---------- AF ----------

368 Phase I Selections from the 00.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
LIGHTWAVE ELECTRONICS CORP.
2400 Charleston Road
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 526-1224
Thomas J. Kane
AF 00-001
Title:Resonant Frequency Converter Integrated with Ytterbium Fiber Amplifier
Abstract:Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers promise to reach output levels well over 10 Watts, approaching 100 Watts, at wavelengths near 1 micron. We propose an architecture for frequency converting the output of fiber amplifiers. We believe that this architecture will allow construction of multi-Watt laser sources over a wide wavelength range with unprecedented small size, power consumption, and weight, while maintaining diffraction-limited beam quality. This laser system would consist of a low power, fiber-coupled single-frequency laser amplified to high power in a Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier. The output of the fiber amplifier would be frequency converted to the 1.4 to 5 microns wavelength range needed for IR countermeasures. The frequency conversion would be by a pump-resonant optical parametric oscillator (PROPO). The expected output power would be 2-5 Watts in the IRCM wavelength range. The input electrical power requirement would be below 60 Watts, much lower than for Nd:YAG lasers. No liquid cooling would be required. The overall system would have a volume of about 1 liter. Only the fiber-coupled PROPO output stage, which has a small fraction of the size, weight and heat dissipation of the complete system, needs to be located near the critical telescope components.

ADVR, INC.
910 Technology Blvd Suite K
Bozeman, MT 59718
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 522-0388
Gregg Switzer
AF 00-002
Title:Phase-locked Fiber Laser Array
Abstract:A rugged method for generating continuous wave (cw) laser beams in the multi-kilowatt regime by phase locking lasers using a compact device (~5x20x30 mm) is proposed. The concept employs an array of electro-optically controlled waveguides in Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP). The phase of each beam is controlled by altering the index of refraction of each waveguide in the array with an individually addressable voltage. The number of waveguides and electrodes is easily increased, making this method highly scalable. Combining 20 currently available high-power fiber lasers will lead to cw laser beams in the kilowatt regime; an array of 16 waveguides is proposed here. Waveguides in KTP have significant advantages over other materials such as lithium niobate. KTP advantages include a high electro-optic Figure of merit (~36 pm/V), a high threshold for optical damage (~1 GW/cm2), low susceptibility to photo-refractive damage, and the ability to form low loss (0.5 dB/cm) waveguides using standard ion exchange techniques. KTP is transparent from 350 nm to 4500 nm, so the device will work with many different kinds of lasers. Most importantly, this technique provides a direct path to achieving tens of kilowatts of cw laser power using currently available high-power fiber lasers.

PC PHOTONICS
64 Windward Way
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 443-4356
Peter K. Cheo
AF 00-002
Title:Injection Locking of a Clad-Pumped Multicore Fiber Laser Array
Abstract:This proposal introduces an innovative idea to generate a very high output power from a clad-pumped multicore fiber laser array embedded in a common low loss cladding with a unique "isometric" structure. An injection technique is used to actively phase lock the array emitting in the in-phase supermode. A double-clad multicore fiber laser array consisting of a total of seven single-mode fibers spaced within a circle of 28 micron in diameter will be used. A computer analysis of the far-field radiation patterns indicated that a high brightness laser beam with an amplitude 40 dB greater than the side lobes, can be obtained form this multicore fiber laser array for the in-phase supermode with a V-value of ~2 and a core separation of 1.5 times the core diameter. We have also analyzed threshold requirements for generating supermodes by using coupled mode theory. Results indicate that the thresholds for the higher order supermodes are lower than that of the fundamental supermode. Therefore, an injection-locking technique must be developed to suppress the higher order supermodes. Under the Phase I-SBIR, various injection schemes will be explored for the purpose of establishing a stable laser oscillation in the fundamental in-phase super mode of phase locked, clad-pumped fiber laser array. Other important issues to be addressed in Phase I are: the optimum core size and core separation for scaling the output power from a clad-pumped fiber laser array up to 1 kW, and the cladding dimension which can reliably accommodate the pump laser power to 1.6 kW at 915 nm without causing catastrophic damage to the cladding material.

APOLLO INSTRUMENTS, INC.
18019 Sky Park Circle, Suite F
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 756-3111
Alice Gheen
AF 00-003
Title:High Brightness High Efficiency Fiber-Coupled Laser Diode
Abstract:We propose to develop a general method for the development of a fiber-coupled laser diode that is highly efficient at the conversion of electrical power into a high brightness laser beam. The overall goal of this program is to deliver 500W of power, CW, from a single fiber with a brightness of 1MW cm-2 sr-1. As a Phase I demonstration, a device of over 100W will be built with the same brightness and a coupling efficiency of 70%. Advanced optical coupling techniques developed at Apollo Instruments will provide the basis for construction of the system. The laser system will be highly compact, simple, and low in cost. The success of the program will eliminate a major obstacle in current fiber laser development. The enabling technology will also benefit laser material processing, diode pumped solid-state lasers, and high power laser beam transmission. One of the main guidelines in the system design is to develop a high performance fiber-coupled laser diode system that system that is easy to realize, simple to use, and inexpensive to build.

CUTTING EDGE OPTRONICS, INC.
20 Point West Blvd.
St. Charles, MO 63301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(636) 916-5656
Joseph Levy
AF 00-003
Title:High-Brightness Fiber-Coupled Laser Diodes
Abstract:We with major collaboration from Cynosure Corporation propose to develop high-brightness fiber-coupled laser diode arrays. This will allow for hair removal systems using fiber delivery, create improved pumping schemes of host materials, such as Nd:YAG, facilitate pumping of fiber lasers and provide for more industrial applications of diode lasers in material processing applications such as welding, cutting and marking. We will develop lower-divergence higher-brightness diode bars along with optics to preserve the brightness of the laser diode array. Specifically, we will design arrays with bars that have less than 3 degrees FWHM divergence in their slow axis, and 30 degrees output in the fast axis, while operating at high-power. Arrays designed with these lower-divergence bars are coupled to fiber optics with the aid of custom diffractive optics from Cynosure Corporation that correct for imperfections in the diode laser array manufacture and collimate the array to the maximum extent possible. To reduce the slow axis divergence to 3 degrees or less, technology to create passive regions for extended cavities and non-absorbing mirrors at the facets will be evaluated. We will demonstrate the technology using small subscale arrays. Complete designs will be developed for implementation in Phase II.

LAMBDA INSTRUMENTS
1607 Glade Road
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-0568
Jon Greene
AF 00-004
Title:Polarization-Maintaining Dual-Clad Yb-doped Fiber
Abstract:Optical fiber lasers are gaining widespread interest due to their numerous advantages over traditional gas and solid state lasers including extremely high damage thresholds, excellent beam quality, superior wavelength and temperature stability, small size, and very high powers using novel double-cladding fiber (DCF). DCF lasers are a unique solution for obtaining high-power diffraction-limited laser beams due to the ability to inject multiwatt pump powers into their large-area, large numerical aperture primary cladding. To date, however,polarized DCF lasers have not been demonstrated and may be critical to the future success of non-linear optical wavelength converters and coherence-based power combiners for kilowatt class lasers. During Phase I, Lambda Instruments proposes to investigate the feasibility of fabricating Yb-doped polarization-maintaining DCF as well as using conventional Yb-doped DCF with novel fiber grating polarizers to demonstrate a polarized, high-power DCF laser.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Everett G. Farr
AF 00-005
Title:Automatic Time Domain Antenna Range and Pseudo Anechoic Chamber
Abstract:For companies engaged in the development of new antenna designs, antenna measurement systems represent a huge initial cost, and a significant barrier to entry into the market. Antenna measurement systems typically use a frequency domain Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) and anechoic chamber or large outdoor range. The cost of such systems generally starts at around $300,000, which is more than most small companies can afford. When characterizing ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas, the cost of frequency domain measurements is even greater, because the data must be taken at many frequencies, which requires additional time. To address these cost and time issues, a new technology is now available that allows one to measure the characteristics of antennas in the time domain. Such time domain antenna ranges will have one-quarter the cost of a conventional range. They will provide meaningful measurements over two decades of bandwidth, in either the frequency or time domain. They will also be easily stowed and deployed as required. During Phase I we will assemble a prototype antenna measurement system. We will add features to an existing system, including computer control of the azimuth and elevation of the antenna under test, and a basic signal processing package. This system can also serve as a pseudo anechoic chamber for electromagnetic measurements. Such a system can measure coupling transfer function and backscattering parameters.

GEMFIRE CORP.
2471 E. Bayshore Road #600
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 849-6831
Douglas J. Bamford
AF 00-006
Title:Portable Laser Illuminator Based on Frequency-Doubled Diode Lasers
Abstract:The U.S. military needs portable laser illuminators operating in the blue and green regions of the spectrum for use in non-lethal weapons. Existing devices, based on the frequency-doubling of diode-pumped solid state lasers, are too inefficient and expensive to be of practical use. Our innovation is an alternative source of blue/green radiation which is more efficient (because the diode laser radiation is frequency-doubled directly) and less expensive (because it is manufactured using low-cost laser diodes and processing/packaging techniques borrowed from the semiconductor industry). During Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach by developing an innovative process for fabricating an efficient frequency doubler, measuring the doubling efficiency, and calculating the performance to be expected from a portable laser illuminator based on our approach. During Phase II we will construct a prototype laser illuminator, measure its performance, and deliver it to the Air Force.

GT TECHNOLOGIES
19 Courtney Rd.
Farmingville, NY 11738
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 696-4898
Zhimin Liu
AF 00-007
Title:Electro-Optic Devices for Search and Rescue
Abstract:Combat search and rescue (SAR) capability is becoming increasingly important. Laser interrogating and transponding conception is well suited to rapidly identify and precisely pinpoint the downed personnel from the flying searching platform at a distance < 4km with high certainty. The principal operation is based on detecting strong reflection of the searching laser illumination from an optical transponder that is carried by the downed personnel, modulating with an identifying beacon. In this program, GT Technologies proposes to develop an innovative laser transponder which has many desired performance advantages of: low optic insertion loss (high reflectance), robustness, polarization independent operation, wide operation temperature range, broad wavelength response, compact, lightweight, very low energy consumption, and low cost. The simplicity in construction, low power requirement, and cost effectiveness make the proposed laser transponder particularly suited for wide deployment, equipping all personnel at risk. Moreover, the innovative transponder can also function as a communication system, covertly and securely transmitting voice and data. A prototype laser transponder will be demonstrated during Phase I program.

OPTICAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
472 Westover Road
Stamford, CT 06902
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 348-8761
Gerald Falbel
AF 00-007
Title:Electro-Optic Devices for Search and Rescue
Abstract:This proposal describes a laser scanner/receiver retro-reflector system designed to locate and identify downed aircraft personnel on sea or land. It is composed of an 810 nm. Semiconductor diode laser and a silicon array receiver, whose fields of view are mechanically scanned in a cross-track direction to the flight path of the search aircraft to cover a 5800 ft. wide or larger area under the aircraft flight path. The laser energy reflected by the retro-reflector provides a very large signal-to-detector noise and background noise so as to provide highly reliable detection of the downed personnel, who mounts the retro-reflector on his head. Using GPS input, the computer for the system defines the coordinates of the detected "hit" location and directs the pilot of the search aircraft to confirm the location of the "hit". An optional, secondary, narrow field laser/receiver, used in to perform IFF-recognition functions on the downed personnel by electro-optical means in a radio silent regime, is also described.In this Phase I effort, only the wide field scanner will be fabricated and will be tested before delivery from a stationary location on the roof of a tall building or at the edge of a cliff. Although the GPS and radar altimeter inputs required for airborne operation of the system will not be provided as part of Phase I, suitable "hooks" for these inputs will be incorporated into the delivered software to accept these inputs during flight testing. A full interface specification to ease the flight test integration will also be delivered in this Phase I program. The scanner is designed to be installed on a pitch stabilized platform allowing a 90 cross-track scan, in either a helicopter of a light aircraft capable of flying at 111 knots. Roll stabilization in the scanner mount is considered desirable but is not required for reasonable aircraft roll dynamics. In addition to this proposal, we are submitting a proposal in response to Topic AF00-255 for a Laser Navigation Aid, which assists aircraft in landing in airports in a radio silent environment. The system proposed for this Topic is highly similar to that proposed herein, requiring relatively minor changes in hardware and software. Therefore, if OPTICAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES INC. is selected to perform both efforts the cost for developing the instrument for Topic AF00-255 will be significantly reduced relative to its stand-alone cost, because of shared costs for program management and software.

AC MATERIALS, INC.
2721 Forstyh Road Suite 264
Winter Park, FL 32792
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 679-3395
Arlete Cassanho
AF 00-008
Title:High-Efficiency Mid-Infrared Solid-State Lasers
Abstract:A potentially efficient 4 micron laser is proposed that can deliver a series of 5 pulses in 0.5 seconds. Then after a relaxation time to cool down the system, a new series of pulses can be emitted. The laser will consist of a Ho doped BaY2F8 crystal pumped by a flashlamp pumped 890 nm Cr:LiSAF laser.The primary goal of the Phase I project is o demonstrate feasbility of the scheme and to develop design criteria for following Phase II project that will meet the requirements of the Air Force.

DIGITAL OPTICS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
64 Daly Drive Extension
Stoughton, MA 02072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 297-7916
Selim Shahriar
AF 00-009
Title:High-Power, High-Brightness Beam Combination of Semiconductor Lasers using Multiple Gratings in a High Efficiency Thick Hologram
Abstract:We propose to use a high efficiency, thick hologram for producing a diffraction- limited beam by combining multiple semiconductor lasers into a single aperture. For incoherent combining, N lasers are tuned (via temperature, for example) to be Dl apart from its neighbors. Using N gratings in a hologram of thickness d, these beams can be combined into a single aperture, producing a diffraction limited beam with a net intensity close to 90% of the sum of the input intensities. For 980 nm lasers, for example, d= 2 mm is enough to combine lasers with Dl =0.05 nm. N can be up to 20 for the dynamic range currently achieved in our holographic substrate. Using another combining stage where the wavelength width of each channel is greater than 20Dl, the process can be cascaded. For coherent combining, (N-1) lasers are first injection locked to a master laser. N gratings in a thick hologram are then used to produce a multi-wave mixing process. Under a specific set of relations between the amplitudes and phases of the input beams, controllable via feed-back, a diffraction limited output beam is produced, with an intensity close to 90% of the sum of the input intensities.

QEI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2715 S. St Paul
Denver, CO 80210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 692-0331
John A. Bognar
AF 00-010
Title:Portable Microwave Refractometer System for Sensing Refractive Index and Humidity Fluctuations
Abstract:The measurement of atmospheric refractive index, its variations, and humidity fluctuations is very important in understanding and predicting the propagation of electromagnetic waves through the atmosphere. This is important to a variety of Air Force technologies such as the Airborne Laser and ground-based lasers. It is also important in explaining the behavior of clear-air radars. QEI proposes to develop a lightght microwave refractometer for airborne use which will measure the above quantities. The instrument is designed to directly measure the speed of propagation of the microwaves, as opposed to previous indirect methods. It will be constructed using commercial off-the-shelf electronics and advanced materials which nearly eliminate thermal considerations which affect other designs. It will make high-speed measurements of the radio refractivity of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index structure constant, and humidity. In Phase I, a prototype refractometer will be fabricated and tested. In Phase II, a final ruggedized design will be completed for Air Force use. Extensive field tests will be carried out with the system to ensure it meets Air Force needs.

QUADRANT ENGINEERING, INC.
107 Sunderland Road
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-4402
James Mead
AF 00-010
Title:Radio Refractometer for High Resolution Gradient and Turbulence Measurements of Atmospheric Refractive Index.
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal seeks support to design and construct arevolutionary compact, versatile, radio refractometer system. The refractometer will be capable of accurately (better than 0.5 ppm) sensing atmospheric refractive index gradients and turbulent fluctuations at sufficiently small scales so that it can be used to validate signal propagation models which are used/proposed to predict performance of a variety of VHF, UHF and microwave communications and remote sensing systems. Modern solid state RF and signal processing electronics will be used to activate a sensing cavity, to process its output signal and to display atmospheric refractive index fluctuations in real time. The sensing cavity will be designed using a low cost, high stability material, such as electroplated ceramic. To minimize the adverse and uncertain effects of turbulence at high air speeds, the sensing cavity will be designed for enclosure in a flow controlling aerodynamic housing. Comparative test and evaluation of the prototype instrument will be done using critical components from a Thompson-Vetter laboratory standard refractometer. Calibration and field testing will be performed at the comprehensive "Rock Springs" micrometeorological/turbulence field site operated by the Department of Meteorology at Penn State University.

CU AEROSPACE
2004 S. Wright St. Extended
Urbana, IL 61802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 333-8274
David L. Carroll
AF 00-011
Title:Advanced Chemical Iodine Lasers for the ABL
Abstract:The primary objective of CU Aerospace's Phase I work will be to define and model a promising All Gas-phase Chemical Iodine Laser (AGIL) concept. This work will include the identification of key chemical and kinetic reactions and a laser design concept to be fabricated and tested in Phase II. This technology will logically include some novel all gas phase generation techniques for an energy donor for iodine and the injection of atomic rather than molecular iodine. Phase I research will include trade studies on the candidate methods for the creation of an all gas phase energy donor as well as for injecting atomic iodine. This research will lead directly to designs that will be fabricated and tested extensively with detailed diagnostics to evaluate the chosen design's performance attributes in Phase II.

MICROCOSM, INC.
401 Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 726-4100
Mr. Randolph Schaffer
AF 00-012
Title:Structural Concepts and Components
Abstract:Microcosm proposes to fabricate an all-composite, long service life pressure vessel that is functional at cryogenic temperatures and is compatable with LOX. Phase I will define a basic resin system for a composite lined pressure vessel with a design operating pressure of 600 psig and a minimum cylce life of one hundred fifty (150) cycles. Composite Technology Development, Inc. will also participate by developing and testing resins and adhesives. CTD is a specialist in cryogenic resin/adhesive development and fabrication. Presently CTD is also performing development work on an all composite cryogenic tank. The fabrication process proposed by Microcosm will utilize room temperature non-autoclave cure, and wet fabrication methods. Microcosm proposes to fabricate and test one full-size, 42 inch diameter by 135 inch long complete pressure vessel. Phase II would refine the process and include composite ports and the addition of composite tank skirts fabricated integral with the tank for further weight reduction.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Steve C. Coy
AF 00-012
Title:WaveTrain: A Commercial Quality Tool for Wave Optics Simulation
Abstract:Laser weapons systems and compensated imaging systems use adaptive opticstechnology to sense the optical effects of turbulence, and compensate for them in real time. To develop such systems, one must be able to make reliable performance predictions, but using pure mathematical analysis this is extremely difficult to do. In general, the more stressing scenarios are the hardest to analyze, but they are also the most important from a design perspective, because they determine the system's operational envelope. Fortunately, there is an approach that can handle these cases: high fidelity computer simulation, using two-dimensional complex meshes to model optical wavefronts as they propagate across the atmosphere and through the system optics. This technology, called wave optics simulation, is well developed, and well anchored to both theory and experiment. Unfortunately, wave optics codes have always been extremely difficult to use, because one must be expert not only in adaptive optics, but also in the subtleties of wave optics simulation, and the peculiarities of the particular code. There is a recognized need for a user-friendly wave optics tool, and we have been working to develop just such a tool, called WaveTrain. Under this SBIR we propose to expand and accelerate this effort.

OPTICAL SCIENCES CO. (GA TYLER & ASSOC)
1341 S. Sunkist St.
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Terry J. Brennan
AF 00-012
Title:Wave Optics Simulation
Abstract:A user-friendly yet powerful approach to wave optics simulation isproposed. The approach integrates an existing library of wave optics computational tools with a powerful and extensible Matlab front end based on object oriented programming techniques. It is shown that wave optics simulation requirements fit very naturally into Matlab's object oriented paradigm. The simulation tool will have both a command line and GUI executive capability as well as several GUI support tools. A large library of models will incude propagation algorithms, turbulence models, sensor and corrector models, servo control models, data analysis tools, and graphical tools. The library will be fully exensible by the user with the ease of Matlab programming. The Phase I effort will result in a fully functional prototype which demonstrates the feasibility of using Matlab's object oriented capabilities to develop the complete tool.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Ilya Agurok
AF 00-013
Title:Comprehensive Beam-forming Using Multi-conjugated Optics
Abstract:The Air Force is soliciting a new adaptive optics system that will be able to completely compensate for atmospheric turbulence over the path of a high-power laser beam. Atmospheric turbulence results in phase distortion and intensity scintillation of the probing beam at the entrance pupil of the beam directing system. Due to the high-power of the laser beam, it is impossible to use any absorption or dispersion techniques to create the required amplitude distribution. Only a deformable mirror technique can be used for beam energy redistribution. POC proposes a method for calculation of the phase deformation required at one mirror to compensate the amplitude distribution at the entrance pupil of the system. The analysis of the deformable mirror's flexibility will determine the number of deformable mirrors required to perform the amplitude distribution at the entrance pupil. In Phase I of this project, we will develop an optical system design and test the design through simulation and modeling.

KESTREL CORP.
6624 Gulton Court NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
Andrew Meigs
AF 00-014
Title:Distorted Grating Wavefront Sensor
Abstract:Kestrel Corporation proposes a new technology that offers the opportunity to use phase diversity wavefront sensing under high scintillation conditions and with passive extended target references. Based on the use of a distorted optical grating technology, this proposed Phase I SBIR will show that it is feasible to provide, simultaneously, the images before and after the entrance pupil that are needed to execute the phase diversity algorithms. The work will demonstrate that these algorithms can be completed in time frames compatible with the compensating atmospheric aberrations.

QORTEK, INC.
4121 Jacks Hollow Road
Williamsport, PA 17702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 745-3555
Gareth Knowles
AF 00-015
Title:Functionally Integrated Fast Steering Mirror
Abstract:The proposed technology promises to meet the requirements by introducing a newpiezoelectronically driven colocated sensoriactuation system. The novel sensor promises to enable 1nm resolution and 20 KHz bandwidth in a small package. The actuation mechanism is a unique high stiffness and shear strength actuation mechanism capable of driving at high-bandwidth with no low coupling modes present.

SVS, INC.
4411 the 25 Way NE, Suite 350
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 449-4696
Mike Meline
AF 00-015
Title:Advanced High Bandwidth, Large Dynamic Range, Large Size, Fast Steering Mirror
Abstract:The primary objective of this SBIR will be to perform the design processes leading to a preliminary design of an Advanced Fast Steering Mirror (AFSM) traceable to ABL and applicable to tracking tests underway at NOP. Trade studies, control simulations, modal analysis, and thermal analysis will be performed to produce an AFSM design which strikes an effective balance of performance drivers and available technology for actuators, flexures, and mirror sensors. The AFSM electronics will support implementations of control algorithms as developed by Mr. Karl Schrader, an SVS employee, in his Master's Thesis Paper titled: "A Modulated White Light Interferometer forSensing Sub-Wavelength Structural Disturbances". Karl will also investigate a new High Resolution Si Position Sensor (HRSPS) developed by The University of New Mexico. Karl has been granted the use of prototype sensors, from UNM, for development and application to this project. Mr. Mike Meline will lead the effort as Program Manager and Principle Investigator. Mike has 20 years of experience with design, fabrication and test of fast steering mirrors, and has published several fundamental papers on beam steering mirror technology. Mike will guide the SVS team through the design trades and technology selections culminating in a Preliminary Design Review (PDR) by the end of Phase I of this effort.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
R.K.Mehra/Constantino Rag
AF 00-016
Title:Bayesian Tracking for Optimal Exploitation of a Priori Information
Abstract:Scientific Systems Company, Inc. (SSCI) and itssubcontractor Lockheed Martin Tactical Defense Systems (LMTDS) propose to develop and demonstrate a concept-feasibility algorithm capable of optimally tracking targets within two- and three-dimensional images that are corrupted by background noise, target signature distortion effects (e.g. scintillation), etc. We propose to do this by using recursive Bayesian nonlinear filtering to optimally exploit all available a priori information (e.g. target shape, sensor noise statistics, clutter statistics, anticipated target motion statistics). Our baseline approach will be an LMTDS-developed approximate nonlinear filtering technique called Bayes-closed spectral compression. If n denotes the number of internal filter parameters, this filter has best-possible computational efficiency for a completely on-line technique: either O(n) or O(n log n) depending on the implementation. Unlike ad hoc approximation techniques, it is theoretically guaranteed not to diverge because of accumulation of approximation error and similar difficulties. A primary goal will be to model target shape, model (possibly time-correlated) background noise, model (possibly time-correlated) target signature distortion effects such as scintillation, and incorporate these models into a sensor likelihood function f(z|x). This work will be greatly aided by existing development in nonlinear filtering being conducted by SSCI and LMTDS under the AFRL/SNAT-sponsored ``Space-Based Targeting Technologies'' project.

OPTOLOCITY, INC.
7159 E. Cortez Rd.
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 991-4593
Bao-Hua Yang
AF 00-017
Title:Compact Optically Pumped High-Power Midwave IR Semiconductor Lasers
Abstract:We propose a novel packaging scheme for high-power optically pumped MWIR lasers. The proposed device module does not need any optics for the alignment and is very compact in size. During the program, numerous calibration runs laser structures will be grown using MBE. The package thermal management will also be optimized. It is expected that high-performance and high-power MWIR lasers can be realized utilizing mature 980 nm lasers as the pump source. These lasers will find not only defense but also many commercial applications such as chemical sensing, free space optical communications etc.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1 Building 12
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-0610
Jacobus S. Vermaak
AF 00-017
Title:Development of 1.8 to 3.5 Micron Semiconductor Diode Lasers for Infrared Countermeasure Applications
Abstract:Sensors Unlimited, Inc. will grow, fabricate and characterize two types of lasers: (1) A 3.5 m Type II AlGaAsSb/InAs/InGaSb W-quantum-well diode laser that outputs 100 mW for Band-II infrared countermeasure applications and (2) A 1.8 m InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs diode laser outputting 1 W as a source for Band-I infrared countermeasure applications. Both devices will be Fabry-Perot gain-guided oxide-stripe diode lasers. We will deliver one of each type of laser along with an optoelectronic characterization of the devices. Sensors Unlimited Inc. will subcontract Sarnoff Corporation to grow and fabricate low-loss broadened-waveguide laser structures in the antimonide and phosphide material systems. We will use W-quantum-well designs from the Naval Research Laboratory. Sensors will characterize threshold current, external efficiency, internal loss, maximum output power, and beam quality. This data will prove invaluable for further designs to be fabricated and tested in Phase II. For the Phase I program, Sensors and Sarnoff will leverage their experience in developing and commercializing both 2.6 m and 3.2 m antimonide-based quantum-well lasers and 1.3 m to 2 m phosphide based quantum-well lasers.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Christopher M. Gittins
AF 00-021
Title:Compact Semiconductor Laser-Based Environmental Monitoring System Development
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel approach for sensing of chemically contaminated materiel using recently emergent Quantum Cascade laser technology. Although substantial progress has been made in the remote detection of airborne chemical and biological plumes, the important problem of detecting contaminated surfaces after the passage of an active plume has not been adequately addressed. Building on a previous demonstration of QC laser-based DIAL detection of chemical vapor plumes, PSI will adapt our dual wavelength DIAL approach to the detection of trace chemical films on surfaces. Projected detection sensitivities suggest that agents such as VX can be detected at sub-lethal thresholds on surfaces at distances up to a few km. The Phase I program will validate the detection models in laboratory experiments and determine the minimum detectable concentration of chemical agent simulants. These results will be used to design a vehicle-mounted sensor for development and delivery to the AF during the Phase II portion of the program.

LAMBDA INSTRUMENTS
1607 Glade Road
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-0568
Jon Greene
AF 00-022
Title:Gratings for High-Power Yb-doped Fiber Lasers
Abstract:High-power fiber lasers are emerging as viable alternatives to traditional gas and solid-state laser systems for many military and industrial applications. The advantages of fiber lasers are numerous: extremely high damage thresholds, excellent beam quality, superior wavelength and temperature stability, small size, and very high powers using novel double-cladding fiber (DCF). Another advantage of using fiber as the lasing medium is the unique ability to fabricate mode conversion gratings directly within the fiber laser cavity for manipulation of both the signal and pump light. During Phase I, Lambda Instruments proposes to investigate the performance of novel fiber gratings as laser mirrors, pump light mode converters, and as signal light mode converters within future kilowatt-class fiber laser systems. To assist in the design, fabrication, and characterization of fiber gratings, Lambda has assembled a highly-experienced development team. The development team proposes to investigate the feasibility of advanced grating technology during Phase I, finalize the development of grating components for fiber laser applications during Phase II, and work with industry partners to commercialize advanced fiber laser and amplifier systems during Phase III and beyond.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S. Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Andrew Brown
AF 00-023
Title:Cost-Effective, Scalable, High-Power, Mid-IR Optically (laser) Pumped Molecular Laser Source
Abstract:The advantageous properties of solid state fiber lasers, and gas laser converters are merged to provide high power mid-IR radiation for Air Force missions such as countermeasures and remote sensing. Previous attempts to develop mid-IR sources from solid state lasers has resulted in a few Watts of average power due to thermally induced aberrations in non-linear converters. Here we propose to combine the excellent beam quality of fiber laser pump sources with the efficiency and average power handling capabilities of optically pumped molecular lasers. The gas laser provides coherent beam combination and wavelength down conversion. Key elements of our approach include: a new diode pump source for fiber lasers, high energy narrowband fiber laser operation, SBS parasitic elimination, and a method for efficient absorption of fiber laser power by the molecular gas laser. This method of generating a high power source for the Air Force supports the LITE program by leveraging existing laser technology from the telecommunications and material processing industries.

DIRECTED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
14125 Candlewood Ct.
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 277-1451
Jeff Nicholson
AF 00-023
Title:Cost-Effective, Scalable, Optically Pumped Molecular Laser
Abstract:Electrically powered, optically pumped molecular gas lasers offer superior beam quality, efficiency, wavelength diversity, and a wide range of power scaling. In this approach, molecular gases are pumped by a large number of well-developed, efficient, optical sources such as diode pumped solid state lasers, diode lasers, and fiber lasers. The resulting molecular laser effectively combines the numerous pump apertures into a single coherent aperture. Several key features of the optically pumped systems which must be demonstrated are: pump source frequency control, optical coupling efficiency into the molecular species, and the molecular physics associated with lasing and competing molecular processes. Nd:YAG pumping on the HBr (3,0) transition at 1.34 microns with lasing at 4 microns allows us to examine these issues. The Nd:YAG system serves as a test-bed for proving the technology essential for building both infrared and shorter wavelength diode and fiber pumped gas laser systems.

HOPE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
185 East Main Rd.
Little Compton, RI 02837
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 353-9991
Valerii Kozlov
AF 00-024
Title:High-Power Fiber Laser
Abstract:New designs for all glass cladding pumped fiber lasers are proposed. In order to increae the number of pumping ports, 2 x 2 couplers (multimode, 300 micron) of active (Yb doped) will be fabricated. This will increase the number of pumping ports toward the goal of increased power output. This work can be carried out because Hope Technologies, Inc. has access to the state-of-the-art facilities in the Laboratory for Lightwave Technology at the Boston University Photonics Center.

KIGRE, INC.
100 Marshland Road
Hilton Head, SC 29926
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 681-5800
John D. Myers
AF 00-024
Title:New High-Power Rare-Earth-Doped Glass Fiber Lasers
Abstract:A breakthrough in fiber laser technology has been achieved which opens the door to a whole new class of efficient ultra-high brightness laser sources. These diode pumped devices have the potential to replace or augment almost all existing industrial, medical, and military laser applications. Kigre's new QX phosphate laser materials exhibit high strength, high gain, high durability, and superior laser performance. This new laser glass material is well suited to suppliment the new fiber laser designs. Fiber lasers have now established themselves as leading contenders for a range of high-power applications. High efficiencies and high gains are readily achieved, and the problems of thermal loading and beam distortion can essentially be eliminated.

LASER POWER CORP.
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 755-0700
Maurice Pessot
AF 00-024
Title:High-Power Fiber Laser
Abstract:Power and brightness scaling of fiber lasers is limited by intrafiber damage intensity. Scaling to kW levels from the state-of-the-art requires designs which coherently integrate the output of multiple fiber cores. We have devised a means by which multiple fiber sources are combined coherently to produce an output with an N-fold increase in power and N2-fold increase in brightness. The specific method involves a master oscillator which seeds an array of fiber amplifiers. Feeding all amplifiers from a common master, synchronism in operating frequency and temporal coherence is assured. Each fiber amplifier incorporates a phase control element for precision control of the phase at the output of that fiber, allowing for synthesis of the required spatial phasefront and, hence, the desired far-field beam profile. Our design is insensitive to variation in fiber parameters, eliminates the need for precise control of multiple oscillators, and is infinitely scalable by virtue of its modularity.The Phase I program will verify our design by demonstrating phase control of several independent fiber sources. This will validate the design and provide the data necessary for implementation of control systems required in the highly parallel architecture envisioned for the Phase II program.

SPINNAKER SEMICONDUCTOR
100 Union Street SE, Rm. 546
Minneapolis, MN 55455
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 626-8788
John Snyder
AF 00-031
Title:Ballistic Transport Schottky Barrier CMOS for Ultra-High Performance and Space Applications
Abstract:Spinnaker Semiconductor will develop a low temperature variant of its proprietary Schottky Barrier CMOS (SBCMOS) technology. Cooled, short channel (<100nm) Schottky Barrier MOS devices offer the possibility for ballistic transport between source and drain and thus are expected to have tremendous performance advantages over their room temperature, conventional CMOS counterparts. These include the virtual elimination of gate oxide surface scattering and the resulting increase in carrier mobility, reduction in noise, and improved long-term reliability and/or switching performance. The SBCMOS technology is also unconditionally immune to parasitic bipolar effects such as latch-up and is orders of magnitude less sensitive to heavy-ion strikes and other single event phenomena. Furthermore, the process sequence is significantly simpler and more manufacturable than that for room temperature, conventional CMOS, while simultaneously offering more compact design rules for circuit layout and total dose hardness to 1Mrad. Finally, Spinnaker Semiconductor's SBCMOS process is an all-silicon technology that uses standard processing steps and is easily integrated into existing silicon fabrication lines, allowing it to achieve similar economies of scale compared to conventional silicon CMOS.

