architecture using an 1:8 GaAs de-multiplexer. Data storage capabilities will be of initial, intermediate, or processed data and will be on the order of 1megabit per ASIC. The system of ASICs will be able to perform a number of Government supplied algorithms including Match filtering and convolution using a multiply/accumulate process to perform operations such as haze and atmosphere removal and unmixing. BENEFITS: Hyperspectral Imaging is predicted to have wide use in both military and industry. Several applications, listed by category are; military, target detection, industrial, agriculture, pollution, semiconductor production, anti-terrorism, counterfeiting, and medical. With all of these possible uses for hyperspectral imagery will come a great demand for a processor capable of effectively separating anomalies from the data.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71, Etna Road
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
William R. Baschnagel
ARMY 99-002
Title:An Innovative Cargo Securement Mesh with Integral Light-weight, Low-cost Tensioning Devices and Adaptable Control Systems
Abstract:Current techniques for securing loads to the Container Roll In/Out Platform employ standard commercial strapping and a multiplicity of field fabricated dunnage. This is resource intensive, time consuming, requires great attention to following preplanned instructions and not well suited for field use. During Phase I we will develop an anisotropic cargo securement mesh with integrated "smart" tensioning devices that will address the shortfalls of the current approach. The lateral mesh elements are the primary load carrying elements while the more elastic longitudinal elements adapt to the cargo and distribute lateral and longitudinal loads. The integral tensioning devices will be individually powered and adaptable to a spectrum of open or closed loop control systems. BENEFITS: The proposed system will provide a cost effective, flexible securement system suitable for use throughout the logistic system including at the unit level in the field. It will eliminate the need for detailed preplanned instructions and reduce or eliminate the need for field fabricated dunnage.

TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
7975 S. Main Street
Mesilla Park, NM 88047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 524-2154
Dr. Alton L. Gilbert
ARMY 99-003
Title:INNOVATIVE NON-LINE-OF-SIGHT PASSIVE ACOUSTIC SENSORS FOR TARGET LOCATION AT EXTENDED RANGES
Abstract:Non-cooperative acoustics has been identified as having high value and will be used in selected Force XXI weapons systems for detection, acquisition, tracking and identification of targets on the combat applications, however none to date have been developed and demonstrated in land-detection, tracking and classification capability with extended duration deployments deep into the battle-space. To date one of the most promising technologies for such a sensor has been the adaptive beam-forming sensor technology developed by Alliant Techsystems, who is no longer in the business. An alternative that has potential to be of comparable performance has been developed by a division of Texas Instuments, now part of Raytheon. Also, Penn State University has developed important technologies in noise mitigation and classification. TSI has entered into an agreement with each of these organizations to perform a comparative evaluation and assessment of these technologies as a basis for a practical Unattended NLOS Acoustic Sensor System (UNASS) for battlefield applications as a part of this effort. Having a starting point for the technology is only one aspect of the development of a practical UNAS. From a "systems" perspective the UNASS will only satisfactorily perform its function if it can be deployed for extended periods without servicing, communicate with a station that can exploit its reconnaissance reports, operate under varying environmental conditions, and provide valuable information at an affordable cost. A long-range sensor is at most only one system component, albeit an extremely important one. This effort will examine the benefits to be obtained by coupling sensors with differing characteristics, including long range (but more costly) sensors and short range (but very inexpensive) sensors to achieve the UNASS objectives. BENEFITS: The physics of acoustic propagation, sources, environment, background noise and sensor performance are not specific to military problems. The technologies proposed as applied to military contexts are intentionally designed so that specific military sources and sounds of combat are isolated from the physics-based modeling in data files, and commercially-equivalent sources (aircraft, trains, automobiles, fog-horns, whistles, sirens, etc.) can readily be substituted for tanks and RWA when used for non-defense applications. Indeed, some of these very sources have relevance to Operations Other Than War (OOTW) missions of the US Military, since OOTW exercises are most often conducted in non-militarized areas, and adverse actions directed at Peace-Keeping/Peace-Making forces may employ a multiplicity of sound-producing transportation methods. This data-driven approach, together with modest changes to the combat simulation to be a simulation of traffic patterns and source-sensor interactions, make the proposed libraries/technologies readily adaptable to use in noise abatement studies, sound-level predictions, and related analyses for urban planning, sound pollution control, and approach-path analyses for airports.

OMNITECH ROBOTICS, INC.
2640 South Raritan Circle
Englewood, CO 80110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 922-7773
Sid Gluckman
ARMY 99-004
Title:Automated Material Handling Equipment
Abstract:The ATLAS forklift, equipped with a heavy-lift extensible crane, is capable of lifting and moving a variety of payloads, both hazardous and non-hazardous. However, the restricted view from the driver's cab makes it difficult or impossible for an unassisted ATLAS driver to engage payload pallets with the vehicle's lifting forks. Instead, a "ground guide" observer must direct these operations while the driver operates the controls. This guided operation requires two skilled people on the scene, which is not only an inefficient use of manpower, but also a significant risk to life and limb during hazardous operations such as munitions loading. Three evolutionary steps are envisioned to address this problem. First, a means will be developed to permit the ATLAS driver to view, engage, lift, move, and place pallets without the assistance of a ground guide. Second, these solutions will be adapted to a teleoperation system such as the Standardized Robotic System, to permit the solo ATLAS driver to perform all required vehicle operations remotely. Third, the teleoperation system will be adapted for fully autonomous operation, so that the vehicle driver need not be present at all. BENEFITS: Reduced personnel needed due to elimination of ground guide, with potentially increased safety. Also teleoperation control is enabled, enhancing unmanned operation capability and efficiency.

ENCAPCO, L.P.
P.O. Box 2223, 11555 Dublin Blvd.
Dublin, CA 94568
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 829-9595
William Jones
ARMY 99-005
Title:Innovative Treatment of Depleted Uranium Contaminated Soils
Abstract:The use of organic based emulsions in the construction industry goes back over 50 years. The first commercial asphaltic emulsions were emulsified-asphaltic oils for dust control. Continued development of this technology produced asphaltic-based emulsion/aggregate systems strong enough not to flow or rut under traffic loading yet were resilient enough not to crack or break apart through weather extremes. In addition, organic based emulsions were developed for generic soil stabilization and dust control use. Professional guidelines have been published for the use of organic based emulsions in soil stabilization. The Asphalt Institute Manual Series MS-1, MS-10 and MS-14 covers specifications and methods for emulsified treated base. We have proven that an emulsion can also be made to sequester most cationic metals rendering them insoluble within the treated soil matrix. We propose to test both modidfied asphalt and tall oil pitch based emulsions for characteristics beneficial to mitigating on-site physical and chemical migration of depleted uranium(DU) in firing range soils. The study will evaluate treated soil strength parameters, DU solubility, DU corrosivity, biological impacts, and methods of field design and application. We also propose to conduct a field pilot test based on results of the laboratory work. Potential clients for this technology include DOD,USDOE, USEPA, and private industry. BENEFITS: In place stabilization of DU contaminated soils should prove to be the most efficient and cost effective approach to remediation and on-going maintenance of active ranges. The technology could not only prove to be viable at DU contaminated manufacturing and military sites, but at other public and private facilities containing contaminants such as lead and arsenic.

QED TECHNOLOGIES
1080 University Avenue
Rochester, NY 14607
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 256-6540
Donald Golini
ARMY 99-006
Title:Subaperture Scanning Interferometer for Aspheric and Conformal Surfaces
Abstract:On-axis subaperture interferometry is ideally suited to the high-precision metrology of axisymmetric aspheres of moderate aperture size and numerical aperture. Innovative approaches are required, however, to make the testing of larger aspheres or non-axisymmetric surfaces (such as conformals) both flexible and cost effective. To meet this need, QED proposes to develop a scanning, off-axis, subaperture system. The success of this system relies on the innovations we propose for (i) subaperture stitching with low noise and automatic system calibration and (ii) the processing of high-density (sub-Nyquist) interference fringes. The key step is the system calibration that is to automatically remove the limiting errors associated with aberrations in both the reference wave and imaging optics as well as positioning errors and image distortion. The Phase I work is to be implemented as a modification to a standard phase-shifting interferometer. The results will demonstrate our ability to perform high precision (error < ) subaperture metrology on nominally spherical and weakly aspheric surfaces. It will also quantify the performance of our empirical methods for system calibration. Success in Phase I will provide the foundation for the Phase II tasks of developing a fully automated subaperture metrology system for more strongly aspheric optics including conformals. BENEFITS: This new metrology product will enable reliable and cost effective fabrication of aspheric and conformal optics with applications in a variety of commercial, scientific, and military optical systems (e.g. high-end cameras, photolithography, and head up displays).

HI-Z TECHNOLOGY, INC.
Suite 7400, 7606 Miramar Road
San Diego, CA 92126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 695-6660
Daniel T. Allen
ARMY 99-008
Title:Milliwatt Generator
Abstract:As an alternate to chemical batteries a milliwatt power supply utilizing tritium as the power source will be developed. Radiation (betas) from the Tritium will not be discernable since the tritium is encapsulated in a metal can and the betas are easily shielded. Thermoelectrics will be used to generate the electric output. This technology is presently funded by DOE and DARPA and doing well. The U. S. Army need only develop the heat source in Phase I. Hi-Z recommends two other heat source concepts be pursued: A miniature fossil-fired burner analogous to cigarette lighters and molten salts that after heating above their melting point exhibit very slow cooling rates so four hour mission lifetimes can be attained. Long life and high reliability are expected, such that for military use these can be "install and forget" power supplies. From cost and dependability standpoints this battery replacement will be a significant improvement over the status quo. Work will include design of the generator, detailed safety analysis and projections of economics in military and in civil (dual use) deployment. BENEFITS: Development of this compact generator as a battery substitute will benefit military and commercial users of rechargeable and/or one-use chemical batteries. It provides longer life, greater energy density, competitive cost and high reliability. A range of consumer electronics from camcorders to cell phones could use this power source.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 379-3137
Dr. Duane D. Smith
ARMY 99-010
Title:A New Approach to Ultra-Precision Laser Gunnery
Abstract:Coherent Technologies Inc. (CTI) proposes to develop a laser-guided munitions system to meet the ultra-precision targeting requirements of the Objective Sniper Weapon. The system will also be applicable to other components of the Objective Weapons suite. The laser designator will have a >2 km range capability while simultaneously providing aimpoint selection with ~10 cm cross-range precision and rangefinding to +/-1 m. Targeting and guidance will be facilitated with a miniature 1.5 micron eyesafe diode-pumped solid state laser transmitter. External ballistics control will be implemented by a laser receiver and innovative control loop mechanism within the round. This novel approach obviates conventional muzzle correction techniques such as cross-wind measurements and largely mitigates against variables such as humidity, temperature, altitude, elevation angle, propellant variations, and barrel wear. In Phase I, a demonstrator for the laser transmitter will validate the optical design. The external ballistics guidance control mechanism will also be modeled and a preliminary design advanced. In Phase II, the demonstrator system will be fabricated and tested. The simplicity and accuracy of the laser guidance system and smart bullet will facilitate development of a variety of different smart munitions following the Phase II brassboard prototype development. CTI's on-going programs in tactical laser-enhanced weapon development provide leverage for the proposed effort. BENEFITS: In addition to the Objective Sniper Weapon, the laser-guided munitions system will be applicable to other components of the Objective Weapons suite and law enforcement needs. The miniature laser rangefinder itself will have other military applications such as target and landmark location, fire control from tanks and aircraft, and collision avoidance. Civilian uses include surveying, navigation, collision avoidance, search and rescue, and sports.

LUTRONIX
13627 Portofino Drive
Del Mar, CA 92014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 259-1006
Dr. Gary M. Lee
ARMY 99-010
Title:30 Cal Smart Sniper Rifle
Abstract:This is a proposal for the design, fabrication, and flight test for a 30 cal smart sniper "rifle." The smart bullet has a steering capability that allows it to correct for gravity and wind. The slow spinning bullet is optically tracked by the "rifle" and an optical communication system to the bullet provides guidance commands. The processor at the "rifle" estimates the bullet spin angle using a polarized laser illuminator and a polarized corner cube on the bullet. The bullet is steered using either canards, wings, fins, or aerospike control. Piezoceramic actuators drive the aerodynamic surfaces, providing wide bandwidth control with low weight, low volume, low cost, and high electrical efficiency. A 30 cal smart sniper rifle should weigh roughly 15 lb. Automatic target tracking and optical stabilization using micro gyros will be provided. Direct pointed accuracy of less than 10 cm at 2000 m range is achievable. BENEFITS: The proposed system will greatly increase the range of 30 cal weapons for both military and commercial hunting applications. This technology is applicable to much larger calibers and could be used for air-to-air combat, ship defense against sea skimming missiles, or a Bradley gun for defense against helicopters.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Susan C. Fischer
ARMY 99-011
Title:Development and test of a conceptual framework for critical thinking skills within a military context
Abstract:Despite a long history of research on critical thinking (CT), efforts to train these skills have been hampered by the lack of a dominant model. The primary objective of Phase I will be to develop a model of CT, applied to military decision making. The model will be used in Phase II to direct development of an instructional system whose purpose will be to train future battle commanders in CT skills. The model will be used to identify and select a set of CT skills essential for successful Battle Command. A second objective will be that each skill selected should be trainable. A third objective of the Phase I effort will be to demonstrate that each CT skill comes with an associated suite of reliable and valid performance measures. The model of CT will be derived from several sources of information: (1) basic and applied literature on critical thinking, (2) a conceptual analysis of critical thinking cases, and (3) interviews with Army battlefield commanders. The model will situate critical thinking within the context of human cognitive processing and military decision-making. Phase I will culminate with specified functional requirements for an instructional program in critical thinking for battle commanders. BENEFITS: Phase II research will use the model and the functional requirements to develop a much-needed instructional system for military battlefield commanders. Because the decision and information demands levied on military commanders are extensive, training in critical thinking may greatly benefit the decision making process. However, this instructional system would be a valued and highly marketable product for other industries interested in promoting critical thinking (CT). For example, corporations may want to use the system to train their employees in CT. We anticipate that educational systems, in particular vocational training such as for nursing and technical education, would also be potential markets for the instructional system. The model will also direct development of reliable and valid assessment instruments of CT which could also be marketed to businesses and educational institutions interested in applying testing for assessment, selection, and placement issues.

COGNITIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4200 Lorcom Lane
Arlington, VA 22207
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 524-4331
Marvin S. Cohen
ARMY 99-011
Title:Development and Test of a Framework for Critical Thinking Skills in a Military Context
Abstract:The first objective of the proposed research is to develop a framework that organizes and evaluates empirical findings and theoretical concepts in areas relevant to critical thinking processes and critical thinking training. The second objective is to apply and test the framework by systematically prioritizing open research questions in terms of their practical importance for the development of Army critical thinking training, and by selecting several such questions for investigation in Phase II. These objectives will be achieved by means of four basic tasks and two optional tasks: (1) Creation of an advisory board of prominent researchers in relevant areas; (2) identification and analysis of key critical thinking issues, positions, and arguments; (3) integration of key issues into a comprehensive framework; (4) prioritization and selection of research issues for Phase II; (5) (optional) implementation of a graphical, interactive, and collaborative user interface for the critical thinking framework; and (6) (optional) use of the automated tool for more detailed modeling of the selected research Phase II research issues. BENEFITS: Rapid change and uncertainty in the business environment have made critical thinking a highly prized skill at all levels in today's business. We will actively pursue sales of the critical thinking training developed in Phase II among a variety of potential commercial customers. These may include airline pilot training, air traffic control, nuclear power plant operation, law enforcement, hospital emergency room physicians, business executives, financial traders, strategic planners, and many others.

ACG
10005 Culverene Drive
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 465-8989
Dr. Salim Akhtar
ARMY 99-012
Title:Lightweight Personal Protective Head Gear Communication System for the Dismounted Soldier
Abstract:Project Venus is proposed to meet expanding demands on current overloaded helmet systems. It is a lightweight total head modular system emphasizing protection and human factors concerns. Comfort is key for the technology-and-user-driven appliance that will create a pride of ownership - no helmet is worth much if soldiers will not wear it when needed. The modular architecture has two basic properties: a stand-alone system and interactive subsystems performed on the hypothesis that increased design reuse of subsystems and parts of existing helmet designs have a vast heritage. Clean Sheet Approach integrates the ABC learning curve (American, British & Canadian), ACG vast experiences and feedback from the end-users. Project Venus offers: (1) a modular styled helmet shape, opposite from "porridge-bowl" and "liberty bell" forms with a new surface finish, biomimicked smart materials replacing foams, chin strapless, shoulder-wrap, and with human factorial comfort providing protection to total head and upper proximity, (2) a ballistic and structural performance are improved by replacing outer 1/3rd with a carbon epoxy, maintaining `swatch fabric system, and replacing KM2 with Zylon fiber, (3) a modular Visual and Virtual Sensory Ensemble offering flat, 3-D geospatial helmet displays, and (4) a completely modular portable, self-powered ear-level communication system providing two-way communication, two-way video, 3-D audio processing, noise reduction and enhanced hearing using COTS PC and wireless technologies. BENEFITS: ACG, in its experience with previous products, has formulated that the helmets core technology and unique new design will be general enough to ensure commercial success. ACG will extensively use industrial design as an important tool for both satisfying customer needs and differentiating their products from those of their competition. ACG design will communicate a mature visual quality helmet in addition to its utility and low cost.

ELECTRO-STOMA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
10401 Old Georgetown Rd, #310
Bethesda, MD 20814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 530-0700
Barry L. Mersky, DDS
ARMY 99-013
Title:Human Communication Performance in High Noise Environments
Abstract:The technical objective is to deliver an improved, low cost, hands-free communication system for use in many military high noise environments but with particular benefit to warfighters on-the-run or in special situations. The goal is accomplished by relying on a (dental) bone conduction communication pathway which is generally insensitive to the high noise which exists in the air environment and air communication pathway. The system uses a novel transducer which: (1) Acts as both a sensor (microphone) and actuator (receiver for listening), (2) Is firmly attached to the teeth, and (3) Is linked through a wireless intraoral transceiver to a body worn larger transceiver. The system shall be called the TAS, for Tooth Actuator / Sensor. Prior research has shown that a similar system delivers greater than 80% speech intelligibility in Modified Rhyme Testing in high noise (85-100 dBA). It is anticipated that the completed system will provide 92% speech intelligibility in extreme noise conditions (115-140 dBA). BENEFITS: The anticipated commercial potential of the TAS initially is for use in high noise environments including aviation, firefighting and heavy machinery. Another market could be based on the TAS covert features, implying benefit to law enforcement groups. If the human factors performance is exceptional, then the TAS may represent the next generation of telephone-human interface.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Dr. C.M. Kwan
ARMY 99-014
Title:Noise Elimination for Enchanced Speech Recognition
Abstract:This proposal details a new approach to filtering noise from speech. It has two primary advantages. First, it allows additional data sources to be added with only minimal modification to the code. Our phase 1 work will focus on two types of sensors in addition to a conventional microphone. These are a speech reading sensor, and a vocal fold micropower impulse radar microphone. Our generic approach to noise filtering will allow those and/or other sensors to be added, with the data fused to provide an estimate of the speech frequencies which can then be used to filter noise from speech. The second advantage of our approach is that the system does not, and cannot, add artifacts to the speech such as often happens with other noise filtering algorithms. Conventional noise filtering algorithms are very effective in filtering noise from speech, but they add artifacts to the speech which confounds automated speech understanding. This cannot happen with our approach. The basic system exploits a neural net to learn the relationship between the sensor inputs (as many as are available) and the correct frequencies in the speech. During use, noise frequencies are filtered out, leaving clear speech which can be input to commercial speech recognizers. BENEFITS: IAI is planning on commercializing this technology in the near term with an advanced "automated push to talk" mechanism whereby the user's transmitter will be automatically keyed when they speak, but which will not be keyed by noise. The need to manually key a microphone is a major problem for fireman, policeman, race car drivers, etc. We already have a source of private funds for this particular near term product.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Narasimha Prasad
ARMY 99-015
Title:High-speed, fast tracking, mobile, and eye-safe laser communication system
Abstract:Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) proposes to develop a laser communication system (LCS) with a fast tracking and scanning unit for greater than 100 Mbit/s data rate applications in a battle field environment. The novel LCS will provide for eye-safe operation with a laser engagement range up to 5 km between two vehicles traveling up to 30 mph. The tracking unit will be designed to reduce the probability of data link breakdown due to travelling on rough terrain. The approach will capitalize upon innovative scanner designs developed by CTI for military laser radar systems, and the advancing MOEMS technology. The baseline scheme is a 1.55 mm laser diode source with a MOEMS based scanner and a tracker with three different design configurations for laser tracking. For completeness, system-level performance analyses will assess the cost-effectiveness and field-worthiness of competing technologies such as Er:glass bulk lasers, optical fiber lasers, and diode lasers alone. Phase I will (1) produce system level signal-to-noise ratio assessments for 1.5 mm wavelength data link, including scintillation, fade, extinction and optical receiver noise statistics, (2) establish quantitative comparisons of the competing candidate technologies, and (3) execute risk reduction measurements to ensure technical and cost feasibility for Phase II hardware deliverables. BENEFITS: enhance troop communication effectiveness, enhance battle field awareness, eye-safe short-range vehicle collision avoidance sensors, search and rescue laser beacons, identify friend/foe

THESMALLWORLD.COM, INC.
885 Third Avenue, Suite 2900
New York, NY 10022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 829-5571
Christopher W. Snyder, Ph
ARMY 99-016
Title:Speech Translation for Mobile Environments
Abstract:Proposal for development of neural network based machine translation engines integrated seamlessly with advanced front-end speech to text modules advanced back-end speech generation modules, over a network. BENEFITS: Cross-language communications applications for use in law enforcement, clinical medicine, tourism and emergency humanitarian relief, as well as educational and business applications over the internet.

SPIRE CORP.
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6000
Kurt J. Linden, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-017
Title:Monolithic Multiwavelength Materials for RF Photonic Device Integration
Abstract:This proposed Phase I SBIR program is aimed at developing a low-cost method for incorporation of lasers, amplifiers, waveguides, modulators, phase shifters and splitters on a single chip for use in microwave phased array antenna control and related RF signal processing functions. Specific semiconductor device designs require different material properties which normally precludes such monolithic integration. However, through innovative use of stripe-patterned selective epitaxial growth, semiconductor layers with different strain and bandgap can be simultaneously deposited on a wafer in a single epitaxial growth operation. The Phase I work consists of the design of an InGaAsP multi-quantum well (MQW) p-i-n epitaxial structure which is to be grown on InP wafers patterned with silicon nitride stripes of different widths and stripe openings. The variable-bandgap properties of the patterned, epitaxially-grown MQW p-i-n material will be measured and correlated with stripe geometry. Measurements of photoluminescence emission wavelength vs. stripe geometry will provide design data for use in Phase II monolithic device and circuit designs. Phase II will deal with the effects of epitaxial growth reactor operating conditions on patterned layer growth and demonstration of a monolithic integrated waveguide subsystem including several types of devices, with delivery of prototype materials to ARL. BENEFITS: The availability of monolithic, integrated RF optoelectronic chips will open the route towards achieving reliable and low-cost components for use in microwave phased array antenna and related microwave signal processing systems. These cost reductions occur because integration simplifies manufacturing and testing, and eliminates cumbersome fiber coupling operations. Once developed, this chip fabrication technology can be adapted to a variety of photonic devices and device combinations thereby enabling the manufacture of entirely new RF, optical computing, and WDM systems. RF photonic systems find widespread use in military avionics and for commercial aviation and communication applications.

MOHAWK INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1037 Watervliet Shaker Rd
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Hooshang Heshmat, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-019
Title:Oil-Free Power and Propulsion Systems
Abstract:The Army's need for high specific output power, durable and maintenance free turbomachinery such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and small gas turbine engines for helicopters, Uninhabited Air and Air Combat Vehicles (UAV/UCAV), missiles, and drones, dictates that light weight, high-speed and high-power propulsion systems be developed. Compliant foil gas bearings with the ability to operate without DN limitations of conventional bearings and high temperatures without lubricants have the potential to make significant improvements in advanced turbomachinery thrust to weight ratios and fuel efficiency. Key issues to be addressed under this program will include foil journal bearing scaling, thrust foil bearing load capacity and multiple system development cost reductions. Design requirements for a broad range of both power systems and gas turbine engines will be reviewed, design optimization tradeoff studies completed and rotor system integration analysis completed to demonstrate the feasibility of developing foil bearings suitable for a wide range of applications at reduced development costs. A universal test rig for use in Phase II will also be conceived and a preliminary design completed. BENEFITS: Potential additional applications for this enabling technology include small general aviation gas turbine engines, pipeline compressors, stationary auxiliary power units, turboexpanders, air cycle machines, and cryogenic turbopumps. The key benefit of this program will be improved foil bearing designs and the associated development tools.

R&D DYNAMICS CORP.
15 Barber Pond Road
Bloomfield, CT 06002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 726-1204
Dr. Giri L. Agrawal
ARMY 99-019
Title:Foil Air Bearing Technology for Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:There is a great need of gas turbine engines and auxiliary power units providing improved performance, lower cost, better maintainability, and higher reliability. Foil air bearings do provide a promising choice in meeting these goals. Foil air bearings are successfully being used in air cycle machines of aircraft environmental control system. They are showing excellent reliability, maintainability and reduced cost for these machines. High temperature application of foil bearings, such as for gas turbine engines, require further research and development. A new generation of foil bearings is proposed, which is suitable for high temperature application, such as gas turbine engines. This bearing will have high load capacity and high coulomb damping even without high preload on the shaft. Low preload will result in less wear in start-stop cycles and, therefore, will provide high reliability and long life. In Phase I, the foil bearing concept suitable for high temperature application will be tested. In Phase I Option, parametric testing of the bearing will be performed. Analytical and design tools will be generated. In Phase II, an existing small gas turbine engine will be modified to be supported on foil air bearings. It will be tested for performance, vibration, shock load capacity, and reliability. BENEFITS: High temperature foil bearings will provide more efficient, quieter, less costly and environmentally acceptable propulsion and power generating systems.

3TEX ENGINEERED FIBER PRODUCTS
109 MacKenan Drive
Cary, NC 27511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 481-2500
Alex Bogdanovich
ARMY 99-020
Title:Innovative Processing of Multifunctioning Composite Ground Armor
Abstract:Critical Army initiatives established weight reduction goals of up to 50% for armored combat systems, to improve deployment, mobility, and transportability, without sacrificing survivability, lethality, or maintainability. This presents the opportunity for a systems approach to armor design, using multifunctional materials, with light weight designs achieved through identifying and exploiting beneficial synergies between system components. This program will demonstrate an armor technology capable of reducing the weight of current ceramic composite armors used on military land vehicles by 30%, with negligible increase in system costs per area. Two unique, highly tailorable material process technologies will be examined: fiber reinforcement of patented, orthogonal 3-D weaves, and aluminum metal foam, fabricated by a patented, low cost powder metallurgy process. The proposed systems will address multifunctional requirements, including load bearing, damage tolerance, maintainability, signature reduction, and environmental resistance. Weight reduction will be achieved by grading armor properties through the system thickness to optimize performance. Failure mechanisms at various locations through the thickness, and important interfacial interactions will be considered. Understanding gained in this program can be applied to achieve greater weight savings, potentially 50%, at increased cost with higher performance raw materials. BENEFITS: The result of the proposed program is not only a multi-functional, lightweight, functionally graded 3-Weave/Metal foam armor system for defeat of specific ballistic threats, but also substantial engineering know-how related to use of these novel materials in lightweight ballistic applications. This know-how can be applied to reach the severe weight goals of the Army's new vehicles such as the Crusader self propelled gun system and resupply vehicle, the Future Scout Vehicle, or the Future Fighting Vehicle, and even the lighter weight tanks. The combination of weight and cost should also make it a candidate for the nearer term weight reduction or performance improvements in vehicles such as the XM11115 HMMWV. The armor system validated in the proposed program should have immediate use as an applique armor on currently fielded military vehicles such as armored personnel carriers, fighting vehicles, armored gun systems, and some troop transport vehicles. The engineering know-how developed in the proposed program can also be used to apply the functionally graded 3WeaveT/Metal Foam armors to a broad spectrum of light weight, durable, multi-functional cost sensitive armor applications including; aircraft armor, such as in cargo aircraft which are less weight sensitive and more cost sensitive than in helicopter applications, gun shields on ships and patrol boats, rolling barriers and shields for law enforcement or VIP protection. 3WeaveT/Metal Foam armor is a multi-functional system possessing exceptional strength and stiffness to weight characteristics, excellent energy absorption, thermal management capabilities, fire resistance, and vibration and dampening.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Chian-Fong Yen, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-020
Title:Innovative Processing of Multifunctional Composite Armor for Ground Vehicles (P0G01-927)
Abstract:Multifunctional armor systems have shown great promise for use in Army combat systems requiring ballistic, blast, electromagnetic and fire protection. The application of these multi-layered composite systems would benefit from accurate and verified predictive design tools to optimize material performance at minimum cost. The purpose of the proposed Phase I SBIR program will be to develop and demonstrate an integrated design and processing procedure for fabrication of various multifunctional armor systems that provide improvements in cost, weight, damage tolerance, and repairability. Materials Sciences Corporation will team with the University of Delaware - Center of Composite Materials (UD-CCM) to create such an integrated cost-effective procedure for design, development and fabrication of multifunctional armors. This team possesses a thorough knowledge of the state-of-the-art in composite mechanics, material processing and fabrication technology. This program will establish an efficient analysis methodology to perform ballistic/blast dynamic analysis to evaluate and design potential armor systems to promote high ballistic/blast resistance and structural efficiency. The pre-manufacturing analysis will provide guidelines for enhancement of an innovative resin transfer molding process currently under developing at UD-CCM. A series of ballistic target plates will be designed, fabricated and tested for concept verification. BENEFITS: This research will provide an integrated procedure for designing and fabricating armor system with a variety of protection levels for the ballistics/blast armor market. Applications will include both military and civil markets. The military market includes armored ground combat vehicles, surface ships, aircraft, and shelters. The civil market includes armored security vehicles, blast resistant cargo containers, blast barriers for infrastructure, and personnel armors.

SOLECTERIA CORP.
33 Industrial Way
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 658-2231
Vasilos Brachos
ARMY 99-020
Title:Performing of Composite Armor for Ground vehicles Usng Heat Activated Binder Systems
Abstract:One of the remaining barriers to the wide acceptance and implementation composites in structural applications is the high cost associated with the manufacturing of structural composite parts. Preform assembly, as it is currently done, is the single most costly step in the fabrication of fiber-reinforced polymer composites. Current techniques of assembling preforms for most liquid resin infusion processes involve the hand lay-up of individual fiber plies in a molding tool. An inexpensive and effective means to connect a large number of individual fiber plies so that the desired preform shape is achieved has been developed and demonstrated by Solectria Corporation. The objective of this effort is to investigate and evaluate the performance of preforms created by using this preforming technology with respect to composite armor requirements. Aspects of the binder behavior that will be investigated include: 1) The mechanism in which the binder interacts with the type of glass used in composite armors. 2) The compatability between the binder and the fiber sizing and 3) The effects of binder chemistry, particle size and concentration on the properties of the stabilized preform and molded parts. BENEFITS: The project will result in a preforming technology package capable of producing preforms for market such as: 1) Add-on composite armor packages for fielded systems, 2) body armor products, 3) the Crusader program, 4) the Future Scout vehicle and 5) other automotive products for the army.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 434-6392
Ranji Vaidyanathan, Ph. D
ARMY 99-021
Title:Solid Freeform Fabrication of low cost, in situ, metallic foam components for high energy absorption applications
Abstract:Advanced Ceramics Research Inc. (ACR) has developed solid freeform fabrication (SFF) techniques for polymers, ceramics, metals, and composites. Recently, ACR developed a unique water-soluble polymer blend as a support material for rapid-prototyping applications. This product, Aquaport-2000 won an R&D 100 Award for 1998. In this material, the minor-phase polymer blend became oriented in a direction parallel to extrusion, resulting in high aspect ratio fibrils ~ 15-30 m size. In addition, when heated above 200C, the major phase was found to foam. ACR proposes to use this product as a binder system and freeform fabricate metallic foams. During burnout of the binder material, (1) the thermoplastic fibrils will create directionally oriented high aspect ratio cells, and (2) the foaming agent will create open cells. This will produce a low cost, in situ, metallic foam with oriented microstructures. Since the extrusion is coupled with a freeform fabrication technique, the proposed technique can potentially yield geometrically complex metallic foam components directly from CAD designs. In this program, ACR will collaborate with Northrop-Grumman and South West Research Institute to develop guidelines and procedures for optimizing the performance of metallic foams and provide a preliminary cost/economic analysis for prototype components. BENEFITS: The commercial market for high energy-absorbing metallic foam structural components would be large and immediate. The market is just starting out and will have many applications in the DoD and commercial sectors. One such application would be for automotive bumpers that can absorb impacts. A conservative estimate puts the market for energy absorbers in automotive bumpers at 14 million per year. At a price of 20-40 dollars per bumper, the market for this product alone would be 280-560 million dollars per year. The application of aluminum foam components alone would be in the areas of heat sinks for electronic components, heat exchangers, heat shielding for aircraft exhaust, energy absorber for shaped charges, battery plates and spacers, aircraft wing structures, fuel tank baffles, silencer for jet engine intakes, aircraft armor for fragmentation capture and absorption, ablative sealing for compressor/turbine blades, to name a few. Therefore, successful development of a rapid prototyping technique for metallic foam components would be of great economic benefit to ACR. This is one area where the results from the proposed Phase I effort would have an immediate impact.

MER CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Lev Tuchinskiy
ARMY 99-021
Title:Novel Technology for High Energy-Absorbing Metallic Foams and Structural Components
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program addresses the need for affordable lightweight metallic foams and structural components subjected to dynamic loading. Its goal is to demonstrate the proof of innovative fabrication process for steel foams and to optimize their dynamic mechanical properties. The fabrication method can be applied to the industrial production of lightweight sandwich structures, foam filled tubes and complex shape components. The method may be used for production of foams and structural components from any metal, ceramic, intermetallic or composite. The technology includes co-extrusion, compaction and heat treatment of two materials, one of which is removed during the heat treatment leaving formed-in-place open channel-shape cells. Relative density in the range from 5% to 100% of the fully dense solid can be obtained. The process has the potential for making inexpensive and integrally stiffened structures. Using steel foams makes possible reduced weight, enhanced thermal, mechanic and acoustic properties, impact and blast resistance, fire retardation, buoyancy, and strain isolation. BENEFITS: Metal foams may be used for many DOD applications, such as tactical shelter panels, aircraft carrier elevator panels, rapid deployment pallets, cabin interiors, acoustic panels, unsinkable life rafts, docks, etc. commercial application includes lightweight metal sandwich panels for vehicle energy absorbing components and automotive interiors.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Chaolin Hu, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-021
Title:Direct Fabrication of Nano-Reinforced Metallic Foams
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. proposes an innovative single step method for fabricating low density, high performance, in-situ nano metal matrix composite (MMC) structural foam materials to net-shape. Triton Systems is teamed with Laser Fare on the proposed effort to enhance a novel solid freeform fabrication process known as Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) technology to produce nano TMC foam structural materials. The proposed program will take advantage of Triton's recent advancements in laser processing TMC's, which have shown significant property enhancements compared with monolithic metals and alloys, to further improve the specific properties of the foam structure. The proposed technology will enable net shape manufacture of foam structures in a single fabrication step and allow the structure to be engineered (as opposed to the random nature of current metallic foams) to take maximum advantage of the material for a given application. The proposed material and process technology will enable the design and manufacture of structural foam parts to be optimized for a given application (in terms of weight, strength, energy absorption, etc.) and decrease cost by eliminating expensive tooling. BENEFITS: The proposed materials and process technology will enable the affordable manufacture of high performance engineered structural foams designed for specific applications. Potential applications include energy absorbing components such as armor for the military and automobile bumpers for civilian use and high temperature combustion engine components.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGY
14A Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2030
Hua Jiang
ARMY 99-022
Title:A Novel Low Loss Electrical and Magnetic Dual-tuning Microwave Structure
Abstract:The rapid expansion in the use of microwave communications has created a need for dramatically improved microwave devices. In adaptive microwave electronics, it is important and critical to tune the electrical characteristics of a microwave signal. Ferroelectrics and ferrites are the materials of choice providing the electrical and magnetic tunability for adaptive microwave devices, respectively. Individually, however, such tunability is based on the tradeoff of impedance mismatch. Any field induced dielectric constant or permeability change of the device will result in a deviation from the designed device impedance. The bigger the tunability, the greater the deviation of the impedance. An electrical and magnetic dual-tuning microwave device has the advantage of achieving frequency or phase tunability while keeping the impedance of the device unchanged. NZ Applied Technologies (NZAT) proposes to develop innovative dual-tuning microwave structures for adaptive microwave applications. An innovative metal-organic chemical liquid deposition will be utilized to grow low loss ferroelectric and ferrite films. By using our approach, the major source of dielectric loss caused by internal stress due to a lattice mismatch will be minimized. The dual-tuning structures developed in this program will lead to a new generation of microwave devices tuned either electrically or magnetically or both. BENEFITS: Success in the Phase I effort will lead to the commercial fabrication of a new generation of tunable microwave devices. These advanced devices will have great applications in military, space, industrial, and consumer sectors. Examples are tunable phase shifters, tunable filters, and tunable beam scan antennas.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle, Suite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Cecil F. Hess, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-023
Title:Planar image particle analyzer for whole field spray applications
Abstract:We propose to develop a whole field measurement technique that is capable of simultaneously sizing multiple transparent droplets on a plane from scattered light features that are independent of laser beam intensity and obscuration. Light scattered by reflection and refraction from droplets immersed in a laser sheet is recorded holographically to yield the smallest possible probe volume and correspondingly largest number density. Preliminary measurements demonstrate the ability to measure droplet concentrations from optically thin conditions to concentrations in excess of 10E5/cc. The size and position of each droplet will be measured on a plane formed by a pulsed laser. In regions of excessive droplet concentration resulting in clusters of overlapping images, the technique will report the number of droplets in each cluster. This will preclude a deficit in the mass flux calculation from unknown data rejection. A program consisting of modeling and proof-of-concept experiments is proposed for the Phase I effort. BENEFITS: The proposed system will measure the size distribution of droplets in a plane of a spray. This measurement capability will expand current point measurement techniques like PDPA in the same way that Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) expands the capability of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). That is, the technique represents a logical and much needed evolutionary step in two-phase flow diagnostics. We anticipate developing a technique with large commercial potential given the demand for instantaneous planar measurements.

NOMADICS, INC.
1730 Cimarron Plaza, PO Box 2496
Stillwater, OK 74076
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 372-9535
Dennis Reust
ARMY 99-024
Title:Adaptable Platforms for Application Specific Chemometric Spectroscopy
Abstract:Nomadics proposes to integrate a couple of leading edge technologies currently in use in other company products to develop a fluorescence-based sensor platform that will be highly adaptable in the detection of volatile compounds, such as organophosphates. Using a conjugated polymer developed by MIT and a blue/violet laser source, the platform can be specifically tailored to perform chemometric spectroscopy for a variety of substances. The system is based on highly portable technologies that make the system particularly useful for field applications. The system provides very high sensitivity and relatively low cost. BENEFITS: The proposed sensor platform will be particularly useful in the detection of vapor-phase compounds, including chemical and biological agents and volatile environmental contaminants, such as fuels, solvents, and toxic gases. The portability, sensitivity, and real-time response of the system make it specifically suitable for detecting low concentrations of target substances in the field. These applications include both defense and environmental uses.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Raman Mehra / B. Ravichan
ARMY 99-025
Title:Automatic Target Recognition Using Perceptual Organization
Abstract:Perceptual Organization refers to the ability of a machine vision system to organize detected features, or primitives, in images based on, for instance, Gestaltic criteria. Since some of the original work, which showed that even simple organizations, such as parallel lines and rectangles, can drastically prune the recognition search tree, there have been a number of contributions that demonstrate the importance of perceptual organization for various vision tasks such as object recognition, stereo, motion, image databases, building detection and change detection. This work proposes to develop an ATR architecture based on Perceptual Organization. This architecture, which is built on a Perceptual Inference Network, provides a framework for effectively dealing with ambiguities and the uncertainties and is able to prevent the subsequent secondary errors and artifacts from proliferating along the processing chain. This is because, ATR based on Perceptual Organization is not a feed forward process. Rather, if the subsequent processing affects earlier probability estimates, the process is able to return to these earlier steps in order to update these estimates. Integration of bottom-up processing with top-down feedback loops is crucial to obtain high performance ATR. Likewise, it is important to explicitly represent ambiguities and uncertainties arising from local processing until global inforrmation intervenes to resolve them. The Phase I will demonstrate the use of this new ATR algorithm to recognize an object such as a tank from both visible and infrared wavelengths. The Phase II will continue this development and demonstrate the ability to recognize whether any of several objects are present in a scene where the object may be partially occluded and present in various poses, the lighting on the object may be of varying intensity, and the entire image may be distorted by clutter. This demonstration will be tied to an Army testbed or platform. BENEFITS: The development of the above core technologies in ATR will serve as a foundation for Phase III commercialization. Commercial application of this technology exist in several areas such as: medical screening and diagnosis, remote sensing, road and bridge inspection, and buried waste detection.

MATHSOFT, INC.
1700 Westlake Ave No., Suite 500
Seattle, WA 98109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 283-8802
Jill Goldschneider
ARMY 99-026
Title:PDE Software for Digital Image Management
Abstract:The DoD collects large amounts of digital imagery from diverse sources such as hospital radiology departments, satellites, and unmanned surveillance vehicles. To systematically analyze these data, one must be able to denoise, segment, annotate, store, transmit, index, screen, and retrieve images in a consistent and easy-to-use environment. All of these tasks rely on image processing techniques to extract information from the raw imagery. Traditional image enhancement and segmentation techniques take a global view of the image, processing the entire image without considering local variations. Multiscale image processing techniques based on curvature-driven flows overcome many of the problems of traditional processing methods, especially for image enhancement and segmentation, since these techniques focus on features of the data that are found at different scales and resolutions. We propose to develop image enhancement, segmentation, motion estimation, and object tracking methods using curvature-based flow-driven nonlinear partial differential equation imaging models and algorithms, including total variation, level-set, and active contour techniques. We will demonstrate the feasibility of these techniques on specific applications in medical and tactical imaging, or to Army sponsor-directed imaging applications. This technology will improve the ability to analyze, index, and search digital imagery. BENEFITS: This research will lead to a software system for the processing, analysis and interpretation of digital image sequences using curvature-based flow-driven techniques including total variation, level-set, and PDE-based image techniques. The system will be demonstrated on medical imagery and on Army-sponsor supplied (tactical and/or medical) data. For DoD applications, this system will be valuable for medical and tactical image database management, medical clinical studies, target acquisition, and battlefield damage assessment. Commercial applications include medical imaging, and image and video database indexing, archiving, and retrieval.

REACTION ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL
77 West 200 South, Suite 210
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 364-6925
Michael P. Heap
ARMY 99-027
Title:Engineering Design Software for Military Incinerators
Abstract:The U.S. Army has been directed by Congress to dispose of its stockpile of chemical weapons and chemical agents. Incineration was selected by the Army as the preferred technology for stockpile disposal. Validated computer models for chemical agent incineration can provide the basis for more efficient and cost-effective designs, and confirm that the incineration operation does not negatively impact public health or the environment. The ultimate product from this research program will be an "Engineering Design Workbench" (EDW) for military incinerators. The workbench will: 1. Contain tools to allow the rational engineering design of optimized, economical incinerators for military use. 2. Define optimum operating conditions, destruction efficiency as a function of throughput, reactor configuration, product species and concentrations, capital and operating costs and energy needs. 3. Provide information about potential onset of reactor upsets and enable diagnosis of failures. 4. Simulate both military and commercial sector incinerators. The tools will be based on state-of-the-art process modules that will include the detailed chemistry and physics required to achieve these product specifications. The EDW will be pc based, user friendly and allow for a wide degree of customization concerning incinerator configuration, materials to be treated and the output visualization. BENEFITS: The proposed model will provide a means of quantifying emissions for different failure scenarios and regulatory assurance of safe plant operation. It will extend the incinerator trial burn data to predict emissions under routine (within required permit operating conditions) and upset operating conditions to increase public and regulatory confidence in the technology. The model will assist in regulatory negotiations, and guide trial burns. The simulation technology developed in this project will have widespread application in nonmilitary and commercial incineration of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes.

DYNASEN, INC.
20 Arnold Pl.
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 964-4410
Jacques A. Charest
ARMY 99-028
Title:Sensor System for In-situ 3D Soil Stress Analysis
Abstract:A field portable monitoring system is proposed that will provide ARO with the capability to measure the 3-D in-situ state of stress in soils which results from vehicle element's terrain interaction. The system will comprise a compact 3-D stress sensing package that is connected via a rugged flexible cable assembly to a field-portable controls/ excitation-and-amplification source and to an integrated data acquisition / Lap Top PC arrangement. The approach to stress measurements will consist in using three solid- or fluid-coupled high-output thin-film piezoresistive Carbon stress gauges that are orthogonal-mounted on the faces a suitable solid substrate block or behind its faces at the bottom of small fluid cavities. The 3-D sensing package will be integrally attached to a short rigid stem that extends into a set of armored and flexible output leads. Such arrangement can be made very small ( one cubic centimeter ) or as large as needed to meet the requirements. The Carbon stress gauge is capable of resolving stresses as low as a few PSI up 15,000 PSI or above in dynamic or static environments. Relying on nearly thirty years of experience in designing and manufacturing numerous types of soil stress sensors for UGT and AGT applications in support to nearly all US DOE and DOD Laboratories, the proposed system will be constructed and fully evaluated, and rendered functional at our test facility under simulated but representative stress environments prior to its delivery to the Army. Coupling to soil and methods for minimizing ground disturbance will also be investigated. A very degree of success is anticipated from this effort. BENEFITS: To allow researchers to model vehicle element interaction with soils. Earth Quake measurements and mining industry applications.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Stephen M. Hannon
ARMY 99-029
Title:Doppler Lidar DIAL/DISC Sensor for Plume Detection and Mapping
Abstract:The proposed Phase I/II program develops a unique meteorological sensor to provide a capability for volumetric range-resolved wind velocity and aerosol and tracer gas concentration to ranges of several kilometers. The proposed novel sensor is based on existing CTI-developed commercial off the shelf 2-micron pulsed coherent Doppler lidar hardware that is critically augmented with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to enable tunable mid-wave infrared operation for multi-color lidar aerosol characterization as well as differential absorption lidar measurement of tracer gas concentration. The Phase I program will conduct system performance trades to establish sensitivity and spatial and temporal resolution capability for various system configurations. Propylene sensitivity will be quantified relative to the scan strategy, system pulse rate and wavelength diversity. Transmitter design trades will be conducted to verify the baseline optical (OPO) material will meet the conversion efficiency, wavelength tuning and stability requirements. A preliminary design is then developed and technical risk areas and associated mitigation strategies are identified. In the Phase I Option, limited laboratory demonstrations/evaluations will be conducted using available hardware. The subsequent Phase II program will finalize the design, modify an existing (Army Research Office owned) transceiver and conduct field demonstration measurements at a designated government facility. BENEFITS: Potential applications include tactical surveillance for chem/bio defense, battle field smoke and cloud transport and structure model development and validation, fenceline monitoring of industrial facilities, turbulence statistics and turbulent transport modeling for meteorological research, and airport terminal area met state surveillance.

MONTEREY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
24600 Silver Cloud Ct., Suite 103
Monterey, CA 93940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 354-3149
Dr. Patricia A. Lakinsmit
ARMY 99-030
Title:Full Mission Simulation Evaluation and Risk Reduction
Abstract:Full mission simulation (FMS) of complex systems using human operators and high fidelity equipment prototypes can reduce development and acquisition risk. However, too many research, development and acquisition efforts make large FMS investments and achieve inconclusive results. In hindsight, the reasons for failure are often readily apparent. Information on past FMS successes and failures must be used constructively to see that the Army gets its money's worth in future FMS tests. In the Phase I, MTI, expert in success with FMS, will gather information on past FMS exercises and analyze it conceptually and quantitatively to identify chief contributors to FMS success and failure. MTI will develop a weighted set of predictor metrics for FMS outcomes and demonstrate a prototype software tool for FMS planners. MTI will also develop a companion handbook of FMS guidelines. During Phase II, the predictor metrics and guidelines will be validated with data collected in a Battle Lab war fighting experiment. Based on the results, MTI will modify the predictor metrics and incorporate them in a software tool to help FMS planners assess risk and adjust plans to insure maximum FMS payoff. The software tool will be demonstrated at the end of Phase II. BENEFITS: The ready customers for the FMS-Evaluation and Risk Reduction (FERR) system are the Army Battle Laboratories and other DoD components that develop human-in-the-loop simulations. The FERR can be adapted for use in civil simulation settings such as flight training, police and fire fighting command post tests and exercises, and urban traffic management center exercises.

ILLGEN SIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
130 Robin Hill Road, Suite 200
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 692-2333
Tom Strelich
ARMY 99-032
Title:Distributed Collaborative Environment for Simulation-Based Design and Acquisition
Abstract:The introduction of Sun's Jini technology and its innovative concept of spontaneous, "just-in-time" federations of services will fundamentally change the way software-intensive systems are developed, deployed, and utilized since it represents the next logical step in the progression and fusion of distributed component architectures with network technology. Jini's "federation of services" concept is consistent with the DMSO High Level Architecture's concept of federations and provides the additional advantage of widespread commercial acceptance and adoption. The symbiotic combination of Jini and HLA technologies represents a tremendous opportunity: Force XXI mission context modeling and simulation benefits from the application of advanced commercial-sector distributed component integration technologies, and the commercial-sector benefits from the application of high-fidelity formal semantics and runtime dynamics provided by HLA interoperation technologies. The overall objective of this effort is to design a Collaborative Environment based on the cooperative application of Jini and HLA technologies for the integration and interoperation of distributed simulators, simulations, models, tools, and databases supporting Force XXI mission context materiel development and evaluation. BENEFITS: A Jini/HLA Collaborative Environment has extraordinary dual-use potential: In addition to its tremendous value to Simulation-based Acquisition (SBA) and design, the Collaborative Environment is of potentially greater value in the commercial sector where it is ideally suited to the integration of enterprise-class applications and databases, an expanding $1 Billion market.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
3085 Woodman Drive, Suite 200
Dayton, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 299-5999
Glen L. Harris
ARMY 99-032
Title:AMC Collaborative Engineering Federation (ACEF)
Abstract:Simulation-Based Acquisition (SBA) is a DoD initiative to reduce the system acquisition development cycle by 50% and reduce total ownership costs. In order to implement SBA, the Army Material Command (AMC) needs to link the modeling and simulation (M&S) facilities within the various Research, Development, and Engineering Centers (RDECs) with and HLA-based engineering federation. Development of this federation will require implementation of a collaborative system framework that can support all aspects of developing and executing HLA-based federations. Spectra Research, Inc. (S*R) proposes to define an AMC Collaborative Engineering Federation (ACEF) and a baseline HLA-based engineering federation during Phase I. The S*R approach will build on the HLA FederateConnect toolset and work S*R is already doing to integrate these tools in collaborative environments. Federate Connect is under development for STRICOM to map the source code of a simulation to an HLA object model, build a Simulation Object Model, and generate a HLA compliant federate that incorporates middleware to connect to the HLA Run-time Infrastructure. In Phase II, the proposed ACEF will integrate these baseline capabilities with existing AMC resources to provide the ACEF System Framework. The ACEF System Framework will then be applied to implement a baseline engineering federation. BENEFITS: The ACEF will significantly reduce the time span and cost to bring dissimilar engineering and scenario generation models and simulators into HLA federations. This will save DoD funds to build better and more flexible federations and speedup implementation of SBA. The Phase II program will mature and expand the FederateConnect capability, which is now supported by elements of all three services. An AMC-wide engineering federation can be developed faster and at less cost through application of the matured tools through Phase III or follow-on projects.

AEROMECHANICS, LLC
4195 Sugar Mill Drive
Duluth, GA 30096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 476-9347
Clin M. Wang
ARMY 99-033
Title:Aerodynamic Tool for Advanced Rotor Design and Flow Control
Abstract:In this research program, a novel approach for aerodynamic analysis - the boundary-vorticity-flux (BVF) procedure - will be fully developed and consolidated with numerical Navier-Stokes flow-solvers to create a new aerodynamic design tool for rotors, with and without flow controls. This tool will be used in studies of rotor-blade design in the absence of flow control and in evaluations of passive and active flow control methods. In Phase I of this program, the BVF procedure will be fully developed for the airfoil problem. The effectiveness of the BVF procedure will be demonstrated through in-depth studies of the problem of optimal design of airfoils, the use of multi-element airfoil in flow control, the adaptive control of dynamic stall by tangential surface injection, and the control of effects of airfoil-vortex interaction through adaptive deformation of the airfoil shape. In Phase I Option of this program, experiments will be planned for the validation of BVF-based theoretical results. Navier-Stokes flow-solvers for rotors will be evaluated. A BVF-based design procedure will be developed for rotors. BENEFITS: This research program will directly benefit the rotorcraft industry. The aerodynamics design tool created under the program will fulfill a compelling need within the rotorcraft community and will contribute significantly to the design of the next generation rotorcraft. This tool is also important to the fixed-wing aircraft industry, offering potential for substantial improvements in the design of flow-control devices for lift augmentation and high maneuverability

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Steven P. Rogers
ARMY 99-034
Title:Enhanced Symbology for Wide Field-of-View Helmet-mounted Displays
Abstract:The primary objectives of the proposed project are to (a) improve the Army aviator's ability to perform night missions by developing innovative symbols that capitalize on the advantages of new wide field of view(WFOV) helmet-mounted displays (HMDs); (b) determine the best content, location, format, and behavior of these new symbols; and (c) implement fully functional symbology sets in a simulator suitable for part-task and mission-oriented testing. To meet these objectives we will: (1) Identify the relevant characteristics of forthcoming WFOV HMD technology, their relationship to the human visual system, and their advantages in performing mission tasks; (2) Identify the elements of information that, if presented on the HMD, would potentially reduce the pilot's workload and improve his situation awareness and task performance; (3) Employ research-based recommendations for symbol location, format, and behavior in order to guide the symbology development team through the symbol creation process; (4) Dynamically prototype the resulting symbology on PRISMS, a sophisticated helicopter flight simulator with a new WFOV HMD, assess pilot performance, and obtain pilot judgments of symbol utility; and (5) Produce a comprehensive plan for Phase II work, which will include identifying additional information elements, creating innovative symbols, and performing experimental evaluations of all of the new symbols. BENEFITS: The new WFOV symbology will improve the pilot's situation awareness, target acquisition, and movement through the environment as well as presenting critical information in an easily-understood manner. The commercial applications include (a) portable, rapidly reconfigurable HMD symbology training systems for Army training centers and operational units, and (b) private sector HMD systems using symbology to identify airspace control zones, restricted areas, approved corridors, airport traffic areas, and other "invisible," but critical limits to fixed-wing or rotary-wing flight.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
5660 Airport Boulevard, Suite 105
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 440-8008
Michael T. Carter
ARMY 99-035
Title:Fiber Optic Sensor for Unexploded Ordnance
Abstract:The proposed program will address detection of buried unexploded ordnance by a fiber optic sensing strategy. An infrared-transmitting optical fiber will be modified with a new layer which promotes concentration of trace gaseous signatures of common explosives, including decomposition products. The sensor will operate in an evanescent wave mode in which radiation propagating down the fiber core interacts with signature compounds within the polymer layer at the core-cladding interface. Monitoring infrared wavelengths which are characteristic of the signatures will provide identification and quantitation of the ordnance. BENEFITS: Battlefield and humanitarian demining will benefit from a low-cost, high accuracy method of buried ordnance detection which is lightweight and highly portable. Such sensor platforms, based on a common fiber optic sensing methodology, will find civilian uses in environmental remediation and on-site monitoring.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3704
Gary Key
ARMY 99-036
Title:Surface and Buried Mine Detection with Variance Based Multispectral Data Fusion
Abstract:The detection of surface or buried landmines is complicated by effects of occlusion due to overlying vegetation and confusion of the mine spectral response due to overlying obscurants. Such effects often cause mine detection systems that are strictly model-based to fail in field practice due to brittleness result-ing from lack of input coverage. Frontier Technology and University of Florida propose to ex-ploit successful DoD-sponsored research and development of algo-rithms and software for land and sea mine detection (DARPA, AFRL, USMC/SMDG, COBRA, and Magic Lantern programs) to develop an enhanced mine detection system. The proposed system would detect statistical differences between spectral bands in a mul-tispectral or hyperspectral image, as well as spatial variance of intensity within- and between-band. This approach features a bank of computationally efficient ATR filters whose outputs are combined by an efficient data fusion module into an estimate of target probability at a given location and, where possible, an estimate of target identity. FTI proposes to combine proven algorithms within it's Tabular Nearest Neighbor Encoding paradigm that has been highly success-ful in detecting small targets imagery and other signatures to produce a landmine ATR system with improved Pd and Rfa, useful in a wide variety of military and commercial applications. BENEFITS: Sensor hardware and processing configurations will undergo demonstration and testing in a realistic field environment. The Army can provide test sites that meet typical testing and data collection needs that include field emplacement of realistic targets. Techniques developed under this topic are applicable to both military countermine needs as well as humanitarian demining needs. The commercial aspects of humanitarian demining are considerable. Other applications include detection of buried pipes (utility industry), buried caches, and archeological expeditions.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle, Suite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
De Yu Zang, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-036
Title:Rapid Laser Scanner for Whole Field Vibration Analysis of Ground Motion
Abstract:Scientists at the University of Mississippi have demonstrated that acoustic signatures coupled from the air into the ground produce distinct vibration patterns that can clearly identify the presence of buried landmines. They presently use an off-the-shelf scanning laser vibrometer to interrogate the ground motion. The purpose of this proposed research program is to develop a much faster vibration measurement system to expedite data acquisition. The proposed system is based on a combination of a novel scanning method and data processing algorithm using our newly developed laser vibrometer. We estimate that the data acquisition time will be between a few seconds and a fraction of a second per square meter depending on system architecture. This represents an increase in speed of approximately 20 to 100 times over the commercial systems. During Phase I we will model the whole-field laser vibrometer system and perform a series of feasibility experimental studies on sandboxes and other conditions that emulate real mine fields. We anticipate developing and fielding a system during Phase II. BENEFITS: A system to remotely identify the presence of buried landmines will be a major contribution to humanity. The proposed system is anticipated to be fast, accurate, and cost effective. Its commercial potential will be largely driven by the need to locate the many millions of landmines that have been buried worldwide. Other commercial applications include modal vibration measurements in the automobile and aerospace industries.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
7923 Jones Branch Drive
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(504) 649-0450
Dr. Marshall Bradley
ARMY 99-036
Title:Landmine Detection
Abstract:Planning Systems Incorporated has developed a Ground Penetrating Synthetic Aperture Radar (GPSAR) system for buried antitank mine detection. The system is currently designed to detect shallowly buried metallic and non-metallic mines located beneath the radar. The GPSAR differs from the other ground penetrating radars in several aspects. It uses coherent, synthetic aperture processing and nearfield beamforming to form volumetric images of buried objects. It also uses a clutter rejection technique which is effective in reducing ground bounce clutter. Initial tests with the GPSAR system indicate that it can detect both metallic and non-metallic antitank mines. We propose to adapt the GPSAR so that it can achieve a standoff detection capability against low metallic antitank mines such as the M19, TMA-4, VS2.2 and TM62P. These adaptations involve elevating and rotating the GPSAR antenna and developing improved signal processing techniques which fully exploit the multiple target looks afforded by a standoff detection, stepped frequency GPR. The effects of clutter will be minimized by using 3D-SAR beamforming which focuses on voxels small in relation to the size of a mine. The modified GPSAR will be used in an experimental investigation of the detectability of plastic antitank mines. BENEFITS: The successful development of the proposed technology will provide the physical basis for an improved and safer vehicular mounted mine detection system. The proposed system also has application in buried utility detection, unexploded ordnance detection and archeological prospecting.

