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35 Phase I Selections from the 99.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street
Northglenn, CO 80234
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Dr. Wolfgang Kober
OSD 99-001
Title:Intersensor Information Assurance
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) proposes the development of an Information Assurance Protocol (TAP) layer for communication among the nodes of a network of Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS). This protocol will incorporate the following features: Encryption, Detection of physical tampering with nodes. Moreover, this protocol will be compatible with spread-spectrum communications for covert communications and efficient exploitation of bandwidth constraints. Phase I will involve the feasibility demonstration, via simulation, of the major IAP features. Phase II will involve the complete software implementation of the IAP algorithms and it's hosting on special-purpose hardware. BENEFITS: DFC plans to create a commercial product for validating software ownership. This product will involve a so-called hardware "dongle" which must be inserted into a port on a user's computer. A dongle is a hardware key, which typically self-destructs when attempts are made to physically open it. Creating such dongles has become technologically feasible.

ODYSSEY RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
Cornell Business & Technology
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 266-7102
Frank Adelstein
OSD 99-001
Title:Multipolicy Information Assurance for Microsensor Networks
Abstract:Distributed microsensor networks, built from collections of nodes each having the ability to sense their environment, process the raw sensor data in cooperation with other neighboring nodes into information and then communicate that information to end users. Microsensor networks are an example of autonomous wireless local area networks (AWLANs). These networks are designed to be self-organizing in the sense of establishing and maintaining their own network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. The mobile computing devices in a tactical AWLAN are generally resource constrained in terms of processing power and battery life and must be built to stringent size, weight, and power specifications. AWLANs, especially microsensor networks, may be required to function in extremely hostile environments. This project will develop a multipolicy approach to information assurance for AWLANs. Multiple quality of protection profiles will be developed and ranked according to resource utilization and the desired level of security and fault tolerance. Different types of data will be ranked according to its sensitivity, importance, timeliness and priority. These profiles and types will be used to optimize the assignment of information assurance resources so that resource utilization is commensurate with the data ranking. BENEFITS: Military: new capabilities for battlefield situational awareness, providing seismic, acoustic, magnetic, and imaging tactical information to identify threats and intrusions. Civilian: low cost sensor networks enable health, safety, and environmental monitoring, transportation, systems control, and new manufacturing information technology.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9408
Peter Sholander
OSD 99-001
Title:Intersensor Information Assurance
Abstract:Scientific Research Corporation (SRC) proposes to design and model a microsensor network and network node architecture with communication protocols that compensate for the various sources and mechanisms of information degradation in battlefield environments. In the future, battlefield commanders will deploy distributed arrays of microsensors containing various sensor elements (e.g., acoustic, seismic, magnetic, electro-optical, etc.) for remote sensing, surveillance, and area denial missions. These microsensors will need to be able to communicate with individual soldiers, small units, and higher echelon C41 assets through self-forming wireless networks. Microsensors may also need to communicate with neighboring microsensors in order to improve their interpretation of the battlefield data as well as act as gateways to other information infrastructure assets. The microsensors and networks must be secure and robust in the face of information warfare attacks under adverse battlefield conditions, which is the essence of Microsensor Information Assurance. Designing the microsensor nodes and network topologies and protocols with the evolving microsensor technologies allows the desired information assurance to be built into the overall system design from the start. Thereby, ensuring that security and reliability problems such as those currently being experienced with e-commerce, the Internet, and cell phone networks are avoided in the microsensor networks. BENEFITS: market continues to explode, the information assurance improvements identified in this research could have widespread use in overcoming wireless data barriers for reliability and security. Commercial and industrial microsensor networks used to monitor traffic, automated warehouses, and for security and surveillance would benefit from improved information assurance methods.

ARACOR
425 Lakeside Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 733-7780
Jerel A Smith
OSD 99-002
Title:Hybrid Detector for High-Resolution Computed Tomography
Abstract:This program will develop and demonstrate a new Hybrid Detector for obtaining high resolution x-ray images at 300-450 kV energies for use in 2-D and 3-D (cone-beam) computed tomography. The Hybrid Detector concept will provide detection efficiencies 5-7 times greater than conventional lens coupled scintillator designs. Greater efficiency and modular design will lead to improved system throughput and resolution accompanied by reduced system design and fabrication costs. The Phase I program will optimize and evaluate optical coupling components and model scintillator performance to optimize system performance for damage assessment and characterization, for metrology and for rapid prototyping. The Phase I Option program will experimentally evaluate the performance of candidate scintillators to complete the design concept, to validate the system performance projections and to prepare for phase II fabrication of a system which incorporates and demonstrates the proposed concept. BENEFITS: Significant improvements in the price and performance of 3-D CT instruments will dramatically increase the accessible market for 3-D metrology of as- built objects and rapid prototyping of sculpted models and parts lacking accurate drawings.