PLANETARY SYSTEMS CORP.
1739 U St NW
Washington, DC 20009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 667-0497
Walter Holemans
AF 00-032
Title:Advanced Micro-Mechanisms for Small Satellites
Abstract:An innovative, lightweight and compact separation system is presented. Its new approach to separation system design provides major improvements over traditional V-bands, separation bolts and explosive frangible joints. This concept, dubbed "Lightband", weighs one fourth that of existing technologies and is half the height. The time and reset cost are a fraction of existing technologies allowing cost effective and statistically meaningful reliability measurements. Separation springs and innovative low friction separation electrical connectors are integral to the design, easing spacecraft integration and design effort and reducing needed footprint. The Lightband uses no pyrotechnics. Consequently, shock, static discharge, particulate contamination, and safety concerns have been reduced or eliminated. The Lightband is shorter allowing payload to get taller. The Lightband's versatility allows use on space vehicle and missile diameters from 8.0 to 102.0 inches and can be shaped to common geometric shapes to optimize high-density spacecraft packaging concepts. Improvements will yield significant cost savings and an increased mass to orbit performance 1 - 3% of most space systems, and significantly more on small (<100 lb) payloads. The Lightband can similarly improve launch vehicle and missile staging.

STARSYS RESEARCH
4909 Nautilus Ct. North
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-1925
Kurt Lankford
AF 00-032
Title:Advanced Micro-Mechanisms for Small Satellites
Abstract:A significant technical challenge presented by future space-based precision deployable structures (NGST, SBL and others) is the requirement that the structure be rigid after deployment. To create a rigid structure, the components must be fixed in the deployed configuration with ultra-stiff latches (stiffness>1X106 lbf/inch). The proposed innovation will develop a self rigidizing, ultra-high stiffness capture latch for deployable structures. Ultra-high stiffness is obtained through solidification of low melting point metal alloy within the latch joint. This unique, innovative approach is fundamentally different from other latching concepts. It has the potential to provide extremely high stiffness from a compact, lightweight package, enabling the development of highly stiff deployable structures. In Phase I system trades will be evaluated and the technology will be verified. A proof-of-concept prototype will be designed, manufactured and functionally tested. Target requirements for the mechanism include the following: --Stiffness: > 1700 kN/cm(1 million pound/inch) --Position Stability: <100 nanometer --Engagement Accommodation: +/- 1.5 mm (.06 inch) --Mass: < 150 g. In Phase II the design will be refined and qualified for a specific application. Additional Phase II efforts will develop a family of self-rigidizing components that will provide a "tool-kit" for precision deployable systems.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Scott C. Pendleton
AF 00-033
Title:Shock Isolation System for Spacecraft Launch and Release (SISSLR)
Abstract:Spacecraft are subjected to extreme shock loads during launch and separation from the launch vehicle. These loads can damage components on the spacecraft, potentially threatening mission success. The proposed program will develop an innovative whole spacecraft shock isolation system that integrates a shock isolation device with a low-shock release mechanism. The combination of the two technologies creates one component serving multiple roles: mounting spacecraft to the launch vehicles, attenuating launch vehicle shock loads, and providing a low-shock spacecraft release. The work performed will allow the spacecraft designer to design primarily for mission performance rather than launch and release survivability. Design concepts and engineering drawings will be developed for both discrete mounted and clamp band mounted small spacecraft (40 to 150 lb) that either mount to a dispenser or directly to a launch vehicle. An engineering model of one concept will be fabricated and shock tested to prove the shock isolation performance. In Phase II this effort will be expanded to include similar devices for larger spacecraft.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
12401 West 49th Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5153
Jeff Summers
AF 00-033
Title:Advanced Integrated Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle Technologies
Abstract:Both DOD and NASA have future missions that require the launch and deployment of an increasing number of single spacecraft, as well as multi-craft constellations. To ensure the longevity and usefulness of these high value assets has given rise to the need for on-orbit satellite servicing. Satellite providers, must begin to integrate a designed-for-maintenance philosophy into the architecture of future spacecraft. ITN Energy Systems (ITN) believes adopting design philosophies from the personal computer (PC) industry, the epitome of "plug and play" modularity at minimum production cost, may be the key to cost efficient, serviceable spacecraft. ITN is proposing development of a Next Generation Serviceable Satellite (NGSSAT) bus that integrates the latest advancements in the following technologies, enabling on-orbit servicing, and meeting the growing needs of the small satellite community. ? Modular Bus Architecture w/ Standardized Interfaces ? Multi-Functional Structures (MFS) - Electronics Packaging ? Thin-Film Power Generation/Storage ? Electric Ion Propulsion - Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT) ? Flexible Thermal Management Components. This Phase I SBIR program will perform initial NGSSAT system feasibility studies and demonstrate the enabling spacecraft bus technologies.

THINK COMPOSITES, INC.
101 Alma Street, #703
Palo Alto, CA 94301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 322-9433
Stephen W. Tsai
AF 00-035
Title:Composite Flywheel Structure
Abstract:A new look on materials, geometry and manufacturing processes of flywheels is proposed. Our systems approach relies heavily on analytic modeling of stress analysis, interactive failure criteria, optimization, curing, resin flow, contolled failure progression and life prediction. In particular, the optimum ply stiffness and density variations along the radial direction can significantly reduce radial stress and improve rotor's strength; i.e., a steep increase in hoop stiffness and decrease in density. Addition of radial plies, on the other hand, will increase both radial stiffness and stress. The net effect is low strength and high cost - an approach that we do not recommend. Rotors can be manufactured by cigarette rolling and/or filament winding with prepreg, wet or dry tows. In the last case, a centrifugal resin infusion is a good solution. Instead of the conventional multi-step curing, a single-step cure can produce quality product at reasonable cost. A rotor with graded strength can lead to a controlled failure thus reduce the containment requirement. Only the outer rim of the rotor needs high fiber volume. The goal is to ensure safety while minimize the containment requirement. The ultimate product of this work is a set of guidelines and software to produce rotors with high energy, durability and competitive cost.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technology Division 20600 Gramercy Place,
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Guoda Xu
AF 00-036
Title:An Integrated Laser Sensor Technology
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes a unique laser sensor which provides not only the needed information (both laser incident and threat information) with high sensitivity, but also offers a marketable product with high survivability, in a small package, with low mass, low power, and low cost. The proposed laser sensor will be capable of detecting the (i) angle of arrival (to determine where a threatening event took place), (ii) wavelength and time characteristics of laser incidence (what type of laser system was used), and (iii) coherence of incident light (to distinguish a real laser threat from ambient light as a false alarm). The key features of the proposed laser sensor include: (1) a single aperture design to significantly increase overall sensitivity, (2) a temporal coherence discriminator to significantly reduce false alarm rate, and (3) an integrated design approach to simultaneously detect angle of arrival and wavelength of incidence. In Phase I of this project, the design and characterization of the sensor will be conducted, and a proof of feasibility will be demonstrated with a laboratory model.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
3085 Woodman Drive Suite 200
Dayton, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 299-5999
Gordon R. Little, Ph.D.
AF 00-036
Title:Threat Warning/Attack Reporting Laser Sensor
Abstract:A laser sensor capable of detecting and recording pulsed and continuous wave (CW) laser for orbiting platforms will be designed. The sensor will cover the 0.4 to 12 micro-meter spectral band with sensitivity of 10 micro-W/sq. cm. The sensor will incorporate interferometric detection and pattern processing to enable operation in daytime scenarios. The Phase I effort will include demonstration of the laser detection approach in the visible/near IR band and formulation of a design for a prototype system.

STARSYS RESEARCH
4909 Nautilus Ct. North
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-1925
Mitchell Wiens
AF 00-037
Title:Advanced Satellite Docking and Servicing Platform
Abstract:Starsys Research in conjunction with support from MOOG Space Products Division, proposes to develop system baseline definition and requirements for an advanced docking and fluid/ electrical transfer platform that can be used with a "design for serviceability" spacecraft and servicing micro-satellite. This work will build on the groundwork that Starsys Research has already completed as part of a AFRL SBIR Phase II effort entitled "Development of an Orbital Replacement Unit and Associated Devices."

CAMBRIDGE COLLABORATIVE, INC.
689 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-5777
Patricia A. Manning
AF 00-038
Title:Expert System for Predicting Vibroacoustic Environments
Abstract:Prediction of vibroacoustic and shock environments for DoD and commercial launch vehicles and spacecraft is currently a costly and labor-intensive process. However, the analyses used to predict these environments are essential in order to ensure reliability of vehicle structures and airborne equipment. The objective of this proposed program is to develop an expert system that will allow users to increase prediction accuracy and reduce prediction costs. To be successful the expert system requires a major scientific advance to develop an accurate mid-frequency prediction technique. A mid-frequency technique that combines finite element modeling with statistical energy analysis modeling will be developed as part of the proposed effort.

VIBRO-ACOUSTIC SCIENCES, INC.
12555 High Bluff Drive Suite 310
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 350-0057
Paul G. Bremner
AF 00-038
Title:Expert System for Predicting Vibroacoustic Environments
Abstract:This SBIR project will develop critical vibroacoustic and shock analysis methods that are needed by the Air Force for a more rigorous and standardized approach to the prediction of launch environments for spacecraft, launch vehicles and flight hardware. The new methods developed will all build on existing prediction numerical analysis capabilities - such as AutoSEA software. They principally include improved empirical models for lift-off acoustic loads estimation (and other models to be provided by industry "experts"); more accurate methods for predicting localized random vibration and shock response of individual equipment items; mid-frequency acoustics modeling method (especially payload bay acoustics and spacecraft component loading); direct interactive link between test database and analysis and more rigorous method(s) for estimating uncertainty in vibroacoustic environment predictions. The new prediction methods will be implemented and documented in commercial software and "wrapered" for integration into other predictive software environments using new software industry standards CORBA, XML, etc.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
500 Office Center Drive Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 858-9308
Mark J. Montesano
AF 00-039
Title:Thermally Conductive Hinge Development for Deployable Radiators (kTC P k002)
Abstract:The current development trend of small, highly integrated satellites has created a challenge to remove heat. These small satellites have less surface area available for static radiator panels. To increase the radiative area, deployable radiators are used. Deployable space radiators require a hinge or flexible joint to provide the degree of freedom to deploy. Traditional designs using aluminum foil stacks are bulky and can be excessively stiff. kTC's thermal hinge concept incorporates thin high conductivity pyrolytic graphite foils. These flexible foils have high conductivity (>1000 W/mK) and low mass (<2.1 g/cm3). The combination of high conductivity, low density and flexibility result in a small lightweight hinge assembly. The goal of the proposed Phase I program is to determine the feasibility of incorporating kTC's material system in a thermal hinge for a deployable radiator through the development and evaluation of a prototype hinge assembly. The program will establish key design, fabrication and performance characteristics. Immediate payoffs include improved thermal performance, and significant weight reduction of radiator assemblies. These payoffs will allow for increased reliability and support the trend toward smaller less expensive satellites.

SADDLEBACK AEROSPACE
10523 Humbolt Street
Los Alamitos, CA 90720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 598-3700
Geoffrey O. Campbell
AF 00-040
Title:Boiling Enhanced Micro-Channel Heat Sink for Electronic Cooling
Abstract:As semiconductor devices are driven towards higher powers and faster speeds, they require more capable thermal management technologies. This has led to the use of high performance microchannel cooling, but further improvements in heat transfer performance are sought to: 1) improve temperature stability in the coolers, and 2) increase the heat flux limits of microchannels. Boiling is a potential way to limit the temperature in the coolers, reduce coolant usage, and increase internal heat transfer coefficients. However, only a handful of studies have been performed on 2-phase microchannel flows. The Phase I effort is designed to characterize the fluid and heat transfer physics of 2-phase flows in microchannel systems. The proposed work involves an extensive set of flow visualization experiments in silicon microchannels. The experimental work is complemented by analytic interpretation of the results, generating heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for 2-phase flows in micro-ducts. This will provide the needed understanding to support development of design tools for the generation of cooling systems for laser diodes and electronics. This understanding will be demonstrated during the Phase I program through the fabrication of a microchannel cooler optimized for 2-phase flow.

VIBRO-ACOUSTIC SCIENCES, INC.
12555 High Bluff Drive Suite 310
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 840-3939
Stephen D. O
AF 00-041
Title:Active Control of Payload Fairing Noise Using Smart Foam
Abstract:This project will construct a conceptual yet practical design of an active-passive control system to cancel broadband acoustic noise in launch vehicle payload fairings with an emphasis on the very low frequencies where past methods have proved unsatisfactory. A thorough review of active-passive technologies will be conducted to determine those that can deliver both low and high frequency performance while observing stringent limits on weight, volume, and electrical power. Candidate technologies will be evaluated using a software testbed developed using realistic characterizations of fairing noise environments during launch. Particular attention will be paid to distributed actuation/sensor technologies like smart foam due to their ability to provide large active control authority at low frequency while maintaining the high frequency performance of passive control. The Phase I concept design will be simulated numerically to predict performance and provide estimates of weight, volume and electrical power requirements in order to demonstrate the practicality of the selected approach.

QUANTUM LEAP INNOVATIONS, INC.
2700 Philadelphia Pike P.O. Box 970
Claymont, DE 19703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 798-0899
Thomas A. Pelaia
AF 00-042
Title:Artificial Intelligence Hybrid Range Scheduler
Abstract:Real-time reactive scheduling of ground and space resources such as antennae and communication lines for missions is a demanding, NP-hard problem that challenges the use of any solution technique. The system that schedules ground and space resources must quickly adapt plans to changing mission requirements and unexpected events. We intend to address these issues by architecting a three-layer hybrid approach, composed of a multi-agent hierarchical planning/scheduling system, a flexible model of resource scheduling, and a hybrid numeric/heuristic optimization system. The top layer applies distributed intelligent agents to manage the scheduling of resources in real-time. This multi-agent approach allows for collaborative scheduling, fault tolerance, hierarchical decomposition, and localized reactive scheduling. The middle layer is an extensible model of the resource-scheduling domain. This layer will support a variety of local and non-local views of the problem, exploiting the same structure at several levels of detail. The bottom layer is an existing optimization engine, composed of thirty numeric and heuristic techniques in a cooperative-competitive environment. This system solves general optimization problems efficiently, and enables models of the middle layer to be extremely flexible. Together, these layers will provide an effective solution to the adaptive real-time scheduling of ground and space resources for missions.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Sheryl Atterberg
AF 00-044
Title:GPS-based User Equipment (GbUE) for all Altitude Tracking
Abstract:Studies have shown that GPS tracking can be used for space vehicles at high altitudes, including up to geo-synchronous (GEO), although there may be some performance issues. The number of GPS satellites visible to a GEO orbit user varies from 0 to 3, which is inadequate for a determinate position solution based on GPS alone. GPS tracking could significantly simplify implementation of autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in upper stages and satellites. Even without full autonomy, GPS tracking has the potential of shortening the orbit determination process by using a single contact to determine position after a satellite maneuver. Phase I of this SBIR will include a review of all space qualified GPS receivers and their flight experience; provide additional data on disturbances sources, provide detailed design options; develop a preliminary GbUE design including test plans for a low cost, low power, lightweight, miniaturized size for long-life space missions at high altitudes; and provide a feasibility and benefit study of timeline compression and autonomous operation of satellite systems using GPS tracking instead of SGLS ranging. Phase II of this SBIR will include design, fabrication, and test of a prototype GbUE solution; including software, hardware, and tracking operation procedure.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7709
Jeffrey D. Black
AF 00-047
Title:Low Power FFT/IFFT Processor
Abstract:The GPS has become an essential component of the Warfighting apparatus of the United States. Although the system has had outstanding success in enhancing Warfighting capability, it is recognized that there are weaknesses in the system that must be removed if needed performance is to be realized in the 21st century. Currently, the greatest need in navigation is jamming resistant technology. Narrowband sources of interference can easily be countered using nonlinear adaptive frequency domain filtering/processing techniques, namely frequency domain excision (FFT-based excision). As jamming power increases, the need exists for filters with jamming suppression capabilities approaching 60 dB. Simulations have shown that these suppressions can be obtained by processing in the frequency domain. Current FFTs dissipate excessive amounts of power and are therefore not applicable in relatively small (handheld) GPS receivers and satellite nodes. Our proposed effort will examine performance/power trades, apply an innovative extremely low power option, and develop a product specification.

SICOM, INC.
7585 E. Redfield Road, Suite 2
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 607-4829
Rod Lee
AF 00-047
Title:Low Power Interference and Jamming Filter for GPS Receivers
Abstract:SiCOM proposes to develop a small, low-power, and low-cost device to enable operation of GPS receivers in strong interference and jamming environments. The device will enable GPS receivers, including upgrades to the Military Airborne GPS Receiver (MAGR), and the Army's family of handheld GPS receivers, to operate with partial-band jamming signals 1000 times stronger than otherwise possible with existing military GPS radios. SiCOM proposes to produce the device as a single integrated circuit chip less than 0.3 inch on a side, consuming less than 0.2 watt. The device will perform spectral excision of offending signals using an innovative fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm that enables excision without distorting the satellite signals. SiCOM calls this processing "AJAX" (Anti-Jam Adaptive eXcision). Phase I of the proposed project will: 1) determine the feasibility of integrating AJAX processing and an analog-to-digital converter in a single small-size, low-power application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), 2) determine the feasibility of integrating other GPS processing functions, such as de-spreading of GPS signals in the same ASIC, thereby saving additional size, power, and cost of GPS receivers, 3) optimize design features such as word length and automatic gain control, and 4) demonstrate AJAX performance using a modified military GPS receiver.

JAYCOR, INC.
9775 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 837-9100
T.G. Bo Henderson
AF 00-048
Title:Robust Microtip Emitter Arrays for Microelectronics
Abstract:The technology to fabricate wide band semiconductor microtips and vacuum field effect transistors will be developed. More specifically, micro-vacuum-tube electronics utilizing CVD diamond microtip emitters (patent pending) as the cold cathode, a CVD diamond micro-patterned grid or self aligned gate, and a CVD diamond anode will be developed. Each device will be 3 microns square and will be fabricated in an array having 10 million devices in 1 cm^2. The very small vacuum tubes will have plate currents of 100 micro-amps at grid voltages of a few volts. Individual microtriodes could be connected together using modern semiconductor metalization methods to form extremely radiation tolerant high temperature processors. Or the microtriode array can be ganged together to form an extremely high power RF amplifier which has plate current of 1,000 amps/cm^2 and plate voltages in the kilovolt range. Grid voltages on the order of tens of volts will control the current emission and potentially produce megawatts of power from a 1 cm^2 device. During Phase I, CVD diamond microtip emitter arrays will be fabricated and tested in the laboratory in a diode configuration. The Phase II program will design, fabricate, test, and deliver CVD diamond microtriodes.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2620 Trade Center Avenue
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 702-1672
Dmitri Routkevitch
AF 00-048
Title:Arrays of Aligned WBGS Nanotips for Rugged Field Emission Sources
Abstract:Affordable and reliable technology is needed for fabrication of micro- and nanotip field emitters from wide band gap semiconductors (WBGS), which could enable new high current electron sources for severe operating conditions, such as high temperature and harsh electromagnetic radiation. Although several approaches for making field emitter arrays were demonstrated up to date, their emission threshold, sustainable current density, and survivability are not sufficient for many military and commercial applications. The proposed effort seeks to develop novel arrays of aligned WBGS nanoemitters, prepared in self-organized nanoporous ceramic substrate. The arrays will be integrated into field emission cathodes for vacuum field effect transistors and other vacuum microelectronic devices, operating in harsh environments. The approach is compatible with conventional microfabrication, economical and scaleable to large areas. The Phase I will demonstrate the proof-of-concept by fabricating and evaluating a prototype of a vacuum field emission microdiode with integrated array of WBGS nanoemitters. Phase II will design, fabricate and demonstrate the operation of vacuum field effect transistors in harsh conditions, provide packaged prototypes to the Air Force and to industrial partners for evaluation, and initiate commercialization effort.

NITRES, INC.
5655 Lindero Canyon Road, Suite 404
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 967-9433
Primit Parikh
AF 00-049
Title:Rugged, Reliable, Rad-Hard Gallium Nitride Space Electronic Components
Abstract:Widebandgap semiconductors such as GaN, SiC have a large breakdown voltage, large Joule and high thermal conductivity, are radiation tolerant and have a large on-to-off current ratio. This makes it potentially possible to fabricate rugged, reliable and radiation hard electronic components for next generation space electronics, which are also compact and cost effective. Of the widebandgap systems, Nitride based wide bandgap semiconductors are particularly suited for these applications. This is due to the combination of the wide-band gap and hetero-structure in the AlGaN/GaN system, where high voltage, high current and low on-resistance can be simultaneously achieved, resulting in high efficiency, high power density, high temperature operation. In this program, Nitres proposes to develop a single platform for realizing the components of an IC technology targeting high frequency (~ 10's of GHz), high operating temperatures (~ 500 K), high breakdown voltage (~ 100's of Volts), and radiation hard operation. Of particular importance will be realization of the above goals with compact size (small footprints), rugged and low cost operation. During phase I Nitres will design and demonstrate: a. Resistors b. Capacitors c. Diodes d. Transisdition to the above, Nitres Inc. will also demonstration preliminary integration of these components into an IC technology and focus in the phase II on full-scale development of components and IC technology for Space Electronics.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Marek Turowski
AF 00-050
Title:High Speed Inertial MEMS Sensors with Field Emitter Array Readout
Abstract:MEMS based inertial sensors have successfully transitioned from academic laboratories to commercial markets and became a commodity product in automotive industry. It took more than a decade of R&D to large degree because of lengthy design, fabrication, testing procedures and lack of adequate design tools. CFDRC and Sarnoff Corp. propose to develop a new generation of accelerometers and gyroscopes with variable geometry field emitter (FE) device readout. Advanced modeling and design tools will be used to develop optimized design of fast, sensitive, rugged and rad-hard qualified devices which could be used for defense (missile, satellite guidance and navigation) and commercial applications. In Phase I work will concentrate on experimental characterization of existing variable FE devices with movable cathode, anode, and gate and variable geometry planar FE devices. Experimental data will be used for model validation, for development of new final design, for wide bandgap materials selection, and for the noise control. Selected designs of linear and angular accelerometers will be finalized as complete fabrication specs (masks, fabrication process steps,..) and will be fabricated in Phase II. CFDRC will also deliver integrated CAD tools for multidisciplinary design of inertial sensors with FE devices. In Phase II and III, CFDRC and Sarnoff will share the technology with US defense industry and will commercialize the technology to OEM commercial vendors for automotive, consumer, microelectronic products.

INTEGRATED MAGNETOELECTRONICS
1214 Oxford St.
Berkeley, CA 94709
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 841-3585
Richard Spitzer
AF 00-051
Title:Stacked Non-Volatile Magnetic Memory Element
Abstract:Stacking of non-volatile magnetic memory elements to increase data storage capacity by a factor of eight is proposed by IME Corporation in response to DoD SBIR program solicitation 001 Topic AF00-051 "Stacking of Magnetic Memory Chips". The proposed project, entitled "Stacked Non-Volatile Magnetic Memory Elements"' will develop stacking methods whereby up to an eight fold increase in capacity will be acheived with three-dimensional bit stacking of GMR (Giant MagnetoResistive) memory elements. Stacked multiple bits, one on top of another, save significant space and weight by sharing the same substrate and packaging. Duplication of ground planes and magnetic shielding is not required. A successful program will provide the foundation for fast, radhard, random-access, low power high density storage that is also non-volatile and robust.

AET, INC.
1900 S. Harbor City Blvd. Suite 115
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 727-0328
Glenn T. Hess
AF 00-052
Title:Novel Solution for Radiation Hardened DSP Circuits
Abstract:This SBIR program will give the US Air Force the capability to have several different vendors designing and fabricating high performance DSP chips which are hardened to nuclear radiation. Few rad-hard DSP chips exist at this time and no IC vendors have the ability (or interest) to produce them. Without rad-hard DSP circuits, military satellites used for communications will be at a severe disadvantage. AET, Inc. will develop a multiple vendor rad-hard DSP capability by developing a novel system for the modeling and simulation of these complex chips. Specific attention will focus on achieving radiation hardness to total ionizing dose and single event effects on circuits that use advanced silicon-on-insulator technology. This system will aid in more accurate hardness, cost, and performance analyses and will guide the proper topograhic layout and facilitate achieving the required electrical performance AET has a strong team to develop this design system. AET's personnel have over 100 man-years of experience in radiation hardened semiconductor devices with over 20 patents, and an excellent track record at delivering unique computer models and simulators targeted towards harsh environments. This team will also include a commercial IC manufacturer, such as Intersil Corporation during the development of the system.

INNOVATIVE SYSTEMS & TECHNOLOGIES
2345 Anvil Street
St. Petersburg, FL 33710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 347-4200
James W. Wall
AF 00-052
Title:Radiation Hardened DSP
Abstract:This research program is intended to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a radiation-hardened digital signal processor (DSP) chip. The approach shall be to take an existing commercial design and implement it in a radiation-hardened process with modifications to enhance its single-event effect resistance. This will be the first DSP to be produced in a fully-hardened (total ionizing dose and single event effect) form. Earlier work by insyte and Lockheed Martin produced a commercially-compatible DSP chip (an Analog Devices ADI21020) in a hardened IC process through a small study contract. By using well-understood techniques, insyte proposes to build on its earlier commercial DSP hardening work to produce a DSP hardened to natural space radiation levels.Specific goals of the work include: 0.25 micron target process, 1MRad total dose, SEU LET > 75, no SEL to LET > 120, graphics-only redesign (no logic or resimulation required.)

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
12401 West 49th Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5159
Thomas Stephenson
AF 00-053
Title:Non-Volatile RAMs Based on Self-Contained Energy Sources
Abstract:ITN Energy Systems, a producer of solid-state thin film batteries, and Space Electronics, Inc., a producer of radiation hardened space electronics propose to develop a non-volatile RAM with an integrated thin film lithium battery for space applications. The goal is to combine the latest technology hardened SRAM's (Static Random Access Memory) with an innovative approach to providing local (i.e. contained within the same package) energy storage that shall supply sufficient power to retain memory contents during periods when regular satellite power is briefly disrupted.

THESEUS LOGIC, INC.
Suite 100 3501 Quadrangle Blvd
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 541-3666
Dennis Ferguson
AF 00-054
Title:Low Power NCL FPGA
Abstract:It is clear that continuing to seek performance improvements using traditional design and implementation techniques will not provide the "next order of magnitude" improvement in digital logic performance. Theseus Logic is commercializing a unique technology that will facilitate low power, system level IC design. NULL Convention Logic - provides a new and fundamentally more expressive "language" for the design of digital circuits and systems.At the system level, NCL provides: its which are inherently clockless, data driven, and delay insensitive Lower power operation, Reduced EMI, Guaranteed oper wide range of environmental conditions. Plug and Play system ination. Under this SBIR, Theseus intends to analyze the fundamental cell size and routing resource issues leading to the development of an NCL FPGA. Any NCL design which is functionally correct will operate independent of variations in routing structures, environmental conditions, and process technology. This gives NCL technology unique design and performance advantages when expressed as a reconfigurable logic product. Theseus expects the Phase I effort to address fundamental tradeoffs leading to a Phase II design and fabrication effort. Theseus is already in discussion with major design tool and FPGA vendors to commercialize such a product.

AIREX CORP.
Route 108
Dover, NH 03820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 742-3703
David Carroll
AF 00-055
Title:Space Qualified, Low Cost Compact Disk Data Storage/Retrieval System
Abstract:Recent advances in electromagnetic technology clearly lend themselves to application in space-based data storage/retrieval systems. Commercial data storage systems provide low cost, long-life operation and strong logic/control systems, but employ mechanical bearings that limit their resistance to shock and life expectancy. A similar system ruggedized for space via integrated magnetic motor/bearing technology and combined with a flexible control interface system to handle format conversions would offer dramatic improvement in on-board space systems. The vacuum and temperature extremes of space provide significant technical challenges to mechanical bearings, which are completely unable to provide any vibration isolation to sensitive read/write heads or optics. This proposal will prove that bearing functions can be coupled with motor functions in single electromagnetic devices that exhibit longer life with no maintenance at a lower cost. Additional benefits include significant improvement in disk drive system performance, lower weight and vibration isolation potential that does not exist in other technologies. Airex Corporation has, in recent SBIR efforts, demonstrated the viability of integral motor-bearing technology. Airex has also shown that integral motor-bearings point the way to highly reliable, low power, lubricant free, and long life motion platforms. Such functional sophistication can expand performance in commercial or military space-borne platforms.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P. Scaringe
AF 00-056
Title:Demonstration of a Compact Spacecraft Cryocooler
Abstract:Mainstream has developed an innovative cryocooler design that combines a multi-cascaded single-compressor vapor-compression system with a closed Brayton cycle, and an adsorption cooler to achieve low-temperature cryocooling in a compact micro-gravity configuration. In Phase I we propose to demonstrate this unique hybrid configuration. Phase I will provide experimental verification of the approach and experimentally derived "hard Numbers" to support the cooling capacity claims of this proposal. Preliminary research by Mainstream has already demonstrated a cryocooling system specific capacity of 37 watts (cooling) per cubic foot! The Phase I effort is significant, in that a field demonstration of this low temperature compact configuration will be achieved before proceeding to Phase II. Previous experiments have already demonstrated that the cascade cryocooling portion of the proposed cycle is already significantly more efficient than Stirling or Pulse Tube systems. (Mainstream's cascade cooler performance is 18-20% of Carnot whereas Stirling or Pulse Tube systems are only 5-10% of Carnot). The completion of the Phase II contract would result in the adaptation of this demonstrated cryocooler technology specifically for a DOD application. The commercialization of this cryocooler compliments our existing cryocoolers.

MPI SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
101 S. Lafayette #33
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 320-4300
Darwin Ammala
AF 00-057
Title:A Portability Taxonomy and Framework for Migrating Between Embedded Processors
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovation Proposal Responds to Topic AF00-057, "Techniques for Assessing Approach for Migrating to Different Processors." The issue of software portability is an important and enduring challenge in DOD embedded systems. This effort involves practical research and development of modelling techniques and case-study assessments in order to deliver a "generic strategy" that can be used to train and to guide programmers who must perform portability functions for system upgrades. This effort also will deliver a framework in which to pose new software so that it can be made more suited to future portability. Interactions with reusable middleware, operating systems calls, vendor primitives, and hardware specifics are all considered in formulating the generic strategy, as are metrics that describe the source and target architectures for the port. Both sequential and parallel architectures will be covered. Nominal portability, as well as issues of real-time, space, and power constraints are to be considered.Proposer has direct, expert knowledge of programming portably between and among embedded single board computers, embedded parallel systems and clusters of workstations. Proposer has included a subcontractor from Mississippi State University with 26 years of DOD-relevant software engineering experience to complement Proposer's embedded expertise.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8809 Sudley Road Suite 101
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
William R. Sylvester, Jr.
AF 00-057
Title:Techniques for Assessing Approach for Migrating to Different Processors
Abstract:The rapid rate of processor technology advancements has led to the need for astructured methodology to assess the impact of migrating from one productgeneration to the next. This proposal describes a Products Matrix and Open Standards Database that drives a Migration Cost Assessment Algorithm for such a methodology. The proposal also describes an easy-to-use, graphically orientedtoolset to aid the user in the manipulation of the data required by the proposedmethodology.

MICROLAB
6401 E. Hummingbird Ln.
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 483-3458
Charles B. Wheeler
AF 00-058
Title:Novel Field Programmable Technology based on Latching Micro-Electromagnetic Switches
Abstract:We propose to develop a new field-programmable logic technology for "system-on-a-chip" applications. The new approach is based on our newly developed latching micro-electromagnetic switches (relays). These novel switches are based on preferential magnetization of permalloy cantilevers in an external magnetic field. Switching between the two stable states of is accomplished by an integrated coil underneath the cantilever. Since the switches have several advantageous properties (such as nonvolatility, low resistance, radiation hard, high temperature operation, compatible process with Si-circuits, etc.), we believe they can be further developed as switching elements in field-programmable circuits. Some particularly attractiveness for space application is its tolerance to hostile environment (radiation, and extreme temperature) and zero power consumption during quiescent states.