MYKOTRONX, INC.
357 Van Ness Way, Suite 200
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 533-8100
Mike Furusawa
ARMY 99-038
Title:Low-cost Ethernet Encryption
Abstract:Government agencies and corporations have quickly deployed packet-based networks as a primary means of communications and electronic information exchange. Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) is the pervasive network protocol standard for Local Area Network (LAN) technology. Currently, the most widely used LAN technology is the 10-Mbps Ethernet twisted pair (10 Base-T), however, the 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet (100 Base-X) has emerged as the dominant technology. Traditional high grade cryptographic equipment provides point-to-point data en/decryption capabilities but are not well suited to protect packet-based, network-centric information. The U.S Army has recognized this deficiency and Mykotronx, Inc. is in a strong position to provide a complete, low cost, National Security Agency (NSA) compliant solution. Our proposal describes an approach for developing a flexible, secure, Layer 2 Ethernet Encryptor that is based on two NSA approved, cryptographic Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) developed by Mykotronx: the CAPSTONE (MYK-82) and KRYPTON. We propose an architecture that will allow use of either CAPSTONE for commercial and medium assurance Government applications or K RYPTON for high grade, classified data applications. Both implementations provide Layer 2 protection in an in-line Ethernet encryption device configuration that can be quickly setup to protect any commercial Ethernet network. BENEFITS: The Layer 2 Ethernet Encryptor will have the following benefits: 1) Total protection of Ethernet information from rogue attackers on the LAN (via Ethernet network sniffing or RF sniffing), 2) Easy and quick installation on existing commercial Ethernet networks, 3) Physical security protection of stand-alone unit, 4) Simple keying with EKMS compatibility for Type 1 version, Commercial applications include the following: 1) Corporate sensitive information/data protection 2) Intellectual Property transmission protection (such as digital distribution of music/movies, etc.), 3) VPN on dedicated bandwidth but sharing common transmission facility (such as commercial satellites, long distance carriers, etc.), 4) Protection of monetary information.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 359-6226
Scott Thomas
ARMY 99-039
Title:Wireless Reliable Multicast (WiRM)
Abstract:Communication and wireless network technology has advanced to the state where portable computing devices have proliferated to enable ubiquitous computing. Similarly, Internet and collaboration technologies have grown tremendously. There remain significant obstacles, however, to integrate wireless and Internet/collaboration technologies. In particular, most modern wireless networks do not provide adequate support for multicast communication. Many military applications require reliable multicast transmission to properly and efficiently operate. In particular, the recent initiative of a Common Operational Picture (COP), which seeks to provide fused information to the warfighter, has numerous functions requiring this capability. Trident proposes to design a Wireless Reliable Multicast (WiRM) protocol based on active network technology, utilizing soft-state protocol techniques. In order to maximize information systems integration and interoperability, while concurrently increasing the system platform effectiveness, a reliable multicast framework (RMF) will be utilized. Since no single reliable multicast protocol is a panacea for all applications, the RMF enables applications to utilize the most appropriate protocol that satisfies its requirements. New application-specific and/or network-specific multicast protocols may be easily integrated and incrementally deployed through existing systems. BENEFITS: A reliable multicast protocol will provide guaranteed and efficient dissemination of critical information to many users simultaneously. The proposed protocol will be able to scale to large numbers of receivers. Moreover, the ability to operate over wireless networks will allow users to leverage Internet and collaboration technologies on mobile computing devices, e.g. laptop computers.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Karen A. Harper
ARMY 99-040
Title:Situationally Intelligent Battlefield Display (SINBAD)
Abstract:Information dominance is a key tenet of military doctrine. Achieving information dominance requires integrating vast numbers of sensors and having commanders efficiently interpret the data to make real-time decisions in high-stress situations. However, due to the sheer numbers of data, it is often difficult to make rapid and effective use of the information. Current displays of the Common Tactical Picture are overwhelming and do not incorporate any means for the automatic placement of icons, graphics, and labels for the purpose of context sensitive situational understanding. We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of developing an advanced situation-adaptive tactical display for the digital battlefield. This display will incorporate two key functions: 1) a means of generating a high-level computational assessment of the current battlefield situation; and 2) a methodology for generating a situation-adaptive interface, so that what the commander sees and hears can be interpreted accurately in the current context. Our proposed approach offers the potential to support commander situation awareness (SA) and enhanced performance through intelligent management of tactical display information, content, and format. BENEFITS: The proposed technology will directly support the development of effective concepts of operations and human/machine interfaces (HMI) for advanced battlefield operations. The proposed approach also offers the potential for the development of innovative HMIs for the coordination of unmanned aerial vehicles currently being fielded by the military services. Adaptive interfaces and situation assessment technologies also offer potential in other high-value operator/system environments, including power system control rooms and process control centers.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Rukmini Vijaykumar, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-040
Title:A Software Toolkit to Automate Display Management for Command and Control Applications
Abstract:Situation Awareness (SA) is the most important factor affecting engagement outcomes. Thus, intuitive representations of SA must be available to the warfighter. However, depicting SA data graphically with minimum overlap is an extremely computationally complex problem (of complexity class "NP-Hard"). Thus, automated SA displays, which are of necessity time-critical, run the risk of taking exponentially-increasing time to lay out SA data as the number of SA data items increases. Solutions to this display problem must also be easy to interface and integrate with pre-existing C3I via standards. We propose to use a well-understood SA "model" such as Bayesian Belief Networks. Multiple, simultaneous, synchronized "views" of the SA model will be presented to the user via the "Model, View, Controller" paradigm. Advanced algorithms for efficiently laying out graphical data with minimal overlap will enable each such "view" to be maximally readable. The primary Phase II deliverable will be a software toolkit for managing multiple, simultaneous, synchronized, automated SA displays. We propose a proof-of-concept demonstration during Phase I. As an option, we propose to integrate the proof-of-concept with a COTS, NDI, man-in-the-loop, real-time simulation testbed. The proposed effort will leverage COTS, standards-based, Plan View Display software, lowering cost, time, and risk. BENEFITS: The proposed approach holds promise to incorporate: "black box" advanced situation assessment technologies such as neural nets, predictive wargaming decision aids, and new 3D SA displays. The delivery of the approach in commercial-grade toolkit form will lower the barrier to entry to research, and provide an ideal testbed, increasing the prospects for the development of advanced SA technologies. Phase I provides a foundation for Phase II in that it provides existence-proofs of the feasibility of the proposed approach.

SARA, INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Jim Wes
ARMY 99-041
Title:Low Cost Scout UAV Acoustic System
Abstract:The Army scout is called upon to provide increasing levels of information about an increasingly lethal enemy. In the early 90's the US Army's "BAT" proved that real targets could be acoustically detected at meaningful ranges. Now a new generation of acoustics, signal processing and systems architecture can bring even better target detection & location to the small UAV scout mission, at a remarkably low cost. New signal processing and system navigation technologies added to the BAT-solved challenges of airborne acoustics, offer the scout the opportunity to collect enhanced battlespace situational awareness from hidden forward positions. SARA's Phase I effort will address each of the 3 preeminent challenges confronting development of a Scout UAV Acoustic System: 1) Airborne acoustic integration, allowing detection during flight, 2) Target detection & pointing signal processing, and 3) Distributed Aperture processing to enhance battlespace situational awareness. The effort also develops a tactical & demo system concept and models the tactical scenario enabling system design trades & performance estimates. Phase I will confidently show an attractive tactical Acoustic Scout UAV concept and the enabling design & integration skills that promise a successful Phase II flight demonstration. BENEFITS: The Acoustic Scout UAV technology will be of interest to organizations requiring acoustic information from remote locations for the performance of their responsibilities. These would include US Army and US Marine special ops, infantry, artillery forward observers, and intelligence; and an assortment of government/private agencies responsible for law enforcement, border surveillance (alien and drug interdiction), remote search and rescue, airport noise monitoring, and environmental assessment.

SVS, INC.
6207 Pan American Freeway NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 373-8859
Mark Gudaitis
ARMY 99-042
Title:High Perfromance Optical Communication System
Abstract:Our approach incorporates an emerging technology, a 10.6 micro-meter laser source, with appropriate power, coupled with an innovative, very small Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) based adaptive optics system, a low noise photo receiver, and an error correcting code. Each of these technologies alone show some promise for handling the scintillation conditions for the army battlefield application.With these technologies all integrated into a system, they will provide a high data rate capability with outstanding reliability. The system also includes a pointing and tracking system that uses a retro-reflected scheme with a high bandwidth closed loop fast steering mirror to mitigate the base motion jitter. Signal acquisition can be achieved within milliseconds with virtually no start-up time for both mobile and stationary communications. The system will be developed such that it can be retrofitted into existing platforms. In Phase I a proof-of-concept test will be performed in the lab, demonstrating the performance of the laser source coupled with the MEMS adaptive optics technology. Defining the requirements for ruggedizing this system will begin in Phase I and the development will commence in Phase II. BENEFITS: High data rates, large bandwidth, secure communications, over a wireless network are the benefits. Commercial applications include robotic, automobile, and helicopter high bandwidth communications.

AEROVIRONMENT
222 E. Huntington Drive
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 357-9983
Spencer Quong
ARMY 99-044
Title:JP8 Fueled Quickturbine Program
Abstract:The JP8 Fueled Quickturbine (QT) project is a Phase I SBIR project to determine the feasibility of modifying AeroVironment's QT for JP8 battlefield fuel in military generator set applications. The current QT system is a 10kW gasoline powered turbine designed as a range extender on electric vehicles. However, the existing design can be easily modified to a three phase 120VAC generator set that uses JP8 or diesel fuel. The QT system has several benefits over existing generators including, low cost, low noise, smaller thermal signature, and better reliability. The most important benefits of the QT system are its lightweight and smaller size compared to existing generators and the fact that it 90% of its components are currently COTS. The JP8 Fueled QT program is divided into three major tasks: Conceptual Design, Preliminary Design, and Phase I Option/Component Design. The first two tasks are four months long and consist of analyzing and modeling the QT system. The final task is two months long and involves testing the fuel nozzles and combustion systems using JP8 fuel which is a significant technical milestone for a Phase II program. BENEFITS: There are several potential markets for the QT system. The military can use the QT to provide electricity from ground and airborne vehicles; as fixed site generators for permanent or temporary buildings; and as portable field generators. In addition, the heat from the turbine exhaust can be used to provide heat or cooling as a cogeneration system. In terms of commercial markets, the QT system is best suited as a generator in mobile applications (e.g., marine or recreational vehicle). In fact, the QT is much quieter and less expensive than existing diesel generators used on RV's. The QT system is also cost competitive to other stationary generators or electricity from the grid when used in a cogeneration application.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Blvd.
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Jayant Shukla, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-047
Title:Human Computer Interaction
Abstract:Tanner Research, Inc. proposes to develop an innovative human computer interface that will increase the naturalness and efficiency of human computer interaction. The innovative system will be based on multi-modal input, output displays, and an integration scheme to fuse the multiple inputs. We will draw upon emerging technologies to identify relevant input and output modalities for human computer interaction. A micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) hand gesture system and a boom-mounted imaging system, both developed by Tanner Research, will serve as gesture and visual input modalities. These input modalities, supplemented with speech recognition and microphone arrays for speaker localization, will provide full functionality to the user. The key technical challenge in a multi-modal system concerns the interpretation and fusion of information provided by the distinct input devices. We will provide a well-defined and natural scheme to integrate diverse inputs. Our method will use temporal and semantic information across input modalities to extract a joint interpretation of a multi-modal input event. At the end of Phase I, we will deliver our plan for a complete human computer interface. We will provide detailed information about component technologies and on our integration methodology for fusing multiple inputs. BENEFITS: The integration of multi-modal technologies into a highly efficient human system interface will enhance the ability to control computer input/output by improving the bandwidth and naturalness of the interface. Significant advances in the human system interface will make feasible new applications of computer technology in virtually every aspect of military endeavor, particularly in hands-busy, eye-busy environments.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 829-5864
Sid S. Takkella
ARMY 99-048
Title:Integrated Circuit and Packet Switching Applications Architecture
Abstract:Circuit switched and packet switched networks are two different network technologies that have seen wide spread deployment world wide in the past. Circuit switched networks are designed for delay sensitive traffic. While packet switched networks offer bandwidth efficiency. Today, with bandwidth being a scarce resource which significantly influences the communication cost, efforts are increasing to develop delay-sensitive transport mechanisms over packet switched networks. One of the central requirements of WIN-T system is to provide bandwidth efficient simultaneous voice, data and video services and Command and Control (C2) on the move (C2OTM) at all levels of security. In this proposal, we present the framework for the design of an innovative gateway architecture to bridge circuit switched and packet switched networks, that significantly reduce the media processing time. This design is based on a detailed analyses of the requirements for the transport of delay-sensitive traffic between circuit switched and packet switched networks. BENEFITS: The most significant effect of this technology is that it offers the ability to integrate voice and data network to greatly reduce the tariff rates of voice calls. Some analysts expect the overall growth of packetized voice market at 149% annually through 2001 to about $1.89 billion. This research will benefit the telecommunication industry and every major corporate sector which leases communication lines like T1 and T3 for inter-office voice communication.

ENPOINT, INC.
23 Greenridge Lane
Lincoln, MA 01773
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 894-6727
James E. Kain
ARMY 99-049
Title:Low-cost Attitude and Heading Reference Systems for Phased-array Antennas
Abstract:This effort will develop an advanced low-cost Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) to satisfy the requirements for precision pointing of communications antennas. Our approach will use emerging low-cost inertial components together with multiple GPS antennas. GPS interferometry, coupled with accelerometer and rate gyro components, will allow attitude determination under all vehicle motion conditions. Optimizing the GPS carrier and code tracking loops to account for availability of acceleration and attitude measurements will enable robust GPS operation under adverse motion and interference conditions. Limited testing will be conducted using a GPS receiver chipset comprised of two downconverter chips and a single 12-channel correlator. BENEFITS: The advanced AHRS solution has an immediate application within all land transportation markets. In large quantities, near-term target costs below $1000 and long-term target costs below $100 will make this general purpose, easily installed, and unobtrusive device attractive to all fleet transportation services.

PREDICTION SYSTEMS, INC.
309 Morris Avenue, Suite G
Spring Lake, NJ 07762
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 449-6800
Jose Ucles
ARMY 99-050
Title:Advanced Intrusion Detection Techniques
Abstract:Many systems have been developed for Government as well as commercial applications, for Intrusion Detection (ID) on single hosts or LANs. However, there are two problems yet to be solved: (1) the amount of bandwidth needed to transport the information to a central location is substantial and (2) the high personnel expertise needed to examine the data (e.g., Systems logs) to detect intrusions. The main objective of this Phase I is to examine the applicability of Artificial Intelligence techniques including Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic Sets and Genetic Algorithms in solving the intrusion detection problems. The Prediction Systems, Inc/New Jersey Institute of Technology (PSI/NJIT) team proposes to execute a study of the applicability of using neural network synergistically with other AI techniques towards Computer Network Intrusion Detection. Additionally, the PSI/NJIT team proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach for the Army's Tactical Internet (TI) using the Hierarchical Intrusion Detection Engine (HIDE) presented in this prosposal. The TI was selected mainly because of its high level of challenge, at least equal or higher to that posed by the commercial wireless networks, that stresses the problems associated with bandwidth and personal expertise. The PSI/NJIT posseses vast experience of all related fields. BENEFITS: Intrusion Detection for wireless communication networks, dynamic network management of communication systems, display of security network information, real-time control systems for security applications.

FERMIONICS CORP.
4555 Runway St
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0156
Dr. Muren Chu
ARMY 99-051
Title:Hybrid Pixel Miniaturization
Abstract:Recently there is much interest in the development of shortwave infrared imaging cameras using semiconductor focal plane array technology. The prime material candidates are HgCdTe and InGaAs. Such FPA cameras have many potential applications. However, there are a number of issues to be addredssed before the SWIR cameras are mass produced. One of the issues is to produce large format, small pixel focal plane array hybrids. In this program, we will develop a technlogy to produce 1280x1024 HgCdTe and InGaAs hybrids with a maximum pixel size of twelve microns. In Phase I, we will begin the development of small pixel diodes, indium bumps, and hybridization. Feasibility of producing small pixel FPA hybrids will be demonstrated. In Phase II, the small pixel array fabrication and hybridization technology will be fully developed, 1280x1024 HgCdTe and InGaAs SWIR FPA's will be fabricated, and these arrays will be hybridized to readout multiplexers. In addition, SWIR cameras based on these hybrids will be produced. BENEFITS: The success of this program will promote the SWIR infrared business by introducing near room temperature, large format, high resolution, HgCdTe and InGaAs focal plane arrays. As a result, low cost HgCdTe and inGaAs focal plane arrays for low light level imaging will be widely used for military and industrial applications. The immediate use of the products from this program is night sensing similar to the current image intensifier, camouflage detection, detection for eye-safe laser designation and laser profiling, sensor for mine detection, and sensor for biological and chemical detection.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1, Building 12
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-0610
Dr. Marshal J. Cohen
ARMY 99-051
Title:A 1280x1024 Indium Gallium Arsenide Photodiode Array with 12 m Pitch
Abstract:We will develop and deliver a 1280x1024-pixel indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) photodiode array sensitive to the 0.9 m to 1.7 m short wave infrared wavelength band. This will be the largest SWIR infrared array ever fabricated. Upon completion of Phase II, devices will be available for integration with matching silicon readout circuits for high sensitivity, high dynamic ranging imaging at elevated temperatures (>295K), ideal for night vision imaging, covert surveillance, and eye-safe range-gated imaging. Innovations include miniaturization of the individual InGaAs p-i-n photodiodes, minimization of the spacing between the photodiodes in the array, development of corresponding indium bump technology, and use of large (75 mm - 100 mm diameter) epitaxial wafers. During Phase I we will focus on establishing design rules for miniature InGaAs pixels with goals of reducing the geometry from 24 m pixel pitch (the current state-of-the-art) to 10 m junctions, and to applying 8 m tall, 4 m diameter indium bumps. During Phase II, we will expand the Phase I design results to produce a full 1280x1024 array on 75 mm and 100 mm diameter epitaxial wafers. This program will benefit from several Sensors Unlimited R&D programs, including our 100 mm diameter InP/InGaAs wafer processing. BENEFITS: The output of this program will be a high spatial resolution, wide field-of-view InGaAs SWIR photodiode array operating at room temperature. In addition, this program will lower device cost through the development of small pixel size. These advances will promote commercial applications such as police surveillance, food processing, semiconductor wafer inspection, pulp and paper manufacturing, and industrial thermal imaging.

MATHSOFT, INC.
1700 Westlake Ave No., Suite 500
Seattle, WA 98109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 283-8802
James Pitton
ARMY 99-052
Title:Rapid Prototyping of Blind Demodulation Algorithms
Abstract:We propose to develop a software environment for rapid prototyping and implementation of blind demodulation algorithms. The system will be embedded in a high-level programming environment for algorithm research and simulation. Real-time C/C++ and VHDL libraries of communications algorithms will be provided to enable porting of algorithms to hardware, e.g. DSP chips and FPGAs. The system will be unified through an iconic interface that will allow engineers to graphically design algorithms, perform simulations, and subsequently implement the final systems on the desired platforms. In Phase I, we will conduct research on blind demodulation, drawing on promising algorithms in the published literature, and conducting our own research where needed. Our Phase I research will set the stage for Phase II by providing an initial library of communications algorithms and laying out the design of the final toolkit. In Phase II, we will port these algorithms to real-time hardware via C and VHDL implementations, and develop an iconic interface to enable graphical design, simulation, and implementation of blind demodulation schemes. The resulting system will be widely useful both within and outside of the DOD. BENEFITS: While a variety of communications design tools are available commercially, no software tools are currently available that enable users to go from high-level research and simulation to implementation on DSPs and FPGAs. The proposed development system will thus be useful to a wide range of engineers from research laboratories to product development organizations. In addition, we will incorporate the results of our research into other signal analysis products produced by or under development at MathSoft, including communications, signal processing, and wavelet toolboxes for Splus and Mathcad.

ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS, INC.
2020 Alameda Padre Serra, Suite 123
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-3331
Dr. Roger Stettner
ARMY 99-053
Title:The Design of a Gated Large Format Readout Laser Sensor
Abstract:This is a proposal for large format readout array that has a gated capability as well as a normal, 30 Hz, integration capability. It is called the Gated Large Format Read-Out GLF-RO. The 12.5 um pitch requirement as well as the 1000 x 1000 format can very likely be achieved using a state-of-the-art small-feature-size mixed mode CMOS process. Advanced Scientific Concepts Inc. (ASC) has already designed very complex laser radar (Ladar) readouts using this process and has tested parts made with the proposed process. Considerations such as detector capacitance, detector de-biasing voltage, dark current, RO sensitivity, RO dynamic range, RO bandwidth and RO power consumption are discussed. A preliminary design is proposed and the GLF-RO performance is estimated. A preliminary Drive and Output Electronics design is suggested. Alternate unit cell designs are also suggested. The tasks necessary to evaluate, optimize and layout the GLF-RO are proposed. The optional task is to fabricate and test a small-scale GLF-RO. BENEFITS: The proposed readout technology is of clear benefit to both military and commercial surveillance. Use of the technology at airports could increase the safety of takeoffs and landing, particularly for small aircraft, for example.

METSS CORP.
720-G Lakeview Plaza Blvd.
Columbus, OH 43085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6600
Richard Sapienza, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-056
Title:An Environmentally Benign Helicopter Deicing/Anti-icing Fluid
Abstract:The Army is seeking an effective technique for the prevention or removal of ice and snow accumulations from helicopter airframe and blade surfaces prior to flight. Procedures for preflight deicing of helicopters have not been refined or standardized as they have been for fixed-wing aircraft as helicopters are typically housed in hangars to protect them from the weather. However, military operations may necessitate exposure to the elements resulting in an accumulation of frozen precipitation, grounding the aircraft for hours. Ice prevention techniques and deicing methods utilizing infrared radiation, hot air and hot liquid have all been evaluated. While all of these methods are viable, each has its associated drawbacks and risks. An alternative deicing technique is needed that is fast, effective, safe, environmentally friendly and compatible with helicopter materials. Additionally, the deicing system should be portable enough to permit it to be transported and used effectively in the field. Under the proposed program, METSS will build on the knowledge and experience gained from a current Air Force Phase II SBIR program concerned with the development of new environmentally-benign deicing/anti-icing fluids for fixed-wing aircraft to develop and test new fluids that are compatible with helicopter system components and the mission profile established by the Army. The tasks that need to be performed to successfully address the Army program objectives are clearly defined in this proposal. BENEFITS: The technology developed under the proposed program is well suited to both helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft in military and commercial applications, particularly those operating in the far north and in areas without support services. Additionally, the insights gained under the proposed program will have great potential for new runway and roadway deicing applications.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Michael S. Wilson
ARMY 99-057
Title:MIPs for Aqueous Protein and Pathogen Recognition
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop "artificial antibody" receptors and transduction schemes for recognition of protein toxins and bacterial and viral pathogens. The artificial receptors will be based on functionalized polymers surface imprinted with the entire structures or with structural epitopes. The templates are expected to be stable for years in the dry state at ambient temperature, unlike antibodies which must be stored at 4oC and suffer from gradual denaturation and biofouling. The imprinted polymers will be used in immunossays and biosensors employed in environmental detection of pathogens and in medical diagnostic testing of bodily fluids and tissues. Phase I research will demonstrate electrochemical and photochemical "soft chemistry" approaches to preparing templates of protein toxins, and demonstrating their recognition capabilities using microbalance and fluorescence techniques. Phase II will extend the chemistry to whole organism templates, and will develop transducers for robust biosensors to toxins and pathogens. BENEFITS: Applications include medical diagnostics, biosensors for rapid detection of food pathogens, replacements for antibodies in immunoassays for environmental characterization, and military CBW detection.

F&S, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4267
Michael B. Miller
ARMY 99-057
Title:Molecular Polymers Designed for Harsh Environment Field Use Applications
Abstract:F&S and their development partners at Virginia Tech propose to develop affinity coatings for novel, field portable biosensing instrumentation. Many applications exist where battlefield detection is required, from personnel exposure and chemical mine detection systems to remote chemical and biological detection through the use of automated probes. Existing technology requires high specificity to minimize false positive response and enhanced performance is typically obtained through antibody detection. However, when exposed to extreme battlefield conditions, antibodies can denature. These devices also require reagent-based regeneration procedures that reduce the ability to perform real time detection and measurements need to be performed in an aqueous phase environment. The coatings proposed by F&S will overcome these limitations by combining molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) films with electro-active polymers to produce a selective coating that can be regenerated through an electrical signal. MIP coatings have several advantages over antibody-based approaches. Chemical sensors that utilize MIP films are highly selective for small molecules and the fabrication process can be used to create sensitivity to compounds for which it is difficult to raise antibodies. MIPs have additional advantages in that they are resistant to chemical harsh environments, have long term application potential, and will not denature. BENEFITS: Affinity sensors constructed with MIPS will produce ruggedized biosensor instrumentation that can be used in harsh environments and markets where extensive sample analysis is required. Several representative applications include 1) biological agent detection 2) drinking and wastewater monitoring, 3) large-scale, high-speed testing in the medical field, 4) chemical analysis, and 5) onsite environmental monitoring.

TACAN CORP.
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Jeffrey T. Ives
ARMY 99-057
Title:Molecularly Imprinted Sol Gels for Reagentless Protein Recognition
Abstract:Early detection is a key aspect of biowarfare (BW) defense, and the foundation for a variety of detection methods has been established using biorecognition molecules such as antibodies. Moving these methods to durable field instruments will probably require replacing the relatively delicate biomolecules like antibodies with more robust, synthetic recognition elements. This proposal presents an antibody alternative based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) that are designed with templates, or molds, of the target biohazard in the covalently linked polymer network. While MIP's for small molecules have been developed by this company and others, a unique objective of this proposal is the development of MIP's for relatively large protein molecules, and eventually, bacteria and viruses. A variety of alkoxysilanes will be used as monomers during the initial imprinting steps, with careful control of the chemical conditions to create films that are thin and structurally robust, and also compatible with the delicate, three dimensional nature of proteins. Combinatorial chemistry is well suited to MIP production and will be investigated. Creating synthetic antibodies will not only support more durable field operation, but it will also allow optimized coupling between the recognition element and a reagentless detection method. BENEFITS: Development of a molecularly imprinted material for proteins and larger macromolecules will provide significant economic and practical benefits to medical, chemical, and environmental analyses. The material would be useful for chromatographic separations, office-based diagnostics, and in situ environmental monitoring.

MESOSYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3200 George Washington Way
Richland, WA 99352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 375-1111
Joseph G. Birmingham
ARMY 99-058
Title:Microfluidic Biodetection System for Personnel Monitoring
Abstract:DoD personnel and domestic first responders have an immediate and pressing need for a lightweight, man-portable system for rapid detection and quantification of CBW agents in the environment.. MesoSystems Technology, Inc., teamed with Micronics, Inc. and the University of Washington, propose to develop the components and then demonstrate an integrated system for monitoring personnel for BW exposure. By incorporating new techniques from the field of microfluidics, combined with proven analytical methods such as immunoassay and flow cytometry, this team will radically reduce the size of a precise analytical instrument to the point where it can easily be transported by one person and used/worn individually or in a defensive network linked by telemetry. BW agents will be retained in the device for subsequent DNA fingerprinting. Testing will be conducted using Bacillus subtilus var. niger (BG) spores, Erwinia herbicola, MS-2 bacteriophage and ovalbumin to test a spore, a vegetative bacteria, a virus and a toxin. BENEFITS: Virtually all biosensors and detectors require clean, concentrated samples. There is strong market demand for smaller, faster detection systems for environmental monitoring of pathogens.

MICROGEN SYSTEMS
527 Brightwood
San Antonio, TX 78209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 342-1595
Robert F. Williams, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-058
Title:Nanosensor: A Fully Automated Microfabrication Based Biodetector
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop and test a microfabricated biosensor, for detection of biological threat agents: toxins, viruses and bacteria. The biosensor will be capable of processing and analyzing microliter amounts of sample inexpensively in less than 10 minutes, integrating multiple analytical processes onto a single chip-revolutionizing analytical biotechnology. MICROGEN Systems proposes to develop an automated biosensor- "Nanosensor" with a disposable Micro-Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) chip which integrates sample preparation and IR-fluorescence-based detection of DNA/RNA and toxins. In Phase I, MICROGEN will develop and test the complete system necessary for fabrication of the disposable Nanosensor chip, namely, microfabricated filters, valves, pumps, mixers, fluidics and actuators. MICROGEN will also establish a 'proof-of-concept' for fluorescence based detection of nucleic acid and toxins using a polynucleotide array-sensing platform. MICROGEN also proposes to develop microfabricated optical system for IR-fluorescence-based detection of biological threat agents. BENEFITS: It is anticipated that there will be a significant market for biosensors such as the Nanosensor by the Department of Defense and law enforcement agencies for field and crime scene detection. Although this market is significant, we will quickly move to develop and introduce miniaturized biosensors for sale in in-vitro diagnostics, industrial monitoring, agricultural and environmental pollution control, and clinical markets. Genetic analysis will become an integral part of routine diagnosis, whether it is a routine screening for genetic disorders or identification of a disease-causing infectious agents (bacteria and virus). A simple-to-use portable, sensitive DNA/RNA biosensor/diagnostic kit would be extremely beneficial for rapid detection of certain specific DNA sequences. Additionally, in the health care industry, there is a need to provide disposable, inexpensive, easy to use instruments for rapid screening of infectous and blood transfusion transmissible diseases i.e., detection and identification of pathogenic viruses and bacteria such as AIDS and syphillis respectively.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street, Suite 2
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(421) 116-7
Arieh Karger, M.Sci.
ARMY 99-058
Title:Low-Cost, Microfabrication-based, Biodetectors: Integrating MicroAPD Detector Arrays with Microfluidics
Abstract:This project develops and tests a microfabricated sensing platform that is capable of processing and identifying toxins, viruses, and bacteria in volumes of 100 microliters, or less. The Phase I effort demonstrates the feasibility of integrating micro-avalanche photodiode (microAPD) arrays with a simple microfluidic system in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), which solves the key problem of high sensitivity detection in microfabricated biosensors. The Phase I work will explore different analysis configurations and determine the sensitivity of detecting a protein, using fluorescence or absorption, in a prototype system. We will also evaluate necessary adaptations in fabricating microAPDs, which are 10 to 30 micron diameter photodiodes with gains ranging from unity to 100,000,000, for accommodating the more common glass and silicon-based microanalysis systems. BENEFITS: The development of a microfabricated sensing platform provides a needed tool for constructing microanalysis systems that can cope with biological attacks, as well as non/counter-proliferation. The technology can also be applied to monitoring microorganisms in public environments, such as in hospitals, schools, airports and airplanes. It can also be applied to such areas as high-throughput drug screening/discovery, crop disease and monitoring the nation's food supply. This versatile technology will produce instruments that analyze water quality for home and EPA inspections, as well as home health care products for the expanding web-based medical services market.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4475
Eric S. Boltz, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-058
Title:Laser-coupled, multi-site, microfabrication-based biosensor platform
Abstract:The proposed work will combine the selectivity of immobilized oligonucleotide probes and the rapid and efficient collection capability of porous membranes with the mass sensitivity (picogram) of ultrasonic microelectronic devices. TPL has demonstrated methods to form functionalized porous membranes for selective binding of target oligonucleotides. The proposed device array will open unique opportunities for near real-time detection of nucleic acids and associated protein regulation. It is a direct measurement approach that does not require labeled or amplified DNA, and hybridization reaction rates are accelerated by improved mass transport afforded by solution flow through the sensor. TPL, in collaboration with the Molecular Diagnostics Core Laboratory (MDCL), University of New Mexico, has already demonstrated fabrication and functionality of individual porous membranes. In the project a multi-site membrane will be functionalized and interrogated using a sequential, laser-coupled ultrasonic system. The result will be a multi-site DNA sensing platform with sufficient sensitivity to avoid DNA amplification. TPL's experience in acoustic sensor design, which lead to PorotecT, a thin film porosity analyzer employing acoustic wave transmission, combined with MDCL's expertise in clinical diagnostics by DNA sequencing will support development of porous microsensors for isolation and detection of DNA/mRNA sequences. BENEFITS: Genosensors are under development to support the Human Genome Project, for medical diagnostics, and for phamacuetical R&D. Ultimately, applications will include agriculture, environmental and industrial processes. A genosensor with the high sensitivity and specificity of the acoustic device under development will find numerous applications in this market. The proposed biosensor has numerous biotechnology application within an estimated $20 billion clinical diagnostics market. It could provide rapid diagnostic capability for disease detection if adapted to sense messenger RNA that codes for proteins of infectious diseases. It could provide process monitoring for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food processing industries. Government applications include biological threat-agent detection and remediation.

ELECTRO-RADIATION, INC.
39 Plymouth Street
Fairfield, NJ 07004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 808-9033
Murray W. Rosen
ARMY 99-059
Title:Small, Low-Cost GPS Antijam System for Precision Guided Missiles
Abstract:GPS provides a high degree of precision at affordable cost for weapons guidance systems, but has inherent susceptibility to jamming and interference. Several antijam techniques exist which address interference and jamming. This program applies ERI's interference suppression technology to GPS antijam requirements for small precision guided missiles and munitions. The proposed solution adapts the GPS Interference Suppression Unit (ISU) developed by ERI. The goal of the program is to develop a low-cost miniature module version of the ISU electronics to protect GPS from CW, broadband noise and pulsed jamming signals. The solution will suppress and track jamming with rapid response times compatible with the high dynamics of small guided missiles, and provide an effective cost/performance solution to protect GPS receivers using a single element dual-frequency antenna. Phase 1 establishes the missile and munition requirements for the antijam module and conducts the preliminary design study for a miniature, environmentally sound, design. BENEFITS: Antijam for GPS receivers is an objective for all Army systems using GPS. One of the existing problems with commercialization is the high cost of systems which have limited effectiveness. ERI's solution would provide a cost vs performance which could be very appealing to the commercial market and also support complex military applications.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
900 Middlesex Turnpike, Building 8
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 436-9600
Dr. Triveni N. Upadhyay
ARMY 99-059
Title:Small Low-Cost CRPA for Fast Jammer Suppression
Abstract:This proposal addresses the U.S. Army requirement to develop a small, low-cost GPS anti-jam system for use in small precision guided missiles. Mayflower, in collaboration with Sensor Systems, is proposing to develop a small, 4-element L1/L2 conformal CRPA and digital beamforming control for fast suppression of up to three jammers. The Mayflower/Sensor Systems proposal leverages a proven antenna array and introduces several innovations to reduce the array size to about 5" diameter. The proposed digital antenna electronics utilize a fast convergence algorithm , and custom ASICs for digital multichannel correlation and high-resolution beamforming to achieve more than 30 dB jammer suppression and response time of less than 1 millisecond. The proposed small CRPA can be produced at a cost less than $1,000 in production quantity of 100,000. The Phase I feasibility study will perform a trade-off analysis of the antenna array size regarding size, bandwidth, mutual coupling; and on the antenna electronics control regarding null depth, convergence time and implementation requirements. BENEFITS: Development of low-cost, small array and miniaturized antenna electronics for adaptive jammer suppression. Development of digital beamforming ASIC's for digital antennas.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Thomas L. Larry
ARMY 99-059
Title:Small, Low-Cost GPS Anti-Jam System
Abstract:This SBIR solicitation is to develop small, single-element GPS CRPA systems for missiles. The desire is to develop a system that would have an antenna no bigger than 4 in. x 4 in. and be conformal to a 9-in. diameter missile. The antenna must work at both L1 and L2 with a signal acquisition and suppression time less than 10 ms. Our approach is to use an innovative design methodology that we have invented to develop small, single element, AJ GPS controlled receive pattern antennas. Specifically, Toyon will use our techniques for designing Electronically Reconfigurable Antennas (ERA) to develop a 4-in diameter, anti-jam antenna system. This AJ antenna technique has been proven recently on a Phase II SBIR with the Air Force. However, it is necessary to develop a fast feedback control system for this GPS antenna system. In Phase I the control algorithm will be implemented in software. The goal is to provide 30 dB improvement in J/S from single and multiple continuous wave, broadband noise (20 MHz BW), and pulsed jamming signals for both the L1 and L2 bands. BENEFITS: This antenna concept is applicable for any commercial application of GPS, which is subjected to electromagnetic interference such as business aircraft or helicopters flying in and out of populated areas. It would be particularly useful for commercial aircraft, which might be subjected to potential terrorist threats employing low power GPS jammers around airports.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4121
Dr. K. Jayaraj
ARMY 99-060
Title:Development of an Advanced Printed Circuit Board Technology Using Liquid Crystal Polymers
Abstract:As advancements in the semiconductor industry continue at a phenomenal pace, traditional printed circuit board (PCB) materials and technologies are approaching significant limitations. Higher density interconnections are required between ICs. Circuits operating in the microwave region and beyond require a lower dielectric constant, and higher operating temperatures are being specified for many applications. The need for higher density interconnection substrates is fueled by ever-shrinking consumer and telecommunications products. Consumers are looking for products that are the absolute smallest, lightest weight, and feature rich in their class. The competition in these markets is fierce and the need is urgent. To address this critical need in both the military and commercial sectors, Foster-Miller proposes to demonstrate the extraordinary properties of a new class of electronic substrate materials known as liquid crystal polymers (LCPs). Foster-Miller has been developing an electronic packaging technology based on these innovative LCPs for microwave multichip modules, advanced surface mount printed wiring boards and optoelectronic applications. Foster-Miller has recently commercialized a novel low-cost LCP material for these advanced applications and the focus of this SBIR effort will be to establish a commercial production facility for fabricating LCP-based PCBs. BENEFITS: This program will demonstrate a high reliability, high density printed circuit board technology which will benefit both the military and commercial sectors. The need for higher density interconnection substrates is fueled by ever-shrinking consumer and telecommunications products and this technology will provide a low-cost solution to these markets.

LOGOBOTS, LLC
60 E 32nd Street, #203
Chicago, IL 60616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 836-0497
Dr. Narayan P. Murarka
ARMY 99-062
Title:Mobile Java Agents for Information Integration
Abstract:The Army Digitization Master Plan '96 advocates the simultaneous integration of complementary Horizontal Technology Integration technologies into key combat service support (CSS) systems. TRADOC pamphlet 525-66 "Military Operations Future Operational Capability" identifies two relevant FOCs. IS 97-003, Logistics Command, Control, Communication and Automation (C3A), describes the capability to establish total integrated CSS situation awareness and decision aids using low-cost seamless, wireless communication links. IS 97-005, Intelligent CSS Agents, describes the capability to quickly customize low bandwidth, intelligent agents to assist soldiers in managing CSS data. The explosion of information that is likely to occur in the digital battlefield of tomorrow will make it more difficult to present information to the battle staff in a way that allows immediate comprehension, assessment and decision-making. In such a tactical battlefield environment, information will need to be condensed to filter out irrelevant information, compressed for low bandwidth transmission, and transformed for coherent presentation on small handheld information devices and/or wearable computers. We propose to leverage emerging and evolving Internet technologies such as Java based mobile software agents to develop a tailored technology solution set for tactical battlefield information integration. We will apply this technology solution set to the CSS Battlefield Operating System (BOS) area. BENEFITS: A low bandwidth Internet technology solution for information integration, initially targeted towards the logistics needs of agencies such as delivery services (eg., FedEx, UPS) is expected.

COMPUSENSOR TECHNOLOGY CORP.
352-C Christopher Avenue
Gaithersburg, MD 20879
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 990-1100
Thomas Tsao
ARMY 99-063
Title:Data Driven Dynamic Tuning Receptive Field Approach to Object Tracking
Abstract:The main difficulty in object tracking through rapid sensor orientation change is caused by drastic changes in perceived target orientation and background. We propose to use the Lie transformation group to model and parameterize each of the major changes in sensor imagery in the course of target tracking. Simulating the biological vision system of the monkeys, the sensor imagery will be transformed and represented in perceptual system through Gabor types receptive fields. Also simulating the biological vision system, the tracking (adaptation, change countering) process will be formulated as "data driven dynamical tuning" of the receptive fields. The image tracking will be simultaneously performed in the image geometric space domain including the target orientation, and the signal space domain including signal/background polarity and contrast. Viewing the receptive field functions as the linear forms on the image space, we derive the Lie derivatives for the detection and measurement of each of component changes subjecting to the tracking. BENEFITS: The proposed object tracking approach decomposes complicated multiple dimensional variations of target image characteristics to components. If successfully developed, it provides a means of high speed computing with compact processors and can be used in a computational sensor system for missiles and other military and commercial applications.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Div., 20600 Gramercy Place
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Stephen Kupiec, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-064
Title:Solid State Compact and Rugged Personal Environmental Recording System Employing Inertial Sensors and Electromyographic Monitoring
Abstract:The extreme exertions associated with military operations impose considerable stresses on the head and neck, and can cause musculoskeletal disorders, whiplash, and fatigue, all of which require medical attention and reduce force effectiveness. Wearing head mounted displays in addition to the standard issue helmet exacerbates the problem. To perform in situ measurements of head and neck stress Physical Optics Corporation proposes the Compact Upper Extremity Tracking and EMG Recording (CUE-TER) system, a solid state recording system capable of tracking the orientation of the head and torso and the forces, rotations, and muscle activity of the head and neck. The system will employ POC's proven microelectromechanical inertial sensors and advanced EMG recording technology to monitor head and neck motion for a full day. Fuzzy logic pattern recognition trigger burst mode recording of events of interest. BENEFITS: CUE-TER will contribute to ergonomic and time/motion analysis of the motion of any limb or extremity. CUE-TER will be useful for analysis of any form of repetitive stress injury (RSI), and in sports medicine to optimize athlete motion and minimize injuries. Finally, CUE-TER can be made small enough for use in in-situ veterinary studies.

EGEA BIOSCIENCES, INC.
1652 Via Cancion
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 744-4429
Glen Evans MD PhD
ARMY 99-065
Title:Genome engineering for large scale production of fibrinogen
Abstract:Recombinant expression of human proteins is a potentially valuable method for large scale production of hemostatic materials. However, manufacturing-scale production using traditional recombinant DNA techniques is problematic due to the low yield of active protein and complex purification. We propose to utilize a novel technique to produce hemostatic human proteins in bacteria and mammalian from completely synthetic genes designed in the computer. The approach is based on the complete chemical synthesis of large DNA molecules encoding fibrinogen a, b and g subunits and modified versions of these genes produced as an array of component oligonucleotides that are then assembled, ligated and expressed in E. coli. This approach is enabled by inexpensive high-throughput oligonucleotide array synthesis developed by Egea Biosciences that allows complete customization of the protein/vector/expression system. To maximize expression, synthetic genes will be designed using E. coli, yeast or mammalian preferred codons to increase protein expression as well as specific sequences to enable high efficiency protein purification. The re-engineered gene/vector/host combination will be a platform for further sequence alterations to maximize protein expression and enable large-scale manufacturing. Artificial gene design, construction and expression will be explored for the production of recombinant active fibrinogen and other hemostatic proteins for commercial use in "smart" bandages. BENEFITS: This work will result in: 1) a new technology to enable the custom design of synthetic genes and proteins for the large scale production and manufacturing; 2) a novel synthetic gene and expression system for the production of active human fibrinogen subunits as components hemostatic products such as bandages, and 3) ramp-up possibilities for the application of these and other synthetic proteins to the problem of wound healing.

IPM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4134 North Vancouver Avenue, Suite 105
Portland, OR 97217
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 288-2493
John McLaughlin
ARMY 99-066
Title:Attractant/Insecticide Combination to Eliminate Transmission of Tick-borne Diseases
Abstract:IPM Technologies will produce a formulation that will attract at least one active stage of a medically important tick to a toxic attractant/acaricide matrix in the laboratory, resulting in significant debilitation or death of the tick. The target species, blacklegged tick, transmits Lyme disease, two kinds of ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis in the U.S. American dog tick and lone star tick will also be investigated. IPMT will isolate host-produced tick attractants (kairomones) from glands of North American deer and incorporate kairomones and acaricide into a patented, EPA-registered bait matrix. IPMT will also screen activity of known glandular chemicals with no assigned tick behavioral effects. Very low rates of insecticide will be required to achieve control as attractants will "pull" ticks to the bait. Minimal toxicity enables bait application to areas of high human activity and sensitive ecosystems. During Phase II, IPMT will identify specific active chemicals, optimize the formulation, screen for activity against additional target vectors, establish field trials, engineer application technology and obtain EPA registration. This product shows great commercial potential due to the military and civilian medical importance of tick-borne disease and present limitations in tick management options. BENEFITS: Ticks are a major vector of important medical and veterinary diseases. This research and development project will result in innovative environmentally sound tick control products. This technology could be developed against other arthropod disease vectors.

XOHOX, INC.
3475 Edison Way, Suite T
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 365-1600
Robert Fields, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-067
Title:Biological Agent Sample Preparation for the Detection and Identification of Multiple Agents by Nucleic Acid-based Analysis
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to create a single, self-contained, portable apparatus (BIOSCAN apparatus), able to detect a biological agent rapidly, with no requirement for technical skill or use of other laboratory instruments such as pipettors or centrifuges. The fully automated BIOSCAN will carry out all operations within environmentally sealed disposable devices, so as to avoid the risks of exposure of personnel to infectious agents and contamination by carryover DNA. The BIOSCAN will 1) extract and purify RNA and DNA from blood, swabs, tissues, faeces, soil and environmental extracts; 2) combine purified nucleic acids (NA) with components of NA tests to enable amplification of target NA sequences of biological agents; 3) detect amplified target NA sequences within a sealed sample chamber using fluorescence. The BIOSCAN will combine patented Amplitechr high speed thermal cycling technology with AutoLyserr nucleic acid purification technology (patents pending), to detect signature DNA or RNA sequences of threat agent viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other human pathogens, within as little as 20 minutes following presentation of a raw sample. During each run, positive DNA controls as well as 3 pathogen sequences can be detected by spectral analysis of fluorescence. BENEFITS: The BIOSCAN apparatus described here will confer large benefits in a number of important areas of Defense and Medicine. It will enable threat agents to be detected quickly in a battlefield setting, as well as detection in cases of a suspected bio-terrorist attack. The BIOSCAN will also constitute an effective weapon against endemic infectious diseases, and will allow rapid identification of pathogens for the treatment of sepsis and wounds. The BIOSCAN will employ novel features not commercially available elsewhere, owing to an exclusive technology license available to XOHOX, Inc. One example is the BIOSCAN's patented ultra-high speed thermal cycler, which is 5 times faster than any commercially available hot air thermal cyclers, at this time. The BIOSCAN has safety features which other air cyclers lack, including having fully automated, closed sample handling, no use of breakable capillary tubes, and no venting of hot air to the outside environment, thereby protecting the user from DNA contamination. The BIOSCAN does not require any manual technical skills, the use of a centrifuge, or the use of other lab instruments. Sample solutions are loaded automatically in a sealed device. Nucleic acids are purified from raw samples using the proven AutoLyserr technology and automatically injected into the thermal cycling compartment within one portable apparatus. It is anticipated that the unique benefits of speed, safety, lack of skills required, automation and ease of use will make the BIOSCAN a commercially successful product in numerous markets such as diagnostics, ecology, wildlife protection, veterinary science and forensics.

SARCOS RESEARCH CORP.
360 Wakara Way
Salt Lake City, TX 84108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 581-0155
Stephen Peterson
ARMY 99-068
Title:Non-Invasive Pneumothorax Sensor
Abstract:Sarcos Research Corporation proposes to developanew sensor for pneumothorax. The sensor will be small in size allowing use in the field. The sensor will measure changes in the transmission and reflection of RF signals caused by pneumothorax; heart beat rate and breathing rate will be recovered as a bonus. The sensor will minimize RF emissions by shielding, and efficiently coupling energy into the thorax. The Phase I work will develop the prototype sensor and couplers, and provide proof of concept data by the use of animal experiments. BENEFITS: Successful development of this sensor will result in better battlefield and emergency medical care.

ADA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
304 Inverness Way South, Suite #365
Englewood, CO 80112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
John A. Bognar, PhD.
ARMY 99-069
Title:Miniaturized Microenvironmental Sensor Package for Field Use
Abstract:The local measurement of meteorological parameters is important to Army infantry operations. The parameters include wind speed and direction, air and mean radiant temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation and precipitation rate. This data is useful in predicting environmental effects on troop exhaustion, predicting the dispersion and lifetime of any chemical weapons released in the vicinity of the troops, and general weather monitoring. ADA proposes to develop a Microenvironmental Sensor Package (MSP) which can measure these parameters in a compact, rugged, and inexpensive package with no moving parts. The package will incorporate competitively selected commercial sensors for each measurement, with the exception of a sonic anemometer which will be designed in-house. In Phase I, candidate sensors will be evaluated for all parameters. These sensors will then be incorporated into a prototype MSP which will undergo limited testing to complete proof-of-concept demonstration. A computer-based receiving system will be employed for these Phase I tests. Phase I Option work would involve prototyping the associated handheld terminal which will be used in the field to interrogate the MSPs. Phase II completes the final designs for the MSP and associated handheld terminal, and includes field demonstrations and preparation for Phase III production. BENEFITS: The MSP will enable real-time monitoring of meteorological conditions across the battlefield, with numerous applications toward improving the well being of soldiers. It will be readily adapted to other markets such as firefighting, chemical plant monitoring, and home weather stations.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 631-3550
Robert P. Scaringe
ARMY 99-070
Title:Demonstration of a Compact Lightweight Oxygen Generator for Forward Medical Treatment Areas
Abstract:Mainstream and Litton Life Support will develop and construct a high-purity portable oxygen generator system (POGS). The essential technologies in the system are Mainstream's DEMONSTRATED lubrication-free, compact, magnetic bearing centrifugal air compressor technology and Litton's DEMONSTRATED high-purity (99%) oxygen generator technology. While these critical components have been demonstrated individually, they have not been demonstrated together, nor have they ever been demonstrated at the scale required in this application. The compressor is a key component in the system. The high-purity oxygen generator requires a pressurized air source to operate. Mainstream's goal in Phase I is the analysis, and scale-down to a 20 pound magnetic-bearing centrifugal air compressor for Litton's patented POGS configuration. Phase I includes experimental testing of the compressor impeller's performance to demonstrate feasibility in Phase I. Litton's Phase I effort is the analysis, scale-down, and demonstration of the high-purity (99%) oxygen generator for a POGS sized to produce at a minimum of 99% oxygen at 5 PSIG, flowing continuously at 6.0 SLPM. In addition to the demonstration experiments in Phase I, a preliminary prototype design of the full-scale integrated prototype POGS (with a total system weight of 60 pounds) will be developed for fabrication and testing in Phase II. BENEFITS: The development of a lightweight, compact, reliable, air compressor and POGS will address the needs of both military and civilian portable medical oxygen requirements. This technology has applications in small, lightweight, portable oxygen generators for air transport and field hospitals. Both military and civilian hospitals require a supply of high-purity oxygen for clinical and surgical therapeutic use. Dual Use commercialization is excellent and a commercialization plan has already been developed.

THERIMMUNE RESEARCH CORP.
9700 Quince Orchard Rd
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 453-6208
Yvonne J. Rosenberg, Ph.D
ARMY 99-072
Title:Development of Novel Procedures in Nonhuman Primates
Abstract:Exposure to organophosphates (OPs), in the form of nerve gas and insecticides poses an ever increasing military and civilian threat. In recent years exogenous administration of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) have been successfully used as safe and efficacious prophylactic treatments due to their capacity to scavenge OPs in the blood before inhibition of the targeted endogenous AChE can occur. However, the 1:1 stoichiometry between enzyme activity and OP dose required for protection may not be obtainable if the enzyme is rapidly cleared by antibody induced following single or repeated administration/s . To date, immune responses to non-self ChE have varied widely and the critical role of antibody in enzyme clearance is still unclear. The aim of this proposal is to assess, for the first time in primates, the immunogenicity and safety of injecting homologous macaque-derived BChE (MaBChE) into macaques to provide the preclinical data for the potential use of HuBChE. as an OP scavenger in humans. This involves three specific aims: (i) To purify MaBChE from monkey blood sufficient to inject macaques with levels approximating those known to protect from OP toxicity (ii) To compare the macaque immune response, both humoral and cell mediated, following a single i.v. injections and if more plasma is available, another two months later. IgM, IgG and IgA production will be measured in serum by ELISA and in lymph nodes by ELISPOT. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity testing will be done. Specific T cell proliferative responses and intracellular cytokine responses will also be monitored (iii) To determine the role of anti-BChE antibody in clearance of exogenous BChE using B cell deficient recombinase activating gene 2(RAG 2) knock out mice injected with various forms of HuBChE with or without anti-HuBChE antibody. In phase II, through collaborative efforts or partnerships, delivery by intranasal spray or powder will be assessed for immunogenicity and efficacy and kinetics of protection. BENEFITS: Commercial applications include situations where nasal and pulmonary delivery of `self" protein based drugs are life saving e.g. 1) for the rapid treatment of inhaled toxins resulting from inhalation/exposure of toxic materials including nerve gas 2) for increased quality of life for patients requiring chronic i.m. or i.v. administration of protein/peptides (i.e. diabetics) , 3) alleviating life threatening condition(s) e.g. apnea resulting from the succinylcholine.injection in BchE atypical people 4) for delivery safer and more efficacious vaccines human studies.

KUMETRIX, INC.
29524 Union City Blvd.
Union City, CA 94587
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 476-0950
Wilson Smart
ARMY 99-074
Title:Continuous Monitoring of Tissue Blood Lactate in the Field
Abstract:Blood lactate concentration is a sensitive measure of anaerobic metabolism and hence of tissue oxygen deprivation, and is a reliable indicator for assessing trauma, blood loss, and shock in wounded personnel. Development of a rugged, unobtrusive device for continuous monitoring of tissue blood lactate in the field is proposed. Its key component is a silicon microprobe, comparable in cross-section to a human hair, protruding subcutaneously from a small button-like device firmly affixed to the skin with adhesive. An electrochemical lactate sensor integrated into the microprobe continuously measures lactate concentration, and the data are transmitted via a low power telemetry chip to a suitable receiver. This device combines two successful technologies: electrochemical biosensors and silicon microprobes. Biosensors have attained a high level of performance based on more than thirty years of development in many laboratories. Silicon microprobes which possess high strength, flexibility, and fracture toughness are an advanced development from extensive MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) R&D in the proposer's laboratory. Impressive biosensor R&D progress has not yet resulted in commercial devices for in vivo applications because other workers in needle biosensors have used conventional configurations and fabrication methods. The strength of this new approach lies in the combination of biosensors and our unique silicon microprobes. By rendering their use easy and painless and sharply reducing the cost, disposable continuous lactate sensors become practical. A design for such devices with a useful operating lifetime of one day, and experimental tasks for their development, are presented. The Phase I Basic Program will demonstrate feasibility by integrating lactate biosensors into silicon, fabricating lactate biosensor microprobes, and performing in vitro testing. The Option will fabricate sensor probes suitable for in vivo testing, and initiate animal tests. BENEFITS: Small, rugged, unobtrusive sensors applied to the skin, and capable of continuously monitoring tissue blood lactate and transmitting this data to a medic or other location, will be widely used in military battlefield casualty care and civilian emergency response care. Similar sensors for other analytes will be applicable to precise control of diabetes, control of blood levels of therapeutic drugs, and continuous physiological monitoring for self-care, clinical, and research purposes.