BIO-IMAGING RESEARCH, INC.
425 Barclay Boulevard
Lincolnshire, IL 60069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 634-6425
Timothy R. Fox, Ph.D.
OSD 99-002
Title:Novel High Resolution Detector for X-Ray CT and DR
Abstract:BIR proposes to investigate feasibility for significantly improving an existing detector product to meet ARL requirements of spatial resolution greater than 250 microns on objects up to 180 mm or larger in diameter using a medium energy 420 kV x-ray source with 0.8 mm focus. The concept is to use an array of scientific grade 1024x128 CCDs that are fiber optically coupled to a scintillator in a staggered over-under arrangement extenable indefinitely in width. The multi-row CCD allows data collection software to create virtual detectors with variable focus for maximum flexibility of scanner geometry catering to multiple sources and focus sizes on a single system. Sample overlap via software also maximizes the spatial resolution for the rotate-only scanning mode. The virtual detector aperture can also be varied by software to allow tradeoffs of resolution, contrast, and scan time. The concept will be demonstrated by constructing a two device prototype detector, writing the virtual detector data collection software, and measuring the performance of the detector using a 420 kV, 0.8 mm x-ray source. A Varian amorphous silicon flat panel detector will also be evaluated by collecting data with the same x-ray source and comparing it to the prototype line array detector performance. BENEFITS: Improved capability for CT and DR applications such as flaw detection, quality control, dimensioning, failure analysis, first article inspection, and reverse engineering.

IMAGINGTECH, INC.
20720 W. Watertown Rd. Suite 2
Waukesha, WI 53186
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(414) 798-9880
Hui Hu
OSD 99-002
Title:Novel X-Ray Detection for Large Field of View (FOV) Very High Resolution Computed Tomography (CT) Inspection and Evaluation
Abstract:In this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I program, ImagingTech, Inc. will design a high-resolution x-ray CT system for Army Research Laboratory. This system will use state-of-the-art x-ray detection technologies and innovative system design concepts to achieve a superior performance that is unattainable using conventional technologies. The superior performance includes 1) a high image spatial resolution (0.1 mm or less) to inspect fine structures, a high penetrating power (300-450 keV x-ray beams) and a relatively large (3 inches or larger) field-of-view to image large objects. In Phase I, he proposed CT detector and system designs are investigated systematically. The detector and system performance is evaluated experimentally. By projecting from the preliminary experimental results as well as by analysis and computer modeling, the feasibility of the proposed designs will be demonstrated in Phase I. BENEFITS: The high-resolution CT is an important technique for non-destructive evaluation in industry, scientific research, and medicine. The high resolution CT application developments are crucial to scientific and engineering research as well as to our industrial competitiveness.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
5660 Airport Boulevard
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 440-8008
Zhonglin Wu
OSD 99-003
Title:A Sol-Gel Derived Barrier Layer for Larghe Area SiC Thyristor
Abstract:Effective use of large area SIC thyristors has been limited by the decreasing breakdown strength as the size of device increases. The proposed project aims to develop a cost-effective method to greatly improve the breakdown voltage of devices and minimize the dependence of their breakdown voltage on the device sizes. The essence of the effort is to implement a barrier layer between SiC substrate and the epitaxially-grown SIC films, blocking propagation of dislocations and micropipes from the substrate into p-n junction areas. The Phase I effort will focus on the proof-of-concept and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. Phase II and Phase III will optimize, scale up and commercialize the technology. BENEFITS: Thyristors play a critical role in variable-speed electric motors, power supplies for electrochemical processes, lightning and heating control, and controllers for electric utility power systems. SiC thyristors are particularly important for high power, high temperature, or high frequency applications.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Dr. Binghal Li
OSD 99-003
Title:4h-Sic GTO Device Structural With Improved Reliability at High Blocking Voltage
Abstract:In recent years, much progress has been made in the development of mesa etch edge terminated 4H SiC GTO devices using commercial available material. However, it is found that further improvement in device's blocking voltage is hampered by the catastrophic sidewall local breakdown. At present, the underlying mechanism responsible for this sidewall pre-mature breakdown is not known. A detailed analysis on the electrical characteristics of SiC GTO device suggests that hot electron trapping on the sidewall interface and the resulting local electrical field enhancement may account for the catastrophic sidewall local breakdown in this kind of edge termination device structure. Based on this failure mechanism model, two different termination approaches have been proposed to prevent hot electron trapping for SiC GTO devices. During phase I, effectiveness of the proposed approaches in preventing hot electron trapping and increasing breakdown voltage will be evaluated by device simulation and pn junction diodes fabrication; and more suitable approach for Sic GTOs device will be determined. Phase II will concentrated on development of large area Sic GTO device with high blocking voltage using the selected termination approach. BENEFITS: Development of high voltage SiC GTO devices will provide power electronics system designer with more efficient solid state power switching device with high power handling capability and less cooling requirement for next generation electronic vehicles and other applications. The technology developed will also be useful for other type SiC power device such as SiC p-n junction high-voltage rectifiers, which also have great potential to.