INTERFACE & CONTROL SYSTEMS, INC.
8945 Guilford Road Suite 120
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 290-7600
William H. Calk, Jr.
AF 00-059
Title:On-Board Intelligent Software for Spacecraft Autonomy
Abstract:Distributed-satellite systems are becoming recognized as an efficient and cost-effective means for accomplishing objectives once considered out of reach for their monolithic cousins. Collaborating systems of microsatellites can be dynamically adapted for various uses including: distributed, synthetic-aperture radar; geolocation; distributed ionospheric measurement; etc. The associated reduced launch costs of these under-100kg microsatellites makes them especially attractive to cost-conscious customers. Associated with space operations, satellite command and control is costly in terms of manpower, training, and operations that run continuously throughout the lifetime of the satellite. The development of an architecture and algorithms for facilitating distributed, virtual, cluster commanding (i.e., transparently commanding the entire cluster via one satellite) and autonomous operations provides many benefits such as reducing the size of the ground crew; reducing the required bandwidth of the satellite-to-ground link; decreasing the need for scheduled or dedicated ground assets (antennas, control stations, etc.); and reducing cost. A distributed command-and-control software architecture, encompassing both nominal commanding scenarios as well as anomalous scenarios is being proposed for the AFRL as part of an SBIR effort. This architecture, whose implementation will be prototyped and whose effectiveness will be demonstrated as part of this SBIR effort, is described in this proposal.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
John L. Mohammed
AF 00-059
Title:Autonomous Control and Coordination of Formation-Flying Satellite Clusters
Abstract:The trend towards constellations of large numbers of small satellites will quickly overwhelm current operations practices that rely on manual, fine-grained, ground-based monitoring and control. Autonomous, distributed, onboard management of spacecraft bus and payload subsystems could significantly reduce demands on ground-based resources by enabling high-level, goal-oriented control that enables the ground crew to interact with the entire constellation as a single integrated system. This is particularly useful for clusters of formation-flying spacecraft that must act in concert to achieve mission goals. We propose a distributed, agent-based architecture for increased satellite autonomy. This architecture will enable satellite clusters to respond more rapidly to problems, minimize the frequency of ground station contacts, and improve the capability for coordinated action by the satellites in the cluster. This will reduce operations costs while simultaneously improving the productivity of space-based assets. The goals of the Phase I research are to thoroughly understand the requirements for cluster monitoring and control, design an agent-based architecture for robust distributed autonomous control and prove the feasibility of the approach through the development of a prototype. Phase I research and prototype development will lay the groundwork for the Phase II implementation of the architecture and its eventual commercialization.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7633
Patrick McGuirk
AF 00-060
Title:Multiprocessor and ASIC Standard Interconnect for Space Systems
Abstract:The development of a versatile, low pin count, and open interconnection standard is proposed which will give system designers a large advantage when implementing an interconnection technology on many applications. The end product will be a simulated RTL (Register Transfer Level) VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) module which embodies the interconnection standard. Key aspects of the standard will be demonstrated with logic designs and simulations, including sections of a general purpose, crossbar switch IC and connection control logic. The protocol will be developed with respect to the following design objectives: low pin count, flexible topology, modularity, scalability, reliability, technology independence, a complete transaction set, simplicity, low latency, and semiconductor process independence. The developed protocol will support physical connections including crossbar switching, direct connections, and direct board-to-board connections. Additionally, the design of the protocol will support memory-to-memory transfers, register access, messaging and broadcast. A final report will be prepared which includes a preliminary version of the interconnect standard, identifies key areas for future development, and the prospects for publishing a completed standard under the auspices of an appropriate standards organization.

INNOVATIVE SYSTEMS & TECHNOLOGIES
2345 Anvil Street
St. Petersburg, FL 33710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 347-4200
Dennis R. Whittaker
AF 00-061
Title:High Speed RH Level-2 Cache
Abstract:Insyte proposes to do an advanced SRAM design with specific L2 cache design features. Such features include an overall architecture optimized for performance as a cache chip, full processor clock speed read/write cycle time, I/O optimized for back-side or side-by-side cache implementation, space-radiation hardening and minimum power consumption. Additional study during phase I shall explore the use of error-detection and correction (EDAC) circuitry for ultra-hard, high density memory implementation with limited performance penalties. Relevant parameter goals for the new research, analysis and design work are: Minimum transistor geometry - 0.25 micron; 1 M Rad total ionizing dose immunity; Single event latchup immunity to greater than a LET level of 120 MeV-cm2/mg; 1 Mbyte capacity; 100 MHz read/write cycle clock; 2.5V VDD; 4pF I/O load (specific to 1-to-1 processor/memory packaging_back-side packaging or equivalent); 5% VDD variation.

AVYD DEVICES, INC.
2925 COLLEGE AVENUE, UNIT A-1
COSTA MESA, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 751-8553
HONNAVALLI R VYDYANATH
AF 00-062
Title:Development of a High Performance P on n LWIR HgCdTe Device Technology
Abstract:AVYD DEVICES proposes to develop a p type doping approach at temperatures much less than 400 C and which will result in a negligible degree of heterostructure interdiffusion, near 100% acceptor activation efficiency and minimized defects in the depltion region of the devices. Phase I objective is to demonstrate high quality p type films using this approach. Phase II work aims to optimize the low temperature p type doping approach and demonstrate high performance 256x256 mosaics of LWIR HgCdTe photodiodes hybridized to Si Read Out Integration Chips.

EPIR, LTD.
410 North Weber Road Suite B
Romeoville, IL 60446
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 235-1511
Yuanping Chen
AF 00-062
Title:Effective Low-Temperature p-type Doping for HgCdTe IR Photodiodes
Abstract:High-performance HgCdTe focal plane arrays (FPAs) sensing in the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) region and advanced structures such as FPAs based on dual or multi-color detectors are highly desirable for various Air Force applications. Such device architecture requires not only reliable extrinsic n- and p-type doping in HgCdTe but also composition and doping profiles precisely controlled. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is recognized as the best technique to grow high performance advanced heterostructure devices based on HgCdTe. Although in MBE-HgCdTe the n-type doping with indium is well under control, the situation concerning the p-type doping with arsenic, which is the most suitable acceptor, is more complex. Arsenic molecules (As4 and As2) incorporated in HgCdTe during MBE growth predominately behave as donors. High temperature annealing of about 400 0C is necessary to activate arsenic species into acceptors. Annealing at such high temperature is very detrimental for as-grown MBE-HgCdTe heterostructures since junctions and interfaces with atomic-scale controlled profiles will interdiffuse during the annealing. Therefore, it is mandatory to achieve p-type doping with group V elements at a temperature close to MBE growth temperature. In this SBIR Phase I program, we propose a technique using planar doping with atomic arsenic source to achieve p-type doping in HgCdTe at or near MBE growth temperature i.e below 250 0C. In this approach, the arsenic atoms will be forced to react with Hg atoms during the growth in order to enhance the incorporation of arsenic atoms at non-metallic sites. The ultimate goal of this SBIR effort is to achieve p-type doping at MBE growth temperature.

ENGINEERING MECHANICS CORP. OF COLUMBUS
3518 Riverside Drive Suite 202
Columbus, OH 43221
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 459-3200
Yong-Yi Wang
AF 00-063
Title:Low Temperature Flip Chip Bonding of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays on Readout Circuit Substrate
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of a low-temperature flip chip bonding technique for interconnects between multi-waveband detector layers of a large-format detector array and its corresponding readout array with greater than 85% fill factor. The new flip chip bonding technique allows the formation of fine pitch bumps with high aspect ratio (>1). The low temperature bonding reduces the thermal stress and strain at the interconnects thus promoting more reliable joints and minimizing any damages to the devices. The graded material makes it possible to have bumps of high aspect ratio and low thermal stresses. The bonding process creates "self-cleaning" effects on the fraying bonding surfaces, thus eliminating the need for fluxing or protective environment. The advanced analytical methods can provide optimal interconnect design with lowest possible thermal stresses. The process modeling tools developed in this proposal can be used to select processing parameters for a wide range of applications. The effective processing tool design can be achieved using the insights provided by the process modeling tools. This new bonding technique and associated design and evaluation tools should be extremely valuable to the end user of the process and the equipment manufacturers for this process

MICROWAVE BONDING INSTRUMENTS
2018 Crestlake Ave.
South Pasadena, CA 91030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 354-0718
Nasser Budraa
AF 00-063
Title:Multi-waveband Interconnect Technology
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate a novel interconnect bonding method. This method utilizes radio frequency (RF) and high frequency (HF) electromagnetic waves in single-mode cavity (SMC). This process has the capability to achieve interconnect bonding between stacked sensors, and could be customized for multi-waveband detector arrays. While this method preserves the fill factor in all detector wavebands, it also has the advantages of lower temperature processing, and reduction of the interconnect bump thickness by an order of magnitude. One ultimate goal of this process is exclude the indium bump bonding process and its associated costs. Replacing the indium metal by a higher melting temperature metal (e.g. Al) would immediately enhance the mechanical strength of the device.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mark V. Zagarola
AF 00-064
Title:A High Capacity Turboalternator for Turbo-Brayton Cryocoolers
Abstract:Future DoD cryogenic cooling requirements include space missions with relatively large cooling demands. These include space-based lasers, orbiting vehicles requiring cooling of stored fuels, and space-based platforms using large arrays of infrared detectors. Loads for these applications will range from several watts to tens of watts. Temperatures of interest are between 10 K and 100 K. Current reverse turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are optimized for a limited range of loads and temperatures, significantly below those of future high-capacity requirements. In order to meet future needs for high-capacity cooling, additional research and development must be performed on the turboalternator, a key component in the system. This proposal addresses the development of a high-capacity turboalternator. During Phase I, we will establish fundamental loss characteristics for the machine through testing and analysis. In Phase II a turboalternator will be optimized for a specific DoD application. Tests will be performed in a closed-loop cryocooler to verify the models and scaling laws.

TTH RESEARCH, INC.
3403 Londonleaf Lane
Laurel, MD 20724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 641-2954
Triem T. Hoang
AF 00-064
Title:Flexible Across-Gimbal Cryogenic Cooling Transport System
Abstract:Next generation space infrared sensing instruments and spacecraft cryocooling systems will require drastic improvements in cryocooling technology in terms of performance and ease of integration. Although flexible or structural isolation joints are required in optical benches and/or kinematically mounted instruments, gimbaled cryogenic infrared payloads have additional and difficult-to-meet requirements for 2-axis motion and low torque. The ability to provide cooling for on-gimbal cryogenic optics/sensors with spacecraft-mounted coolers will result in revolutionary improvements in a number of areas. The difficulty of making a cryogenic thermal connection across any type of flexible joint, much less a gimbaled joint, cannot be overstated. Because of the cryogenic nature of the connection, thermal joint flexibility, durability, reliability, material compatibility, differential expansion/contraction, and parasitic heat loss, are all highly complex, temperature-dependent technical concerns. At present, a solution that can meet this technical need does not exist and the technology base to solve this problem is incomplete. An advanced concept of Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe (CLHP) is proposed to transport cryogenic cooling across a gimbaled joint. The CLHP system will have low parasitics, high cooling efficiency, repeatable operation, and long-lasting flexibility is a revolutionary technical need that can enable spacebased infrared sensor missions for the Air Force.

ATHENA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 331-1051
Ben Motazed
AF 00-065
Title:Low-Cost Miniature Flight Control System
Abstract:Athena Technology, Incorporated (Athena) in teaming with Honeywell Corporation, proposes to develop an affordable and survivable flight control system (FCS), based on integrated INS/GPS technology, capable of performing guidance, navigation and control functions for small launch vehicles. The proposed approach leverages Athena's patented and flight demonstrated fault-tolerant control (FTC) capability, and Honeywell's experise in control and navigation sensor hardware development and manufacturing. The overall system will provide real-time failure detection and isolation, and achieve "On-the-Fly" reconfiguration of the flight control system even in face of failures. Athena's approach uniquely achieves this with the design of only a few control design points, valid and stable over the entire operational envelope. The elegance of this design formulation produces robust and very small footprint control algorithms, resulting in efficient software maintenance, moderate computational requirements, and overall reduction in life-cycle cost.

ORION DYNAMICS & CONTROL, INC.
2525 Arapahoe Ave., C-216
Boulder, CO 80302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 579-8071
Mark R Krebs
AF 00-065
Title:The Silicon Pilot - A Low Cost Rocket Controller
Abstract:Orion will develop a flight control system capable of guiding a low-cost launch vehicle to orbit, leveraging on technology developed in-house for aircraft applications. This system combines guidance, navigation and control functions with strapdown inertial sensors in a single small package. Low cost and high performance is achieved by combining data from modern micro-machined inertial sensors in a Kalman filter with GPS position and velocity data. The inertial sensors will produce high-bandwidth attitude information in the short-term, while the GPS data will be used for low-bandwidth guidance. The GPS data will also be used to estimate the long-term errors in the inertial sensors. Within the scope of the Phase I SBIR program, specifications will be determined, components selected, and algorithms developed. The system will be prototyped and demonstrated in (atmospheric) flight as the major task in the Phase I program. Follow-on work will harden the components and perform system environmental qualification testing under representative vibration, thermal-vacuum and acceleration environments.

AEC-ABLE ENGINEERING CO., INC.
93 Castilian Dr.
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 685-2262
Dave Murphy
AF 00-066
Title:Inflatable Structures for Lightweight Solar Arrays
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop and characterize several conceptual thin-film deployable solar array systems that promise state-of-the-art performance in terms of mass, stowed volume, and cost. Enabling material and component technologies will be applied based on trades as appropriate to optimize each proposed system. The most promising array systems resulting from this study will be preliminarilly designed, analyzed, and parametrically characterized. These results will be presented in a design review and summarized in a final report. Plans will be established to support continued Phase II development and validation of the most promising systems.

L'GARDE, INC.
15181 Woodlawn Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 259-0771
David Lichodziejewski
AF 00-066
Title:Inflatably Deployed Conical Rigidizable Boom Development
Abstract:The use of rigidizable inflatably deployed booms for deployment and support of thin film solar arrays shows great promise because of their light weight and small packaged volume. Two major issues have not been satisfactorily resolved. These are the rigidization system and deployment control. These will both be addressed during this study. The rigidization system is based on elastomeric like resins that become rigid as the temperature is reduced below its glass transition temperature (Tg). During deployment the rigidizable boom will be above its Tg and therefore flexible. Once deployed by inflation it is allowed to cool to its operating temperature which is well below the Tg. At its operating temperature the boom hardens and the boom is no longer dependent on inflation pressure for rigidiity. The deployment control results from a unique packaging concept for the conical boom. This concept was conceived by L'Garde and results in a minimum weight system. The deployment concept requires essentially zero additional mass. During the study we will demonstrate controlled deployment of the boom, we will show by analysis the concept can be scaled from very large booms to very small booms and we will show by analysis the concepts structural capability.

AASC
3437 South Airport Way PO Box PO Box 6189
Stockton, CA 95206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(209) 983-3253
Rich Brand
AF 00-067
Title:Integrated Payload Dispenser for Multi Micro-Satellite Missions
Abstract:As the number of satellites and satellite "constellations" increases each year, the need for an economical payload dispenser system, which can accommodate multiple satellite configurations, is increasing. An approach will be studied to use generic flat composite sandwich panels to form more complex dispenser structures from standardized components. These standardized panels will be easily pre-fabricated using lightweight/low cost carbon graphite face sheets and foam core. Assembly will be accomplished with dovetail type joint, which may be reinforced with local doublers and or angle clips. A unique, post-bonded, insert system will be investigated and tested which will allow attachment of payloads anywhere within the panel and eliminate the need for local densification of the core. Proper design of the panel geometry, materials, and insert system will allow the standard panel concept to be used for multiple applications, eliminating the need to redesign for each unique payload. Analyses will be performed to verify the design of this system given anticipated future payloads, commercially available materials, load isolation systems, and on-board propulsion.

LEFT HAND DESIGN CORP.
7901 Oxford Road
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 652-2786
Lawrence M. Germann
AF 00-068
Title:Miniaturized Vibration Isolation System (MVIS)
Abstract:The proposed technology incorporates innovations that lead to major improvements toexisting Active Isolation Systems for multiple applications. These innovations include the use of LHDC's efficient CS actuator technology, and its use in a fully non-contacting suspension for an extremely soft, very compact isolation layer between payload and base. The approach uses 6 electro-magnetic actuators and multi-disciplinary optimization. The actuator modules are located radially near the radius of gyration of the moving element to minimize excitation of structural bending modes of the payload structure. Three axial actuators provide 3-degree-of-control: azimuth, elevation, and Z. Three tangential actuators provide control of the roll, X, and Y vectors.

LITHIUM ENERGY ASSOC., INC.
225 Crescent Street
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 894-1510
Frederick Dampier
AF 00-069
Title:High Power/Energy Lithium-Copper Chloride Launch Vehicle Rechargeable Battery
Abstract:This project will determine whether the Li/CuCl2 inorganic electrolyte rechargeable battery can replace the 40 Ahr , 31 V AgO/Zn battery in the Delta, EELV, or Atlas launch vehicles. Calculations from extensive experimental data show that a Li/CuCl2 battery of the same size as the present AgO/Zn battery would required 9 instead of 19 cells and would deliver 101 Ahr while meeting the continuous and pulse load discharge requirements. One advantage of the Li/CuCl2 battery is that it has a self-discharge rate of only 0.8%/month compared to a much higher rate for AgO/Zn. The approach in Phase I will involve construction of Li/CuCl2 cells with first 8 cm2 and later up to 61 cm2 electrodes in hermetically welded metal cases. The cells will be discharged at continuous and pulse loads to simulate the Delta load profile. The electrode thickness and other design features will be semi-optimized. Innovative technology will be developed to improve the performance of the positive electrode. From the results 40 and 100 Ahr launch vehicle Li/CuCl2 cells in hermetic cases will be designed and the specific energy and other performance characteristics calculated.

AMPTEK, INC.
6 De Angelo Drive
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-2242
John McGarity
AF 00-070
Title:Advanced Space Particle Detectors for Microsatellites
Abstract:We propose to develop a new generation of miniature electrostatic analyzers (ESA)suitable for use on microsatellites that may be fabricated by means of MEMS or electrochemistry. The resulting instrument will offer significant size, weight, and power advantages over existing technology. As part of this project we will develop new methods of building electron multipliers to comply with the size and volume requirements of the miniature ESAs. We will design and breadboard high-density electronics modules to bias, control, and process data from arrays of miniature ESAs. We will develop processing algorithms to compress and summarize array data.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Gary E. Galica
AF 00-070
Title:Advanced Space Particle Detectors for Microsatellites
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes a small, innovative, lightweight, multi-configuration sensor to monitor the lower energy (0.5 to 1000 keV) charged particle environment in the magnetosphere and the solar wind. We will develop a sensor that is compatible with the weight, volume, and power requirements of nanosatellites. The PSI sensor design does not rely upon a magnetic sector to discriminate between particle types; rather it takes advantage of the cross-section characteristics of different particles and scintillator properties to discriminate. We will use thin films of metals and plastic scintillators to create particle-specific detectors. The detectors are fiber-optically coupled to a position sensitive-photomultiplier tube. The result is a tremendous savings in weight and volume.

APPLIED SCIENCES, INC.
141 W. Xenia Ave. PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 766-2020
Ronald L. Jacobsen
AF 00-071
Title:Satellite Charge Suppression with Carbon Nanofibers
Abstract:This project seeks to exploit the properties of carbon nanofibers to minimize both differential and absolute charging of satellites, and the dangers presented by such charging. This will be accomplished by inclusion of nanofibers into insulating materials such as kapton and teflon to allow these materials to bleed charge directly and reliably. Current forms of conductive kapton have problems with reduced mechanical properties and electrical failure at elevated temperature. The high aspect ratio of the nanofibers will overcome these difficulties, providing reliable conductivity over a wide temperature range without degradation of mechanical properties. In addition to providing conductivity, the nanofibers will reduce the threshold for electrostatic discharge (ESD) by an order of magnitude or more, decreasing the amplitude and danger presented by ESD, thereby reducing the performance requirements for filters that protect electronics from ESD transients. As an option task, materials including nanofibers intercalated with alkali metal compounds will be tested to reduce overall spacecraft charging by greatly enhancing secondary electron emission.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC.
4030 Spencer St Suite 108
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 371-4445
Nahum Gat
AF 00-072
Title:Optimized Target Detection using Automatic Differentiation of Modtran for Inverse Problem Solution
Abstract:The proposal addresses two classes of applications. The first is improving target detection and clutter removal in remote sensing imagery by compensating for the effect of the intervening atmosphere. The second class is the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from sensor measurements. Both problems require solving the inverse problem. We introduce a novel computational paradigm in which physics based model (Modtran in this case) predictions are combined with sensor measurements to retrieve the Bayesian best estimate of the problem parameters. The technique is based on a constrained optimization of a generalized Bayesian objective function that expresses the best estimates weighted by the uncertainties in our initial guess of the parameters as well as the uncertainties in the sensor measurements. The constraint is an analytical expression comprising a first order Taylor expansion of the complete Modtran model. The Jacobian (sensitivity) matrix for the expansion is obtained from the Automatic-Differentiation augmented Modtran code.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
99 South Bedford Street Suite 7
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Marsha J. Fox
AF 00-072
Title:Short-wave/Infrared Imagery Fusion Using a Physics-based Model
Abstract:This proposal addresses the enhanced utilization of space-based thermal IR imagery, a powerful remote sensing method that can operate in nighttime, fog, and haze conditions and can detect subtle thermal signatures. Currently, ambiguities in separating temperature, emissivity and atmospheric effects complicate the detection and identification of targets against cluttered backgrounds, even when one takes advantage of data collected in multiple wavelength bands. To address this problem we propose the development of a novel Short-wave/Infrared Fusion Technique (SIFT) for multispectral imagery, in which UV/visible/SWIR data (which may be from a prior collect) are used together with a radiation transport physics-based algorithm to enhance the information content of thermal IR images. This approach will produce many benefits for surface material/object characterization and detection. It will allow the retrieval of unambiguous surface temperatures with minimal contamination from emissivity clutter and will enable the retrieval of emissivity information independent of temperature. In Phase I of this program we will use simulations to demonstrate the physics-based data fusion approach. In Phase II a refined version of the working algorithm will be coded into a versatile software package for data simulation, data analysis, and sensor trade studies.

CHEMMOTIF, INC.
60 Thoreau Street Suite 211
Concord, MA 01742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 376-9911
Amy E. Stevens Miller
AF 00-073
Title:Luminescent Sensors for Stand-Off Detection of Hazardous Materials
Abstract:In this project, ChemMotif will develop luminescent materials for the remote detection of hazardous chemicals on surfaces. These materials will be mixtures of polymers and chemicals that become luminescent upon exposure to hazardous chemicals and chemical agents. This polymer mixture will be designed to be sprayed on surfaces for later sensing by airborne or other standoff instrumentation.

MEDECO, INC.
89 Arundel Place
Clayton, MO 63105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 727-5448
Dennis Angelisanti
AF 00-074
Title:Innovative Techniques for Remote Sensing, Threat Detection and Typing
Abstract:We propose to design a compact, efficient, uncooled, all reflective, no-moving parts hyperspectrometer that may be mounted on virtually any platform and which is capable of rapid, high signal-to-noise hyperspectra acquisition for the LWIR atmospheric windows where improved early target isolation and typing may be expected. We will demonstrate a breadboard in Phase I and propose for development of a prototype under Phase II. The sensor develop will parallel data processing methods developments which quickly and accurately calibrate and normalize the sensor from the data and which demonstrate rapid, efficient, high quality target detection and typing.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Div. 20600 Gramercy Place,
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Tin M. Aye
AF 00-076
Title:Compact HMD Optic System Based on Multiplexed Aberration Compensated Holographic Optical Elements
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop novel, compact, lightweight wide field-of-view optics for head (and helmet) mounted displays (HMDs) based on three-color multiplexed aberration-compensated holographic optical elements (Mac-HOEs). Taking advantage of the flexibility of holography, the HMD optics can be made compact using waveguide projection through the curved visor substrate, filling a wide field of view (FOV) without large, bulky optical components. This waveguide projection optics approach would be particularly suitable for applications that require see-through capability. The proposed Mac-HOE projection optics can also be implemented as on-axis low F-number wide FOV collimating optics, similar to the "pancake window", but more compact and with not less than about 90% light efficiency. Using narrowband red-green-blue Mac-HOEs can significantly reduce the chromatic and geometrical aberration introduced by conventional HOEs and refractive optics. The proposed HMD optics will be most suitable for laser scanned displays, in which elaborate optical components are otherwise required to achieve high pixel resolution with a large exit pupil diameter. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed HMD optics through computer design and analysis, and by fabricating and demonstrating a Mac-HOE component.

SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
One Crystal Park 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 282-4432
Dutch Guckenberger
AF 00-076
Title:High-Resolution Visual System Development
Abstract:The proliferation and effectiveness of Distributed Mission Training (DMT) training systems is dependent upon the life cycle cost / benefit ratio of such training systems. Unfortunately, long-standing problems associated with wide field-of-view visual displays for ground-based simulator-training applications--to include poor resolution, poor intensity (i.e., luminosity), and high costs_have significantly affected the fielding of DMT training capabilities to date. Display resolution problems are being addressed through current Air Force efforts to develop color imaging systems with greater than 5K x 4K, non-interlaced pixel resolutions at reasonable prices. The proposed Phase I Reconfigurable Frame Buffer Module (RFBM) efforts will focus on developing the interface module for driving such displays from PC-IG technology. Phase I will concentrate on interfacing to high resolution projectors which present out-the-window imagery in high-performance flight trainers as well as other display applications (e.g., DMT). The RFBM is designed to support the Air Force's capitalization of the rapidly developing PC-based graphics market to provide imagery for these systems. The RFBM is an innovative PC-based technology that will be capable of presenting 5K x 4K, 60 HZ, non-interlaced video. The RFBM's innovative design provides a large scalable virtual screen frame buffer that can be read and written to simultaneously by multiple parallel devices.

APPLIED SIGNAL & IMAGE TECHNOLOGY
303 Najoles Road, Suite 104
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 729-3108
Joseph C. Harsanyi
AF 00-078
Title:Automated Material Classification Toolset
Abstract:High speed, automated classification and identification of materials is required to support realtime multisensor simulation capabilities. Multispectral image data from both satellites and airborne systems can be used to develop the necessary classification maps to satisfy this requirement, but the timeliness and cost of current processing approaches is prohibitive. Also, it is desired that the classification accuracy be improved through the use of novel signal processing techniques. Under this Phase I effort, ASIT will concentrate on migrating innovative spectral processing technologies that rely on adaptive signal processing and fuzzy logic concepts to a prototype demonstration of an automated classification and identification system that produces reliable results in near realtime. The techniques employed will address real-world problems including: spatial and spectral mixtures with unknown background composition, and various sensor and environmental parameters. The resulting Automated Classification software will be designed to work independent of sensor type or wavelength coverage.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Leif Hendricks
AF 00-078
Title:Automated Material Classification Toolset
Abstract:Surface Optics Corporation proposes a three-point approach at improving the cost, speed and accuracy of current classification methods to construct an automated means of performing multi-spectral classification of remotely sensed imagery to support sensor simulation. First, a spatial texture feature extraction technique will be employed to supplement spectral classification algorithms and improve accuracy while minimizing analyst intervention. Second, SOC proposes that through measurement of geo-specific material attributes, e.g. reflectance spectra, improvements in the accuracy of the spectral classifier will result. Third, SOC proposes a simple and pragmatic approach to improving classification processing. Embodying the algorithms used for both the spectral and spatial classification into hardware, specifically a purpose designed spectral processor constructed from, Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) to greatly decrease processing times.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 300
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 277-9333
Kelly J. Neville
AF 00-079
Title:Information Warfare Training Models
Abstract:We propose to develop a Strategic Planners' Intelligent Reasoning Instructional Technology (SPIRIT), a technology designed to build and maintain adaptive expertise within a simulation-based team training environment. The focus of the training will be components of adaptive expertise that are important in a C4ISR distributed team environment, specifically teamwork and information management. We propose that adaptive expertise is key to attaining the situation awareness and responsiveness that would allow strategic planners to proactively manage and manipulate the information environment to the benefit of friendly forces and detriment of opponent forces. SPIRIT will feature intelligent agents that reason in real-time about the simulation environment, track performance, evaluate trainee adaptive expertise, provide feedback, and dynamically adapt training to expertise evaluations. Because time critical targets (TCTs) are particularly challenging for strategic planning teams and require high levels of adaptive expertise, they will be the Phase I focus of SPIRIT. It is anticipated that a design based on the TCT planning process will be generalizable to other aspects of strategic planning, for instance the dynamic replanning that must occur when a plan goes awry or a situation suddenly changes.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4900 Pearl East Circle Suite 201E
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 347-6117
Tom Carolan
AF 00-080
Title:Agent-Based Measurement System for Advanced Distributed Learning Technologies
Abstract:Micro Analysis & Design, Inc. (MA&D) proposes to conduct innovative research and development aimed at demonstrating methods and tools to support advanced competency-based assessment. The proposed approach will combine automated and manual strategies for capturing performance information in order to assess individual and team warfighting competencies that are exercised using Distributed Mission Training simulation methods. The proposed assessment methodology will represent competencies in terms of network models relating Measures of Performance (MOP) over task elements and training events. The goal will be to provide a common framework linking event-based performance measurement with competency-based training events. A unique and innovative aspect of the proposed effort is to assess the feasibility of using this competency network approach to develop model-based intelligent software agents that can be used to support assessment and training activities in training simulations. During Phase I, MA&D will apply its expertise in developing and applying innovative human performance modeling approaches, and its considerable experience in improving the behavioral representation of computer generated force models in distributed simulation environments, to the design of a practical agent-based measurement approach for advanced distributed learning technologies.

APTIMA, INC.
600 W. Cummings Park Suite 3050
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Daniel Serfaty
AF 00-081
Title:Distributed Human Performance Management with Emphasis on Team Performance
Abstract:By its nature, command and control involves teams of decision makers, requiring both individual and team level interventions to improve mission effectiveness. The goal of Phase I is to develop and demonstrate a concept for a model-based tool to manage and improve team performance. The tool will suggest ways to improve performance based on a team's structure (team type) and mission (task type). It is derived from a theoretical framework that describes the relationships between team and task characteristics, team performance, and performance improvement methods. The Aptima project team plans to integrate recent developments in Team Performance Modeling, Team Training, and Organizational Design to demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a formal, unified method to manage and improve performance in high reliability teams. Our efforts will build upon existing team design methodologies and employ optimization algorithms to develop recommendations about how to improve the effectiveness of existing teams through analysis of their current performance. In Phase I we will define our theoretical framework, demonstrate the concept for the tool and develop a design architecture. In Phase II we will develop the tool and apply it to a team training design problem within real world team environments in order to validate the approach.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 300
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 277-9333
John Deaton
AF 00-082
Title:Psychological Warfare Training via Advanced Distributed Learning Technology
Abstract:This effort is aimed at developing an automated, experiential training system for helping PSYOP planners become more proficient at accomplishing several of the key tasks in the PSYOP planning process. This new training system will be called PSYWARS (Psychological Warfare Assessment Rehearsal System). These tasks include identifying key vulnerability factors related to a target audience's willingness to respond to common PSOP objectives; estimating, more systematically, the relative influence of those factors on the TA's willingness to respond as desired; and identifying the impact, on TA willingness to respond, of proposed changes in the various factors or combinations of factors. PSYWARS will improve PSYOP planner expertise by building declarative knowledge and enhancing case-based reasoning through exposure to multiple scenarios and PSYOP objectives. It will additionally support the development of effective procedural and strategic knowledge through guided instruction on how to select and estimate the impact of the most effective themes/approaches to obtaining specific PSYOP objectives. Trainee feedback on performance during instruction will be provided by the development of an intelligent agent methodology. Finally, a preliminary description of an advanced distributed learning approach to incorporate the prototype software developed in Phase I will be presented.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
4135 Travis Country Circle
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Charles J. Cohen
AF 00-083
Title:Graphical User Interface Techniques for Assessing Autonomous Vehicle
Abstract:As autonomous vehicles journey down the path of increasing competence, it is necessary for humans to be able to "look over their shoulder" to help guide and correct them. However, the further down the path UAVs travel, the more complex they become. The more complex they become, the more difficult it is to determine why they do what they do. Furthermore, more complex UAVs will be capable of following more sophisticated missions. As these mission become more sophisticated, the effects of deviations from these missions will become more difficult to resolve. Human operators will need tools to help them quickly and robustly determine why a UAV has made the decisions it has made, as well as the effects of those decisions on the UAV's mission. By applying imagination and creativity tempered with the basic principles of human-computer interaction and scientific visualization, this proposal will show that innovative graphical user interface techniques can be developed to solve these problems. These techniques then can be used to extend an existing UAV GUI and help operators come to terms with the obstacles presented by increasingly sophisticated autonomous vehicles.

SAPIEN SYSTEMS
2650 2nd Ave #1
San Diego, CA 92103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 379-1505
Sisinio F. Baldis
AF 00-083
Title:Graphical User Interface Techniques for Assessing Autonomous Vehicle
Abstract:Unmanned Air Combat Vehicles (UCAV) are autonomous aircrafts that will act on a preprogrammed mission design. The mission design and the aircraft operating system have high levels of artificial intelligence and expert systems that can make "decisions" in the event of contingencies during the actual mission. Human operators will monitor and if needed, intervene. To do this they will need to be able to get inside the "mind" of the vehicle to determine what is going on, and establish situational awareness. Sapien Systems will integrate a display panorama with a variety of technologies including: speech recognition, speech synthesis, and natural language parsing. The system will allow the operator to interact with the system in a more natural manner via natural language queries, and the system will respond graphically and verbally using a set of agents assigned to different tasks during the mission.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-8771
Scott Grigsby
AF 00-084
Title:Integrated, Hands-free Control Suites for Maintenance Wearable Computers
Abstract:Sytronics and the University of Dayton Research Institute propose an innovative combination of head-tracking and speech recognition for effective and intuitive maintenance interfacing. A simple two-controller approach uses voice for test and click entry and head movement for pointing. A damped throat microphone filters noise and a simple inertial tracker provides cursor movement. The simplicity and ease of a speech-based system integrated with a proven, cost-effective pointing solution, eliminates problems with using EMG for discrete inputs and avoids known problems with eye-tracking. Our Phase I objectives are to (1) analyze applicability and user acceptance through interactions with maintenance users, (2) define how to integrate with user system across all platforms and as a retro-fit, (3) apply proven technology--a commerical speech recognizer, an inertial head tracker, and mouse emulation software--to determine the feasibility of bimodal speech recognition for noise reduction and watchword signaling for differentiating speech from extraneous inputs, (4) implement a conceptual proptotype and test feasibility aspects at AFRL/HE, and (5) assess commercialization potential through interactions with users and partners. The Phase I results will be (1) a final report documenting: requirements, technologies, feasibility, experimental results, designs for Phase II, and commercialization; and (2) concept demonstration(s).