SARCOS RESEARCH CORP.
360 Wakara Way
Salt Lake City, TX 84108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 581-0155
Stephen Peterson
ARMY 99-076
Title:Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Sensor
Abstract:Sarcos Research Corporation proposes to develop a new sensor for estimating changes in cardiac output. The sensor will be small in size allowing use in the field. The sensor will measure changes in cardiac cross-section; heart beat rate and breathing rate will be recovered as a bonus. The sensor will minimize RF emissions by shielding, and by efficiently coupling energy into the thorax. The Phase I work will develop the prototype sensor and couplers, and provide proof of concept data by the use of animal experiments. BENEFITS: Successful development of this sensor will result in better battlefield and emergency medical care.

MER CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. J.C. Withers
ARMY 99-078
Title:The Development of Nanocomposites for Ultra-Lightweight Ballistic Protection
Abstract:Nanocompositse have the potential to significantly enhance the energy absorbing capacity and ballistic impact resistance for ultra-lightweight personnel armor. Heretofore, high volume (i.e. ~ 40-50 v/o) loading of nanoscale reinforcements in polymeric matrices have not been demonstrated due in part to the difficulty in dispersing nanoscale reinforcements to establish the effectiveness of nanocomposites for ballistic protectors. It is now possible to grow carbon nanotubes in perfect alignment in bulk volumes of approximately 50 v/o, which can be vacuum infiltrated to produce high volume loaded polymeric nanocomposites. Several types of nanotubes in various architectures will be produced in high volume loading composite specimens for ballistic screen testing. The nanocomposites demonstrating the most promise will be produced in scaled-up specimens, the ballistic performance confirmed on some specimens with the remaining specimens delivered to the Army NSC. BENEFITS: This will lead to the enhanced utilization of nanotubes, ultra lightweight armor for the military, law enforcement and security police, and nanocomposites will have other applications in structures, wear applications including brakes, engine applications and sporting goods.

NANTEK, INC.
1500 Hayes Dr.
Manhattan, KS 66502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 537-0179
Kenneth J. Klabunde and O
ARMY 99-078
Title:Nanoscale Metal Oxides as Additives for Improved Ballistic Protection
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I Research is to develop a lightweight, very strong nanoparticle-polymer composite. This material will be used in production of helmets and other protective gear. Nantek, Inc. will work on this project in cooperation with Gentex Co., a producer and supplier of protective equipment to the United States military. Metal oxide nanoparticles are known to possess much different properties from the bulk material. Nantek will produce metal oxide-polymer composites, and the actual incorporation into the protective equipment as well as testing will be carried out at Gentex. Nantek's nanoparticles are very chemically active and it is speculated that chemical bonding will occur between the polyesters at the ester group of the polymer and the hydroxyl groups of the polymer. This will cause a strong "cross-linking" and a spatial redistribution that will increase the ability of the material to absorb shock and dissipate the energy of the impact. BENEFITS: The anticipated benefit of this project is development of lighter soft and hard armor for personnel in military, paramilitary and police forces, with better ballistic protection.

BALLY RIBBON MILLS
23 North Seventh Street
Bally, PA 19503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 845-2211
Leon Bryn
ARMY 99-079
Title:Novel Forming Techniques of Complex Shapes in Personnel Armor
Abstract:This proposal shall outline the process of modifying a standard loom to weave three-dimensional complex shapes for personnel armor. Current manufacturing techniques for textile-based personnel armor focus on constructing complex shapes from orthogonal wove fabrics with cuts and darts, reducing comfort. The solution to the above problem is to develop a robust technique which weaves a three dimensional near-net woven material for the use on female bullet resistant vest. By altering the take-up motion of a standard loom the traditional orthogonal woven material can be formed into near-net shapes. Phase one of the proposal shall supply material for parts with various diameters. The phase one parts will have various diameters across the width of the material, but the diameters shall be consistent through out the roll of material. Phase one shall also supply a mathematical formula to design a take-up system for phase two. A follow on option is included, which uses the mathematical formula from phase one and begins the design work for the "next phase" take-up system. Phase two take-up system shall supply material capable of changing from complex shapes to flat orthogonal material. Meeting requirements for a revolutionary new female ballistic protective material. BENEFITS: Net/near-net shape forming techniques for comfortable soft armor system tailored to women will result in reduced weight, reduced fabrication and replacement costs, while maintaining the ballistic integrity demonstrated by conventional armor systems. This technology and capability will have an effect upon the use of such armor system on three levels: (1) Military protective equipment (armor systems, helmets, etc.), law enforcement protection equipment, and personal protective applications. (2) Recreational sporting good protective equipment, shin pads for soccer, motor cross, hockey equipment, impact resistant helmets, etc. (3) Aerospace parts such as radoms, nose cones, helicopter rotors, jet engine containment case, etc.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dan L. Grecu
ARMY 99-080
Title:Common Sense Reasoning for Threat Inference and Analysis
Abstract:Threat location and analysis require commanders to monitor large and diverse streams of information, to corroborate the information with multi-domain background knowledge, to profile enemy capabilities, and to infer enemy intent. To assist the decision-making process in this complex and critical task we propose the development of an agent for common sense reasoning for threat inference and analysis. The agent assists commanders by assessing incoming theater information, by integrating it with related knowledge in associated domain contexts, and by generating an intelligent update of the overall situation description. In addition, the agent supports the commander in retrieving and associating critical pieces of information, and includes capabilities for reasoning about and inferring potential threats. The proposed approach will contribute to the extension of CYC domain ontologies into the theater missile domain, and will build on and integrate with related knowledge engineering efforts within the high-performance knowledge bases community. BENEFITS: The proposed effort has significant potential aplications, both as a technology and as an end-product. As a technology the approach will provide tools for validation, and intelligent integration of real-time information streams into a global situation description, and will enable decision-makers to reason about the possible development of the situation. Candidate domains range from command and control centers, to market analysis, and to assessment in complex medical domains. As an end-product, the theater missile domain knowledge and the associated knowledge engineering tools will integrate into and support on-going DoD efforts to develop multi-domain collections of knowledge bases, analysis and reasoning tools, that will enable the warfighter to take rapid, informed and effective decisions in complex, real-time situations.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 260-5274
Perakath Benjamin
ARMY 99-080
Title:Hybrid Decision Wizard (HDWizard)
Abstract:We propose to develop, build, and validate a hybrid decision support toolkit that utilizes a combination of common sense reasoning, domain knowledge based reasoning, and soft computing techniques to support intelligent decision making. The main product of this project will be the Hybrid Decision Wizard (HDWizard), an agent-based decision support system that facilitates the automated generation of information from disparate and distributed data to support user defined decision support goals. HDWizard's intelligent mechanisms include common sense reasoning, rule-based expert systems, data mining, and data fusion. The Phase I effort will (i) establish requirements, (ii) design HDWizard architecture, (iii) develop and demonstrate prototype HDWizard software. The Phase II project will harden the software and demonstrate its benefits on focused military and commercial applications. Key innovations include: (i) innovative hybridization approach to combine machine learning methods with common sense reasoning techniques, (ii) extendible and reconfigurable agent-based architecture for intelligent decision support, and (iii) robust mechanisms for capturing, storing, and leveraging common sense knowledge for decision making. BENEFITS: The principal project benefits are: (i) significant reductions in time and effort needed to convert data to action enabling decision information and (ii) higher quality and improved timeliness of decisions through robust information processing mechanisms. Potential HDWizard applications include Military Course of Action Planning, Logistics Planning and Control, Strategic Planning, Enterprise Resource Management, Supply Chain Management, Computer Network Intrusion Detection, and Financial Fraud Detection.

SARA, INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 766-9844
David Kleeberg
ARMY 99-081
Title:Mitigation of Magnetohydrodynamic Electromagnetic Pulse Effects, etc.
Abstract:There is significant evidence to show that the commercial power grid within the CONUS is susceptible to severe interruption and damage resulting from Geomagnetic Storms. High Altitude Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) events can produce disturbances in the earth's magnetic field similar to those that are produced by Geomagnetic Storms. Damage resulting from these phenomenon can be widespread and catastrophic. SARA, Inc. proposes a unique and innovative technique for sensing and mitigating the electrical transients that are induced on power lines as a result of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD/E3) component of a High Altitude Electromagentic Pulse (EMP) event. The identical technique, with minor changes to the sensing technique, can be applied to protect the commercial power grid from Geomagnetic Induced Currents (GIC) as well. SARA's technique is a revolutionary, multi-stepped technique that discriminates between "real" MHD events and other electrical transients. The traditional single step non-discriminating shunt mitigation approach does not have the capability to distinguish between "real" and spurious events. SARA's technique senses an event, discriminates the signals measured, and reacts to protect the system by isolating it from the power distribution system. BENEFITS: The proposed mitigation technique will protect critical military facilities from the effects of MHD transients while maintaining a load balance on the commercial power grid. The technique has applications within the commercial power industry to protect power transmission equipment from damage as the result of currents induced by Geomagnetic Storms.

LASER POWER CORP.
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 926-7658
Dr. J. Earl Rudisill
ARMY 99-083
Title:Uncooled Optics for Simultaneous Usage at HF/DF Laser Wavelengths
Abstract:The development of Very Low Absoprtion (VLA) optical coatings triggered the onset of uncooled optics currently used to provide ultra-high reflectance mirrors in the beam delivery systems of high-power chemical lasers for Directed Energy Weapon (DEW) applications. Uncooled optics offer unmatched advantages over thier cooled counterparts in spectral performance, time of manufacture, reduction in weight and cost. DEW devices are composed of optical subsystems such as: illuminator, pointing and tracking, wavefront correction, beam diagnostic, beam delivery, etc. These optical subsystems can presently handle only one designated high-energy beam, i.e. Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) or Deuterium Fluoride (DF). The present proposal addresses the development of uncooled optics for simultaneous usage of both HF and DF chemical laser wavelengths. The sucessful achievements of this effort will provide the DEW community with a well needed cost savings approach in the design, manufacture and replacement of any cooled optics currently in use at HF/DF wavelengths. This approach allows operation at either HF/DF by simply changing the reaction gas fuel components of the chemical laser ignition system. It is anticipated that a Phase II program plan will include advanced metrology characterization, scale-up in optics to current device sizes and the need to address other optical components such as beamsplitters, aperture sharing elements, wavefront correction devices, etc., with dualband performance. BENEFITS: 1) High energy laser machining and paint removal. 2) applications in the optical parametric oscillator (OPO) area for the detection of gasses and vapors for smog and pollution control, oil pipeline and chemical leaks, and infrared broadband communications.

MER CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Witold Kowbel
ARMY 99-083
Title:SiC-Based High Energy Laser Optics
Abstract:SiC-based materials exhibit excellent thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. In addition, excellent polishability has been established for CVD-SiC. The use of CVD-SiC in optical applications requires the joining of dissimilar materials. This proposal offers an integrated approach to fabricate optical structures. No conventional joining is required. Ultralightweight, extremely stable structures can be produced. A functionally graded (FGM) approach is implemented to minimize the residual stresses. Chemical Vapor Reaction (CVR) processing is used to form an optical quality (2 Angstroms rms) SiC surface. BENEFITS: Ultralightweight, very stable SiC mirrors will be produced. Commercial applications include lasers, lidars, and high energy lasers.

QUANTUM RESONANCE
1 Brackenwood Path
St. James, NY 11780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 584-5540
John L. Remo Ph.D
ARMY 99-083
Title:New Design Techniques for High Powered Non-Symmetric Laser Resonators
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need to develop improved laser beam quality and efficiency for high powered lasers such as the 12 - 14 kW HF/DF chemical and other related high powered lasers. This objective is achieved by using inproved resonator design solutions based on proprietary algorithms and computational software. The analytical approach breaks through current design limitations by establishing super quasi-resonant modes obtained from the expansion of bi-orthogonal wave functions matched to each of the primary laser resonator optics. Our analytically sophisticated design solutions can be applied to both perturbed and aberrated local oscillators and power amplifiers. Benefits of this design approach include increased power intensity on target and the capability of designing more compact, efficient, reliable and portable lasers. BENEFITS: Improved high powered laser design, diagnostics, and reliability

SKION CORP.
50 Harrison Street
Hoboken, NJ 07030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 963-5450
Catherine E. Rice
ARMY 99-083
Title:Ultra-Smooth As-Deposited Optical Films for High Power Applications
Abstract:Reflective optics for short-wavelength applications are required having ultrasmooth finishes, with rms roughness in the range below 10 angstroms. Typically this is achieved by extensive figuring and superpolishing of bulk samples or deposited thin films, an expensive and time-consuming process. SKION proposes to employ its unique negative metal ion beam deposition (NMIBD) technique to fabricate high quality reflective optics with a super smooth finish without the need for a final polishing step. The need for polishing is eliminated because NMIBD films actually become smoother during deposition, unlike conventional film deposition processes. This innovation will make possible the fabrication of mirrors which not only avoid the above-mentioned problems, but which also can be deposited at lower temperatures than many techniques such as CVD, thus reducing cracking and distortion, and enabling deposition on less expensive low temperature substrates. SKION's unique ion beam deposition process can achieve a breakthrough in the fabrication of high-energy short wavelength reflective optics with better performance at lowered cost. SKION has recently developed the only commercially available large area ion beam source, which will be adapted and utilized for this program. BENEFITS: Successful completion of this program will provide new technology applicable to many military and commercial optical needs for space-based and synchrotron radiation optics as well as optical components for laser welding, drilling, and other high-power uses.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Dr. Leonard S. Haynes
ARMY 99-084
Title:Distributed Positioning Instrumentation Using Time-Modulated Ultra Wideband Transmission
Abstract:IAI is working with a partner company, Time Domain, Incorporated to develop and apply a new type of radio called Time-Modulated Ultra-Wideband radio. When two TM-UWB radios communicate, each immediately knows the range to the other to within approximately 1 inch. TM-UWB radios do not transmit continuous radio waves like conventional radio. Only pulses are transmitted, and power is used only during the short duration of those pulses. A typical duty cycle is 1/000, with pulse widths of approximately 1 nanosecond. TM-UWB radio transmissions are very difficult to intercept and jam. Pulses in the time domain result in very wideband signals in the frequency domain. The lower frequency component of the signal allows the signals to penetrate foliage, walls, and other obstacles. TM-UWB is much simpler than conventional radio because what is output is a pulse which is generated by a single transistor which is ON or OFF. Since there is no intermediate frequency, there is no up-conversion and no down-conversion. A dipole antenna made of two small strips of foil works fine. TM-UWB is almost totally unaffected by multipath interference, and requires no spectrum allocation from the FCC. This proposal details the use of TM-UWB radio, and also details a network configuration and protocol for Distributed Positioning Instrumentation Modules. BENEFITS: TM-UWB is a fundamentally new method for radio and radar which does not require any specific frequency band. Current wireless applications have resulted in enormous demand for spectrum allocation, which is obviated by TM-UWB. Our first commercial goal is a low cost wireless LAN. The work herein proposed will allow this wireless LAN technology to also be used for position determination. Position determination has direct application to police and fireman, as well as for use in any training activities requiring monitoring of participant's positions.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Charles J. Cohen, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-085
Title:An Automatic Learning Gesture Recognition Interface for Dismounted Soldier Training Systems
Abstract:State-of-the-art immersive technologies, such as dismounted soldier trainers, while comprehensive in their capability to render and display virtual environments, are still lacking in advanced and useful interfaces. In order to communicate more effectively with human users, these systems need to understand current modalities of human interaction. One such modality is gesture recognition - human hand and body motions to infer a particular desire and control devices. In many applications, using gestures for computer input is more practical than other forms, such as speech or keyboard, because of a noisy background environment and because many commands are more intuitively represented as gestures. We will implement a gesture recognition system which performs in a cluttered background environment using standard video and an inexpensive PC-based system without the use of attached data-gloves or beacons. We intend to use the dynamic and static properties of gestures for real-time recognition, using these properties for command inputs into the Dismounted Battle Space Battle Lab and the Land Warrior simulator, thereby greatly expanding the utility of these systems for interaction and training. Through the use of our OpenSkies training environment, we will be able to implement and test the system in-house before installing the system elsewhere. BENEFITS: We intend to use this interface for the enhancement of Self Service Machines, and further developing the gesture recognition system so it can be used in conjunction with any other standard interface as an additional input device.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr. 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Matthew E. Thomas
ARMY 99-086
Title:Electrostatic Atomization Insertion into Compression Ignition Engines
Abstract:Recent CFD Research and Charged Injection Corporation investigations have shown that low cost electrostatic atomization technology can eliminate high pressure fuel injection requirements while simultaneously improving the cylinder mixing and combustion processes. An additional benefit is a concomitant reduction in emissions due to increased combustion uniformity. Phase I will focus on: 1) Design, fabrication and test of a single prototype electrostatic diesel fuel injector for operation in the Caterpillar D3126 engine; 2) Benchtop PDPA atomization measurement comparison between a current production and the electrostatic prototype D3126 fuel injector followed by in-cylinder combustion modeling of both atomization processes; and 3) Evaluation of the prototype injector in one cylinder of a production Caterpillar D3126 engine (Optional Task). During Phase II CFDRC will refine the electrostatic atomization process and develop a supporting fuel control suitable for an Army approved engine durability demonstration. The viability of this proposed concept has generated sufficient interest from CI engine manufacturers Caterpillar, John Deere, Cummings and Detroit Diesel that a program to match Phase II funding with a comparable commercial technology insertion program will be definable during Phase I. BENEFITS: By providing quantum enhancement of the fuel atomization and mixing processes, and reduction in fuel delivery pressure, the proposed electrostatic atomization technology can revolutionize CI engines. The potential to develop a retrofittable CI engine injector kit is significant. The ultimate commercial potential of inserting this technology within the power generation, railroad, ship and trucking industries dramatically exceeds the typical SBIR commercialization scale.

DYNASIM RESEARCH LTD.
1776 Mentor Ave., Suite 312
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 351-0617
Dr. Jeremy Williams
ARMY 99-086
Title:Cylinder Torque Estimation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines
Abstract:In the proposed research, the angular velocity response of the crankshaft will be measured using non-contacting magnetic pickup sensors at the front and rear of the crankshaft. This measured angular response will then be deconvolved through a mathematical model of the system to estimate the torque applied by each individual cylinder in the engine. The current state of the art in similar methods is limited to engines operating under conditions where crankshaft torsional deflection is not pronounced. Dynasim Research Ltd. has demonstrated success with a new diagnostic method that places no restriction on the amount of crankshaft torsional deflection. The method has been experimentally validated using measured data taken on a Cummins 19 liter heavy duty diesel engine. The method is suitable for retrofit on existing mechanical engines, as well as on new electronic engines. Successful implementation will allow the identification of cylinder combustion and compression faults before other symptoms occur. BENEFITS: On-board implementation could be used for near real-time cylinder health assessment, and for cylinder fueling control schemes. Off line implementation over a broad population of engines can be used reduce engine downtime, improve engine efficiency, reduce maintenance costs, improve fuel economy, and reduce emissions. Commercial applications include an engine build quality check, a dealership diagnostic tool, and on-board misfire detection.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
56 Rogers Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 252-0660
Dr. Jeannie S. Falcon
ARMY 99-086
Title:High Bandwidth Valve for Diesel Fuel Injection
Abstract:The technical objective for this effort is the design of a high bandwidth valve for electronically controlled fuel injection. The valve must provide the required stroke and force for the application while meeting power, weight, size, and cost constraints. The work will involve requirements definition, modeling and simulation, and prototyping of the initial design. BENEFITS: A high bandwidth valve will enable improved electronic control of diesel fuel injection so that emissions can be lowered while maintaining performance. The technology will benefit the automotive, truck, locomotive, marine and power generation industries.

MICRON CORP.
158 Orchard Ln
Winchester, TN 37398
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(931) 967-9859
Dr. Dieter Nowak
ARMY 99-087
Title:An Integrated Smart Lead-Acid Battery Controller for Automotive Starter Batteries
Abstract:A novel battery analysis method, a gas controlled fast charge algorithm and a device that monitors individual cells and controls the charge according to the performance of weakest cell in the battery was developed by Micron. Because battery problems are caused by the weakest cell and show up more clearly in measurements of a single cell than in measurements of a multicell module where cell behavior is averaged, application oft his type of control and monitoring has shown a substantial increase in battery performance and cycle life during testing. It is proposed to combine a derivative of the charge and the monitoring device with an off-the-shelf single chip controller, integrate it into a SLI lead-acid battery and make it part of a highly flexible and versatile power management system for a wide range of military vehicles with a corresponding saving in operating costs. For ease in field use, the proposed device will include a low-power non-contact (RF), data gathering and battery monitoring means with a unique battery identification method. In addition the project is expected to result in a miniature general purpose control system with almost unlimited military and commercial application. BENEFITS: The development will result in a low cost, miniaturized control system with an advanced charge control and analysis algorithm for automotive batteries and large standby battery banks. A unique low cost walk-by wireless data transmission link will make logistics and maintenance easy and reduce the associated cost. In addition the system is the kernel of a novel multi sensor and multi purpose data acquisition and control system that is based on the One Wire data transmission and control concept. It reduces wiring of an array of sensors to a single strand of wire and requires only a fraction of electronic real estate with a corresponding large reduction in cost. This system has application in appliance control, automotive and aerospace application ( mobile radars) as well as in chemical industry.

US NANOCORP, INC.
20 Washington Ave., Suite 106
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 234-8024
Pritpal Singh, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-087
Title:Fuzzy Logic-Based Smart Battery Controller
Abstract:Accurate determination of battery state-of-charge remains a weak link in the assessment of battery condition or state-of-health. US Nanocorp and Villanova Univ. have collaborated under US SOCOM Phase I and II SBIR programs to develop a newly patented fuzzy logic methodology to determine battery SOC in both primary and rechargeable systems for a variety of battery chemistries, including Pb-acid, Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and Li-Ion. The proposed Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of a fuzzy logic-based smart battery controller as applied to Pb-acid SLI batteries. US Nanocorp and Villanova will collaborate to (i) design system architecture specifications for a smart battery controller, (ii) develop fuzzy logic-based algorithms for SOC determination in Pb-acid SLI batteries, (iii) design a digital communications protocol for a smart data bus, and (iv) integrate the smart battery controller into representative Pb-acid SLI batteries. In the Phase II program, we will adopt an existing platform, e.g., PowerSmart or Unitrode, to invoke the fuzzy logic algorithms. BENEFITS: It is estimated that the Military uses more than 3800 different types of batteries with an annual procurement cost exceeding $300 million. World wide annual revenues of batteries are in excess of $28 B, each one in need of battery management. As battery performance improves, management becomes a more critical issue to enable optimal practical usage. Therefore, a large commercial and military market exists for such electronic devices.

ADVANCED ENGINES DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4338 West Monarch Place
Milwaukee, WI 53208
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(414) 342-1881
Nicholas R. Hirsch
ARMY 99-088
Title:Advanced Opposed-piston 2-stroke Diesel Demonstrator
Abstract:Tactical and operational missions require equipment powered by lightweight, high output 50 to 1500+ BHP engines. Engine powered equipment in this size is predominantly 2-cycle diesel. Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated the use of heavy fuels: jet and diesel. Next generation fuel efficient, lightweight, high power density (1.5 HP/in3 disp), heavy fuel engines (HFE) are needed. TARDEC will research opposed-piston 2-cycle diesel engines incorporating advanced 2- and 4-cycle diesel technologies. Design concepts will be evaluated by building a single cylinder research engine. AED Corp.'s proposed design combines its extensive hardware developed HFE direct-injected controlled combustion engine technology with electronically controlled common rail fuel injection, variable nozzle turbocharger, cooled articulated pistons, and high turbulent combustion chamber. Using Detroit Diesel Corp's (DDC) production 2-cycle components, the engine's design will facilitate hardware changes needed to evaluate critical design variables (i.e. crankshaft phasing). Operating on a controlled dual combustion thermodynamic cycle limiting maximum cylinder pressure, exceptionally high power density, low fuel consumption, and low emissions are predicted. Phase I base: Advanced diesel engine systems and components will be evaluated as applied to the critical design features of the opposed-piston 2-cycle engine. Design layouts will be made using DDC's 2-cycle components as a base. Detailing will follow a design review. Phase I Option, a concept engine built using a maximum of DDC components will be dyno tested to evaluate design concepts and advanced technologies. Knowledge gained will advance the design of the phase II demonstrator. BENEFITS: A high power, lightweight, fuel efficient, low emissions, easy starting compression ignition opposed-piston 2-cycle engine with controlled maximum firing pressures will have commercial applications in marine, power generators, buses, and industrial/commercial off-highway vehicles.

POWER & ENERGY INTERNATIONAL, INC.
2020 University Avenue
Madison, WI 53705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 238-2020
Simon K. Chen, Ph.D. PE
ARMY 99-088
Title:Advanced Opposed Piston Two-Stroke Diesel Demonstration
Abstract:Our objective is to design the OP research engine "The Demonstrator" for developing the Horizontal Opposed Piston (HOP) 2-cycle design for military vehicles. The HOP concept is superior to the Vertical Opposed Piston (VOP) design produced in this country for vehicle installation, because of its low silhouette. The "Demonstrator", is to be fabricated in Phase II to conduct operational testing. Phase I effort will include a layout design of a 123 x 127-mm configuration (PEI Basic HOP) using commercial power cylinder parts. Common rail fuel injection, sensor ports for cylinder pressure transducer, therocouple and gas sampling probes, etc. will be incorporated in the design. Advanced instrumentation for measuring piston temperature will be researched and applied if practical. Additional swirl, scavenging, and combustion optimization per Computational Combustion and Fluid Dynamics (CCFD) will be continued in R&D phases. Cycle simulation and classical design analysis will be performed and design report will be prepared in Phase I and Phase I-Option. Commercial power cylinder components will be modified and applied to attain a power density of 200 HP/cylinder. Other structural engine parts will be designed and stressed for the 300 HP/cylinder. Component and combustion R&D phases are planned in order to reach the 250 HP/cylinder objective power level with sufficient durability. BENEFITS: Using the HOP concept, a state-of-the-art domestic diesel design suitable for combat vehicles becomes very feasible. The concept will be validated in Phase II's initial testing of the research engine. The component development and combustion optimization project will be further developed in the later R&D phase to be proposed. Based on PEI's design methodology, a versatile and durable research engine will be delivered in Phase II. Commercially available components will be modified and incorporated to minimize the initial cost. The 2-cycle engines (including the VOP design) have been losing their market share over the last few years. The advanced HOP design and its overall simplicity, and low engine silhouette could regain some of that market share. Due to the uniflow OP design, the mixing is quite unique and the combustion is efficient due to the strong swirl available. These characteristics could allow the HOP design to regain the market position of the 2-cycle diesel for those applications where design simplicity and lower initial cost are important to the client.

MECHANICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
1719 Route 10 East, Suite 205
Parsippany, NJ 07054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 326-9920
Chang-Wei Jen
ARMY 99-089
Title:A Compact Self-Cleaning Surfactant Resistant Fuel Filter
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative design that combines a surfactant-inert and water-selective filter cartridge, with centrifugal separation, cross-flow filtration (CFF), Dean Flow surface cleaning, back-flush techniques, and a water-separating chamber into an effective micro-filtration unit. The water-selective filter allows fuel oil to pass through its membrane and repels water on the surface. Centrifugal separation is effective in separating heavy particles. CFF is effective for feed flow with a high amount of suspended solids. CFF makes use of the shear force parallel to the filter medium to reduce the contaminant formation and water adsorption on the filter surface. Dean Flow is a secondary flow created in a curved flow passage. The resulting flow profile takes the form of a toroidal vortex. The vortex profile generates a high shear rate which acts to transport material away from the membrane surface. Back-flush creates pressure-bursts to clean membrane pores periodically. Water and contaminants are moved down to the water-separating chamber by these combined features. Inside the chamber, the concentrated water will be conglomerated and settled down with contaminants at the bottom, to be drained out. The combination of these features forms a compact and self-cleaning unit. BENEFITS: The proposed design will offer a reliable, efficient, compact, and self-cleaning filtration system suitable to scale to different sizes for various applications in the Army. It can equally well be used in various commercial fuel oil filtration systems.

ROD MILLEN SPECIAL VEHICLES
7575 Reynolds Circle
Huntington Beach, CA 92647
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 847-2111
Dr. Eric Anderfaas, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-090
Title:MR Fluid Active Damper Suspension System for HMMWV
Abstract:Computer controlled suspensions using active magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper actuators offer three methods for improved suspension performance: 1)The ability to respond to a greater number of critical vehicle variables. 2) Passive dampers typically only respond to suspension velocity. Active damper systems can respond to suspension displacement, velocity, sprung mass motions, driver inputs and any variable which can be sensed. 3) The damper force - velocity constitutive relations are not solely based on purely mechanical elements, but can be controlled at high frequencies to meet suspension controller demands. An active damper can have any arbitrary force - velocity relationship within a wide performance envelope, allowing for advance control algorithms to be used. 4) The vehicle suspension system can continually be optimized for the specific vehicle load and operating conditions. Instead of one compromised suspension design, the damping force can be changed depending on the vehicle load and operating condition, such as best ride or best handling. Active MR fluid dampers offer a cost effective, high bandwidth solution with quiet, fail-safe operation. Rod Millen Special Vehicles (RMSV) has the expertise, equipment and facilities to develop an active MR fluid damper for the HMMWV and other vehicles in a timely, cost effective manner. BENEFITS: The benefits of using an advanced suspension system based on MR fluid active dampers, which can be applied to all commercial and military ground vehicles are: Reduced driver and passenger fatigue, improved vehicle stability with the reduction of body resonance motions, improved driver control of the vehicle, higher Mobility Speeds over a given terrain, reduced fatigue loading of the vehicle structure and payload, reduced driver, passenger, vehicle and payload damage by reductions in shock loading from terrain impacts, improved tire traction when required, improved tire life due to lower dynamic loading, less road or terrain damage with the reduction in tire dynamic loading, and cost effective, high performance, quiet and fail safe operation through the use of MR Fluids for damper force control.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2929 P1 Eskridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Dr. T.S. Sudarshan
ARMY 99-091
Title:Embedded NanoSensors for Corrosion Detection
Abstract:The high cost of corrosion has led to a lot of research efforts that have focussed on sensors for monitoring or detecting corrosion. These sensors are desirable for use particularly in automotive, military and structural applications. The choice of a sensor depends on its ability to monitor corrosive action, and convert 'its chosen mode of operation' to interpretable data in an easy simple and reliable manner. Corrosion phenomena can be monitored by a number of methods, but fast data interpretation is required to predict microscopic corrosion, since it manifests itself in macroscopic corrosive action (such as rust). In this Phase I project, Materials Modification Inc proposes to evaluate fast sensors, especially those with fiber optic relays and radio frequency (RF) output units. MMI will also evaluate two methodologies for corrosion monitoring and compare the results with commercially available products. In Phase II we will select either commercial sensors that are most viable/simple easy to use/reliable or develop such sensors. Extensive corrosion testing will be performed on the sensors by attaching them to tactical wheeled vehicle fleet of the Army in various locations. BENEFITS: Corrosion sensors for application in tactical wheeled vehicle fleets, monitoring corrosion in structural components such as bridges, and railroads and automotive parts.

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS & TESTING ASSOC..
6361 Yarrow Drive, Suite A
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 931-9511
C Thomas Savell
ARMY 99-092
Title:P9992: An Expert System for Forecasting Vehicle Corrosion
Abstract:The Phase I effort is concerned with the design of a Expert System for forecasting vehicle corrosion utilizing Autonomous Agents. There is a general industry need for expert software that would aide the engineer responsible for maintaining assets subject to corrosion or other deterioration. Due to the complexity of the problem and the difficulty to obtain a robust data population from the vehicle fleet, forecasting future corrosion of the existing fleet or impacting new vehicle designs to be more corrosive resistant, has been a tedious effort employed only by corrosion experts. However, with recent advances in modeling, simulation and autonomous agent technologies, the ability to model and simulate complex systems using a collection of simple, autonomous software agents that can be deployed concurrently has become entirely feasible. The Phase I effort is directed to creating a system concept, implementation architecture and a Phase II implementation plan for an autonomous agent-based vehicle corrosion forecasting tool. A prototype, proof-of-concept computer model of the forecasting engine is included as part of the Phase I effort. BENEFITS: The Corrosion Expert System will be used to evaluate corrosion control materials, treatments, and processes for use on a vehicle system, as well as in the research and development of new environmentally friendly, corrosive-resistant materials and in evaluating alternative corrosion control technologies. This system could be used by any agency tasked with monitoring and controlling deterioration of a fleet whether it be automobiles, trucks, railroad, ships, helicopter and aircraft, commercial or military. It would also have application in the monitoring and maintenance of stationary structures in caustic environments where corrosion, erosion and surface deterioration are issues, such as off-shore oil platforms, drilling rigs, even roads, dams and physical structures could be tracked and maintained with a minor adjustment to the knowledge base.

APPLIED SIGNAL & IMAGE TECHNOLOGY
303 Najoles Rd., Suite 104
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 729-3108
Joseph C. Harsanyi
ARMY 99-093
Title:Tools for Hyperspectral Evaluation of Signature Managed Materials
Abstract:The requirement for automated evaluation of detectability of spectral signatures in varying backgrounds is a common theme in many applications of spectral imaging. Existing spectral imaging sensors are quite mature and have been demonstrated in hand held, land based, vehicle mounted, and airborne applications. While these sensors offer high sensitivity resulting in high quality spectra, reliable and consistent, automated detection and identification in realistic scenarios has not been adequately demonstrated. Under this Phase I effort, ASIT will concentrate on developing innovative spectral processing technologies and prototype demonstration of a hyperspectral detectability assessment tool that addresses real-world problems including: time varying spectral mixtures, with unknown background composition, and unknown interferant signatures. BENEFITS: To address both Government and commercial needs for enhanced understanding of spectral detection and identification performance, this effort will combine existing processing technology with specialized software.

SIGNATURE RESEARCH, INC.
P.O. Box 346
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 337-3360
William R. Reynolds
ARMY 99-093
Title:PC-based Multi- and Hyperspectral Pattern Matching and Image Analysis Software
Abstract:In general, hyperspectral sensor hardware is ahead of development of algorithms and software required for real-time and near real-time analysis of the data. Consequently, SGR has developed the software framework for processing hyperspectral data. This framework is comprised of C++ classes for input of data, calibration, conversion to a protected internal data format, area of interest (AOI) analysis, data visualization and data output. Currently, the capability is limited to colorimetry, but this platform provides an ideal opportunity to extend the analysis capability with pattern matching tools based on spectral, spatial, and combined spectral/spatial analysis techniques. Under this Phase I program we propose to develop and implement a set of algorithms within the existing software framework which analyze the detectability and conspicuity of target-bearing regions relative to adjacent pixels and the extended background. We will provide this capability in a PC-based software system operated using a menu-driven graphical user interface. BENEFITS: The proliferation of multi- and hyperspectral sensors provides extensive commercialization opportunities exist for the software package which will be developed under this program. As part of our commercialization strategy we will market the software to the Army, other DoD components, and comsumers of multi- and hyperspectral imagers. Potential markets include Earth resources monitoring, and low observables technology development and testing organizations.

MICRON RAMAN SYSTEMS
4609 Hunters Point Dr.
Portsmouth, VA 23703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 683-5061
Kent L. Wise
ARMY 99-095
Title:Dual Raman/Absorbance Fuel Analyzer
Abstract:This Army Phase I SBIR addresses the feasibility of using a portable dual Raman/Absorbance spectrometer operating in the 1100-1600 nm range for real-time fuel quality analysis. In the analysis of fuels, both Raman and absorbance spectral data are needed to accurately classify and quantify fuels. This method will provide a high degree of certainty where single spectroscopic methods fail. BENEFITS: The current market is dominated by scanning dispersive and interferometer based instruments. Our preliminary market research indicates that there is a large demand for low-cost, no moving parts dispersive instruments using diode array detection and fiber optic sampling.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5515
Joseph Ting
ARMY 99-096
Title:Quiet, High Efficiency Engine Performance with a Passive, Smart Exhaust System
Abstract:Next-generation wheeled and tracked vehicles for the Army After Next require high efficiency operation. Foster-Miller proposes to improve engine performance while decreasing engine noise through the development of a new, smart, baffle-less exhaust system. The Foster-Miller Smart Exhaust System (SES) would be manufactured to net-shape with smart fibers integrated with conductors, structural fibers, and circuitry. Sound energy would be converted by the piezoelectric fibers running throughout the system to electrical energy and then dissipated through resistive shunting. The system would cause zero back pressure thus increasing engine combustion performance. Successful development would advance the state-of-the-art in smart structural forming and generic smart structure technology. The proposed system would allow greater engine performance, greater stealth, lower fuel usage, and greater exhaust durability for both the U.S. Army and also the commercial sector. The SES technology could be applied to numerous other applications including vibration suppression and structural control in land vehicles, aircraft, and ships. BENEFITS: The proposed technology would provide the U.S. Army with quieter, more stealthy, fuel efficient vehicles. System development would be directly applicable to commercial vehicles including heavy trucks. Successful development would decrease national fuel usage. The manufacturing processes could also be applied to smart structures for vibration suppression and shape control.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7780
Dan Bindbeutel
ARMY 99-097
Title:Video Compression for Standard Teleoperation Kits
Abstract:In order to expand the utility of unmanned ground vehicles in today's military, a number of practical hurdles must be overcome. Better navigation aids must be provided, and in a way that fits into the current communications infrastructure. The current DoD Standard Teleoperation Kit (STK), which allows any vehicle to be controlled remotely, employs a standard broadband video link for communication between the operator and vehicle. This link is limited to line-of-sight applications over a relatively short range. In addition, it has been observed that the monocular video provided for vehicle navigation can be inadequate for recognition and avoidance of obstacles in the vehicle's path-ditches, fallen trees, etc. Leveraging its extensive background in video compression and transmission, Trident proposes to develop a video compression module for attachment to the STK that provides high-quality stereo video imagery over a single SINCGARS radio link, and allow the operator to view the imagery in stereo. BENEFITS: Successful completion of this project will significantly improve the navigation ability in remotely operating unmanned ground vehicles, and in providing high-quality stereo imagery over narrowband communication links. In addition, this technology can be successfully transitioned to commercial applications in both remote vehicle operation and imagery transmission in general.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
5660 Airport Boulevard, Suite 105
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 440-8008
Steven T. Harford
ARMY 99-098
Title:Chemical Reclamation of Discarded Rubber Tires
Abstract:The objective of this proposed program is to develop a catalytic system for efficient conversion of vulcanized rubber to a product that resembles virgin rubber in terms of its chemical and physical properties. The technical objectives will be achieved by optimizing both the catalyst material and process operating conditions. Vulcanization is known to form disulfide bonds between polymer chains, and two strategies for disulfide cleavage will be evaluated as methods to reverse the vulcanization process. Hydrodesulfurization is used to transform disulfide functionalities into hydrogen sulfide, and metal hydrides have been successful in cleaving disulfide bonds to thiols. These chemical approaches will be investigated for activity with vulcanized rubber, and provide an exciting opportunity for chemical reclamation and recycling of discarded tires. Potential applications of the technology include utilization of the vast used tire stocks currently held by the US Army. BENEFITS: Highly active and selective catalysts discovered under this contract will be immediately applicable toward development of a 100% recycling program for discarded tires. The technology discovered may serve both military and civilian needs, since both sectors of our society are in frantic need of a practical recycling program for used tires. The application of hydrodesulfurization and hydrogenation catalysis to vulcanized rubber decomposition provides an excellent opportunity for achieving unprecedented success. More than 250 million tires are discarded every year in the United States; thus, the environmental, political, and economic consequences following success of this program are truly immense.

IMAGE MATTERS
35480 Troon Court
Round Hill, VA 20141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 338-3998
Harry A. Niedzwiadek
ARMY 99-099
Title:Semantic Mapping Tools
Abstract:Flexible querying of geospatial databases, schema (dictionary) integration and automatic data translation are significant problems for the interoperation and integration of distributed geospatial systems. We seek an innovative solution to these problems through the development of a semantic mapping tool. This tool will build upon a base of codified semantic information, distributed over networks, by using advanced, Internet-enabled semantics modeling languages such as OML/CKML and RDF/Schema. Using the semantic mapping tool, database administrators will be able to map schema elements in source and target schemas to semantic information in this distributed knowledge base. This will then provide these schemas with the semantic information that is required to support automated or semi-automated derivation of schema maps, which in turn provide the basis for flexible queries, schema integration and automated data translation. The objectives of this Phase I project are to study Army/DOD requirements and the current state of semantic translation technology, and to design a semantic mapping tool that supports automated semantics-aided translation of geospatial data for Army/DOD, civilian and commercial applications. BENEFITS: Reduces data production and maintenance costs by improving data reusability. Improves information access, integration and sharing. A technology enabler for new value-added information products and services, due to reduced interoperability barriers. Commercial Applications: Information integration and sharing technology and services for information communities, clearinghouses, e-commerce and Web applications in government, private enterprises and the consumer market.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 Court St., Suite 210
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 798-1377
Charles Ferrara
ARMY 99-100
Title:Remote Autonomous Zoned Optical Range
Abstract:This proposal describes an autonomous tracking mount and its control system. The mount is intended as a camera mount for use on ranges and in locations where remote control and self calibration are the principal requirements. The use of novel techniques, borrowed from today's machine vision technology, enable a GPS to fully calibrate the camera's location and field of view greatly simplifying deployment. With a wide range of power options, including batteries, vehicle power, generator power or line power, this mount will provide weatherproof operation with minimum maintenance. Full remote control of the camera and the mount coupled with the ability to automatically track objects in the field of view enable the proposed units to be fielded in quantity enough to fully cover large ranges while retaining a level of command and control simplicity that only a robot device can offer. BENEFITS: The ability to automate the calibration process normally associated with using cameras as measurement devices will greatly extend their usefulness. An accurate, remotely controllable camera mount would represent a major advance over what is currently available.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2620 Trade Center Avenue
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 702-1672
Alexander Govyadinov
ARMY 99-102
Title:Quantum Wire Array Polarization-Sensitive IR Detector for Unexploded Ordnance
Abstract:Detection and clearance of unexploded ordnance (UXO), especially landmines, is a global challenge. Estimated 500 people per week are killed or injured from ~100 million landmines. Additionally test ranges used by military become contaminated with UXO over time. Advanced technologies are needed for remote UXO detection and mapping over large areas. Infrared polarimetry, capable in discriminating thermal signature of man-made objects in complex environment, is one of the promising approaches to used in fusion with other remote detection techniques. Implementation of this method requires advanced detectors equipped with expensive polarization filters. The proposed effort seeks to develop a novel polarization sensitive IR radiation detectors. The approach is based on synthesis and integration of aligned arrays of high aspect ratio semiconductor nanowires, which selectively absorb radiation with electric field vector aligned along the wires, therefore enabling polarization sensitivity. Moreover, nanoscale confinement provides additional opportunities for tuning of optical and transport properties, which may help to overcome limitations of conventional detectors, such as limited frequency range. The Phase I will demonstrate the proof-of-concept by evaluating polarization sensitivity of proposed material. Phase II will optimize and scale-up the technology, provide working prototypes to the Army for evaluation, and initiate commercialization effort. BENEFITS: Polarization sensitive IR detectors, if realized, can potentially enable new levels of performance and functionality, as well as significant cost-saving in comparison with the state-of-the-art. Potential applications include remote detectors for unexploded UXO, advanced night vision and targeting systems, sub-surface imaging, satellite mapping for weather forecast, IR astronomy, etc. The effort will also provide a foundation for a new generation of polarization-sensitive radiation detectors in other then IR spectral ranges.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle, Suite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
James D. Trolinger, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-103
Title:A holocamera for measuring response of windows and window retrofit systems
Abstract:MetroLaser proposes to develop a holographic diagnostic instrument for quantitative analysis of the response of windows to blast loading. The system will be useful in monitoring the surface from the time the blast strikes the window until fragments form and fly away from the surface. The system will be capable of characterizing the fragment kinetic energy distribution as well as the resulting window surface deformation. Holography will be used to record all of the required data. The proposed holocamera system will provide three-dimensional, time-dependent optical measurements of the fragment positions and the target surface deformation. Algorithms for reducing the optical measurements to quantitative kinetic and deformation data will be developed. The technology developed in the program has potentially broad commercial applications in the non-destructive testing field. BENEFITS: The research will produce a rugged and reliable, field portable holocamera that can be used in a wide range of testing to satisfy both U.S. Government and private sector requirements. The resulting instrument will provide high resolution images of complex high speed dynamic events, allowing improved weapons and countermeasures development. The resulting hardware and software will also be useful in structural engineering to improve structural designs.

IMAGATECH
10813 Hillbrooke Lane
Potomac, MD 20854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 251-2050
Dr. Ravinder Kapoor
ARMY 99-104
Title:Bistatic Radar Measurements and Inversion Modeling
Abstract:This proposal describes a 3-D bistatic radar imaging system to visualize the interior of man-made structures for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and for detection of camouflaged targets. By use of a microwave sensor, penetration through obscuring media is feasible and therefore images of objects that are obscured by materials of various dielectric constants are reconstructed. The backscatter received from obscured, scaled-down versions of targets are collected in a test facility and first processed to ensure good image quality by reducing sidelobe levels, compensating for motion errors, and improving target-to-clutter ratio using unique signal processing techniques. The 3-D image is formed using a modified backprojection algorithm in a Quad-tree configuration for fast processing. The proposed system is a significant improvement over traditional 2-D monostatic radar imaging systems and has applications to both civilian and military systems (3-D images of a simulated landmine buried 6 deep are presented). In Phase I of this work, we develop the 3-D imaging algorithm, conduct simulations using Method of Moments (MoM) modeling software, and collect initial limited angle data of scaled obscured targets. Phase II will concentrate on performing benchmarking experiments and developing software for complete automation of data acquisition and image display. BENEFITS: The proposed 3-D imaging system can be configured to mount on a military vehicle for development of a forward looking mine detection system for the U.S. Army. This would allow for detection of buried mines and buried unexploded ordnances (UXO). Commercial applications include the Non-destructive evaluation of roads and bridges as well as detection of buried wires, pipes, and other structures. This evaluation and detection could be achieved by simply driving over areas of interest with a vehicle equipped with the proposed system.

F&S, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-1277
Scott Meller
ARMY 99-105
Title:Miniature Fiber Optic Sensors for Small-Scale Explosives Tests
Abstract:Blast parameter measurement is imperative to improve and verify current theoretical predictions of new weapon effectiveness and structural responses to blasts. A number of variables such as fuse initiation, explosive charge shape, charge burn rate, and ambient conditions determine blast wave characteristics and complicate theoretical predictions. Experimental verification of theoretical models is difficult because current state-of-the-art pressure and acceleration sensors are not capable of accurately measuring the blast pressure wave. Their main disadvantage is limited frequency response, but also suffer from triboelectric cable noise, pyroelectric errors, and electromagnetic interference. F&S Inc. proposes to design miniature, rugged, fiber optic pressure and acceleration sensors capable of accurate blast wave measurement. The sensors possess improved frequency response, ultra-small size, EMI immunity, multiplexing capabilities, wide operational temperature range, and remote sensor interrogation up to several kilometers away. This new class of sensors will enable researchers to achieve much greater spatial resolution while maintaining excellent measurement resolution for miniature-scale blast tests that save time and money over similar experiments conducted at full scale. F&S has assembled an experienced research and development team to demonstrate the feasibility of the sensors during Phase I and continued work during Phase II to ensure successful commercialization of this technology. BENEFITS: F&S envisions commercial applications for these devices in industrial explosive device testing found in the oil and mine industry and road construction. Sensors developed in this program will also find applications in high pressure measurement in harsh environments such as gas turbine engines, oil refineries, industrial manufacturing processes, and down-hole petroleum monitoring.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
56 Rogers Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 252-0660
Dr. Brett P. Masters
ARMY 99-106
Title:Actively Cooling Shape Memory Alloys with Micro Channel Technology (ACSMART)
Abstract:Shape Memory Alloys (SMA's) have frequently been used as high force/high stroke actuators. They show huge potential as a smart material alternative to hydraulic actuators. Unfortunately these materials show very limited speed of operation because of heat transfer issues. The material has to be heated to get useful work and then cooled before it can be restrained. To date practical devices have only been able to work at 1 Hz. Some studies have shown that very thin wires can be made to operate at 100 -150 Hz, but these have very little practical applications. The device proposed here will actively cool a shape memory alloy with little added power. This will be done by integrating micro cooling channels in the alloy. The cooling of the alloy will allow an actuator to operate at 50 Hz with forces up to 4 kN. The method is simple, reliable and cost effective. The overhead needed is negligible when compared to hydraulic actuators. This allows for a very attractive high force, high strain high-speed alternative actuator that can be implemented in a wide variety of devices. BENEFITS: Practical smart material actuation devices have a high demand in both military and comercial applications. Lower power, lower cost and "cleaner" technologies will easily find their way into the market.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Subrata K. Das
ARMY 99-107
Title:MARAD: Multi-agent Architecture for Robust Adaptive Decision-aiding
Abstract:We propose to design and prototype a Multi-agent Architecture for Robust Adaptive Decision-aiding (MARAD), specifically designed for incorporating into advanced fire support elements (FSEs). MARAD agents will communicate and cooperate with other agents in the distributed battlefield environment, implementing multi-agent decision-aiding strategies for coordinated weapon engagement. The proposed architecture will support decision-aiding at multiple-layers of abstraction and complexity, ranging from simple data fusion to support key battlefield event detection, through situation assessment to support enhanced situation awareness, to response recommendation to support more complex decision-making. Adaptive assistance is assured by learning of patterns in sensor data which predict significant events, and also by learning preferred user task and display profiles. Robust performance is assured through the use of complementary AI techniques including fuzzy logic, probabilistic belief nets, and rule-based argumentation. The architecture exhibits reactive behavior by responding to current events automatically, generating appropriate alarms and decision recommendations. We propose to implement MARAD using COTS software, demonstrate its use in advanced FSEs such as Crusader and Paladin, and interface to other C4I systems such as the Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS). We also propose to investigate compliance with the Joint Technical Architecture (JTA) standards to ensure interoperability across DoD. BENEFITS: Commercial applications of the generic MARAD architecture and methodology exist for a wide variety of contexts characterized by high-information flow rates, decision-making under uncertainty, and distributed `players.' Such application areas include operation centers for complex process control (e.g., nuclear power plants), financial services, and rail and air traffic management centers. Vertical applications for these markets would significantly enhance decision-aiding and improve effectiveness and safety in a number of life-critical applications.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Suite 300
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 718-7050
Ken Graves
ARMY 99-107
Title:Multi-Agent Collaboration and Execution (MACE)
Abstract:Under Strike Force concepts being developed by several battle labs, future weapon systems will be agent-controlled. However, "brilliant" weapons must coordinate their weapon effects. Limited systems acquisition means there will be limited excess capacity on the battlefield. Failure to closely coordinate the brilliant weapon systems for maximum effect may well mean that there are insufficient munitions available to win. An extremely flexible, multi-agent collaboration and engagement (MACE) architecture is needed whereby brilliant systems perform nearly autonomous coordination to maximize combined weapons effects. Human intervention will be required to set control parameters for the architecture, but we expect the future tempo of target acquistion, decision, and attack to outpace human abilities. MACE will feature: real-time performance; reactive behavior; machine learning; distributed, collaborative decision making; abstracted reasoning and control; information fusion; track correlation; and extensible design. Phase I will develop a MACE reference architecture, reflecting a concept of networked decision making nodes, which may or may not have human operators. The effort will address strategies and methodologies for multi-agent collaboration for decision making, and identify preliminary performance characteristics. Initially, MACE will be aimed at the concept of Effects Control Centers, which would be the nodes at which multi-agent collaboration would occur. BENEFITS: MACE will fill a long-term need for the coordinated application of the combined terminal effects of numerous brilliant weapons systems now in development. The agent-controlled operation of these systems is currently uncoordinated. MACE concepts and implementations will serve as a technical base for technology insertion into a number of Army Science and Technology Objective (STO) programs under consideration for Strike Force operations research. The MACE conceptual architecture can also be applied to civilian domains such as fire fighting, emergency management, and police operations.

TECHNO-SCIENCES, INC.
10001 Derekwood Lane, Suite 204
Lanham, MD 20706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 577-6000
Chris LaVigna
ARMY 99-108
Title:Smart Gun Barrels with Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors
Abstract:A proficient gun barrel technology is proposed, in which a fiber optic sensor system is integrated with the gun barrel. The system is capable of monitoring round exiting velocity, barrel temperature, barrel bending and other important parameters indicating the functional performance and structure health of the gun barrel in real time. Such a system will be very valuable in improving the performance, enhancing safety and reduction of operational cost. In Phase I, a functional prototype system will be developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. BENEFITS: The immediate market for this technology is medium and large caliber guns, where the monitoring of exiting round speed and barrel bending can directly improve the accuracy and operational efficiency of the weapon system. The proposed fiber optic sensor system also has a broad application in monitoring the health of a wide range of structures including aircraft, spacecraft, bridges, and dams.

APPLIED PULSE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3663 Syracuse Court
San Diego, CA 92122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 453-2640
Allen Ramrus
ARMY 99-109
Title:Acoustic Detection and Neutralization of Landmines
Abstract:Several important methods have been developed for the detection of buried landmines. Among these are infrared signature, nuclear magnetic resonance, neutron activation analysis, vapor detection, ground penetrating radar, and RF signature. Acoustic detection has seen limited application, in large part, because tests have been less than successful. Often this is due to high error rates, especially false positives, although this problem applies to all approaches. Applied Pulse Technology, Inc. proposes to perform the following three tasks: (1) Analyze existing acoustic methods of detecting landmines, including impulsive (broadband) and oscillatory signal sources with their corresponding reception methodologies with emphasis on existing algorithms for reflection mapping, target identification and imaging. This technology involves low amplitude excitation signals. (2) Analyze acoustic methods of neutralizing landmines, including shock waves, and high amplitude sinusoidal pressures, to deactivate or detonate landmines. The objective is to develop a neutralization strategy based on landmine vulnerabilities. (3) Design and conduct scaled tests using the most promising systems for acoustic detection and for neutralization. This task will verify that acoustic pulses and oscillations can efficiently couple to soil, penetrate it, and affect buried mine-like objects to exploit landmine vulnerabilities established in task (2). BENEFITS: Detectors of subsoil objects are routinely employed commercially in the construction industry and this technology will allow nonmetallic objects to be detected. Prior to start of buildings and roads buried infrastructure (i.e. pipes, cables, etc.) must be identified for archeological value. Prior to drilling for oil, subsoil is mapped to identify potential hazardous waste containers. The neutralization technology offered in this proposal is directly applicable to the demilitarization by fragmentation of explosive and other hazardous materials.