STERLING SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
22660 Executive Drive
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 834-7535
Larry B. Rowland
OSD 99-003
Title:Breakdown Voltage Enhancement Through Lateral Vapor Phase Epitaxy
Abstract:In response to the Office of Scientific Development SBIR topic OSD099-03, Sterling Semiconductor proposes a 6-month, $l00K Phase I effort to improve the breakdown field of large-area silicon carbide (SiC) devices. Lateral vapor-phase epitaxial growth (L-VPE) of SiC will be used to grow over substrate defects such as micropipes and elementary crew dislocations and remove them from the active device area. This will increase the breakdown voltage of large devices relative to those fabricated without this L-VPE layer. Devices with and without this L-VPE layer will be fabricated and their performance as a function of area will be determined. The proposed program will accelerate the insertion of SiC devices into DoD, utility, automotive, and industrial power applications. BENEFITS: Viable large-area (> 1 sq. cm) SiC devices will result from the proposed work if successful. Increased efficiency and reduced size of components will mean savings to end users (both DoD and commercial). The market insertion of SiC devices is potentially > $1 billion/yr.

BEVILACQUA RESEARCH CORP.
2227 Drake Avenue Suite 24
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 882-6229
Dr. D. Skipper
OSD 99-004
Title:Adaptive Instructional Systems
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I program will be to develop a design for dynamically adaptive instructional systems, which is sensitive to the students learning style, learning rate, and overall strengths. The solution methos will be to develop conceptual models of the student to guide the adaptive mechanisms. BRC has found conceptual modeling to highly adatptive in previous efforts and will use this approach to accomplish the goals of this program in six months. Key questions to be answered include; Can a conceptual model of a students knowledge be defined and captured?; Can a computer model be developed which efficiently implements a students conceptual model?, and Can a students conceptual model be made to adapt as the student learns or changes behavior? Tasks have been defined to answer these questions. These tasks will perform the tradeoffs necessary to select specific approaches to concept acquisition, concept modeling and adaptation mechanisms. The approaches defined will then become the basis for a system design. A small tabletop demonstration will be accomplished at the end of Phase I program to demonstrate the viability of the approach. The Phase I Program will lay the groundwork for the Phase II program. The ability to model a students learning abilities is the first step towards being able to realistically model decision making for military and commercial applications. These include simulations, decision aids, intelligent tutors, and more.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Paul Cobb
OSD 99-004
Title:Adaptive Instructional Systems
Abstract:As budget become more limited and training requirements grow, the requirements for more intelligent training systems increases. Decreased training times and emergency training needs cause an increased focus on training which becomes incompatible with proficiency-based progression. Students must meet a mean or minimum proficiency level in a short time period with training facilities that do not necessarily focus on their deficiencies. This causes high elimination rates and wasted training efforts. An adaptive training system that focuses on the deficiencies of the student can both increase the number of students meeting the minimum proficiency levels and save training time. Cybernet proposes to develop an adaptive training methodology based on expert system and model-based techniques that will allow us to determine where the students deficiencies lay and adapt the training facility to focus on those deficiencies. Cybernet has a large knowledge and software development base for performing this task. We propose to use out Model-based Reasoning Diagnostic Engine integrated with our OpenSkies Virtual Environment Training System to produce a design for a complete Adaptive training System. This work will directly enhance Cybernet's OpenSkies Virtual Environment Training System. This capability will allow us to broaden out scope for commercial training opportunities that were not previously available. This work will greatly enhance the training of students in comlex interactive tasts quickly and efficiently.

MONTEREY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
24600 Silver Cloud Court Suite 103
Monterey, CA 93940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 354-3149
Thomas J. Sharkey
OSD 99-004
Title:Skill Training Using Adaptive Technology: A Better Way to Hover
Abstract:Monterey Technologies, Inc (MTI) will develop the conceptual foundation for an adaptive training controller based on human performance models and novel feedback techniques that are not possible under the control of a human instructor. The controller will be appropriate for teaching novice pilots to hover a helicopter. MTI will develop a conceptual model of the student skill development process. Measures of the student's performance will be evaluated by an automated expert model of the instructor. The instructor model's output will control changes in the perceptual/psychomotor feedback and will provide instructional elements to the student. These instructional elements will be aimed at shaping the student's conceptual model of performing the task to be consistent with that of a student who's learning is on the desired track. In addition, MTI will identify novel adaptive feedback techniques that will improve the transfer of training between the training device and the actual aircraft, a form of hyper-training. MTI also will prepare a plan for assessing the effectiveness of the adaptive training controller system. During Phase II the principles developed will be demonstrated in the ARI Intelligent Flight Trainer and the adaptive controller will be generalized to training of other flight tasks. A human-behavioral-model-based adaptive training program is widely applicable to any instructor-student training venue and has potential to both save money and improve instructional quality in many military and civil settings such as flight training truck-driver training, UAV control, and internet-based distributed interactive training.

RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
2875 Towerview Road Suite A4
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 904-1808
Dr. John Leddo
OSD 99-004
Title:Optimizing Instruction Using Intelligent Tutoring Systems
Abstract:Intelligent tutoring system (ITSs) offer the ability to provide personalized, "just-in-time", high quality training. However, ITSs have been slow to find adoption by end users due to high cost of construction, inflexiblity once constructed, the tendency for them to be standalone systems, and pedagogical weakness that include an overreliance on training procedural skills, assessmenet that is based exclusively on trainee behavior without quering the thought process that gave rise to the bahvior, and a reliance on their own expert models with little weight given to organizationally-defined measures of performance and other learning criteria. Research Development Corporation has been working on generic, modular, simulation based intelligent tutoring system technology that addresses these needs. A student management system provides a direct connection between instruction, assessment and organizationally defined standards. A hybrid assessment technique using behavioral measures and direct querying of student thought processes has been shown empirically as reliable as experienced instructors in identifying student learning needs as well as evaluating performance against organizationally defined learning criteria. The generic and modular tutoring engine has been reused across seven independent projects, including integration into a virtual reality environment constructed by an independent vendor allowing rapid construction of technology at reduced cost. The present project will demonstrate this technology for the tested of hovering a helicopter. Phase I will consist of development and empirical validation of a fully functional ITS. RDC's business plan calls for marketing this technology through online service. We are currently in discussion with several major investors/partners to commercialize the technology.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Dr. Sowmya Ramachandran
OSD 99-004
Title:An Intelligent tutoring System Approach to Adaptive Instructional Systems
Abstract:The increasing complexity of military systems, and the need to maintain a high state of combat-readiness are placing great demands on military training. Shorter training time has led to resource-consuming remedial loops. We propose an Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) solution to the problem. ITSs adapt their content and instructional styles to individual students and offer a cost-effective solution. By using a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) approach to knowledge capture and representationa, we eleiminate the difficult and time consuming process of creating an expert creation of ITSs by non-programmers. We will use our approach to develop an ITS for Initial Entry Rotor Wing training. The proposed approach will promote individualized self-study, thereby increasing the effectiveness of distance learning programs, and decreasing the burden on human instructors. This will result in decreased training and travel costs, and increased training effectiveness. The authoring tool will allow expert trainers to specify the content and instructional strategies to create ITSs. Phase I will result in a limited prototype that will demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach. A longer tern goal is to evaluate the traiing effectiveness of such adaptive instructional systems. Because the ITS authoring tool is designed for quick domain application, it could be employed for new training domains in the military, government, and private sectors with little development time. Our approach can beused for hands-on procedural training such as training military and commercial pilots, training chemical and manufacturing plant operators and military and commercial equipment maintenance.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1160 Pepsi Place, Suite 300
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 973-1215
B. Eugene Parker, Jr., Ph
OSD 99-005
Title:Assessing the Cost Effectiveness of Diagnostic and Prognostic Techniques
Abstract:Condition-based maintenance (CBM) technology should be evaluated based on the predicted total cost of equipment maintenance, were the technology to be implemented. Decision analysis provides a framework for this prediction, which can be depicted through decision/outcome diagrams. As such, it can be used to determine which attributes of the diagnostic techniques most influence the cost and should therefore be considered as metrics for comparative evaluation of the algorithms. Measuring the identified attributes of CBM techniques can be difficult, as extensive real-world testing can be quite time consuming and prohibitively expensive. Methods like the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) can be used to quantify expert knowledge about equipment and techniques, and provide a means of obtaining good estimates regarding quantities needed to assess both CBM techniques and the equipment monitored by them. Even crude estimates often lead to cost savings through decision analysis. It is proposed to use decision analysis and AHP together in a framework to identify and measure suitable metrics for CBM technologies, and to test this framework on simulated machinery. In Phase II, the approach will be implemented and demonstrated on a variety of real-world machinery applications of interest to future aircraft carriers.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-1990
Michael Roemer
OSD 99-005
Title:Mechanical Diagnostic Technique Qualification and Validation
Abstract:Impact Technologies in cooperation with the Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) at Penn State University proposes the development and implementation of metric strategies and algorithms to impartially evaluate the performance and effectiveness of diagnostic and prognostic technologies. The metrics to be developed will be implemented utilizing test-bed data, in-service data including health monitoring and CBM database data, and model-based simulation data. Specific performance and accuracy of the diagnostic algorithms at the component or subsystem level will be evaluated with performance metrics, while system level capabilities in terms of achieving the overall operational goals of the diagnostic system will be evaluated with effectiveness measures. The metrics process to be developed will utilize a standard set of mathematical ground rules and a statistical framework to directly identify confidence bounds, robustness measures, and various diagnostic thresholds associated with specific mechanical diagnostic technologies. The diagnostic metrics strategy integrates state-of-the-art test-bed and in-service data with quantitative and statistical analysis techniques to provide impartial and accurate comparisons among different diagnostic algorithms. The developed diagnostic metrics will be calibrated and verified using gearbox seeded fault and accelerated failure data taken with the MDTB (Mechanical Diagnostic Test Bed) at the ARL at Penn State University. In addition, performance degradation diagnostic data from a F100 accelerated mission test will be used to develop and verify metrics for diagnosing degraded condition performance. Finally, the proposed metrics will be tested on several different real-time, diagnostic technologies developed for the Navy by Impact Technologies and the ARL at Penn State, utilizing neural networks (supervised and unsupervised), wavelets, fuzzy logic systems, and probabilistic diagnostic methods.