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
427 South 166th Street
Omaha, NE 68118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(402) 333-2992
Richard A. Flanagan
AF 00-085
Title:Agents and Avatars in the Aerospace Operations Center in Support of Combat Operations
Abstract:For efficient space operations, and for effective space force enhancement to terrestrial forces, Aerospace Operations Center (AOC) personnel must be continuously aware of the status of on-orbit assets, payload coverage, reacting to system degradations and failures, and responding to intolerant environments for satellites. To complete the situational awareness picture, there is also the need to depict terrestrial threat types, locations, and envelopes, as well as blue force operational data, to optimize the synergistic effects derived from using space assets to support land, sea and air operations. We see an opportunity to use existing data streams and other available information to provide improved situation awareness to AOC personnel through the use of real-time systems using agent technology, cognition, behavior, and decision sciences. Embedded in the concept is ` train as we fight' through team training and performance measures. Software agents provide help and tutorial assistance to the operator. Other agents, called avatars, are mobile. They come from data centers and meet in a virtual operations center at the AOC to reduce the confusion from multiple sensor observations and build a fast, usable, common operating picture for all operators involved.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Harold P. Greeley
AF 00-086
Title:An Adaptive Acoustic Gradiometer for Threat Detection
Abstract:Creare proposes an acoustic system that systematically filters background noise from acoustic listening sensors, thereby adding richness to the data entering potential threat detection and recognition algorithms. The Creare innovation is based on Active Noise Reduction (ANR) techniques. Digital signal processing will be employed in order to detect, identify, and classify the acoustic signal of a potential threat while reducing the background noise. This approach will result in a higher signal-to-noise ratio reducing false detection events and yield a higher level of automated acoustic threat recognition than is possible with current methods. In Phase I, we will model the ANR system and analyze the system's performance in extracting recorded and modeled acoustic signals from noise backgrounds. We will also test the improvement in classification performance using a frequency content based recognition system. In Phase II, we will fully develop a prototype system based on small, low power hardware and firmware using commercial digital signal processing hardware. Sensor directionality, threat location and additional enhanced signal-to-noise ratio will be demonstrated using beamforming techniques on an array of sensors. Fusion of data from a number of sensor types will also be implemented using signals processed by the Creare noise reduction technique.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes Circle Suite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 279-3054
Ronald A. Borrell
AF 00-086
Title:Auditory Devices for Remote Threat Detection
Abstract:This SBIR is concerned with using remote sensors to enhance the performance of security forces protecting Air Force facilities. The use of remote sensing systems for area surveillance around an installation can greatly complement the performance of human sentries. Current remote systems rely primarily on video and infrared sensors. Specific weaknesses of these systems include high false alarm rates, limited detection ranges (especially for stealthy intruders), and a lack of automatic threat localization and tracking. SBIR AF00-086 addresses the introduction of acoustic sensing to these systems with the goal of having the additional sensor type improve detection performance and provide additional information that contributes to the reduction of false alarms. The thrust of this proposal is to study, evaluate, and demonstrate the performance that can be provided by using acoustic sensors as part of an area surveillance system. In particular, DSR's proposed approach offers the combination of two forms of acoustic processing. This innovation will provide significant improvement in the detection and localization of stealthy intruders, provide a dramatic reduction in the number of false contacts that need to be investigated, and provide the security command post a virtual presence in the field.

ADROIT SYSTEMS, INC.
209 Madison Street, Suite 200
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 910-6400
Jeff Bradford
AF 00-087
Title:Sensor Fusion and Information Warfare
Abstract:Sensor fusion is projected to play a critical role in the future decision-making process. As a primary component of the decision-making process it can be anticipated that it will become a high priority target for an adversary's Information Warfare (IW) operations. After all, the disruption of the decision-making process is the primary focus of most IW offensive attacks. Attacking or defending the decision-making process or automated sensor fusion systems requires considerable knowledge about how such processes are designed and developed. The primary purpose of this proposed study effort is to assess operational decision-making processes, automated sensor fusion techniques, dissonant information and IW techniques in order to provide a baseline for an advanced Phase II study and prototype sensor fusion system to be able to counter-act IW measures.

LSA
1215 Jefferson Davis Highway Suite 1300
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
John Lehman
AF 00-088
Title:Advanced User-System Interface Technologies for Untethered Computer and Visual Display Interactions
Abstract:This proposal describes an innovative solution to provide untethered mobile access to computing and visual display systems for Air Force Information Operations (IO) and Command and Control (C2) environments. LSA proposes to evaluate and develop key enabling technologies and integrate them with wearable computer technology to develop an IO and C2 environment that will facilitate and enable world-wide realtime distributed collaborative information exchange to support operational decision making. One of the key technologies we propose to develop is a multi-port Fast Ethernet wireless switch that allows untethered mobile access and provides real-time user position information. Integration of this system with wearable computer technology can provide operational personnel working in multi-user environments the ability to physically move throughout the work environment allowing true collaboration among work nodes, constant connectivity to the collective knowledge base and interaction with large screen information displays without loss of data.

APTIMA, INC.
600 W. Cummings Park Suite 3050
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Daniel Serfaty
AF 00-089
Title:Human-Centered Technologies for Information Superiority
Abstract:Technology innovations for countering the effects of information attack must be based on an understanding of how those attacks affect decision making. A key concern is the effect of information disruptions on the ability of a team to achieve and act on shared situation awareness. The Aptima team proposes to develop an in-depth understanding, based on field interviews with experts, of the different types of potential information attacks and to use that understanding to develop a conceptual model of how information attacks can disrupt the decision making process. Based on this model, we will identify ways in which decision support can make decision making more robust in the face of attack, develop prototypes for alternative decision support approaches, and demonstrate those prototypes using a testbed that can simulate the effects of information attack on information fusion and team decision making. Associated with the testbed are quantitative performance measures and innovative methods for assessing both individual and shared situation awareness. The project team combines extensive experience in command and control team decision making (Aptima, Inc.) with proven situation awareness measurement techniques already applied in the information warfare domain (SA Technologies) and previous experience interviewing both hackers and "hacker trackers" (Klein Associates).

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
56 Rogers Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 252-0660
M.C. van Schoor
AF 00-090
Title:Breakaway Helmet Mount for Night Vision and Targeting Displays
Abstract:Current Night Vision Devices (NVD) used by Air Force pilots for night missions are designed to release with a downward force of between 10-15 Gz. This automatic release helps protect the pilots in case of a crash or ejection. The disadvantage to the current system however is the device will only breakaway if a downward force is applied. If there is a sudden sideways, or upwards force on the device, it will not breakaway creating a potentially dangerous situation for the pilot. There exists a need to develop a mount that will allow the NVD to breakaway when a sufficient force is acting on it in any direction. Mid has developed a mount specially designed for typical night vision devices used by pilots in the Air Force.

NTI, INC.
4130 Linden Ave., Suite 235
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 254-3171
Samuel L. Moise
AF 00-091
Title:Laser Aircrew Safety and Education Demonstrator-Flight (LASED-F)
Abstract:Laser induced flashblindness is a recognized problem in both military and non-military environments. While there are active research programs on laser eye effects, and a laser hazard protocol that has been generated by the civilian and military communities, they do not go far enough, nor do they provide a vehicle for demonstrating, training and testing various laser eye protection procedures and equipment. Clearly a requirement exists for a portable, self-contained system that has an integrated visible laser unit and can be used for these purposes. This effort will identify the hardware and software to construct a low-cost, portable, self-contained unit that may be used to train pilots in the use of new technologies to reduce vision impairment effects, and perform research on performance effects of laser flashblindness and glare. Existing hardware for the delivery of laser stimuli will be used to produce a proof-of-concept system. Using this as a basis, a set of designs will be produced to meet the low-cost and portability requirements. The unit will be capable of running the F-PASS flight simulator software. This system will have scenario generation capability, run a variety of aeromodels of interest to the military, control laser exposure according to user specified parameters, and provide a variety of performance tests and measures. The system will be modular and extendable to a variety of other simulated environments (i.e. helicopters, ships, and vehicles). Commercial applications of this development extend to multiple military environments as well as to commercial aviation and perhaps other transportation industries.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORPORAT
101 West Sixth Street, Ste 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Michael W. Mayo
AF 00-091
Title:The Development of a Laser Aircrew Safety and Education Demonstrator-Flight (LASED-F) System
Abstract:The proliferation of laser-based devices is a particularly severe problem for pilots, since exposure to even low levels can cause temporary visual deficits that compromise safe operation and decrease the probability of mission success. It is likely that modern pilots will encounter exposure to lasers. Therefore, if pilots could experience a safe, but debilitating, laser exposure during training, they would acquire an understanding of the problem and could develop visual and tactical countermeasures to complete their mission with degraded vision. Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) and Drs. Peter Smith and Robert Cartledge propose to develop a Laser Aircrew Safety and Education Demonstrator-Flight (LASED-F). The proposed system will produce a one-degree scotoma for 3-5 seconds during critical flight events (e.g. take-off, landing, target acquisition) and will be easily transportable for use in a conference room environment. LASED-F will include a high-resolution flat panel display, flight simulator with joystick control, diode-pumped solid-state laser(s), optical system to deliver a random laser flash, failsafe engineering features, and metrics for objective determination of pilot performance degradations. Additionally, the system will contain a multi-media CD-ROM thoroughly explaining laser bioeffects and safety, objectives and instructions of the demonstrator, and laser eye protection (LEP).

REMCOM, INC.
Calder Square Box 10023
State College, PA 16805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(636) 536-1205
Christopher Penney
AF 00-092
Title:Voxel-Based Body Modification Software which Preserves Internal Organs and Structures
Abstract:The interaction of radio frequency electromagnetic energy with the human body is best computed with finite difference methods. For good accuracy, especially at higher frequencies, the human body must be described by many millions of individual voxels. The voxels fill the entire volume of the body and describe both the outer surface and interior organs of the body. Making one detailed voxel mesh of the human body is a significant project that may take years of effort. The result will be a voxel mesh for only one position of the body. However, different applications will require the body limbs to be repositioned. The body might be seated, keeling, standing, or holding a cellular phone. Modifying the voxel mesh of the body to the new positions while maintaining the integrity of the internal organs is a difficult task, beyond the capabilities of currently-available computer aided design software. In this effort the ability to manipulate large three-dimensional voxel-based meshes, primarily of the human body, while maintaining the fidelity of the mesh, will be developed.

SOLUS BIODEFENSE
700 New Hampshire Ave NW #1008
Washington, DC 20037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 215-9373
Roger von Hanwehr
AF 00-093
Title:A 'Spray-Paint Molecular Sensor Reagent Based on Optical Signaling Aptamers
Abstract:SOLUS Biodefense proposes to develop an optical signaling-capable DNA aptamer biotechnology for use as a 'spray-paint' sensor in BW agent detection applications. Thetechnological design is anticipated to prove suitable for use as a molecular beacon sensor thatsignals over covert wavelength emission ranges upon target-specific binding. The approachoffers facile options for targeting a range of BW agent surface determinants -- such as smallpeptide targets on spore or bacilli cell walls, aptamer-defined binding pockets on superantigenic toxins, peptide metalloproteinases or ribosomal toxins, as well as glycolipid-moiety binding siteswithin capsid envelopes of RNA viruses. With emphasis on short-term feasibility, the proposedPhase I effort will utilize a proven and b.p. sequenced 37-mer DNA aptamer model that specifically and avidly binds a multimeric immunoglobin target. Using proprietary linkingtechnology, selected signaling-beacon constructs will be conjoined to the aptamer, most notably a two-step modification and linkage of a bioluminescent signaling moiety amenable to fluorescent-, chemoluminescent-, and EM luminescence-excited activation. Upon Phase Iidentification of optimal signaling aptamer prototype(s), a Phase II effort would center ondeveloping a broadly-scalable family of signaling aptamers directed against a range of BW targets.

TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE INTERNATIONAL CORP.
1525 Bluegrass Lakes Pkwy
Alpharetta, GA 30004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 751-7741
Fuhua Ling
AF 00-094
Title:Vision Corrective Wraparound Spectacles for Laser Eye Protection (LEP)
Abstract:Wraparound spectacles with myopia correction are a potential solution for laser eye protection. Although it is possible to grind optical corrections into large optical blanks to make wraparound spectacles, the grinding process may result in an unacceptable level of aberration and distortion and cause either damage to the reflective coating or separation of the cap and base. This proposal will demonstrate the feasibility of making the required lens without grinding, thus avoiding the problems mentioned above. That is, we will make a lens with optical corrections from monomer directly. This innovative technology consists of the following four major elements: 1. Use of the monomer developed by this company, which can be cured in one minute or less; 2. Design of special aspheric molds to increase the useable central visual field and to provide full field-of-view protection; 3. The laser eye protection will be provided by a coating, which has been put on the inner surface of the front mold and is transferred to the lens made of monomer with proper bonding properties; 4. Improve the lens casting technology, minimizing the number of molds required.

OPTRA, INC.
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Julia H. Rentz
AF 00-095
Title:Dual Channel Remote Infrared Thermographer
Abstract:OPTRA proposes a dual channel remote thermographer comprised of two infrared interference filters with nearby spectral passbands in front of uncooled amorphous silicon microbolometer detectors. The difference signal between the two channels indicates a shift in the emitted spectrum of the target; for a quasi-blackbody, this spectral shift is proportional to temperature according to Planck's blackbody function. This system offers high resolution (0.001 C) and accuracy (0.01 C) and is insensitive to changes in emissivity of the target. Our system is designed with reflective collection optics and an extremely narrow field of view (0.06 degrees or a 10 cm spot size at a 100 m standoff), allowing a target's skin temperature to be measured in the absence of background radiation.

NTI, INC.
4130 Linden Ave., Suite 235
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 254-3171
Robert O
AF 00-097
Title:Human Performance Model for High G
Abstract:A significant need exists to provide the warfighter community with data on the effects of high G on the pilot's ability to carry out the mission. It has been difficult to extrapolate experimental results obtained in open-loop centrifuge research to the dynamic environment of flight. This effort develops a multi-level approach to solving this problem. At the first level, two techniques for assessing the performance effects of the high G environment on skills critical to flight will be developed. These include both "synthetic" tasks, and measures "embedded" into high-fidelity, closed-loop flight simulations. Next, a model of the human operator's performance will be developed, based on an extensive survey and analysis of existing and developing models. Techniques for introducing the data from first-level experiments will be described. Data from this model will then be used in a third-level, military systems model that will convert the operator's performance into estimates of the "Operational Military Impact" (OMI) of performance changes seen under high G. The product of Phase I will be a complete description of the results of this survey and recommended model development, as well as plans for actual implementation and validation of the entire procedure against experimental data.

APTIMA, INC.
600 W. Cummings Park, Ste 3050
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Jean MacMillan
AF 00-098
Title:Enhancing the Usability of Computer Generated Forces
Abstract:Computer-generated forces (CGFs) play a key role in large-scale exercises and training in the joint synthetic battlespace. Current CGFs require extensive effort to create, use, and modify, however, and have limited capability to act effectively as team players. The Aptima/BBN team proposes to enhance the usability of CGFs by providing them with knowledge about the goals, intentions, and concerns of exercise designers and controllers, thus allowing them to act as "confederates" of the controller, making intelligent decisions about what information to provide the controller and when to ask for guidance. In Phase I, the team will demonstrate this innovative concept using the D-OMAR framework to construct a CGF agent that uses knowledge about the exercise designer/controller to act as a confederate in the Distributed Dynamic Decisionmaking (DDD) simulated battlespace environment. The final product of Phase I will be a conceptual model of the goals and concerns of the exercise designer/controller, a demonstration of how that model can enhance the usability of a CGF, and a plan for a tool set, based on D-OMAR, to facilitate the construction of such CGFs. In Phase II, we will create a prototype tool set and expand the method to additional simulation environments.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Karen A. Harper
AF 00-098
Title:Graphical Agent Development Environment (GRADE)
Abstract:The growing use of simulation for military training, systems analysis, acquisition, and command decision aiding has created a need to develop accurate computational models of human and organizational behavior. While the use of Human Behavior Representations (HBRs) has increased rapidly over the last decade, significantly greater acceptance within the user community would occur if better user-oriented tools existed to support the complex process of development, validation and analysis of these models. We therefore propose to develop a Graphical Agent Development Environment (GRADE) toolkit to enhance the usability of intelligent agent HBR models. Our approach will directly support three development tasks: 1) agent construction will be supported by a graphical user interface allowing a user to fully specify cognitive functionality; 2) model validation will be supported by providing the user a capability for generating static system states and examining the resultant behavior; and 3) agent visualization and traceability will be provided through a graphical link to agents integrated within real-time simulated environments. We propose to focus our initial development on our existing SAMPLE agent, and then investigate the potential for applying the proposed GRADE toolkit components across a variety of other HBR models including Soar, OMAR and COGNET.

GNOSYS, INC.
92 Poplar Street
Watertown,, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 924-8342
James Panagos
AF 00-098
Title:Enhancing the Usability of Computer Generated Forces
Abstract:Gnosys proposes to construct a suite of add-on tools for CGF architectures, with minimal risk, that have hierarchically scalable behaviors, have behaviors that can be authored rapidly by state of the art graphical user interfaces, require minimal training to employ, modify and maintain behaviors, support distributed mission training, and support rapid generation of behaviors.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Rukmini Vijaykumar
AF 00-098
Title:Enhancing the Usability of Computer Generated Forces
Abstract:While there has been theoretical research on how to accurately model complex human behavior, there has been little progress on the implementation of realistic, complex, behaviors within a Computer Generated Forces (CGF). Because of this complexity, CGFs are difficult to use and require a lot of time to develop, modify, and maintain the models and CGF applications. MK Technologies will leverage its CGF toolkit, VR-Forces, to create a robust, flexible, easy-to-use CGF environment. The key to MK's approach is the use of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) AI Laboratory, called the Subsumption Architecture. The Subsumption Architecture will be used to control objects within the VR-Forces environment, providing a realistic, efficient representation of complex behaviors. Non-programmers will be able to develop these behaviors through an easy-to-use GUI-driven Behavior Builder. During execution, users will gain insight into the simulation through an Object Behavior Manager. The resulting easy-to-use system reduces time, manpower, and errors associated with the development, modification, and maintenance of a CGF. During Phase I, MK will incorporate a Subsumption Architecture-based controller into VR-Forces, develop an initial design of the Behavior Builder, and demonstrate the modified system, illustrating increased robustness, efficiency, and ease-of-use.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-1990
Micheal J. Roemer
AF 00-099
Title:Aircraft Prognostics: Identifying Imminent Failures in Aircraft and System Components
Abstract:Impact Technologies in cooperation with The Boeing Company propose to develop the strategy and architecture for an aircraft prognostics system capable of predicting the failure of critical aircraft components early enough for maintenance personnel to proactively schedule repairs. The prognostic system will be designed to address critical component failures across aircraft systems, including electrical, mechanical, propulsion, and avionics. Prognostic results will be displayed in an information-rich format of optimum utility to maintenance personnel. By providing advance warning of impending failures, the prognostic system will facilitate the more efficient management of maintenance resources in terms of optimizing service intervals, reducing the deployment footprint, and ensuring that spare parts are available when needed. Additional benefits of the proposed system include increased mission readiness, improved safety, and lower life-cycle cost associated with the operation of the aircraft. The prognostic modeling strategy will be implemented within a probabilistic framework to directly identify confidence bounds associated with specific component time-to-failure predictions. The approach integrates state-of-the-art analytical and stochastic models with component reliability and inspection results and uses real-time updating to accommodate modeling, operational and physical uncertainties known to exist. The failure prognostic modules will be calibrated and verified using Failure Modes and Effects Analysis provided by Boeing on the F-15, F-22, with a focus on the P&W F-100 engine. Finally, the prognostic results will be analyzed by a risk-based economic analysis to optimize the time to perform maintenance based on the consequences of either performing or delaying a maintenance action.

ITCN, INC.
8571 Gander Creek Dr.
Miamisburg, OH 45342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 439-9223
Roy B. Penwell
AF 00-099
Title:Aircraft Prognostics: Indentifying Imminent Failures in Aircraft and System Components
Abstract:The overall objective of this SBIR project is to develop technology and methods for using software execution trends and time correlated system data to provide advanced diagnostic and prognostic indications that can be integrated with current and future maintenance and sustainabilty programs in the DOD as well as commercial applications. The prognostic approach will consider the entire system when determining indications for maintenance actions. A "Systems Data List" for prognostics will be developed for the sample system. An "Instrumentation Approach" for acquiring the "System Data List" will be developed. An "Interface" to the maintenance and logistics elements will be defined. Finally, a "Communication Media" must be established for information transfer.

PRESCHUTTI & ASSOC., INC.
204 East Calder Way, Suite 401
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 234-6223
David Chelidze
AF 00-099
Title:Aircraft Prognostics: Indentifying Imminent Failures in Aircraft and System Components
Abstract:This proposal is aimed at demonstrating the effectiveness of a method for on-line, real time monitoring of machinery health and failure prediction. The method to be applied is a new, general, state-space based approach for tracking parameters in a dynamical system that are drifting due to some hidden rate law, such as those that are typical in many dynamical systems with evolving damage. We will apply our method to the problem of gray-scale health monitoring and imminent failure prediction in aircraft subsystems. In particular, the initial focus of this work will be on aircraft hydraulic systems, which have been identified as critical subsystems both by the DOD and the aerospace industry. The main objective of this proposal is to develop enabling software technologies what can be used with standard sensors and data acquisition hardware to monitor systems in real time so that incipient damage can be tracked and time to failure (remaining useful life) can be predicted, complete with error estimates.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Raman K. Mehra/Joao B.D.
AF 00-099
Title:Diagnostics and Prognostics of Aircraft Systems Using Statistical Pattern Recognition and Sensor Fusion
Abstract:Scientific Systems proposes to develop a four-layer architecture forCBM/FDI for Diagnosis and Prognosis, combining Signal Processing, Statistical Feature Extraction, Probability Density Function Estimation for Classification, and FDI Fusion of Multiple Experts. If enough faulty data is available, a fault classifier will be designed. If not, a novelty detector will be designed, using only data originating from normally operating systems. The first layer will utilize model based schemes designed for particular components and faults. The second and third layer will perform automatic extraction of Condition Indices (CIs) reflecting the operation of the system with respect to a particular point-of-view. Those automatically extracted CIs will be fused in the last layer, producing an overall CI characterizing the whole system. The CIs at various levels will be presented to maintenance mechanics for evaluation. Prognostics is accomplished by constructing models corresponding to different stages of system's degradation, and verifying which of the models best matches the recorded data. Our techniques are very general, and can be applied to virtually all aircraft components, such as turbine engines, hydraulic actuators, transmission systems, etc. They rely on sensors which are already in the aircraft. Hence, the techniques can be used in legacy aircrafts, for enhancing CBM/FDI schemes already in place. The Phase I team includes Boeing Phantom Works, and the CBM Department of The Applied Research Laboratory at Penn State University, both of whom have experience and datasets for aircraft diagnosis and prognosis.

ONTAR CORP.
9 Village Way
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-9622
John Schroeder
AF 00-100
Title:Force Protection Training Technology
Abstract:The Air Force must have the capability to rapidly deploy airmen to any locations around the globe. Frequently these troops are assembled from units located at different bases. For example, the medical unit may come from one location, while the communications crew is from another. Not only are the units unfamiliar with each other, but they may also not have the detailed knowledge of location where they are to be deployed, as well as the specifics of the task. There is a need for training beginning at the initiation of the assignment through their arrival at the theater of operation. Recent trends favor accomplishing required training through advanced distributed learning (ADL) methods. ADL is formal, institutionally based learning activities where the instructor and student are separated from each other geographically. The primary objective of ADL is to extend the learning environment for anywhere-anytime training/learning. In the program we will implement the framework for Client/Server PSYOP training and demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. The proposed program will develop skill training procedures for force protection personnel using new and innovative solutions for on-board network based training. At the conclusion of Phase we will deliver to the USAF a Advanced Distributive Learning training system.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 685-6672
Michael VonPlinsky
AF 00-104
Title:Real Time Integrated Planner/Player (RIPP)
Abstract:Joint Vision 2010 utilizes operational concepts of Dominant Maneuver, Precision Engagement, Focused Logistics and Full Dimensional Protection with Information Superiority for joint warfighting. A key challenge in this accomplishing vision is understanding how advanced sensors, combined with innovative and dynamic command and control (C2) and communications, can be exploited in a "system of systems" (SoS) context. An SoS approach is needed to fully accomplish information superiority, improve warfighter situational awareness, and improve the timeliness and effectiveness of the sensor-to-decision maker-to-shooter-to-munitions event chain. This SBIR Phase I will combine the application of innovative integrated virtual and constructive simulation technologies with distributed, HLA compliant simulation approaches to provide a variable fidelity Real Time Integrated Planner / Player (RIPP) to investigate a broad range of sensor-to-decision maker-to-shooter-to-munitions issues. Our approach to RIPP development will also provide a means to assess the affordability and military utility of alternate approaches, using Cost as an Independent Variable (CAIV) methodologies and tools to apply RIPP analysis results to form a decision space to comprehensively evaluate a wide range of concepts.

SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
One Crystal Park 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 282-4432
Dutch Guckenberger
AF 00-104
Title:Real Time Integrated Planner/Player (RIPP)
Abstract:AbstractArchAngel research is aimed at providing innovative visualization technologies as an "Information Portal" based upon XML and Intelligent agents to address a broad range of sensor-decision maker-shooter issues. ArchAngel's design focus is to provide relevant real-time portions of AWACS, JSTARS, Rivet-Joint and sensor data to the cockpit of the shooters including relaying of Satellite and UAV imagery. COTS tools including the advanced STOW Tools from BMH Associates coupled with SDS's Visual Tools and Simulation Products will provide a straight forward low-risk research and Testbed environment. ArchAngel prototype(s) will include in-time and coordinated sensor/decision maker/shooter information from a STOW environment center being HLA distributed to multiple manned simulators displays. The displays include threat data realistically displayed over mapped and photo-realistic 3D terrains. Damage Assessment visuals are supported with fire, smoke and even wind blown smoke. The STOW tools support flexible adaptive planning and coordination and full theater exploitation of integrated RTIC/RTOC. The most important innovation of the ArchAngel project is real-time multi-source fusion and display in the shooter cockpit, AOC, flying airborne command post, and other support facilities via the Super-MFD and SDS's Fast-Panel technology. ArchAngel "web client in the sky" concepts have many applications.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Kendra E. Moore
AF 00-105
Title:Domain-Portable Shallow Ontology Builder
Abstract:ALPHATECH proposes to develop SHEIK (Shallow Extraction of Information to a Knowledge base), a domain-portable, interactive knowledge extraction system that will allow intelligence analysts to transform the output of Information Extraction (IE) systems into a shallow ontology. This system builds on ALPHATECH's Interactive Knowledge Document (IKD) technology and will extend IKD to support the development of ontologies along with indexing and analysis of IE system outputs. SHEIK will offer an analyst-friendly environment for developing ontologies and organizing IE information into components of higher-level domain models. Phase I will focus on developing a knowledge representation framework, algorithms, and preliminary tools for incorporating shallow IE outputs into a knowledge base (KB). Phase II will focus on (1) automating the transfer of shallow IE outputs using machine learning techniques to learn from examples, and (2) linking the shallow KB to a deep knowledge representation. Finally, Phase III will develop a marketable system based on the enhanced IKD ontology builder that can be used by information analysts in such areas as law enforcement, the Department of Defense, medical and other research communities, and the financial world.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Nikolaos A. Denis
AF 00-106
Title:Operational Level Inter-Modal Lift Planner
Abstract:Missions for Special Operations Forces (SOF) are distinctive in their degree of jointness, their strict timing constraints, and their peculiar equipment requirements. Inter-modal lift planning for special operations is consequently a challenging task, and is further complicated by the unusually close connection between lift planning at the operational level and planning for the tactical mission (possibly including multiple branch plans for infiltration and exfiltration).This proposal explores the use of knowledge-based technologies from artificial intelligence to represent inter-modal lift planning problems for SOF operations. It also builds on recent innovations in the application of constraint programming methods to develop efficient algorithms for generating near-optimal solutions. Key technical challenges include the development of a rich knowledge representation framework sufficient to capture the unique aspects of the SOF inter-modal lift planning domain, characterizing SOF lift planning problems as constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), and developing novel constraint-programming algorithms to generate near-optimal solutions. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of combining knowledge-based and constraint-programming technologies by constructing an initial software prototype. Phase II will implement tools that can be integrated with existing and emerging systems.

MTL SYSTEMS, INC.
3481 Dayton-Xenia Rd.
Beavercreek, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-3111
Larry Guthrie
AF 00-107
Title:Automated Multi-Level Security Digital Information Transfer Using Watermarking Technologies
Abstract:MTL Systems, Inc., Dr. Jiri Fridrich, and Sterling Software propose a robust digital watermarking technique that will enable near real time automatic transfer of complex data types, such as imagery, among multi-level, secure networks. The security level is embedded in a robust invisible manner in the image multiple times rather than attached to it. This makes the embedding and extraction process independent of the image format. Both the watermark embedding and extraction are protected by a secret key. We propose to embed the security level using spread-spectrum watermarking techniques in the spatial and the transform domain. The security level can be extracted after common image processing operations. To make the extraction possible for images that underwent geometrical transformations, a synchronization pattern will be embedded in the image in addition to the watermark. Given the right secret key, the watermark can be removed, the image processed, and a new watermark can be embedded. Our Phase I Objectives are to (1) analytically and experimentally assess feasibility, (2) demonstrate a working prototype, (3) produce a preliminary design for Phase II and (4) assess commercial product potential. Meeting these objectives will ensure both a successful Phase II effort and a focused approach to commercialization.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Raman K. Mehra/Joao B.D.
AF 00-108
Title:Data Mining Technologies for Proactive Detection of Security Violations in Large Scale Information Systems
Abstract:Scientific Systems proposes to investigate the use of selected Data Mining technologies for enabling proactive anomaly detection of security violations in large scale information systems. Our main research objective is to verify whether security violations leave trails in network management databases, which could be used for proactive detection. For Data Mining, the Deterministic Stochastic Realization Algorithm (DSRA) will be used to construct input-output models describing the joint time evolution of MIB variables and selected performance metrics describing security. The correlation structure between the MIB variables and the performance measures can be obtained directly from the DSRA models, providing a valuable tool for event correlation and proactive detection of security violations. The presence or absence of attacks will be reflected on variations in the parameters of these models, thus permitting proactive detection. We also plan to investigate the applicability of Pi-Sigma Artificial Neural Networks for this task. Aprisma Management Technologies(subsidiary of Cabletron and manufacturer of the SPECTRUM network management software) will provide datasets corresponding to networks under normal operation as well as under attack. Prof. Joydeep Ghosh (UTexas, Austin) will support us in the application of machine learning techniques. Aprisma will also provide technical and commercialization support during all phases of the project.

ORIELLE, LLC
PO Box 99081
Raleigh, NC 27624
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 877-5765
Peter H. Mills
AF 00-109
Title:Synthesis of Enterprise XML-MTF Messaging Components
Abstract:We propose to develop a formal mapping of the United States Message Text Format (USMTF) into the Extensible Markup Language (XML) based on DTD and XML Schema definitions for a representative subset of MTF message types, and with this specification to design and prototype a suite of enterprise XML-MTF translator service components which leverage legacy MTF formatting and parsing capabilities. Based on this exploratory design we will in addition determine the feasibility of guided automated synthesis of mapping specification and translation components for MTF and other domains. The provision of enterprise MTF translator components is, we posit, vital to the effective integration of XML and web technologies into C4I systems. Our efforts seek to explore this prototypical XML migration scenario and so realize techniques and tools which maximally automate the transition to the XML framework.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8809 Sudley Road Suite 101
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Gary J. Sikora
AF 00-109
Title:Bridging XML to Legacy Information-Exchange Standards
Abstract:One of the biggest conflicts between sustainment, interoperability, and affordability within the DoD is in the use of the USMTF message exchange format. This messaging standard is considered inefficient, archaic and incompatible with COTS technologies. Originating over 30 years ago, today it remains because interoperability is critical, and the standard is too widespread for an affordable, complete replacement. USMTF is planned for the new Defense Message System that will be fully deployed by the year 2002. Progeny Systems proposes the open source strategy of Java and XML technologies to bridge legacy USMTF message exchange standards to Internet technology standards. This idea provides a migration path for the USMTF user industry to COTS technologies. New devices are built with the XML Information Exchange (XIE) technology that is configurable with adapters for USMTF and other information sources like the J-Series family of Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL). A Java implementation provides a platform-independent solution, deployable on varying equipment sizes ranging from handheld devices to workstations. An open source strategy will accelerate the maturity process through industry involvement.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Basil Krikeles
AF 00-110
Title:Component-Based Data Fusion Architectures
Abstract:ALPHATECH proposes to develop a software architecture and an accompanying infrastructure for supporting the development of distributed fusion systems operating within a network-centric environment. The goal of this research to develop an infrastructure for intelligent data retrieval, manipulation, and display. The resulting system, called the Java Trans-Knowledge Toolkit or jTKT, will build upon the Adaptive Sensor Fusion (ASF) architecture by incorporating Java based technologies with the goal of increasing the overall flexibility of the system. Specifically, we will integrate recent additions to the Java family of tools to support the development of a distributed repository architecture. In addition, jTKT will build upon previous work performed on the Adaptive Sensor Fusion program for supporting and maintaining flexible domain models. In this program, these domain models will be extended to permit the transport of a broader variety of Java objects and to allow the automatic generation of these models based upon XML document type declarations. The Phase I research shall develop a jTKT prototype to demonstrate proof of the architecture and will establish and compute a set of metrics for evaluating the relative efficiency of the architecture.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Eric K. Jones
AF 00-111
Title:Rapid Knowledge Base Development Using Intelligent Agents
Abstract:Building large knowledge bases is currently a time-consuming, labor-intensive process, during which highly trained knowledge engineers translate the knowledge of subject matter experts (SMEs) into formal knowledge representations. We propose to develop an intelligent agent that automates this knowledge engineering function. The agent will allow an SME with no special training in knowledge engineering to develop formal knowledge representations using natural language, enabling much more rapid knowledge base development.Key technical challenges include specifying the grammatical and semantic knowledge required to support knowledge entry, and developing an efficient, scalable approach to natural language interpretation. To address the first challenge, we will make our agent instructable: it will employ machine learning techniques to improve its knowledge of natural language by analyzing its interactions with an SME. To address the second challenge, natural language interpretation will be guided by knowledge entry widgets: structured templates for entering axioms in accordance with useful, recurring axiom schemas. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the approach by constructing a small prototype and using it to model integrated air defense systems. Phase II will expand the prototype and extend it to support all stages of knowledge base development.