APTIMA, INC.
600 West Cummings Park, Suite 3050
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Dr. Stephen M. Hess
ARMY 99-110
Title:Training Adaptability in Digital Skills
Abstract:The concept of Network-Centric Warfare is rapidly becoming reality for today's military. In practically every operational context the tools used by the modern digital warrior are networked and software based. In such digital environments, the successful warfighters are those who possess a solid foundation of adaptive digital-literacy that goes beyond abilities to utilize specific tools and applications, and includes deep knowledge of digital concepts that are relevant in every context of use. For our Phase I effort, we propose to develop a digital-skills training package that is based on contemporary cognitive theory and training practice, provides today's warfighter with a deep foundation of digital skills and knowledge, provides opportunities for practice in multiple contexts, teaches focused learning strategies to maximize the transfer of prior knowledge, and delivers training content directly to operational settings using modern distance-learning methods. Our experience and expertise in observing and measuring performance using digital tools in military environments, applying knowledge elicitation techniques (e.g., cognitive task analysis) to capture and structure expert skills and knowledge across many different domains, developing innovative training packages, and evaluating training effectiveness makes the Aptima/Executive Consulting Group (ECG) team exceptionally well qualified to address the difficult problem of training transferable digital skills. BENEFITS: A flexible training program that allows a user to train general principles of specific skills, instead of just training specific behaviors, will be valuable to both government and industry in this quickly changing, complex, fast-paced, technology-intensive environment.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 829-9217
John M. Anderson
ARMY 99-111
Title:Spin Dependent Tunneling Sensors with Improved Stability and Low Hysteresis
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project, "Spin Dependent Tunneling Sensors With Improved Stability and Low Hysteresis," is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of building spin-dependent tunneling (SDT) based sensors for ultra-low magnetic field applications such as vehicle and armed troop detection. Current SDT approaches have been plagued by hysteresis, noise, and a need for improved sensitivity. The approach proposed in this program is to address these issues by stabilizing edge magnetizations in SDT sensor elements. Sensitivity is expected to surpass five percent per oersted with a noise floor of better than forty picotesla per root hertz at higher frequencies. Improvement in hysteresis for edge stabilized devices is expected to be over tenfold. Technical objectives required to develop the proposed technology are: A) design a process protocol that merges hard edge treatment with SDT technology; B) design and layout the physical SDT sensor; C) process SDT sensors with stabilized edges; D) characterize SDT sensors; and as a program option objective E) revise hard edge SDT processing and device design to drive the full development of stabilized SDT sensors in Phase II. BENEFITS: The technology developed has commercial application in vehicle detection, geomagnetics, and more general markets such as digital switch devices, currency detection sensors, two and three-axis compasses, rotary encoders, automotive-specific markets, and current sensors.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 996-1629
Catherine Nordman
ARMY 99-111
Title:Spin-Dependent-Tunneling Sensors for Vehicle Detection
Abstract:The proposal is to develop and evaluate new spin-dependent-tunneling (SDT) sensors as a low-power, low-cost, microelectronics-based technology for the detection of magnetic fields produced by objects such as military or commercial vehicles. Early SDT devices have shown good low field sensitivity at high frequencies, but exhibit a significant "1/f"-type noise at low frequencies. This program will address two approaches towards reducing the low-frequency noise: (1) Improvements in materials and fundamental sensor design issues that ultimately affect the intrinsic noise of the junction. (2) Innovative combinations of known electronics solutions for filtering noise and establishing a mode of operation which maximizes the signal-to-noise specific to the SDT devices. The program will use the electronics as a noise testing platform for quantitatively evaluating and comparing the sensor designs. After follow-on Phase II work, the optimized electronics will ultimately be integrated with the sensor on the same chip. BENEFITS: Commercial applications for these SDT ultra-low field sensors include: geomagnetics work, landmine and unexploded ordinance detection, digital switch devices, currency detection sensors, two and three-axis compasses, rotary encoders, surveillance and vehicle detection or monitoring, automotive manufacturing markets (gear tooth, wheel speed, crankshaft, and cylinder position sensing), nondestructive evaluation of metallic structures, bio-medical applications such as biochemical assaying, and standard current sensors (for utility and circuit board applications).

REGAL DECISION SYSTEMS, INC.
2309 Belair Rd Suite F
Fallston, MD 21047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 877-7033
William Reddy
ARMY 99-112
Title:Logistics Site Planning and Operation Tool(LOGSPOT)
Abstract:Company level supply operations are complicated by frequent moves in response to changes in the Forward Edge of the Battle Area (FEBA). Each move involves extensive planning to select and layout a new site that satisfies all tactical and logistic requirements. The current process is manual. Maps, overlays, and grease pencils are primary tools. Experience and intuition are the key inputs. Many person hours are consumed. Opportunities abound for errors that can seriously impact support effectiveness and inflate operation and support costs with additional planning hours and unnecessary delays at supply nodes. Plans for the Army After Next (AAN) include a highly digitized battlefield and a Revolution in Military Logistics (RML). A tool such as LOGSPOT must be developed to ensure that these benefits become available to company level supply units. Regal proposes to integrate the positional accuracy provided by GPS with a comprehensive supply planning tool for company sized units. Phase I will develop a full set of functional requirements and system specifications. Key GPS integration features will also be demonstrated. Integration with existing and planned information resources will enable LOGSPOT to reduce planning time, lower O&S costs, increase support effectiveness, and enhance situational awareness at all levels. BENEFITS: Incorporation of LOGSPOT will improve supply effectiveness and reduce operating and support costs. The company level LOGSPOT tool can be expanded to other supply nodes in the Army supply chain. Civilian disaster relief and emergency management require similar planning that can benefit from the features offered by LOGSPOT at national, state, and local levels.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 894-8062
Mark Cammarere
ARMY 99-112
Title:Logistics Site Planning And Operation Tool (LOGSPOT)
Abstract:The ability to rapidly adapt mission plans is key to operational success on the modern battlefield. Although particularly true for front-line forces, long-term success also requires capable and aware force sustainment. Therefore, this abilityis equally critical for Combat Service Support (CSS). On the digital battlefield, the technologies necessary to allow rapid planning and adaptation include: 1) data fusion, 2) analysis automation, 3) battlefield visualization, and 4) collaborative planning. A prototype Logistics Site Planning and Operation Tool (LOGSPOT) that planners can use to optimize logistics site layouts and plan daily operations will be designed. This tool will be fully digital: capable of integrating information from intelligence reports, radio frequency (RF) supply tags, Digital Topographic (DTOP) and Vector Map (VMAP) terrain data, as well as tabular data from legacy systems such as the Standard Army Management Information System (STAMIS). The requirement for LOGSPOT to co-register geographic data and provide high-quality map products implies the need for embedded Geographic Information System (GIS) functionality. However, additional requirements for efficiency and minimal training imply a customized, easy to use tool. TSC proposes to marry the extensive functionality of ESRI's commercial ArcView GIS with the customized algorithms and interface required for intuitive logistics planning. BENEFITS: An inexpensive, prototype PC-based tool that logistics planners can use to perform routine operations and share information in a timely fashion will be designed. The tool will be flexible enough to be useful for either military or commercial logistics applications by varying the rule sets, symbology and terminology employed.

POWDERMET, INC.
9960 Gelenoaks Unit A
Sun Valley, CA 91352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 768-6420
Dean Baker
ARMY 99-113
Title:Microengineered Wear Coatings
Abstract:In the proposed SBIR phase I program, Powdermet will demonstrate the use of microencapsulated thermal spray powders for the application of microengineered thermally insulating and wear resistant coatings for use in diesel engines. These coatings will provide enhanced engine life and performance by reducing heat load to the cooling system and inbcreasing engine life in heavy use conditions. The coatings are comprised of a functionally graded system, consisiting of a porous alumina/mullite insulating layer graded into a cermet wear resistant topcoat. Coatings will be applied using argon shrouded atmospheric plasma spray of binder/matrix encapsulated microballoon and ceramic fillers. these coatings will be applied to steel substrates and evaluated for friction, wear, and thermal properties and through thermal shock and adhesion testing to demonstrate durability. BENEFITS: If successful, the coatings developed in the SBIR program will provide enhanced life and performance in military and commercial diesel engines. Additional applications in the mining and construction equipment industries and the tool and die industries also exist for the microengineered particles developed in the program.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Erik Handy, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-114
Title:Smart Sensor for Mitigation of Tank Failure
Abstract:Triton Systems, with its key team members, responds to the Army's need for improved fuel and water collapsible storage tanks, by proposing to improve tank fabric strength and seam strength, and to introduce a smart sensor seam warning system based on demonstrated Triton technology. We will improve the strength, barrier and UV stability properties of commercial polyurethanes using nano engineering. We will improve seam bonding with an incorporated polymeric susceptor added to a urethane to improve microwave bonding control and uniformity. We have demonstrated and will further develop a new bi-functional leak detection system with both color change and electrical conductivity change to alert leak potential and location. On Phase I we will show proof of principle in cooperation with Seaman Corp. and GTA Containers, Inc. Improved coated fabric and seam properties will demonstrated, and the leak detection methods proven in model use experiments. On a Phase I Option we will construct, with team members, a 100 gallon prototype tank. On Phase II we will produce improved collapsible storage tanks using the most promising Triton Systems technologies, to obtain Army qualification. In Phase III, with team partners, we will commercialize collapsible storage tank products for Government and private sector use. BENEFITS: This Phase I program will lead to safer and longer-lived collapsible water and fuel tanks for Army and commercial use in the field. The commercial potentials are significant for each of the component improvements, in sensor, coated fabric, and seam construction. A tank with a combination of improvements would provide substantial commercials sales in an existing market.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5504
Thomas Campbell
ARMY 99-115
Title:Low-Cost Adhesiveless Method for Assembling Fibrous Preforms
Abstract:Composites technology has reached a level of technical maturity that now permits its common usage in a wide array of structures from air and spacecraft to automobiles and bridges. With this widespread use, particularly in the military, there is now a major focus on cost. A major advancement in cost reduction is achieved through the use of Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) and low- or room-temperature cure. With VARTM, as well as other non-prepreg processes, the cost of this assemblage remains a major target for reduction. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a low cost, continuous spool, joining tool which can be conveniently used to assemble dry preforms and secure plies to facilitate VARTM processing. The stock is inexpensively formed, can be provided in a range of materials and diameters to address different applications, and can be instantly adjusted by the operator. In Phase I, Foster-Miller will develop the feed stock, demonstrate its performance in holding dry preforms, prove its effectiveness in not degrading the finished composite and develop an initial design for the delivery system. In the option, an initial delivery system will be fabricated. Foster-Miller will license the developed system to our spin-off company Aztex, Inc. for commercial production. BENEFITS: The proposed development will have broad commercial potential as a convenient, low cost method for assembling dry fiber preforms. VARTM processed, large, primarily fiberglass, structures are being introduced or used in yachts, bridges, rail cars, Navy deck houses and offshore drilling rigs. The Foster-Miller system is well suited to support preforming without degrading the properties of the finished product.

DAVIS TECHNOLOGIES INTL., INC.
4501 Ratliff Lane
Addison, TX 75001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 732-7020
Leo W. Davis
ARMY 99-116
Title:High Mobility Modular Concept Trailer with Hybrid Electric Drive and Active Suspension
Abstract:The objective of this proposed Phase I study is to examine and evaluate primarily though simulation tools such as CADSI and more specific higher level DTI developed programs, the advantages of integrating leading edge subsystems into a modular trailer concept compatible with future AAN requirements. The concept proposed is a logistically flexible, high mobility trailer platform utilizing active suspension/in-wheel drive swing arm modules with hybrid electric power and a control system that will provide an autonomous platform where an intelligent system determines desired steering, braking and power commands. The study will investigate the hierarchical control methodology, performance and logistical utility gain of using a umbilical power control cable system that will couple vehicles and trailers together in a combination of variants and provide dynamic control and appropriate movement of coupled vehicles as they relate to each other. Performance optimization of the Integrated suspension/drive swing arm module and fuzzy logic controls will be explored and independent in-wheel propulsion drive configurations will also be selected for simulation and study. This concept has the potential to achieve greater trailer performance levels in mobility, and logistics. The information and preliminary design produced will provide a solid foundation for a successful phase II program. BENEFITS: It is expected that the new technologies examined in this program when applied to the proposed modular trailer concept could yield substantial performance breakthroughs for utilization of independent electric drive for traction control and skid steer capability, and an advanced suspension to increase load capacity and high mobility. These technologies developed and validated during the HMT program should be equally applicable to commercial, recreational and military interest. Once matured the commercial and recreational markets should drive future technology advancements for the military to further reducing operating and support cost of mobility for the military.

INORGANIC SPECIALISTS
P.O. Box 181, 720 Mound Ave.
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-4491
David W. Firsich
ARMY 99-117
Title:Functionalized Carbons for Organic Supercapacitors
Abstract:The prevailing low-cost electrochemical capacitor technology consists of carbon electrodes in an organic electrolyte. To increase the energy storage of this system, it is proposed to functionalize the carbon surface with a group which undergoes reversible electron transfers in organic electrolytes. The procedure for attaching this group to carbon has already been demonstrated, and the electrochemistry of the group itself is known. Its associated faradaic processes should provide a two-electron pseudocapacitance, and based on our past experience with another pseudocapacitive system, this is expected to increase the carbon's energy storage by 80 to 400%. The greatest enhancements are anticipated when certain varieties of nanofiber carbon are functionalized. The proposed surface-modification procedure involves no special equipment; it is straightforward and practical. The Phase I work includes the preparation and testing of carbon materials enhanced with this pseudocapacitive scheme. BENEFITS: The proposed pseudocapacitance may well double the capacitance of the original carbon, and it would be applicable to almost all varieties of carbon. The greatest potential benefits will come from enhancing tailored carbon nanofibers which exhibit high frequency capacitance. We have evidence that pseudocapacitance can add energy even at high frequencies in some nanofibers (at >1000 Hz in aqueous systems), so that a relatively high-frequency pseudocapacitance may also be realized in organic electrolytes when nanofiber substrates are used. The result would be enhanced power as well as energy from surface functionalization.

TECHDRIVE, INC.
17 W 695 Butterfield Road, Suite A
Oakbrook Terrace, IL 60181
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 291-3414
Dr. Robert Filler
ARMY 99-117
Title:Novel Carbonate-like Solvents for Low Temperature Performance Non-flammable Electrolytes
Abstract:A set of non-flammable electrolytes composed of a lithium salt and a mixture of carbonate and carbonate-like solvents is proposed for Li-ion batteries. Some of these specifically designed solvents, which are not commercially available, will be prepared in a single step from readily available starting materials. These electrolytes are expected to exhibit superior battery performance, including improved safety and wider temperature ranges for operations. This proposal is a combined effort between a growing small business company and a leading academic institution in the area of lithium battery technology. BENEFITS: The developed electrolytes will significantly promote the emerging EV battery market, as well as in other high-power energy storage areas sponsored by the private sector, such as cellular phone and power tool industries.

YARDNEY
82 Mechanic St.
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Grant M. Ehrlich, Ph. D
ARMY 99-117
Title:Metallic electrode materials for Li-ion batteries
Abstract:Yardney Technical Products proposes to develop a novel type of dual-use Li-ion cell optimized for future Army applications. In addition to offering specific energy, energy density and low temperature performance beyond that possible with current Li-ion technology, the program will focus on the development of a technology that offers high temperature performance, pulse power capability and cost consistent with the Army's anticipated battery needs. The batteries will achieve these performance goals through development and incorporation of improved cathode, anode, electrolyte and ancillary materials that address materials limited criteria, including high temperature stability and pulse power capability. The metallic anode material to be developed and optimized in this program will be based on a material that offers unparalleled capacity density, 3.8 times that of carbon. This program will address the material's optimization for high power application and use in extreme temperature environments. The proposed mixed metal oxide cathode material offers high capacity, long cycle life, and low cost. The proposed electrolyte system permits extended life, high pulse power, and improved low temperature capability. These innovations will yield a new generation of Li-ion cells that offer improved energy density, electrical performance, and meet projected Army rechargeable battery performance criteria. BENEFITS: The proposed program will develop a new type of Li-ion battery that offers performance beyond that possible with current technology. This power source will permit the development of new apparatus currently not possible due to the lack of a viable power source. Commercial applications of the proposed technology include commercial aircraft batteries, radios, power tools and cameras.

IMPLANT SCIENCES CORP.
107 Audubon Road #5
Wakefield, MA 01880
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 246-0700
Leonid Krasnobaev
ARMY 99-118
Title:Matrix Sensors for Hazardous Gas Monitoring
Abstract:Over half a million military and civilian personnel are annually, in the course of performing their duties, exposed to toxic combustion and pyrolysis byproducts. Greatly reducing the impact of such exposures, or avoiding them altogether, is the purpose of a fast, rugged, "early warning" system Implant Sciences proposes to develop. This "sensor-on-a-chip" employs a matrix of tiny catalyzed-semiconducting-oxide elements for simultaneous, nearly instant identification and quantification of the constituent gases present in an airborne mixture. The sensor takes advantage of gas composition - and concentration - dependent surface conductivity changes in oxide films carried on submicron-thick bridges to create a very fast instrument capable of analyzing for a wide range of gases and combustion products with parts-per-billion sensitivity. Because the heart of the instrument, the sensor chip, is fabricated using high-volume microelectronics technology, both its cost and the cost of the finished instrument will be low. The project's ultimate objective is a device sufficiently compact and inexpensive to serve as a personal combustion monitor carried in a pocket or on a belt, from which location it measures toxic gas concentration, sounds an alarm if hazardous levels are exceeded, logs data, and upon interrogation transfers these data to medical personnel for analysis and interpretation. BENEFITS: The principal of catalyzed-oxide chemical sensing is readily extended beyond its potential as a personal combustion-product monitor for combatants, firefighters, miners, and oil-field workers to household and automotive applications such as inexpensive, reliable, CO, CO2, NOx, and hydrocarbon measuring instruments.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technology Division, 20600 Gramercy Place
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Sean Zhang, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-118
Title:Integrated Optic Gas Sensors for Real Time Monitoring of Hazardous Chemicals in a Fire/Thermal/Smoke Environment
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to investigate integrated optic gas sensors (IOGS) for real-time monitoring of hazardous gaseous combustion/pyrolysis chemicals in a fire/thermal/smoke environment. A sensor array will be fabricated upon a silicon substrate using waveguide splitter geometry. The light source and detector array will be fabricated onto a GaAs or InP substrate and will be integrated into a single substrate with the sensor array by using newly developed wafer fusion technology. Each splitter arm will be coated with polymers specific to different gaseous chemicals. The same chip will contain an RF system for remote control monitoring of the IOGS. To identify and quantify gaseous mixtures, user-friendly software based on POC's existing neural network (NNW) technology will be developed. The IOGS will be retrievable, highly sensitive (ppbv) and fast. Because of its small size and rugged package, the IOGS can be easily placed on clothing or protective clothing items. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, using several military listed chemicals with the IOGS prototype. In Phase II, a workable pocket size prototype will be demonstrated for all 17 chemicals listed by the military. BENEFITS: This project will provide a compact, highly efficient, extremely rugged, cost effective, fire/thermal/smoke resistant semiconductor waveguide based IOGS. It will be combined with a laser source and detecting system onto a single substrate for hazardous gaseous chemicals detection on military battlefields. It is practical in all areas where chemical and biological toxins require control or monitoring.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER
133 Defense Highway, Su 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 261-8373
Dr. Mark Patterson
ARMY 99-119
Title:Spinel Armor-Clearly More Cost Effective
Abstract:A low-cost approach is proposed for the fabrication of large transparent spinel panels using commercially available hot-pressing and HIPing capabilities. The hot-press/HIP capabilities developed by Coors and Alpha Optical Systems for thin section domes will be optimized to obtain high optical transmission of greater than 80% for thicknesses of between 0.5" and 1.0". The system will be optimized for strength, transmission and ballistic performance, and measures are suggested to reduce the fabrication costs of the large spinel panels. BENEFITS: It is expected that this approach can be rapidly optimized to achieve the fabrication of large panels of transparent armor of specific use in ground vehicles and aircraft. In addition to high performance, light weight armor which will find both military and commercial applications, the optical and IR transmission properties (2.5mm) for spinel are excellent, particularly at elevated temperatures. This material will find large market applications many areas.

ASTRON ANTENNA CO.
22560 Glenn Drive, Suite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Joseph R. Jahoda
ARMY 99-120
Title:Compact, High Power Microwave
Abstract:The objective is the development of a high power microwave antenna to operate with 100 megawatts pulsed input at L band. Unfortunately, the present dish antennas capable of achieving this objective are too large for use on Army land vehicles (HMMV) and air platforms (Blackhawk). With recent antennas in dielectric materials, ferrolectric materials, semiconductors, and plasmas, coupled with advances in numberical and analytic prediction techniques, it should be feasible to accomplish a miniaturized antenna which will meet the Army's objectives. BENEFITS: The miniaturization of antennas will find wide applications in the civilian wireless, PCS, and portable telephone market.

FIORE INDUSTRIES, INC.
5301 Central Avenue, NE, P.O. Box 9243
Albuquerque, NM 87119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-9797
Dr. Mark Clemen
ARMY 99-120
Title:Compact High-Power Microwave Antenna
Abstract:Fiore proposes to explore a novel high power microwave antenna design suitable for a variety of field platforms and applications. The proposed antenna is 7 meters square, consisting of many smaller elements phased within the array topology. The antenna element frequency response, gain and directivity as well as high power limits will be considered. With the distributed RF amplification using current technology, the goals of this SBIR can be well achieved. The nominal design will incorporate the L-band amplifiers into the antenna itself, using COTS semiconductor components now becoming available in mass production. Power input, control distribution and heat extraction must all be addressed. State-of-the-art technology in element switching and phasing will be explored for a next generation device capable of fast direction scanning. Phasing algorithms will be explored for a set of alternative antenna radiation patterns. A survey of many families of fractal antenna candidates will be explored to extend the overall bandwidth, with some physical scale models tested as necessary. Scale models will be built and tested for bandwidth and directivity using a reference antenna and a network analyzer. BENEFITS: The benefits from this SBIR would encompass broadband antennas, sensitive and directive for an electrically thin size, realizable in a conformal form factor on a variety of possible surfaces. High power directed-waveform applications would greatly benefit from this antenna. This antenna would also be highly attractive for platforms requiring multiple-use apertures, especially incorporating highly-directional GPS reception immune to interference from other directions.

SARA, INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Dr. Robert Koslover
ARMY 99-120
Title:Compact, Lightweight, Steerable, High-power Microwave Antenna
Abstract:This proposal responds to a key challenge faced by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory in fielding L-band HPM devices: i.e., how to incorporate a high peak-power (>100 MW), pencil-beam (G ~ 30 dB) antenna, which is also light-weight (250 kg), steerable, and compact enough to be deployed on a standard Army land vehicle or air platform. To prove feasibility, SARA Inc plans a three-pronged attack, employing analytical, numerical, and piece-part experimental characteri-zations of the key subsystems comprising our proposed approach, which combines a high-power feed, interface, and polari-zation-transforming elements into a compact folded-path reflector. The novel combination of these components should very effectively address ARL's rigorous requirements. The Phase I research will provide the basis for the prototype antennas to be characterized at ARL in Phase II. BENEFITS: In addition to meeting ARL's specific antenna needs for L-band HPM sources in DEW applications, it is anticipated that much of this research will be applicable to other frequency bands and pulse formats, supporting other DEW applications. Applications to high-power pulsed radar, communications, and RF-beaming (remote power transmission) are also possible.

CUSTOM MICROELECTRONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
2903 Robinwood Lane
Northport, AL 35476
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 339-8585
Dr. Larry Wurtz
ARMY 99-121
Title:Wavelength Division Multiplexing Fiber Optic Microwave Delay System
Abstract:The objective of this phase I and eventual phase II effort is to deliver a prototype fiber-optic delay line capable of delaying an instantaneous bandwidth from 4 to 12 GHz from 0 to 30 msecs, programmable in 10 nsec steps. The Phase I effort will focus on completion of a detail simulation of the proposed delay line configuration to project system performance and determine potential problem areas before the system construction begins with phase II. A recent study involving an experimental recirculating fiber-optic delay line to 25 msecs has shown that the proposed WDM fiber-optic delay line will be completed with low risk. A problem experienced with previous very long fiber-optic delay lines has been the unacceptable side mode activity of single frequency source lasers. An additional important goal of the phase I effort is to design a high performance DFB laser bias circuit which will result in maximum side mode suppression. The delay line resulting from this effort will provide exceptionally long delays of very wide bandwidth microwave signals not previously available, which will result in substantial cost savings in applications where the delay line is used for target simulation and telemetry systems testing. BENEFITS: This research will result in a delivered prototype fiber-optic microwave delay line capable of delaying microwave signals from 0 to 30 msecs, programmable in 10 nsec steps. A substantial cost savings will result by using the delay line as a radar target simulator instead of real targets.

MER CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Jarred Sommer
ARMY 99-122
Title:High-Rate Sintering of SiC Nanoparticles using Field-Assisted Sintering Technology
Abstract:High-density ceramics are attractive as armor materials due to their high space efficiency and hardness. Models indicate that the fracture strain of these armor materials significantly improve as the grain size decreases. However, achieving fully dense nanocrystalline ceramic structure is difficult because of the high thermodynamic potential for grain growth due to high surface area. Field-assisted sintering (pulse-sintering) of nanoparticles has proven successful but has been limited to small volumes. In Phase I, MER will demonstrate the consolidation and sintering of SiC nanoparticles with minimal grain growth using a combination of high-pressure and field-assisted sintering. Processing parameters will be investigated that will allow the fabrication of SiC components with volumes as large as 500 cubic centimeters. Methods will be developed that will permit the commercial development of nanomaterials as structural components. BENEFITS: The technology developed in Phase I will be directly applicable to consolidation of other types of ceramics for use as structural ceramics, electronic substrates, and cutting tools.

NANOPOWDER ENTERPRISES, INC.
120 Centennial Ave., Suite 106
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 855-909
Dr. Ganesh Skandan
ARMY 99-122
Title:Economical Consolidation of Large Volume Nanopowder Compacts
Abstract:Consolidating nanopowders into large volume dense compacts while maintaining an ultrafine grain size has remained an elusive goal for the past decade. Part of the problem can be attributed to the unavailability of an economical and practical method for providing the additional driving force for sintering while keeping the temperature low, thus minimizing grain growth. The other aspect of this shortcoming is the close relationship between the starting nanopowders and the final sintered density; majority of the processes available today yield particles that are either aggregated or have a wide particle size distribution, leading to lower densities and exaggerated grain growth in the consolidated material. We are addressing both of these issues by (1) starting with nanopowders (produced by our patented process) that have a minimal amount of aggregation and a narrow size distribution, and (2) using microwave energy to uniformly and rapidly heat the green compact. Using this combination, cermet and ceramic nanopowder compacts have been sintered to near theoretical density without exaggerated grain growth. Furthermore, for the first time ever, microwave sintering has been used to sinter metal components (using coarse powders) with a diameter of 4 and a thickness of 1. Based upon our progress and experience on microwave sintering of nanopowder compacts, in Phase I of the program, we propose to sinter rectangular blocks (4 x 4x 2) of nanocrystalline tungsten and cylindrical discs (4 dia x 1 thick) of nanocrystalline aluminum oxide. Thus, for the first time, nanocrystalline metal and ceramic samples of such a large volume will become available for detailed mechanical property determination, which will be accomplished in Phase II along with consolidation of carbides, alloys and mixed metals. In addition, the sintering system will be further scaled in Phase II, and will be sold as commercial units in Phase III of the program. BENEFITS: There are several applications for nanocrystalline (or nanophase/nanostructured) bulk materials in the military, including penetrators, armors, windows and ballistic protection shields. In addition, the same materials have civilian applications, such as, engine components, cutting tools, bearings and wear parts. The market for nanomaterials is growing at an explosive rate. Once the proposed technology is fully developed, it is expected to occupy a significant portion of the total market, which is estimated to become $ 6 billion by the year 2005.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Michael E. Harrell
ARMY 99-123
Title:SiGe Direct Digital Synthesis System, Q-DOT Research Proposal 9584
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop a wide bandwidth, highly versatile Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) System capable of supporting multiple radar and communication systems. A common, highly capable DDS system will simplify logistics, training and maintenance, thereby significantly reducing Operation and Support Cost. Bar-Giora Goldberg, co-founder of Sciteq, and world-renown DDS innovator, will guide the DDS architectural design. A single DDS system will provide 3 GHz of bandwidth in a 1-20 GHz range with a robust menu of modulations and >60 dB spurious free dynamic range. The DDS system will be realized with IBM's production SiGe BiCMOS process which combines advanced HBT with state-of-the-art CMOS to produce sophisticated yet inexpensive mixed-mode components. This effort will build on Q-DOT's experience in designing and building SiGe MMIC's, including VCO, PLL, active mixer, ADC, and DAC. The proposed DAC portion of the DDS system will be based on an existing 14-bit, 5 Gs/s, >80 dB SFDR part realized at Q-DOT in SiGe BiCMOS. Phase I will result in a conceptual design of key subsystems optimized for the Army's future systems. Under the Option, portions of the existing DAC will be assessed with respect to DDS system requirements, and detailed design will begin. A functional prototype will be realized in Phase II leading to productization in Phase III. BENEFITS: Its low cost, silicon based technology combined with its exceptional functionality, positions the DDS system well for insertion into commercial markets. A version of the DDS system will support numerous, diverse products, including: advanced digital cellular telephones, personal communication systems (PCS); collision avoidance radar for automobiles; automated marking/printing, ultra-high-resolution imagers; wafer inspection/yield enhancement; and, analog/RF component/ASIC testing.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
Dr. Byron M. Welsh
ARMY 99-124
Title:Innovative Image Reconstruction for Wide Field-of-View Anisoplanatic Imaging through Turbulence
Abstract:Atmospheric turbulence adversely affects imaging systems by causing random distribution of the index of refraction of the air through which the light propagates. We show that tactical Army infrared sensing systems are not affected by turbulence in the same way as astronomical imaging systems, but the influence of turbulence can still be quite strong. Rather, the shape of the point spread function associated with the scene varies significantly across the image field-of-view. This condition is referred to as anisoplanatic imaging. Fortunately, the overall effect of turbulence within a given isoplanatic patch is not as strong as in the astronomical imaging case due to shorter optical paths and longer wavelengths. Tilt and low order turbulence modes will dominate the aberration experienced within individual isoplanatic patches, greatly simplifying the image reconstruction problem. Hence, we propose to investigate the use of post-detection processing of the images to mitigate turbulence effects. All of the information required for the image reconstruction will be extracted from the imagery itself using block matching algorithm-based shift sensing and blind deconvolution algorithms. The results of these image block processes will be "knit" together to reconstruct a final image. Further, we anticipate that the best results will be obtained when we process sequences of images. BENEFITS: Infrared imaging systems are increasingly being used by DoD and non-DoD organizations for applications ranging from targeting to surveillance. In the case of image over a long horizontal path, the atmosphere severely degrades the resulting image quality. The benefit of providing enhanced imagery having improved resolution is directly correlated to how well the collected imagery data can be exploited. Data exploitation applications range from automatic target recognition, automatic target detection, and enhanced night vision.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4233
Roger Demler
ARMY 99-125
Title:Novel Engine System for JP-8 Hybrid Power Pack
Abstract:In order to meet the Army's desire for a fuel-air plus batteries hybrid power pack with 1000 Whr in a 3 kg, 2000 cc unit, we propose an lC-engine starting and running on JP-8, driving a COTS, ECDC starter/generator, with typical solid-state power management and high-energy-density COTS batteries (not NiCd). The small model engine is made practical by a novel fuel-air mixture preparation system and SOTA signature control. Phase I will demonstrate the fuel-air and ignition subsystems on JP-8 with a COTS model engine, and provide quantitative conceptual design of the required configuration and construction for a high-quality small engine. Phase I Option will collapse the bench-top fuel-air and ignition subsystems into a small package for integrated electronic control and demonstration with an existing engine. Phase II will provide a novel small engine-generator subsystem, JP-8 testing, and package integration design. The novel fuel-air system has other applications in engines and burners. BENEFITS: The proposed hybrid system is the only way to meet Army goals for JP-8 predictably. The novel fuel-air system is applicable to larger military and commercial engines and burners that require high performance with liquid fuels, especially heavy fuels.

PHOENIX ANALYSIS & DESIGN TECH.
1465 N. Fiesta Blvd., Suite # 107
Gilbert, AZ 85233
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 813-4884
Dr. Mark C. Johnson
ARMY 99-125
Title:Fuel Cell Based Portable Hybrid Power Supply
Abstract:This project proposes the development of a robust, low cost, high density, hybrid power system. The most important features of the proposed approach are: 1) The implementation of the best commercially available power production components with emphasis on simplicity, robustness, and low cost. The baseload and intermediate power (15 W to 50 W) will be provided by a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) commercially available from H-power and the peak power will be provided by a proven, high performance Nickel-Metal-Hydride battery available from Energizer. In phase I bottled hydrogen will be used to fuel a brass board demonstrator and in phase II one of two candidate hydrogen storage technologies will be integrated. 2) A robust and simple overall configuration which places the fuel cell and battery directly in parallel. Careful selection of cell counts in both the fuel cell and battery will lead to a system that does not draw from the battery until the power level reaches ~ 50 W but still provides enough overvoltage at baseload power (15 W) to trickle charge the battery. This simple approach is made practical by the implementation of a battery management strategy based on slight variations in fuel cell air stoichiometry (i.e. slight changes in air supply). 3) An efficient, robust, and low cost control strategy that employs the SmartGuardTM battery management technology developed at AeroVironment. The SmartGuard is a commercially available battery management system that can be slightly adapted to provide the control requirements of this system. SmartGuardTM will cost only $50 per unit. BENEFITS: The power supply proposed here will have immediate benefit/application in Army activities and if energy density targets are met other branches of the DOD would also benefit. Additionally, this type of technology could be directly used in some space applications. Other markets that could benefit from a high density energy storage device include: remote filming crews, remote communication platforms, or any remote installation that requires power. Backup power is another area where this device could have application. Backup power for hospitals, banks, fire stations, and sensitive industrial sites are target markets.

AETC, INC.
8910 University Center Lane, Suite 900
San Diego, CA 92122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 413-0500
Thomas H. Bell
ARMY 99-126
Title:Enhanced Hand-held Electromagnetic Induction Sensor for Landmine Detection
Abstract:Currently available handheld mine detectors are effective in detecting metal mines and pieces of metal used in the firing mechanisms of non-metallic mines. However, these detectors can have a very high false alarm rate due to an inability to discriminate targets, particularly the types and shapes of small metal-firing mechanism parts, and they are not effective at localizing small metallic targets within their electromagnetic footprint. We are proposing innovative enhancements to the technology embodied in the Army standard mine detecting unit AN/PSS-12 that will lead in subsequent SBIR phases to the development of an affordable device that can precisely locate and discriminate between mines and clutter. BENEFITS:This capability could shorten the time and risks involved in humanitarian demining operations.

QUANTUM MAGNETICS, INC.
7740 Kenamar Ct.
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 566-9200
Yacine Dalichaouch, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-126
Title:Wideband, Multi-axis Magnetic/Electromagnetic Gradiometer with Advanced Signal Processing for UXO and Landmine Discrimination
Abstract:Presently deployed metal detectors can detect low-metal content mines, but cannot discriminate mines from metallic clutter. Their operation remains plagued by unacceptably high false alarm rates; 70% of remediation costs go to the excavation of shrapnel, spent bullet casings, and other clutter. Quantum Magnetics proposes a revolutionary enhancement to conventional metal detectors. Using a multi-component magnetic gradiometer as the receiver enables not only detection, but also localization, of an object. Wideband, multi-frequency excitation and advanced signal processing (collaborating with Duke University) can characterize metallic targets, discriminating mines and UXO from clutter. The system is a single tool to detect, locate and characterize both landmines and UXO. It lends itself to integration with other sensor technologies, such as ground-penetrating radar, soil conductivity anomaly sensors, and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR). QM is the world leader in NQR for detection of bulk explosive charges in landmines. In Phase I, we will collect passive (magnetic) and active (electromagnetic) signatures of various types of simulant mines (SIMs) and clutter; we will then use these signatures to demonstrate the enhanced discrimination afforded by wideband excitation and signal processing. In Phase II, we will develop a prototype using gradiometer technology leveraged from other efforts. BENEFITS: The military and humanitarian demining market for a truly high-performance metal detector numbers in the many thousands of units, worldwide. At a projected per-unit price of no more than $10,000, this yields a demining market size of up to $100 million in sales, not counting in-service support and upgrades. The technology can be adapted for concealed weapons detection in a variety of security and law enforcement applications, and it finally has a limited sales potential in the hobbyist (beachcomber, prospector, metal scavenger) arena.

GRADIENT TECHNOLOGY
2500 Shadywood Road
Excelsior, MN 55331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 471-8804
Steve Schmit
ARMY 99-127
Title:Autothermal Ammonia Decomposition
Abstract:The objective of this proposed work is to develop a novel high-performance catalytic microreactor that can be used to generate hydrogen through the autothermal decomposition of ammonia. The microreactor will operate with an extremely short residence time that is on the order of a millisecond. This chemical reactor configuration has two advantages that make this route to fuel cell hydrogen attractive. First, the autothermal operation of the reactor allows for the coupling of the exothermic combustion of ammonia with the endothermic decomposition of ammonia to hydrogen and nitrogen. Second, the short residence time translates into a small reactor volume with high throughputs. BENEFITS: The proposed Phase I research will be immediately applicable in any chemical process that requires the use of hydrogen. The novel reactors proposed here can be readily scaled up to provide large quantities of hydrogen. However, due to the short contact time of these reactors, they will still be substantially smaller than "traditional" chemical reactors i.e. typically 1/10 to 1/100 the size since residence times are 1/10 to 1/100 of those in "traditional" chemical reactors. Processes that would find the novel reactors proposed here useful are hydrogenation, hydrotreating, hydroisomerization, and the hydrogen enriching of syngas.

MESOSYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3200 George Washington Way
Richland, WA 99352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 375-1111
Mike Powell, MS PE
ARMY 99-127
Title:Mesoscale Thermocatalytic Reactor for Ammonia Decomposition
Abstract:We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from ammonia in a mesochannel-based reactor and heat exchanger. Thermocatalytic ammonia decomposition will be demonstrated in a prototype mesochannel reactor (with approximately 0.5 mm channels). Mesochannel architecture offers substantial improvements in performance compared with the conventional thermocatalytic, packed-bed reactors used in industry. Rapid heat and mass transfer in the small channels allows for significantly smaller reactor and heat-exchanger volumes, lighter system weight, and faster startup. Mesochannel reactor surfaces will be coated with conventional and/or nanocatalysts to eliminate problematic heat-transfer resistances typical of packed-bed reactors. Because heat- and mass-transfer resistances are minimized, the reactor size and weight are reduced to the greatest extent allowed by the reaction kinetics. Our heat exchanger and reactor will include ultra-low thermal conductivity aerogel insulation to keep overall size small and weight very low while maintaining excellent thermal efficiency. Finally, we will include an evaluation of surface-modified carbon adsorbents for the adsorption of residual ammonia from the product stream. These adsorbents offer up to an order of magnitude more ammonia-adsorption capacity than acid-impregnated activated carbon. BENEFITS: A lightweight ammonia-decomposition system will facilitate deployment of hydrogen/air fuel cells as power supplies for the military. Reductions in power-supply weight will improve the effectiveness of war fighters and reduce the operating and support costs associated with battery replacement and recharging. Commercial applications for lightweight power supplies are numerous.

VENTURE SCIENTIFIC INTERNATIONAL
293 Booth Road
Chapel Hill, NC 27516
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 942-4487
Dr. Valentin Serebrenniko
ARMY 99-127
Title:An Ammonia-based Hydrogen Source for Small Fuel Cells
Abstract:A lightweight hydrogen fuel source is proposed, consisting of a reactor utilizing liquid ammonia (NH3) and solid (powdered) aluminum hydride (AlH3). The package includes a control block and a filter. This package can safely provide hydrogen to a hydrogen/air fuel cell (H/AFC) within the power range of 10-500 W, with sufficient fuel for 1 kWhr of energy. With total weight less than 1 kg and total package volume less than or equal to 1 liter, the unit is suitable for integration with a H/AFC for portable applications. The unit can be produced in sizes tailored to specific power requirements. The reaction of interest is NH3 + AlH3 = AlN + 3H2 + 45 kcal of heat. Stoichiometric reactants for production of 1 kWhr of energy are 170 g of liquid NH3 and 300 g of AlH3. The only gaseous byproduct of the reaction is hydrogen; all other byproducts are solid phase. This Phase I effort includes determination of reaction kinetics, developing controlled operation of hydrogen production, control of reaction heat release, optimization of the reaction to decrease released heat, and development of a near-optimum design for packaging the reactor components. BENEFITS: It is anticipated that the Army will gain from this R&D effort a hydrogen source which is at or near 1 Wh of energy per gram of total source mass, including reactants and packaging. This source should be easily adaptable as a fuel supply for hydrogen/air fuel cells, which can be used as portable power sources for a variety of recreational purposes. Primary recreational applications will be portable GPS systems, emergency beacons, and small portable appliances and equipment which utilizes low-power electronics.

OPTOMEC DESIGN CO.
2701-D Pan American NE
Albuquerque, NM 87107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 761-8250
David M. Keicher
ARMY 99-128
Title:Multi-Alloy Fabrication Method for Turboshaft Engines
Abstract:The Phase I objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS*) process as a method to fabricate an advanced trialloy compressor impeller for advanced Army turbo shaft applications. LENS* technology will be the key to the success of the project; it has the ability to bond high performance titanium alloys together to obtain unique and exceptional properties in both the parent materials and the bond region. The LENS* process uses a high power laser beam to deposit layers of metal to form a solid metal object directly from a CAD solid model in a fashion similar to rapid prototyping methods. The Rolls-Royce Allison 250-C30 impellers to be addressed by this proposal will be comprised of gamma titanium aluminide airfoil shell bonded to an orthorhombic titanium aluminide bore. The impellers will feature high impact tolerant airfoil leading edges at the inducer. This will be achieved by laser fusion of a relatively tough Ti-6242 insert on to the gamma titanium aluminide airfoil shell. The exducer portion of the flowpath shell, being gamma titanium aluminide, will exhibit excellent creep and oxidation resistance, while the orthorhombic titanium aluminide bore will have superior burst and low cycle fatigue capabilities. BENEFITS: The LENS* technology to be developed in this program will be novel and unique for gas turbine applications and will provide an enabling capability for the fabrication of high performance aerospace structures for both military and commercial propulsion systems. The technology will also have major relevance to advanced airframe components where it can be used to achieve improved fly-to-buy ratios and tailored mechanical properties for optimum performance.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Paul Rolincik
ARMY 99-128
Title:Dual-Alloy Titanium Aluminide Technology for Turboshaft Engines
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. offers an unique method for fabricating cost competitive, low density, high performance titanium aluminide dual-alloy functionally gradient gas turbine engine components for application at elevated temperatures. This manufacturing method is based on Triton's experience with the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) technology for laser fabrication of titanium matrix composites and laser joining of aluminum matrix composites. In the LENS system, powder material is delivered through a feeder which is melted with a laser beam and deposited to build a near-net-shape component layer-by-layer in a manner similar to conventional solid freeform fabrication techniques. Triton is teamed with Laser Fare and AlliedSignal to adapt the LENS technology to produce functionally gradient dual-alloy titanium aluminide based components for gas turbine engines, such as impellers, which may be designed with different materials in specific areas and fabricated as a single seamless component. This program will take advantage of recent advancements in titanium aluminide materials having significant specific high temperature properties compared with nickel superalloys. This technology will enable gas turbine engine component part designs to be optimized for weight savings at elevated temperature applications with reduced cost by eliminating expensive tooling, and at the same time provide a single seamless component. BENEFITS: The proposed manufacturing method will provide a cost-effective approach to produce complex shaped, functionally gradient dual-alloy titanium aluminide gas turbine engine components for large commercial markets. In addition to military propulsion system components, potential commercial applications include the large gas turbine engine industry, both for land-based and air-based applications.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4046
Dr. Suneet Chadha
ARMY 99-129
Title:On-Board Total Oil Monitoring Sensor (TOMS) for Helicopter Transmissions and Engines
Abstract:Foster-Miller, Inc., proposes to develop a Total Oil Monitoring Sensor (TOMS), a unique integrated Oil Condition Monitor /Oil Debris Monitor (OCM/ODM) suitable for use as an on-board sensor for the detection and measurement of wear materials, contaminants and lubricating properties of oils used in helicopter engines and transmissions. The OCM will be based on Foster-Miller's prototype successfully demonstrated on an Allison T-63 turboshaft engine at Wright Patterson AFB during November 1998. The ODM will be based on an advanced in-line wear metal particle detector/counter which has been certified for use on the Pratt and Whitney F119-PW-100 engine. During Phase I the Foster-Miller team will test the combined OCM/ODM on a laboratory test rig using helicopter engine/transmission lubricants with known properties to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the sensor under simulated helicopter operating conditions. A conceptual design of an integrated unit for development and testing during Phase II will be developed. During Phase II the integrated TOMS sensor will be designed, fabricated and tested on an actual helicopter gearbox on a test stand, leading to early transition to the emerging HUMS systems during Phase III. BENEFITS: This Total Oil Monitor Sensor (TOMS) will eliminate the need for costly oil sample taking and lab analysis and increase the reliability of HUMS vibration data trending leading to true prognostics enabling the implementation of Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). It will result in reduced O&S costs for all types of helicopters and will be applicable to all military and commercial aircraft, automotive, trucking, railroads, and marine markets.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
George J. Valentino
ARMY 99-131
Title:Reconfigurable, Open-Systems, Avionics Architecture (ROSAA)
Abstract:Systran Federal Corp, (SFC) and Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), both in Dayton, OH, have prepared an architecture and a process for utilizing COTS (Commercial Off the Shelf) and ruggedized COTS hardware and software into an open-and standards-based, reconfigurable, fault-tolerant avionics system. Called ROSAA (Reconfigurable, Open-Systems, Avionics Architecture), this architecture is based on our combined experience in supporting the avionics activities at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, and at other locations, for over 20 years. ROSAA utilizes processor clusters, high-bandwidth switches, and redundant, high bandwidth interconnects to provide an adaptable hardware foundation for the processing of avionics functions. A low-latency, shared-memory networking paradigm is used The process for choosing ROSAA software is outlined and includes the need for a software operating system that can perform hard real-time, multi-threaded processing. Standards incorporated include VME, PCI, RACEway, FPDP, and FibreChannel FC-AE (explained herein). We draw upon the DARPA Reconfigurable Computer program as a source of lessons-learned information applicable to this endeavor. Our team will review various current and emerging standards and products information, and will provide a trade-off analysis and ranking of these items with respect to the required avionics functions. Detailed Phase II and preliminary Phase III plans are also presented. BENEFITS: ROSAA provides: an open-systems, standards-based avionics architecture. ROSAA includes redundant pathways, computational nodes, and the means of assigning specific avionics functionality to selected processing capabilities. ROSAA will be able to sustain battle damage, reconfigure itself, and continue to provide viable avionics capabilities.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
14 Union Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 924-1009
Dr. William H. Weedon
ARMY 99-134
Title:A Cost-Effective, Compact, Lightweight Helicopter Collision-Avoidance Radar System
Abstract:Helicopter collisions pose a significant threat to the safety of U.S. military forces. Both air-to-air collisions, between helicopters engaged in formation flying, and air-to-ground with ground-based objects such as trees, antennas, wires and terrain, represent real dangers. These collisions occur frequently in training missions as well as normal operations and the consequences are usually disastrous with significant loss of life and property. A millimeter-wave (MM-wave) collision avoidance radar system is proposed that will warn pilots of both air- and ground-based obstacles and will give the pilots enough time to react to avoid a potentially life-threatening situation. This proposed radar solution ensures all-weather performance both day and night, and is inherently covert due to the high frequency and low transmit power. Multiple sensors will be located around the helicopter and integrated into a complete system to warn the pilot of dangers in the forward direction, around the sides, below the helicopter, and around the tail rotor. This system will draw upon existing commercial vehicular-based collision-avoidance radar technology in order to reduce cost. The system will be compact and lightweight so as not to significantly interfere with the platform aerodynamics or weight-and-balance, will be self-contained, and easily retrofitted to existing helicopters. BENEFITS: This collision-avoidance radar system will directly benefit Army, Navy, Marine and Coast Guard Helicopters. Med-Evac helicopters as well as other commercial helos would also benefit. A similar system could be developed for small airplanes.

OPTIMETRICS, INC.
3115 Professional Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-1177
Frederick G. Smith
ARMY 99-135
Title:Radio Frequency Communications Modeling and Simulation Using Distributed Simulation
Abstract:A great opportunity exists to leverage the DIS/HLA simulation environment and the HLA Federation Development Process in order to improve training and system acquisition for Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) systems. What is needed, and is proposed here, is a more effective method to develop and represent complex scenarios encompassing realistic communications systems, complex communication networks, and realistic communications content. Our approach will leverage existing and developing communications analysis tools including CECOM's CEF and DARPA's SEAM-LSS. The proposed scenario development process will be consistent with existing SAFOR (Semi-Automated Forces) models (e.g., ModSAF and EAGLE) and will utilize Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to minimize developer workload and to enhance the realism of the simulated communication representation. The resulting communication scenarios will be used with MultiSIM-SIGINT or other IEW system models to evaluate the effectiveness of Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) systems such as Guardrail and Rivet Joint. BENEFITS: The benefits to the DoD are numerous. More realistic communication scenarios in DIS/HLA exercises will provide improved training for IEW system operations, Military Intelligence (MI) staffs, and commanders that utilize intelligence information. The proposed system would directly support training products encompassed in the J-STARS Common Ground Station, C-STAR exercise system and the proposed IEW Tactical Procedure Training (IEW-TPT) system. The scenario generation system would also support acquisition trade studies for communications systems and IEW systems. There are similar commercial applications including evaluations of various communication systems types, network architectures and organizational structures for effective communications within large organizations. Another attractive commercial arena is simulation of 3rd generation cellular networks. An automated tool that incorporated expert system assistance in scenario design, network design and would support tradeoffs on service quality, would find a commercial market.

VIASAT, INC.
2290 Cosmos Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
Mr. Mark L. Johnson
ARMY 99-136
Title:Near Real-Time Radio Frequency Emitter Mapping
Abstract:Tactical commanders require mobile, near real-time RF emitter mapping (RFEM) over relatively large areas and dense environments. This information is critical to force protection/situation awareness, targeting, and exploitation. Many challenges face real-time RFEM including: operations under non-ideal conditions, such as multipath and dispersive "real-world" channels; presence of Co-Channel Interference (CCI); RF emitter power fluctuation due to power control algorithms employed in commercial communication networks; etc. Other issues affecting performance include lack of line-of-sight (common in such environments), lack of compact and mechanically robust designs, and the variables and complications introduced by real-time, on-the-move operation. A powerful algorithm based on the Per-Survivor Processing (PSP) technique will be employed to obtain fast signal acquisition and data/channel parameter extraction. PSP algorithms have been developed and simulated for direction finding and multipath mitigation in high dynamic, extremely dense, cellular environments. Angle-of-Arrival and Time-of-Arrival information will be made available to a Geometry Engine in order to geo-locate the RF emitter of interest. Additionally, high performance Modulation Classification algorithms are to be explored and applied. Improvements in both system performance and reductions in system size, weight, and power are expected through innovative signal processing and packaging solutions. BENEFITS: The primary benefit of this multi-phased SBIR program is the design of a high-performance, robust and cost-effective mobile RFEM system capable of determining the location of RF emitters in a relatively large area. These capabilities have beneficial application to other DoD services requiring low cost, high performance position location systems. The benefits also extend to government and commercial entities that operate private communication networks as well (e.g., 911 mobile handset location)for cellular.

MEGAWAVE CORP.
PO Box 614, 200 Shrewsbury St.
Boylston, MA 01505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 869-2700
Glynda O. Benham
ARMY 99-138
Title:Ultrabroadband Tactical UAV Direction Finding Antenna Array
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of an ultrabroadband 20-2000 MHz direction finding array for a Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (TUAV) such as the Outrider. An innovative approach based on novel loaded broadband elements that have uniform VSWR and E-plane patterns over multiple octaves is used. Other benefits of the proposed approach are: reduced mutual coupling between the elements so that the performance is improved at the lower operating frequencies compared with a conventional array of the same baseline; minimization of the number of sub-arrays required to cover the bandwidth; reduced dependency on a good electrical ground; and reduced coupling to the airframe. Non-planar mounting of the elements on the platform can be compensated for in the individual element loading to equalize their phase centers. The approach takes into account the need for two or more baselines to cover the required band and a detailed analysis for siting the sub-arrays to optimize performance using computer models of the platform. Innovative materials to construct the antenna arrays are also proposed. Being essentially fabricated from plastic or composite components, the resulting arrays will be low cost and extremely lightweight so that they will not significantly add to the payload, yet be highly robust. BENEFITS: Development of a small baseline DF array has applications for other DoD, government and private sector markets for mounting on small aircraft/RPVs, boats, land vehicles and at fixed sites, and for suppliers of Enhanced-911 systems to the cellular and PCS industries. Phase I will provide a documented analysis of the feasibility of developing a low profile, ultrabroadband DF antenna system that can be used on electrically small platforms (manned and unmanned).

ORASIS, INC.
P.O.Box 130026
Ann Arbor, MI 48113
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-0118
Dr. C. J. Reddy
ARMY 99-138
Title:Novel Ultra-Wideband VHF/UHF Antenna for Conformal UAV Installations
Abstract:A novel, ultra-wideband, body-borne antenna for installation on UAV is proposed for VHF/UHF operation with a possible bandwidth greater than 100:1. The proposed antenna is conformal and highly suitable for inconspicuous integration within the skin of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) such as the Outrider. This antenna has a greater potential for maximizing the angle-time-frequency diversity in multi-mode applications, and is based on a new, already proven, design developed for wideband sensing applications as part of a University research project. This very thin, and relatively small aperture design has already been demonstrated for operation from 100MHz to 3GHz without dielectric loading. Under this proposal, we intend to (a) reduce its size further minimize real estate requirements on the UAV's surface, (b) extend its operation below the VHF band, down to 20MHz, and (c) account for platform interaction effects. The proposed concept provides for an extremely flexible design which can be adapted even down to HF (lower than 20MHz) or other conformal applications requiring extremely large and low frequency broadband operation. BENEFITS: Compact and affordable broadband conformal antennas are needed for a variety of communications needs. The proposed antenna structure(s) will have widespread uses in mobile communications including automobiles, civil and general aviation, GPS, PCS, Cellular, LAN, etc. that require multifunctionality using a single aperture.

AVIONIC INSTRUMENTS, INC.
1414 Randolph Avenue
Avenel, NJ 07001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 388-3500
Lewis Illingworth
ARMY 99-139
Title:2.5KVA Inverter with Selectable Output Voltage for Ground Mobile Vehicle Use
Abstract:Avionic Instruments proposes to investigate the feasibility of a 2.5KVA static inverter for use in ground mobile vehicles. This device will be capable of converting vehicle standard 24VDC to either 120VAC or 240VAC at 60Hz single phase. The output voltage will be selectable. In addition, two or three units can be connected to operate in parallel in order to provide 5KVA or 7.5KVA, respectively. The 2.5KVA inverter will be lightweight, low cost and designed for use in a typical ground mobile vehicle environment. The technology proposed for use in the 2.5KVA inverter provides a low distortion true sinewave output. BENEFITS: Avionic Instruments has previously provided power conversion equipment for a wide variety of ground fixed and ground mobile applications. The advantages and disadvantages of an inverter with a dedicated output (either 120VAC or 240VAC) are known. Development of a universal inverter would effectively provide two inverters for the cost of one. A single inverter capable of providing a 120 or 240VAC, 60Hz, 2.5KVA output from standard DC sources, with parallel systems of up to 7500VA would benefit the Army in a number of ways. It would reduce the number of units the depots would need to maintain and/or hold in inventory. Being modular in nature, system support costs would be reduced by stocking individual power modules (versus stocking higher power units). Designed to meet operation in hostile military physical and stringent EMC environments, this single module could be utilized in applications ranging from simple maintenance to Secure C3I and IEWCS platforms. The commercial version of this device could be utilized for public service vehicles and telephone/cable service vehicles. A less robust version may also be applicable to boat and recreational vehicles.

SYNCHROTEK
P.O.BOX 4083, 101 W.EDISON CENTER
APPLETON, WI 54915
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(920) 739-7275
Shekar Rao
ARMY 99-139
Title:Tactical vehicle Inverter System
Abstract:Synchrotek proposes to develop a new electrical inverter system, which provides a 120/240 V AC power from a vehicle 28 VDC vehicle battery or DC source. The inverter will incorporate technology developed by Synchrotek for the 3 kW and 5 kW generator/inverter systems that utilized the variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) technology. The inverter is rated at 2.5 kW and will be designed as a stand-alone product, as well as capable of paralleling with similar units to obtain 5 kW, 7.5 kW or 10 kW power. Additionally incorporating capability to parallel the unit to any other 120V, 60 Hz source of power will be investigated. Design methodology will focus on obtaining the minimum weight and size configuration by employing high frequency switching and high frequency transformer and planar magnetics. The attractive feature absence of an engine or any other fuel consuming, noise polluting prime power source. The quiet, efficient inverter is equally applicable to non-vehicle installations. It can be used to enhance existing power capability by running in parallel with other military or commercial generators or other utility power sources. One of the several challenging tasks is to develop a compact electronic package. This is accomplished by employing surface mount technology (SMT), multi-layer boards with high-density layouts intended to minimize losses, keep the size, and weight to the minimum. BENEFITS: The unit weighs less than 20 lbs. and has a volume less than 0.03 cubic meter which is about 25 to 50 times less than those of APUs and gen-sets that it replaces. The inverter plugs into DC NATO receptacle of an existing vehicle DC source of battery or DC generator. It converts DC power into precise AC 120/240 V, 60 Hz power. Units of 2.5 kW rating can be paralleled to obtain larger power ratings and are totally enclosed providing environmental protection

TORVA SYSTEMS (OLD POWER CONTROL SYTEMS)
9 Arborwood Dr.
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 221-7437
Jeffrey B. Colter
ARMY 99-139
Title:Tactical Vehicle Inverter System
Abstract:The army has identified a need for solid-state DC to AC inverters to replace mechanical motor/generator sets as well as auxiliary power units in light military tactical and armored vehicles. These inverters are powered from 24 VDC and produce 120/240 VAC at 2.5kW each. Up to four of these inverters must be directly parallelable for easy scaling of system power. Typical AC loads include air conditioners, and maintenance and communication equipment. This proposal will outline the efforts required to demonstrate innovative techniques for directly paralleling AC outputs as well as improvements over the state of the art for DC-DC converters. In addition we will present a simple mechanical assembly and a unique method for connection of electrical inputs and outputs. BENEFITS: The core technology presented can be scaled to any number of inverters in parallel and to smaller or larger module power levels. These inverters can be used in military as well as commercial applications as replacements for large, costly, and inefficient mechanical, engine driven AC generators, taking advantage of the typical surplus DC power available from vehicle battery/alternator systems.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
900 Middlesex Turnpike, Building 8
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 436-9600
Dr. Triveni N. Upadhyay
ARMY 99-140
Title:Situation Awareness in "Virtual" Radio Silence (SARS) System
Abstract:The Mayflower SARS System (Situation Awareness in Virtual Radio Silence) is fully responsive to the Army SBIR program objectives of developing a lightweight integrated nav/com radio that is affordable, LPI, anti-jam and secure. The SARS system architecture addresses the technical issues pertaining to self-jamming, unintentional jamming to friendly users and susceptibility to enemy jamming. The SARS system, a handheld transceiver, will provide up to 100 kbps secure two-way communication and precision (cm-level) relative navigation and rendezvous capability to Army mobile platforms, including the soldier. The phase I study will analyze and validate the feasibility of the SARS system architecture using computer simulation models for signal propagation, link margin analysis to support the data rate for situation awareness and network communication protocols for non line-of-sight communications. The SARS system architecture incorporates a novel, Mayflower proprietary self-jamming mitigation technique that has been demonstrated to be very effective (40+ dB suppression) in integrated radio applications. The Phase II SARS program will implement the enabling critical technologies and demonstrate the SARS functionality to the Army in laboratory and field tests. The Phase II program will also identify and develop a direct path to transition SARS enabling technology to the DARPA/Army SUO-SAS Program and other DoD Programs. BENEFITS: Military market for the SARS system will include situation awareness before deployment, secure LPI datalink for precision landing and command guidance link for PGM terminal guidance to highly maneuverable target. Commercial applications include collision avoidance for aircraft and automotive markets.