SENSORTEX
515 Schoolhouse Road
Kennett Square, PA 19348
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 444-2383
Stephen Hess
OSD 99-005
Title:Evaluation and Monitoring Methodology for Applications of Condition Based Maintenance Technologies
Abstract:In an effort to reduce the total cost of ownership (including operations and maintenance), while simultaneously increasing performance and reliability, many organizations have implemented condition-based maintenance and monitoring (CBM) systems. The approach described in this proposal will result in a new and efficient means of selecting appropriate CBM technologies and ensuring their effective implementation. The Phase I effort will develop the methodology to assess the effectiveness of candidate CBM technologies against a particular application. It will apply the methodology to assess the effectiveness of candidate CBM technologies against a particular application. It will apply the methodology to several simple test cases to verify the results obtained are commensurate with what would be expected based on standard accepted practices and typical results from reliability centered maintenance (RCM) analyses. The Phase I project also will identify appropriate metrics for each of the critical decision factors. These metrics will be tested for robustness using simulated data. The Phase II effort will develop a software tool to proved for an efficient means to perform and document the initial CBM assessments. It will allow for data transfer from /to existing RCM studies and provide the ability to access data from on-line sources to monitor performance of the chosen CBM technologies against expected results.

GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY CONNECTION, INC.
2690 Spencer Trace, #108
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 971-4084
Dr. A. B. Thakker, PE
OSD 99-006
Title:Prognostic Enhancements to Diagnostic Systems
Abstract:This project will build upon R&D work currently underway at the Georgia Institute of Technology in the development of Condition Based Maintenance systems for critical shipboard machines and processes to select and assess prognostic and human-system interface concepts and to suggest means to integrate them with existing shipboard CBM systems such as ICAS. Prognostic algorithms will be chosen to represent two basic technology trends: model-based state estimation/filtering methods and "intelligent" data-driven techniques relying upon soft computing (neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms). A key element of the Phase I effort is the transitioning of the prognostic/HSI concepts into the ICAS platform. This task will be facilitated by an open systems interface based on a novel Open Control Platform developed by Georgia Tech that supports such capabilities as play-and-play evolution, interoperability, dynamic reconfiguration and real-time quality of service. The framework for an assessment methodology will be developed by defining measures of effectiveness and performance for the prognostic and HSI modules. Software design and interface control documents will be used to demonstrate the selected concepts. Three shipboard systems - an industrial chiller, a gas turbine and a helicopter tail rotor failure - will constitute the testbeds for eventual implementation and proof-of-concept purposes.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-1990
Michael Roemer
OSD 99-006
Title:Prognostic Enhancements to Diagnostic Systems
Abstract:Impact Technologies in cooperation with the Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) at Penn State University propose the development, implementation and validation of multiple enhanced diagnostic and prognostic strategies that can be integrated directly into existing Naval platforms. The prognostic approaches and specific algorithms utilize a combination of health monitoring data. CBM database data, and outputs from various enhanced diagnostic technologies to predict the time to failure an/or time to degraded condition requiring maintenance action. The prognostic modeling strategy will be implemented within a probabilistic framework to directly identify confidence bounds associated with specific component time-to-failure predictions. The approach integrates state-of-the-art analytical and stochastic models with component reliability and inspection results and provides real-time Bayesian updating to accommodate modeling, operational and material property uncertainties known to exist. The failure of prognostic modules will be calibrated and verified using gearbox seeded fault and accelerated failure data taken with the MDTB (Mechanical Diagnostic Test Bed) at the ARL Lab at Penn State University. In addition, in-service data from either a CH-46 helicopter or Pratt & Whitney F100 jet engine will be used to develop and verify degraded condition prognostic strategies. Finally, the prognostic module results will be analyzed by a risk-based economic analysis to optimize the time to perform maintenance based on the consequences of either performing or delaying a maintenance action.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Center Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Dr. Gary Jahns
OSD 99-006
Title:RIPPEN-based Prognostic Enhancements to Naval Diagnostic Systems
Abstract:The Navy requires prognostic computer software applications interfaced to deployed equipment diagnostic software to estimate the time to failure or time to maintenance action for high-value machinery. ORINCON has developed the RIPPENr real-time information processing and prototyping software application over the past nine years, and has been extending it into machinery diagnostic and prognostic applications for two years. The RIPPEN-MDS product is a single-solution answer to the Navy's requirement. In this Phase I SBIR effort, ORINCON will demonstrate the power of this approach by developing an open-systems interface that will allow the transfer of data from an existing shipboard condition-based maintenance (CBM) system to RIPPEN-MDS, and by developing demonstration diagnostic and prognostic analysis tools. ORINCON will also produce a software design document and interface control document for the human-system interface (HIS), which functionally will be a user-configurable graphical user interface. In Phase II, ORINCON will optimize the prognostic and HSI modules utilizing CBM database data for three types of Naval equipment, and will demonstrate the software in both a land-based and shipboard environment. The Phase III transition of this project will be a RIPPEN-MDS toolbox, available on a commercial basis, incorporating specific prognostic implementations of high value to the Navy.

QUALTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
66 Davis Road
Storrs, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 423-2099
Amit Mathu
OSD 99-006
Title:A Human-Centered Integrated Diagnostic and Prognostic Tool for Condition-Based Maintenance Support
Abstract:The proposed effort seeks to address architectural, algorithmic and software issues in developing a diagnostics and prognostics system to support CBM of large complex systems such as Naval platforms and weapon systems. Leveraging our fault modeling and diagnostic tools for onboard health monitoring and interactive troubleshooting and maintenance, and their ongoing integration with a Navy HUMS system, we propose to design and develop a software system that can interface with the existing sensor suite to obtain raw observations of real-time performance parameters, with a CBM database to obtain pre-recorded data, and with human operators to obtain input to determine fault and impending-failure conditions in the target system. In order to extend the current passive onboard diagnostics to collaborative health management with human operators, we will research human-system interfaces (HSI) that best support onboard health monitoring and preventive maintenance. The software module will provide capabilities for preprocessing raw sensor data (via a data-analysis toolbox), parts "lifting," and isolating failed or failing system components, while providing human-system interfaces for feeding back appropriate health data (to operators), and usage and troubleshooting data (to maintainers). The Phase I design and prototype development will be carried forward in Phase II to the full development, testing, and integration stages

FARADAY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
315 Huls Drive
Clayton, OH 45315
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 836-7749
Maria E. Inman, Ph.D.
OSD 99-007
Title:Mitigation of Hidden Corrosion for Reduction in Total Cost of Ownership
Abstract:The program "Mitigation of Hidden Corrosion for Reduction in Total Cost of Ownership" is to develop a process for mitigation of hidden corrosion in shipboard systems by in-situ impressed current cathodic protection, delivered from within the component. The Phase I program will include 1) demonstration of the technical feasibility of this concept, by mitigation of crevice corrosion with a pipe flange, 2) identification of shipboard components which have significant corrosion problems, which could be prevented by this technology, 3) preliminary cost/benefit analysis and prioritization of those components, 4) identification of the required attributes of the mitigation process for the selected component, and 5) identification of the manufacturing issues associated with design and fabrication of the innovative technology for delivery of impressed current cathodic protection into hard-to-access areas of shipboard systems.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(409) 260-5274
Jayakumar Muthusami
OSD 99-007
Title:Multi-Sensor Fusion and Mitigation of Crevice Corrosion Using ICCP
Abstract:Crevice corrosion detection and mitigation is a difficult area of research. Crevice corrosion affects the Navy ship sea water system and results in expensive manpower and maintenance cost. Past research are mainly focused on crevice corrosion detection, fouling detection, material selection and boundary element analysis for the anode placement and current requirements of the ICCP system. Reliable prediction and mitigation of crevice corrosion is one of the single most important aspect for the condition based maintenance (CBM) of the sea water system and currently no commercial product is available. In this project a unified approach that would combine the available technology in a judicious manner to detect an mitigate crevice corrosion. Multi-Sensor fusion and condition based maintenance techniques would be used to develop a Smart ICCP system.

LOGIS-TECH, INC.
5775 Barclay DriveSuite #4
Alexandria, VA 22315
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 921-1038
Lisa R. Whiting
OSD 99-007
Title:Corrosion Prevention & Health Monitoring through Impressed Current Cathodic Protection inside Pipe Systems via Flange-Anode Gasket
Abstract:We will design a method to detect and subsequently mitigate corrosion at hidden or hard-to-access areas such as at flange joints and valve seats, at erosion-corrosion prone areas of turbulent flow in valves, pumps, or piping, and in galvanic corrosion prone areas caused by dissimilar metals. These corrosion types negatively impact the total cost of ownership and operational readiness of marine vessels. We will demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a technology that will enable mitigation/prevention of localized corrosion through application of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) to hidden areas while maintaining the structural integrity of the hidden areas, without the need for disassembly, i.e. "in situ". This will be accomplished via a Flange-Anode Gasket device that we will design and manufacture. Our previously successful SBIR Phases I, II, and III integrated corrosion mitigation, remote sensing and monitoring, and data acquisition technologies and catapulted LOGIS-TECH's current growth. Synergistically teaming these technologies for the OSD99-07 effort will yield a robust solution adaptable to a wide variety of hidden corrosion areas such as those found in Navy shipboard seawater-handling systems.

MID DAKOTA CORP.
P.O. Box 728
Garrison, ND 58540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(701) 337-5619
Ralph Heinzen
OSD 99-008
Title:The Analysis of Developing a Smart Seal for Critical Applications
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will address the problems of seal failure. A detailed study of sealing systems on mission critical Navy equipment will document common and machine specific seals. They will be analyzed for the type and the cost of failure. An application will be selected for the development of a smart seal. A smart seal is one that can predicts it's own failure. After determining the maximum allowable wear of a seal it can be monitored for useful seal life. This can be done by measuring movement or detecting wear of the sealing surface.

MJR SCIENTIFIC CORP.
1439 Sherman Avenue
Salt Lake City, UT 84105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 581-1157
Menachem Rafaelof
OSD 99-008
Title:An Enabling Technology for the Development of Generic Smart Machine Components
Abstract:Load-base implementation of CBM systems on board ships and in the industry will largely depend on the improvements in the CBM subsystem (hardware, data acquisition software and algorithm), the methods for integration of CBM hardware with machine components and CBM system affordability. The proposed work in this proposal focuses on an approach that will result in a very simple CBM system and thus CBM's increased affordability and reliability. Our approach will allow simple integration of the CBM sensors with existing machines and ultimately an inherent integration of sensors with basic machine components (e.g. bearing, shafts, gears) and consequently, the development of smart machine components. In either case, the impact of the proposed technology will be in substantially reducing the cost of integrating sensors with machines and machine components. Phase I of this project will investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technology through analytical and experimental work. During Phase II, we will develop and demonstrate the operation and benefits of the proposed technology as part of a CBM system.