DYNAMIC DOMAIN
326 Loma Vista St.
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 448-8275
Steven Minton
AF 00-111
Title:Intelligent Information Agents: Automatic Integration
Abstract:We propose to develop an agent-based approach for automatically incorporating new sources of relevant information on the Web into a virtual database. The proposed technology will extend our existing agent architecture for rapidly integrating multiple databases, programs, and web sources, originally developed at the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute. The key innovation of this proposal is an approach for automatically analyzing web sites to understand and identify their structure, so that wrappers for extracting information from the site can be created with much less human effort. Our ultimate goal is to make wrapper construction fully automatic

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd. Suite 300
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-0990
James Kraiman
AF 00-112
Title:Multi-Sensor Fusion in C3ISR Modeling and Simulation
Abstract:Dynamics Technology, Inc. will develop modeling and simulation approaches that evaluate the effects of multi-sensor fusion on both targeting and situational awareness. The techniques will translate detailed output of sensor fusion algorithms to higher-level information relevant to ISR planning and analysis. That is, they will quantify the effects of sensor fusion on targeting information throughput (quality and quantity) and C3ISR system latency. The M&S approaches will be sufficiently self-contained to allow their use in community C3ISR models. Phase I research will: (1) review current and emerging CONOPS to define the requirements for M&S of multi-sensor fusion as it relates to the C3ISR process associated with strike planning, (2) develop a multi-sensor fusion framework to support ISR planning and analysis, (3) demonstrate feasibility of the approach by embedding it in an existing C3ISR model and performing limited quantitative analysis of sensor fusion effects on C3ISR system performance, and (4) define Phase II model development and implementation requirements.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Charlene Kowalski
AF 00-113
Title:Adaptive Assessment Techniques for Coalition Interaction Policy
Abstract:Current coalition campaign planning is very slow and cumbersome and lacks the agility to keep pace with the multitude of changes to policies, treaties, and agreements in multinational environments. Analysts must evaluate these changes while simultaneously coping with multiple cultures, doctrine, and security requirements. As a result, much manual labor-intensive effort is expended to gather, analyze, and interpret information. The problem is further compounded because these changes to policies cause corresponding changes to in-progress plans, which may result in unacceptable operational delays. ORINCON's technical objective is to research and show feasibility of technology for a key element of the coalition planning process - adapting to dynamic changes in policy. This capability will provide the agility needed to respond to policy changes, assess compliance with policies, and greatly speed up coalition planning and replanning, while increasing accuracy and consistency. Our key innovations are to (1) determine when policy knowledge should be adapted and (2) perform the adaptation. Our concept is an initial framework consisting of integrated components that evaluate changes and trigger adaptations. The framework utilizes software agents and plan templates and is DII COE compliant. In Phase II, we extend the concept, integrate it, and demonstrate it for coalition air campaign planning.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 685-6672
Michael VonPlinsky
AF 00-115
Title:Satellite Communications Systems Simulation
Abstract:Joint Vision 2010 promotes operational concepts of Dominant Maneuver, Precision Engagement, Focused Logistics and Full Dimensional Protection with Information Superiority for joint warfighting. A key challenge in accomplishing this vision is understanding how advanced communications architectures, combined with Information Superiority, can be exploited to achieve a "system of systems" (SoS) approach. The AFRL vision is to provide "networks" of sensors, C3 (command, control, and communications) systems, and shooters to enable "Network-Centric Warfare." Satellite communication (SATCOM) is playing an increasingly important role in the military communications infrastructure which is necessary to enable Network-Centric Warfare. As SATCOM becomes a part of the integrated communications infrastructure, or global grid, it will become increasingly important to provide planners with adequate tools that can help determine the proper "mix" of satellite, wireless, and wired communication assets for meeting given requirements of an operational scenario. The Communications Architecture Synthesis Tool (CAST) that will be developed under this effort will provide a comprehensive analysis capability, leveraging and integrating community COTS and GOTS models in an HLA-compliant, web-enabled architecture. CAST will treat the overall communication system as a single entity, providing seamless integration of models and performance measures.

MODASCO, INC.
58 West Michigan Street 2nd Floor
Orlando, FL 32806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(904) 276-8296
John Woodring
AF 00-116
Title:Ace Link-An Approach to Integrating Command and Control Model Architectures.
Abstract:The Modasco-S3I team proposes an innovative prototype toolset, Architecture-Combat Evaluation Link (ACE Link), that integrates two legacy Command and Control (C2) architectures: THUNDER, an element of the Air Force analytic toolkit that measures force-level operational impact and Collaborative Virtual Prototyping (CVP) tools based upon Colored Petri Nets (CPNs). The resulting synergy will allow C2 developers to design and test proposed architectures using metrics that illuminate the value of the system at the operational level of war. In Phase I, the team will design, prototype and demonstrate ACE Link as middle-ware interfacing the CPN output to the THUNDER Command and Control sub-model. This interface will rapidly adapt as the C2 sub-model and the CPN-based tools co-evolve. The design will address the required agility as an up-front consideration to keep the interface as open as possible, consistent with the Common Analytic Simulation Architecture (CASA) approach of STORM development. ACE LINK will allow multiple designers, working independently, to create robust process-models that can be tested and evaluated individually, as stand alone subsystems, or collectively, as fully-integrated systems, before physical prototyping begins. Systems designed this way will be less expensive, more reliable and simpler to upgrade and modify.

PTECH, INC.
160 Federal Street
Boston, MA 02110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 747-5608
Hussein Ibrahim
AF 00-116
Title:Advanced C2 Process Modeling and Requirements Analysis Technology
Abstract:This effort will demonstrate the ability to develop an innovative C2 investment decision support system. The objective system springs from a completely original conceptualization of the problem. It will support "product and process modeling of integrated operational and system architectures" and will produce results that can be used within the Air Force spiral development process, C2 management philosophy, and PPBS. This system will improve access to mathematically rigorous, token-based architecture by orders of magnitude. Ptech and George Mason University's System Architectures Laboratory will integrate object oriented C2 architecture modeling and a Discrete Event System model to construct a software system that can: - Synthesize Colored Petri Nets from a set of object oriented products. We will develop and employ a file-based interface between Ptech's FrameWork modeling environment and Design/CPN.- Verify the logical soundness and behaviors of architectures by executing the models and using token-based, state space and behavioral analysis techniques against an agreed set of measures. -Report results in a variety of agreed graphical and textual formats. This Phase I effort includes early proof-of-concept demonstrations to enable the Team to gain favorable position for development funding or approval for FAST TRACK funding.

INTELLIGENT INVESTMENTS, INC.
620 S. Elm ST P. O. Box 62
Greensboro, NC 27406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(336) 274-3316
David G. Goldstein
AF 00-117
Title:Intelligent Network Configuration Agent
Abstract:The computers and communications networks of today's digital world are becoming increasingly complex: the high profitability of developing the next "standard" has led to a tremendous increase in the number of factors for purchasing, configuring and administering networks. Military networks (e.g., DII, DSN) add several levels of complexity for configuration and management. The Intelligent Network Configuration Associate will feature several important technologies in a cohesive, user-optimize interface to dramatically reduce the cost and time to specify and maintain networks. An Equipment Catalog will describe system components. A Configuration Expert System will complete design of components users specify. A Simulation Subsystem will help users review designs prior to deployment. A planning subsystem will enable designers to identify possible outcomes of configuration and management decisions. A case library will enable users to review similar problems or configurations. Innovative user interface technologies and architecture design will integrate components than can reduce operator workload dramatically.

SYSTEMS & SOFTWARE RELIABILITY CO
4212 Rancho Centro NW
Albuquerque, NM 87120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 890-7773
William Everett
AF 00-118
Title:Operational Impact Estimation Toolkit
Abstract:Our proposed work will break new ground by creating a process and toolkit, IMPACT, for operational impact assessment of software-intensive systems. Conceptually, IMPACT will provide the ability to model mission profiles in terms of system capabilities and to trace the performability of systems capabilities down to the individual software components, which implement them. An evaluator will ascertain the operational impact of software changes or weaknesses from early in the life-cycle when system requirements are being developed through later phases when the system readiness is being evaluated and tested. IMPACT will also allow different levels of usage based on budget and resources available. Initially, the focus is on meeting the needs of AFOTEC. However, we have a commercialization strategy that will extend the market beyond military applications. In phase I, we propose completing an initial review of current technologies, the potential market, and AFOTEC needs including the selection of a representative pilot application that we can use in our investigations. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of IMPACT's concept and derive a clear direction for a production prototype in phase II. We will build on our expertise in weapons systems, systems engineering and software reliability engineering in completing phase I work.

ANDRO CONSULTING SERVICES
Beeches Technical Campus Bldg 2/Ste 1, Rte 26N Tur
Rome, NY 13440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 334-1163
Andrew L. Drozd
AF 00-119
Title:Multi-Disciplinary and Multi-Sensor Integrated Display Development: ANDROs Integrated Target Image Expressed in a Common Operating Picture (iTimeCop)
Abstract:C4I system operators contend with a wealth of data collected from a variety of on-board and off-board sensor systems that must then be efficiently processed for decision-makers. The data provided may be real-time, near-real-time, or non-real-time data. Operators from multiple disciplines (tactical C2, strategic surveillance, EW) and those interfacing with platform surveillance sensors (AWACS), or with supporting DoD acquisition centers (ESC/AW) need a common set of display formats that present such data in an easily understandable and useable form. The display formats must present an integrated picture of multiple sensor data, and be adaptable to a variety of display hardware. In response to this need, research and exploratory development of a new display capability, called iTimeCop, is proposed. The new capability will provide an integrated picture of multi-sensor and multi-disciplinary (MS/MD) data using a common display format and viable operator-machine interface concepts (including pointing devices). It will be designed to be adaptable to a variety of display hardware. The proposed capability will complement existing or evolving high-end capabilities for managing complex, detailed MS/MD data for various sensor types and other sources of intelligence information. An intuitive common display scheme is proposed to view sensor fused data or to perform scene overlay, registration, integration and target identification for selected sensor data sets while accounting for uncertainty. Targets are represented in a straightforward manner using objects with visual and implicit attributes that describe their nature (friendly, hostile), probability, and static or range Doppler characteristics. These act as logical guides to orient the operator to the scenario quickly. This approach will allow the new capability to be readily useable by a ground operator, battlespace commander, or cockpit warfighter across various computing and display platforms with little or no training. The iTimeCop concept represents a rapid decision-making aid that uses proven object registration and recognition techniques with the application of uncertainty. The proposed effort is for the concept design formulation, initial development, and proof-of-concept demonstration of the iTimeCop capability that will provide 2D, 3D, and 4D displays of pre-processed MS/MD data and multi-spectral sensor fused data sets. These will be graphically overlaid on a rendered battlespace scene such as ground terrain, air or space sc

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway Suite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9483
Daniel Fabrega
AF 00-120
Title:Wavelet Modulation Techniques for Digital Communications
Abstract:The primary goal of the work to be accomplished under this SBIR Phase I topic is the design of an efficient and reliable wireless Wavelet Modulation System (WMS). The WMS will be designed to more effectively address a variety of wireless communications challenges that cannot be met using conventional Fourier source and channel coding methods. Wireless communication channels are notorious for being noisy, time-dispersive, and mutually interfering, placing constraints on their traffic capacity. Wavelet-based source and channel coding provides far greater flexibility in adapting to these wireless channel anomalies than classical techniques. The problem of carrier/symbol synchronization is of paramount importance in a RF wireless WMS since it is essential for the system implementation. Scientific Research Corporation will design and efficient and reliable wireless WMS and validate candidate symbol synchronization techniques thorough modeling and simulation. SRC will also evaluate the overall design against channel impairments encountered in real world scenarios as well as their ease of implementation. SRC will leverage our experience with Wavelet based signal processing and state-of-the-art digital circuit implementations of RF modulation designs to achieve a realizable Wavelet based modulation system.

BLACK & RYAN ENGINEERING
12256 E. Mountain View
Scottsdale, AZ 85259
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 451-7137
Cynthia A. Jaskie
AF 00-121
Title:Voice Authenticated Wireless Communication
Abstract:With the advent of satellite telephone services, it is now feasible to provide secure voice communication for government or commercial applications to any location on Earth. Black & Ryan Engineering (BRE) proposes an SBIR project to implement a Voice Authenticated Wireless Communication System (VAWCS) on an existing satellite-based voice communication platform. In Phase I, BRE will develop a computer model of the existing platform's wireless channel and add a Vocoder, Public Key Encryption, FEC Error Protection and Speaker Authentication. The Vocoder will mathematically compress the real-time speech to suit the narrowband wireless channel. The Encryption will provide secure communication of the compressed speech data while the Encryption's Digital Signature function and Speaker Authentication will jointly assure the users that they are not communicating with an impostor. FEC Error Protection will reduce the effect of noise in the wireless channel so that the other components can perform properly. This model will be exercised to characterize how channel errors reduce system performance, which will drive system modifications for better performance. Phase II will involve implementing these additional components on the existing satellite-based voice communication platform and validating performance for various geo-locations.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-9741
Scott Dixon
AF 00-122
Title:Resolution Enhancement and Image Data Management
Abstract:The management of multi-source image data and the extraction of information from this data are complex tasks that require a well thought out software system design to accommodate the wide variety of situations that will arise in Reconnaissance applications. The data must be organized and correlated with other information sources; registered with itself, the earth and other imagery; and processed to enhance resolution and extract latent information. Fortunately, industry has spawned a number of COTS software products that facilitate the design of an integrated system that will meet ASC/RA needs. Our approach is to use COTS Geographical Information System (GIS) and Image Processing packages to build an integrated core framework for managing and processing all forms of reconnaissance data to extract information pertinent to the warfighter. Other organizations and we have developed specialized algorithms that are candidates for inclusion in this framework. These algorithms perform functions such as geolocation, rectification, registration, fusion, enhancement, and recognition. We will use our unique expertise in image processing and fusion to evaluate and select algorithms for inclusion in the framework. We will demonstrate the framework design using imagery from key data sources such as SYERS (aircraft IR), ASARS (aircraft SAR), and IKONOS (overhead visible).

ORINCON HAWAII, INC.
970 North Kalaheo Avenue Suite C-215
Kailua, HI 96734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 254-1532
R. David Dikeman
AF 00-123
Title:Smart Data Processing for Radar, Multispectral, & Hyperspectral Sensors
Abstract:Technological advances in sensors and imaging systems for tactical applications have paradoxically created new problems in the process of solving old ones. For example, the development of high-resolution multispectral and hyperspectral sensors, capable of detecting objects at the pixel level, has simultaneously increased the sheer volume of data to be processed on each scene under consideration. Unfortunately, this data dimensionality explosion has not been matched with a proportionate increase in practically useful information for automatic target recognition tasks. This critical problem is exacerbated when surveillance, reconnaissance, or theater combat operations must fuse high-dimensional information obtained from multiple sensor system modalities in near real time. Confidence in automatic target recognition (ATR) decisions is improved by synthesizing a variety of digital image representations, each of which contains information and identification clues regarding target physics unique to a particular region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The objective is to propose image processing correlation techniques capable of multiple-sensor "smart systems" that can enhance identification and provide location coordinates for sensor-to-shooter systems.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Paul Rudolph
AF 00-124
Title:Development Environment for Reconfigurable Computing (DERC)
Abstract:Reconfigurable Computing (RC) is a technology in which the behavior of aprocessing system is changed by altering the hardware, rather than the software. RC is useful when a high degree of both performance and flexibility is needed, and especially when size, weight, or power constraints preclude use of dedicated components for separate functions. RC has tremendous potential, but has been hampered by a lack of adequate development tools. Of the few tools currently available, most suffer from architectures that are too inflexible. Systran Federal Corp., along with Wright State University and Sapphire Computers, Inc., proposes a suite of RC tools to address this need. The DERC tools will consist of five elements: 1) an FPGA-based development board, which will implement a highly flexible architecture to meet the needs of diverse applications; 2) Partitioning & Mapping software, to support efficient use of partially reconfigurable FPGAs; 3) an Application Programming Interface, which will allow easy access to the development board from a host system; 4) a Debug Utility, to assist the developer in finding and eliminating design flaws; and 5) a library of Logic Macros, which will encapsulate board-specific hardware interfaces and debug functions for use by the RC developer.

PREDICTION SYSTEMS, INC.
309 Morris Avenue Suite G
Spring Lake, NJ 07762
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 449-6800
William C. Cave
AF 00-125
Title:Airborne JTIDS Net Controller
Abstract:Current JTIDS operations utilize a small portion of its theoretical capabilities. Most importantly, they do not use the full multi-net facilities that support significant densities of concurrent radio traffic in a limited spatial area while maintaining a high AJ margin. Furthermore, a substantial effort is required for mission planning to design a network, and real-time changes are limited. Establishing and maintaining an operational network requires control assets that may not be on station, so it is desired to provide an HAE UAV that supports ground control. Establishing and managing Link 16 networks can be dramatically improved by providing tools that take advantage of more recent hardware and software technologies. Specific areas addressed in this proposal include network planning tools for mission support, dynamic allocation of multiple net resources in real time, and increased throughput via optimized resource allocation. Given PSI's CAD technology, the complexity of similar problems solved by this technology, and experience with the multi-net management problem, this proposal addresses a fully automated network management system for dynamic multi-net operations. The approach is evolutionary to assure minimal disturbance of existing field operations. The design also supports a fully distributed "nodeless" approach.

3DVIS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
717 Mirador Rd
Vestal, NY 13850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 748-8872
Peter Sulatycke
AF 00-126
Title:FASTCP: A Low Latency TCP/IP Software for Accelerating Commodity LANs
Abstract:With the steadily dropping costs of computing and networking hardware, local area networks (LANs) have proliferated widely. Unfortunately, the software delays of the standard TCP/IP networking protocol suite (and its associated operating system services) grossly underutilizes the full performance potential of modern networks. We propose the development of an alternative version of TCP that speeds up the performance of Ethernet based LANs by as much as 8 to 10 times while maintaining full programming compliance with standard TCP. This allows applications to run without any change, but allows network applications within the LAN to run significantly faster. The basic product can also be extended to provide similar benefits to LANs that use modern technologies such as Myrinet, Fibre Channel, Gigabit Ethernet and ATM. Such a product is obviously dual-use in nature and can significantly expand current markets and also create new markets in the cluster computing and data server arena. This product thus has the potential of enhancing the competitive advantage of the nation.

ARGTEC, INC.
5525 Twin Knolls Road Suite 330-B
COLUMBIA, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-5882
Monndy A. ESHERA
AF 00-126
Title:Multimedia Indexing and Retrieval for XML Environments
Abstract:Multimedia content-based automated indexing and retrieval is one of the critical capabilities for C4I systems (e.g., DMFE, TAS, DICE and Broadsword) and major Air Force initiatives (e.g., JBI, SSW and BP). Current indexing and retrieval techniques in these systems are based on a limited set of keywords and simple lookup tables. ARGTEC is pioneering the use of a new, innovative technology for content-based indexing and retrieval in large multi-media databases. ARGTEC has been successful in applying this technology to Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS), delivering > 99% identification accuracy (i.e., < 1% Type I error) and close to zero false alarm rate.ARGTEC proposes to investigate and develop a content-based multimedia indexing and retrieval system for XML documents. We will expand our ARG technology to processing more generalized context that contains free-text and multimedia information at multiple levels of detail and resolution. We will show that our system is especially effective in handling noisy and partial information. ARGTEC has worked with several industrial partners in both defense and commercial arenas. Our commercialization strategy lies in converting our algorithm development efforts into system innovations, then teaming with system integrators to infuse these innovations into fielded, operational systems.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3260 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 493-6871
Tom Emerson
AF 00-126
Title:Innovative Information Technologies
Abstract:The main objective of this project is to develop a formally specified architecture of a common scheduler product line for the Air Force Electronic Systems Command (ESC). The architecture will be based on the C2IPS system being developed by UNISYS. The architecture will serve as a formal documentation of the structure and functionality of C2IPS, and to serve as a reference for future Air Force scheduling systems. The architecture will prescribe the interfaces to components and the interconnection of components, as well as common components in future scheduling systems. This architecture opens the door to a competitive market for component developers and system constructors. By requiring that future systems adhere to the product line architecture, the Air Force will realize cost savings through reuse of common components and structure.

NET SQUARED, INC.
39427 Spanish Bay Place
Davis, CA 95616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 758-4338
l Todd Heberlein
AF 00-126
Title:TrendCenter
Abstract:Net Squared, Inc. proposes to develop a national-level intrusion detection capability. TrendCenter will create a clearinghouse for tracking attack trends nation wide. Based on anonymous reporting, it differs from traditional command and control style architectures currently used within the military. This will create wider acceptance in the government, commercial, and educational organizations. TrendCenter applies data mining techniques to track trends, identify which attacks are "in the wild", and determine which anomalous events detected at individual sites are not simply anomalies but are part of a new nation-wide pattern.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
990 Highland Dr. Suite 104B
Solana Beach, CA 92075
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 794-5357
Robert McGraw
AF 00-126
Title:Collaborative Simulation Technology for C4ISR Systems
Abstract:The current trends in the modeling and simulation community are leaning toward the development of collaborative simulation sets that can be used for multiple applications, rather than developing simulations for a single application. Such simulation sets require diverse sets of component and subcomponent models from a variety of simulation paradigms, each which may differ in timing, resolution, scope, platforms, infrastructures and languages. While several ongoing efforts, most notably HLA, resolve some of these differences in terms of platforms, timing, and languages, these existing infrastructures and frameworks do not have the capability to resolve resolution and fidelity differences. RAM Laboratories proposes to develop a middleware software generator that will utilize known mixed-resolution modeling techniques for resolving these fidelity and resolution differences. This Phase I effort will begin to address the development of this middleware generator by developing software that implements these techniques for the SPEEDES (Synchronous Parallel Environment for Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation) simulation infrastructure.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Raman Mehra
AF 00-126
Title:Unified Technologies for Dynamic Global Awareness
Abstract:Dynamic Global Awareness requires, among other things, exploitation of diversedata types (images, text, features, tracks, signals, rules, etc.) in some shared contextual format; adaptively reconfigurable information fusion capable of dealing with changing conditions; and proper management of allocatable assets such as sensors and sensor-bearing platforms. Global Awareness systems--by which we mean INTEGRATED MULTISOURCE, MULTITARGET, MULTI-EVIDENCE DATA FUSION, IDENTIFICATION, TRACKING, TARGET IDENTIFICATION, AND ASSET (i.e., SENSOR AND PLATFORM)--seem to be envisioned as patchworks of loosely integrated subsystem, each of which addresses a separate information-exploitation objective such as detection, identification, tracking, sensor management, platform management, etc.--each of which, in turn, may process only one kind of data. However, these objectives are inherently in conflict: Optimization of one subsystem is not infrequently achieved to the detriment of another. Scientific Systems Co., Inc. (SSCI) and its subcontractor Lockheed Martin Tactical Defense Systems (LMTDS) instead propose an approach based on a direct generalization of BAYES- OPTIMAL RECURSIVE NONLINEAR FILTERING AND CONTROL THEORY to the multisource multitarget realm, made possible by a new statistical theory, FINITE-SET STATISTICS (FISST). In our approach, explicit monitoring and reconfiguration are largely unnecessary because conflicting objectives are simultaneously resolved within a single, SELF-RECONFIGURING, OPTIMALLY INTEGRATED multisource, multitarget, multi-evidence Bayesian algorithm. Specific Phase I tasks are: (1) Develop theoretical basis of unified Global Awareness, (2) Study and design reduced-complexity simulations, (3) Conduct exploratory algorithmic analyses, (4) Submit Final report and Phase II recommendations. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin. Lockheed Martin will provide both technical and commercialization support in the application of the sensor fusion technologies to Global Awareness.

SIGMA SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
9725 Aspen Hollow Way, #210
Fairfax, VA 22032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 582-0638
Jerzy Bala
AF 00-126
Title:Cognitive Support of Imagery Exploitation Through Incorporation of Nave Geographical Reasoning
Abstract:Extraction of region of interests from imagery relies heavily on the tedious work of human analysts. They are trained individuals with an in-depth knowledge and expertise on combining various observations and clues for the purpose of spatial data collection and understanding. Their assignment of conceptual meanings to remotely sensed data is based on complex criteria that are often difficult to assess and transform into suitable representations. This is largely for due to the fact that the human spatial data interpretation tasks involve various cognitive processes that are generally difficult to define or formulate abstractly. To enhance analyst's performance or to train new analysts it would be very convenient to capture such processes in some formal representations. This proposal describes an approach that generates such representations by inferring a set of distributed graphical depictions representing naive (commonsense) geographical space knowledge. In this approach, naive geography information is acquired and represented jointly with imagery to form cognitively oriented interactive 3-D visualization and analysis space. These graphical representations are functional in the sense that analysts can interact with them in ways that are in some sense analogous to corresponding interactions with real-world entities and settings in our spatial environments. The main deliverables of this Phase I project will be initial experimental software prototype components and reports describing developed methodologies and their benefits for the Air Force imagery exploitation efforts e.g., Imagery Exploitation Support System (IESS).

WETSTONE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
273 Ringwood Road
Freeville, NY 13068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 539-9981
Chester D. Hosmer, Jr.
AF 00-126
Title:Trusted Network Timestamping for Defensive Information Warfare (TNT for DIW)
Abstract:In many Defensive Information Warfare (DIW) situations, absolute and trusted time is a crucial aspect of information operations. As information becomes more time dependent, whether that need is for the coordination of information warfare systems, the protection of the national infrastructure or the integrity of e-commerce operations, the problem remains the same. A large number of diverse areas, such as automated data recording systems, computer-controlled systems, computer networks, air traffic control, radio astronomy, broadcasts, geodesy, and radio and TV networks, depend on accurate time. In addition, many applications require not only accurate time but also reliable time stamps to be used as legal evidence that digital data existed at a given time. In other words, an electronic document must be stamped by a trusted time source. Under this effort WetStone Technologies will be advancing the state-of-the-art by developing an infrastructure for third party supplied Trusted Network Time for Defensive Information Warfare Applications (TNT for DIW). We will first examine, quantify and assess the specific DIW vulnerabilities caused by the use of untrusted time. Next, we will define an architecture for a trusted-third-party source to supply secure non-repudiated time stamps that will integrate with existing and future DIW applications.

CYMFONY NET, INC.
5500 Main Street Suite 206
Buffalo, NY 14221
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-9114
Wei Li
AF 00-127
Title:Intermediate-Level Event Extraction for Temporal and Spatial Analysis and Visualization
Abstract:This task seeks to develop a prototype system for intermediate-level information extraction (IE) from large volumes of unformatted text. The specific goal is to develop a system for identifying significant events in raw text. Events correspond to information such as "who did what, where and when". WordNet concepts, as opposed to verbs, will be adopted to represent event actions. Time and location expressions will be normalized to enable visualization of events using geographical and absolute time coordinates. Currently, IE techniques have been limited to shallow event detection; events are keyed on specific verbs, and arguments are limited to syntactic rather than semantic entities. This task seeks to overcome such limitations by focusing on concept-based general event extraction. The approach proposed is a unique combination of two paradigms: machine-learning algorithms and hand-crafted rule-based systems. Machine-learning techniques are proposed for word sense disambiguation, i.e. mapping existing event templates to concept-based templates. Rule-based systems are necessary for tasks like time normalization. The final deliverable includes a working prototype for intermediate-level IE which showcases the event extraction system and the normalization of temporal and spatial terms. This work will have significant impact on future applications involving multilingual IE as well as sophisticated data visualization systems.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd. Nor
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Thomas E. Miller
AF 00-128
Title:A Cognitive Approach to Developing Innovative Information Warfare Attack Assessment Tools
Abstract:Network administrators are outgunned and outstaffed on the emerging, electronic battlefield. Malicious attackers have, at their fingertips, sophisticated communication networks, easy access to the latest cyber-weapons, and extreme time and patience. To adequately defend their networks against this threat, system protectors need to become more proactive in assessing attacks. Unfortunately, several factors prevent these administrators from becoming computer forensics specialists. Many support tools focus on data without determining the relative merits, uses, and meaning of the data. Other tools take the decisions out of the administrators' hands, and make complex judgments and assessments behind the scenes. We suggest a better approach. We will identify new and innovative strategies and data elements used to assess cyber-attacks in real-time and after the fact. We will focus on uncovering the critical cues and information sources used by experts in computer forensics, as well as their strategies for assessment and decision making. We will validate these new data elements and strategies (and likely discover more) by having actual skilled hackers attack an extensive wargaming network. This will serve as the framework for developing a tool that presents relevant information for making assessments in a way that truly supports effective analysis of unauthorized system use.

APTIMA, INC.
600 W. Cummings Park Suite 3050
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Daniel Serfaty
AF 00-130
Title:Dynamic Effects Based Command and Control
Abstract:A three part approach is proposed to develop and demonstrate a system for Dynamic Effects Based Command and Control that will support and enhance joint future operational capabilities. The approach uses (a) an innovative effects-based planning and execution process that integrates intelligence, planning and execution functions for dynamic planning and tailoring actions to the desired effects; (b) a Phase I proof of concept demonstration that utilizes both COTS and already developed experimental software; and (c) operational and systems architecture views of the proposed system that conform to the C4ISR Architecture Framework version 2. This conformance is essential if COTS software is to be used so that future evolution of the system will allow the use of both upgrades of current commercial packages and the incorporation of future packages that offer improved performance and functionality. The architecture and its effectiveness for providing the link between major planned actions and overall desired effects of those actions will be demonstrated through the use of an existing suite of COTS and experimental tools. The demonstration will show the functionality of the effects-based planning and execution process and will set the requirements for the COTS software that will implement the systems architecture in Phase II.

ISX CORP.
4353 Park Terrace Drive
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 247-7800
Gary Edwards
AF 00-130
Title:Dynamic Effects Based Command and Control
Abstract:The overall objective the project is to develop a complete operational concept, functional component design, and software design for the EFFECTOR Effects-Based Operations Planner and Execution Manager. The system concept is grounded in the notion of a detailed and robust representation for all elements of effects based operations planning and adaptive execution. This requires a representational design that provides a natural and flexible language, or ontology, for expressing domain concepts. Capturing key domain concepts and relationships provides the language for import / export of partial plans across external applications or external data sources. EFFECTOR will provide a suite of front-end tools capable of interacting with back-end information services to support user plan authoring, plan visualization, and plan adaptation. Our approach will be to create detailed scenario-based use cases, and to use these to generate interaction interface mock-ups to serve as foils for user validation and refinement of interface features. We will investigate the potential to apply decision support technologies in the EFFECTOR process. Candidate case-based, template-based, and constraint-based planning and scheduling techniques will be investigated and evaluated. The overall results will be a product specification, Operational validation of high value, a design tailored to technical feasibility and mock-up prototypes.

VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY CORP.
5400 Shawnee Road Suite 203
Alexandria, VA 22312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 658-7969
John Peng
AF 00-131
Title:Distributed Collaborative Environment Technology
Abstract:The downsizing of the Department of Defense (DoD) and shrinking military budgets have highlighted the need for DoD business process innovation, automation, and reuse. Collaboration is an increasingly effective way to automate and distribute business processes throughout an enterprise to reach higher levels of productivity. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Collaborative Enterprise Environment (CEE) provides a standard collaboration operating environment that has been effective in leveraging distributed, disparate resources and achieving collaboration among distributed participants. As the successes of the CEE are increasingly realized, the size, scope, and frequency of collaboration executions will grow, and as they do, so will the difficulty managing these complex distributed systems. With collaboration execution often times segmented geographically, the inability to visualize distributed collaborative resources, such as computers, network devices, communication connections, agents and other collaboration participants makes fault detection and correction a significant challenge. The benefits being realized through distributed collaboration and the CEE only underscore the importance of robust tools for managing and monitoring enterprise collaborations to ensure continued realization of the benefits. The Virtual Technology Corporation (VTC) Team proposes to develop a collaboration enterprise resource management and monitoring tool based on VTC's commercial hlaControl product.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
V. ("Nagu") Nagarajan
AF 00-132
Title:Query Optimizing Reconfigurable Computing System (QORCS)
Abstract:Systran Federal Corp. (SFC), the recently spun-off sister-company of Systran Corporation, which is a Products Development Company specializing in real-time networking, proposes to develop in collaboration with Profs. J. Jean and G. Dong of the Wright State University (WSU) a "Query Optimizing Reconfigurable Computing System (QORCS)" to provide acceleration of the database processing. The proposed approach is based on developing a query preprocessor, which will partition the query tree into sub-trees that can be quickly executed in a reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) card, which will also be developed. The QORCS card will be particularly attractive for databases that store large amount of text, image, voice, and video data.