VIASAT, INC.
2290 Cosmos Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
Pete Camana
ARMY 99-140
Title:Lightweight Integrated Navigation and Communications Radio System
Abstract:Navigation and Communication for the detached force element have critical in the emerging harsh disjointed battlefield of Joint Vision 2010. The Joint Tactical Information Distribution System, which is the basis for the US and NATO Standard Link 16 provides both Anti-jam communications with rates up to 1.5 MBPS as well as accurate relative navigation. Link 16 was also selected by the JSTARS and AWACS sensor/C3I platforms to distribute the air and ground situation intelligence. Link 16 can also provide an AJ communications channel to seed a GPS receiver to allow it to operate in a more jammed environment as ViaSat is addressing for the Navy. ViaSat proposes to address the "Need for a Lightweight Integrated Navigation and Communications Radio System" with an integrated L-band GPS and Link 16. This effort will draw on activities for the Navy to reduce the ViaSat MIDS terminal to less than 50 cubic inches for missile applications and the commercial drive to reduce GPS receivers further. The market generated by missiles and Army ground force elements will make such a terminal a very high probability commercial success, lowering the total acquisition and Life Cycle Costs to the Government. BENEFITS: The Lightweight Integrated Link 16/GPS Radio System will provide an anti-jam, LPI US/NATO interoperable radio system for joint and coalition actions. It will employ commercial based components from the PCS phone and GPS navigation businesses to greatly reduce the cost to the Military. Commonality across the l-band GPS and Link 16 functions will reduce military logistics item management. The Link 16/GPS navigation linkage will potentially provide a commercial benefit to the Civil Aircraft landing business as it transitions to the Local Area Augmentation System.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
3900 Jermantown Road, Suite 100
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 352-9300
Dr. Michelle Sams
ARMY 99-141
Title:Learning Objects Performance Support System
Abstract:The Learning Objects Performance Support System (LOPSS) is an innovative tool that enables tailored on-line assistance for learners and instructional developers through the intelligent application of reusable, modular learning objects residing in a repository on a central server. LOPSS derives a tailored session plan, selecting and ordering objects based on the user profile information and session objectives. The planning continues dynamically throughout the session based on an evaluation of the evolving state of the user model. LOPSS will also have an Object Scout to assist instructional developers in identifying and selecting existing learning objects to build or revise courseware. BENEFITS: LOPSS supports the Army's and DoD's objectives for training and performance support systems to deliver knowledge tailored to the individual, anytime and anywhere. Commercialization plans include licensing and customized services. Expected benefits of LOPSS include: 1) reduced cost to train due to less travel for formal instruction, 2) reduced time to learn due to tailored assistance, 3) increased performance due to on-site, on-demand performance support , 4) reduced duplication of effort, development time, and courseware cost through object re-use, and 5) increased quality of performance support due to user on-line feedback.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGY
14A Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2030
Feiling Wang
ARMY 99-142
Title:Electro-Optic, Active Ambient Attenuator with Pixel-Level Adaptive Function
Abstract:With limited display luminance, the contrast of see-through head mounted display (HMD) systems can be degraded calamitously in the presence of high-luminance scenes, or bright ambients. Moreover, the visibility of a HMD is often impeded due to localized flares in the ambient. An ideal solution to the problem is an active ambient attenuator with adaptive optical density in the pixel level. This Phase I proposal addresses the design and fabrication of such an active ambient attenuator. The adaptive function of the proposed system is based on a nonlinear attenuation mechanism installed near the focus plane. A scene is first focused onto the focus plane near the adaptive attenuator. The adaptive attenuator is made to vary its optical density spatially in such a way that greater density is created in areas where more intense light impinges. Through such spatial filtering, the image is re-collimated for the viewer. With this system, the image of the ambient is altered to have a more uniform and suitable level of luminance for HMDs. In Phase I, a preliminary device will be made according to the described principles. A bench-top demonstration of the adaptive attenuation function will be performed. BENEFITS: A successful implementation of the proposed adaptive optical attenuator will greatly improve the effectiveness of the HMD systems. Devices of this kind can also be used for eye protection for personnel in war or for patients of macular degeneration. Welders and other personnel exposed to sun glare and intense laser irradiation may also benifit from the protection of the proposed adaptive attenuator.

UNIVERSAL DISPLAY CORP.
3 Bala Plaza East, Suite 104
Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 430-9003
Vladimir Bulovic
ARMY 99-143
Title:Organic Phosphorescent Backlights for Head-Mounted Displays
Abstract:Universal Display Corporation (UDC) in collaboration with Princeton University is developing organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology for use in inexpensive, low-power color displays. Recently, we developed a new class of proprietary materials based on organic phosphorescence and demonstrated record high luminous efficiency (31 lm/W) phosphorescent OLEDs. These OLEDs are ideally suited for bright, highly efficient backlights. They can be grown on glass, plastic or metal foil substrates, forming sheets of luminescent material that can efficiently couple light to an active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD), simply by laminating the display to the OLED ultra-thin (< 500 mm) backlight. In Phase I, we will demonstrate a 1.5" monochrome AMLCD display using a highly efficient (50 lm/W) organic phosphorescent backlight. This research will provide the basis for efficient, lightweight, full-color displays in Phase II. Backlights for full-color displays will consist of a stack of three transparent OLED (TOLED) backlights, each tuned to a different primary color. Energizing different color TOLEDs in sequence, synchronized to the AMLCD, reduces power consumption three-fold over displays with white backlights. Furthermore, our design eliminates color filters, simplifying AMLCD design and increasing its transparency up to 5 fold. The completed full-color AMLCD can therefore be 10 to 15 times more efficient when utilizing our proprietary TOLED technology. BENEFITS: High efficiency, low power backlights for monochrome and full-color helmet-mounted displays for both low and high brightness applications. Uses in both military and civilian applications.

ODEGOS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4433 Denver Drive
Plano, TX 75093
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 596-5954
Petros Kyprios
ARMY 99-144
Title:Dual Voltage, Multiconfigurable Nonrechargeable Battery Design with Adapter
Abstract:The objective of this product is to increase the ability of existing Army lithium prismatic battery types to meet future equipment battery footprints and decrease the chances of future battery type proliferation in the logistics system. The proposed battery system is a dual voltage, multiconfigurable design that can be inserted into a BA-5847/U lithium battery configuration by using the specially designed adapter. Without the adapter the proposed battery system can form four(4) physically distinct battery types, each capable of providing two(2) electrical configurations. BENEFITS: Potential post applications exist both in the defense and commercial markets. In the defense, we see this product to become as the "power on demand" application for the handheld applications, such as infrared or GPS guided, in vehicular applications such as communications, microprocessors/computers. In the commercial sectors, camcorder cameras, handheld computers, laptops, monitors, communications, microprocessors or computers.

TERI RESEARCH, INC.
16 Wildhedge Lane
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 219-0020
Benjamin Tirabassi
ARMY 99-145
Title:Speech Intercept Intelligibility For Spectrum Supremacy
Abstract:The intelligence community is interested in extracting tactical situation knowledge of current and planned enemy activities from the automated monitoring of battlefield radio communications. The limiting factor in the successful application of these emerging language based interpreters is the poor quality of the speech captured from these tactical radio intercepted transmissions. Natural Language Understanding (NLU),language identification, language translation, speaker identification, keyword spotting, gisting, language parsing and context interpretation are emerging technologies to be developed to achieve this automated intelligence processing. Innovative wide-band signal recovery techniques, are used for accurate extraction of captured speech from the severely degraded transmission intercepts, incorporating methods most beneficial for natural language algorithm performance and to discount radio specific signatures. Unique to this research opportunity is the ability to merge our recent technology breakthroughs for identifying and tracking speakers by stripping away radio channel masking and multipath degraded tactical radio transmitted speech. TRI has demonstrated highly accurate speech extraction algorithms are possible in noise environments with a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of minus 10dB. These TRI emerging signal recovery and speech extraction algorithms are designed to work as a front-end processor for NLU recognition and interpretation algorithms. TRI is also developing and integrating a superior speech interpretation and understanding system for information extraction from tactical transmissions using syntactic, semantic and tactical dialog context understanding algorithms. The real-time speech intelligibility enhancement technology is to be embedded with the next generation radio audio processing schema to effect a processing efficient and low-power consumption solution, by merging duplicative speech processing and memory requirements. BENEFITS: Speaker identification and natural language understanding that are communications media independent, represents the next generation interface between humans and electronic devices. Consumer product applications include; personal data assistants, computers, appliances, radios, cell-phones, vendor kiosks, ATMs, web-site browsers, information fusion and decision aids.

COLORADO RESEARCH & ENGINEERING, INC.
8281 West Portland Avenue
Littleton, CO 80128
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 932-0022
Satish Kumar
ARMY 99-146
Title:Asbestos Neutralization by In-situ Chemical Digestion
Abstract:Asbestos containing materials have been used in buildings in many applications for insulation and fire proofing such as pipe insulation, vinyl asbestos tiles, transite boards. Asbestos fibers are hazardous and EPA in No. 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 regulates asbestos-containing material (ACM). Currently the ACM are encapsulated in place, which merely postpones the final solution, which is removal of ACM. In situ treatment using acids and fluoride ions has been used successfully in the laboratory for chemical digestion of ACM. However, in bulk construction material, other constituents such as gypsum, vermiculites are also present. The presence of these materials makes the acid digestion more difficult. It is proposed in this research that microwave-coupling compounds will be added to the chemical digestion process to enhance the chemical reaction because of local heat. The feasibility of using ultrasonic vibration in conjunction with microwave energy to enhance the chemical digestion of ACM in construction materials will be investigated. BENEFITS: At present the cost of asbestos removal is prohibitive. Current techniques for removing asbestos containing materials (ACM) require the construction of airtight barriers, labor intensive scraping of the ACM and costly environmental and worker protection. Development and testing of an in situ chemical digestion process for ACM will greatly reduce the cost of asbestos abatement. The DoD owns more than 2 billion square feet of buildings and structures, which have some ACM. It is estimated that the cost to the DoD for asbestos inspection, training, in place management, and abatement will exceed $ 1 billion. In situ digestion by chemicals has the potential of cost avoidance of 20 percent, or $200 million. Specifically CREI hopes to achieve the following during Phase III.

LAKE SHORE CRYOTRONICS, INC.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 891-2243
Jeffrey Dierker
ARMY 99-147
Title:Magnetic Fluxgate Micro-Electomechanical Systems (MEMS) Sensor for Structural Integrity Monitoring Capabilities
Abstract:The monitoring and analysis of the structural integrity of buildings, bridges, and machines is increasingly important as the average age of these structures increases. Structural monitoring can be accomplished through the addition of a magnetostrictive phase to the construction material. Changes in the structure are reflected by changes in the magnetic signature of the magnetostrictive phase allowing prediction of structural problems well before they become catastrophic. The sheer volume of existing infrastructure requires large arrays of inexpensive magnetic sensors to accomplish the monitoring. Magnetic fluxgates have the required sensitivity for this application, but at present are either too bulky or too expensive for practical use. In Phase I of this SBIR, micromagnetic fluxgates will be fabricated using common, inexpensive techniques on rigid substrates, and compared to Hall effect sensors with regard to sensitivity. In the Phase I follow on, fabrication on flexible substrates will be investigated. In Phase II, integration of drive and sense circuitry will be completed and arrays of sensors will be fabricated. In Phase III, an inexpensive, off-the-shelf microfluxgate sensor system will be commercially produced and marketed. BENEFITS: Completion of this research will allow the production of inexpensive microfluxgate systems for use in monitoring structural integrity resulting in prevention of catastrophic failure saving both lives and money. In addition to this application, this microfluxgate system would be used in personal compasses, artillery shell spin sensors, vehicle detection, commercial compasses, proximity detection, ink and code scanners, and current sensing. Total sales in 5 years following Phase II are projected to be $40,000,000.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 860-3456
William D. Walburg
ARMY 99-150
Title:Compact Aerial Vehicle Imaging System (CAVIS)
Abstract:As the miniaturization, power reduction, and resultant lower costs of digital equipment progresses, solutions to age-old problems materialize overnight. One such requirement is a low power, lightweight, mobile imaging system. This allows surveillance and monitoring using a remote controlled device in areas where it may be unsafe or impossible for a person to go. Previous imaging systems have used film, video, or CCD image sensors. The problem with these methods is that their size, weight, and power consumption are large. CCD imaging devices are the smallest and consume the least amount of power of all these devices. However, for truly power and weight contrained systems even the CCD is too heavy and requires too much power to operate. CMOS imaging sensors are smaller, weigh less, and consume less power than a similarly sized CCD array. Up until the past few years it has been physically impossible to produce a CMOS image sensor because the required density of transistors on silicon could not be achieved. However, newer transistor densities being produced make CMOS arrays a reality, even at high resolutions. The use of CMOS imaging arrays in a camera will meet the high resolution, low power, and lightweight requirements of CAVIS. BENEFITS: Lightweight aerial vehicles for ground surveillance by military, rescue, law enforcement, and commercial users. Reconnaissance operations for the military or law enforcement, and surveys of disaster areas or general commercial survey use, all benefit from wireless imaging.

PHOTOBIT CORP.
135 N. Los Robles Avenue, 7th Floor
Pasadena, CA 91101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 683-2200
Dr. Scott Campbell
ARMY 99-150
Title:"CMOS APS Image Sensors for Compact Aerial Vehicles"
Abstract:This proposal discusses solutions to solicitations for compact aerial vehicle surveillance and auto-navigation systems. These solutions provide an integrated system that weighs less than 150 grams, consumes less than two Watts, and communicates its data within a two megabit per second bandwidth. The proposed solutions provide "electronic film" surveillance of square kilometer target zones while demonstrating autonomous navigation. The image sensors used to capture the surveillance and navigational information are based on CMOS Active Pixel Sensor technology. CMOS APS demonstrate very low power usage, ultra-wide dynamic ranges, high image quality, and on-chip mixed signal processing capabilities. This class of sensor technology has been used in weight-power critical systems, such as satellites and other spacecraft, and is therefore ideal for use in compact aerial vehicles. Though the system will be fully capable of performing unassisted, it will also be capable of receiving new performance instructions form a ground-based operator. BENEFITS: The benefits anticipated from this proposal are the advancement of ultra-high resolution, panoramic, ultra-wide dynamic range surveillance camera systems. Commercially, such systems can be used in arenas such as security, guidance, and theater. As well, the autonomous navigational systems can be used in arenas such as robotics, the automotive industry, and toys

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
6700 Odyssey Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9229
Larry Fullerton
ARMY 99-151
Title:Alternative Communications for Nonline-of-sight Applications
Abstract:Initial research for Time Modulated Ultrawideband non line of sight communications achieving low probability of intercept, difficult to jam, low power, and high bandwidth for unmanned vehicles. Time Domain will define the need for and the approach to unit tracking, evaluate extensions of the ULR system,design the overall system protocol,code the key characterisitics of the protocol, create a simulation program for evaluating URL under a variety of senarios,use the simulation program to evaluate system performance, design the key parameters for the time modulated ultrawideband radio, and perform field testing to demonstrate range accuracy and ability to penetrate obstacles. BENEFITS: The commercial benefits and applications currently being considered for time modulated ultrawideband radios encomasses electronic fluid measuring devices to replace mechanical dipsticks, construction stud finders, hand sensors for automatic water control, wireless instrumentation systems, wireless LANS, cellular telephony, and short range wireless phones

BOULDER NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, INC.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-0077
Kipp Bauchert
ARMY 99-152
Title:High-Speed Bipolar Multi-level Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:Recent advances in programmable Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) have lead to their use in optical processing systems for high-speed target recognition. Unfortunately the state-of-the-art in SLMs still limits the overall performance of the optical correlators. These limitations include operating speed and optical efficiency. Boulder Nonlinear Systems (BNS) proposes to draw on its expertise in the development of high-speed SLMs to develop a high-speed bipolar multi-level SLM. The key is developing a very high-speed SLM that also has high optical efficiency when used as a bipolar multi-level modulator. During Phase I we will utilize new Liquid Crystal (LC) materials with our existing 128x128 multi-level SLM to determine the feasibility of obtaining highly efficient bipolar modulation. We will also take this information, combined with our expertise in developing high-speed liquid crystal SLMs, and develop a conceptual design for a high-speed, high-efficiency bipolar multi-level SLM. The conceptual design will be based on availability of silicon foundry processes and of off-the-shelf driver components. During Phase II, the high-speed, high-efficiency bipolar multi-level SLM and associated drivers will be fully developed. As the only supplier of high-speed multi-level LC SLMs BNS is highly qualified to complete this program. BENEFITS: BNS has built substantial business around our SLMs because we have designed them exclusively for optical processing applications. This focus of design objectives has so far resulted in three successful SLM products, the 128x128 binary SLM, the 256x256 binary SLM, and the 128x128 multi-level SLM. The 512x512 multi-level SLM has yet to be released as a final product pending the completion of the current development efforts on the small pixel pitch and high-speed drive electronics. There is a great deal of interest in high resolution, high-throughput multi-level SLMs from the space, military, commercial, and academic communities in our country as well as abroad. With the successful completion of the proposed Phase I and II efforts, we will be in a position to offer this high-efficiency bipolar multi-level SLM as a product, the likes of which cannot currently be found anywhere.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Court
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Dr. Vern Shrauger
ARMY 99-152
Title:Bipolar Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:The goal of the Phase I program is to design a low-cost spatial light modulator that offers independent amplitude and phase (A&P) control, which can used in a wide variety of defense and commercial systems. Specifically the device will be designed for bipolar operation (relative phases of all output states are either 0 or pi radians) with gray-scale amplitude modulation. Our proposed design is based on a sandwich of a transparent, silicon VLSI active-matrix addressed deformed helix liquid crystal amplitude modulator and a reflective microelectromechanical (MEMS) phase modulator for independent phase control and compensation. To test the concept, a small-scale (16x16 pixel) A&P modulator will be built in the Phase I program, where the active-matrix silicon array will be replaced by a 16x16 electrode array. In addition to the device fabrication effort, the work involves testing to establish the spatial resolution, contrast ratio, phase dynamic range, and pixel crosstalk (both electrical and optical) of the bipolar modulator. The Phase II program will fabricate a full-scale A&P modulator with 128x128 pixels and a 4 kHz frame rate. BENEFITS: Commercial applications of the bipolar modulator include page composers for 3-D optical storage media, programmable holographic image reconstruction, adaptive optical wavefront correctors, head-mounted and projection display components, and Fourier-plane complex spatial filters for optical correlators intended for machine vision and pattern recognition.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY
174 North Main Street, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Dr. Sanford M. Dash
ARMY 99-153
Title:Enhanced Scramjet Combustion
Abstract:A state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamic/Large Eddy Simulation (CFD/LES) methodology that has well established aero-acoustic capabilities will be implemented for investigating flow induced oscillations of cavity flowfields and a theoretical understanding of cavity acoustic suppression via leading edge jet blowing will be developed. Numerical investigations will be conducted using the three-dimensional, finite volume CFD code, CRAFT, which utilizes a fully implicit, characteristic based upwind scheme with higher order spatial and temporal accuracy to provide for accurate shock capturing while simultaneously preserving acoustic accuracy. Prior applications of CRAFT (in conjunction with LES) to various cavity/ducted problems have demonstrated its ability in providing accurate representation of unsteady flowfields characterized by pressure oscillations, periodic vortex shedding, acoustic feedback and instability modes. The ability of open-loop leading edge jet blowing to provide suppression of acoustic loads in a cavity will be systematically investigated and optimization of leading edge jet blowing will be conducted. Varied spectral analysis techniques will be employed to identify acoustic source location. The proposed research also provides the foundation for evaluation of cavity suppression via closed-loop leading edge jet blowing. BENEFITS: The proposed research is directly relevant to design of acoustic suppression techniques for future combat aircraft (F-22, JSF, etc.) and UCAV which feature internal bays. The research also supports development of novel technologies for abatement of jet engine and industrial equipment noise. Within the energy sector, cavity analysis technique finds application in the design of boilers, furnaces, incinerators, etc. where combustion instability is a major concern.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Charles A. Shipley
ARMY 99-154
Title:MEMS Based Steerable Time Delayed Antenna
Abstract:Because of severe limits to the surface available to antenna apertures on many platforms, there is an emphasis on the use of very wide instantaneous bandwidth phased array antennas that can be used for both communication and radar purposes. In addition, many current and proposed systems require support for very wide band waveforms. Phased array antennas that meet this need must employ time delay control on top of phase control for proper beam forming and steering. The rapidly developing Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology is currently providing components such as controllable Time Delay Units (TDUs) that promise to meet the wide band phased array need. In addition, these promise to be low cost, light weight, and reliable in operation. Technology Service Corporation proposes to design and fabricate a Ku band beam steerable active array antenna using MEMS based TDUs that will have an instantaneous bandwidth greater than 10%, with beam widths of 2 x 5 . In addition the design will utilize a new layering architecture that will significantly reduce size, weight, and cost. BENEFITS: Wide band phased array antennas that use MEMS based time delay control for beam forming and steering together with a new layering architecture will significantly reduce their size, weight, and cost. This will result in a wider range of phased array applications to military and commercial communication and radar systems where cost, weight, and size are currently prohibitive.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr. 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Matthew E. Thomas
ARMY 99-155
Title:System Design and Demonstration of an Effective Gel Propellant Mixing Process
Abstract:An effective mixing process for gelled propellants, recently developed at AMCOM, will be enhanced to accommodate solids with low bulk densities while completing all gassing. The proposed research will assure mixing process compliance with all solicitation requirements through lumped parameter based system level analysis combined with numerical simulation. Phase I will focus on: 1) system level analysis within a Simulink or MATLAB environment to support equipment definition and numerical boundary conditions of all mixing process simulations; 2) multiple high fidelity flow simulations of the actual gel mixing process using CFDRC's advanced Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software; 3) detail design of a prototype system utilizing existing mixer features in use at AMCOM and Talley Defense Systems; and 4) identification of the requirements to support Phase II prototype and Phase III production within a Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) facility (Optional Task). Prototype fabrication of two (one fuel and one oxidant) prototype gel processing systems, followed by demonstration at Talley Defense Systems, will be completed in Phase II. The final mixer technology will be delivered to AMCOM and comply with all potential laboratory installation and operational specifications, as well as exceed all local, state and federal regulations. BENEFITS: The Phase II prototype gel propellant system is projected to meet anticipated demand through CY2003. Anticipated demand of gelled propellants in fielded missile systems will necessitate a 10-fold scale-up of the Phase II system beyond CY2005. Existing CFDRC commercial client processes that will benefit from this research include the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food processing industries.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4283
Robert Lee Cardenas
ARMY 99-155
Title:Gelled Propellant Mixing (GPM)
Abstract:The Army has a need for a variable-volume, closed-batch process for making gelled propellants. The gelled propellant is produced by mixing fumed silica (sub-micron, low-density solids) with Inhibited Red Fuming Nitric Acid (IRFNA a toxic, corrosive volatile liquid). Gelled propellants are being developed as a safer and more cost-effective alternative to liquid propellants. A mixing process is needed to produce consistent and in-specification gelled propellants for research and development purposes. The developed system should scale up to accommodate production quantities. A Phase I program is proposed to investigate the feasibility of developing a Gelled Propellant Mixing (GPM) system. The program defined includes and an in depth study of the existing laboratory scale process to determine the complete system requirements including technical, regulatory, safety and site. Four key issues will be investigated, fumed silica conveyance, silica and IRFNA mixing, Gel degassing and Gel displacement. A Phase I prototype design will be completed. Testing of the prototype is planned at an Army facility during an optional task. BENEFITS: A GPM system would reduce the development costs of Gelled Propellants by reducing the number of out of specification batches, reducing the process time and increasing safety to the users, facilities and the environment. The development of the GPM system will accelerate R&D Capabilities in Gelled bipropulsion. Improved mixing technology would find application in any number of commercial markets that require the blending fine particulates in liquids.

MONTEC ASSOC., INC.
PO Box 4182
Butte, MT 59702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 494-5555
Steven F. McGrath
ARMY 99-155
Title:Resonant-Mixing of Gelled Propellants
Abstract:A unique method of mixing by inducing a low frequency resonant wave in the medium results in the transfer of energy on a microscale to the fluid, allowing rapid and efficient dispersal of solids, gases, and immiscible liquids. The device can be used simply as a mixer or as a chemical reactor in heterogeneous systems where mass transport across phase boundaries limits the rate. It is particularly suited for the mixing of gelled propellants because the mixing vessel has no internal parts, and the volume of the vessel can be changed during the mixing process to accommodate the volume change that occurs during the dispersal of fumed silica into inhibited red fuming nitric acid (IRFNA). The volume of the vessel is controlled by the position of a vented piston. The vents are designed such that a large off-gas rate can be achieved and disengaged liquids can be returned to the vessel very quickly. Condensible volatiles in the exit gas stream can be recovered by a coldfinger lattice on the interior of the vented piston and quickly returned to the vessel. The thixotropic gel product is expelled through a zero-deadspace discharge valve by extending the piston. BENEFITS: A commercially available mixer-reactor with microscale energy transfer, variable volume, and controlled off-gassing would be of general interest to the research community. One area where many applications may be found is in the creation of advanced ceramic materials by the sol-gel process, where efficient colloid dispersion and ease of removal of the final gel are required. The low-shear, high-mass transport features of the resonant-mixing technology make it highly desireable for numerous biotech applications.

VIASAT, INC.
2290 Cosmos Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-7210
Mr. Mark L. Johnson
ARMY 99-156
Title:Application of Spatial Antenna Arrays/Processing for Command, Control, and Communications with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV)
Abstract:The effective range for controlling Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) is often limited by multiple signal reception caused by multipath fading and signal diffraction. For an Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) this problem creates a safety risk in situations where the landing site is in close proximity to terrain structures. A partial solution is to use multiple antennas on the vehicle. However transmitting from multiple antennas results in the reception of multiple signals that can be interfering or constructive. A new approach, applying Per-Survivor-Processing (PSP), offers the opportunity to achieve dramatic performance improvements (e.g. increased range). PSP excels when the channel characteristics, the number of multipaths, interferers and other key signal parameters are unknown. Application of PSP to wideband real-time stereo video is now feasible due to the rapidly increasing computational power and decreasing price of modern digital technology. PSP algorithms have been developed and simulated for dense urban and rural environments with mobile users under other efforts. The focus of this proposed Phase I work will be to develop Spatial PSP (SPSP) implementation capable of demonstrating high quality UGV command/communications and imagery transmission using multiple transmit antennas during a non-line-of-sight scenario (Ground to ground communications without relay or elevated antennas). BENEFITS: The primary benefit of this multi-phased SBIR program is the implementation of high-performance cost effective processing to enhance the range performance for command control and communications with UGVs/UAVs. Robust high data rate mobile wireless communications are called for in a variety of military and commercial situations. Therefore, successful new methodologies that exploit of spatial processing will have significant commercial potential. Areas of application include cellular telephone/cellular data, digital broadcast (television), and the robotic vehicles market (police, heavy).

ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
650 Nuttman Road, Suite 114
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 982-2302
Dr. John Kelly
ARMY 99-157
Title:Portable and Low Power Combustion System for Army Meal Waste Disposal
Abstract:Robust, portable and minimum power combustion devices are needed to reduce Army meal waste to a small ash residue. Current technologies either address large mass burn waste applications or small highly specialized, and costly, hazardous waste applications. Neither of these technologies will meet Army needs. Altex has identified a self-driven solid waste combustion system that has the potential to meet all of the Army requirements at low cost. The objective of the Phase I effort is to design a full-scale system, and then fabricate and test a proof-of-principle system that will demonstrate the concept's performance in the laboratory. Test results will define system safety, waste burn rate, flexibility, operability and emissions performance. Based on test results and an economic analysis of first and operating costs, the performance and economic benefits of the system will be defined and conclusions reached on the commercialization potential of the concept. BENEFITS: Deployment of the self-driven waste combustion concept will reduce the cost of Army meal waste disposal by 80%. Given the generation of 280,000 tons of total waste per year, deployment of the concept will save the Army $5.6 million/yr. Furthermore, the system could be deployed in foreign militaries and in civilian outdoor events, saving an additional $8.4 million/yr. Also, deploying the system will ease difficult negotiations, that occur when trying to dispose of substantial Army wastes in foreign countries.

BIOPRAXIS, INC.
P.O. Box 910078
San Diego, CA 92191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 452-2413
Ann E. Grow
ARMY 99-158
Title:Doodlebug - Solid-State Biosensor for Food Safety
Abstract:Most approaches to pathogen detection are expensive and time-consuming. Immunoassays, while widely used, can be difficult to develop and can result in many false responses when complex samples such as food and beverage samples are analyzed. In general, immunoassays that are rapid lack adequate sensitivity; those that are sensitive take hours or even days to complete. Biopraxis is developing Doodlebug, a unique, solid-state biosensors, that is both extremely rapid and exquisitely sensitive. This new technology has the potential to assay for dozens of different pathogens - including bacteria, spores, and viruses - in the same sample, simultaneously, at the single cell level, within minutes. Studies have already shown that it can be used in the detection and specific identification of pesticides and toxins, even when cross-reactive biomolecules are used. The PhaseI program is designed to demonstrate that Doodlebug can distinguish between cross-reactive microorganisms, using closely-related species of Listeria; to differentiate between virulent and avirulent strains, and to use a wide range of biomolecules. BENEFITS: Biopraxis' technology can be used in products ranging from simplified, extremely rapid assays to automated systems that can analyze hundreds of samples daily. Applications include detection of pathogens and other undesirable organisms such as food spoilage organisms, as well as toxins and pesticides, for the food and beverage, agriculture/aquaculture, and medical diagnostics industries.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0104
Ronald J. Rieder
ARMY 99-158
Title:An Ultra-sensitive Optical Biosensor for Food Safety
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project addresses the development of an ultra-high resolution interferometric optical detection platform for the rapid detection of pathogens and microbial contaminants in foodstuffs. The proposed effort seeks to overcome existing optical and biological technical barriers to develop a hand-carried inexpensive platform requiring no special expertise for the field detection of foodborne pathogens which will reduce the total detection time initially from days to a few hours with limited culture enrichment. The Phase I effort consists of a feasibility experiment demonstrating the sensitivity of the detection technique to individual microbes. During Phase II a prototype targeted towards the detection of C. jejuni, the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis within and outside of the United States, and L. monocytogenes will be developed. BENEFITS: The proposed development would lead to a cost effective, hand-carried optical biosensing platform for the rapid detection and identification of food-borne pathogens initially with limited culture enrichment. Other markets include clinical diagnostics, water and air monitoring, industrial process control, and as a basic research tool to name only a few applications.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
101 West 6th Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
John G. Bruno, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-158
Title:Hand-Held Fluorometer Incorporating SELEX DNA Aptamers as Molecular Recognition Components for Foodborne Pathogens
Abstract:Systems and Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes to develop artificial receptors composed of DNA oligomers (called aptamers) for binding and detecting specific foodborne pathogens. Aptamers will be generated by the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) combinatorial chemistry technique. SELEX aptamers offer several major advantages over antibody technology; most notably eliminating the use of animal hosts, resulting in reduced cost, and generally higher affinity and selectivity for specific binding to target pathogens of interest. In addition, SELEX DNA aptamers can be mass produced with relative ease compared to antibody production and purification. In Phase I, SPEC proposes to generate a set of specific DNA aptamers to bind and detect inactivated Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Aptamer assay development will be conducted on modified versions of SPEC's proprietary hand-held or other portable fluorescence-based sensors. In Phase II, SPEC will clone and sequence the aptamers and optimize fluorescence-based aptamer-pathogen assays for field use by food safety workers. BENEFITS: There is a worldwide need for a simple and cost-effective method of developing binding agents to known and unknown pathogens and other analytes. SELEX is a combinatorial chemistry technology that meets this need. SELEX has tremendous potential in the areas of food safety, drug discovery, screening assays, detection and monitoring of the environment, and medical diagnostics.

METSS CORP.
720-G Lakeview Plaza Blvd.
Columbus, OH 43085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6600
Gideon Salee, Ph.D.
ARMY 99-159
Title:High-Speed/Low-cost Impermeable Seaming for Synthetic Tentage and Collective Protective Shelters
Abstract:Synthetic fabrics have replaced cotton duct for tentage applications for the military in the early 1990's. Cost was the major driver for the change in addition to the elimination of the need to retreat old cotton tents with environmentally hazardous chemicals. Synthetic fabrics for tentage in most instances are vinyl coated polyester fabrics. While more durable and cost-effective, the advent of synthetic fabrics gave rise to the problem of leaking seams that was not as prevalent in the cotton duct predecessors. The hot needle in a fast stitching operation creates holes in synthetic fabrics that are larger than the diameter of the needle due to localized melting of the theromoplastic fibers. In addition, the low moisture absorption of synthetic fibers does not lead to fabric swelling and stitch hole sealing common in cotton fabrics. While waterproofing methods that can be employed after fabrication are available, this is an expensive and time-consuming exercise. As a consequence, the Army has a need for the development of high-sped, low-cost seaming technologies capable of support leak-proof tent manufacturing. Under the proposed program, METSS will evaluate three different approaches to obtaining this objective. Each of these technologies is technically and commercially viable, thereby offering a near term solution to this critical problem. BENEFITS: The products of this undertaking will assist in the creation of leak-proof stitchable seams. Sewn seams are easy and fast to make. The process is easy to stop and start, maneuverable and easy to inspect. It is expected that the proposed improvements to the process will be cost competitive. The technology developed has additional uses in consumer markets, including the apparel industry.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4268
Kash Kasturi
ARMY 99-160
Title:Human Performance Modeling of Paratrooper Landings
Abstract:An innovative approach based on the finite element (FE) method is proposed to model paratrooper landings and to analyze related injuries. A biomechanical model of the paratrooper consisting of rigid ellipsoids and joints will be generated using the GEBOD program. The joints in the model will be enhanced to faithfully represent their nonlinear viscoelastic characteristics including the effects of muscles. The response of the model will be investigated using LS-DYNA which is an FE code for nonlinear dynamic simulations. The model will be validated by simulating landing scenarios reported in the literature. The model will then be used to identify poor landing techniques, and to analyze injuries and related mechanisms. The critical landing velocities will be determined under different military operation conditions including the effects of total weight, wind speed and landing terrain. The model will also be used to evaluate new and emerging protective devices including combined devices of ankle braces and energy-absorbing soles, inflatable boots, and soles made from new materials. The ankle/foot of the proposed Phase I model will be replaced by a detailed deformable FE model for further analysis including tissue sprain and fracture in the Phase I Option. BENEFITS: The proposed model could be used to generate guidelines for parachute landing training, and design and evaluation of advanced parachute systems and protective devices. This will contribute to increased safety of personnel and significant cost savings. The model can be extended for applications of the commercial market in recreation, and sports, etc. with similar benefits being achieved.

SUPERIOR SENSING SOLUTIONS
2620 Trade Center Avenue
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 702-1672
Bijan Miremadi
ARMY 99-161
Title:Nanoceramic Sensors for Fluorine and Similar Hazardous Chemicals
Abstract:There is a need for sensors capable of detection and monitoring of fluorine and other similar hazardous chemicals for safety, health and environmental protection. Commercial Electrochemical (EC) halogen sensors currently on the market suffer from narrow detection range, long warm-up time, short life-time, long-term base-line drifting, and are more than ten times expensive than solid-state chemical sensors. Superior Sensing Solutions proposes to develop nanoceramic thin-film sensors that can address these problems, and provide sensors that are compact, highly sensitive, and low cost. These characteristics make the proposed sensors extremely useful for both military and commercial applications. During Phase I, proof-of-concept will be demonstrated. Phase II will optimize and field test the sensor, while Phase III will commercialize the technology. BENEFITS: The fluorine sensors developed will primarily benefit scientists and engineers working in High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility, as well as staff working at uranium isotope separation plants from possible exposure to fluorine due to accidental release or system leak by providing in-time warming and real-time exposure level indication. The proposed sensor can also provide effective, affordable sensing solutions for phosphate plants, waste water treatment facilities and paper industries for HF and Chlorine detection and monitoring, where HF, HCl, and/or chlorine presents a threat to on-site operators and adjacent residents.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 860-3456
Mark Dapper
ARMY 99-162
Title:LEO Target Data Link System (LTDLS)
Abstract:Military target systems typically use custom dedicated radio links for target control and telemetry, with little or no commonality between the many systems in use. The proliferation of different data link designs leads to low quantities for any one design , raising life cycle costs. Furthermore, the ground-based control terminal often has limited line of sight to the target, which restricts operations on many ranges. In short, current target data links are expensive, and despite their cost, are often the limiting factor in application of the target system. Conversely, highly reliable mobile communications have become nearly ubiquitious in commercial applications. These include Geosynchronous (GEO) satellite systems, cellular-based systems such as CDPD, two-way pagers, and low Earth orbit (LEO) networks. Due to recent exponential interest (and funding) in LEO systems, these terminals are moving into volume production. These systems can provide robust, cost effective communications nearly anywhere on the globe. The objective of the proposed effort is to reduce the cost and improve the performance of target system data links by capitalizing on existing (or emerging) commercial LEO satellite communications systems. Nova Engineering's existing RF products and ongoing development of state-of-the-art satellite communications terminals provide an ideal launching point for this research. BENEFITS: Virtually all LEO 'terminals' are actually handsets, designed for commercial and/or industrial applications. The proposed LTDLS effort will produce a ruggedized modem which is directly applicable to a variety of 'unattended' operational scenarios, such as security, intelligence operations, and automatic retrieval of search/rescue identification data.

SEAMLESS SOLUTIONS, INC.
3504 Lake Lynda Dr., Suite 390
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 737-7310
Carol J. Wideman
ARMY 99-163
Title:Internet-based Terrain Visualization Tools
Abstract:We propose to develop format conversion/compression, navigation, and viewing software to enable the collaborative visualization of SEDRIS terrain databases. This software will maximize the use of emerging standards for accessing and visualizing geographic information and graphical representations on the Internet. XML-based standards, including Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and Extensible 3D (X3D) will be emphasized. A unique aspect of this work will be the ability to use vector-based features as an aid to navigation and collaborative visualization. BENEFITS: This development will benefit current and potential users of SEDRIS by leveraging tools and standards being developed by the OpenGIS Consortium and other commercial groups. It will increase the accessibility of SEDRIS to commercial interest who have not traditionally been SEDRIS users.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Kevin Johnson
ARMY 99-164
Title:An Evaluation of Multi-Resolution Modeling Approaches
Abstract:Simulations are used to model the real world in support of analysis, training, and research and development. The goal is to have the simulation as close to reality as possible. While, in theory, this may be a good approach, in practice it is not always feasible. Today, simulation developers no longer need to choose between creating a high resolution or a low-resolution simulation environment. Advances in simulation technology have enabled models of different-resolutions to be used together. Unfortunately, there are many technical challenges associated with how to have models of different resolutions interoperate in a common environment. In this effort, MK Technologies will define the technical challenges, investigate state of the art multi-resolution modeling methods, and identify promising techniques. MK, through its CGF development effort and its battalion-level game development has the experience and knowledge required to perform the necessary research. MK will create detailed criteria to evaluate how current methods support the technical challenges associated with multi-resolution modeling. MK will evaluate current methods against the defined criteria and investigate how new innovative technologies can be utilized to either improve existing methodologies or to create new approaches. MK will leverage its CGF product, VR-Forces, to develop a multi-resolution modeling testbed. BENEFITS: MK's Phase I effort results in a set of evaluation criterion and representative test cases, and an evaluation of current multi-resolution modeling approaches. In addition, MK will perform an initial investigation into how new innovative technologies can support multi-resolution modeling. The analysis and research performed in Phase I in conjunction with the development of a multi-resolution modeling testbed provide a strong foundation for Phase II development. In Phase II, MK will use the multi-resolution testbed to further investigate promising approaches and prototype new techniques. Based on the results, MK will develop a full implementation of a multi-resolution modeling approach for extensive evaluation and research. The resulting model will be demonstrated to STRICOM.

CHANG INDUSTRY, INC.
1925 Mckinley Avenue, Suite F
La Verne, CA 91750
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 596-7888
Dr. Yu-Wen Chang
ARMY 99-165
Title:Active Protection Sensor Package
Abstract:Sensor for active protection hardkill countermeasure is proposed. Sensor integration based on a proprietary and innovative circuit integration technique into a small 4-inch diameter volume with a set of surface-mount antennas is shown to be feasible for development. Different surface-mount antenna configurations have been discussed with two types to be investigated for selection. Sensor system configuration for generating a proper waveform has also been proposed. Based on our extensive active protection sensor and system experiences, the sensor design should provide an effective and low cost solution for active protection. Dual use and commercialization of the sensor components technology have been discussed for insertion into ongoing commercial activities to share in a growing market with a projected market size exceeding $2B by year 2003. BENEFITS: Will ensure the development of an active protection system for enhancing the battlefield survivability of our armored vehicles and personnel and change the armored vehicle engagement techniques. The component technology developed can be directly inserted into current high frequency and large bandwidth wireless local area network market with a projected growing market of $2B by 2003.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Nestor Voronka
ARMY 99-166
Title:Enhanced Accuracy INS/GPS System Utilizing Low-Cost Sensors and Geophysical Models
Abstract:Today's ground vehicles primarily utilize the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) for positioning and navigation (POS/NAV) which produces moderately accurate results. High accuracy POS/NAV can readily be achieved using integrated systems that are large, heavy, and prohibitively expensive for large scale deployment. Modern battlefield scenarios would greatly benefit if all ground vehicles could determine their position with high accuracy. To achieve this goal, the GPS system can be augmented with low-cost sensors which individually yield only moderately accurate data, but integrated together would provide a highly accurate result. We propose to model and implement a system which uses low cost accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetometers, and vehicle wheel sensors coupled with high fidelity models of the earth's gravity and magnetic fields. Using low-cost, high performance digital signal processors (DSPs), sophisticated filters can produce high fidelity position and heading information. In addition, the use of these passive sensors would also provide POS/NAV services in cases where GPS signals are unavailable due to satellite signal availability problems, enemy jamming conditions, and obstacles such as buildings common in "urban canyon" environments. BENEFITS: The avaibility of a high accuracy, low cost GPS/INS navigation system has great potential in the consumer automobile market for in-car navigation and as a key component of intelligent highway systems.

POINT RESEARCH CORP.
2740 S. Harbor Blvd., Suite B
Santa Ana, CA 92704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 557-6180
Robert W. Levi
ARMY 99-166
Title:Improved Vehicle Positioning & Navigation Using Low Cost Sensors
Abstract:Because of GPS outages, supplemental positioning capabilities are required to maintain a high degree of asset location confidence. Existing inertial systems are too expensive for use on most military vehicles, and map matching is not possible in many circumstances. This project will establish new methods of using low cost sensors, such as MEMS gyros and accelerometers to improve the positioning and navigation capabilities of light military vehicles such as the HMMWV. The various classes of sensors in many cases have complementary strengths and weaknesses allowing valuable synergy to be gained through integration. Methods of combining multiple similar sensors for improved accuracy and robustness will be developed using both hardware and software techniques. Mathematical models for the sensors will be developed and incorporated into a computer simulation. The sensors will provide input for a vehicle dead reckoning navigation algorithm. The simulation will be used to predict accuracy and performance under varying conditions and to develop a preliminary Kalman Filter algorithm for integration of GPS. The Phase I Option will convert the simulated algorithms into a real-time system interfaced with actual hardware sensors. Based on test results, the algorithms will be refined. BENEFITS: Reliable positioning and location of vehicles will improve situational awareness and navigation for the mounted soldier and provide critical digital asset location data to commanders. Robust position location is a key component of efficient logistics, timely rendezvous, reduction in fratricide, targeting and force management in general.

MESH, INC.
129 Bethel Road
Oxford, PA 19363
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 932-3709
Dr. Larry Grim
ARMY 99-167
Title:Marrying Commercial-off-the-shelft and Government-off-the-shelf Equipment for Tracking Chemical Releases
Abstract:The proposed system will allow tracking the movement of chemical clouds in real time from a safe standoff distance. The instruments used are passive standoff chemical agent detectors already fielded (M21). Each instrument individually can only measure the total of all the chemical in its line-of-site; the distance to the cloud is unknown. By merging data from multiple vantage points (either one instrument moving past the cloud or two or more instruments spaced so as to view the cloud from different directions) a map of the cloud location can be generated. The equipment required for the proposed system is either government-off-the-shelf or commerically available. Also, the data fusion techniques (tomography) have been demonstrated previously in the medical field. The proposed system represents a low risk solution to the problem of remotely tracking toxic and hazardous chemical clouds. BENEFITS: The Chemical Tracking System would be able to monitor the movement of many chemical clouds of either military or industrial origin. Since the technique is standoff, the personnel are not exposed to toxic hazards while they follow the cloud. Also the equipment works on-the-move which allows rapid response to emergency situations (plant explosion, tank car accident, chemical terrorism).

---------- NAVY ----------

87 Phase I Selections from the 99.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
AVIONIC INSTRUMENTS, INC.
1414 Randolph Avenue
Avenel, NJ 07001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 388-3500
Muhtu Murugan
NAVY 99-174
Title:Development of a Regulated Transformer Rectifier Unit (RTRU) for the V-22 CV Requirement
Abstract:Modern US Navy aircraft as well as older aircraft currently being updated to today's avionic standards, contain avionics and ordinance equipment that require regulation of the 28VDC system. The V-22 platform utilizes three regulated AC/DC converters (CVs) to provide regulated DC power from the AC generator source. The presently used device uses a power topology that yields both a very complex device and electrical system. The current design provides a regulated DC output at the expense of reliability, cost, weight, electrical performance and aircraft system compatibility. Avionic Instruments Inc. offers to perform a Phase I SBIR feasibility study to verify that by utilizing a patented form of regulated transformer rectifier, the V-22 CV can be improved. Specifically, this technology will allow unit cost to be reduced to less than $ 15,000., overall weight to less than 25 lbs. and reliability to be increased by ten fold. A Line Conditioner-based AC/DC Converter (CV) is proposed that will, in addition to meeting SBIR objectives, provide TRU-like qualities such as high input power factor, low input current harmonics, high overload and short circuit capability. A reduced parts count enables the design to increase reliability and reduce cost. Avionic Instruments will examine potential semiconductor devices, new magnetic materials and novel thermal approaches to further enhance the design. Circuit models will be created and computer simulations performed to demonstrate comparative differences of various regulated converter topologies. In addition, a demonstration of the existing Line Conditioner-based CV topology will be provided to the Navy. A final report will be provided at the conclusion of Phase I.

IAP RESEARCH, INC.
2763 Culver Avenue
Dayton, OH 45429
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 296-1806
Antonios Challita
NAVY 99-174
Title:Develop Low Weight/Low Cost AC/DC Regulated Converter for V22 Applications
Abstract:We propose to apply our Power Node Control Center (PNCC) technology to develop a converter for the V22 application that meets the power quality, size, weight and cost requirements. The innovations in our concept are: (1) the use of Multi Functional Programmable Modules (MFPM) which are half bridge leg to perform the power factor correction, boost rectification on the input end, and the buck conversion on the output, (2) the use of Pulse Current Modulation to perform the power factor correction on the input, and (3) the use of plastic coated iron powder composite pot cores to form the chokes required for filtering which reduces the size and the cost of the filters. In Phase 1 of this effort, we propose to develop the concept and conduct bench type test to validate key concepts.

INNOVATIVE POWER SOLUTIONS, LLC.
PO Box 730
Oakhurst, NJ 07755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 493-3680
Jim Widdis
NAVY 99-174
Title:Develop Low - Weight / Low-Cost AC/DC regulated Convertor for V22 applications
Abstract:This document describes Innovative Power Solutions (IPS) proposal to design a regulated converter for the V22 aircraft. This unit converts aircraft 115/200 VAC, 360 to 457 Hz, three phase power into a regulated 28.7 0.3 VDC output. The objective is to meet the stringent power quality as well as the EMI and thermal requirements in a package that will conform to Boeing drawing 901-375-201 and not exceed 30 lbs. The goal is to offer the regulated converter, in production quantities, for less than $23,000. In order to meet these ambitious goals we intend to use a high switching frequency to help reduce the filter size. This will help reduce size and weight, as well as improve power quality. Additionally, improving efficiency will be a prime goal that will require help meet the thermal requirements of an aerospace application. Cooler operation will increase the reliability and will eliminate the need for extensive heat sinking, again reducing size and weight. Modular design will be used to cut production costs and improve product maintainability so that purchase cost and life cycle costs could be reduced.

PROJECTS UNLIMITED
3680 Wyse Rd.
Dayton, OH 45414
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 890-1919
Robert R. Hanson
NAVY 99-174
Title:Develop Low-Weight/Low-Cost AC/DC Regulated Converter for V-22 Applications
Abstract:Projects Unlimited, Inc. (PUI) proposes to conduct a thorough and quantitative feasibility study and analysis to define the design of a new and novel power electronics converter and DC system controller for the V-22 application. PUI intends to make best use of leading edge matured technology as a basis for this investigation and by doing so virtually eliminate risk to the successful completion of this Phase I study. At the completion of the study, PUI shall deliver a thorough and complete final report. PUI proposes to investigate new and novel approaches to thermal, electrical and mechanical designs to reduce weight, total parts count, and cost while increasing reliability. This investigation shall encompass the complete LRU as defined in the referenced detailed procurement specification. At the conclusion of Phase I, PUI will provide the Navy with the complete results of the detailed tasks, studies, analyses and trade-offs made during the course of the investigation. All simulations, test results, methodologies and assumptions shall be included, along with the quantitative conclusions made with supporting rationale. This will provide the Navy not only with a complete unit definition, but the basis for its selection of Phase II/III efforts.

DIGIRAY/GOLDSWORTHY-TEAM
23930-40 Madison Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 375-4565
Dr. Clem Hiel
NAVY 99-175
Title:Failure Detection System for Composite Joints
Abstract:There is a need for a portable X-Ray System with appropriate software that can be used to document failure initiation and propagation on lap joints and joints with woven inserts. This system could be used to validate analytical and numerical failure analysis predictions. Additionally, the system could support Non-Destructive Evaluations on carriers, in repair depots, and in the field. The proposed portable X-Ray System, identified as "RX-BOND," makes use of the unique resolution and imaging advantages of Reverse X-Ray technology. Additionally, the system is capable of Computed Tomography (CT) and utilizes the information contained in the diffracted X-Rays to measure peel stresses in the bondline. This multimode operational capability combined with system portability and ruggedness is much beyond the current state of the art. The feasibility of the "RX-BOND" system will be investigated during the Phase-I Basic Program. Additional tasks in the Phase-I Option concentrate on the portability issue and on the identification of a bonded structure on a Navy platform which could benefit from RX-BOND technology. This information will be submitted as part of a Phase-II readiness report.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-1167
Vivek Nagarkar, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-175
Title:New High Density Scintillator-Based X-ray Imaging System for Nondestructive Evaluation of Composite Structures
Abstract:The sophisticated new designs of multi-layer composites currently used in naval technology present a challenging problem of detecting integrity-reducing anomalies to assure safe and reliable operation. Microwave techniques are useful for NDT of these composites due to their penetrating power and sensitivity to changes associated with boundary conditions. However, microwave bending and surface polarization make it difficult to localize the detected defects. Conventional techniques such as ultrasound and infrared imaging do not provide the necessary resolution. Thus, a reliable technique to address this problem must be developed. Recent advances in 3-D x-ray imaging modalities have created excellent potential to successfully address this demanding application. The capabilities of these powerful instruments, however, are presently limited by the x-ray sensors available, which offer a tradeoff between the efficiency and the image resolution and limit the speed of operation. We propose to develop a novel x-ray imaging detector based on a new transparent optical ceramic scintillator to address these needs. The scintillator will be micro-pixelized to provide high detection efficiency without degrading the image quality. The scintillator will be integrated into a fast digital readout to form detector that will allow the full potential of advanced 3-D imaging modalities be realized.

LANCORP. ADV.ENG&SYS, INC.
2101 Timberglen Drive
Imperial, PA 15126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 659-5474
Frederick A. Lancaster
NAVY 99-176
Title:Investigation of Diode Lasers for Portable On-Aircraft Applications
Abstract:The objective of this Small Business Innovative Research project is to investigate and develop the capability for the selective depainting of Navy aircraft and the cleaning of precision instruments and equipment using semiconductor diode laser technology. This will be accomplished by first demonstrating in a laboratory environment, performing materials testing and cost analysis, and then designing a and testing a scale system for rapid depainting and cleaning of aircraft surfaces and components. It has been demonstrated that diode lasers offer the ability to selectively strip and clean coatings and soils in an efficient and cost-effective manner over other types of lasers and methods.

UNCOPIERS, INC.
6923 Redbud Drive
Manhattan, KS 66503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 293-4917
Dr. Isabel Zambrano
NAVY 99-176
Title:ACIM Assisted Selective Depainting and Precision Cleaning of Delicate Surfaces
Abstract:Cavitation is ordinarily a chance-dominated process. Recent research in ACIM (Acoustic Coaxing Induced Microcavitation) promises to solve the long-standing problem of "controlling cavitation". Being able to control microcavitation enables one to solve formidable engineering problems. During this Phase I effort, we seek to evaluate the feasibility of using ACIM for selective depainting and precision cleaning of delicate surfaces. Such cleaning will be accomplished using only "SILENT SOUND and CLEAN WATER". No chemicals will be used. Acoustic microcavitation is brought about by low megahertz frequencies and involves micron size bubbles that last a few microseconds. During microcavitation the imploding cavities create intense energy densities at the implosion sites. Since these implosions are effective only at the thin surface layer, controlled microcavitation (ACIM) is ideal for cleaning surfaces without damaging the underlying substrate. ACIM assisted selective depainting and precision cleaning will be universal in application and effective on all substrate-paint/particulate combinations.

CAPE COD RESEARCH
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Francis L. Keohan
NAVY 99-177
Title:Environmentally Compliant Self-Priming Aircraft Coatings
Abstract:A corrosion protection process for treating structural aluminum aircraft components is proposed which can simplify manufacturing and maintenance operations while dramatically reducing hazardous waste generation. The proposed research explores the feasibility of using an aqueous blend of surface oxide derivatizers and film-forming polymers with non-hazardous corrosion inhibitors to yield self-adherent, self-priming topcoats. The proposed primer/topcoat paint would exhibit better stability in the presence of inorganic corrosion inhibitors and yield coatings having significantly less permeability to water and ionic species than conventional waterborne coatings. The ability to form strongly adhered, durable barrier layers over structural metal alloys without the need for toxic chemical etchants and pigments or multiple coating applications would represent a significant advancement in corrosion engineering. The objective of the Phase I program is to identify candidate materials which meet the goals of low toxicity, simple application, adhesion promotion, and corrosion prevention. A novel combination of polymers and sol-gel precursors will be used to form stratified coatings to achieve optimum adhesion and corrosion inhibition. These formulations will be tested on common aircraft aluminum alloys for salt fog resistance and paint adhesion. Potentiodynamic electrochemical analysis will also be used to study the corrosion inhibiting mechanisms.

INTEGUMENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10 East Fourth StreetP.O. Box 507
Jamestown, NY 14702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 875-5597
Dr. Terrence G. Vargo
NAVY 99-177
Title:Corrosion Inhibiting Fluoropolymer Film Wallpaper System for Aircraft
Abstract:Naval and Marine Corps aircraft suffer from pitting and crevice corrosion to a much higher degree than land based counterparts. Operation from air capable ships ensures that 7000 series aluminum alloys are exposed to the chloride ion from salty seawater spray and air. This aggressive corrosion environment increases: sailor maintenance demands, inspection requirements, and ultimately, total costs per flight hour. A logical solution to the corrosion problems on aircraft surfaces would result from application of a thin fluoropolymer wallpaper system with embedded revolutionary corrosion inhibiting features. One of the present drawbacks of applique technology is the inability to prevent the chloride ion from reaching the substrate where the applique is gouged, torn away, or along seams and edges. This research seeks to address these problems by incorporating an inhibitor that retards pitting, corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloys, into the applique or adhesive system. The goal of this proposal is to utilize the "Fluorogrip" method for surface modification of fluoropolymers and incorporate corrosion inhibitors directly into the film or pressure sensitive adhesive. The adhesive system to be used for this project will be tailored for near complete removal without solvents in cases where film replacement is required.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(178) 176-9945
Stuart F. Cogan
NAVY 99-178
Title:Elastomeric Aircraft Primer with Non-chromate Corrosion Inhibitors
Abstract:The overall objective is the development of a non-chromate low VOC content primer that meets the requirements of the current flexible polyurethane (TT-P-2760) and earlier polysulfide (MIL-P-87112) aircraft primers. The primer is based on an epoxy-elastomer resin that forms a microscopic interpenetrating network on cure. The epoxy imparts strength, fluid resistance, and adhesion while the elastomer provides low temperature flexibility. The elastomer also acts as a reservoir for corrosion inhibitors and other functional components added to the primer. Chromate inhibitors will be replaced by new organic inhibitors that demonstrate comparable corrosion inhibition of Al 2024-T3 and Al 7075-T6. These inhibitors will partition into the elastomer and leach to active corrosion sites if the primer coating is damaged. In Phase I, primer formulations that exhibit the necessary flexural and corrosion resistant properties will be developed and characterized for ambient and low temperature flexibility, salt spray and filiform corrosion resistance. Collaboration with a coating manufacturer and aircraft company to conduct testing to appropriate Military and Federal standards is proposed. Phase II would involve refinement of primer formulations, address all aspects relevant to meeting Military Specifications and acceptance for use at depot facilities, as well as field-testing.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4139
Dr. William E. Dorogy, Jr
NAVY 99-178
Title:Non-Chromated Flexible Primer
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to develop a flexible primer system for US Naval aircraft which meets/exceeds current military specifications (TT-P-2760) and exhibits enhanced delamination resistance and corrosion protection without the use of toxic chromates. Our approach combines three concepts to generate this next-generation primer: 1) incorporation of flexible segments into the primer which do not impact mechanical and solvent resistance properties, 2) incorporation of functional groups into the primer enabling chemical bonds to be formed across every interface, and 3) a non-chrome-containing corrosion inhibitor system that becomes active only at the onset of corrosion. The primer will be designed not to require any special equipment or procedures which would interfere with naval aircraft maintenance facility operations. Phase I will concentrate on proof of primer feasibility and preliminary corrosion studies, with full development of the corrosion inhibitor system deferred until Phase II. Primer formulations will be developed, tested and evaluated according to targeted performance specifications of TT-P-2760. The primer will be low VOC, have viscosities suitable for spray application, and be compatible with existing substrate pretreatments and topcoats. Samples of coated test panels will be submitted to the US Navy for independent evaluation.

LOTEC, INC.
181 West 1700 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84115
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 483-3100
Rama Nageswaran
NAVY 99-179
Title:Innovative, Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Aircraft Exterior
Abstract:There is an ever-growing need for thermal and environmental barrier coatings for applications in aerospace and defense industries. Such coating of aircraft fuselage, supersonic aircraft fuel tanks, cryogenic containers and munitions packages not only reduces the need for elaborate safety back-up systems, but also cuts down on wastes. The minimum general requirements for TEBCs and associated materials are: (i) lightweight, (ii) minimum bulk, (iii) very low thermal conductivity, and (iv) radiation resistance. Other special requirements include fluid and humidity resistance, adherence, low gloss in visible wavelengths, and reasonable electrical conductivity. State-of-the-art coating technology employs multi-layer and multi-material(polyurethane elastomers or silicone binder in combination with ZnO or MgO or other ceramic insulations) configurations that must be improved for performance, life, and versatility. LoTEC, Inc. proposes to develop a cost-effective, advanced coating material system that is non-outgassing, non-flammable, and has superior thermal insulation, environmental resistance, radiation stability, and noise-reduction characteristics. Thermal spraying deposition, which is an environmentally-benign coating process in which a polymer powder is injected into a flame or plasma, will be used to apply the coating. Liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) will be used in conjunction with ceramic hollow microspheres (CHMs) to form the protective coating.

MER CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. E. Veksler
NAVY 99-179
Title:Advanced Fullerene Thermal Protection for Exterior Aircraft Structures
Abstract:The proposed concept of advanced thermal barrier technology utilizes fullerenes and fullerene-based materials to create effective lightweight and environmentally safe thermal protection coatings on exterior aircraft structures exposed to high temperatures. Based on preliminary results, fullerenes were shown to have extremely low thermal conductivity and high emissivity along with low ablative rates and good ablation cooling properties. During the course of this Phase I project, MER will investigate thermal properties of fullerenes and fullerene-based materials in wider temperature ranges and develop apropriate techniques of applying fullerene coating onto the surface of aircraft components. The optimization of these parameters and procedures will be performed during anticipated Phase I programs.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
The Jordan Building1160 Pepsi Place, Suite 300
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 973-1215
David G. Ward
NAVY 99-180
Title:Design Assistant and Software Tools for System Identification and Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Control
Abstract:Significant advances have been made in the development of health monitoring and control algorithms that identify unmodeled dynamics and compensate for many classes of system failures. Yet, there is a general reluctance on the part of industry to employ these techniques in safety-critical production applications. Although many valid reasons exist, a primary source of resistance is the requirement that industry end-users abandon familiar design and certification practices to achieve safety and performance benefits for flight conditions that are rarely encountered (e.g., failures). The proposed work addresses many of the challenges associated with retrofitting existing flight control systems to provide engineers with an ability to compensate for airframe damage, sensor and actuator failures, effector impairments, and dangerous unmodeled dynamics. The approach leverages recent algorithmic advances in system identification, statistical change detection, and model validation to yield a simple (from the user's perspective) add-on system module that provides adaptation to the baseline controller only during a failure. To fully exploit the opportunity, a prototype software tool is envisioned that will allow automated development of custom add-on reconfiguration modules.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings ParkSuite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Raman K. Mehra / Jovan D.
NAVY 99-180
Title:Design Assistant and Software Tools for System Identification and Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Control of Fighter Aircraft
Abstract:Scientific Systems Company Inc. (SSCI) proposes to develop a systematic procedure for the design of algorithms and a toolbox for System Identification (SI), Health Monitoring (HM), Failure Detection and Identification (FDI), and Adaptive Reconfigurable Control (ARC) algorithms for F/A-18 aircraft. In particular, in Phase I we will carry out the following tasks: (i) Problem formulation and acquisition of linearized F/A-18 models and flight test data for flutter identification; (ii) Apply Deterministic Stochastic Realization Algorithm (DSRA) and Global Maximum Likelihood Estimation (GMLE) algorithms to flight data of F/A-18 aircraft; (iii) Determine the sensitivity of the system to different failures; (iv) Quantify the available control input redundancy in terms of the control authority required to accommodate different failures; (v) Design integrated HM-FDI and ARC algorithms; (vi) Test, tune and evaluate the performance obtained using the SI, HM-FDI, and ARC algorithms for the F/A-18 aircraft models and data; (vii) Develop a conceptual design for the SI, HM-FDI and ARC software toolbox that can be readily integrated into the IDEAS and MATLAB environments. In Phase II we will extend our approach to a larger set of failures and structural damage, to nonlinear F/A-18 models, and complete the development and delivery of the toolbox in IDEAS and MATLAB environments. Our main objective in Phase II will be to demonstrate the viability of our algorithms and software through hardware-in-the-loop piloted simulations. Boeing Phantom Works and SAIC will provide technical and commercialization support in all phases of the project.

ZONA TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7430 E. Stetson DriveSuite 205
Scottsdale, AZ 85251
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 945-9988
Changho Nam
NAVY 99-180
Title:Adaptive Reconfigurable Control Based on a Reduced Order System Identification for Flutter and Aeroservoelastic Instability Suppression
Abstract:Reconfigurable multivariable flight control using an indirect adaptive algorithm is proposed for aeroservoelastic (ASE) instability and flutter suppression in the presence of aircraft system failure or battle damage. A reduced order procedure using an effective and rigorous proper orthogonal decomposition technique (POD) is adopted to reduce all critical modes collected from an offline instability study called massive failure screening. It acquires the flutter/ASE sensitivity parameters using a unique computational aeroelastic/aeroservoelastic MDO/Analysis software tool ASTROS*/ASE, developed and advanced by ZONA under AFRL support since 1996. Massive failure screening and POD are essential techniques that will promote the efficiency of the parameter estimation for real-time system identification. Selections of optimal sensor locations and the on-line search and comparison of the critical modes with sensor outputs can then follow. The minimum variance control scheme proposed is a very efficient optimal scheme for output response minimization. Continuous on-line monitoring will be applied to the control system except the minimum variance control. Switch-on gauge is based on a threshold whenever impact or diverged responses overrides the gust/white noise levels. F/A-18 will be used as the baseline aircraft to demonstrate and validate the proposed reconfigurable controller in terms of its algorithm stability, efficiency, effectiveness to flutter/ASE instability, fault-tolerance, and overall performance with cost considerations.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-4572
Wei Shih
NAVY 99-181
Title:Affordable Composite Heat Exchanger
Abstract:Advanced ceramic-based composite heat exchanger has the potential to reduce weight, improve ECS performance, increase aircraft payload, and decrease life-cycle cost. Allcomp has assembled a strong and experienced team to address all relevant issues to design and produce a functional composite heat exchanger for V22 at affordable price. It is also our belief the developed technology can be easily extended to other naval A/C platforms. It is our intent to leverage on the on-going Air Force funded F/A-18 prototype C-C Heat Exchanger activity. However, critical issues that were not addressed under the Air Force program are identified for further evaluation under this proposal. Four key issues will be investigated under Phase I effort. It includes cost (material and process), environmental resistance (oxidation and corrosion), carbon based joining and design methodology. Innovated solutions will be identified and validated for heat exchanger application. Full-size test panels and quarter-size cores will be fabricated for material characterization and manufacturing process verification. A successful completion of Phase I will provide a solid foundation to Phase II effort where a comprehensive technology base will be integrated and applied to produce and eventually to commercialize composite heat exchangers for ECS applications.

ATEC, INC.
11890-C Old Baltimore Pike
Beltsville, MD 20705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 931-3221
Reza Shekarriz, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-181
Title:High Performance Carbon-Carbon Plate Heat Exchanger
Abstract:Advanced Thermal and Environmental Concepts (ATEC), Inc. in collaboration with Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT), Inc. proposes to develop a carbon-carbon composite weight efficient, compact air-to-air heat exchanger for the V-22 application. The development effort takes advantage of a number of innovative technologies unique to ATEC and CCAT. These technologies include, the use of a carbon-carbon high modulus composite material for high temperature application, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) enhancement of the heat exchanger performance, and advanced design structures for producing compact and weight efficient parallel plate counterflow heat exchangers. There are a number of advantages using the proposed design, including: (1) extremely high effectiveness (greater than 90% with EHD and 80% without EHD), (2) high throughput and low pressure drop, (3) high resilience against high temperature degradation and decomposition, (4) simple design and manufacturing process, (5) damage tolerant, and (6) extremely light and compactness. During Phase I, we will further develop the concept presented in this proposal, perform analytical and computational modeling for feasibility study and demonstration of the significant weight and volume reduction advantage and improvements in the specific conductance of the heat exchanger. ATEC/C-CAT team will also show feasibility and prototyping of the proposed manufacturing approach for a single layer heat exchanger. Additionally, we will investigate the feasibility of deposition of a ceramic coating on the internal surfaces to yield higher temperature tolerance and corrosion resistance under hostile V-22 environment. Efforts during Phase I option will be focused on development and testing a multi-layer geometry, which will be adopted for prototype and final product development during Phase II.

STARFIRE SYSTEMS, INC.
877 25th Street
Watervliet, NY 12189
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-2112
Dr. Walter J. Sherwood
NAVY 99-181
Title:Weight Efficient, Corrosion Resistant, Composite Heat Exchanger for the V-22
Abstract:We propose to demonstrate the thermomechancal and manufacturing feasibility of of a "stacked, ribbed plate" heat exchanger concept utilizing carbon fiber cloth and a novel but commercially available high yield pre-ceramic polymer. The polymer will be mixed with high thermal conductivity ceramic powders and used to densify and seal the plate and rib sections of the heat exchanger. A minimum of 12 plates will be bonded together to make a subcomponent to be delivered at the end of the Phase I program for testing by the Contractor.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Christopher Gibson
NAVY 99-182
Title:Advanced Low-Cost Turbojet Engine
Abstract:Accurate Automation Corporation (AAC) and AMT USA proposes to develop a detailed survey and performance trade study of jet turbine engines currently available by the remotely controlled (RC) aircraft industry and perform preliminary ground testing on a baseline turbine engine. In addition, AAC proposes to perform conceptual design improvements and develop a test plan to validate un-installed and installed engine performance on the baseline engine. The proposed Phase I program includes a detailed analysis of current RC turbine engines, an engine ground test for performance evaluation and integration requirements, a conceptual engine design modification plan, and an advanced engine test plan designed to characterize the baseline engine performance. A second-generation turbine engine will be manufactured, ground tested, and perhaps even flight tested in Phase II on an AAC unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

ADVANCED PROJECTS RESEARCH, INC.
1925 McKinley AvenueSuite B
La Verne, CA 91750
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 392-3155
Thomas H. Sobota, Ph.D.
NAVY 99-182
Title:A Designed-to-Cost Turbojet for Target Drone Applications
Abstract:The Navy seeks low cost target drone turbojet engines based on the technology used in current hobby turbojet engines. These hobby engines rely on simple designs based on automotive turbocharger components and technology. Inherent to these hobby engine designs is a low overall engine pressure ratio and low turbine inlet temperature. These two features permit the design of an engine with a relatively simple compressor and an uncooled turbine, which may be executed using the inexpensive cast component technology used in automotive turbochargers. Advanced Projects Research, Incorporated (APRI) proposes a design using these operating conditions and simple cast components. Formed metal parts are used for the bulk of the remainder of the system. To execute the design, fabrication, and eventual production of the proposed engine, APRI has teamed with Turbonetics, a manufacturer of automotive turbocharger components and systems. This permits the proposing team to develop components specially suited to the requirements of the proposed target drone engine while still taking advantage of the existing turbocharger manufacturing technology and infrastructure.

ARTIS, LLC
1914 Foxhall Road
McLean, VA 22101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 328-1385
Dr. Jed Marti
NAVY 99-183
Title:Motion-Coupled Virtual Environment (MOCOVE)
Abstract:The team of ARTIS, LLC, and Brandeis University will address four objectives in Phase I. First, we will develop a system, the Motion-Coupled Virtual Environment (MOCOVE), capable of coupling the sensed motion in the environment to the visually perceived motion. Second, we will test the MOCOVE on multiple motion platforms (laboratory, aircraft and watercraft) to determine its capabilities. Third, we will design and conduct a brief experiment involving human subjects within the MOCOVE deployed on a laboratory moving base, whose main objective will be to guide the development of goals for our Phase II plan. Fourth, we will demonstrate the MOCOVE on a watercraft, preferably a U.S. Navy ship at sea.

RSK ASSESSMENTS, INC.
1040 Woodcock Road, Suite 227
Orlando, FL 32803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 894-5090
Robert S. Kennedy
NAVY 99-183
Title:Motion Coupling in a Deployable Virtual Environment Trainer
Abstract:A preliminary design concept is presented for development of a deployable Helmet Mounted Display based Virtual Environment Training Device. The Phase I process lists key technical risks in development to mitigate the primary deficiencies of existing systems: 1) Provision of appropriate cueing system synergy (bandwidth and latency) necessary to support the high bandwidth inter- and (intra-) sensory neural correlation processes of the human primarily through design requirement specifications for display subsystems. 2) Provision of integrated system cueing compensation processes to satisfy intra sensory temporal correlation requirements. 3) Real time measurement of Virtual Environment fidelity presented to the user with recovery of neuro-physiological based fidelity metrics (e.g., during saccades; retinal slip), allowing optimization of user/training performance. The Phase I design requirements will provide high bandwidth synergism between Virtual Environment channels pre-requisite to support integration of operational environment motion conditions (e.g. ship motion) into the Virtual Environment while mitigating the severe limitations encountered in development of such systems. Inclusion of a motion cueing subsystem within the system architecture also allows extension to training in dis-similar motion environments. Furthermore, Phase I system design specifications will be directly applicable to the improvement of many existing Virtual Reality devices.

APOTHEOSYS
1187 Timothy Terrace
Tucker, GA 30084
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 934-9316
Jan Crowe
NAVY 99-184
Title:Advanced Time Management for Distributed Systems
Abstract:Distributed Simulation is becoming an increasingly important aspect of DoD training, analysis, and acquisition processes. However, certain technical hurdles have yet to be overcome. This project addresses specific problems in meeting message passing bandwidth and latency requirements. New time management paradigms have yet to be exploited by existing HLA RTIs. These include approximate time protocols, repeatable real-time techniques, and synchronized data distribution management. Embedding these technologies in an RTI gives a federation new control of its execution environment. By understanding underlying network infrastructure and specific simulation requirements, we can make use of these new controls, optimizing the performance of the system, and ensuring correct system behavior.

VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY CORP.
5400 Shawnee RoadSuite 203
Alexandria, VA 22312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 658-7050
Allen H. Skees
NAVY 99-184
Title:The Federation Application Integration Infrastructure (FAII)
Abstract:The Navy's aircraft simulators are a complex and diverse set of systems with unique data models, varied timing schemes, and different hardware architectures, all of which must be accommodated in order to achieve interoperability through HLA. This proposal presents an experience-based, federation engineering approach that exploits lessons learned in previous, successful programs involving similar techniques and technologies. The interoperability solution proposed lies in the use of a number of existing elements applied across the problem domain. These include: Object Model Repositories, Agile FOM mapping tools, DDM tools, middleware, gateways, and federation planning, monitoring, and analysis tools that support the Federation Development and Execution Process (FEDEP) model. We present a framework within which interoperability can be achieved when a sound approach to applying HLA to the integration of disparate simulation systems is followed. This solution is based on a federation engineering approach employing the FEDEP across the diverse set of naval flight training systems. The proposal provides a well-tried and proven approach, discussing how VTC will capitalize on our past experiences to develop a "Federation Application Integration Infrastructure (FAII)" to provide interoperability between joint military training systems and simulations.

AAC
12140 Double Tree Lane
Lusby, MD 20657
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 326-5061
Robert B. Andrews
NAVY 99-185
Title:Networked Avionics Part Task Trainer
Abstract:Cost effectiveness, and training capability, associated with avionics Part Task Trainers (PTTs) can be significantly improved by incorporating Internet based technologies. The resulting increased PTT functionality enables collaborative aircrew-to-aircrew and aircrew-to-instructor training. AAC proposes to develop a client/server interface with supporting software applications to perform networked data messaging over the Internet enabling multi-user state data sharing between User "Client" Applications and a server. The Phase I conceptual design defines the Networked Avionics PTT comprising a mixture of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) C/C++ software, and innovative custom software applications to create a system of networked PTT client applications, an instructor application, and a server application over the Internet. The applications utilize Dynamic Linked Libraries (DLLs) insuring flexibility, adaptability, and product reuse with multiple avionics emulations (e.g., Multi-Function Displays, Heads Up Displays, and Control Panels) resident in multiple aircraft platforms (e.g., F-16, F-18, V-22, ATF, and Commercial Aircraft). The instructor application supports controlled asynchronous fault insertion into targeted PTT user systems for degraded avionics training. A full analysis, design, proof of concept demonstrator, and final report will be provided under Phase I. A validation demonstrator using the AH-1W Control Display Navigation Unit Emulation (CDNUE) will be provided as a Phase I option.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Timothy L. Thorsen
NAVY 99-185
Title:Web Based Client/Server Interface for Part Task Training
Abstract:This exciting SBIR project will develop a real-time web browser client/server interface module and supporting client and server software for Collaborative Part Task Training (CPTT). The hardware module will interface multiple aircrew Control Display Units (CDU) and consoles used by the flight training instructors. The project will develop real time network software that will function in a standalone or in an internet server (interactive training) mode. The project will develop the CPTT software for a server and distributed embedded clients that will provide bi-directional synchronous and asynchronous data transfer over the Internet, local, or commercial lines of communication. The CPTT will enable remote supervision by instructors who will have the ability to insert realistic faults and failures that will test the student's abilities. The CPTT data transfers will enable server administrative management of single or multiple remotely sited PTTs as the same time. In phase I a prototype system will be demonstrated using the Navy funded FlightLab Software for H60 helicopter training liinked for collaboration PTT with a P3 CDU.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes CircleSuite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 279-3054
Ronald A. Borrell
NAVY 99-186
Title:SHALLOW WATER DIRECTIONAL NOISE MEASUREMENT SENSORS
Abstract:Environmentally adaptive sonar decision aids are needed to help sonar operators determine how to effectively deploy sonobuoy fields. Previous evaluation of the Airborne Low Frequency Sonar (ALFS) system indicated search rate improvements of 30%-100% are theoretically possible through proper selection of sonar deployment parameters. Achieving these improvements depends on an ability to predict acoustic coverage. Practical use of these predictions requires feedback via in situ measurements to improve the estimates of the actual environmental characteristics. This SBIR will estimate the potential improvement in acoustic coverage achievable through selection of effective IEER/ADAR multi-static deployment geometries. The following will be determined as part of this Phase I effort: (1) Sensitivity to knowledge of the environmental parameters, (2) characteristics of an air-deployable sensor that utilizes Matched Field Techniques to estimate environmental parameters over an ocean volume, and (3) feasibility of implementing such a sensor in an A-size sonobuoy configuration.

NAVMAR APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
65 West Street RoadSuite B-104
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 675-4900
Edward Garabed
NAVY 99-186
Title:Shallow Water Directional Active Measurements
Abstract:This SBIR proposes the design of an expendable directional noise measurement sensor for in-situ (using tactical sonobuoys or dipping sonar) or post analysis (using an Environmental Measurement Buoy (EMB)) of environmental acoustic parameters which impact the performance capabilities of sonar systems. These data would be inputs to acoustic performance models such as Tactical Design Aids (TDAs). Variants of this sensor could provide affordable environmental data acquisition for commercial and other Department of Defense applications. The technical objective is to formulate a design concept and demonstrate feasibility of an "A"-size air-deployed expendable directional noise and reverberation sensor. This sensor will obtain real time, environmental data in shallow water to optimize the deployment and performance of acoustic sensors and systems. The sensor will be used to collect data for historical data bases and predeployment forecasting of future missions. The Navmar sensor will be capable of measuring the following parameters; directional ambient noise and reverberation, bottom depth and transmission loss for both monostatic and bistatic measurements in water depths to 1000 feet. From the above parameters, bottom loss and bottom backscatter can be calculated through the use of models. Sensor characteristics to be considered are dynamic range, source level, bandwidth and in-buoy processing.

INTERSPACE, INC.
7113 Copperwood Ct.
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 527-0606
Matthew Price
NAVY 99-187
Title:Flexible, High-Speed Video Display Processor using Field Programmable Gate Array
Abstract:The bandwidth required to drive infrared (IR) emitter arrays, used in hardware-in-the-loop simulators, has been increasing exponentially. Advanced mega-pixel arrays are taxing the controllers, pixel buffers and processing electronics needed to drive these arrays. As array resolution and frame rates increase, the bandwidth required to drive these arrays will only increase. InterSpace, Inc. has developed a unique array driver architecture that will not only satisfy current bandwidth requirements of IR emitter arrays, but is also expandable in memory capacity, bandwidth and functionality. By taking advantage of recent advances in high-speed mega-cell field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and direct Rambus memories, InterSpace, Inc. will develop an IR emitter array driver with sufficient bandwidth and flexibility to meet the needs of current and future arrays.

SANTA BARBARA INFRARED, INC.
312 North Nopal Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 965-3669
Mike Pollack
NAVY 99-187
Title:High-Bandwidth Scene Projector Drive Electronics
Abstract:As infrared scene projectors evolve from their current 512x512 pixel emitters to larger arrays, technologies are needed to develop drive electronics capable of processing the higher data rates that these projectors will require. A 16-bit 1024x1024 scene running at 200Hz corresponds to a data stream of 420 megabytes per second (1024 pixels x 1024 pixels x 2 bytes x 200 Hz). Drive electronics for an emitter array, regardless of size, must perform as a minimum: (1) acceptance of 16-bit data from the scene generation computer, (2) perform pixel-by-pixel non- uniformity correction with sufficient accuracy so as to preserve the fundamental resolution of the emitter array, and (3) format the data for emitter array: timing, scaling, scan conversion, etc. Additionally, the electronics typically has local memory for storage and playback of brief display sequences. This proposal is to develop a design for an electronic subsystem for processing scene data as described above. This system should be scalable so that it can be adapted to larger arrays as they are developed, adaptable so that it can be used with a variety of emitter arrays, and flexible so that it can be utilized in scene injection applications as well as scene projection.

AETC, INC.
8910 University Center LaneSuite 900
San Diego, CA 92122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 450-1211
Dr. Kevin J. Delaney
NAVY 99-188
Title:Novel Signal Processing Algorithms to Exploit and Classify Active Sonobuoy Returns
Abstract:AETC Inc. proposes to develop and demonstrate clutter rejection algorithms for airborne active ASW systems operating in high clutter environments. These algorithms will exploit nonlinear dynamics to cancel clutter and leave desired target echoes largely undisturbed, significantly increasing the probability of detection and reducing the probability of false alarms. Recent research has shown that modeling radar clutter as the output of a nonlinear system allows the receiver to successfully distinguish between clutter and target echo. Such nonlinear "clutter cancelers" have been implemented as hidden Markov models, nonlinear Kalman filters and neural networks. All methods take advantage of the fact that-in contrast to completely random noise-clutter is a low-order chaotic signal that can be predicted, if for only for a short time horizon. One experiment using this approach to extract acoustic signals from chaotic clutter reported a 27dB increase in signal-to-clutter ratio. Investigation by AETC Inc. has shown that active sonar reverberation and clutter also display these low-order nonlinear dynamics which are amenable to modeling and cancellation. AETC Inc. proposes to adapt these breakthroughs in radar processing to develop nonlinear clutter canceling algorithms for active sonobuoy use and demonstrate their effectiveness using recorded sea test data.

GORCA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
300 West Route 38
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 273-8200
Dr. Marc P. Olivieri
NAVY 99-188
Title:Advanced Broadband Signal Processing Algorithms for Detection and Classification of Targets in Highly Cluttered Sonobuoy Data
Abstract:A set of advanced broadband processing algorithms and a broadband classifier are being proposed for clutter rejection and detection/classification of weak targets in sonobuoy returns. Novel algorithms for the harsh shallow water acoustic environment are needed since the threat model for the ASW has shifted from deep to shallow water. Recent efforts by the underwater community have identified the advantages of using broadband signals and new processing techniques to limit the effects of reverberation. This effort proposes an unconventional approach that exploits the broadband nature of explosive or impulse-like sources, as well as the new generation of coherent broadband acoustic sources the Navy uses. This broadband approach achieves very good array gain and dynamic range using a limited number of sensors. This technique uses degrees of freedom in the frequency domain, by drawing an analogy with degrees of freedom in space in a discrete line-array. The algorithms being proposed include broadband adaptive filtering, beam canceling and modified eigen-vector beamforming techniques. These algorithms are used to feed a broadband classifier based on a time/frequency wavelet analysis, and are expected to enhance the performance of future ASW systems operating in high clutter environments.

CMS TECHNETRONICS, INC.
5202-2 N. Richmond Hill Rd.
Stillwater, OK 74075
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 624-5751
Dr. Kenneth H. Church
NAVY 99-189
Title:Small GPS Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna for Aircraft
Abstract:Aircraft and missile platform needs are advancing the development of Global Positioning System (GPS) user equipment by requiring increasingly smaller, more affordable, and higher performance hardware. Spatial nulling techniques using Controlled Radiation Pattern Antennas (CRPAs) are very effective at countering jammers and spoofers in harsh environments. However, the size and cost of existing CRPAs make them unsuitable for new aircraft and missile platforms. Therefore, a need exists to reduce the size and cost of GPS CRPAs while maintaining or improving radiation pattern and Low Observable (LO) performance. There are established theoretical analysis and simulation tools which provide the basis for a new reduced size antenna design using higher dielectric constant materials. For example, using a material with a dielectric constant of 50, an existing element CRPA could be reduced in size from approximately a 14 inches in diameter to under 5 inches. These antenna elements will be prototyped and manufactured using advanced tools. DARPA is funding CMS and Raytheon in the development a CAD/CAM tool capable of depositing a wide variety of materials on diverse substrates ("any" shape). This new "mesotool", could significantly increase production rates, lower labor and material costs, and improve the yield for manufacturing GPS antennas.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
900 Middlesex TurnpikeBuilding 8
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 436-9600
Dr.Triveni N. Upadhyay
NAVY 99-189
Title:Small Tactical Antenna Array and Electronic Control (STAEC) Unit
Abstract:The U.S. Navy dependence on GPS continues to increase, making it imperative to protect the GPS signals from radio frequency interference (RFI). Spatial nulling by CRPA systems is very effective at countering these RFIs, however, current CRPA systems are large and expensive, therefore unsuitable for current and future airborne platforms. The present SBIR Phase I proposal addresses this Navy requirement and proposes a Small Tactical L1/L2 CRPA (equivalent to 5" diameter circular array) Antenna Array and Electronic Control (STAEC) employing spatial-temporal processing architecture that provides cost-effective anti-jam capabilities. The small antenna array and digital antenna electronics design derives its legacy from a proven Mayflower GPS adaptive antenna solution. The proposed STAEC solution employs a novel signal processing approach that is effective against wideband jammers and aircraft multipath. The Phase I research will include modeling and simulation of the antenna array, as well as prototype antenna array measurements in anechoic chambers to demonstrate the performance of the small array by generating measured data of key system elements. The Phase II program will design, fabricate and demonstrate a prototype STAEC unit consisting of the small array and the digital beamforming/nulling electronics. The cost goals for the STAEC unit will be validated in Phase II.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) /42-9926
Peter A. Beyerle
NAVY 99-189
Title:Small GPS Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna for Aircraft
Abstract:The purpose of this proposed effort is to provide a design for a new generation of GPS CRPA which will have superior anti-jam performance against a large number of intentional interfering sources than is currently possible. At the same time, this new antenna (including electronics) will be designed for a small aperture, have reduced Radar Cross Section and minimum cost in commercial production quantities. This proposal demonstrates an in-depth understanding of the GPS system as it relates and responds to jamming and interference signals, and will highlight experience in antenna design, measurement and fabrication. MRC, allied with Compton Research, Inc., provides a unique capability to analyze, design, and in later phases, fabricate and measure new integrated GPS hardware. MRC is well known for its special purpose antenna design and fabrication, but MRC has also designed, built and tested large scale integrated electronics which in one instance is a GPS antijam filter. This effort is proposed to investigate antenna configurations given the satellite, GPS receiver and interfering signal spatial envelopes. An array of designs and cost tradeoffs will be delivered.

WEIDLINGER ASSOC., INC.
4410 El Camino RealSuite 110
Los Altos, CA 94022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 949-3010
David J Powell
NAVY 99-190
Title:Expendable Broadband Projectors for Undersea Warfare
Abstract:Use of active sonar systems for shallow water anti-submarine warfare and mine warfare is highly attractive owing to its potential for improved target detection and localization. Unfortunately, adverse environmental conditions in shallow water scenarios can degrade the performance of active sonar. Improved performance is possible, however, if the sonar system can adapt to its environmental conditions. New transducer technologies that offer both spectral and spatial adaptability promise superior detection capabilities. This proposal considers the novel application of arrays of flextensional type actuators, sandwiched between cover plates. This innovative combination of flextensional drive elements and mass loading by cover plates permits low-frequency operation from an extremely compact unit. This work effort will make extensive use of state-of-the-art transducer models and extensive design expertise to determine efficacy of the proposed technology and provide a rapid virtual prototyping capability. Different types of flextensional geometry, multilayered configurations and hybrid mixed-frequency devices will be considered. Experimental prototype fabrication and characterization will be used to demonstrate the validity of the hybrid finite element modeling strategy. The proposed approach holds great promise for a new level of performance and adaptability in a cost effective, compact and efficient unit.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S.Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Gerald Kim
NAVY 99-191
Title:Low Cost Mid-Infrared Laser
Abstract:In order to be used in future infrared countermeasures systems, the cost of current diode pumped solid state lasers and mid-infrared parametric oscillators must be reduced and the size of the laser head must be significantly reduced. The proposed Phase I research will develop an extremely compact fiber coupled diode side pumped Nd:YVO4 laser suitable for on gimbal integration. The laser will be designed with novel low cost optical mounting and packaging techniques.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Timothy J. Carrig
NAVY 99-191
Title:Compact, High Efficiency IRCM Laser Source
Abstract:Current Band IV DIRCM laser sources suffer disadvantages such as excessive size and weight, limited duty cycle, low output power and the need for an operational "warm up" time. These disadvantages make it difficult to utilize these sources on space-limited combat aircraft. Conseequently, compact, MWIR laser sources that can operate with high electrical efficiency at elevated temperature are needed for next-generation spoof-and-jam systems. Coherent Technologies, Inc. proposes an innovative solution to this problem that leverages recent advances in laser and nonlinear optics technology. In Phase I, Coherent Technologies, Inc. will demonstrate a room-tmperature, multi-watt cw MWIR laser transmitter that operates with high electrical efficiency. A growth path towards an extremely compact system that can operate at elevated temperatures will be provided. In Phase II a prototype waveform-agile, Band IV transmitter that can be integrated with an existing CM system will be constructed and tested. This effort will leverage multiple successful CTI demonstrations of on-time, on budget, turn-key, flight-qualified electro-optics systems. This combined Phase I/II effort will provide the Navy with a low-risk, near-term route towards a substantial improvement in DIRCM technology.

OMAN MOMENTS, INC.
16 Whitehall Dr.
Huntington, NY 11743
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 423-6022
Dr. Richard A. Oman
NAVY 99-192
Title:A Day/Night Window System for Imaging Targets from a Supersonic Missile
Abstract:Oman Moments, Inc. will conduct a Phase 1 trade study to determine the best approach for providing both day and night imaging of ground targets from a supersonic missile. The objective is to develop a practical window system that permits both visible and IR operation in the missile's thermal environment. The key challenge is reducing the in-band IR thermal emission from the window material. This emission must not fog the image to reduce ground target image contrast below the level required for target recognition. A Baseline system will be defined for comparison of alternatives. Special phenomenology issues will be investigated, especially non-traditional band pass performance. Window materials and configurations, optical band regions, modes of protection and deployment, focal plane technology options and missile integration issues will be traded to choose a recommended approach. Phase 1 will define system parameters and specify required testing for a proposed Phase 2 program. Window system design candidates will be ranked according to the terminal Mach number at which standardized images of ground targets are discernable. To perform this study we have formed a team of experienced specialists in aerothermodynamics, optical sensing, properties of optical materials, and IR and visible phenomenonology.

OPTICS 1, INC.
3050 E Hillcrest DriveSuite 100
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 432-2148
Michael E. Couture
NAVY 99-192
Title:Survivable EO/IR Sensor Windows for Supersonic Missile Applications
Abstract:Electro-optical imagers used in high velocity applications such as supersonic aircraft and especially missile seekers require a window element to protect the imager assembly from the external environment. Traditionally these windows have been spherical concentric shell elements to minimize optical aberrations over gimbal angle. These shapes are not aerodynamically efficient, resulting in high drag and large thermal transfer between the flowfield and the dome. Previous programs have utilized covers, deployable sensors, or active cooling to minimize thermal transfer. This program proposes to examine the benefits of combining aerodynamic dome shapes and minimization of thermal transfer via covers or active cooling. The collective expertise of OPTICS 1 and SAIC in the areas of optical design and analysis and aero-thermal modeling and analysis for aerodynamic shapes and will be focused in this effort. Relative benefits of previously tried and new methods will be investigated to enhance the achievable resolution and sensitivity required for the long stand-off range requirements of tomorrow's missiles.

ASTRON ANTENNA CO.
22560 Glenn DriveSuite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Joseph R. Jahoda
NAVY 99-193
Title:GPS Ground Plane Nulling Antenna
Abstract:This objective is to develop a small miniaturized GPS dual band (L1 and L2) having a gain radiation pattern which stresses rejection of all signals, including ground jammers. It must be passive, stress stealth desth designs, have a gain of 0 dBi at 20 degrees from the horizon, and at least -20 dB (preferably -30 dB) of attenuation at 5 degrees from the horizon.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Thomas L. Larry
NAVY 99-193
Title:GPS Ground Plane Nulling Antenna
Abstract:Many existing weapons and platforms presently have Fixed Reception Pattern Antennas (FRPAs) that have no AJ GPS capability. There is a desire to upgrade these systems to incorporate AJ antennas. This SBIR topic solicitation desires a FRPA that provides a minimum of 20-dB attenuation of signals that are less than 5 degrees above the horizon and 0-dB gain for angles greater than 20 degrees above the horizon. In addition, the antenna should mount conformally to the top of the weapon on a flat surface and should fit in the existing 3-inch aperture. Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a small FRPA that is designed to provide nulling of GPS jammers on the ground while still allowing reception of GPS satellite signals. Our approach is to use an innovative design methodology, which we have been using successfully to develop small, single element, AJ GPS controlled receive pattern antennas. Specifically, Toyon will use our techniques for designing Electronically Reconfigurable Antennas (ERA) to develop a 7-cm, anti-jam FRPA for retrofitting JSOW missile GPS antennas.

TRANSDIMENSION INTERNATIONAL CORP.
3637 Canyon Crest Drive J100
Riverside, CA 92507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 683-3600
Jing Wang
NAVY 99-194
Title:An Innovative Low Cost TCXO for GPS Receivers
Abstract:This SBIR topic identifies an important requirement in further advancing and expanding the application of GPS technology in DoD and commercial applications, namely, the need for a temperature compensated or other low power oscillator that provides the same quality performance as today's Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillators without the size, weight, power, and cost penalties of the oven controlled oscillator. There is no existing crystal oscillators that will meet all the requirements of this SBIR topic. Furthermore, we believe no existing crystal oscillator technology is capable of meeting these requirements. Therefore, innovative technologies capable of producing crystal oscillators meeting these requirements must be developed. There is a huge market for crystal oscillators meeting these requirements, for a wide range of military, commercial and consumer applications. The objective in Phase I is to define and prove the feasibility of an innovative technology using new temperature sensors and actuators to compensate for temperature change and hysteresis under normal temperature change, in order to achieve high quality crystal oscillators. The new TCXO developed from this project is expected to meet all the requirements set forth in this SBIR topic, and will find widespread use in other DoD applications and in the commercial and consumer markets.

VISIDYNE, INC.
10 Corporate PlaceSouth Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-2820
Geert Wyntjes
NAVY 99-194
Title:Precision L-Band Photonic Clocks
Abstract:Visidyne proposes to demonstrate the potential of a Precision Photonic Clock Oscillator for a GPS receiver. Using the path, time delay of a length of optical fiber to stabilize a frequency results in excellent short term stability and the highly predictable behavior of a length of fiber with temperature and time are expected to lead to improved long term stability and at a greatly reduced power consumption. Availing of recent developments such as Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Diodes (VCSELD's) that are low cost should also allow the stated cost objectives to be realized.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Magns Snorrason
NAVY 99-195
Title:Precomputed Clutter Characterization for Automatic Target Recognition
Abstract:For every Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) application, a class of clutter can be defined as target-like because most false alarms originate from that category. If this class of target-like clutter can be accurately defined for a given ATR application and precomputed, then the false alarm rate for that application can be significantly reduced and throughput rate increased. In particular, the classifier's decision surface can be crafted much more accurately through the use of negative training examples (training samples labeled "non-target"). The first step of our proposed approach is to cluster all clutter in a self-organized manner using a hierarchical Adaptive Resonance Theory neural network. Self-organization is critical since only an unbiased analysis across the full clutter space will allow us to uncover all potential target-like clutter clusters. The second step is to analyze each cluster using the statistical classification technique known as Support Vector Machines to choose members from the clutter categories to use as negative training examples for the ATR's own classifier. This approach enables automatic selection of the members ("support vectors") closest to the target category in feature space, those members most likely to cause false alarms. The approach will be evaluated on in-house developed ATR algorithms.

IMAGECORP, INC.
4716 Pontiac Street, Suite 301
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 220-2123
Qinfen Zheng
NAVY 99-195
Title:PC-Based Real-Time Target Detection/Recognition Algorithms for Still and Video Images
Abstract:Real-time image-based pattern recognition is critical in many military and commercial applications. A common approach is 2-D correlation between the acquired image and reference prototypes. This usually requires immense amount of memory and computation throughput and is achieved using special hardware. Also, the pattern recognizers are specifically tuned to a given problem. The goal of designing "universal classifiers", so that a diverse set of image recognition problems can be handled in a unified framework, has been elusive, largely due to the fact that feature extraction has been largely problem dependent. In this Phase I effort, ImageCorp, Inc. proposes to address theoretical and practical issues involved in designing a PC-based real-time target detection/recognition system that can be used for a diverse set of image-based recognition problems. We will investigate the performance of several pattern recognition techniques for real-time target detection/recognition in terms of computation, memory requirements, detection/recognition accuracy, and generalizability. The algorithms to be analyzed include our recent algorithms for face recognition using discriminant analysis, finger print classification, Ladar/Flir ATR, and target seeking, as well as selected well known approaches in the literature. A prototype system built by novel integration of promising techniques will be developed during Phase II.

SANDERS DESIGN INTERNATIONAL, INC.
Elm Street, Pine Valley MillPO Box 550
Wilton, NH 03086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 654-6100
Al Hastbacka
NAVY 99-195
Title:Fast Pattern Recognizer for Real Time Pattern Recognition
Abstract:The US military has need for a Fast Pattern Recognizer (FPR) System for guided cruise missile applications to autonomously detect, identify, correlate, and track complex mobile military targets in hostile, high-clutter environments in real time. Similar real-time needs exist in commercial applications for image correlation, identification, and recognition for law enforcement, medical, security, product assurance, and other imaging applications. Since image correlation is computationally intensive, real-time processing must be accomplished by means other than available traditional hardware and/or software. The proposed FPR system easily accomplishes this task with rated processing speeds equivalent to 250_600 MHz Pentium III PC's. During Phase II, this speed will be increased an order of magnitude to the equivalent of 2500_600MHz Pentium III PC's by implementing the FPR as an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip-set in a multi-chip module (MCM) that is less than two inches square. The latter version will offer additional benefits in reduced power, size, weight, and cost while increasing circuit density, processing power, and throughput rates for virtually all image-processing applications. The FPR module is hosted as a Pentium PC peripheral processor with all the benefits of standard PC operating system, software and hardware.

SIENNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
19501 144th Avenue NE Suite F-500
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 485-7272
Dr. Ender Savrun
NAVY 99-196
Title:Patternable, Lightweight Radar Absorbing Materials
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop a patternable, lightweight, broadband radar-absorbing material that is thinner and lighter than the commercially available materials at a lower cost. In the Phase I program, the magnetron sputtering will be used to deposit magnetic metal and magnetic insulator layers on flexible substrates. The project will focus on determination of the permeability, coercivity, shape factor, magnetization, and thickness of magnetic thin films, and semi-insulating dielectric thin films to achieve broadband microwave absorption in the 400 MHz to 20 GHz frequency range. The project will yield a set of patternable, multi-layer coating designs, microwave-absorbing thin film magnetic materials, and processes necessary for practical deposition of such multi-layer coatings.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Michael A. Gilbert
NAVY 99-196
Title:Geometric Patterning of Radar Absorptive and Reflective Materials (RARM) and Selective Combining of RARM materials to Achieve Improved ...
Abstract:Currently available broad-band, dual-polarized microwave absorbers are costly, thick, and heavy. This limits their use for reducing RCS and EMI on military vehicles. Fortunately, for RCS problems the areas needing treatment are localized, and for EMI problems the on-board sensor locations are known ahead of time. This enables significant optimization of the absorber to minimize cost and size. A new absorber is proposed that uses this fact to full advantage. It is proposed that a very thin layer of metallization, containing a pattern of small resistively loaded elements, be added to an existing thin iron-loaded rubber type of absorber. The advantages of adding this layer are threefold. First, the orientation and loading of the elements provide the anisotropy needed for absorption of arbitrarily polarized waves. Second, since the absorption takes place in a very thin layer instead of over a volume, it is inherently lightweight. Third, the pattern can be optimized and fabricated using low-cost printed circuit board techniques. The type of absorber proposed is sufficiently pliable to be easily cut and wrapped to cover the surface where needed on military and commercial vehicles.

ADVANCED FUEL RESEARCH, INC.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 528-9806
Dr. Stuart Farquharson
NAVY 99-197
Title:A Portable Raman Instrument for Fuel Characterization
Abstract:Rapid, "on-demand", fuel analyses are required to assess stored, host nation or captured fuel supplies to ensure readiness and optimize battlefield performance. Unfortunately, current field techniques provide only limited information, while laboratory techniques are labor intensive, slow, and costly. Recently, spectroscopic methods such as near infrared, mid infrared, and Raman have been successfully used to determine fuel quality parameters. These instruments, however, have been designed for laboratory use and simply are not rugged or portable. This proposed program will develop a rugged, hand-held, light-weight, low power Raman spectrometer, that provides fluorescence free, wavelength stable, sensitive measurements suitable to "on-demand" field analyses of fuels. Phase I will focus on instrument development and demonstrate feasibility using a unique, small optical design. It is based on technology developed by Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) and its spin-off company, On-Line Technologies, Inc. (OLT). The design employs a 1 cm diameter optical beam that allows significant reduction in size, mass, power consumption, as well as the use of a new optical design. Phase II will focus on developing spectral libraries, calibration, and chemometric routines to allow rapid fuel analysis, as well as building a prototype instrument capable of wireless data transmission using the TC/PIP protocol.

THERMOANALYTICS, INC.
94X Airport RoadP.O. Box 66
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 482-9650
Allen R. Curran
NAVY 99-198
Title:RAY-TRACING TOOL OPTIMIZED FOR PRO/ENGINEER GEOMETRY
Abstract:Vulnerability and survivability assessments require a ray-tracing tool capable of analyzing geometry created using Pro-Engineer. ThermoAnalytics proposes to extend their recently developed ray-tracer to meet this need. This modular ray-tracing tool currently calculates thermal view factors for infrared and thermal signature assessment. It incorporates the latest ray-tracing techniques including spatial subdivision. ThermoAnalytics proposes to extend this existing ray-tracer to: 1. Ray-trace Pro-E surface and solid entities, 2. Report the identity of components along the shotline, the incident angles at each intersection of the shotline with a surface, and the distance traveled, 3. Be easily integrated into vulnerability codes such as MUVES, 4. Interrogate Pro-E files to report the material properties of intersected components. This tool will eliminate the difficult translation of target geometry between commercial CAD systems and BRLCAD. This translation is presently required because the current MUVES ray-tracer functions only with BRLCAD geometry. The proposed standalone program will be capable of ray-tracing surface and solid geometry from a variety of commercial CAD systems. ThermoAnalytics will optimize it for ray-tracing files produced by Pro-E. The program will run on multiple platforms (UNIX and Windows systems). The proposed work capitalizes on the synergism between vulnerability and IR/thermal analyses codes.

PHASESPACE, INC.
1937 A. Oak Park Blvd.
Pleasant Hill, CA 94523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 345-7796
Tracy D. McSheery
NAVY 99-199
Title:Real Time High Resolution Tetherless Optical Tracking System
Abstract:PhaseSpace proposes to demonstrate in applications, a 3D tracking system that will allow real time interaction of humans in computer generated environments. Tracking active markers will allow control of computer generated characters and objects in real time with less than 10 milliseconds latency. The system will be an input device capable of tracking multiple objects in a 10 x 10 x 8 foot metallic compartment. The key elements of this system will be a real time, high spatial resolution, high temporal resolution, tetherless motion tracking system comprised of smart targets, smart cameras, and sophisticated tracking software based on a commercial system already in production. The distributed processing design will enable real time control of computer generated characters and simulations. The system will be set up for one or more participants and their weapons for a total of 120 tracked markers, each with a unique binary ID to allow tracking between systems, and elimination of occlusion re-identification problems. Resolution is targeted at better than 1 mm at 2 meters.

SARA, INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Lexi Donne
NAVY 99-200
Title:Multi-Sensory Grenade (MSG) for Non-Lethal Clearing of Facilities
Abstract:Emerging challenges to the 21st century warfighter and law enforcement officer will require the development of effective non-lethal weapons. MOUT, peace-keeping missions, facility/embassy protection, control of civil unrest, hostage rescue, counter-terrorism missions all require effective non-lethal technologies that provides profound disruptive and diversionary effects. SARA proposes the development of an innovative Multi-Sensory Grenade (MSG) that achieves profound disruption through the combined overwhelm of three human sensory systems. The MSG achieves 1) strong auditory pain and verbal communications defeat through intense sound emission, 2) production of disorienting visual flicker vertigo through intense rep. pulsed light, and finally 3) nausea and disgust through release of an overwhelming noxious scent compound. All three sensory bombardment effects occur with intensities and exposures well below any permanent eye or auditory damage threshold. The production of the intense sound, light output and malodorous components are all driven from a common long storage life high pressure or warm gas source with no electrical power required. The MSG will give the warfighter and law enforcement officer a powerful new tool in countering 21st century threat scenarios.

ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1700 Kraft DriveSuite 2350
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-1284
Andrew White
NAVY 99-201
Title:System Level Approach to AAAV Internal Noise Reduction
Abstract:The proposed Phase I program will design active noise and vibration reduction systems for the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV) in order to satisfy specific performance-based objectives. Those objectives are: 1) maintain safe exposure limits for all AAAV personnel (crew and in-transit marines) while eliminating the need for any personal hearing protection as first-priority or eliminating the need for double personal hearing protection as second-priority; 2) ensure speech intelligibility levels greater than ninety percent; 3) improve reduction in low frequency interior noise for idling hatch-open versus hatch-closed condition; and 4) improve noise reduction in AAAV interior acoustic signatures for both 15 mph land-based operation and 25 knots marine operation. Realistic ANR designs are expected to provide significant local noise control zones (10-25 dB SPL) and more modest global noise control performance for certain configurations. The work plan offers a two-path approach 1) system-level design for global/local noise reductions and 2) personnel-level design for at-the-ear noise reductions. A subcontract with BBN Technologies will provide exchange of critical AAAV data. Existing FEM and analytical models will be requested from General Dynamics to facilitate the Phase I work. The Phase II program will validate all recommended local/global ANR designs and engine isolation techniques.

CSA ENGINEERING
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Roger M. Glaese
NAVY 99-201
Title:Interior Noise Reduction for Armored Vehicles
Abstract:The next generation of amphibious assault vehicles will be capable of carrying 18 marines at a water speed of 25 kts and a ground speed of 45 mph, a significant improvement over current vehicles. Unfortunately, however, there is the potential for extremely high noise levels inside the vehicle cabin. This noise, possibly exceeding 120 dBA, requires individual hearing protection and makes speech communication inside the vehicle nearly impossible. CSA Engineering proposes to develop a hybrid passive-active noise suppression system for the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle. This hybrid system, combining passive and active elements and inherent to the vehicle, will provide global noise reduction inside the vehicle cabin, making protective headsets unnecessary and facilitating verbal communication. Once the system requirements and constraints have been established, the suitability of a number of passive and active acoustic suppression techniques will be assessed. The best performing passive and active techniques will be combined in a preliminary design. A structural-acoustic simulation of the vehicle response including the disturbance sources will be used to evaluate performance levels of the noise suppression design. The predicted attenuation levels, weight, power, and the physical practicality of the design will be used as the metric in evaluating the design.

CONTINENTAL OPTRONICS, INC.
1891 N. Gaffey Suite J
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 832-2896
James P. Hynes
NAVY 99-203
Title:Submersible Fiber Connector using MT Technology
Abstract:Military fiber optic connectors have not kept pace with the high density developments in the commercial world, even though the demand for higher fibers density, better optical performance, and ease of use has driven both worlds. We explore the feasibility of the MT array connector in an towed array submarine application. Two approaches are investigated: a low risk "splice case" and a more ambitious design of an insert, possibly holding multiple 12 fiber arrays, that is compatible with a number of military circular connectors.

SEACON BRANTNER & ASSOC.
1240 Vernon Way
El Cajon, CA 92020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 562-7070
Denton Seilhan
NAVY 99-203
Title:Advanced Underwater Multi Single-mode Fiber (MSF) Optic Connector
Abstract:Further advances in underwater fiber optic conectors will require a technology leap to a new type of fiber termination. Connectors on the market today use a sherically polilshed fiber that is limited to roughly -45 dBm back reflection and cannot preserve polarity information. SEA CON proposes to integrate new fiber connection technology into the TB-29 multi single-mode fiber (MSF) 8 fiber 1 coax (MSF 8/1) connector. The most advanced fiber connection on the market today is the angle physical contact (APC) which has an 8 degree cut for mating. Back reflection can be as low as -70 dBm in APC connections. To accomplish this will require precision keying and alignment, and development of 1.25 mm ferrule/fiber retainers smaller than those used in SEA CON's recent TB-29 electro/optic connector built for L3 Inc. The SEA CON appraoch can be modified to fit any location in the array, uses current TB-29 shells, and can eventually replace the TB-23 connectors. SEA CON proposes to design and develop the alignment and fiber packing density required for the MSF 8/1 using APC technology with an HPC option (which gets to - 55 dBm) as a risk reducing backup appraoch. SEA CON's experience in producting the first 1.25 mm TB-29 towed array connector for L3 Inc. will be a key factor in accomplishing this precision driven design. SEA CON also proposes a an in-depth marketing strategy that will introduce MSF connectors to the geophysical exploration industry - the world's largest buyer of towed array electro/optic connectors.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. Michael Dingus/Mr. Jo
NAVY 99-204
Title:Water Based Hydraulic System
Abstract:Inadvertent releases of petroleum based hydraulic fluids into the sea can create serious adverse environmental impacts. OPNAVIST 5090.1B, the Clean Water Act, Section 311, 40 CFR 110, and other international, federal and state regulations forbid the discharge of petroleum products that results in a sheen on the surface of the water or violates water quality standards. The Submarine External Hydraulic System (SEHS) is especially susceptible to problems. This system is exposed to the submarine's full range of temperature and pressure extremes, and a leak in this system releases hydraulic fluid directly into the ocean. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. will team with the Milwaukee School of Engineering Fluid Power Institute and Sargent Control & Aerospace in a unified approach that involves integrating the new water based hydraulic fluids with SEHS materials and components. During Phase I, we will formulate new water based hydraulic fluids with superior performance. These new fluids will be evaluated in a hydraulic testbed. Component and material redesign/replacement in current SEHS's will be proposed (if required) to achieve compatiblity with the new hydraulic fluids. This approach will reduce Navy total ownership costs associated with the cleanup, storage and disposal of hazardous petroleum based hydraulic fluids.

APPLIED MATHEMATICS, INC.
1622 Route 12, Box 637
Gales Ferry, CT 06335
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 464-7259
William J. Browning
NAVY 99-205
Title:Search and Rescue (SAR) Using Active Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Technology
Abstract:Although only two percent of maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) operations conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard every year last longer than 24 hours, they cost over $50 Million annually and, at times, result in fatalities. These incidents are extremely time-critical, and any approach that can reduce search time and increase the probability of mission success would add significant value.

A need exists to improve SAR sensor coverage for persons in the water and small life rafts, particularly for nighttime but also for daytime operations. Lidar systems are ideally suited for this mission, and we propose to apply classic SAR planning techniques to develop optimum modes of operation for the incorporation of the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS) as an augmenting sensor for SAR operations, and to quantify the value-added to SAR mission success.

Phase I technical objectives are: (1) Develop quantitative and qualitative measures of SAR mission improvements afforded by ALMDS , and (2) Develop a systems and operational concept for a real-time SAR Tactical Decision Aid for ALMDS. These objectives will produce the performance measures and a baseline system concept for development and demonstration in Phase II.


METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Dr.Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8700
Dr. Samuel T. Osofsky
NAVY 99-205
Title:Search and Rescue (SAR) Using Active Light Detections and Ranging (lidar) Technology
Abstract:Lidar systems intended for detection of surface and near-surface mines may be candidates for use as sensor systems in Search and Rescue (SAR) operations at sea. Lidar systems have the capability of searching at significant area search rates during the day or night in a variety of ocean conditions using automatic target recognition (ATR) software. This Phase I SBIR will investigate the feasibility of using lidar systems designed for mine detection in the SAR role. Test data from existing systems will be reviewed to provide a baseline of performance against near surface objects. Additional modeling of existing systems will be undertaken to determine the likely detection performance of the existing systems with respect to survivors in the water and in a variety of rafts, with and without the presence of sea dye marker, in both a day and night search operation. Changes to parameters and software of the existing lidar systems will be specified that will optimize the detection performance of existing systems. We will also develop a plan for adapting existing tactical decision aids to support the lidar SAR mission.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4900 Pearl East CircleSuite 201E
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-6947
Shelly Scott-Nash
NAVY 99-207
Title:Scriptable Human Animation Figures in an Open Enviornmental Framework
Abstract:One of the most critical engineering issues is how to integrate parameters of human factors into the design process. The traditional design process tends to put a disproportionate focus on the technical performance of equipment, with little regard for the human component. This project will link human performance modeling and simulation software with human anthropometric models in an open framework that will allow multiple simulations to access situational awareness of a 3D world. The simulations will then be capable of driving human figures in this three-dimensional virtual world and obtain feedback from the physical model. This effort will allow for dynamic interaction between software tools (during the execution of a simulation) as well as data flow for static, or scripted information. Micro Analysis & Design is the proven leader in human performance modeling with ongoing development for the US Navy, Army, Air Force and Joint Commands. For this effort, MA&D has teamed with Deneb Robotics, a worldwide leader of CAD independent digital software, including Deneb/ERGO, an accurate, physics-based human motion and task analysis tool. Joining the team is BCI, Inc., which combines the experience of engineers and command warfighters to provide a unique capability to determine future system performance parameters.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Guy Rossi
NAVY 99-208
Title:Innovative New Material Form for Cost Effective Expeditionary Shelters
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. proposes to develop a new unique rigid wall expeditionary shelter based on an innovative continuous manufacturing process initiative that was invented by Triton for the automotive industry for rapid production of structural flooring. Triton's high performance laminated composite panels are made from inexpensive post consumer recycled material in a low cost, high volume continuous manufacturing process. The proposed tactical shelter system would meet the Navy's need for environmentally friendly and durable materials that reduce deployment and life cycle costs through reduced weight, increased service life and a commercially valuable recycled material or energy product at the end of service life. These thermoplastic composite shelters will outperform, and will have lower total life cycle cost than wood, fiberboard or steel based products due to there inherent mechanical properties and superior resistance to environmental deterioration. The proposed innovative continuous processing will allow for the production of curved or shaped panels, and by consolidation and forming the edges insitu, will afford integrated panel attachment and assembly systems without reworking or significant hand labor, thus reducing total shelter cost. The incorporation of integrated attachment and assembly hardware will allow for deployment without the use of fasteners and will provide for easy disposal and recycling at the end of service life. In Phase I we will demonstrate the thermoplastic processing and superior mechanical and environmental performance. The Phase I option will be devoted to developing interlocking panel edge systems leading to preproduction development and qualification of full size shelters in phase II.

GRADIENT TECHNOLOGY
2500 Shadywood Road
Excelsior, MN 55331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 471-8804
William Taylor
NAVY 99-209
Title:Compact Wetland System for Washrack Effluent
Abstract:Gradient Technology proposes to develop a compact and modular wetland system for the treatment of washrack effluent. The system was designed through the combination of best engineering practices and the latest in wetlands research, yielding a system that requires a fraction of the area as a typical constructed wetland. The "Compact Wetland System" (CWS) presently consists of two modules. The first module handles solids and a majority of the phosphorus and nitrates. The second module finishes the stream to discharge standards. Creative hydrodynamics and optimized macrophyte clustering result in a highly efficient system. Phase I will demonstrate the proof of concept with a combination of pilot-scale laboratory experiments and simulations. Phase II will see the construction of a working demonstration facility.

NATURE WORKS/SOUTHWEST WETLANDS
2101 Mason Hill Drive
Alexandria, VA 22306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 988-7453
Michael Ogden
NAVY 99-209
Title:Constructed Wetland System for Treatment of Washrack Effluent
Abstract:Under the Clean Water Act, the EPA is developing effluent guidelines for facilities that generate wastewater while processing metal parts, metal products, and machineries. The proposed rule covers maintenance activities such as aircraft engine washing and establishes daily and monthly discharge limits for analytes. Currently, the Navy's T-56 engines contain parts that are electroplated with nickel-cadmium. Testing of the effluent from these engines indicates that the discharge exceeds the TCLP limit of 1.0 mg/L for cadmium. The proposed Phase I research intends to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using constructed wetlands to treat washrack effluent contaminants from aircraft washing facilities. Phase I research will develop an initial design that is compact and low maintenance. Capital costs for construction of the constructed wetlands treatment system will be comparable with existing systems currently in use and will not generate appreciable secondary waste.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
2721 White Settlement Road
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 335-1147
Reshma Shanku
NAVY 99-210
Title:Carbon Composite Reinforcement For Waterfront Construction
Abstract:This proposal encompasses a reinforcement alternative to steel rebars that are deteriorating due to corrosion on waterfront constructions. Fiber reinforced polymer reinforcing has been used in the past decade as it offers great potential for use in concrete construction under conditions in which conventional steel reinforced concrete has yielded unacceptable service. A new carbon composite reinforcement concept for use in conventional reinforced and prestressed concrete structures is developed in this proposal. This design concept mitigates the problems associated with the FRP reinforcements presently used. The non-corroding characteristics of the CFRP reinforcement can significantly enhance the structural performance of concrete waterfront structures and increase the service life of the constructions. The reinforcement design proposed involves innovative materials and fabrication technologies. The proposed reinforcement concept will increase bond strength with concrete and provide high tensile strength and stiffness to the concrete structure. The new concept will reduce maintenance costs and construction time. The feasibility and cost effectiveness of the proposed design has also been addressed.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 524-6263
Craig T. Lawrence
NAVY 99-211
Title:Optimization-Based Antenna Design
Abstract:ALPHATECH and Atlantic Aerospace propose to study the use of numerical optimization in the antenna design process. Such a study requires not only trying optimization algorithms on design problems, but also a detailed understanding of the underlying issues involved in choosing an algorithm. When deciding if a particular algorithm is effective for antenna design, it is important that it not be judged as a "black box". That is, it should not be evaluated based only upon the final solution and rate of convergence, but it is also important to judge the suitability of the algorithm for its utility in the overall design process. It is the objective of this effort to identify optimization algorithms that are suitable for antenna design in a more general, interactive optimization-based design environment that allows the designer to explore tradeoffs between design requirements. The phase I effort will produce a survey of optimization algorithms with respect to the antenna design problem as well as a prototype of a generic optimization interface to the numerical electromagnetic code (NEC). The performance of several optimization algorithm implementations will be characterized using realistic antenna design problems.

NITTANY SCIENTIFIC, INC.
1733 West 12600 SouthSuite 420
Riverton, UT 84065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 724-3932
Joel S. Young
NAVY 99-211
Title:Automated Electromagnetic Optimization for Advanced Antenna Design
Abstract:This proposal describes the development of an Antenna Design Framework that combines current analysis tools with a state-of-the-art optimizer to create high-performance design tools. The framework is modular in design to allow the incorporation of new optimization algorithms and analysis tools, as they become available. This framework will enable the design of new antennas that meet stringent performance requirements beyond what is feasible with current technology.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
2721 White Settlement Road
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 335-1147
Naresh Rajanna
NAVY 99-212
Title:SMART Damage Control Boundary Opening System
Abstract:The Department of Defense has shown a need for the reduction of manpower and maintenance costs associated with the present door/hatch closure systems. This proposal discusses a solution to the problem with Williams-Pyro, Inc.'s innovative concept of a SMART Damage Control Boundary Opening System. The system combines advanced composites, wireless sensors, Shape memory alloys, and an innovative sealing and hinging system. Sensors embedded within the system remotely transmit relay data concerning the environment within a compartment (i.e. flood, fire, and chemical emergency), to the damage control center of the ship. Personnel would be able to evaluate the situation and either remotely or manually seal-off damaged compartments to preserve operational integrity. Composite material candidates for the door panel, doorframe and so forth are also discussed with regard to structural design and manufacturing processes. The advantages of this smart boundary opening system include minimal maintenance and an increase in the longevity of the entire system.

GOLETA ENGINEERING
516 Las Perlas DrP. O. Box 6208
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 967-0600
John C Kirk Jr
NAVY 99-213
Title:ISAR ATR
Abstract:Goleta Engineering (GE) proposes to start with and build upon prior and on-going efforts such as the ONR ACTIVE and the DARPA MSTAR programs to develop a robust ISAR ATR capability for USN platforms such as the APY-6, APS-137, APG-73, and JSF. The proposed Phase I effort will focus on two areas: (1) improved image formation processing using advanced signal based mocomp, time-frequency algorithms and possibly super res, and (2) robust feature extraction for subsequent ATR based upon retention of the phase in the processed image. During Phase I we will pursue teaming arrangements with one or more partners to be selected from MIT/LL, Norden, ERIM and Raytheon McKinney. GE has just successfully completed a program to develop a robust 2-D Signal Based Mocomp approach utilizing APS-137 B(V)5 radar data provided by Raytheon McKinney TX. Further, GE is currently working with ERIM to develop a robust motion-tolerant efficient image formation algorithm. These two efforts will directly assist in the first part of the proposed effort. The teaming partner(s) will be selected, contracted with and utilized during Phase I. GE will then work with the selected partner(s) to develop the features, feature extraction and ATR algorithms.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210Torrance CA 90503
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
August W. Rihaczek
NAVY 99-213
Title:Non-cooperative Moving Target Recognition Using ISAR
Abstract:Identification by radar of moving targets, including aircraft, ground vehicles, and ships, is difficult because their complex backscattering behavior is coupled with motion that is not smooth. The identification cannot be based on target shape and size alone. MARK Resources has developed an advanced radar signal processing technology for extracting detailed information about the target. It utilizes the return signal phase, which is usually discarded, and as a result it is capable of solving the identification problem. On this basis the Navy will have a reliable all-weather identification system that does not require the cooperation of the target.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Paul G. Gonsalves
NAVY 99-214
Title:Maritime Intelligent Decision Aiding System (MIDAS) for Enhancing Organic Mine Countermeasures (MCM) Operations
Abstract:The use of mine warfare (MIW) by potential adversaries poses a severe threat to Naval operations in the littoral environment. However, the explosive growth in the area of information technology and the development and introduction of more capable intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms provide a tremendous opportunity for addressing this threat and enhancing Naval warfighting capabilities. The management, processing, and fusion of mine warfare ISR information, in tandem with the requisite assessment of enemy mine laying capabilities, intent, and objectives, form a critical element of Navy littoral environment operations. Additionally, the rapid and verifiable generation of appropriate response recommendations is also of paramount importance. Here, we propose a Maritime Intelligent Decision Aiding System (MIDAS) for enhancing tactical organic mine countermeasures (MCM) operations. Our novel system integrates a Bayesian belief network approach to support situation assessment and diagnostic and inferential reasoning, a fuzzy logic expert system-based approach for event detection and threat assessment analysis, and an argumentation-based mechanism for construction and evaluation of appropriate response recommendations. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing existing Navy tactical MCM systems and addressing future information dominated battlespace requirements.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
ColoradoSprings, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison K. Brown
NAVY 99-214
Title:Maritime Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) and Space Exploitation
Abstract:Maritime Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) has been critical to national defense. During the cold war, assets were developed to support the ISR mission. E-2C and S-3B aircraft performed ISR in support of Navy task groups. To monitor activities outside these task groups, P-3C and EP-3 aircraft patrolled sea lanes of high interest. Even though these assets meet the ISR primary mission, the ISR task has dramatically increased but budget limitations has prevented ISR from increasing beyond using these same approaches and same aircraft. Only a lower cost approach would allow the new increased ISR mission to be met while not increasing its allotted budget. With the development of low cost Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) and small low cost payloads, a means is available to address these new requirements without significant cost increases. Even though development of UAVs has progressed, the development of small low cost, lower power ISR payloads still need to be developed. In this proposal a Maritime ISR system is described that uses the GPS satellite signals in a bistatic system architecture for surveillance. This architecture is completely passive and leverages advances in GPS electronics to provide a low cost, low power ISR solution for Maritime applications.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Center Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Mr. Mark Owen
NAVY 99-214
Title:Adaptive Threshold Control in an Autonomous Sensor Field
Abstract:An autonomous field of sensor nodes needs to acquire and track targets of interest traversing the field. Small detection ranges limit the detectability of the field. As detections occur in the field, detections are transmitted acoustically to a master node. Both detection processing and acoustic communication drain a node's battery. In order to maximize field life, an approach must be developed to control detector thresholds and acoustic communication routing, as well as the initial placement of the field. To address these problems, ORINCON proposes the development of an adaptive threshold control scheme. This technique will minimize the power consumption while still maintaining the field-level probability of detection. Acoustic communication routing of the field will also be accomplished to minimize power consumption and therefore extend the life of the field. The control law to be developed is based on two approaches, evolutionary programming and integer programming. At the end of the Phase I effort, ORINCON will demonstrate these techniques in the Deployable Autonomous Distributed System (DADS) prototype master node for testing and evaluation in the system.

BLUEFIN ROBOTICS CORP.
125 Bond Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 762-1844
Scott Willcox
NAVY 99-215
Title:Pressure-Tolerant Batteries for Autonomous Undersea Applications
Abstract:It has long been known that batteries can be pressure compensated, i.e., modified to operate at depth [e.g., Work, 1968]. Unfortunately, these modifications bring along severe restrictions on vehicle handling as well as increased maintenance requirements, neither of which is acceptable for the new generation of small, low-cost, AUVs. Recent advances in polymer-electrolyte and all-solid-electrolyte lithium ion cells open the possibility of pressure-tolerant batteries, i.e., batteries that are intrinsically capable of withstanding the pressure with negligible modification. In this proposal we will demonstrate how such pressure-tolerant batteries can increase an AUV's energy capacity by 50% or more, with no reduction in vehicle payload and no increase in vehicle size. To get a corresponding increase in capacity through better electrochemistry or cell manufacturing would require many millions of dollars and many years of R&D effort, with no guarantee of success. For this Phase I effort we propose to perform the key tests required to demonstrate the feasibility of such pressure-tolerant batteries.

MER CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. R.O.Loutfy
NAVY 99-215
Title:Low Cost, High energy Density, and Pressure Tolerant Lithium-ion Battery
Abstract:A low cost, high energy density, pressure tolerant lithium-ion battery system is proposed based on doped Mn-based cathode material and low cost domestic graphite in 1M LiPF6 electrolyte with ternary carbonate-based organic solvents. A specialized cell design to limit and manage the electrolyte in soft package to provide the pressure tolerance and high energy density will be developed. A series of modified Mn-based lithium intercalation compounds will be investigated. The potential candidate materials will further be evaluated as cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. Cathodes and anodes will be prepared and performance evaluated under pressure up to 6000 psi in half-cells design. Several prismatic design lithium-ion pouch cells will be made and tested under various pressures to establish the feasibility of the proposed concept.

MADISON TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL
Suite 1132 Roosevelt Avenue
Mystic, CT 06355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 245-0245
George C. Connolly
NAVY 99-216
Title:A Precision, Solid-State, Magnetic Compass for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs)
Abstract:MTI, Ltd. will develop a precision, solid-state, magnetic compass with an absolute accuracy of better than 0.5 degree using the innovative Scanning Magnetic Angle Comparator (SMAC) technology. A SMAC compass will offer distinct advantages over conventional compasses, because it provides more degrees of freedom to optimize performance by employing feedback via a microprocessor to minimize error. The basic SMAC compass will be a non-inertial, self-calibrating design employing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) magnetic sensors. It will also incorporate tilt sensors. A design for a prototype, guided by error model analyses, will be developed in Phase I. The prototype proposed for fabrication and development in the Phase I option will be about 1.0" in diameter and 2.5" long, and will be tested and evaluated in a Helmholtz coil facility. In Phase II, the SMAC compass design will be optimized and, to the extent possible, implemented using integrated circuit technology to achieve both the performance goals and the cost goal of under $1,000 per unit. At the end of Phase II, a compact, integrated SMAC compass will be available for evaluation by the Navy's autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), towed array or extended range guided munitions programs.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
7923 Jones Branch Drive
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 734-3417
Peter D. Neuman
NAVY 99-217
Title:Using Adaptive Simulated Annealing to Estimate Ocean Bottom Acoustic Properties from Acoustic Data
Abstract:The effective use of active sonar systems in littoral environments relies on the accurate knowledge of the acoustic environment. Current Navy standard databases for ocean bottom properties provide a valuable tool for planning but do not currently provide the spatial resolution needed. Inversion of ownship and/or bistatic/multistatic transmissions for ocean bottom properties can provide much more accurate information about the acoustic environment. This information can then be used in optimizing the use of the active sonar system, in essence, tuning the sonar for the environment. Recent advances in inversion techniques, specifically Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA), have made these techniques tactically viable tools by significantly increasing their speed. PSI proposes to implement the ASA algorithm with current transmission loss and bottom reverberation models to develop a set of tactical tools. Each of these inversions will characterize the ocean bottom in terms of Navy standard parameters. The use of Navy standard parameters allows the immediate use of these values in performance prediction models and their use in a network-centric environment among different combatants.

VASA ASSOC., INC.
1814 Golf View Court
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 478-9460
Kodali V. Rao
NAVY 99-217
Title:Model-based Beam-time Arrival Matching
Abstract:Recent advances in acoustic modeling and inversion has led to the development of new acoustic tomography approaches for rapid environmental assessment. However, most tomography work has focused on deep-water environments where the bottom interaction is insignificant. In shallow water, the bottom is the most significant environmental factor affecting sonar performance. The variability of the seabed properties far exceeds those experienced in water column, making the shallow water environmental assessment much more complex. Here, we propose to develop a new model-based approach based on identification of distinct time-angle properties of seabed reverberation which are hypothesized to uniquely characterize the seabed sound speed structure and the reverberation mechanism such as volume and surface scattering. Image processing techniques such as edge detection and template matching are used to detect the seabed characterizing features of the time-angle signal power. The algorithm is expected to be robust because the model matching is done in the signal power as opposed to phase sensitive algorithms such as Matched Field Processing.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street, Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
NAVY 99-218
Title:SimEdge(TM): A Web-enabled, Integrated Design Environment for Simulation-based Acquisition
Abstract:The Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) initiative jumped to the forefront as the DoD, faced with decreasing budgets, turned to strategies to maximize effective use of the resources at its disposal. The SBA is a technology-based response to the defense mandate for Integrated Product and Process Development. The major components of SBA are the Smart Product Model (SPM) and the Simulation, Test, and Evaluation Process (STEP). The goal of this SBIR is to: (a) design an architecture to support SBA of future surface combatants and aircraft carriers, consistent with DoD requirements; (b) demonstrate the lifecycle applicability of a virtual prototype (i.e., SPM) to support SBA to actual ship acquisition. The specific objectives of Phase I are to define a virtual product model of at least one major ship system and infrastructure addressing interoperability and standards. The product of Phase I will be a concept prototype of a web-based collaborative acquisition/engineering environment that integrates members of geographically dispersed IPTs, disparate tools, and heterogeneous data bases that cut across multiple cooperating organizations.

STEP TOOLS, INC.
1223 Peoples Avenue
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-2277
John D. Valois
NAVY 99-218
Title:Web-based Smart Modeling Environment
Abstract:The complexity of modern ship systems has made it difficult to develop cost-effective system designs. Increasingly, system design activities involve cross-disciplinary teams of experts, each using a distinct set of tools. Data exchange between different tools is often difficult, error prone, and adds little value; consequently, collaborations that could increase system performance or reduce cost do not occur as frequently as necessary to produce an optimal system design. This proposal offers a framework for building a collaborative, smart product model over the World Wide Web. This environment will enable increased collaboration among cross-disciplinary teams for large, complex systems and the production of designs with higher performance and lower cost across the life cycle.

FIRST POINT SCIENTIFIC, INC.
5330 Derry Avenue, Suite J
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 707-1131
Dr. Rod Greaves
NAVY 99-220
Title:Positron trap beam source
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will establish the feasibility of developing a Positron Trap Beam Source (PTBS) that will provide a state-of-the-art positron beam for a variety of applications in science and technology. The PTBS will produce a brightness-enhanced positron beam by employing recent advances in the field of nonneutral plasma science to achieve high-efficiency brightness enhancement. The technical objectives of Phase I are: (1) to assemble an experiment to study compression of positron plasmas by a rotating electric field; (2) test plasma compression at a low magnetic field in the presence of a buffer gas; (3) develop the conceptual design for the laboratory prototype to be constructed in Phase II; and (4) (option) investigate advanced methods for beam extraction. If successful, the experiments will provide a basis for the design and construction of a laboratory prototype of the system in Phase II. Positron beams are the basis of a variety of analytical tools for the study of surfaces and solids. The are also used in atomic physics research and have potential for application in mass spectrometry. The PTBS will advance these applications by providing beams that are significantly colder and brighter than any currently available.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4171
Dr. Patricia Wilson
NAVY 99-221
Title:Integrated Tactile Transduction Garmet for In-Flight Spatial Orientation
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to develop an integrated tactile transduction garment for in-flight spatial orientation. Pilot disorientation is a disturbingly frequent phenomenon for military, commercial and civilian pilots. Pilot disorientation costs the U.S. military about 30 lives and over $300 million in lost aircraft annually. Speculation surrounding the recent crash of John F. Kennedy Jr.'s Piper Saratoga aircraft has, again, attributed the tragedy to pilot disorientation. Pilot disorientation generally occurs when pilots incorrectly perceive attitude, altitude, and/or motion when visual information is compromised, either through temporary distractions, increased workload, or reduced visibility. Current research at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory is focused on developing a Tactile Situational Awareness System (TSAS) which, when linked to the aircraft's instruments, will provide attitude and spatial orientation awareness to the pilot. TSAS will use a number of tactile transducers (tactors) that are placed in arrays surrounding the torso. To assist this development, Foster-Miller will develop a garment into which the tactor arrays will be incorporated. The garment will take the form of a full torso suit which will extend from the mid-thigh to the neck, including the upper arms. The tactor suit will be designed to conform to the human torso in a uniform manner.

STEADFAST TECHNOLOGIES
1832 Coyote Place
Brandon, FL 33511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 684-7474
Paul Browne
NAVY 99-221
Title:Extended Torso Garment for Tactile Transduction
Abstract:Steadfast proposes to develop tactor garment technology for TSAS applications. The overall goal is to design tactor garments which extend current coverage while maintaining reliable contact with all sites on the user's skin. We will carry out this task by investigating several means of positioning tactors, including stretch materials and inflatable pannels. Prototype garments will be assembled and tested. Deliverables will include specifications, patterns, production techniques, drawings, and material and component sources. We will also provide a prototype TSAS garment for further testing and demonstration.

ARMORWORKS, INC.
1701 W. 10th Street #5
Tempe, AZ 85281
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 517-1150
William J. Perciballi
NAVY 99-223
Title:AAAV Mineblast Attenuating Seat
Abstract:This proposal describes a 6-month SBIR Phase I proposal to develop a preliminary design for a seating system that attenuates the vehicle acceleration effects of mineblasts. A vehicle and occupant motion analysis is presented to identify the characteristics of a mineblast acceleration pulse. Human tolerance to whole-body and body segment accelerations are compared to mineblast accelerations to assess their injury potential and to define the operational envelope of a mineblast energy attenuation system. Candidate energy absorber designs are described using static and dynamic analysis methods and advanced seat design tools. A static and dynamic test plan that verifies the function of the AAAV mineblast seat energy attenuation system is outlined. Preliminary designs for the seat structure, energy attenuator, occupant restraint system, and cushion system are presented along with a system weight budget and supporting static and dynamic analyses.

APPLIED HYDRO-ACOUSTICS RESEARCH
15825 Shady Grove Rd,Suite 135
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 840-9722
Walter S. Allensworth
NAVY 99-224
Title:Advanced Concepts for Hull Array Beamforming
Abstract:The objective of this research is advanced hull array beamformer technology to reduce the levels and extent of reverberation noise effects at the input to active signal processors. AHA will investigate spatial and temporal characteristics of reverberation by processing hull array at-sea data recordings. This analysis will identify reverberation properties to be exploited by adaptive algorithms for improving beamformer noise gain. Both single-ping and multi-ping (inter-ping) adaptive algorithms will be investigated to determine the most robust approach. Candidate adaptive algorithms include element-based, beam-based, and adaptive interference canceller techniques. The research must identify innovative methods to reduce the dimensionality of the adaptive process for a hull array containing several hundred acoustic channels. AHA will model the most promising algorithm(s) to determine key performance metrics using simulated acoustic field models. A mathematically correct model will be coded to address basic performance issues, including signal gain, noise gain, and adaptive convergence rate. Second, the model will be enhanced to consider both performance and computational speed improvements. A sizing analysis will determine the COTS resources required for real-time processing implementation. This analysis will consider measured execution time of signal processing functions, memory requirements, and data transfer rates of specific COTS computer architectures.

---------- DARPA ----------

43 Phase I Selections from the 99.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
US NANOCORP, INC.
20 Washington Avenue, Suite 106
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 234-8024
Pritpal Singh
DARPA 99-032
Title:Fuzzy Logic-Based MicroBattery for MEMS Sensors
Abstract:Both energy storage and management are critical aspects of the development of practival MEMS sensors incorporating microbatteries. US Nanocorp has developed a patented fuzzy logic-based methodology to determine state-of-charge (SOC) in a wide variety of battery chemistries. Particularly for rechargeable batteries, the fuzzy logic approach is enabling in that it can analyze complex data which is intractable for traditional SOC determination methods. This represents an optimum opportunity to create a feasible battery management capability in a MEMS sensor. for its part, Bipolar Technologies Corp has successfully proven feasibility of microscopic batteries for both Ni-Zn and LiIon chemistries, and has a pioneering patent pending in this area. It is proposed under this collaboration to develop power generation, storage, and management strategies for powering them. the proposed program will fabricate a functional (u)battery, design a FL-based battery charge management system, assemble and demonstrate a PC-board-level device (interfaced with (u)battery), and demonstrate feasibility of the proposed concept to fully integrate a (u)battery and energy scavenger with a miniature charging system under FL control. The results of the Phase I program will position the collaborators to launch a fully integrated MEMS power supply in the Phase II program.

NEXTWAVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5485 Harpers Farm Road, Suite C
Columbia, MD 21044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 964-3326
Scott Hayes
DARPA 99-033
Title:Low-Cost, High-Speed, Efficient Generation of Commmunication Signals Using Chaotic Devices
Abstract:There is a need in both commercial and military applications for digital transmission methods that can operate at high data rates (several megabits per second end-user rate) in multi-user environments. Existing communication methods will be severely stressed by the requirements of such an environment: Propagation anomalies such as multipath fading and interference will require intensive digital processing to mitigate their effects. By developing a digital signaling approach based on the control of the natural complexity of the chaotic behavior of RF devices, alternative solutions to these fundamental problems emerge. We will develop in this proposal an approach for controlling an RF chaotic oscillator that preserves the natural properties of the waveform while encoding digital information at the highest rate possible. We call this approach dynamics-based signaling, and it is based on the fundamental connection between dynamics and communication theory and symbolic dynamics. We will also investigate frequency scaling, and the advantages of this approach over traditional methods for digital communication. We will show that our method provides extremely fast, smooth switching between unstable periodic orbits.

AEROTECH ENGINEERING & RESEARCH CORP.
3115 W 6th Street, Suite I
Lawrence, KS 66049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 841-9823
Saeed Farokhi
DARPA 99-034
Title:Development of Acoustic Bandgap Materials and Devices
Abstract:Acoustic bandgaps are frequency domains where the propagation of sound and phonons is forbidden. In the last few years, significant advances have been made, mostly in Europe in the area of theoretical characterization of these materials and devices. Experimental configurations have focused on materials with specific 2-D and 3-D internal geometries which exhibit bandgap properties. It is possible, therefore, to make a device with an intricate internal geometry using free form fabrication techniques. The proposed effort is aimed at developing theoretical models for the design and performance prediction of the acoustic bandgap (ABG) materials and devices, leading to the fabrication and testing of a prototype that exhibits acoustic bandgap properties. During Phase I, an analytical design tool for the design and performance prediction of an ABG device will be developed, modifying codes that have been successfully employed in past research. By the end of Phase I, a prototype will also have been fabricated andcharacterized. During Phase II, specific vibration isolation applications will be targeted for insertion of the ABG device technology. In addition, the design tool will be refined.

LASER FARE - ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY GROUP
70 Dean Knauss Dr.
Narragansett, RI 02882
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 737-7900
Paul Jacobs
DARPA 99-034
Title:Acoustic Bandgap Materials and Devices
Abstract:Laser Fare-Advanced Technology Group (LF-ATG) has teamed with Triton Systems, Inc. (Triton), and Molecular Geodesics, Inc. (MGI), to propose an innovative method for producing multi-material structures that arrest the propagation of acoustic or vibrational energy. The approach forms scattering centers using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS). The scattering elements will be intrinsically periodic due to their layered build format and geometric structure. With proper choice of material densities and elastic moduli, destructive interference of longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves over a specific frequency range has been demonstrated in simple periodic structures (Refs. 1-3). LF-ATG and Triton have applied the LENS solid freeform (SFF) method to generate titanium matrix composites (Ref. 4). We anticipate adapting LENS to provide a more diverse range of materials and periodic geometries in the design, fabrication and test of composite devices that are opaque to mechanical vibrations over a significantrange of frequencies. As shown in this proposal, our approach can achieve precise tailoring of the spatial distribution of the scattering / phase shifting materials in millimeter to tens of centimeter-scale structures. This will potentially enable acoustic and vibration isolation in multiple directions at frequencies ranging from the audible to the ultrasonic.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Division, 20600 Gramercy Pl
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Kevin Yu
DARPA 99-034
Title:High Efficiency Frequency Selective Acoustic Bandgap Composites Based on Volume Bragg Holography
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an advanced high efficiency, frequency selective acoustic bandgap composite (ABC) structure based on volume holography, in which characteristic acoustic impedance mismatch Bragg regions can be precisely designed to reflect specific portion of the impinging acoustic and vibration frequency. This ABC structure will be fabricated using the solid freeform fabrication (SFF) process, which can build complex 3-D Bragg holographic geometries with very small internal microcavities (i.e., resolution), allowing immediate application of previously developed POC multilayer photonic bandgap and Bragg reflection holographic technologies. In Phase I, POC will determine the best combination of available materials, multilayer Bragg structure and process parameters to produce the ABC structure for frequency selective, high efficiency filtering of acoustic waves. The selected process will be used to produce bandgap composite structure samples, which will be characterized for their frequency damping (to reflect above 5,000 Hz) and mechanical properties. Since ABC structures can be fabricated on the SFF machinery used for rapid prototyping, it is highly mass producible and will have a commercial potential.

CAPE COD RESEARCH
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Brian Dixon
DARPA 99-035
Title:Pillared Bacteriorhodopsin Based Spatial Light
Abstract:Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is being studied for a number of optical processing and computing applications. Part of the proposed feasibility research will investigate BR films of high optical quality for spatial light modulation properties. Supramolecular chemistry will then be used to prepare a previously unknown modulation material. This material has been carefully designed to mimic the performance of the naturally occurring material, bacteriorhodopsin, but it will be significantly lower in cost.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Kristie Cooper
DARPA 99-035
Title:Electrostatically Self-Assembled Retinal Protein-Based Optoelectronic Devices
Abstract:The proposed DDARPASBIR program would demonstrate the synthesis of retinal protein-based optoelectronic arrays using self-assembly techniques. The proposed method utilizes NanoSonic's patented and exclusively licensed molecular-level electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) approach to biomimetically grow multilayered active electronic devices. The selection of specific molecules and their processing into individual device monolayers by alternate ionic attraction and bonding allows the formation of adjacent photoactive, electrode and packaging layers. Prior NanoSonic research has demonstrated our ability to form ultrauniform many-layer films of proteins, noble metal and metal oxide nanoclusters, cage structured molecules and other materials by this process. The photoactive and electrode elements may be patterned in two-dimensions at the nanolevel, through control of the local isoelectric point during ESA processing. During the Phase I program, NanoSonic would demonstrate the incorporation of retinal and related photoactive molecules into uniform multilayered thin films by the ESA process, investigate the self-assemby of nanostructured electrodes leading to the formation of two-dimensional optoelectronic device arrays, study ways in which spectral sensitivity may be modified, and fabricate devices and evaluate their spectral and temporal responses. During Phase II, NanoSonic would work with several identified larger companies to transition the ESA processing of biologically-inspired optoelectronic devices to commercial manufacturing.

STARZENT, INC.
PMB 301, 5765-F Burke Centre Parkway
Springfield, VA 22015
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 443-4460
Steve Redfield
DARPA 99-035
Title:Engineering of Biomaterials for a High-Performance Optical Processor
Abstract:This effort will demonstrate feasibility of an optical planar processor system based on a biomaterial, bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Planar processing has the potential to perform certain types of computation algorithms thousands to tens of thousands times faster than traditional Von Neuman processors (e.g. Pentium). Image recognition/classification and speech recognition is two such areas where planar processing would offer major computational advantages. Optics is ideal for planar processing because of its image nature. BR is a key enabling material to permit this form of optical processing due to its robust set of properties that are optically manipulated. BR has the advantage of being very sensitive, inexpensive to produce, has good dynamic range, and can be easily formed into many sizes and shapes. BR's parameters will be studied and enhanced for various optical computing functions. BR material samples will be made and the resulting parameter measurements made on an optical bench. A demonstration planar processing element utilizing BR will be constructed.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71, Etna Road
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
W. Dodd Stacey
DARPA 99-036
Title:Diesel Fueled Linear Actuator for Exoskeleton Applications
Abstract:Creare proposes to develop a light weight and highly efficient diesel fueled linear force actuator with low observables for powering long range walking machines and exoskeletons. In Phase I, we will develop and experimentally demonstrate a safe, stable, and controllable diesel heat source, and develop an actuator system package design suited to an infantry exoskeleton application. Phase I activities will include analysis, experimentation, and design. In Phase II, we will design, build, develop, and demonstrate a complete prototype personal amplification system powered by the actuator.

QUOIN, INC.
139 Balsam
Ridgecrest, CA 93555
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 384-5035
Michael Jacobson
DARPA 99-036
Title:Direct Chemo-Mechanical Actuation
Abstract:A high efficiency and precision control pneumatic/mechanical actuator which converts chemical to mechanical energy will extend human performance and provide advantages in reducing system weight and bulk. Quoin will analyze the concept of an actuator based on a central air compressor and distributed hot gas actuators - each with a small pulse burner. A single unit will be built in Phase I. The central power unit provides up to 1,500 watts of output in the form of compressed gas. This gas is distributed to feed control valves, which then feed micro burners. These burners increase the energy of the gas by a factor of 7-10 as they introduce and burn hydrocarbon fuels. The high pressure, high temperature gas drives a reversing turbine that, combined with a reduction gear set and a ball-screw, forms the high-energy dense actuator. This provides an exoskeleton with a highly responsive, small actuator and power supply package with extremely high power density. Molded ceramic components create high temperaturetolerance with very low production costs. The practical and economical potential of an exoskeleton powered by a chemo-mechanical actuator is far-reaching for both military and civilian commerce and industry.

SARCOS RESEARCH CORP.
360 Wakara Way
Salt Lake City, UT 84108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 581-0155
Stephen Jacobsen
DARPA 99-036
Title:Direct Energy Conversion Acuators for Ambulatory Robotic Systems
Abstract:The use of actuation methods which capitalize on high density energy sources is essential for powering structures such as ambulatory robots, exoskeleton systems, and other machines. Most systems developed to date rely on electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic means for actuation. In such systems the actuator itself may be capable of high energy density, but at the expense of large and cumbersome battery arrays, pumps and or generators. For creating high power systems, a hydrocarbon fuel can be used to directly power an actuator to achieve superior power to weight ratio as compared to other energy sources. Phase 1 of this proposal concentrates on developing (1) concept architecture for direct combustion actuation and (2) testing a critical component of the actuator system.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71, Etna Road
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Michael Izenson
DARPA 99-037
Title:Miniature High Efficiency Piezoelectric Motor
Abstract:The objective is to efficiently convert electrical to mechanical energy in a meso-scale device. The approach is to develop an innovative piezoelectric motor that includes a direct, mechanical interference drive system along with an electronic charge recovery system for very high efficiency. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of the motor by (1) developing design analyses for the electro-mechanical drive system, (2) conducting proof-of-principle tests to qualify the design models, and (3) using the qualified design models to produce a conceptual design for a complete, prototype piezomotor. In Phase II we will build a prototype piezomotor that is sized to meet military requirements and measure the efficiency and power output of the motor in conditions that simulate both space and terrestrial operation.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Eric Anderson
DARPA 99-037
Title:High Efficiency Miniature Piezoelectric Motors
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I project is to demonstrate the feasibility of building small, piezoelectrically driven motors (piezomotors) that provide mechanically useful rotary drive speed and output torque at high overall efficiencies. The piezomotors proposed here incorporate genuine mechanical interference to transfer motion from electrically and mechanically resonant piezoelectric transducers to the motor output shaft. With appropriate design, the class of piezomotors proposed here can also operate at any speed up to that at which resonant drive is achieved. Feasibility of the motor concept will be demonstrated by simulation and test. Detailed engineering predictions of motor system performance will be made to quantify performance and efficiency of a prototype. Peak overall efficiency of the motor and its drive electronics will be optimized subject to a constraint on minimum power output. Bench-top tests of prototype components will also be conducted to demonstrate and quantify required electronic and mechanical subsystem functionality. Subsequent development of the high-efficiency, high-energy density piezomotors demonstrated under this project will focus on miniaturization of electronic elements and further increasing the energy density of the device.

WILCOXON RESEARCH, INC.
21 Firstfield Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 330-8811
Wayne Zavis
DARPA 99-037
Title:Miniature Piezomotors
Abstract:With the advent of digital signal processors and the miniaturization of electrical components, electromechanical control systems have undergone a revolution in complexity. Unfortunately these advances have not yet been applied to the field of piezoelectric motors and actuators, both of which require high-efficiency drive electronics to be competitive with conventional motors. The successful introduction of high-efficiency, miniature piezomotors would improve performance in existing aerospace systems, and create applications that are impossible with existing technologies. Wilcoxon Research, Inc. (WR) of Gaithersburg, Maryland, a manufacturer of piezoelectric-based actuators, sensors, and amplifiers, believes it has identified a solution to this technical problem. Phase I research will focus on developing a flexible, yet efficient electronic drive system for piezomotors. Utilizing existing piezomotors, as developed at Penn State and UCLA, WR will construct a generalized piezomotor drive amplifier that usesresonant energy transfer to maintain a high-degree of efficiency for a wide variety of piezomotor types. WR will characterize the electrical and mechanical power output, as well as efficiencies of the motor and drive electronics. Concurrent with the electronic development will be a mechanical engineering analysis focused on the miniaturization and optimization of existing piezomotors.

FOCUSED RESEARCH, INC.
555 Science Drive, Suite E
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 238-2455
Robert Marsland
DARPA 99-038
Title:Terahertz Source Using Heterodyned High-Power Lasers with Ultrafast Photodetector Array
Abstract:We propose, in this Phase I program, to study the feasibility of a high-power terahertz source using narrow-line width, high-power, visible diode lasers in combination with an ultrafast photodetector/deipole antenna array. This method should produce milliwatts of tunable terahertz radiation with a long-term frequency stability of less than 100 MHz. The Phase I program will focus on understanding two primary aspects: (1) Develop and refine techniques for frequency narrowing commercially-available, broadband laser diodes with output powers of several watts. (2) Design and model GaAs photodetector arrays with the requisite terahertz response and sensitivity. The development of these two critical components as well as the creation of the associated optical system will provide sufficient information to evaluate the feasibility of a complete high-power terahertz wave generator.

OVATION INDUSTRIES, INC.
300 First Street NE
Rochester, MN 55906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(507) 285-4490
David Braddock
DARPA 99-038
Title:Gate Oxide for High Speed GaAs IC Circuits
Abstract:We propose to take the first steps in demonstrating a new class of high frequency FETs by demonstrating a gate oxide for GaAs and InP MOSFETs. In this work, Gallium based oxides will be grown by MBE using a specially developed effusion cell that is uniquely capable of high temperature operation in the presence of oxygen. In addition, a new type of atomic oxygen source will be employed that does not damage the semiconductor-Oxide interface. We will use this new MBE technology to (1) optimize the nucleation of oxide on GaAs and InP, (2) grow bulk oxide films with a bandgap in excess of 4.5eV, (3) and produce oxide films that possess good interface properties and a low residual conductivity. The materials will be characterized using techniques including ellipsometry, Photoluminscence, C-V, and I-V measurements as a function of temperature. In addition, a new type of MBE system that is uniquely suited to the high quality growth of gate oxides on III-V semiconductors will also be designed during this Phase I effort.

QUANTUM APPLIED SCIENCE & RESEARCH, INC
7047 Carroll Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 535-9680
Andrew Hibbs
DARPA 99-038
Title:New Type of Josephson Junction Amplifier for Terahertz Receivers
Abstract:A novel amplification effect of order 30 dB has recently been observed in simple circuit comprised of two parallel Josephson junctions biased into a novel dynamic regime and readout out in a novel manner. This new phenomenon has been reproduced in all five low Tc superconducting devices tested to date. the benefit of the new approach is that while producing substantial gain the new devices has the input impedance, noise temperature, physical size and simplicity of two Josephson junctions. Numerical simulations and prior work on similar physical systems indicate that operation at frequencies greater than 1 THz may be possible with appropriate superconducting materials and device fabrication. Analytic expression, numerical simulations and corroborating experimental results valid below 100 GHz are presented. In Phase I we will extend the device analysis to consider effects up to 3 THz and predict the key amplifier operating parameters. We will also consider the fabrication process and operating temperaturerequirements and assess the implications of these for a practical, commercial device. In Phase II we will fabricate and test a complete device.

NANODEVICE, INC.
516 E. Gutierrez, Suite E
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 884-0240
Stephen Minne, Ph.D.
DARPA 99-039
Title:Micromachines for Microchips: Bringing the AFM up to Speed
Abstract:We propose an AFM system that images orders of magnitude faster than conventional AFMs, yet maintains the same horizontal and vertical resolutions. This system will operate in both the contact and intermittent contact mode. It will optimize the AFM's operation, and it will give engineers active control over imaging dynamics. The composite system will allow researchers to probe sub-nanometer scale phenomena, over micron scale topography, at speeds never before accessible. The technical approach directly assaults the fundamental rate limiting parameters of the AFM: 1) the piezotube's resonance, and 2) the quality factor (Q) of the oscillating cantilever. By fabricating a microelectrical mechanical system (MEMS) onto the AFM's sensing element, these two problems can be simultaneously overcome. The MEMS actuator will obviate the piezotube's resonant limitation because it is small and therefore fast. The cantilever's Q limitation will be overcome by using the MEMS actuator to actively control the cantileverdynamics. If the objectives put forward in this Phase I proposal are successful, for the first time, a platform that is capable of high resolution, large z-range, high speed atomic force microscopy will be available to industry and researchers alike.

TERRASIM, INC.
4620 Henry St., Third Floor
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 681-3703
Jeffrey Shufelt
DARPA 99-040
Title:Computer Assisted Modeling of Urban Environments
Abstract:This project will result in a realistic specification and development plan for a commercial software product for automated and semi-automated building model extraction from imagery of complex urban environments. These building models, along with features derived from existing GIS or cartographic data, will then be used to construct a detailed 3D visual simulation of the scene. The building extraction capability will be tightly integrated with our current commercial product, Terratools (R). TerraTools is a state-of-the-art simulation database construction system and also contains the basic geospatial data import and export functionality required by such a next-generation data extraction workstation. Our proposal will result in a product where visualizations of complex 3D urban environments can be directly compiled and manipulated using advanced visualization techniques without leaving the overall workstation environment.

HEXAGON INTERACTIVE
6750 Wedgewood Place
Los Angeles, CA 90068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 709-3812
Joseph Miranda
DARPA 99-041
Title:Modeling The Terrorist Threat
Abstract:Design for a simulation that provides a family of adaptive cognitive and behavioral models to represent different types of terrorist organizations, as well as their capabilities and vulnerabilities. The proposal capitalizes on the extensive design experience of Mr. Joseph Miranda in the commercial and military wargaming market specializing in unconventional warfare, and the expertise of Dr. Lewis Johnson and Dr. Stacy Marsella in the area of sophisticated autonomous agents to create a predictive model of human decision making, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of this decision making. Sample quantitative outputs for specific examples will be provided, especially the complex political-military environment in which terrorists operate. A holistic approach will account for cascading effects across political, military, economic and diplomatic forms of conflict. This prototype tool to help plan future terrorism counteraction strategies and tactics will feature a user-friendly interface and programmability, allowing flexible insertion of new genres of terrorist threats and development of new terrorist counteraction weapons, organization, tactics and strategies. Mr. Miranda will research historical and hypothetical terrorist/terrorism counteraction force performance and their impact on all forms of modern conflict, then develop the simulations algorithms. Dr. Johnson and Dr. Marsella will develop a simple computer demo to illustrate the potential for a full computer simulation. The work is expected to lead to a Phase II proposal to develop functioning simulation software.

NATURAL SELECTION, INC.
3333 N. Torrey Pines Ct., Suite 200
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-6449
David Fogel, Ph.D.
DARPA 99-041
Title:Evolutionary Models of the Terrorist Threat
Abstract:Our nation faces a growing threat from terrorist organizations. The proposed Phase I effort provides the fundamental required research and development for a system that can provide realistic insight into future actions of terrorist organizations and their sponsors. The purpose of such organizations and sponsors will be delineated using the Valuated State Space Approach. Models to assist in filtering and understanding the fast array of data that is collected across many different factors regarding terrorist activities will be designed using evolutionary algorithms. Success in Phase I sets the stage for generating more detailed models in Phase II to assay "what if" conditions and anticipate possible actions and reactions to terrorist activities.

SYNERGIA LLC
2400 Broadway, Suite 203
Redwood City, CA 94063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 569-4999
Michael Fehling
DARPA 99-041
Title:Computational Psycho-Social Models of Terrorist Threat
Abstract:The scale and impact of terrorism increased dramatically from the 1950s through the 1980s. During this time, damage to property while severe was local, and casualties usually ran in the 10s to 100s. Unfortunately, it has entered a qualitatively new regime in the last decade; now, the effects of a single act can be global. Indications for the future are even more serious. The capabilities developed over the last few decades to address terrorism are biased toward response/pursuit. This bias is inadequate and dangerous, given that the potential consequences are now so serious. A new, preemptive capability that augments existing ones is required. We need a technology to support a quantum advance in our understanding of terrorist behavior - both individual and social/organizational. Such a technology, by rigorously treating the psychological (e.g., personality) and social structure (e.g., organization, ideology, culture) of terrorists and their organizations, enables us to understand how they see the world, predict what they are disposed to do, assess our weaknesses, and identify their vulnerabilities. This modeling technology also underwrites intelligence gathering, response planning, and intervention to preempt action. We propose to specialize the Synergia's computational technology for psycho-social modeling to create this capability.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8716 North Mopac Expressway, Suite 310
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Sherry Marcus
DARPA 99-042
Title:MAPMS: Multi Agent Performance Monitoring System
Abstract:CoABS, a major research and development effort of the DDARPAControl of Agent Based Systems program (CoABS) supports enabling technologies for the integration of architectures and distributed systems of agents, objects, and legacy systems. CoABS is designed to eliminate traditionally stove piped systems. It is a self-assembling collection of dynamic heterogeneous, distributed components for the current application at hand. In the Internet, object and agent usage and trends must be mined and analyzed in order to satisfy customer requirements under normal and surge conditions. Web sites track the numbers of hits per time interval, and during peak times, sites are replicated in order to satisfy user demand. Analogously, we propose to develop a Multi Agent Performance Monitoring System (MAPMS) prototype to be inserted as a Grid Ready Component (GRC) into CoABS that shall demonstrate a GENERIC method of predicting surges before they occur, and RECTIFY such surges once they have been predicted, thus avoiding lockouts. We outline two scenarios related to logistics and terrorism that leverages our efforts with Rome Laboratories and Wright-Patterson AFB. We shall design a Phase I prototype with current and proposed CoABS technologies based on one of these scenarios.

CRYSTALIZ, INC.
9 Damon Mill Square, Suite 4D
Concord, MA 01719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 371-0404
Sankar Virdhagriswaran
DARPA 99-042
Title:Java Assembly, Deployment, Control, Environment for Agents (JADCEA)
Abstract:The proposed SBIR project, at the end of Phase II, will deliver a beta version of a graphical (GUI based) assembly, deployment, and control environment for different types of agents that could be developed in Java. This environment will be developed such that non sophisticated develop can create and deploy large agent based applications.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Joseph Discenza
DARPA 99-042
Title:Human Interaction with Software Agents
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR project is to provide a means by which users can easily create software agents for performing data discovery and retrieval. We will accomplish this goal by creating a tool for creating software agents and by providing a framework for future work on developing software agents in the military information space. We will create a tool, which we will call the Agent Wizard, for creating and controlling intelligent software agents. Agents, in general, are software components capable of adapting to changing situations. The agents created by the Agent Wizard will be responsible for locating and retrieving data from information resources on heterogeneous networked systems according to a set of rules and preferences created by the user. The Agent Wizard will allow the user to control the agents he creates and the information they discover. Performance of intelligent agents is greatly increased with the use of standard schemas and object management systems. In this project we will recommend one or more schemas and object management systems for future standardization in the military and commercial information spaces.

OPEN GROUP & JXML, INC.
29B Montvale Avenue
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-5965
Bill laForge
DARPA 99-042
Title:Interactive Construction of Mobile Agents
Abstract:This proposal describes a software research and advanced development project that will demonstrate the feasibility of providing a toolkit that will allow users of the toolkit to dynamically compose, deploy, and modify trustable software agents. This approach, called Interactive Construction of Mobile Agents, will allow end users to rapidly and easily construct powerful software agents by describing the agent intent (the expected actions the agent will take at runtime) in a human-readable text-based XML format. These intents will be passed to the target system, transformed into an implementation specific to that target system, and executed by the agent platform. The proposed implementation builds on XML and Java, using XML documents to define agents which move between systems, and Java to implement those agents on the target system. The implementation will support multiple application-specific composition languages, and will allow other documents to be incorporated by URL, allowing agents to be constructedas a web of interconnected documents instantiating a structure of Java components when transmitted to the target system.

APPLIED VISIONS, INC.
6 Bayview Avenue
Northport, NY 11768
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 754-4920
Anita Amico
DARPA 99-043
Title:Visual Representation of Cyber Defense
Abstract:Applied Visions, Inc. (AVI) proposes to design visualization aids to significantly enhance cyber defense situational awareness. Building upon our existing body of work on the visualization of network security events, we will design, demonstrate and assess visual representations of two categories of information: 1) the relationships between cyber security events (e.g. probes, intrusions) and military mission areas (e.g. logistics, intelligence); and 2) temporal changes in cyber security events. In addition, AVI will identify methods to facilitate the rapid association of security breaches to critical mission operations. The automated or semi-automated association of mission areas to security events will streamline the process of assessing the impact of security breaches on mission areas and support the visual representation of that information. Phase I will be devoted to defining the key information needed in the visual representations, designing several alternative visual representations, and demonstrating selected visualizations using test scenarios and a test data base developed by AVI. Phase I will also include the assessment of available tools and methods for rapid association of the mission areas and security events. Phase II will scale up the most promising visual representations into a working system that can be evaluated in a real world environment.

LOGOBOTS, LLC
60 E 32nd Street, #203
Chicago, IL 60616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 836-0497
Narayan Murarka
DARPA 99-043
Title:A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Defense Situation Modeling
Abstract:Integration of information networks on a global scale has helped most enterprise systems and applications improve their efficiency of operation, management and control. However, it has opened new avenues for malicious attacks by adversaries. Information security research efforts have concentrated on devising host, network or system level defensive mechanisms that can either prevent, or detect and eliminate such attacks so that system impacts are minimized. However, a decision tool that considers the cost and performance degradations of defensive mechanisms, and that recognizes resource constraints of both parties, should assist deployment of defensive strategies. Moreover, an effective representation of the defense situation in the face of ongoing and potential assaults and deployed countermeasures will help the security manager to identify the need for improvement of system security. We propose to develop a game theory based software tool that provides an effective representation of the current and expected nature of future security situation of an enterprise system. The proposed system will model a wide range of adversaries and assist in the strategic selection of defense mechanisms to deploy such that the enterprise mission impacts (in terms of resource consumption) are minimized.

ZAXEL SYSTEMS, INC.
11666 Dawson Drive
Los Altos, CA 94024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 682-2862
Peter Rander
DARPA 99-044
Title:Voxel-Based Immersive Environments
Abstract:We propose to develop real-time 3D reconstruction, transmission, and immersive display systems for "virtual" teleportation. Development of these systems would greatly improve the realism of remote collaboration, dissolving the boundaries between the local and remote physical worlds and between the virtual and physical environments. Research in 3D reconstruction of remote environments has shown that it is possible to recover both object appearance and auditory stimuli in remote environments. The past methods for modeling object appearance, however, consume enormous computational and communication resources, and require far too many sensors to be economically feasible. These traits make real-time applications nearly impossible without fundamental algorithmic improvements. We therefore focus our attention on techniques for modeling and rendering object appearance. Recent advances at the Virtualized Reality TM laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) demonstrate that real-time 3D shape reconstruction is possible. CMU and others have also shown that video-based view generation algorithms produce high-quality results, even in the presence of small geometric errors. We propose to combine these components with computationally efficient algorithms for video manipulation using multi-processors and SIMD instructions to construct real-time, remote immersive collaboration systems.

MARINE ACOUSTICS, INC.
809 Aquidneck Ave
Middletown, RI 02842
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 757-5321
Ace Sarich
DARPA 99-045
Title:Handheld One-Way Voice Communication System
Abstract:To communicate vocally in another language it is necessary for a person to be bilingual or to use an interpreter. Recently, a handheld, machine based voice-to-voice phrase translation system (PTS) has been demonstrated. However, there are a number of deficiencies that need to be addressed in order for the PTS to be a viable product which include: reliability and robustness; operation in a noisy environment; ease of use and training; speaker independence; software size and portability; and computer hardware and peripherals. Marine Acoustics, In.c, will team with Dragon Systems, Inc. to develop a concept of operations and preliminary design for a handheld PTS. Drawing upon lessons learned from operational and functional testing and from recent advances in the speech recognizer, the current PTS design functionality will be refined and improved. Concurrently, machine translation and speech recognition technology will be assessed and a concept of operations will be developed for the operationa nd use of the PTS. A preliminary design for a handheld PTS will be developed and used as the basis for the Phase II engineering prototype PTS.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Joseph Fernando
DARPA 99-045
Title:Handheld One-Way Voice Communications System
Abstract:Systran Federal Corporation (SFC), the newly spun-off sister company of Systran Corporation, a Products Development Company with worldwide marketing and sales, and Wright State University (WSU), Dayton, Ohio, with expertise in reconfigurable mapping of algorithms are proposing to develop a hand-held one-way voice communication system. We have proposed to solve the speech recognition and the speech translator problem. We have proposed two feasible approaches. In the first approach, we have proposed to use Hidden Markov Models and its enhanced versions for speech recognition. We have proposed to enhance the speech signal because of the presence of high levels of noise in the target situations. The speech recognition as well as the speech enhancement functions will be mapped to hardware and will reside in a FPGA board. We have proposed to use systolic arrays to implement the Hidden Markov Model based speech recognition function. In the second approach, an existing integrated circuit which is built using neural networks for speech recognition will be used. It also contains all the ancillary circuits that are required for speech processing. In Phase I, both approaches will be assessed for performance, accuracy and other relevant requirements.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 501-2880
Egbert Tse
DARPA 99-046
Title:Stand-Off Biosensors and Air-Motion Sensors
Abstract:We propose to design a laser-induced fluorescence lidar, based on Arete's STIL (Streak Tube Imaging Lidar), for standoff detection of biological agents disseminated into the air. This system will transmit at UV wavelengths and receive several channels of induced fluorescence returns from the biological cloud. Leveraging on the STIL equipment and experience in Arete's electro-optics laboratory in Tucson, AZ, we will assemble a laboratory system and carry out necessary testing in the laboratory to demonstrate the imaging and biological agent discrimination capabilities of the system. Because of the innovative use of streak tubes as receivers, 3-D imaging can be achieved with a simple scanning mechanism. A system with both computer controllable multi-spectral and multi-scan capabilities will be able to collect both 3-D and temporally evolving images of potential biological agents in several spectral bands. This system will be capable of detection, discrimination and characterization of the biological agent.Simple discrimination procedures will be developed during Phase I and a more robust multi-spectral (multi-channel) processing and decision theory-based discrimination algorithm will be developed in the later Phase.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Timothy Craig
DARPA 99-046
Title:Eyesafe Lidar for Stand-Off Bioaerosol Detection and Plume Tracking
Abstract:A portable, eye safe multi-spectral lidar system for remote detection and tracking of bioaerosol clouds is proposed. The sensor will provide volumetric range-resolved wind velocity and aerosol concentration measurements to ranges of several kilometers. The backbone of the sensor is a pulsed SWIR coherent Doppler lidar that has been demonstrated as able to detect and track bioaerosol simulant plumes. This existing technology will be augmented with a nonlinear frequency converter to output in the MWIR. This enhanced lidar sensor will enable multi-color aerosol characterization for improved bioaerosol discrimination. A growth path to a frequency-agile MWIR-LWIR differential absorption lidar that will provide additional ability to discriminate aerosol and tracer gas clouds will be provided. In Phase I, CTI will conduct system performance modeling to establish sensitivity and spatial and temporal resolution capability for various system configurations. Hardware design trades will be conducted to develop a low-risk path enabling multi-functionality (Doppler lidar, DISC, and DIAL). A Phase I demonstration of a multi-color transmitter will also be provided to demonstrate the feasibility of the baseline transmitter. A preliminary sensor design will then be developed with technical risk areas and associated mitigation strategies identified. The proposed technology development path is aimed at the Phase II demonstration of a prototype multi-spectral biosensor and the Phase III deployment of a compact, user-friendly ground based or airborne multi-function chem/bio sensor.