OCEANA SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1632 Corporate Landing
Virginia Beach, VA 23454
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 426-3678
Wayne Baer
OSD 99-008
Title:Integrated Sensor System for Load and Condition Assessment
Abstract:This proposal focuses on developing the technology critical to reducing the cost of implementing condition-based maintenance (CBM) in naval weapons platforms, by enabling low cost integration of smart load sensors into critical machinery components. The product of the investigation will be a proposed integrated diagnostic system based on embedded load measurement for a variety of CBM and other load monitoring applications. The development will focus on achieving small element size for minimum intrusion, cost effective integration with mechanical components, and will incorporate integrated processing capability. There are several reasons that acquisition of mechanical load for condition assessment is considered advantageous by comparison to more conventional CBM approaches based on acceleration (vibration) for example. Load monitoring can be employed to assess or predict a component's life expectancy whereas vibration monitoring detects imminent failure. This implies that mechanical load based CBM offers an advantage where advanced planning of maintenance is crucial. Moreover, access to real-time mechanical load data may be useful for other purposes such as overload avoidance or optimization of operating conditions. In summary, the availability of low-cost embedded load measurement and processing will enable predictive maintenance, characterization and optimization of operational conditions, overload detection and avoidance, and fatigue monitoring.

FRACTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
14200 Carlson Circle
Tampa, FL 33626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 854-4332
Dr. Matt Aldissi
OSD 99-009
Title:Ordered Electronic Polymers through Modified Electrophoretic Processing
Abstract:Electrophoresis is a well-known technique that has been used for the deposition of various polymers carrying ionizable groups (electrophores) and for the separation of biological molecules. In the proposed SBIR program, we plan to use an electrophoretic processing technique, which will be modified to suit the electrodeposition of polymers with bulk room-temperature ferromagnetic and conducting ploymers with high conductivity. This technique will use solutions/dispersions of the appropriate ploymers after being synthesized and modified in-house. The deposited ploymers will be characterized using the appropriate techniques that will help identify and determine ferromagnetic and electrical characteristics. Upon successful conclusion of Phase I (achieving a polymer with conductivity > 103 S/cm and a ferromagnetic polymer with a permeability > 6, Phase II will be pursued towards optimization of the modified electrophoresis setup, therefore, enhancing the very characteristics sought after in the two polymer systems, and process scale up. After demonstrating feasibility of this approach in Phase I and the subsequent optimization and characterization work in Phase II, the Phase III program will have large implications on the scientific and practical approach towards inducing conductivity or ferromagnetic properties with levels beyond those achieved in polymers thus far.

BOSTON MICROMACHINES CORP.
59 St. Germain StreetSuite 2
Boston, MA 02115
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 247-8083
Paul Bierden
OSD 99-010
Title:Micromachined Phase-Tunable Spatial Light Modulator with Integrated Electronics
Abstract:In this project, a new kind of micromachined spatial light modulator (μSLM) will be developed for gray-scale, 360║ control of optical phase using a large segmented mirror array. The core innovation will be the integration of a micromachined mirror array with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronic drive array on a single wafer. A low-temperature microfabrication process developed in Phase I will enable fabrication of the required microelectromechnical systems (MEMS) directly on a CMOS wafer. In this low-temperature fabrication process, patterned thin layers of metal structural layers and polymer sacrificial layers will be built up through sequential deposition and lithography. Ultimately, the sacrificial layer will be etched away, leaving a self-assembled, integrated opto-electromechanical device. Each pixel in the 256x256 element array will consist of a low voltage electrostatic actuator capable of altering the phase of reflected light by up to one wavelength for visible light, with resolution of 1 part in 256. Mirror elements will be optically flat and smooth. The array will be digitally updated at a rate of 1kHz. Light modulation will be phase-only, with unity amplitude. Mirror fill factors of 80 will be achievable for square pixel sized from 20 to 30 micrometers on a side.

BOULDER NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, INC.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-0077
Steve Serati
OSD 99-010
Title:Sub-millisecond High-voltage Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:Recent advances in VLSI foundry processes have made possible high-resolution, light-efficient backplanes capable of driving electro-optic modulators with high-voltage signals. The high-voltage signals provide the excitation to achieve sub-millisecond response times with a wave of phase modulation. By combining high-speed phase modulators with high-voltage VLSI backplanes, compact spatial light modulators become available for the various applications that need this type of performance such as adaptive wavefront correction, optical signal routing or beamssteering, and active diffractive optics. Currently, high-speed, high-resolution, phase-only spatial light modulators with good optical efficiency do not exist forcing system developers to limit performance undermining their systems' usefulness. This proposal offers a means to correct this deficiency.