AZ TECHNOLOGY
4901 Corporate Dr., Ste 101
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 837-9877
Howard Dunn
AF 00-139
Title:Protected Carbon-Carbon Composite Material Qualification, and Reparability Studies for Applications at 2200 - 2800 F
Abstract:This proposal describes how AZ Technology will demonstrate a low-cost, matrix inhibited carbon-carbon (C-C) composite coating system that retards composite oxidation at service temperatures between 2200-2800 F. Several different coating/C-C composite systems will be investigated including 3D material. Coatings to be tested are available from selected vendors and will have the characteristics of being easily repaired and applied in a field environment. The target application, of the 2200-2800 F system, is high temperature leading edge and engine adjacent body panels on next generation space vehicles. These include the reusable launch vehicles and hypersonic flight vehicles with emphasis on the space operations vehicle (SOV) and common aerospace vehicle (CAV) and NASA/Lockheed Martin's reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Coating and C-C candidates will be prepared and tested using suitable applications techniques and subsequently subjected to pre-screening by cyclic, low oxidation velocity, furnace heating to evaluate surface regression, mass loss, and stress crack evaluations. During Phase II a more comprehensive approach will include Arc Jet testing. The ultimate goal is to demonstrate a commercially available C-C coating system resistant to thermal induced cracking, is field reparable with long duration exposure resistance to oxidation and is based on low cost application method and materials.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
John Lennhoff
AF 00-141
Title:Processing of Inflatable Parabolic Reflectors from Polymeric Thin Films
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) will utilize a novel membrane reinforcement method on this proposed Phase I SBIR effort to demonstrate the ability to eliminate shape-related optical aberrations common to polymeric inflatable parabolic reflectors. Hencky model based calculations indicate that reinforcement required to correct the reflector optics are in the 1 micron size range. Conventional reinforcement methods have been unable to provide sizes of this thickness. A new method, pioneered by PSI, will provide circumferential and radial location specific reinforcement of the membrane by generating and then bonding small diameter (100 to 3000 nm) polymeric fibers directly to the thin membrane in sequential steps. The locations of the reinforcement of the membrane before inflation will be derived from a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model of the parabolic surface based upon mechanical properties of the polymer membrane, the Henke model of inflatable membranes and optical measurements of the inflated membrane reflector. The optical measurements provide the specifics of the geometric aberrations. PSI will demonstrate the ability to accurately and inexpensively correct optical aberrations of inflatable parabolic reflectors using the newly developed method.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
3591 Apple Grove Dr.
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 643-0007
Seng C. Tan
AF 00-141
Title:Processing of Deployable, Metallized Parabolic Reflectors from Biphenyl Endcapped Poly(Arylene Ether) Polymers
Abstract:Space mirrors with ultra-lightweight, high temperature stability, space durability, and high precision are highly desirable to improve the resolution and light-gathering ability of space structures. A number of currently used polymeric materials for space applications have shown signs of deterioration due to the space environmental effects. Fabrication cost of large components is another major issue. In this Phase I research, we propose to develop a free forming technique to process space reflectors using AFRL's biphenyl endcapped poly(arylene ether) thermoplastic polymers. This family of polymers have excellent resistant capability to atomic oxygen and ultra-violet light exposure. Thin films casted from these polymers will be metallized using a chemical route rather than by the conventional coating techniques to reduce the interfacial stresses and eliminate the interfacial bonding problems. They will then be transformed into parabolic shapes with small focal numbers. A series of microscopic analysis and thermal-mechanical testing will be performed to examine the samples fabricated. The proposed research will result in a processing technique and highly reflective thin films for space, deployable mirrors with exceptional thermal-mechanical properties, and controllable uniform thickness at affordable price.

STRUCTURES TECHNOLOGY, INC.
543 Keisler Drive Suite 204
Cary, NC 27511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 816-0434
Ernian Pan
AF 00-142
Title:Durability of Bonded Joints for Low Cost and LO Repair of High Performance Composite Structures
Abstract:The ultimate objective of this research is to develop a design multidisciplinary software as a commercial product in predicting the durability of adhesive bonded composite structures and structural repairs. The integrated software will be based on time- and temperature-dependent fracture-mechanics, incorporated with chemical kinetics, oxidative, and hydrolytic degradation in truly predicting lives under service conditions. An essential feature of the multidisciplinary approach combines autoadaptive finite element simulation of structural and failure behavior with the identical mesh for the finite volume method in simulating deterioration of material degradation with time. Novel methodologies will be developed to trace failure initiation, failure progression, and failure modes of arbitrary 3-D structural geometry subjected to realistic service conditions. The proposed work in the Phase I consists of the development of a combined analytic and numerical approaches together with experimental validation. Analytical studies on the finite element and finite volume development in 2-D will be directed towards (a) Developing M-integral method in determining fracture parameters for failure initiation, path, and progression for linear elastic and viscoelastic materials; (b) Developing 2-D environmentally induced degradation models of adhesive and/or adherend using finite volume method; (c) Validating the material degradation models using existing experimental data. Computational studies will then demonstrate the feasibility of using autoadaptive mesh technology which has been developed by the Structures Technology Inc. for 2-D finite element and finite volume schemes in predicting failure processes and life in the double lap shear specimen. The analytical and computational development will be combined to greatly improve our ability to understand the true failure phenomena and predict lives of bonded joints for low cost and LO repair of composite structures.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4139
William E. Dorogy
AF 00-143
Title:Durable, Monolayer, LO Polymeric Hardcoats for Aircraft Canopies
Abstract:The survivability of military aircraft relies heavily on "Low Observable" (LO) characteristics incorporated into aircraft by the appropriate structural design/shape and selection of materials. The aircraft canopy can be a major radar return source due to the reflective nature of the variety of electronic components and metallic structure located beneath its protective cover. Coatings must be applied to canopy exterior surfaces to maintain appropriate electrical continuity with the remaining aircraft exterior surface in order to generate LO characteristics. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a durable, monolayer, LO polymeric coating which will meet/exceed USAF specifications for LO hardcoats. This coating will be composed of an inherently conducting polymer (ICP) of a suitable structure to strongly adhere to the polycarbonate or acrylic canopy, be applied as a monolayer using flowcoating or dipcoating techniques, exhibit appropriate optical properties at desired conductivity levels, be abrasion resistant, and have a use temperature of 150C. The program involves development of a synthetic pathway to the monomer, polymerization of the monomer, coating solution formulation, solution application to polycarbonate substrates, and curing to final hardcoat form. Monomer, polymer, and coating will be fully characterized for structure and optical, electrical, mechanical, thermal and physical properties. (p00429)

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Kristie Lenahan Cooper
AF 00-143
Title:Self-Assembled Multifunctional Polymer-Based Low-Observable Canopy Hardcoats
Abstract:This SBIR program would develop and transition to application electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) methods for the manufacturing of polymer-based, mechanically and thermally robust coatings for low-observable aircraft canopies. The simple and environmentally-friendly ESA coating process consists of the alternate adsorption of anionic and cationic molecules from water solutions to form multilayer coatings monolayer-by-monolayer. Incorporation of advanced polymer and other molecules in the monolayers, and the order of the monolayers through the coating, allows excellent control, combination and grading of multiple properties, including dielectric constant and loss tangent, thickness, optical transmissivity, scratch resistance, electrical conductivity, thermal robustness, and electric field-controlled properties. ESA films may be dipped or sprayed under ambient conditions to conformally coat surfaces of virtually any size or shape, without the need for low-pressure chamber confinement. Further, processing at ambient temperature allows the formation of coatings on polymer-based materials without the introduction of residual thermal stresses that reduce impact resistance. During Phase I, NanoSonic will work with a major aircraft system contractor to ESA coat and evaluate prototype polycarbonate and acrylic test articles. During Phase II, the ESA process would be transitioned to large-scale test articles. NanoSonic personnel are capable of performing government classified work.

LASSON TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6059 Bristol Parkway
Culver City, CA 90230
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 216-4049
Bruno Pouet
AF 00-144
Title:Laser-based ultrasonic detection of defects under thermal barrier coatings
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will determine the feasibility of laser-based ultrasonic inspection for the detection of defects under porous coatings, specifically thermal barrier coatings. Laser ultrasound is a developing field and can be used for remote measurements of parts in hostile environments where traditional transducer-based ultrasound techniques cannot be used. A laser-based ultrasonic system is composed of a generation laser and a laser receiver. The generation laser is a pulsed laser. The absorption of a short laser pulse causes local heating of the sample, generating an ultrasonic stress wave. This wave is detected where it reaches the surface by a laser interferometer. One promising interferometric receiver uses two-wave mixing in a photorefractive material to coherently combine a plane-wave reference beam and a probe beam which has been distorted while interrogating the rough test surface. In this program we will investigate a number of inspection geometries for high-sensitivity detection and localization of defects cracks. We will seek to optimize the sensitivity of our laser ultrasonic technique by taking advantage of modern appropriate signal processing techniques.

QUEST INTEGRATED, INC.
21414 68th Avenue South
Kent, WA 98032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 872-1206
Eric Seeley
AF 00-144
Title:Detection of Flaws Under Thermal Barrier Coatings Repairs
Abstract:QUEST Integrated, Inc., proposes the development of a Thermal Analysis Microscope (TAM) based system for the identification of flaws located under Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC). Use of this technology will enable in-situ inspection of various flaws such as cracks on the turbine blades and delamination between the TBC and the bond coating without the need to remove the existing TBC. In Phase I, we will determine the feasibility of the thermal analysis microscopy to identify flaws located under TBCs on test coupons. To verify the performance of this technology, advanced waterjets will be used to remove the existing TBC on the coupons without damaging the underlying substrate material. Once the TBC has been removed, conventional means will then be employed to identify existing flaws and these data will be compared to TAM imagery. We will also define a conceptual standalone system for demonstrating this technology with actual in-situ systems.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 892-9217
Carl Smith
AF 00-145
Title:NDI for Diffusion Bonded Components
Abstract:It is proposed to use spin dependent tunneling (SDT)giant magnetoresistance (GMR) magnetic sensors and eddy current techniques to detect flaws in diffusion bonded components. Previous work has indicated that "zero" thickness cracks can be detected by eddy current techniques with GMR sensors. This approach has the following advantages: 1)Refinement of present sensor technology will enable the manufacture of eddy current sensors of very high sensitivity thereby decreasing the size defects that are detectable. 2)The extremely small size of SDT GMR sensors not only allows resolving smaller defects, they also can be incorporated into small multi-sensor arrays. 3)GMR based sensors have a defined sensitive axis and therefore monitor only the component of the magnetic field. Because of this characteristic, they are ideal for detection of directional properties. 4)A measure of the eddy current disturbances both along and perpendicular to the diffusion bond may provide a more sensitive estimate of joint fidelity. The objective of this phase I project is to prove the scientific feasibility of using SDT GMR eddy current sensors for the detection of flaws in diffusion bonded components. Within this project, commercial applicaitons will be assessed.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Rabi S. Bhattacharya
AF 00-146
Title:Improved Thermal Barrier Coating System Based on a Cathodically Deposited Alpha Alumina Sublayer
Abstract:Improved thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems can provide significant military and commercial cost savings. Oxidation of the bondcoat is an obstacle to durability and reliability of current TBCs. UES, Inc. proposes to utilize a thin Y-doped alpha alumina sublayer on the bondcoat (as well as bare single crystal superalloy) to reduce oxidation of the metal, and thereby prolong TBC life. A filtered cathodic arc equipment will be used to deposit the alpha alumina layer (0.5 micron - 1 micron thick) on the metal, followed by deposition of the thermally insulating yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer (approximately 100 microns thick). The base superalloy will be a CMSX-4 single crystal. The bondcoat will be a platinum aluminized system. In past work, UES has already established the feasibility of depositing alpha alumina using the coating equipment. In the proposed work, UES, Inc., will evaluate the isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of the alumina-sublayer based system, and compare the data with the base Pt-Al system. The program involves teaming with Rolls Royce Allison, an engine manufacturer and end user of the technology. The other industrial partner is Howmet, a leading manufacturer of TBCs.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4112
Uday Kashalikar
AF 00-147
Title:Low Cost Dual Ceramic Carbon Composites for Friction Applications
Abstract:Foster-Miller and its team members will evaluate and demonstrate the potential uses of continuous fiber reinforced dual ceramic composites with a SiC/BN matrix for aircraft brake applications for current and next generation applications. Foster-Miller has demonstrated fabrication of ceramic matrix composites via the low cost and net shape preceramic polymer route. We propose using a variation of this approach to produce infiltrated carbon composites and test them under simulated service conditions. Our team includes a major ceramics producer and aerospace consortium who have identified improved and cost effective frictional materials as a key enabling technology for several current systems. The follow-on Phase II program will involve scale-up and demonstration of repeatability in properties and development of a model that correlates materials level properties to component level performance. (p00435)

HYPER-THERM HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES
18411 Gothard Street Unit B
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 375-4085
Robert J. Shinavski
AF 00-147
Title:Boron Carbide Matrix Composites for Aircraft Friction Materials
Abstract:Next generation aircraft braking materials need to improve the minimum dynamic friction coefficient and volumetric heat capacity as compared with state-of-the-art carbon/carbon braking materials. These improvements will allow more compact, lighter weight braking systems to be developed for future aircraft. Additionally greater wear resistance is required to reduce the life cycle costs of the brake material. Ceramic matrix composites potentially address these needs. In particular a carbon fiber reinforced boron carbide matrix is believed to possess the desirable thermal, mechanical and tribological behaviors. This Phase I program will fabricate carbon fiber reinforced boron carbide composites via chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). The resulting ceramic matrix composite will be evaluated as to its merits as an aircraft friction material. Testing will include an extensive battery of mechanical tests, measurement of heat capacity and thermal conductivity, and testing of sub-scale components to evaluate the friction and wear properties of the material. Additionally preliminary differential cost estimates will be made as to the cost of fabricating C/B4C friction materials as compared to carbon/carbon materials.

ZENTECH, INC.
8582 Katy Freeway, Suite 205
Houston, TX 77024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 984-9171
Partha Chakrabarti
AF 00-148
Title:Improved Life Prediction of Turbine Engine Components
Abstract:The life prediction of turbine engine components is a critical activity inthe design and maintenance of engines. The complex load conditions, high temperatures and environmental effects provide a challenge to the designer and analyst alike. Many factors exist to complicate the analytical process. A number of approaches and techniques are based on the use of linear elastic fracture mechanics with enhancements to account for some of the more demanding requirements of the analysis. A method is proposed to use finite element techniques and purpose written software to incorporate some of these complex conditions into an automated crack growth prediction tool. This requires assessment of contributing factors and a clear method for their incorporation into a software tool. The approach is based on extending existing proven finite element based software for automatic crack growth analysis of arbitrary 3D cracks.

BRYSTIN RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, INC.
4266 Laura Marie Dr.
Waynesville, OH 45068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 897-0622
Jack B. Stubbs
AF 00-149
Title:Durability of Turbine Engine Materials/Advanced Material Test Methods for Improved Life Prediction of Turbine Engine Components
Abstract:Recent advances in digital machine control, computer processing power, and multimedia learningtechnologies have presented a significant opportunity to improve the overall sophistication and efficiency of mechanical testing operations. These testing operations produce service simulation and other types of material characterization data that is the foundation of most component life prediction methodologies. Current testing methods require the operator to have significant knowledge of both the test system itself and the theory underlying the test program in order to produce meaningful results. Although this experience and knowledge is available to laboratories in limited amounts, there is substantial need for better test control, training, and documentation systems. These systems must incorporate the best available information concerning both experimental methods and background theory so the laboratory staff can optimize their production of relevant and accurate mechanical test data. Brystin Research and Development(BRDI) and The University of Dayton Research Institute(UDRI) propose to develop a material analysis and test environment control system incorporating advanced multi-channel digital control, flexible and comprehensive test data acquisition, system documentation and comprehensive multi-media training guide to provide and a system to perform controlled complex tests with knowledge of materials and properties in addition to test protocol and customer requirements.

COMPUTHERM LLC
437 S. Yellowstone Dr Suite 217
Madison, WI 53719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 274-1414
Fan Zhang
AF 00-149
Title:Thermodynamic Databases: Critical Tools for Developing and Processing High Performance Materials
Abstract:Therm, LLC proposes to develop and experimentally validate thermodynamic databases for nickel, aluminum, and titanium based alloys. Thermodynamic databases are critically needed by the materials industry to accelerate development of new materials and processing for applications such as turbine engines. CompuTherm, LLC has a significant new capability to develop databases due to WinPhaD, software developed with USAF SBIR support. The proposed databases, integrated with our software, will be used to calculate phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties. These calculations, critical tools for selecting alloy compositions and optimizing processing conditions, will save considerable time and money during materials research and development, which for a turbine engine nickel-based superalloy can take more than ten years. The success of this computational approach depends on the availability of validated databases. Unfortunately, current databases do not meet the needs of industry due to insufficient chemical elements, improper model types, and inconsistencies. CompuTherm, LLC will demonstrate in Phase I the feasibility of quickly producing accurate thermodynamic databases by developing core databases for nickel, aluminum, and titanium based alloys. These databases, which will be extended in Phase II, will serve as roadmaps for future alloy and processing development.

INTERNATIONAL TITANIUM POWDER, L.L.
683 Executive Drive
Willowbrook, IL 60521
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 325-9460
Richard P. Anderson
AF 00-150
Title:Direct Manufacture of Titanium Alloy Powder
Abstract:This proposal describes the development of a continuous process for the direct manufacture of low cost titanium alloy powders. The process will be an extension of a process, already under development by ITP, which produces pure titanium powder by reacting titanium tetrachloride vapor with a flowing liquid sodium stream. The alloys will be produced in the same equipment by replacing the titanium tetrachloride vapor with a mixture of vapors of volatile compounds of the alloy constituents. This project will concentrate on the production of Ti-Al-V alloys using a mixture of titanium chloride, aluminum chloride and vanadium chloride vapors. The alloy powder will be separated from the sodium and other reaction products, dried, packaged and sent to outside laboratories for chemical analysis, tests to measure particle size and Scanning Electron Microscope photographs to characterize the powder morphology. Metallurgical labs will test the powder behavior in powder metallurgical applications and will prepare solid tensile test specimens for the measurement of yield and ultimate strengths and elongation.

ESSEX INDUSTRIES, INC.
Manufacturing Division 6 Sunnen Drive
St. Louis, MO 63143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 644-3000
Robert J. Geisz
AF 00-151
Title:The Control Stick of the 21st Century
Abstract:The main objectives of this project are to: 1.) Research, develop and implement improvements to the existing F-22 Throttle and Stick ("HOTAS") grip configurations. The current designs are extremely large and non-user friendly, such that the pilot's effectiveness may be compromised. The size, shape and configuration of these grips are improperly designed for the pilot population which may use these items in a warfighting environment. The short term objective will be to determine the true functional requirements to be placed on these grips, research alternative solutions to those components which are contributing to the grips' large sizes, and design/develop 3-dimensional models implementing the proposed component and shape improvements. We will work closely with the prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, during the design and integration phase of this project. Human factors and user evaluations will be primary factors in the design phase as well; 2.) Research and develop concept designs for future combat aircraft (i.e. JSF). The majority of this project will be spent researching the projected HOTAS functional requirements, as well as the availability of technology to satisfy those requirements. Again, we will work with the USAF and prime contractors Boeing and Lockheed Martin throughout this project, as well as key systems and component suppliers. As avionics systems continue to evolve, it is not known what results this phase of the project will yield, however this is a good opportunity to begin the development of future HOTAS grip requirements.

STIRLING DYNAMICS, INC.
200 West Mercer Street Suite E410
Seattle, WA 98119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 284-6605
Adam Taylor
AF 00-151
Title:The Control Stick of the 21st Century
Abstract:The F-22 System Program Office (SPO) currently has a control stick that is not considered ideal for the aircraft. The current grip is too large, and does not have the necessary grip switches and functionality in an easy to use arrangement for the full percentile range of pilots. The size and complexity of the current design must be reduced to meet human factors considerations. More functionality is needed at the pilot's fingertips in order to improve the use of the grip. The switch bodies are considered too large to enable the increased functionality to be incorporated into the current unit. Also the current unit's user friendliness and other human factors leave a lot to be desired. This proposal addresses the requirement to retrofit a new active stick and grip to the F-22 and other future aircraft for the 21st century.

UTILITY DEVELOPMENT CORP.
112 Naylon Avenue
Livingston, NJ 07039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 994-4334
Harry S. Katz
AF 00-153
Title:Improved Mold Facecoat for Titanium Investment Casting
Abstract:Our main objective will be to investigate and develop an affordable, more robust, and more detectable facecoat system for the titanium investment casting industry. The improved facecoat system will not be reactive to titanium melt and will have improved capability for detection by X-ray techniques as a means for nondestructive evaluation. UDC will prove the feasibility and potential advantages of the new titanium investment casting facecoat systems that are effective and more detectable via non-destructive inspection, than current state-of-the-art facecoat systems. Cost effective materials, facecoat systems and application techniques will be identified that can decrease the chance of foreign inclusions ending up in titanium investment castings and increase the chance of detecting them if they do end up in the casting. The developed facecoat systems will be tested by the fabrication of small parts by UDC and testing by end users. At the end of Phase I, we will provide a report with results and conclusions, and a Phase II plan, schedule and cost estimate.

MOUND LASER & PHOTONICS CENTER
P.O. Box 223
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-4481
Larry R. Dosser
AF 00-154
Title:Development of an Advanced Laser-Based Processing Method for the Enhancement of Thin Film Coating Processes
Abstract:The ability to produce large-scale, high-quality superconducting films is crucial for next generation space applications. Preliminary results have shown that laser-based surface modification is a promising new approach for such advancement in superconducting film processing. This project will demonstrate the feasibility of a laser-based surface modification technique to improve substrate properties for subsequent deposition of YBCO high temprature superconducting films. The effect of the surface modification will be quantified by measurement of the superconducting properties and by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The combination of surface treatment and diagnostic measruements develooped in this proposal represents an advanced adaptive processing technology to enhance TBCO film properties as well as produce the long lengths of these materials required for space-based applications. The approach taken to develop this processing tehcnology hsa been carefully crafted to readily incorporate process monitoring and control techniques thus ensuring a high quality, uniform substrae prior to YBCO deposition. The proposed process can readily be expanded to develop repari technologies that will enable large areas or long lengths of a thin film coating to be produced in a continuous process. These methods will have applicability to other types of coating processes, as well as industrial uses outside the coating area, and represent a significant opportunity for commercialization.

PROTEIN EXPRESS, INC.
Hoxworth Center, Third Floor 3130 Highland Ave
CINCINNATI, OH 45219
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 475-6648
Michael L. Howell
AF 00-154
Title:Advanced Adaptive Optical Coating Process Technologies
Abstract:The development and use of scanning probe microscopes (SPM) have provided researchers with breathtaking images of materials down to atomic length scales. This proposal describes a novel approach to combining two such SPM's, an Evanescent Optical Microscope (EOM) and a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), into one sensor device. This EOM/STM would allow for the first time the simultaneous scanning of both the optical and the electrical properties of a sample (ie. at the same exact location and at the same time) with sub-micron spatial resolution. This device will be capable of providing scanned images showing the variation of surface optical properties, inter-layer and film-to-substrate coupling, the local photoluminescence and/or the surface topology of the sample. The use of such a tool in the deposition of optical coatings would enable the direct measurements of, and the subsequent control of, the optical properties of the in-situ films. Presently, the capability of producing this level of simultaneous, unified information into the detailed optical and electrical properties of films and materials does not exist.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Fei Wang
AF 00-155
Title:Self-Assembled Guided Wave Electro-Optic Materials
Abstract:We propose to develop new triblock rodcoil polymer molecules that can self-organize into relatively thick films (on the order of microns) with multiple layers, in which all the molecules in the layers have macroscopically the same orientation. The chromophore functional groups incorporated in the polymer will self-assemble into a noncentrosymmetric organization and form a supramolecular structure for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. The advantage of the proposed system is that relatively thick films can be fabricated in a simple casting process, with an intrinsic thermodynamically stable noncentrosymmetric structure in the film, without poling. An additional advantage is that a photocrosslinking reaction can be carried out to enhance the stability of the fabricated film and also facilitate fabrication of waveguides. Phase I will entail the synthesis of representative block copolymers and their structural characterization. The second order NLO properties of the new materials will be evaluated and a guided wave electro-optical device will be fabricated to demonstrate the expected material properties. Phase II will address the further development of the new material, optimization of film processing, and fabrication of guided wave electro-optic devices useful for advanced future Air Force applications.

LUMERA CORP.
19910 North Creek Parkway P.O. Box 3008
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 616-2974
Timothy M. Londergan
AF 00-155
Title:Guided Wave Electro-Optic Materials
Abstract:Polymeric second-order nonlinear optical materials are being developed for commercialization in a wide variety of technologies. Included in these are next generation fiber and satellite telecommunications, optical gyroscopes, phased array radar, electromagnetic sensing, beam steering applications, back-plane interconnects and micro and millimeter wave signal generation. Lumera Corporation, in collaboration with University of Washington faculty members, Prof. Larry Dalton and Prof. Alex Jen, seeks to develop new nonlinear optical materials with an emphasis on the improving processing and materials characteristics. In particular, we will initially employ new synthetic methodology developed by Londergan and Dalton where dendritic molecules are constructed. Dendritic NLO molecules have been shown to increase the efficiency of the electric field poling, which ultimately translate into an increase in electro-optic activity. In order to achieve low V (<0.5 V) electro-optic modulation, it is necessary to design and synthesize new materials which take into account the molecular shape. The design methodology employed by Lumera lends itself to incorporate various functionality into the materials, such as partial fluorination (leading to low intrinsic optical loss at 1.55 mm) and reactive hydroxyl groups (giving a well-established lattice hardening mechanism via polyurethane chemistry).

MP TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1500 Sheridan Road, Unit 8A
Wilmette, IL 60091
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 491-7251
Hooman Mohseni
AF 00-156
Title:Materials for Superlattice Infrared Detectors
Abstract:Recently, novel electronic and optoelectronic devices such as hundred gigahertz logic circuits, room temperature infrared lasers, and detectors have been demonstrated from III-V based mixed anion heterostructures. The importance of the interfaces quality and crystal perfection in this material system has been proven to be the key issue by many groups. The objective of this project is to develop epitaxial growth techniques that will significantly increase the interface smoothness and abruptness, as well as the material crystal quality. The proposed growth techniques and source material switching sequences will reduce some of the fundamental growth problems such as cross incorporation, cation and anion segregation, and atomic exchange. These techniques are expected to result in a root mean square (rms) surface roughness below 1/2 monolayer over large areas, abrupt interfaces, and high crystal quality reproducibly.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
Peter Chow
AF 00-156
Title:InAs/GaInSb Superlattice for Very Long Wavelength Infrared Applications
Abstract:GaInSb/InAs superlattices show great promise as materials for use in very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) detectors. This III-V compound offers advantages over current HgCdTe technology in both anticipated performance level and ancillary support systems (e.g. cryogenic cooling) costs. Due to piezoelectric strain effects, growth of this superlattice on (111)-oriented substrates lowers the effective bandgap energy of this material when compared to the same growth on (100). Thus, growth on (111) substrates can extend the operating wavelength of this material system into the VLWIR regime. For this Phase I project, we will create the superlattice on (111) substrates using Ga(x)In(1-x)Sb ternary alloy buffer layers instead of the typical GaSb buffer layer. Use of this ternary alloy allows for a reduced strain between the host lattice and the superlattice layers, improving the crystalline quality of the superlattice. At the completion of this Phase I program a prototype VLWIR detector will be fabricated based on the superlattice growth on (111)-oriented substrates.

STERLING SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
22660 Executive Drive Suite 101
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 834-7535
Cengiz M. Balkas
AF 00-157
Title:Growth of Semi-Insulating Silicon Carbide (SiC)
Abstract:In response to Air Force 00-157 SBIR, Sterling Semiconductor proposes to investigatea unique growth technique for high quality semi-insulating SiC crystals. Currently, Sterling is producing semi-insulating material of the 6H polytype. Presented data inducates the material quality of these crystals are of the highest quality. It is the goal of the work propose to fully understand the underlying mechanisms and perform feasiblity runs for the 4H polytype.

BOULDER NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, INC.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-0077
Jay Stockley
AF 00-158
Title:Development of Liquid Crystal Materials for Directed Energy Control
Abstract:Boulder Nonlinear Systems in a teaming arrangement with the Liquid Crystal Institute at Kent State University proposes to improve analog switching ferroelectric liquid crystal devices through polymer stabilization. The primary goal is to improve the state of the art analog ferroelectric liquid crystal modulators by reducing the constraints on the substrates used to implement the devices. A successful effort will lead to polymer stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal device prototypes, featuring high speed, high contrast, gray-scale, resistance to mechanical shock, relatively temperature independent operation, and the ability to function on unconventional substrates, such as flexible or curved surfaces.

KENT OPTRONIX, INC.
6122 Independence Dr.
Hudson, OH 44236
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(330) 655-2011
Deng-Ke Yang
AF 00-158
Title:Multi-State Ultra-Fast Guest Host Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Materials
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR research program is to develop a new type of guest-host cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) composite material which possesses the following novel properties. It is a cholesteric liquid crystal and polymer gel composite material. It can be electrically switched at a speed of microseconds. More attractively, it expands new optical state to exhibit (a) broadband polarizing reflection, (b) narrow-band polarizing reflection, (c) broadband scattering and (d) optically transparent state. The CLC can also be switched from one optical state to another via an electric field and may exhibit multiple stability. In Phase I, KOI will carry out a feasibility study of the new material to demonstrate the four optical states as well as an ultra-fast switchability.

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
25 Cord Dr.
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-2494
J. Carlos Rojo
AF 00-159
Title:Bulk Growth of Aluminum Nitride for Space and Propulsion Applications
Abstract:In Phase I, we propose to grow single crystals of AlN that are nominally 1 inch in diameter using a modification of the sublimation-recondensation approach that should lead to growth rates significantly larger than 0.3mm/hr while, at the same time, improving crystal quality. One-inch AlN substrates will be prepared and a representative sample will be supplied to the Air Force. In addition, we will demonstrate that this technique is scaleable to 2-inch diameter substrates for a Phase II on this program.

ANALYTIC POWER CORP.
100 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-8080
Polevaya
AF 00-161
Title:Fuel Processor for Air Expeditionary Force Deployable Fuel Cells Power Generator
Abstract:Diesel fuel processors, the largest and most expensive system in a fuel cell power plant, are decidedly not modular. Every change in power specification means a change in fuel processor design. They have at least five reactors and many more heat exchangers. They require a plethora of power consuming controls and fluid movers. Their high temperature reactions are inefficient and require expensive materials. The impurities in diesel fuel are highly corrosive to metals. The reactions form soot and the catalysts are unstable. Their product gas is only about 40% hydrogen. The selective oxidation required for carbon monoxide control cuts power plant efficiency about 5 points and degrades fuel cell life. Transient operations are slow and complex. The electrochemical autothermal reformer (EATR) is an innovative alternative to traditional diesel fuel processors. Based on a tri-layer ceramic electrochemical element, the EATR offers a solution to all the problems of the traditional diesel fuel reformer. The major obstacle to EATR development has been fabricating its layered structure. Two very promising fabrication methods and several materials have been identified to solve this problem. The EATR has the potential to revolutionize fuel processing in areas ranging from chemical processing to the automotive industry.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
R.O.Loutfy
AF 00-161
Title:Development of Light-Weight, Low-Cost Multichannels Catalytic Membrane Reformer
Abstract:Efficient on board reformer using battlefield fuel (diesel and JP-8 fuels) to producehigh purity hydrogen is needed for fuel cells deployment. It is proposed to investigate the feasibility of developing compact, low cost, lightweight, highly effective multichannels membrane reformer. Micron size channels (50-100m) will be fabricated using proprietary technology developed by MER of porous materials such as alumina. Alternative channels will be coated with membranes that is hydrogen permeable. The other channels will be packed with catalyst. The incorporation of multichannels membrane reformer would have the advantage of very high surface area membrane for high hydrogen flux, enhancing the conversion equilibrium, eliminating fuel coking as result of lower temperature operation, and producing sulfur and CO free hydrogen. The feasibility of fabricating multichannel membrane reformer will be investigated in Phase I. This technology will be demonstrated by reforming dieselto produce CO free hydrogen.

JENTEK SENSORS, INC.
200 Dexter Avenue
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-8422
Neil J. Goldfine
AF 00-162
Title:Detection and Imaging of Inclusions and Planar Flaws in Titanium Castings Including Weld Repaired Regions
Abstract:Flaws in the near-surface region of titanium castings, including weld repairs, are likely to serve as fatigue initiation sites, and therefore, can affect the component structural integrity. Thus, near-surface region requirements are more severe than in the bulk. JENTEK's imaging MWM-Arrays with grid inversion methods are proposed for detection and quantitative assessment of inclusions, deleterious surface alpha (with an objective to eliminate the need for costly "blue etch" inspection), cracks, and lack of fusion within the near-surface regions up to the first 2.5 mm. The proposed capability will complement proven X-ray and phased-array ultrasonics that have sensitivity limitations in the near-surface region. JENTEK has demonstrated reliable crack detection in fretted regions in titanium engine disks, detection and sizing of alpha case, and contamination assessment of titanium welds. Using imaging MWM-Arrays with model-based measurement grids, JENTEK will focus in Phase I on adaptation of MWM-Arrays and imaging algorithms, and on demonstration of performance on titanium samples provided by Boeing. In Phase II, JENTEK will (1) develop fieldable procedures for detection of inclusions in titanium castings and planar flaws in weld repairs; (2) deliver a portable prototype GridStation system for inspection of castings; and (3) develop enhancements in sizing and imaging.