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
4032 Blackburn Ln
Burtonsville, MD 20866
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 989-1896
Coorg Prasad
DARPA 99-046
Title:A Portable Digital Fluorescence and Aerosol Lidar for Stand-Off Detection of Biological Agents
Abstract:We propose to develop a novel portable digital lidar (PDL) for detection of bio-agent aerosols by monitoring laser-induced fluorescence and multi-wavelength backscatter. It will utilize digital detection technique, to achieve orders of magnitude improvement in lidar performance over analog detection. Hence a compact lidar with a much smaller laser and receiver will provide superior range and sensitivity compared to a conventional fluorescence lidar. The proposed PDL equipped with a compact low energy, high PRF diode-pumped uv laser and a 14" telescope will be able to detect bio-aerosol fluorescence from 102p/1 at 2km and 104p/1 at 4.5km. Simultaneous measurements made in the visible (532nm) and ir (1.06um) wavelengths will provide long range (>215km) aerosol detection and differentiation. Our innovations will result in a rugged, low power, maintenance-free portable, high performance lidar system that offers above all a ten fold reduction in cost over other candidate systems. In Phase I, lidar system simulation and design will be performed, and a bread-board lidar will be setup and experiments will be carried out to establish the feasibility. In Phase II a prototype aerosol and fluorescence lidar will be fabricated and stand-off detection and discrimination will be demonstrated with special software developed for analysis.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES
8130 Boone Blvd., Suite 500
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
John Don Carlos
DARPA 99-047
Title:Wide-Area Terrain Mapping Using Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI)
Abstract:Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar is designed to suppress returns from stationary background (clutter) in order to detect and track moving objects which would otherwise be obscured. However, many applications of GMTI, such as the military applications of tracking and targeting and civilian applications such as traffic monitoring and support to disaster relief, require accurate knowledge of terrain elevation and terrain feature positions (e.g. roads) which is up to date and accurately registered with the target track. Normally suppressed stationary clutter contains such information. The objective of this project is to characterize the terrain elevation information inherent in the clutter, to devise and validate algorithms for recovering elevation profiles of the terrain, and to recommend signal processing techniques to process the ground clutter as an applique to existing GMTI sensors. Our approach uses the effects of propagation (shadowing and possibly diffraction and multipath) together with a model of terrain scattering to reconstruct the terrain elevation profile based on clutter information contained in a sequence of GMTI scans.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
6515 Main Street
Trumbull, CT 06611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Steven Jaroszewski
DARPA 99-047
Title:Real-Time Digital Elevation Model Generation from MTI Clutter Data
Abstract:Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are critical to numerous military and civilian applications. They are required for eliminating terrain-induced MTI position errors, and distortion in SAR imagery, as well as for performing vehicle cross-country mobility analysis and enhanced ground target tracking. However, high quality DEMs are often difficult or impossible to obtain. Since current techniques to produce DEMs have significant drawbacks, TSC proposes to develop methods that extract DEMs directly from MTI clutter data. Two techniques will be investigated during Phase I, including interferometric and stereo processing of MTI clutter. Interferometric processing of MTI clutter data is applicable to all MTI systems that produce multiple looks of the same ground patch from different aspects. During Phase I, these techniques will be investigated for feasibility and evaluated for performance. The applicability of each technique will then be assessed using simulation models of radar systems such as Joint STARS, Global Hawk and ARL. TSC will leverage existing Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) techniques and software, Automatic Terrain Classification (ATC) software developed for DDARPA, photogrammetry experience gained in urban database development contracts for the FAA, and image processing and general classification techniques developed during numerous efforts.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 379-3137
Duane Smith
DARPA 99-048
Title:Multispectral Imaging Laser Radar
Abstract:Multispectral imaging offers significant advantages over conventional imaging by providing diversity data to detect camouflaged or low-contrast targets, reduce complex scene clutter and identify materials. Passive multispectral imaging is susceptible to undesirable and often uncontrollable effects such as changes in illumination angle and intensity, diurnal cycles, and varying material emissivities. Active sensors overcome these limitations and also provide discriminates not readily available in passive sensors, such as degree of polarization and range information. In Phase I, CTI will develop an optical scattermodel that combines physics-based scattering phenomena (diffuse and glint reflections, depolarization, etc.) with empirical data (bidirectional reflectance) to determine an optimal feature vector for materials classification. The model will be incorporated into CTI's existing comprehensive coherent and direct detection laser radar performance modeling suit to determine the optimal multispectral sensor design for enhanced contrast target detection. In Phase II, an active imaging sensor based upon the optimal architecture chosen in Phase I will be designed and fabricated for initial laboratory and field tests. The proposed work leverages CTI's expertise in developing frequency agile lasers, flight-worthy transceivers and signal processors.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street, Suite #246
Northglenn, CO 80234
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
John Thomas
DARPA 99-048
Title:Active Spectral Sensors
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) and Lockheed Martin Tactical Defense Systems Egan proposes to develop a scattering theory and material classification technology specific to active illumination for an active, broadly tunable spectral sensor. DFC plans to incorporate the following technology elements: - Point-scatterer models for prediction of glint phenomenology, - Polarization invariants for active sensing, - Matched Subspace Filtering (MSF) to detect linearly mixed targets. DFC has already developed MSF for passive hyperspectral sensing, and has successfully used point-scatterer models for analysis and prediction of pathologies occurring in interferometric synthetic aperture radar imagery (IFSAR). Lockheed has recently developed polarization-based invariants for active laser sensing. Technical risk is minimized by already having these technology elements in place, thereby allowing the proposed effort to concentrate on the effective synthesis of these elements. Moreover, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control - Dallas has built a candidate tunable laser system, which will be used in Phase-II.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Jose Pecina
DARPA 99-049
Title:Autonomous Docking with the Laser Dynamic Range Imager Optical Sensor and the Point Tracking Software
Abstract:This Phase I proposal develops a pioneering technology to automate the docking process of unmanned micro shuttles to the satellites to be serviced. This technology is based on the Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) which is a dynamic version of the Scannerless Range Imager (SRI), and the Point Tracking (PT) algorithm. The SRI provides the range measurement from the laser unit to the field of view for far or near inspection distances, but it functions only on static scenes. The Point Tracking (PT) software package provides the cross-plane time history motion, while a dynamic adaptation of the SRI generates the range measurements from the laser unit to the field of view. the advantage of this technology over the conventional photogrammetric methods resides in the feasibility in obtaining, simultaneously, the 3-D motion of multiple points without the necessity of using multiple cameras and specific targets. The resolution of the position of a point is dramatically improved, and the elimination of special illuminating conditions in the scene are unnecessaries. This proposal will provide a software package for an automated docking. Commercial applications exist in flight vehicle docking automated navigation, flight refueling, precision materials fabrication, collision avoidance, and modal analysis.

DANIEL H. WAGNER ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Richard Samms
DARPA 99-049
Title:Advanced Geomotries for Vision-Based Satellite Docking
Abstract:One of these technical challenges that needs to be overcome for an unmanned servicing vehicle to be practical is to provide for robotic docking of the service shuttle to the satellite. In order to achieve docking, new technology is needed to measure precisely the relative positions of two bodies in space, where the availability of cooperative mechanisms may be limited. In this proposed research, we will develop advanced approaches for the first of these problems, position measurement, using the most flexible of all sensors, machine vision. With today's and tomorrow's fast, cheap computers, we can equip those small video cameras with extremely advanced processing, including the most advanced mathematical techniques for solving the difficult problem of passive tracking in six degrees of freedom.

MICHIGAN AEROSPACE CORP.
1050 Highland Drive, Suite E
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 975-8777
Michael Dobbs
DARPA 99-049
Title:Autonomous Satellite Docking System
Abstract:Six years ago, a low Earth orbit (LEO) demonstration for autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) was developed that provided a near-term option for validating many of the enabling technologies and concepts required for satellite re-supply and servicing. Flight hardware currently exists in the form of a target spacecraft payload intended for a small satellite. The hardware includes a docking mechanism, sensor targets, avionics, gas and payload re-supply interfaces for the target spacecraft, as well as a prototype of the docking system for the chaser spacecraft. The on-orbit demonstration was intended to validate that technology existed for performing autonomous rendezvous and docking that could lead to propellant re-supply for satellites, fluid/gas re-supply for orbiting laboratories, and payload exchange for satellites or servicing missions. The existing hardware and mission planning results will be described in this proposal. Because of the work performed on this previous ARD mission, many of the Phase I tasks have already been addressed. Phase I would be used to upgrade our system design and engineering drawings to incorporate improvements in technology that have taken place over the past six years as well as update the docking scenario, mission planning and analysis, and performance estimates to reflect these technology improvements.

NRG RESOURCE SYSTEMS, INC.
7467 W. Nichols Place
Littleton, CO 80128
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 904-1326
Andrew Poulter
DARPA 99-050
Title:Reconfiguring Surface Terrain Robot
Abstract:The goal for this effort is to deliver a detailed design approach for the development of a rugged and portable (man-packable) shape shifting robotic platform. Our platform will have the ability to not only change shape to gain access and function efficiently within confined spaces in urban environments, but will have means of changing locomotion to be able to traverse more difficult terrain. This platform will have polymorphic locomotion/maneuvering system which includes a novel drive and articulation system that will have the ability to act as a wheeled robot to traverse terrain quickly, a crawling mode to enter buildings through narrow openings and also have the ability to articulate. This self righting robot will be able to traverse a wide range of environmental conditions such as; level ground, compound slopes, steps, building obstacles, building debris, sand, rocks, and ice surfaces. The platform will have the ability to divide and act independently to gain access or cover more territory during a mission. This robotic platform is based on a single unit and is easily expandable depending on mission parameters. DDARPAwould benefit from the existence of this lightweight, fully reconfigurable robot with payload options, tele-operation and partial autonomous navigation.

VISIONARY PRODUCTS, INC.
40 W Skyridge Circle, Suite #4
Logan, UT 84341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 755-9500
Robert Gunderson
DARPA 99-050
Title:A Modified ANT Shape Shifting Portable Robot
Abstract:Visionary Products, Inc. (80%) proposes to collaborate with Utah State university (20%) to develop a novel, articulated, shape shifting portable robot (SSRP), possessing a unique hybrid walking and rolling locomotion capability and a highly terrain-conformable 3-degree of freedom structural geometry. The concept employs snap-together lightweight modules, each with two extendable-retractable legs attached to an instrument chassis at rotatable hip joints. Independently controlled omni-directional wheels are attached to each leg to provide speed and agility when walking or climbing locomotion is not necessary. By rotating, extending or retracting its legs, the VPI concept (MANTIS) can also modify its geometry to clear high objects and pass under combinations of low clearances and narrow openings. Importantly, it can maximize range and duration of a mission by using legged locomotion only when necessary, relying upon highly mobile and fast ODV locomotion when it is not. The objective of Phase I will be to demonstrate that the MANTIS is technologically feasible and to show by DADS simulation that it is capable of meeting, or exceeding, solicitation performance specifications. The team will be headed by Dr. Robert Gunderson, who recently retired from USU and joined VPI as its Chief Technology Officer.

---------- OSD ----------

35 Phase I Selections from the 99.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street
Northglenn, CO 80234
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Dr. Wolfgang Kober
OSD 99-001
Title:Intersensor Information Assurance
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) proposes the development of an Information Assurance Protocol (TAP) layer for communication among the nodes of a network of Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS). This protocol will incorporate the following features: Encryption, Detection of physical tampering with nodes. Moreover, this protocol will be compatible with spread-spectrum communications for covert communications and efficient exploitation of bandwidth constraints. Phase I will involve the feasibility demonstration, via simulation, of the major IAP features. Phase II will involve the complete software implementation of the IAP algorithms and it's hosting on special-purpose hardware. BENEFITS: DFC plans to create a commercial product for validating software ownership. This product will involve a so-called hardware "dongle" which must be inserted into a port on a user's computer. A dongle is a hardware key, which typically self-destructs when attempts are made to physically open it. Creating such dongles has become technologically feasible.

ODYSSEY RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
Cornell Business & Technology
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 266-7102
Frank Adelstein
OSD 99-001
Title:Multipolicy Information Assurance for Microsensor Networks
Abstract:Distributed microsensor networks, built from collections of nodes each having the ability to sense their environment, process the raw sensor data in cooperation with other neighboring nodes into information and then communicate that information to end users. Microsensor networks are an example of autonomous wireless local area networks (AWLANs). These networks are designed to be self-organizing in the sense of establishing and maintaining their own network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. The mobile computing devices in a tactical AWLAN are generally resource constrained in terms of processing power and battery life and must be built to stringent size, weight, and power specifications. AWLANs, especially microsensor networks, may be required to function in extremely hostile environments. This project will develop a multipolicy approach to information assurance for AWLANs. Multiple quality of protection profiles will be developed and ranked according to resource utilization and the desired level of security and fault tolerance. Different types of data will be ranked according to its sensitivity, importance, timeliness and priority. These profiles and types will be used to optimize the assignment of information assurance resources so that resource utilization is commensurate with the data ranking. BENEFITS: Military: new capabilities for battlefield situational awareness, providing seismic, acoustic, magnetic, and imaging tactical information to identify threats and intrusions. Civilian: low cost sensor networks enable health, safety, and environmental monitoring, transportation, systems control, and new manufacturing information technology.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9408
Peter Sholander
OSD 99-001
Title:Intersensor Information Assurance
Abstract:Scientific Research Corporation (SRC) proposes to design and model a microsensor network and network node architecture with communication protocols that compensate for the various sources and mechanisms of information degradation in battlefield environments. In the future, battlefield commanders will deploy distributed arrays of microsensors containing various sensor elements (e.g., acoustic, seismic, magnetic, electro-optical, etc.) for remote sensing, surveillance, and area denial missions. These microsensors will need to be able to communicate with individual soldiers, small units, and higher echelon C41 assets through self-forming wireless networks. Microsensors may also need to communicate with neighboring microsensors in order to improve their interpretation of the battlefield data as well as act as gateways to other information infrastructure assets. The microsensors and networks must be secure and robust in the face of information warfare attacks under adverse battlefield conditions, which is the essence of Microsensor Information Assurance. Designing the microsensor nodes and network topologies and protocols with the evolving microsensor technologies allows the desired information assurance to be built into the overall system design from the start. Thereby, ensuring that security and reliability problems such as those currently being experienced with e-commerce, the Internet, and cell phone networks are avoided in the microsensor networks. BENEFITS: market continues to explode, the information assurance improvements identified in this research could have widespread use in overcoming wireless data barriers for reliability and security. Commercial and industrial microsensor networks used to monitor traffic, automated warehouses, and for security and surveillance would benefit from improved information assurance methods.

ARACOR
425 Lakeside Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 733-7780
Jerel A Smith
OSD 99-002
Title:Hybrid Detector for High-Resolution Computed Tomography
Abstract:This program will develop and demonstrate a new Hybrid Detector for obtaining high resolution x-ray images at 300-450 kV energies for use in 2-D and 3-D (cone-beam) computed tomography. The Hybrid Detector concept will provide detection efficiencies 5-7 times greater than conventional lens coupled scintillator designs. Greater efficiency and modular design will lead to improved system throughput and resolution accompanied by reduced system design and fabrication costs. The Phase I program will optimize and evaluate optical coupling components and model scintillator performance to optimize system performance for damage assessment and characterization, for metrology and for rapid prototyping. The Phase I Option program will experimentally evaluate the performance of candidate scintillators to complete the design concept, to validate the system performance projections and to prepare for phase II fabrication of a system which incorporates and demonstrates the proposed concept. BENEFITS: Significant improvements in the price and performance of 3-D CT instruments will dramatically increase the accessible market for 3-D metrology of as- built objects and rapid prototyping of sculpted models and parts lacking accurate drawings.

BIO-IMAGING RESEARCH, INC.
425 Barclay Boulevard
Lincolnshire, IL 60069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 634-6425
Timothy R. Fox, Ph.D.
OSD 99-002
Title:Novel High Resolution Detector for X-Ray CT and DR
Abstract:BIR proposes to investigate feasibility for significantly improving an existing detector product to meet ARL requirements of spatial resolution greater than 250 microns on objects up to 180 mm or larger in diameter using a medium energy 420 kV x-ray source with 0.8 mm focus. The concept is to use an array of scientific grade 1024x128 CCDs that are fiber optically coupled to a scintillator in a staggered over-under arrangement extenable indefinitely in width. The multi-row CCD allows data collection software to create virtual detectors with variable focus for maximum flexibility of scanner geometry catering to multiple sources and focus sizes on a single system. Sample overlap via software also maximizes the spatial resolution for the rotate-only scanning mode. The virtual detector aperture can also be varied by software to allow tradeoffs of resolution, contrast, and scan time. The concept will be demonstrated by constructing a two device prototype detector, writing the virtual detector data collection software, and measuring the performance of the detector using a 420 kV, 0.8 mm x-ray source. A Varian amorphous silicon flat panel detector will also be evaluated by collecting data with the same x-ray source and comparing it to the prototype line array detector performance. BENEFITS: Improved capability for CT and DR applications such as flaw detection, quality control, dimensioning, failure analysis, first article inspection, and reverse engineering.

IMAGINGTECH, INC.
20720 W. Watertown Rd. Suite 2
Waukesha, WI 53186
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(414) 798-9880
Hui Hu
OSD 99-002
Title:Novel X-Ray Detection for Large Field of View (FOV) Very High Resolution Computed Tomography (CT) Inspection and Evaluation
Abstract:In this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I program, ImagingTech, Inc. will design a high-resolution x-ray CT system for Army Research Laboratory. This system will use state-of-the-art x-ray detection technologies and innovative system design concepts to achieve a superior performance that is unattainable using conventional technologies. The superior performance includes 1) a high image spatial resolution (0.1 mm or less) to inspect fine structures, a high penetrating power (300-450 keV x-ray beams) and a relatively large (3 inches or larger) field-of-view to image large objects. In Phase I, he proposed CT detector and system designs are investigated systematically. The detector and system performance is evaluated experimentally. By projecting from the preliminary experimental results as well as by analysis and computer modeling, the feasibility of the proposed designs will be demonstrated in Phase I. BENEFITS: The high-resolution CT is an important technique for non-destructive evaluation in industry, scientific research, and medicine. The high resolution CT application developments are crucial to scientific and engineering research as well as to our industrial competitiveness.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
5660 Airport Boulevard
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 440-8008
Zhonglin Wu
OSD 99-003
Title:A Sol-Gel Derived Barrier Layer for Larghe Area SiC Thyristor
Abstract:Effective use of large area SIC thyristors has been limited by the decreasing breakdown strength as the size of device increases. The proposed project aims to develop a cost-effective method to greatly improve the breakdown voltage of devices and minimize the dependence of their breakdown voltage on the device sizes. The essence of the effort is to implement a barrier layer between SiC substrate and the epitaxially-grown SIC films, blocking propagation of dislocations and micropipes from the substrate into p-n junction areas. The Phase I effort will focus on the proof-of-concept and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. Phase II and Phase III will optimize, scale up and commercialize the technology. BENEFITS: Thyristors play a critical role in variable-speed electric motors, power supplies for electrochemical processes, lightning and heating control, and controllers for electric utility power systems. SiC thyristors are particularly important for high power, high temperature, or high frequency applications.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Dr. Binghal Li
OSD 99-003
Title:4h-Sic GTO Device Structural With Improved Reliability at High Blocking Voltage
Abstract:In recent years, much progress has been made in the development of mesa etch edge terminated 4H SiC GTO devices using commercial available material. However, it is found that further improvement in device's blocking voltage is hampered by the catastrophic sidewall local breakdown. At present, the underlying mechanism responsible for this sidewall pre-mature breakdown is not known. A detailed analysis on the electrical characteristics of SiC GTO device suggests that hot electron trapping on the sidewall interface and the resulting local electrical field enhancement may account for the catastrophic sidewall local breakdown in this kind of edge termination device structure. Based on this failure mechanism model, two different termination approaches have been proposed to prevent hot electron trapping for SiC GTO devices. During phase I, effectiveness of the proposed approaches in preventing hot electron trapping and increasing breakdown voltage will be evaluated by device simulation and pn junction diodes fabrication; and more suitable approach for Sic GTOs device will be determined. Phase II will concentrated on development of large area Sic GTO device with high blocking voltage using the selected termination approach. BENEFITS: Development of high voltage SiC GTO devices will provide power electronics system designer with more efficient solid state power switching device with high power handling capability and less cooling requirement for next generation electronic vehicles and other applications. The technology developed will also be useful for other type SiC power device such as SiC p-n junction high-voltage rectifiers, which also have great potential to.

STERLING SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
22660 Executive Drive
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 834-7535
Larry B. Rowland
OSD 99-003
Title:Breakdown Voltage Enhancement Through Lateral Vapor Phase Epitaxy
Abstract:In response to the Office of Scientific Development SBIR topic OSD099-03, Sterling Semiconductor proposes a 6-month, $l00K Phase I effort to improve the breakdown field of large-area silicon carbide (SiC) devices. Lateral vapor-phase epitaxial growth (L-VPE) of SiC will be used to grow over substrate defects such as micropipes and elementary crew dislocations and remove them from the active device area. This will increase the breakdown voltage of large devices relative to those fabricated without this L-VPE layer. Devices with and without this L-VPE layer will be fabricated and their performance as a function of area will be determined. The proposed program will accelerate the insertion of SiC devices into DoD, utility, automotive, and industrial power applications. BENEFITS: Viable large-area (> 1 sq. cm) SiC devices will result from the proposed work if successful. Increased efficiency and reduced size of components will mean savings to end users (both DoD and commercial). The market insertion of SiC devices is potentially > $1 billion/yr.

BEVILACQUA RESEARCH CORP.
2227 Drake Avenue Suite 24
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 882-6229
Dr. D. Skipper
OSD 99-004
Title:Adaptive Instructional Systems
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I program will be to develop a design for dynamically adaptive instructional systems, which is sensitive to the students learning style, learning rate, and overall strengths. The solution methos will be to develop conceptual models of the student to guide the adaptive mechanisms. BRC has found conceptual modeling to highly adatptive in previous efforts and will use this approach to accomplish the goals of this program in six months. Key questions to be answered include; Can a conceptual model of a students knowledge be defined and captured?; Can a computer model be developed which efficiently implements a students conceptual model?, and Can a students conceptual model be made to adapt as the student learns or changes behavior? Tasks have been defined to answer these questions. These tasks will perform the tradeoffs necessary to select specific approaches to concept acquisition, concept modeling and adaptation mechanisms. The approaches defined will then become the basis for a system design. A small tabletop demonstration will be accomplished at the end of Phase I program to demonstrate the viability of the approach. The Phase I Program will lay the groundwork for the Phase II program. The ability to model a students learning abilities is the first step towards being able to realistically model decision making for military and commercial applications. These include simulations, decision aids, intelligent tutors, and more.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Paul Cobb
OSD 99-004
Title:Adaptive Instructional Systems
Abstract:As budget become more limited and training requirements grow, the requirements for more intelligent training systems increases. Decreased training times and emergency training needs cause an increased focus on training which becomes incompatible with proficiency-based progression. Students must meet a mean or minimum proficiency level in a short time period with training facilities that do not necessarily focus on their deficiencies. This causes high elimination rates and wasted training efforts. An adaptive training system that focuses on the deficiencies of the student can both increase the number of students meeting the minimum proficiency levels and save training time. Cybernet proposes to develop an adaptive training methodology based on expert system and model-based techniques that will allow us to determine where the students deficiencies lay and adapt the training facility to focus on those deficiencies. Cybernet has a large knowledge and software development base for performing this task. We propose to use out Model-based Reasoning Diagnostic Engine integrated with our OpenSkies Virtual Environment Training System to produce a design for a complete Adaptive training System. This work will directly enhance Cybernet's OpenSkies Virtual Environment Training System. This capability will allow us to broaden out scope for commercial training opportunities that were not previously available. This work will greatly enhance the training of students in comlex interactive tasts quickly and efficiently.

MONTEREY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
24600 Silver Cloud Court Suite 103
Monterey, CA 93940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 354-3149
Thomas J. Sharkey
OSD 99-004
Title:Skill Training Using Adaptive Technology: A Better Way to Hover
Abstract:Monterey Technologies, Inc (MTI) will develop the conceptual foundation for an adaptive training controller based on human performance models and novel feedback techniques that are not possible under the control of a human instructor. The controller will be appropriate for teaching novice pilots to hover a helicopter. MTI will develop a conceptual model of the student skill development process. Measures of the student's performance will be evaluated by an automated expert model of the instructor. The instructor model's output will control changes in the perceptual/psychomotor feedback and will provide instructional elements to the student. These instructional elements will be aimed at shaping the student's conceptual model of performing the task to be consistent with that of a student who's learning is on the desired track. In addition, MTI will identify novel adaptive feedback techniques that will improve the transfer of training between the training device and the actual aircraft, a form of hyper-training. MTI also will prepare a plan for assessing the effectiveness of the adaptive training controller system. During Phase II the principles developed will be demonstrated in the ARI Intelligent Flight Trainer and the adaptive controller will be generalized to training of other flight tasks. A human-behavioral-model-based adaptive training program is widely applicable to any instructor-student training venue and has potential to both save money and improve instructional quality in many military and civil settings such as flight training truck-driver training, UAV control, and internet-based distributed interactive training.

RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
2875 Towerview Road Suite A4
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 904-1808
Dr. John Leddo
OSD 99-004
Title:Optimizing Instruction Using Intelligent Tutoring Systems
Abstract:Intelligent tutoring system (ITSs) offer the ability to provide personalized, "just-in-time", high quality training. However, ITSs have been slow to find adoption by end users due to high cost of construction, inflexiblity once constructed, the tendency for them to be standalone systems, and pedagogical weakness that include an overreliance on training procedural skills, assessmenet that is based exclusively on trainee behavior without quering the thought process that gave rise to the bahvior, and a reliance on their own expert models with little weight given to organizationally-defined measures of performance and other learning criteria. Research Development Corporation has been working on generic, modular, simulation based intelligent tutoring system technology that addresses these needs. A student management system provides a direct connection between instruction, assessment and organizationally defined standards. A hybrid assessment technique using behavioral measures and direct querying of student thought processes has been shown empirically as reliable as experienced instructors in identifying student learning needs as well as evaluating performance against organizationally defined learning criteria. The generic and modular tutoring engine has been reused across seven independent projects, including integration into a virtual reality environment constructed by an independent vendor allowing rapid construction of technology at reduced cost. The present project will demonstrate this technology for the tested of hovering a helicopter. Phase I will consist of development and empirical validation of a fully functional ITS. RDC's business plan calls for marketing this technology through online service. We are currently in discussion with several major investors/partners to commercialize the technology.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Dr. Sowmya Ramachandran
OSD 99-004
Title:An Intelligent tutoring System Approach to Adaptive Instructional Systems
Abstract:The increasing complexity of military systems, and the need to maintain a high state of combat-readiness are placing great demands on military training. Shorter training time has led to resource-consuming remedial loops. We propose an Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) solution to the problem. ITSs adapt their content and instructional styles to individual students and offer a cost-effective solution. By using a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) approach to knowledge capture and representationa, we eleiminate the difficult and time consuming process of creating an expert creation of ITSs by non-programmers. We will use our approach to develop an ITS for Initial Entry Rotor Wing training. The proposed approach will promote individualized self-study, thereby increasing the effectiveness of distance learning programs, and decreasing the burden on human instructors. This will result in decreased training and travel costs, and increased training effectiveness. The authoring tool will allow expert trainers to specify the content and instructional strategies to create ITSs. Phase I will result in a limited prototype that will demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach. A longer tern goal is to evaluate the traiing effectiveness of such adaptive instructional systems. Because the ITS authoring tool is designed for quick domain application, it could be employed for new training domains in the military, government, and private sectors with little development time. Our approach can beused for hands-on procedural training such as training military and commercial pilots, training chemical and manufacturing plant operators and military and commercial equipment maintenance.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1160 Pepsi Place, Suite 300
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 973-1215
B. Eugene Parker, Jr., Ph
OSD 99-005
Title:Assessing the Cost Effectiveness of Diagnostic and Prognostic Techniques
Abstract:Condition-based maintenance (CBM) technology should be evaluated based on the predicted total cost of equipment maintenance, were the technology to be implemented. Decision analysis provides a framework for this prediction, which can be depicted through decision/outcome diagrams. As such, it can be used to determine which attributes of the diagnostic techniques most influence the cost and should therefore be considered as metrics for comparative evaluation of the algorithms. Measuring the identified attributes of CBM techniques can be difficult, as extensive real-world testing can be quite time consuming and prohibitively expensive. Methods like the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) can be used to quantify expert knowledge about equipment and techniques, and provide a means of obtaining good estimates regarding quantities needed to assess both CBM techniques and the equipment monitored by them. Even crude estimates often lead to cost savings through decision analysis. It is proposed to use decision analysis and AHP together in a framework to identify and measure suitable metrics for CBM technologies, and to test this framework on simulated machinery. In Phase II, the approach will be implemented and demonstrated on a variety of real-world machinery applications of interest to future aircraft carriers.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-1990
Michael Roemer
OSD 99-005
Title:Mechanical Diagnostic Technique Qualification and Validation
Abstract:Impact Technologies in cooperation with the Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) at Penn State University proposes the development and implementation of metric strategies and algorithms to impartially evaluate the performance and effectiveness of diagnostic and prognostic technologies. The metrics to be developed will be implemented utilizing test-bed data, in-service data including health monitoring and CBM database data, and model-based simulation data. Specific performance and accuracy of the diagnostic algorithms at the component or subsystem level will be evaluated with performance metrics, while system level capabilities in terms of achieving the overall operational goals of the diagnostic system will be evaluated with effectiveness measures. The metrics process to be developed will utilize a standard set of mathematical ground rules and a statistical framework to directly identify confidence bounds, robustness measures, and various diagnostic thresholds associated with specific mechanical diagnostic technologies. The diagnostic metrics strategy integrates state-of-the-art test-bed and in-service data with quantitative and statistical analysis techniques to provide impartial and accurate comparisons among different diagnostic algorithms. The developed diagnostic metrics will be calibrated and verified using gearbox seeded fault and accelerated failure data taken with the MDTB (Mechanical Diagnostic Test Bed) at the ARL at Penn State University. In addition, performance degradation diagnostic data from a F100 accelerated mission test will be used to develop and verify metrics for diagnosing degraded condition performance. Finally, the proposed metrics will be tested on several different real-time, diagnostic technologies developed for the Navy by Impact Technologies and the ARL at Penn State, utilizing neural networks (supervised and unsupervised), wavelets, fuzzy logic systems, and probabilistic diagnostic methods.

SENSORTEX
515 Schoolhouse Road
Kennett Square, PA 19348
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 444-2383
Stephen Hess
OSD 99-005
Title:Evaluation and Monitoring Methodology for Applications of Condition Based Maintenance Technologies
Abstract:In an effort to reduce the total cost of ownership (including operations and maintenance), while simultaneously increasing performance and reliability, many organizations have implemented condition-based maintenance and monitoring (CBM) systems. The approach described in this proposal will result in a new and efficient means of selecting appropriate CBM technologies and ensuring their effective implementation. The Phase I effort will develop the methodology to assess the effectiveness of candidate CBM technologies against a particular application. It will apply the methodology to assess the effectiveness of candidate CBM technologies against a particular application. It will apply the methodology to several simple test cases to verify the results obtained are commensurate with what would be expected based on standard accepted practices and typical results from reliability centered maintenance (RCM) analyses. The Phase I project also will identify appropriate metrics for each of the critical decision factors. These metrics will be tested for robustness using simulated data. The Phase II effort will develop a software tool to proved for an efficient means to perform and document the initial CBM assessments. It will allow for data transfer from /to existing RCM studies and provide the ability to access data from on-line sources to monitor performance of the chosen CBM technologies against expected results.

GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY CONNECTION, INC.
2690 Spencer Trace, #108
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 971-4084
Dr. A. B. Thakker, PE
OSD 99-006
Title:Prognostic Enhancements to Diagnostic Systems
Abstract:This project will build upon R&D work currently underway at the Georgia Institute of Technology in the development of Condition Based Maintenance systems for critical shipboard machines and processes to select and assess prognostic and human-system interface concepts and to suggest means to integrate them with existing shipboard CBM systems such as ICAS. Prognostic algorithms will be chosen to represent two basic technology trends: model-based state estimation/filtering methods and "intelligent" data-driven techniques relying upon soft computing (neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms). A key element of the Phase I effort is the transitioning of the prognostic/HSI concepts into the ICAS platform. This task will be facilitated by an open systems interface based on a novel Open Control Platform developed by Georgia Tech that supports such capabilities as play-and-play evolution, interoperability, dynamic reconfiguration and real-time quality of service. The framework for an assessment methodology will be developed by defining measures of effectiveness and performance for the prognostic and HSI modules. Software design and interface control documents will be used to demonstrate the selected concepts. Three shipboard systems - an industrial chiller, a gas turbine and a helicopter tail rotor failure - will constitute the testbeds for eventual implementation and proof-of-concept purposes.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-1990
Michael Roemer
OSD 99-006
Title:Prognostic Enhancements to Diagnostic Systems
Abstract:Impact Technologies in cooperation with the Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) at Penn State University propose the development, implementation and validation of multiple enhanced diagnostic and prognostic strategies that can be integrated directly into existing Naval platforms. The prognostic approaches and specific algorithms utilize a combination of health monitoring data. CBM database data, and outputs from various enhanced diagnostic technologies to predict the time to failure an/or time to degraded condition requiring maintenance action. The prognostic modeling strategy will be implemented within a probabilistic framework to directly identify confidence bounds associated with specific component time-to-failure predictions. The approach integrates state-of-the-art analytical and stochastic models with component reliability and inspection results and provides real-time Bayesian updating to accommodate modeling, operational and material property uncertainties known to exist. The failure of prognostic modules will be calibrated and verified using gearbox seeded fault and accelerated failure data taken with the MDTB (Mechanical Diagnostic Test Bed) at the ARL Lab at Penn State University. In addition, in-service data from either a CH-46 helicopter or Pratt & Whitney F100 jet engine will be used to develop and verify degraded condition prognostic strategies. Finally, the prognostic module results will be analyzed by a risk-based economic analysis to optimize the time to perform maintenance based on the consequences of either performing or delaying a maintenance action.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Center Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Dr. Gary Jahns
OSD 99-006
Title:RIPPEN-based Prognostic Enhancements to Naval Diagnostic Systems
Abstract:The Navy requires prognostic computer software applications interfaced to deployed equipment diagnostic software to estimate the time to failure or time to maintenance action for high-value machinery. ORINCON has developed the RIPPENr real-time information processing and prototyping software application over the past nine years, and has been extending it into machinery diagnostic and prognostic applications for two years. The RIPPEN-MDS product is a single-solution answer to the Navy's requirement. In this Phase I SBIR effort, ORINCON will demonstrate the power of this approach by developing an open-systems interface that will allow the transfer of data from an existing shipboard condition-based maintenance (CBM) system to RIPPEN-MDS, and by developing demonstration diagnostic and prognostic analysis tools. ORINCON will also produce a software design document and interface control document for the human-system interface (HIS), which functionally will be a user-configurable graphical user interface. In Phase II, ORINCON will optimize the prognostic and HSI modules utilizing CBM database data for three types of Naval equipment, and will demonstrate the software in both a land-based and shipboard environment. The Phase III transition of this project will be a RIPPEN-MDS toolbox, available on a commercial basis, incorporating specific prognostic implementations of high value to the Navy.

QUALTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
66 Davis Road
Storrs, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 423-2099
Amit Mathu
OSD 99-006
Title:A Human-Centered Integrated Diagnostic and Prognostic Tool for Condition-Based Maintenance Support
Abstract:The proposed effort seeks to address architectural, algorithmic and software issues in developing a diagnostics and prognostics system to support CBM of large complex systems such as Naval platforms and weapon systems. Leveraging our fault modeling and diagnostic tools for onboard health monitoring and interactive troubleshooting and maintenance, and their ongoing integration with a Navy HUMS system, we propose to design and develop a software system that can interface with the existing sensor suite to obtain raw observations of real-time performance parameters, with a CBM database to obtain pre-recorded data, and with human operators to obtain input to determine fault and impending-failure conditions in the target system. In order to extend the current passive onboard diagnostics to collaborative health management with human operators, we will research human-system interfaces (HSI) that best support onboard health monitoring and preventive maintenance. The software module will provide capabilities for preprocessing raw sensor data (via a data-analysis toolbox), parts "lifting," and isolating failed or failing system components, while providing human-system interfaces for feeding back appropriate health data (to operators), and usage and troubleshooting data (to maintainers). The Phase I design and prototype development will be carried forward in Phase II to the full development, testing, and integration stages

FARADAY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
315 Huls Drive
Clayton, OH 45315
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 836-7749
Maria E. Inman, Ph.D.
OSD 99-007
Title:Mitigation of Hidden Corrosion for Reduction in Total Cost of Ownership
Abstract:The program "Mitigation of Hidden Corrosion for Reduction in Total Cost of Ownership" is to develop a process for mitigation of hidden corrosion in shipboard systems by in-situ impressed current cathodic protection, delivered from within the component. The Phase I program will include 1) demonstration of the technical feasibility of this concept, by mitigation of crevice corrosion with a pipe flange, 2) identification of shipboard components which have significant corrosion problems, which could be prevented by this technology, 3) preliminary cost/benefit analysis and prioritization of those components, 4) identification of the required attributes of the mitigation process for the selected component, and 5) identification of the manufacturing issues associated with design and fabrication of the innovative technology for delivery of impressed current cathodic protection into hard-to-access areas of shipboard systems.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 260-5274
Jayakumar Muthusami
OSD 99-007
Title:Multi-Sensor Fusion and Mitigation of Crevice Corrosion Using ICCP
Abstract:Crevice corrosion detection and mitigation is a difficult area of research. Crevice corrosion affects the Navy ship sea water system and results in expensive manpower and maintenance cost. Past research are mainly focused on crevice corrosion detection, fouling detection, material selection and boundary element analysis for the anode placement and current requirements of the ICCP system. Reliable prediction and mitigation of crevice corrosion is one of the single most important aspect for the condition based maintenance (CBM) of the sea water system and currently no commercial product is available. In this project a unified approach that would combine the available technology in a judicious manner to detect an mitigate crevice corrosion. Multi-Sensor fusion and condition based maintenance techniques would be used to develop a Smart ICCP system.

LOGIS-TECH, INC.
5775 Barclay DriveSuite #4
Alexandria, VA 22315
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 921-1038
Lisa R. Whiting
OSD 99-007
Title:Corrosion Prevention & Health Monitoring through Impressed Current Cathodic Protection inside Pipe Systems via Flange-Anode Gasket
Abstract:We will design a method to detect and subsequently mitigate corrosion at hidden or hard-to-access areas such as at flange joints and valve seats, at erosion-corrosion prone areas of turbulent flow in valves, pumps, or piping, and in galvanic corrosion prone areas caused by dissimilar metals. These corrosion types negatively impact the total cost of ownership and operational readiness of marine vessels. We will demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a technology that will enable mitigation/prevention of localized corrosion through application of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) to hidden areas while maintaining the structural integrity of the hidden areas, without the need for disassembly, i.e. "in situ". This will be accomplished via a Flange-Anode Gasket device that we will design and manufacture. Our previously successful SBIR Phases I, II, and III integrated corrosion mitigation, remote sensing and monitoring, and data acquisition technologies and catapulted LOGIS-TECH's current growth. Synergistically teaming these technologies for the OSD99-07 effort will yield a robust solution adaptable to a wide variety of hidden corrosion areas such as those found in Navy shipboard seawater-handling systems.

MID DAKOTA CORP.
P.O. Box 728
Garrison, ND 58540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(701) 337-5619
Ralph Heinzen
OSD 99-008
Title:The Analysis of Developing a Smart Seal for Critical Applications
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will address the problems of seal failure. A detailed study of sealing systems on mission critical Navy equipment will document common and machine specific seals. They will be analyzed for the type and the cost of failure. An application will be selected for the development of a smart seal. A smart seal is one that can predicts it's own failure. After determining the maximum allowable wear of a seal it can be monitored for useful seal life. This can be done by measuring movement or detecting wear of the sealing surface.

MJR SCIENTIFIC CORP.
1439 Sherman Avenue
Salt Lake City, UT 84105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 581-1157
Menachem Rafaelof
OSD 99-008
Title:An Enabling Technology for the Development of Generic Smart Machine Components
Abstract:Load-base implementation of CBM systems on board ships and in the industry will largely depend on the improvements in the CBM subsystem (hardware, data acquisition software and algorithm), the methods for integration of CBM hardware with machine components and CBM system affordability. The proposed work in this proposal focuses on an approach that will result in a very simple CBM system and thus CBM's increased affordability and reliability. Our approach will allow simple integration of the CBM sensors with existing machines and ultimately an inherent integration of sensors with basic machine components (e.g. bearing, shafts, gears) and consequently, the development of smart machine components. In either case, the impact of the proposed technology will be in substantially reducing the cost of integrating sensors with machines and machine components. Phase I of this project will investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technology through analytical and experimental work. During Phase II, we will develop and demonstrate the operation and benefits of the proposed technology as part of a CBM system.

OCEANA SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1632 Corporate Landing
Virginia Beach, VA 23454
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 426-3678
Wayne Baer
OSD 99-008
Title:Integrated Sensor System for Load and Condition Assessment
Abstract:This proposal focuses on developing the technology critical to reducing the cost of implementing condition-based maintenance (CBM) in naval weapons platforms, by enabling low cost integration of smart load sensors into critical machinery components. The product of the investigation will be a proposed integrated diagnostic system based on embedded load measurement for a variety of CBM and other load monitoring applications. The development will focus on achieving small element size for minimum intrusion, cost effective integration with mechanical components, and will incorporate integrated processing capability. There are several reasons that acquisition of mechanical load for condition assessment is considered advantageous by comparison to more conventional CBM approaches based on acceleration (vibration) for example. Load monitoring can be employed to assess or predict a component's life expectancy whereas vibration monitoring detects imminent failure. This implies that mechanical load based CBM offers an advantage where advanced planning of maintenance is crucial. Moreover, access to real-time mechanical load data may be useful for other purposes such as overload avoidance or optimization of operating conditions. In summary, the availability of low-cost embedded load measurement and processing will enable predictive maintenance, characterization and optimization of operational conditions, overload detection and avoidance, and fatigue monitoring.

FRACTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
14200 Carlson Circle
Tampa, FL 33626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 854-4332
Dr. Matt Aldissi
OSD 99-009
Title:Ordered Electronic Polymers through Modified Electrophoretic Processing
Abstract:Electrophoresis is a well-known technique that has been used for the deposition of various polymers carrying ionizable groups (electrophores) and for the separation of biological molecules. In the proposed SBIR program, we plan to use an electrophoretic processing technique, which will be modified to suit the electrodeposition of polymers with bulk room-temperature ferromagnetic and conducting ploymers with high conductivity. This technique will use solutions/dispersions of the appropriate ploymers after being synthesized and modified in-house. The deposited ploymers will be characterized using the appropriate techniques that will help identify and determine ferromagnetic and electrical characteristics. Upon successful conclusion of Phase I (achieving a polymer with conductivity > 103 S/cm and a ferromagnetic polymer with a permeability > 6, Phase II will be pursued towards optimization of the modified electrophoresis setup, therefore, enhancing the very characteristics sought after in the two polymer systems, and process scale up. After demonstrating feasibility of this approach in Phase I and the subsequent optimization and characterization work in Phase II, the Phase III program will have large implications on the scientific and practical approach towards inducing conductivity or ferromagnetic properties with levels beyond those achieved in polymers thus far.

BOSTON MICROMACHINES CORP.
59 St. Germain StreetSuite 2
Boston, MA 02115
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 247-8083
Paul Bierden
OSD 99-010
Title:Micromachined Phase-Tunable Spatial Light Modulator with Integrated Electronics
Abstract:In this project, a new kind of micromachined spatial light modulator (μSLM) will be developed for gray-scale, 360 control of optical phase using a large segmented mirror array. The core innovation will be the integration of a micromachined mirror array with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronic drive array on a single wafer. A low-temperature microfabrication process developed in Phase I will enable fabrication of the required microelectromechnical systems (MEMS) directly on a CMOS wafer. In this low-temperature fabrication process, patterned thin layers of metal structural layers and polymer sacrificial layers will be built up through sequential deposition and lithography. Ultimately, the sacrificial layer will be etched away, leaving a self-assembled, integrated opto-electromechanical device. Each pixel in the 256x256 element array will consist of a low voltage electrostatic actuator capable of altering the phase of reflected light by up to one wavelength for visible light, with resolution of 1 part in 256. Mirror elements will be optically flat and smooth. The array will be digitally updated at a rate of 1kHz. Light modulation will be phase-only, with unity amplitude. Mirror fill factors of 80 will be achievable for square pixel sized from 20 to 30 micrometers on a side.

BOULDER NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, INC.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-0077
Steve Serati
OSD 99-010
Title:Sub-millisecond High-voltage Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:Recent advances in VLSI foundry processes have made possible high-resolution, light-efficient backplanes capable of driving electro-optic modulators with high-voltage signals. The high-voltage signals provide the excitation to achieve sub-millisecond response times with a wave of phase modulation. By combining high-speed phase modulators with high-voltage VLSI backplanes, compact spatial light modulators become available for the various applications that need this type of performance such as adaptive wavefront correction, optical signal routing or beamssteering, and active diffractive optics. Currently, high-speed, high-resolution, phase-only spatial light modulators with good optical efficiency do not exist forcing system developers to limit performance undermining their systems' usefulness. This proposal offers a means to correct this deficiency.

DISPLAYTECH, INC.
2602 Clover Basin Drive
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 772-2191
Mike O
OSD 99-010
Title:Phase Tunable Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to exploit developments in fast, low voltage nematic liquid crystal technology (NLC) to build a phase-only spatial light modulator. In Phase I our plan is to use existing Displaytech CMOS VLSI backplanes to build an experimental 256x256 pixel, 1000 frame per second SLM with 8-bit analog control and a 360 degree modulation range. We will perform tests to quantitatively evaluate the performance of experimental devices, and that identify areas needing further development in Phase II. In Phase II our goals are to build an optimized CMOS VLSI backplane for this application, to optimize the NLC mixture for the fastest possible phase modulation and greatest dynamic range, and to be able to manufacture high quality commercial devices using Displaytech's existing production lines. SLMs as large as 1024x1024 pixels are feasible, or as small as 128x128.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4165
Moshe Oren
OSD 99-010
Title:Phase Tunable Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to develop a high-speed phase only spatial light modulator (P-SLM) based on micro0electro0mechanical (MEMS) technology. When fully implemented, the P-SLM will have 360 deg gray phase scale, 20 m pixel size with 256 x 256 pixel count, frame rate of higher than 1 kHz, and a fill factor of 90 percent. Phase only SLM are the most versatile among the various SLM designs. A P-SLM with high resolution, high frame rate, and large dynamic range would permit the real-time synthesis of large number of optical elements such as spatial filters, dynamic interconnect elements, and optical coordinate transformers. One of the most important characteristics of the proposed device, which distinguishes it from other design, is its ability for integration with a Si IC driver together with a fill factor of over 90 percent. This approach to P-SLM can be produced using well established MEMS fabrication technology.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Court
Bedford, MN 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Dr. Vernon Shrauger
OSD 99-010
Title:Phase-Only Piston Microelectromechanicla Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:We propose to design and build a MEMS based, gray-scale, phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) using microactuating pistons. The pistons will be fabricated using a process flow that will produce optical quality surfaces at the modulator surface. The displacement of the individual pistons will result in 360 degree phase change at the operating wavelength. Ultimately, the device will be fabricated on high-voltage VLSI substrates. Operating below pull-in voltage with high-voltage drivers, we expect single actuator speeds in the megahertz region to enable high-framing-rate SLMs. In Phase I, we will fabricate and test a ganged, 20 micron pixel proof-of-concept device. In addition, we will design, simulate and submit for fabrication VLSI circuits that will be used to drive the micropiston actuator array and provide the external digital interface. In Phase II, we will fabricate 256x256, 20 micron, piston array onto a high-voltage CMOS substrate, which is designed to frame at speeds exceeding 1 kHz. We will optimize its optical quality and characterize its operation. We plan to market this device for high-speed optical correlation systems, HDTV microdisplays and large screen projectors, and laser printer and engraving engines.

ASTRALUX, INC.
2500 Central Avenue
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 413-1440
John Torvik
OSD 99-011
Title:High-Power, High-Temperature and High-Speed SIC Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors
Abstract:In this proposal, researchers at Astralux, Inc. in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder propose to form 4H-SiC/6H-SiC n-p heterojunctions for high power microwave device applications. Specifically, the goal is to commercialize a microwave SiC heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) with useful gain up to 20 GHz for satellite base stations, high-power transmitters and wireless communications. The advantages of HBTs over FETs are their expected superior linearity and current handling capability. A novel method of forming the 4H-SiC/6H-SiC heterojunciton will be pursued to form the base-emitter junction of an all SiC HBT. This method is expected to yield a high quality heterojunction suitable for minority carrier injection while avoiding the lattice mismatch and induced stress of a GaN/SiC junction. A novel self-aligned structure compatible with the 4H-SiC/6H-Sic material system is also proposed resulting in minimal parasitic elements and superior microwave performance. The Phase I goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of this tehnique as well as high quality heterjunctions leading eventually to microwave HBTs with 8 dB gain at 10 GHz and a power of 10 W/mm emitter stripe.

EXTREME DEVICES, INC.
101 West 6th StreetSuite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7740
Richard Woodin
OSD 99-011
Title:Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transisotr for RF Applications
Abstract:Silicon carbide (SiC) power transistors promise to provide higher power output with fewer, smaller devices because of the wide bandgap and high breakdown threshold of SiC. SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) have received little attention due to apparent limitations of gain due ot device inefficiencies, ascribed to poor material properties. If the desired performance can be achieved, BJT's offer improved stability and higher power density than comparable field effect transistors (FETs). With only modest improvement in material properties and good esign practices, SiC BJT's for operation from 0.5-2.0 GHz can be designed. In this SBIR program Extreme Devices, in collaboration with HdB Engineering, proposes to design and fabricate high frequency (1-1.5 GHz) SiC BJT's using high power, ultra high frequency rf transistor design rules and Extreme Devices' novel supersonic molecular beam epitaxy process. The combination of device design coupled with the improved epitaxial doped SiC provided by supersonic beams will yield acceptable device performance. In Phase I demonstration SiC BJT transistors will be designed, fabricated and characterized. Phase II will design and fabricate large, high power devices and a prototype high power pulsed transmitter amplifier.

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6 Phase I Selections from the 99.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
HARSH ENVIRONMENT APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
222 Severn Ave Suite A Building 4
Annapolis, MD 21403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 349-8330
Dave_Siviter
SOCOM 99-004
Title:Individual SOF operator
Abstract:The primary goal of the SBIR will be achieved by creating a SOF operator imaging package using two I2 systems straddling a head mounted thermal imager. Using analog techniques the goal is to fuse these three elements to create a virtual I2 image fused with a thermal image through a common synthetic aperture. An intermediate goal is the design and prototype of a camera based on a 16mm image intensifier coupled fiber optic taper to a high resolution CCD imager in a form factor specifically developed for head and weapon mounted applications. The final objective is the development of a COTS lightweight single sensor package incorporating the low power electronics and optical elements into one helmet mounted module requiring no field calibration.

PVP ADVANCED EO SYSTEMS
605 N. Poplar
Orange, CA 92868
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 938-0376
Geoffrey M. Miller
SOCOM 99-004
Title:INDIVIDUAL SOF OPERATOR
Abstract:PVPAEO proposes to develop and demonstrate a head-worn sensor package providing simultaneous images from LWIR and NIR/SWIR sensors utilizing a single aperture. The system utilizes commercial sensor technology combined with optics, packaging and sensor fusion technology developed by PVPAEO in support of a range of targeting and situational awareness applications. The design is fully compliant with the stated environmental and mission requirements including the desired weight limit of 1.25 pounds. The system will be configured to support fusion of the LWIR and NWIR sensors. This capability will be demonstrated during phase I of the program using image processing hardware currently being developed under a phase 11 SBIR program funded by ONR. It is expected that a field tested version of the processor would be available to support field evaluation and testing during the phase 11 program effort. During the first portion of the project the PVPAEO team will work with the system users to clearlydefinethemissionrequirementsanddevelopasystemspecification. This task wili be followed by a design effort to adapt the proven system elements and technologies to meet mission requirements. Following a design review with the system users, a prototype will be fabricated, demonstrated and evaluated.

ZYBRON
3915 Germany Lane
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-2892
Evan Zhang
SOCOM 99-004
Title:Individual Special Operations Forces Operator
Abstract:In order to combine the NIR and LWIR sensors together and eliminate the parallax between them, two innovative single aperture configurations are proposed: the first one will use an uniquely designed broad band non-Ge objective with a FOV of 54x42 as the common aperture, and the second one will use a beam splitter as the common aperture then use two identical objectives. The LCD is directly integrated and aligned with the LWIR camera, thus the parallax between tem is also eliminated. The electronic images from NIR/LWIR or both will be displayed on the same LCD by using a selective switch to add the individual SOF operator with navigation and target detection during times of limited vision.The total height of the NIR/LWIR Goggle System (NLGS) will be only 4.5", and the total weight without battery will be only 1.25 Lbs. Two 6V batteries of 1 Lb lasting for 4 hrs will be hooked on the rear of the helmet as weight balance, extra battery/electronics pack on the waist is not necessary. The total weight of the NLGS will be only 2.25 Lbs. It is much lighter than the permitted weight of 6 Lbs.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue Building #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8833
Charles S. Kaufman
SOCOM 99-005
Title:Retro Relector Detector
Abstract:ISC will design and demonstrate a Near IR retro-reflection detection system based on a unique ISC laser transmitter. ISC retro-reflector detection system is a an active search and interrogate sensor system that will detect passive threat optical devices. The types of devices that will be detected with includes both visible (binoculars, spotting scopes, rifle scopes) and near-IR (NVG, Image Intensifiers) sensor systems. ISC proposes to use an multi-layer 3D stack of processing ICs that can will integrated with to a single detector to this retro-reflection detection function. This will be accomplished by performing a series template matching, convolutions, and least squares fitting in order to detect a retro-reflection return and to discriminate threat detection for clutter returns. This will provide a real time threat detection-clutter rejection capability, while maintaining a low false alarm rate, with a wide FOV search capability, in a small man-portable sensor system package. This system will detect the presents of optical/near-IR threat and providing a cue to their location so they can be suppressed. As part of this Phase I effort, ISC will conduct a laboratory demonstration of its novel retro-reflection sensor implementation.

DESERT STAR SYSTEMS
761 Neeson Rd #9
Marina, CA 93933
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 384-8000
Andrew_Goldstein
SOCOM 99-006
Title:CAM+: A Rugged Modular Digital Camera System
Abstract:Digital imagery offers a number of advantages over traditional photography. With few or no moving parts digital cameras can be rugged. The constant evolution of semiconductor technology makes them small and powerful. The CAM+ takes advantage of these factors, and our own expertise in building rugged and modular devices to create a digital camera that not only meets all the requirements of the solicitation, but exceeds them. The small camera housing is entirely sealed. A lens port with a sealant plate and contact free Hall effect buttons means the user will never break the camera seal. A fast FireWire data port eliminates the need for fragile removable storage media and offers effortless connectivity. Combined with a low-power CMOS image sensor, and industry standard interchangeable lenses, CAM+ is a reliable and powerful digital camera. Based on our existing modular VISION architecture, CAM+ will also be highly versatile. The Harris PRISM chipset supports wireless image transmission and RF navigation for position tagging of images. More than a housing around a COTS camera module, the CAM+ will be built from the ground up to minimize weight, power consumption and size, while maximizing performance, reliability and versatility.

INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC MACHINES
60 Fourth Avenue
Albany, NY 12202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 449-5504
Barry S. Whitmore
SOCOM 99-006
Title:Ruggedized Digital Camera
Abstract:There exists a need within the military and civilian sectors for a system that marries the best qualities of an underwater SLR camera with a camcorder. The IEM system will possess the capability to capture still images, variable frame rate color video up to 30-fps, and audio onto recordable media. The system will employ advanced electronics to create a fully automatic and fully user selectable camera within the same package. This system will use interchangeable and waterproof lenses within the 28mm to 2000mm focal lengths. These lenses will contain auto-focus circuitry that may be defeated for manual operation further extending their capability. Other user selectable features include time and date stamps, exposure control, through the lens metering approach (center weighted, 5 zone, etc.), sealing pressure, and exposure priority. Key areas of innovation include a video camera based upon SLR principles, 30-fps high-resolution color video (> 1 Million Pixels), mass storage using tape or solid state memory technology, and watertight seals between camera bodies and interchangeable lenses. IEM proposes unique, ingenious solutions to each area in this proposal.