DISPLAYTECH, INC.
2602 Clover Basin Drive
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 772-2191
Mike O
OSD 99-010
Title:Phase Tunable Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to exploit developments in fast, low voltage nematic liquid crystal technology (NLC) to build a phase-only spatial light modulator. In Phase I our plan is to use existing Displaytech CMOS VLSI backplanes to build an experimental 256x256 pixel, 1000 frame per second SLM with 8-bit analog control and a 360 degree modulation range. We will perform tests to quantitatively evaluate the performance of experimental devices, and that identify areas needing further development in Phase II. In Phase II our goals are to build an optimized CMOS VLSI backplane for this application, to optimize the NLC mixture for the fastest possible phase modulation and greatest dynamic range, and to be able to manufacture high quality commercial devices using Displaytech's existing production lines. SLMs as large as 1024x1024 pixels are feasible, or as small as 128x128.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4165
Moshe Oren
OSD 99-010
Title:Phase Tunable Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to develop a high-speed phase only spatial light modulator (P-SLM) based on micro0electro0mechanical (MEMS) technology. When fully implemented, the P-SLM will have 360 deg gray phase scale, 20 Ám pixel size with 256 x 256 pixel count, frame rate of higher than 1 kHz, and a fill factor of 90 percent. Phase only SLM are the most versatile among the various SLM designs. A P-SLM with high resolution, high frame rate, and large dynamic range would permit the real-time synthesis of large number of optical elements such as spatial filters, dynamic interconnect elements, and optical coordinate transformers. One of the most important characteristics of the proposed device, which distinguishes it from other design, is its ability for integration with a Si IC driver together with a fill factor of over 90 percent. This approach to P-SLM can be produced using well established MEMS fabrication technology.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Court
Bedford, MN 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Dr. Vernon Shrauger
OSD 99-010
Title:Phase-Only Piston Microelectromechanicla Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:We propose to design and build a MEMS based, gray-scale, phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) using microactuating pistons. The pistons will be fabricated using a process flow that will produce optical quality surfaces at the modulator surface. The displacement of the individual pistons will result in 360 degree phase change at the operating wavelength. Ultimately, the device will be fabricated on high-voltage VLSI substrates. Operating below pull-in voltage with high-voltage drivers, we expect single actuator speeds in the megahertz region to enable high-framing-rate SLMs. In Phase I, we will fabricate and test a ganged, 20 micron pixel proof-of-concept device. In addition, we will design, simulate and submit for fabrication VLSI circuits that will be used to drive the micropiston actuator array and provide the external digital interface. In Phase II, we will fabricate 256x256, 20 micron, piston array onto a high-voltage CMOS substrate, which is designed to frame at speeds exceeding 1 kHz. We will optimize its optical quality and characterize its operation. We plan to market this device for high-speed optical correlation systems, HDTV microdisplays and large screen projectors, and laser printer and engraving engines.

ASTRALUX, INC.
2500 Central Avenue
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 413-1440
John Torvik
OSD 99-011
Title:High-Power, High-Temperature and High-Speed SIC Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors
Abstract:In this proposal, researchers at Astralux, Inc. in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder propose to form 4H-SiC/6H-SiC n-p heterojunctions for high power microwave device applications. Specifically, the goal is to commercialize a microwave SiC heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) with useful gain up to 20 GHz for satellite base stations, high-power transmitters and wireless communications. The advantages of HBTs over FETs are their expected superior linearity and current handling capability. A novel method of forming the 4H-SiC/6H-SiC heterojunciton will be pursued to form the base-emitter junction of an all SiC HBT. This method is expected to yield a high quality heterojunction suitable for minority carrier injection while avoiding the lattice mismatch and induced stress of a GaN/SiC junction. A novel self-aligned structure compatible with the 4H-SiC/6H-Sic material system is also proposed resulting in minimal parasitic elements and superior microwave performance. The Phase I goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of this tehnique as well as high quality heterjunctions leading eventually to microwave HBTs with 8 dB gain at 10 GHz and a power of 10 W/mm emitter stripe.

EXTREME DEVICES, INC.
101 West 6th StreetSuite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7740
Richard Woodin
OSD 99-011
Title:Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transisotr for RF Applications
Abstract:Silicon carbide (SiC) power transistors promise to provide higher power output with fewer, smaller devices because of the wide bandgap and high breakdown threshold of SiC. SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) have received little attention due to apparent limitations of gain due ot device inefficiencies, ascribed to poor material properties. If the desired performance can be achieved, BJT's offer improved stability and higher power density than comparable field effect transistors (FETs). With only modest improvement in material properties and good esign practices, SiC BJT's for operation from 0.5-2.0 GHz can be designed. In this SBIR program Extreme Devices, in collaboration with HdB Engineering, proposes to design and fabricate high frequency (1-1.5 GHz) SiC BJT's using high power, ultra high frequency rf transistor design rules and Extreme Devices' novel supersonic molecular beam epitaxy process. The combination of device design coupled with the improved epitaxial doped SiC provided by supersonic beams will yield acceptable device performance. In Phase I demonstration SiC BJT transistors will be designed, fabricated and characterized. Phase II will design and fabricate large, high power devices and a prototype high power pulsed transmitter amplifier.