KARTA TECHNOLOGIES
1892 Grandstand
San Antonio, TX 78238
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 681-9102
Charles Duffer
AF 00-162
Title:Laser Ultrasound Nondestructive Characterization of Titanium Casting and Weldments
Abstract:Advancements in military aircraft design and the drive towards greater performance required incorporation of large complex titanium castings and weldments. The design margins of these aircraft allow for the tolerance of only very small defects. A scanning ultrasonic inspection system incorporating phased-array technology is required so that large parts can be scanned accurately and with high enough resolution to detect small defects in titanium. Karta proposes a phased-array-laser-based scanning ultrasonic system to inspect titanium components. The ultimate goal of this system will be to fully inspect titanium components for the detection of structural defects and for detection and characterization of weld defects. Laser ultrasound is the most appropriate choice because it is better suited for rapid large area scans than conventional immersion or squirter based ultrasound and can be implemented in phased-array configurations. Laser ultrasound is also a noncontact, noninvasive measurement that does not require couplant, is deployable in a rugged fiber-optic configuration easily automated, and is unaffected by temperature or adverse environments. The successful completion of the Phase I Technical Objectives will demonstrate the technical feasibility of developing a relatively low-cost universal instrument for laser ultrasonic characterization of defects in titanium casting and weldments.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Michael Dingus/Mr. John B
AF 00-163
Title:Aircraft Battle Damage Repair (ABDR) of Substructural Core Repair
Abstract:Aircraft battle damage repair is critical to maintaining full force projection during combat. These repairs must be fast, require limited materials and equipment, restore full component strength, and last long enough to allow the aircraft to contribute to the outcome of the battle. Substructural honeycomb core repair is especially troublesome due the complex geometry, variety and type of materials used, and difficulty of preparing and properly securing repair plugs. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc., proposes the development and testing of high-performance, cure-in-place foams as a solution to the core repair problem. The physical properties of the foam will be characterized, and adhesion to various commonly used honeycomb materials will be measured. An applicator suitable for field use will be designed. Simulated aircraft battle damage repair will be carried out and will be visually inspected, sectioned, and tested to evaluate the integrity of the repair. A draft ABDR field procedure using the new foams will be prepared. TRI/Austin will team with Abaris Training Resources, Inc., whose extensive aircraft repair experience, coupled with TRI/Austin's 25 year history in the development of high performance foams and adhesives for the DoD, make this team uniquely qualified to solve the problem.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2744 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Chrysa Theodore
AF 00-165
Title:Deep Core Photocuring of High-Performance Adhesives
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) proposes to develop an adhesive repair system capable of curing a high-temperature adhesive deep within the core of a aircraft structure. High-working temperature, easy-to-process adhesives are needed for adhesively bonded joints and composite patch repair. These adhesives must also be resistive to hygrothermal degradation, since moisture aging is common in most aircraft applications. In addition to having exceptional thermal stability, the adhesives need to be tough and resistant to fatigue crack growth. High-performance adhesives with alternative curing mechanisms, such as photoinitiation at low processing temperatures, are needed for easy field repair. To accomplish this, we will leverage materials technologies from a related program in which we teamed with University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) to develop and evaluate high-temperature, low-shrinkage easy to process adhesives. The objectives of this program are to design, synthesize and characterize a photocurable adhesive system based on previously demonstrated materials technology, and a unique photodelivery system. Each component of the adhesive repair system will be independently demonstrated in this program along with a demonstration of the overall concept.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4121
K. Jayaraj
AF 00-166
Title:Rapid Remove/Replace Stealth Gap Filler
Abstract:Stealth aircraft utilize conductive-particle-filled elastomeric gap fillers between body panels, access panels and doors to maintain low radar signature. One of the biggest deficiencies of state-of-the-art stealth gap filler systems is the time needed to remove and replace this system when access panels need to be removed in the field. These systems may take 24 to 48 hrs to cure and be ready for flight. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a unique gap treatment system that will allow quick and easy removal and replacement of access panels and doors without degrading the aircraft signature. Some of the advantages of the Foster-Miller system include: 1) quick and easy removal and replacement using simple hand tools without degrading radar signature, 2) surface smoothness is retained, and 3) electrical continuity is maintained at high strains. To assist in this effort, Foster-Miller has teamed with Northrop Grumman, prime contractor for the B-2 stealth bomber.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street P.O. Drawer 719
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
Carl A. Mentzer
AF 00-166
Title:Innovative Seals for Maintainable LO Aircraft
Abstract:Mission Research Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative gapseal system that will significantly reduce the cost of operations for LO systems. The proposed effort will examine combinations of tubular extrusions, filler materials, and activation concepts that have the potential to achieve a high quality seal that meets a diverse set of operational requirements. These requirements include; RCS, weight, affordability, ease of application/removal, durability, and safety/environmental issues associated with the application of the seals. From the nearly unlimited combinations of materials, a group of technical experts will select five concepts. A QFD process will be used to select two concepts for demonstration and RCS testing in a panel and frame. The proposed program will screen suitable materials, document the selection process, and demonstrate the signature capabilities. An estimate of maintenance time will be obtained for treatments on representative gaps.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-4572
Wei T. Shih
AF 00-167
Title:Carbon Composites for Space Tribology
Abstract:Friction and wear are fundamental issues in the design and operation of mechanical systems used in space and aerospace platforms, where high performance, high accuracy, and long life are required. The recent successful demonstration of carbon-carbon (C-C) bearing cages (US Patent 5,752,773 ) at supersonic cruise missile engine conditions (450 C and 38,000 rpm) is considered as a breakthrough in high-speed and high-temperature bearing technology. Because of their low density, excellent tribological and thermal properties, C-C cages allow bearings to operate in extreme environments under marginally lubricated conditions. Thus, C-C cages are considered an enabling technology for next generation gas turbine engines. In this proposal, C-C technology will be applied for space-based tribological applications, where vacuum environment and orbiting temperature introduce many new challenges. The possibility of combining specially formulated porous C-C with various lubricants may provide additional stability and reliability to new and demanding applications. In Phase I, carbon-based composites will be formulated for two applications - bearing cages and slip rings. Friction and wear performance will be screened under simulated space environment. The technology will be assessed to provide guidance for future effort. In Phase II, material systems will be further optimized and prototypes will be fabricated and tested.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Amarendra K. Rai
AF 00-167
Title:Development of Advanced Coatings as Palliatives for Avoidance of Fretting and Galling in Titanium Alloy
Abstract:Titanium alloys are currently being used in turbine engine components such as blades and discs. During operation such engine components experience high contact stress and high frequency-low amplitude vibrations, which in turn create a situation for fretting to occur. Titanium alloys are well known for their poor performance under fretting conditions. Fretting related damage leads to reduced fatigue life and higher wear. Analysis of the fretting conditions indicates that fretting damage can be minimized by creating low friction and low wear between the fretted parts. The objective of the Phase I proposal is to develop advanced hard-soft coatings which can provide wear resistance and low friction to the titanium alloy surface. The performance of the proposed coatings will be evaluated by comparing the fretting damage of the titanium alloy surface with and without coating. Finite element analysis will be used to explain the observed coating performance and to help design the desired coating characteristics.

INNOVATIVE RESEARCH, INC.
3025 Harbor Lane N Suite 300
Plymouth, MN 55447
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 519-0105
Kanchan M. Kelkar
AF 00-168
Title:Computational Modeling of Remelting Processes for Ingot Casting of High-Performance Alloys
Abstract:The overall goal of the proposed research is to develop a comprehensive, efficient, and well-validated model for the remelting processes used for production of ingots of superalloys and titanium alloys. The industrially important remelting processes include ESR, VAR, and EB/Plasma remelting. Process performance is dependent on complex interactions of the underlying electromagnetic, flow, and heat and mass transfer processes. The proposed model incorporates many novel features in the treatment of the physical phenomena and their computational solution. Phase I research will focus on the development of a single framework for computational analysis of all remelting processes. It will use a unified computational domain for implicit treatment of the interaction among all physical phenomena across material and phase interfaces. Phase II effort will involve enhancements of the basic model to enable analysis of electromagnetic stirring, treatment of unsteadiness, and prediction of ingot microstructure. Use of a multigrid method will result in a robust and efficient computational procedure. The model will be validated using data from subscale experiments and production furnaces. The proposed model will provide detailed understanding of the physical processes and accurate quantitative information about the effects of process parameters.

ANALATOM, INC.
540 Weddell Drive, Suite 9
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 734-9392
Zouhair Sbiaa
AF 00-172
Title:MEMS Sensors For In-situ Monitoring of Adhesive Bonded Composite Structures
Abstract:The problem addressed is through-life non-destructive monitoring of adhesively bonded structures. The concept presented is to produce a "smart material" consisting of a number of small independent wireless Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) bond degradation monitoring sensors positioned in the adhesive bond-line. They consist of: 1)the sensor modules which contain chemical disbonding corrosion and strain gauges incorporated on a thin narrow polymer belt carrier 2)the CMOS circuitry for the sensors to be autonomous and collect data. The system can be applicable to composite to metal, composite to honeycomb and metal to metal bonding systems. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the MEMS concept for both the sensors and the CMOS circuitry. Subcontractor Boeing will provide data and assistance in surface preparation, evaluating strain distributions in the patches, adhesive and adhesive/adherend bond line, and monitoring crack growth in the adherend. The sensors can be installed during repair and when the platform goes through a complete tear down during the Life Extension Program. The sensors form a Condition Based Maintenance health monitoring system. The sensors are permanently installed and can be continuously monitored. The monitoring system will indicate and select the damage location area which will have to be inspected and repaired.

F&S, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4276
Mark Jones
AF 00-172
Title:Optical Fiber Based Sensors for Monitoring Adhesive Bondlines
Abstract:The increased service for the current fleet of military aircraft is extending lifetimes and environmental exposure past design criteria. Therefore, it is critical to accurately detect and evaluate damage, as well as confidently repair and monitor the structure's integrity. Composite patch technology has been used extensively on aircraft; however, a major concern surrounding bonded repairs is the ability to consistently apply the repairs correctly and monitor their integrity over time. Confidence levels in the ability of the bonded repair to perform as designed have previously been low. This lack of confidence is due to several factors including inadequate process control and the inability to non-destructively assess bondline quality. To address the need for instrumentation to nondestructively monitor composite patches, Luna Innovations (formerly F&S, Inc.) proposes to develop a novel system that uses optical fiber sensors to detect patch delamination along with water penetration and material degradation. The development of low profile, distributed, embeddable, real-time, optical fiber sensors capable of detecting the onset of patch delamination on repaired regions of the aircraft would eliminate a significant portion of the related maintenance costs as well as improve confidence levels in the technology.

ACTA, INC.
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1008
Timothy K. Hasselman
AF 00-173
Title:Munition Effectiveness Modeling & Technology Integration Research
Abstract:A nine-month Phase I project is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of capturing the fidelity of high fidelity physics based (HFPB) models in a fast-running format. It is anticipated that such models will be incorporated in certain modules of the Modular Effectiveness/Vulnerability Assessment (MEVA) code developed for and currently used by the Air Force for assessing munitions effectiveness and target vulnerability. Current engineering models employ resistance functions and/or regression analysis in ways that are unnecessarily restrictive, thereby losing the fidelity inherent in HFPB models. Generalizations of these accepted techniques offer the means of overcoming restrictions that have limited both the fidelity and utility of conventional engineering/fast-running models. The new modeling techniques incorporating higher fidelity physics, enhanced response/damage visualization, and improved stochastic modeling will be demonstrated in Phase I. Current MEVA models will be evaluated and a subset selected for upgrade in Phase II.

H. N. BURNS ENGINEERING CORP.
3275 Progress Drive, Suite A
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 273-3770
Steven Yun
AF 00-174
Title:Enabling Technology Development for Affordable Imaging Laser Radar Systems
Abstract:In this Phase I research program we will investigate the combined application of diverse emerging technologies, to produce a compact, high-performance, yet affordable, core system which will be useable for a wide variety of single-channel laser range finders and multi-channel imaging laser radar systems. We will focus on the integration of new laser sources, new electronic device families and new signal processing techniques into a versatile, common-module architecture, which will benefit from the economy of mass production in numerous military and civilian applications.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
437 B Second Street
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mark A. Massie
AF 00-174
Title:General Purpose Real-Time Digital Processor Development for Microdewar Seekers
Abstract:The "microdewar" seeker head system designed and built by Nova Research, Inc. under a previous AFRL-sponsored program represents a truly modular architecture for the rapid development of miniature operational seeker applications. This Phase I effort proposes the complete design and hardware development of a modular "daughterboard" that permits general-purpose digital processing algorithms to be applied to the real-time seeker image data produced by the microdewar system. In-system programmable digital logic incorporated on the daughterboard may be reconfigured to perform a variety of different processing operations. Copies of the same daughterboard may be included in the system, and each programmed to perform a different serial or parallel function on the image data produced by the microdewar's focal plane array (FPA). Designed to be as flexible as possible with today's infrared FPA and programmable logic technology, the Nova microdewar/daughterboard processing system offers significant advantages in small size and processing power. The resulting system may be applied to Guidance Integrated Fuzing (GIF) applications as well as autonomous seeker guidance and control applications.

SIMWRIGHT, INC.
348 Miracle Strip Parkway, SW
Ft. Walton Beach, FL 32548
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 244-3316
Kerry Christopher
AF 00-174
Title:Guidance Research
Abstract:AFRL/MN requires a low-cost photogrammetric method of generating 3D faceted models of mobile targets. These targets are required to support Critical Mobile Target (CMT) investigations. Low-fidelity models will be used to support research for Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) algorithms being developed for specific weapons systems. High-fidelity models will be generated to construct realistic scenes (e.g., terrain, background clutter, target-in-clutter, etc.) for ingestion into IRMA for synthetic scene creation. The rapid and low-cost generation of these models is necessary due to the enormous resources typically required to generate these models and the unacceptable lead-time required to acquire these models. DeVoe and Matthews has developed a photogrammetric technique which will enable AFRL to generate high-fidelity models which meet their requirements for a variety of applications involving imaging seekers in a variety of sensor systems (i.e., LADAR, Imaging IR, SAR). The technique presented in this paper is an innovative technique which draws upon time-honored methods of terrestrial photogrammetry and the advent of digital technology to provide a low-cost, robust, and efficient method to enable AFRL engineers to modify this process as suited for a given application.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Kenan Ezal
AF 00-174
Title:A Single Port, Anti-jam GPS Antenna with Direction Finding and Home-on-jam Capability
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation's proposal addresses the growing need for a dual purpose, low-cost, single element, anti-jam (AJ) GPS controlled receive pattern antenna (CRPA) with Direction Finding (DF) capability. The antenna footprint is small enough for use with Small Smart Bombs (SSB) and Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM). The primary purpose of the antenna is to provide AJ GPS capability for weapon guidance in multiple jammer environments. In the event that the GPS receiver is no longer able to retain its lock on the GPS signal, the antenna provides the direction of the jamming signal to the weapon guidance system, which can then act as a Home-on-Jam weapon. An integral part of this proposal is the development of an autonomous optimal decision making algorithm which determines if and when to pursue the jammer instead of the original target.

GENERAL SCIENCES, INC.
205 Schoolhouse Road
Souderton, PA 18964
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 723-8588
Michael C. Matthews
AF 00-175
Title:Ordnance Research; Thermobaric HTI for Defeat of BW/CW
Abstract:General Sciences, Incorporated, proposes to investigate the use of intrinsically reactive intermetallic compositions formulated to produce chemical species demonstrated to be effective in defeating BW/CW agents, combined with a high explosive initiator to produce a Thermobaric High Temperature Incendiary payload. The Phase I effort will investigate the design of the Thermobaric High Temperature Incendiary payload and assess its potential against a scaled target using BW/CW simulant materials, as well as make an estimate of the collateral damage effects to the structure the agent is housed in.

MATERIALS PROCESSING, INC.
6401 Elm Crest Court
Fort Worth, TX 76132
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 294-0135
Animesh Bose
AF 00-175
Title:Ordnance Research
Abstract:Tungsten heavy alloys, due to its unique property combination of high density (17 to 18 g/cc), high strength, high ductility, and ability to shield against radiation, have applications in the ordnance area, especially as large penetrators, and as radiation shields. Building massive shapes from these alloys is difficult and often impossible as the alloy is usually liquid phase sintered (resulting in gravity induced slumping in case of large structures). It is possible to build massive part from this alloy by joining smaller and simpler pieces together at a temperature that is lower than the liquid forming temperature of the alloy. The challenge is to impart tailored properties to the joint where the joint strength could be changed to suit the application. For ordnance application, the joint strength has to be equal or better than the parent tungsten alloy, while for explosive jet perforators with applications in the oil and gas industry, the joint has to be weaker. Success in this project will allow us to join tungsten heavy alloys with the desired joint properties (tailored). This will lead to the use of this technology in the ordnance area as well as in the oil and gas industry.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S. Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Steven Tidwell
AF 00-176
Title:Low Cost Pulsed Laser
Abstract:In order for electro-optical seekers to be applied to tactical weapons, lasers used in these systems must be made less expensive, and be engineered into compact and reliable devices. We propose to develop a diode pumped Ytterbium doped flouoroapatite laser oscillator that may greatly reduce the laser's cost compared to current pulsed diode pumped solid state lasers. The proposed Phase I research will develop and test a 200 mJ pulse energy, Q-switched, diode pumped laser oscillator.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Glenn T. Bennett
AF 00-176
Title:Short Pulse Transmitter for Focal Plane Array Based Imaging Ladar
Abstract:Imaging ladar offers new capabilities for military and commercial remote sensors. However, 3-D ladar transceivers currently tend to utilize a raster-scanned beam or pushbroom/whiskbroom acquisition that may distort images when there is relative motion between the target and sensor. An approach to mitigating the motion-induced image is to utilize single shot, 3-D imaging focal plane array (FPA) receivers. However, maintaining the area search rate and laser energy per pixel with FPA receivers dictates an increase in the laser pulse energy while reducing the repetition rate. To address this, CTI proposes an innovative eyesafe infrared near-monolithic laser transmitter configuration that maintains average power at low repetition rates (~100 Hz), while minimizing the cost and size impacts of the low rep rate pulse format. The laser architecture utilizes a breakthrough nonlinear optical pulse compressor to produce 1 to 2-nanosecond pulse widths for enhanced range resolution and speckle diversity. Moreover, the near monolithic technology can utilize either high efficiency pump laser diodes for sustained operation, or lower-cost uncooled flashlamps for higher pulse energy, limited shot operation. Phase I provides designs/demos to ensure low risk for Phase II deliverables. CTI's experience in flight qualified ladar systems provides leverage for the program.

I TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
2663 Wayside Dr.
Ann Arbor, MI 48103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 761-3174
Robert E Sampson
AF 00-177
Title:Midwave Infrared Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter for Laser Radar
Abstract:This proposal is for the development of a fast imaging spectro-polarimeter for the measurement of spectral and polarization signatures of both targets and backgrounds for improved target recognition capability for laser radar. The proposed innovative snapshot imaging spectro-polarimeter provides spectral and polarization information on each pixel in 4 milliseconds. This unique approach eliminates scanning through the spectrum as required by conventional approaches and provides for subsequent rapid collection and construction of spatial, spectral, and polarization data sets. The proposed instrument design is field portable with minimal moving parts. The proposed project builds on developments at the University of Arizona's Optical Detection Laboratory and provides the most comprehensive and versatile portable imaging sensor developed to date.

DOMINCA
9813 Admiral Dewey Ave., NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 822-0005
Joseph H. Kang
AF 00-178
Title:Shock Mitigating Technology
Abstract:The current mitigation techniques used to protect a warhead's fuze from the high frequency components of deformational waves suffered during an encounter with a target may be inadequate for future warheads. We propose several novel concepts for shock mitigation. From these we choose to pursue in Phase I the capabilities of Shape Memory Alloys because of the excellent dissipative properties that have been reported for them when used in their superelastic (not shape memory) mode. Their dissipative capacity is said to be greatest under conditions produced by impact: high strain rates and a broad spectrum of frequencies. In their superelastic condition, these materials would be practical in warhead use: unlike the shape memory behavior, no thermal cycling is required, and unlike visco-elastically dissipative materials like polymers, there should be no concerns with aging or creep. We will also pursue work to better understand and improve two very effective current techniques, namely 1.) mechanical filtering of selected frequencies by layers of materials having dissimilar impedance, and 2.) using limited contact area to mount equipment, creating a momentum bottleneck.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4431
Randal Johnson
AF 00-179
Title:Recrystallization of Nitramines
Abstract:Current manufacturing methods for nitramines HMX and RDX produce crystals with micro-voids which leave the explosives highly shock sensitive. The presence of micro-voids inside a crystal is difficult to detect and to quantify. Normal manufacturing methods for nitramines do not address micro-void reduction techniques nor testing for these voids. TPL, Inc. proposes recrystallizing nitramines using proven methods to decrease the number of these micro-voids, producing less sensitive materials. These crystallization techniques are not commonly used for nitramine production. Micro-voids will be determined and quantified. This effort will investigate void production resulting from three alternative crystallization techniques. These methods will include a gas anti-solvent technique; ultrasonic stimulation of nucleation; and a spherical crystallization method utilizing emulsification and solvent extraction. Detection and quantification methods for micro-void detection include apparent density determination using mixed solvents, optical microscopy, and surface gas absorption. TPL's personnel have a great deal of experience in synthesis and formulation of a wide variety of energetic materials. TPL is licensed for the use and manufacture of explosives and has ongoing commercial efforts reclaiming HMX and RDX from demilitarized ordnance. This current recycling effort gives a ready market to use and sell any refined products coming out of this proposed program.

DEARBORN GAGE CO.
32330 Ford Road
Garden City, MI 48135
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 422-8300
Robert A. Peterson
AF 00-180
Title:High-Frequency Motion Simulation for Hardware-In-The-Loop Testing
Abstract:The design of a High Frequency Motion Simulator (HFMS) is required to satisfy the HWIL testing objectives for current defensive missile systems. This development will provide a unique 6-DOF-motion simulator currently not available and extend the capabilities of current Flight Motion Simulators (FMS). The introduction of a unique non-cascaded gimbal configuration offers the ability to extend the closed loop frequency response of this motion simulator to the 1000 Hz region. Current FMS are limited to < 50 Hz frequency response. This new concept not only provides the three angular degrees of freedom, but also provides three degrees of translation necessary to simulate airframe vibration. The motion base is based on a variant of a Hexapod configuration. Unique flex pivots are utilized to provided low friction coupling between the platform and actuators. The high modal frequency is achieved by using carbon graphite composite for the platform structure and actuator extensions. A multi-variable feedback system, which uses the actuator position and platform inertial accelerations, provides a control system directly related to the airframe coordinate frame. The system provides control of the three angular rotations and three linear displacements, each control loop exhibiting a 1000 Hz bandwidth.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Div. 20600 Gramercy Place,
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Andrew Kostrzewski
AF 00-181
Title:Real-Time, Low Bandwidth, Detachable Damage Assessment Eye
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop beyond-line-of-sight video processing, compression, and transmission with communications capability for ranges out to few hundred kilometers. The proposed Smart Munition Smart Sensor (SMSS) system will be capable of sending sensor data to a ground or air station, fully compressed at 2000:1 while preserving high signal quality and integrity. The sensor data will include full motion, high resolution video/IR data, and still imagery, GPS positioning and sensor fusion control. SMSS will send messages and video at extended ranges for real-time target identification, target location, and battle damage indication. The proposed research will be in two areas: high fidelity video compression to low bandwidth with minimum digital video artifacts; and wireless, real-time transmission of video from the munition to the base and control signals from the base to the munition. The R&D effort will be carried out as algorithm, software, and hardware development for both encoding and decoding as well as efficient wireless communication. The supercomputer-class (8BOPS) digital video processing, based on soft-computing technology (where POC has a leadership) will be sufficiently fast to support semi-autonomous and in near-future, fully-autonomous on-the-fly target reassignment by real-time BDI.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway Suite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9487
Craig Newbold
AF 00-183
Title:Powered Submunition Communication Architecture
Abstract:The battlefield of the future will be a 'digital battlefield'- a place dominated by unmanned air, land, and sea combat vehicles, precision guided smart weapons, and real-time networked communications. A significant role of the Air Force in the digital battlefield is the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) including the roll-back of enemy defenses, building of corridors for strike packages, and follow-on maintenance of previously sanitized areas. A recent concept for implementing SEAD includes the Air Force's development of a new class of low cost, autonomous, miniature munitions, one of which is the Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (LOCAAS). The performance of these munitions could be greatly enhanced by sharing information and coordinating activities between all munitions flying in a given area. SRC proposes a communication architecture using Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) hardware components that have shown excellent performance and low-cost attributes during our work developing the Navy's UAV based Expendable Video Data Link (EVDL). SRC will combine these DSSS components with a flexible network architecture and robust routing protocols by extending our recent project work on mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) for the Air Force Rome Labs.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4454
Frank Keys
AF 00-184
Title:Recycling/Recovery of Energetic Materials and Polymer Binders
Abstract:Recovery and recycling of energetic materials are based on regulatory and economic factors. OB/OD practices are limited through federal and state regulations, therefore alternate demilitarization methods must be developed. As production narrows, nitramine life cycle costs tend to drive energetic formulation system costs. Nitramine recovery will increase supply and decrease formulation costs. TPL will apply its proven nitramine recovery process to selected Air Force explosives. Relying on its broad base of nitramine recovery experience, TPL will evaluate applications for both recovered nitramines and by-products. TPL's recovery process will enhance Air Force water washout by completing the demilitarization process. Nitramine recovery can proceed efficiently while minimizing labor, transportation and other costs. During this effort, zero-waste-stream recovery processes for both aluminized and non-aluminized energetic materials will be developed. By-product utilization will be evaluated for both feedstocks, culminating with an onsite demonstration utilizing TPL's pilot plant facility. TPL is the leading small business in operational demilitarization and conversion of recovered energetic materials into commercial products. To date, over 3000 pounds of nitramines have been recovered resulting in ongoing commercial sale. TPL's experience base, operational capabilities, storage capacity, and innovative technologies position the company to transition from this effort to commercial applications.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURE & MATERIALS, LLC
309 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Jeffrey S.N. Paine
AF 00-185
Title:Compact Nitinol-Hydraulic Actuator for Munitions Control
Abstract:d is the development of a hybrid Nitinol-hydraulic pump actuator to provide high levels of work over relatively low frequency bands for miniature munitions applications. The principal design is the use of high power capabilities of Nitinol wire actuators operating at moderate frequencies moving a transmission fluid that provides the required force and stroke to the actuator load. The unit provides a low cost solution for disposable munition actuation. The Nitinol actuators are configured in a novel mode to produce high pressures and strokes. The design consists of an array of small pumps called a Compact Nitinol Pump (CNiP). Because an array of units is used, the response time can be significantly increased over that of a conventional Nitinol SMA actuator. The unit will incorporate energy storage options to enable response times to 50 Hz where as conventional SMA actuators are often limited to 1 Hz. Efficiencies will also be improved by using power conditioning and training of the Nitinol actuators to minimize actuation power. The key technical issues are the compactness of the configuration, timing or commutation of the multiple pistons, sealing and heat rejection. The hybrid actuation concepts will be able to competitively replace many hydraulic driven devices.

QORTEK, INC.
4121 Jacks Hollow Road
Williamsport, PA 17702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 745-3555
Gareth Knowles
AF 00-185
Title:Piezoelectronically Activated THUNDER Control Surfaces for Miniaturized Munitions
Abstract:The major drawback in flight control actuation for miniature munitions is achieving the high energy density in an small package suitable for control surface activation. In a departure from previous approaches, the new concept has the control surface consisting entirely of the actuation mechanism. The new concept has the control surface being a piezoelectronic driven missile rugged high force-throw multilaminar THUNDER fin or canard. The challenge is to demonstrate that this new design and technology can meet the needs of miniature and future microminiature munitions.

APPLIED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, INC.
222 Government Avenue Suite B
Niceville, FL 32578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 729-7550
Timothy F. Elbert
AF 00-186
Title:Real Time Kinematic (RTK) Carrier Phase GPS from Start-up to Impact
Abstract:The current use of GPS in the guidance of tactical weapons is limited to use of the pseudorange measurement capability of GPS receivers. Time-Space-Position-Information (TSPI) systems based on the more accurate GPS phase measurements are now becoming prevalent. Phase-based positioning requires the resolution of the integer ambiguities, which is made possible through double differencing techniques to eliminate systematic sight-line errors. Double differencing requires a fixed reference receiver and_for real-time real position determination_a data link, both of which present problems in a tactical environment. This proposal addresses the possibility of eliminating the continuous data link requirement, and mitigating the requirement for a reference receiver, by resolving the single difference phase ambiguities. Single difference ambiguity resolution has traditionally been plagued by the presence of sight-line errors, which also adversely affect the pseudorange based tactical systems now in use because of their slow convergence in filter implementations. The method proposed here consists of a double difference-based initialization process, in which the sight-line errors can be accurately assessed, to initialize a tightly coupled Kalman filter in which they are added to the normal complement of navigation error states. From that point, the single difference ambiguities can be resolved, and the accuracy of the resulting phase measurements should permit tracking of the sight-line errors.

UBC, INC.
6101 Johns Road Suite 1
Tampa, FL 33634
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 884-6076
Robert S. Roeder
AF 00-187
Title:Complementary Ladar/Millimeter-Wave Seeker (CLAMS)
Abstract:A top down analysis of available technologies for delivery systems, sensors and guidance techniques, is proposed. The analysis will conclude what combination of Ladar and Millimeter wave based sensors, if any, delivered by what kinds of launch platforms and airframes are best suited to the needs to detect, identify, and effectively terminally home on mobile targets in modern battle field environments.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORP.
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 465-5686
Darlene Schwall
AF 00-188
Title:Novel focal plane array photodetector technology for use in eye-safe imaging LADAR receivers
Abstract:A focal plane array technology will be developed to advance the state-of-the-art in eye-safe imaging LADAR. An innovative manufacturing process is proposed that will combine high-speed InGaAs near infrared photodetectors with application specific 2-D LADAR readout circuitry allowing time-of-flight calculations with nanosecond resolution on a per-pixel basis. In Phase I, the concept will be demonstrated with high responsivity schottky barrier InGaAs photodetectors fabricated directly on commercially available LADAR processing chips. The InGaAs epitaxial structure is transferred directly to the silicon based circuitry using an innovative processing procedure that will result in high yield and lower fabrication costs. The performance of the LADAR system comprising the proposed focal plane array will be investigated through modeling and experimental testing. Potential Phase II development efforts will include transferring InGaAs-based avalanche photodetectors (ADPs) for improved sensitivity, InGaAsN-based photodetectors for operation past 2mm, as well as, second generation signal processing circuitry for improving signal-to-noise ratio and detection probability.

PHOTOGLASS
1203 Searle Drive
Normal, IL 61761
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(309) 452-3837
Roger K. Bunting
AF 00-189
Title:Nanoparticulate Semiconductors: Preparation and Application
Abstract:The preparation of nanoparticulate semiconductor materials by a spark-erosion process is proposed. n- and p-doped silicon will be prepared in nanoparticle form, and their electronic properties in polymer composites will be evaluated.

MICROASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 8421 5675A Landregan St.
Emeryville, CA 94662
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 655-2360
Ryan Roehnelt
AF 00-190
Title:Real Time Failure Prediction Sensor
Abstract:The proposed Air Force SBIR Phase I project will develop rotational sensor designs for penetration munition failure detection based on high rotational acceleration.

ADVANCED COMPONENTS & MATERIALS
1360 HIGH HAWK ROAD
EAST GREENWICH, RI 02818
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 885-5064
Amitava Datta
AF 00-195
Title:Aero Propulsion and Power Technology-An Innovative Brush Shroud Developmenf for Turbine Engine Fans.
Abstract:The proposed research and development will focus on the feasibility of design and manufacturing of a flexible brush shroud for compressor blade tip seals to enhance its aerodynamic efficiency and stall margin. Unlike current abradable seals, brush shroud bristles are expected to elastically deflect when impacted by blade tips and minimize permanent tip gap enlargement and tip damage, thereby reducing maintenance costs. Preliminary tests at Wright Laboratories with conventional brush seals have already demonstrated encouraging results. The proposed program will explore two innovative shroud designs, one based on flexible bristle strips and another on a tufted ring, both to generate a continuous sealing surface which is believed to be necessary to enhance sealing. The conventional brush seal design did not provide a continuous sealing surface. The proposed design will also be lighter and cheaper than the current seal design as a result of the elimination of redundant front and back plates. The proposed methods are also amenable to a high degree of automation, and Phase I will outline further development areas for a fully automated process. Advanced Components & Materials, Inc. has assembled a strong team to develop and commercialize this flexible shroud technology.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-1990
Michael J. Roemer
AF 00-195
Title:Advanced Engine Test Cell Troubleshooting and Diagnostics
Abstract:Impact Technologies in cooperation with Sytronics propose the development of an advanced engine test cell troubleshooting and diagnostic system that is capable of statistical anomaly detection of engine sensor signals, mechanical and performance-based diagnostics, and vibration image fault isolation/detection. The advanced diagnostic system will perform both real-time and post-test diagnostic assessments of engine performance and mechanical faults so that engine anomalies can be identified promptly. This proposal has been submitted after discussions with the engine repair organizations at the Air Logistic Centers who have consistently cited improved test cell diagnostics as a key improvement to their mission. It is desired that the advanced diagnostic procedures developed under this program would be directly integrated with an existing test cell hardware upgrade program (JETS-Jet Engine Test Strategy) headed by Ron Howe for the USAF. Improved test cell diagnostics capable of detecting and classifying engine mechanical and performance faults as well as instrumentation problems is critical to reducing engine operating and maintenance costs while optimizing test cell effectiveness. Proven anomaly detection and fault classification techniques utilizing engine GPA (gas path analysis) and empirical models of structural and performance related engine areas can now be implemented for real-time and post-test diagnostic assessments.

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20955 Morris Avenue P.O. Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 489-4889
M. Zafar A. Munshi
AF 00-195
Title:High Energy Density Micro-Power Sources
Abstract:A critical technological barrier to implementing microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices is energy storage. The purpose of Phase I study is to design a feasible solid-state micro-power system utilizing existing technologies and to demonstrate that the components chosen along with the design can survive expected thermal cycling, chemical and mechanical stability and long shelf-life. We will define the theoretical limitations for each power source technology considered including technical barriers in the implementation of the design with respect to minimal footprint and thickness, weight, maximum or minimum capacity, current output under wide operating temperatures and cost. We will also demonstrate that such design and chemistry selected is able to meet the energy demand profile of the micro-sensor and consider methods whereby the power source could be integrated with the sensor reducing manufacturing cost. The proposed work addresses new designs of polymer electrolytes and novel methods of electrode fabrication. The results of this investigation will help assess the utility of the very thin film, small-size batteries ad will sow the seeds for Phase II for the development of mass manufactured/cost-effective practical micro-batteries that can be demonstrated in a commercial product.

SYSTEMS & ELECTRONICS, INC.
190 Gordon Street
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 228-0985
Tom J. Sepka
AF 00-195
Title:Independent Power Supply Investigation Configuring Super Applications and other loading Technologies Power Sources
Abstract:Systems & Electronics, Inc.(SEI) proposes to conduct a trade-off and engineering analysis for the employment of Super Capacitors and other energy sources for independent power supply for flight recorders(data acquistion systems),cockpit voice recorders and other avionics systems requiring stand-by power for short periods of time from 200 milliseconds to 20 minutes. This trade-off analysis will employ all cost for the independent power supply, logistic cost for spares and the maintenance costs. For this research program . SEI is trageting avionics systems requiring 10 to 20 watts for a period of 20 minutes. As part of Phase I, SEI will demonstrate an independent power supply which will power on of SEI's existing products such as the crash data/voice recorder. This demonstration unit will be a prototype and not a flight qualified unit. This proposed research program has a great deal of military and commercial applications such as flight recorders, emergency beacon locators, essential communication, exit light stripes in commercial a/c, etc. The FAA may require an independent power source on all commercial flight data and voice recorders in the near future on commercial aircraft. This independent power supply may have an application for electronic fuel controls for aircraft engines. This investigation will be conducted in five tasks and require a period of performance of nine months, all technical effort will be completed within six months and the last three months will be employed to prepare for Phase II of the proposal effort.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Joseph Kunze
AF 00-195
Title:A Metal to Organic Matrix Composite Joining Technique for Hybrid Gas Turbine Engine Fan Blades
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. proposes to develop a technique for joining of metals and metal matrix composites (MMC) to organic matrix composites (OMC). The technology will enable the insertion of damage tolerant hybrid Metal-OMC fan blades for military and commercial gas turbine engines. The innovation is based upon a Triton proprietary and cost effective technique which ensures that stresses are transferred from the load carrying fibers of the OMC to the load carrying fibers of the MMC without stress concentrations. This innovation is critical to next generation gas turbine engines since it enables the insertion of lightweight hybrid Metal-OMC fan blades which meet foreign object damage requirements. The potential weight reduction of the proposed hybrid fan blades is over 40% compared to titanium. Triton Systems has teamed with aerospace engine component manufacturers who will provide technical assistance on the blade design, current OMC resin systems in use, and manufacturing compatibility with current processes for commercialization of the technology.

RESEARCH APPLICATIONS, INC.
11772 Sorrento Valley Road, Su
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 259-7541
Jalees Ahmad
AF 00-196
Title:Advanced Life Determination of Turbine Engine Components
Abstract:The overall goal of the proposed effort is to develop and validate a marketable methodology for advanced life prediction and residual stress management of turbine engine components under actual service conditions. Advanced methodology is needed for life extension of existing engine components, for enhanced safety of future aircraft engines, and for rational management of life cycle costs. A combined experimental and modeling approach is proposed to develop and validate the methodology. The focus in Phase I is to develop and experimentally validate the modeling tools that would be needed to conduct a detailed investigation and product development in Phase II. Lambda Research is proposed as subcontractor for laboratory experimentation. Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Engines) will provide expertise in design aspects of life prediction methodology. Model and methodology development work will be performed by Research Applications, Inc.

LSP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6145 Scherers Place
Dublin, OH 43016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 718-3000
Allan H. Clauer
AF 00-197
Title:Laser Shock Peening Dove Tail Slots for Fretting Fatigue Resistance
Abstract:In aircraft gas turbine engines, in most cases, the blades are held in rotating disks by a dovetail attachment that fits into a matching slot in the rim of the disk. The contact area between the blade dovetail and the dovetail slot is subject to high stresses and fretting condtions. This leads to fatigue crack initiation in the fretting area and propagation of the cracks into the disks, and the disk's eventual retirement for cause. This is a significant problem. The application of a soft metallic coating to the blade dovetails helps to decrease this problem, but the retirement of disks for cause remains a significant cost. This program will evaluate the feasibility of using laser shock peening to increase the resistance of dovetail slots to fretting fatigue damage and failure. Two issues will be addressed. One, the magnitude of the beneficial effect of laser peening to increase the fretting fatigue life associated with dovetail slot fretting will be evaluated. Two, methods for laser peening the inside fretting surface of dovetail slots will be evaluated. The evaluation will consider lower cost, ease of use, reliability, and maintainability of hardware.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
10299 Scripps Trail, PMB 231
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 586-6628
Thomas Brotherton
AF 00-198
Title:A Testbed for Data Fusion for Gas Turbine Engine Diagnostics and Predictive Diagnostics
Abstract:The key to producing more confident, real-time, on-wing diagnoses resides in the processing of multisensor data. Adding expensive new sensors is not the solution, but data fusion is. Fusion saves cost and weight; no new sensors required. Fusion reduces false alarm rates by allowing faults to be seen across multiple sensors. Diagnostic performance is improved by allowing detection of unique fault patterns than can only be seen on sets of sensors instead of a single sensor. Fusion enables predictive diagnostics; low-level information is integrated across sensors so potential faults can be detected earlier. Intelligent Automation Corporation proposes to develop a PC based gas turbine engine health monitoring system that uses a unique combination of signal and information processing algorithms to perform data and sensor fusion for engine fault diagnostics and predictive diagnostics. The system will include an Intelligent Mechanical Diagnostics System (i-mds) Matlab toolbox to aid in the development of future systems and to aid in the integration of new sensors and new information as it becomes available. The goal is to have a testbench that is flexible so that engineers and maintenance personnel can easily try a variety of signal and information processing approaches for solving particular problems.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
99 South Bedford Street Suite 7
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Neil Goldstein
AF 00-199
Title:Minimally-Intrusive Real-Time Temperature and Composition Sensor for Combustor Applications
Abstract:An innovative minimally-intrusive sensor is proposed for monitoring the hot gas stream at the turbine inlet of high performance aircraft gas turbine engines. A passive fiber-optic probe and remote readout device are used to collect and analyze the spatially resolved spectral signature of the hot gas in the combustor/turbine flow path. Advanced information processing techniques are used to extract the average temperature, temperature pattern factor, and chemical composition in real-time. The proposed approach should provide real-time temperature and cal species sensing capability for multiple-point monitoring of high temperature and high pressure flow at the combustor exit with application as an engine development diagnostic tool, and ultimately, as a real-time active control component for high performance gas turbines.

BRENTWOOD TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
5123 Virginia Way Suite C-21
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 221-9047
Robert G. Tryon
AF 00-200
Title:Probabilistic Micromechanical High Cycle Fatigue Modeling of Titanium Propulsion Structures
Abstract:The proposed effort is the development a probabilistic micromechanical fatigue life modeling software package. The model will integrate the knowledge derived from material characterization studies into the gas turbine structural component design system. This software would be capable of predicting the scatter in the fatigue strength for a component subjected to high cycle fatigue loading in titanium propulsion system components. The Phase I effort will address HCF failures that are initiated by foreign object impact damage. Variations in the geometry of the resultant FOD notch and the plastic region surrounding the notch will be considered. The variation in the material fatigue response initiated by the FOD is determine using mesomechanical fracture mechanics models applied at the microstructural level. Variations in the grain size, grain orientation, and other microstructural parameters are considered The models will be developed concurrently with component design methods to identify the sources of uncertainty and assess the influence of material and usage variation on the reliability of the structure. Design-to-production time can be reduced because testing can be tailored to measure the most important source of uncertainty. The engineer can then design the component to minimize the scatter thus optimizing the damage tolerance while reducing the life-cycle cost.

DAMPING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
12970 McKinley Highway Unit IX
Mishawaka, IN 46545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 779-2237
Thomas M. Lewis
AF 00-201
Title:Development of Air Film Damping for Turbine Engine Applications
Abstract:Previous research regarding air film damping has taken place to investigate the feasibility of the concept for control of vibration induced high-cycle fatigue (HCF) in gas turbine engine components. To establish this goal, current commercially available finite element analysis software was utilized to develop a methodology for predicting the effects of air film damping on dynamic response of simple components such as beams and plates. Test articles were fabricated according to the designs, and experimental results were compared to the analysis, with good correlation. The outcome is a step-by-step procedure for design of Damping Technologies, Inc. Air Film Damping (DTI/AFD) configurations. The objective of this proposed Phase I program is to apply the (DTI/AFD) methodology to design a suitable air film damping system for a selected turbine engine component, fabricate the air film damping system, and verify that the predicted performance is achieved. In addition, tasks will be included to address durability issues.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4119
Carolyn Westmark
AF 00-202
Title:Novel Cold Flow Enhancing
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to identify, design, synthesize, and evaluate innovative new fuel additives that can be used to improve the cold flow properties of military jet fuel (JP-8). Foster-Miller will also design a method for dispensing these additives at the fueling point or during flight. The primary purpose of this research is to allow the military to tailor the low temperature properties of JP-8 as needed, thus eliminating the purchasing, transporting, and storing of special fuels such as JPTS for high altitude, slow flying aircraft. Foster-Miller will identify or design cold flow enhancing (CFE) additives using state-of-the-art molecular modeling techniques. Molecular structures of the CFE's will be designed to inhibit growth of paraffin wax crystals in JP-8 down to temperatures of -60C. These changes in crystal growth rate will mitigate the problem of wax crystals clogging the fuel filters when the aircraft is exposed to extreme low temperatures. The candidates will be screened initially using computer simulation techniques to predict their interactions with paraffin crystals and to determine whether they can meet other property requirements. Novel compounds will be synthesized for laboratory evaluations to demonstrate that their predicted effects on paraffin crystal growth can be verified experimentally. (p00461)

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Mark G. Allen
AF 00-202
Title:Smart Fuels for the Future Air and Space Force
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a suite of exhaust emissions monitors for advanced, smart fuel blends under development by the Air Force. Advanced fuel blends have been developed and introduced into service for high temperature operation and further advances are under development for mission-agile, blend-on-demand capability to improve performance, modify exhaust emission signatures, and improve environmental compliance throughout the flight envelope. The effects of these Smart Fuels on the combustor emissions performance, however, is not well understood. In the proposed effort, PSI will develop a suite of optical exhaust emissions analysis capabilities using a unique gas turbine combustor simulator facility to understand the effects of advanced fuel blends on exhaust gas pollutant emissions (CO, NOx, and SOx), particulate emissions, and IR signatures associated with major exhaust gas species. The results of this study will be used to develop compact, in-situ exhaust gas analysis sensors for AF test facility and field use. The applicability of these sensors for eventual use as continuous exhaust gas analysis in production engines will also be investigated.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2706
Geoffrey Sturgess
AF 00-203
Title:Turbine Burner for Near-Constant Temperature Cycle Gas Turbine Engine
Abstract:The proposed SBIR addresses a mission identification and engine cycle performance evaluation of a "quasi-constant temperature" cycle aircraft gas turbine engine that introduces additional heat addition (via a so-called "turbine burner") between the high- and low- pressure turbine stages. This cycle has the potential to deliver high shaft work, high specific thrust and low specific fuel consumption for certain applications. Provisional studies point to missions that require high shaft work to drive an ultra-high bypass ratio fan stage, or that demand high horsepower extraction from the engine. The proposal also includes work to provide concept definition and preliminary designs for the turbine burner. The major objectives of the proposed program are to: 1.) Demonstrate that the potential performance gains of the proposed cycle might be realized for the identified mission, and 2.) Demonstrate that a realistic turbine burner might be designed. A detailed work plan to accomplish these objectives is given.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Lev Tuchinskiy
AF 00-203
Title:An Ultra-Compact Transonic Combustor Based on a Streamlined Porous Surface Burner in a Crossflow
Abstract:By confining a flame to the surface of a streamlined shape a high-subsonic or transonic air stream can be heated with much lower drag force than is normally associated with combustion. A closely spaced row of such thin streamlined pilot flames can ignite merging flame trails in a premixed air/fuel mixture so that combustion is completed in a very short downstream distance. Such an ultra-short combustor has utility for reheating air to the highest turbine temperature possible between or within turbine stages. As a main combustor it can operate on the air exiting the compressor stages without requiring the pressure losses and increased length involved with a dump diffuser stage. Compressor bleed air is used for internal airfoil cooling, for fuel evaporation and finally to support combustion as the gas passes along the interior of the airfoil and out through a ceramic transpiration surface. The function of stream turning can be combined with heat input and flame ignition thus reducing engine length.

TAITECH, INC.
1430 Oak Court Ste. 301
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-4141
Kuo-Cheng Lin
AF 00-204
Title:Active Combustion Instability Control During Scramjet Initiation Stage
Abstract:This research program incorporates experimental and modeling efforts to developan advanced active control strategy for the suppression of combustion instabilityinside a scramjet during the initiation stage. Undesired flame blowout, caused byill-imposed flame ignition procedure, excessive combustion instability, or improper transition between liquid and gaseous fuel supply systems, can becatastrophic to the smooth operation of a scramjet combustor. The specific objectives of the Phase I proposal are: 1) to develop flight-weight high-frequency pressure and heat release sensors, 2) to develop liquid fuel injectors usingeffervescence, and 3) to characterize scramjet combustion dynamics, including flame blowout phenomena and combustion instability. The proposed systemincorporates micro-opto-mechanical (MOM) pressure sensors and silicone carbide (SiC) photodiode sensors that can detect instantaneous chamber pressure and heat release, even in the presence of droplets and soot particles in high-temperature environments. Effervescent injectors capable of controlling the dropletevaporation rate and producing high-frequency pulsing liquid sprays are proposedto control the heat release rate and to alleviate combustion instability.The proposed system has high spatial resolution and rapid frequency response. This approach to the detection and control of combustion dynamics is generic and can be applied to scramjets, as well as other propulsion systems.

WEDEVEN ASSOC., INC.
5072 West Chester Pike
Edgmont, PA 19028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 356-7161
Lavern D. Wedeven
AF 00-205
Title:Oil and Material Compatibility for Improved Bearing and Gear Durability
Abstract:Corrosion and limited surface durability of bearing and gear components are major factors associated with performance and operational cost of propulsion systems. Parallel and independent developments of materials and lubricants for propulsion systems have created a crisis with respect to material and lubricant compatibility. High thermal stability oils, corrosion inhibited oils and corrosion resistant materials can substantially reduce lubrication performance. Significant economic and performance gains can be made if high fatigue resistant and corrosion resistant materials can be made compatible with current or future jet engine oils. Surface modification technologies, along with systematic testing, hold promise for engineering corrosion resistant surfaces to be more responsive to oil chemistry. The focus of the technical effort is to develop a prototype lubricated contact (tribo-system) with corrosion resistance and surface durability. The technical approach requires multi-disciplinary innovation guided by a Systematic Tribology approach. Assurance of success is obtained with bearing and gear simulation tests highlighting performance attributes for adhesive wear resistance; abrasive wear resistance; scuffing; surface fatigue; oil-off characteristics and debris tolerance.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-8704
Cambell Carter
AF 00-206
Title:Optical Flame Emissions Sensor for High-Speed Reacting Flows
Abstract:Optical emissions sensors have the potential to measure heat release and to gage combustion activity, including combustion efficiency, within a supersonic combusting ramjet (scramjet) engine. The principal advantage of this approach over other optical sensors is simplicity, since only a suitable photodetector is needed. In addition, solid-state optical emissions sensors are rugged, possess a wide field of view (as well as minimal optical access), and can be configured for species selectivity. During the Phase I program, we propose to study fundamental questions related to the implementation of solid-state optical emissions sensors in a scramjet combustor. To accomplish this, we will evaluate different sensor options_e.g., IR sensors for H2O and CO2 vs. UV chemiluminescence sensors_and choose the optimum device. This choice will be based on both quality of information provided by the sensor and on its anticipated durability for a high-temperature environment. Furthermore, fiber-optic coupling will be explored, as this would be a necessary component of a rugged optical emission sensor. Prototype devices will be employed in subsonic combustors to gage their performance.

DYNATECH ENGINEERING, INC.
8391 Auburn Blvd. Suite 3
Citrus Heights, CA 95610
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 721-3300
Lyn M. Greenhill
AF 00-207
Title:Hydrostatic Pivoted Pad Bearing for Oil-Free Turbomachinery
Abstract:To replace traditional rolling element bearings and eliminate liquid lubricants used in midsize gas turbine engines, a unique concept is proposed - the Hydrostatic Pivoted Pad Bearing, or HyPad. This bearing consists of several pivoting pads, to provide misalignment and good load distribution, that are constructed from a self-lubricating material through which a number of holes are placed to provide a hydrostatic gas film supplied from a small amount of compressor bleed air. In operation, the gas film supports normal loads, with contact between the rotor and bearing only during start/stop and high load conditions, such as maneuvers. In Phase I, an analytical model will be created to predict and optimize the performance of the HyPad for potential applications. Results from this model will be compared to data obtained from a high-speed gas bearing test rig that will perform feasibility demonstrations and provide data for correlation with the analysis. A design configuration suitable for use in a gas turbine engine will be created with the correlated analytical methodology for use in Phase II engine testing with our selected engine manufacturer.

AMERICAN TECHNOLOGY & SERVICES, INC.
11311 Cornell Park Drive Suite #124
Cincinnati, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 469-6789
Eike Richter
AF 00-208
Title:In-Flight Engine Start System (ASC-017D)
Abstract:In high altitude aircraft, such as Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV's), secondary power systems have a limited potential for increasing electrical output. Employing the AE3007H platform as a test bed, American Technology & Services (ATS) proposes to evaluate several novel concepts in order to: - Develop increased power with minimum impact on the current design, - Provide in-flight restart capability at altitudes greater than 45,000 feet. Concurrently, ATS is proposing to evaluate the Affordability and Producibility of the alternatives, such that the final solution is technically sound and financially justifiable. Our proposed approach has been endorsed by Rolls-Royce Allison (p. 19), with whom ATS has a Non-disclosure agreement in place. The detailed design, component fabrication, and system demonstration and testing would be a part of a sequel Phase II SBIR project.

INNOVATIVE POWER SOLUTIONS, LLC
PO Box 730
Oakhurst, NJ 07755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 493-3680
Jim Widdis
AF 00-208
Title:In-Flight Engine Start System (ASC-017D)
Abstract:This document describes Innovative Power Solutions (IPS) proposal to provide a conceptual design for a 100HP Motor/Generator for the Global-Hawk. This unit is intended to supply electric power for the air vehicle and payload as well as starting capability for the AE3007H turbofan engine. Starting requirements include all expected operational environments including temperatures form -65 degrees Fahrenheit to 131 degrees Fahrenheit and altitudes from sea level to 65,000 feet. The design approach will incorporate the use of a Brushless AC Starter/Generator to provide the required electric power. In addition, to provide the required engine start capability, the system design will include a start unit, which incorporates a synchronous motor controller that, operating in conjunction with the AE3007H FADEC, will provide a controlled torque versus speed profile for the specified conditions. The air vehicle batteries will provide starting power for the engine. The use of available windmill assist to reduce battery drain per start will enhance in-flight restart capability. The start unit will also contain the circuitry required for generator control functions including voltage regulation and fault protection.

THERMAL MANAGEMENT & MATERIALS TECHNOLOG
4664 Vista De La Tierra
Del Mar, CA 92014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 665-2348
Daniel L. Vrable
AF 00-209
Title:Space Based Radar Thermal Control
Abstract:An innovative approach to achieve improved thermal control and near isothermal operation for Space-Based Radar antenna systems. The thermal control concept provides a totally passive approach to control the wide temperature swings between daylight and eclipse periods. The concept reduces the temperature variations experienced by the sensitive electronic components and significantly improves the dimensional distortions of the antenna phased-array aperture by reducing the temperature excursions and the gradients across the antenna structure. The thermal control concept utilizes a phase change material (PCM), which exploits its large latent heat capacity to effectively store thermal energy during the daylight/electronic power-on periods and extract heat during the eclipse/electronic power-off periods to maintain the structure temperature. The concept has several innovative features to enhance the thermal control of the antenna structure including: lightweight, high thermal conductivity Gr/epoxy face sheets (for improved thermal spreading); and a high latent heat capacity phase change material contained integrally within the antenna structure by a low density high thermal conductivity foam structure (for enhanced thermal transport between the PCM and structure). The overall design concept results in a weight efficient and highly effective thermal control approach that requires no additional parasitic power demands.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2706
Peter Bletzinger
AF 00-210
Title:Drag and Thermal Load Reduction by Nonequilibrium Plasmas
Abstract:Russian scientists have claimed reduction of drag in tests of supersonic flows when the leading surfaces were exposed to plasmas. This discovery may hold considerable prom-ise for high-speed flight and supersonic combustion. Tests in this country verified the modification of the shock structure and proved that in a nonequilibrium low-pressure plasma, these effects cannot be explained by thermal effects only. In this Phase I pro-posal, ISSI will analyze the existing experimental results and define the parameter space where nonequilibrium plasma generation and injection may significantly influ-ence shock behavior and high-speed flow. In support of the theoretical analysis, ex-periments will be designed to investigate the shock behavior and the plasma character-istics during shock propagation, including generation of volume, nonequilibrium low-pressure plasmas using DC or rf excitation and high-frequency dielectric barrier or externally ionized discharges. Pilot experiments will be performed during Phase I. During a subsequent Phase II program, a comprehensive theoretical model of the interaction of plasma and the flow field will be developed. Supporting experiments will be performed, and optimal electrical configurations for plasma generation will be established. Commercial applications for hypersonic flight systems will be investigated.

ATLAS SCIENTIFIC
713 San Conrado Ter. #1
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 507-0906
Ali Kashani
AF 00-211
Title:30 to 300W Coolers for Superconducting Power Systems
Abstract:HTS generators and RF magnets will be the leading technologies for high electrical power systems in future DoD applications. Two single-stage pulse tube coolers operating at 65K and with respectively 30W and 300W of cooling power will be developed for these systems. The coolers use high frequency linear compressors to reduce their size and mass and can be integrated to conductively cool the HTS systems.

LYTEC LLC
1940 ELK RIVER DAM RD P. O. BOX 1581
TULLAHOMA, TN 37355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(931) 393-4500
John T. Lineberry
AF 00-211
Title:An MHD APU for Airborne Platforms
Abstract:MHD power generation poses best means for high power, lightweight supply for airborne systems to power directed energy weapons (DEW). MHD has the highest power density of all competing power technologies and is available on demand for either continuous duty or repetitive pulse operation. State-of-the-art technology exists for realization of flightweight MHD power systems. This coupled with advances in HTSC and high temperature materials makes this system the best candidate power source for development for DEW's. This SBIR Phase I will address the feasibility of MHD power airborne platforms. Both conventional and advanced MHD power concepts will be screened. Studies will be conducted to define system criteria for different MHD power concepts including stand-alone combustion driven APUs , ram/scramjet coupled MHD power generators, ram driven MHD generators, and external hypersonic aircraft MHD power generation concepts. The results of these studies will define innovative airborne power concepts as applicable to Air Force flight missions. Phase I will perform feasibility study of MHD power concepts as applied to high speed aircraft platforms. It will define application and devices/systems for development in Phase II. Phase II will produce design criteria for a flight hardware targeted for a near term flight test program.

CDF ENGINEERING
PO BOX 807
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 969-2813
Caio A. Ferreira
AF 00-212
Title:Power Electronics and Conditioning for Electrical Actuation
Abstract:A silicon carbide (SiC) power inverter, with hight temperature, high efficiency, and high power density capabilities, is proposed for potential applications to electric actuation, electric propulsion, electric power generation, and electric power conditioning and conversion. The performance advantages of SiC over Si in power electronics applications include lower resistance devices (higher efficiency), higher junction temperature (higher reliability), and higher case temperature (eliminates need for active liquid cooling systems). This results in significant benefits at the vehicle level (aircraft, spacecraft, armored vehicles, hybrid vehicles, etc) because of the increase in system reliability, a decrease in maintenance and support equipment, and a reduction in weight and volume. The proposed effort focus on design, fabrication and testing of an engineering laboratory prototype SiC based power inverter to demonstrate the two main benefits of SiC devices, the increased operating frequency yielding less volume and elimination of active liquid cooling requirements resulting in higher reliability compared to a Si inverter.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
David R. Peterson
AF 00-213
Title:Miniature Power Supply for MEMS Applications Based on a Simplified Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Design
Abstract:This program addresses the development of a miniature solid oxide fuel cell power system which would be able to meet the power supply demands of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as well as be on the same scale as them. This simplified fuel cell design will consist of placing the anode and cathode on the same side of the electrolyte and feeding a uniform gas mixture of the two reactants. The principle is that the difference in catalytic activity of the two electrodes for the oxidation and reduction half cell reactions will still result in an electromotive force (emf) between the two electrodes. High power outputs will be achieved by electrically connecting arrays of closely spaced, microscopic scale electrode pairs in series and in parallel. The emps of this work will be placed on examining various electrolyte and electrode materials as well as on testing different electrode configuration strategies. Electrolyte materials to be examined include those that possess properties likely to improve fuel cell performance for this application. The development of electrocatalysts will rely on finding materials which are selective for oxidation or for oxygen reduction. Also, the effect of electrode feature size, spacing, and configuration will be determined.

SYNCHRONY, INC.
7777 Bent Mountain Rd
Roanoke, VA 24018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 989-1541
Victor Iannello
AF 00-214
Title:High Speed Power Generation Technology for Aerospace Vehicles
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of a spool-mounted starter-generator that is integrated with a radial magnetic bearing for future gas turbine engines. Innovations related to the switching algorithm, high temperature insulation system, and the magnetic structure leapfrog the performance and reliability of the state-of-the-art. The size of the magnetic bearing actuator may be reduced by about 40% due to the load sharing capability of the starter-generator. In Phase I, the feasibility will be demonstrated by numerical analyses, trade studies, and dynamic simulations. In Phase II, a prototypical system will be built and tested at prototypical engine conditions.

ADVANCED PROJECTS RESEARCH, INC.
1925 McKinley Avenue Suite B
La Verne, CA 91750
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 392-3151
Thomas H. Sobota
AF 00-215
Title:Enabling Technology for High-Voltage High-Power Batteries
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for monitoring and control of charge and temperature at the cell level of battery energy storage systems. While battery energy storage systems based on any cell electrochemistry can benefit from this cell-wise monitoring and control, the lithium-ion electrochemistry requires cell-wise charge and thermal management. The proposed system specifically addresses the requirements of high-voltage (>24V) high power battery energy storage systems in several innovative ways. The modular approach, by providing sensors, charge management, and thermal management at each cell permits scaling of the system to any number of cells for any pack voltage. The system architecture provides voltage isolation for circuit protection and safety and it may be ap-plied to battery energy storage systems that employ a wide range of cell electrochemistries. The implementation is lightweight and provides a means for cost effective production in high volumes to ultimately serve commercial markets. The system is includes cell-level integral MEMS pressure sensor. The proposed technology has application to battery en-ergy storage systems for spacecraft, aircraft, weapons, electric vehi-cles, power quality management systems, and uninteruptable power sup-plies and other applications. APRI has assembled a multidisciplinary team with all of the requisite experience to engineer the proposed sys-tem.

ECOTECH
3239 MONIER CIRCLE, #4
RANCHO CORDOVA, CA 95742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 631-6310
Charles E. Grix
AF 00-219
Title:Advanced Rocket Propulsion Technologies
Abstract:The proposed approach will demonstrate a lower cost and safer method of manufacturing high performance solid rocket motors with a standard Isp of >245 lbfsec/lbm. This approach permits the motor case to be wound directly onto a porous mandrel propellant precursor composed of polymer beads. Methods for preparing these beads with the desired bulk density and forming them into a free standing, structurally sound, porous mandrel, will be determined. A motor case will be formed on this porous mandrel using epoxy impregnated fiberglass mat to demonstrate the process. One pound propellant grains to be tested will, however, be prepared in phenolic sleeves. The propellants will be prepared by infusing liquid oxidizer (based on hydroxylamine nitrate) into the porous grains. The cured grains will be performance tested in motors at the Thiokol facility in Elkton, MD. An analysis of the proposed overall manufacturing process will be made and compared to a conventionally prepared hypothetical solid rocket motor to determine the cost savings that can be achieved.

MAROTTA SCIENTIFIC CONTROLS, INC.
78 Boonton Ave. P.O. Box 427
Montville, NJ 07045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 334-7800
Kevin Cust
AF 00-219
Title:Advanced Rocket Propulsion Technologies
Abstract:Several new launch vehicles programs (both reusable and expendable) and some spacecraft are considering the use of high concentration H2O2 as an oxidizer. While supporting preliminary design efforts on some recent applications such as X-37, Beal BA-1, Mockingbird and others, Marotta has observed that these current applications are in need of new valve technology. Current state of the art in H2O2 valving is either too heavy, too expensive, not reliable enough and/or being manufactured with materials of questionable compatibility (especially those applications which call for long term exposure). This is not surprising since almost all of the hardware which has been previously qualified for H2O2 service utilize decades old designs based on decades old compatibility information. Additionally, many of these designs have not been in production in many years, key suppliers have gone out of business and key personnel familiar with the designs and the H2O2 applications have retired from the industry. A new line valves specifically designed for today's H2O2 applications is greatly needed.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2318
Bradley D. Hitch
AF 00-219
Title:Hypergolicity Agents for H2O2 Bipropellants
Abstract:Storable, hypergolic liquid bipropellants are attractive because of their high specific impulse, controllability, high reliability, and the improved vehicle dry mass fraction obtained by eliminating the engine ignition system, such as heterogeneous decomposition catalyst packs. In addition, non-toxic and easy to handle propellants are greatly desired for quick turnaround of reusable commercial launch vehicles as well as for use in ship-board missiles. Regrettably, proven high-performance hypergolic bipropellants such as NTO/MMH are highly toxic and difficult to handle. While the bipropellant combination of highly concentrated (>90%) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with a high energy density hydrocarbon fuel such as JP-10, quadricyclane, or bicyclopropylidene is very good in terms of Isp, r-Isp, storability, ease of handling, and low toxicity, neat H2O2/hydrocarbon fuel mixtures alone are not hypergolic nor even particularly reactive. TDA therefore proposes to render these hydrocarbon fuels hypergolic with concentrated H2O2 through the addition of low-toxicity, air-stable, miscible fuel additives that combine homogeneous catalytic decomposition and combustion-promoting functions. If successful, this research could reduce ignition delay times to the millisecond level, enabling the removal of separate hydrocarbon/H2O2 bipropellant engine ignition systems and materially decreasing engine weight.

SIENNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
19501 144th Avenue NE Suite F-500
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 485-7272
Ender Savrun
AF 00-220
Title:High Temperature Catalyst for Nontoxic Monopropellants
Abstract:Hydrazine monopropellants have been tested for post-boost propulsion systems on ICBMs and for divert propulsion on interceptors. Surveillance, early warning, communication, navigation, weather satellites for the U. S. armed services may be using hydrazine propulsion subsystems similar to those in commercial satellites. In addition, upper stages of launch vehicles placing USAF payloads into orbit use hydrazine monopropellants for roll control and propellant settling maneuvers prior to orbit insertion burns. There has been increasing concern about toxicity of hydrazine(s). Safety regulations have been tightened to the point where fueling at the launch site has become a significant part of the overall cost of a spacecraft launch. Nontoxic monopropellants as replacement for hydrazine promise faster and more economical fueling operations, resulting in lower life-cycle cost. Catalysts and thermal bed materials proposed here as an ignition technique promise to achieve the same reliability as that already demonstrated with hydrazine thrusters. The product of this SBIR has near-term applicability to USAF programs and ties in directly with nontoxic propellant thruster development in progress at other government centers and NASA contractors.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Arthur J. Fortini
AF 00-220
Title:Catalysts and Catalyst Substrates for Advanced Monopropellants
Abstract:The use of advanced monopropellants based on energetic liquid salts such as hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) or hydrazinium nitrate promise a number of improvements over conventional hydrazine propellant, chief among which are low toxicity and high chemical stability. Both of these benefits will significantly decrease overall use costs. However, energetic salt-based fuels are difficult to ignite. While this is an asset with respect to safety, it is a liability with respect to design. Furthermore, the higher-performance salt-based formulations yield combustion temperatures much higher than that of hydrazine, up to 2500 K in some cases; these extreme temperatures impose significant constraints on not only the catalyst, but on the support as well. In this project, Ultramet proposes to fabricate a catalyst bed for energetic salt-based monopropellants that will allow both low temperature ignition and long life at operating temperature. This novel monolithic catalytic ignition system will be based on the advanced monolithic catalyst (AMCAT) beds previously developed by Ultramet for HAN-, hydrazine-, and oxygen/hydrogen-fueled rocket engines.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
5170 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Suite 240
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9095
Russell J. Shaw
AF 00-221
Title:Attitude Control System for Laser Lightcraft
Abstract:This proposal discusses two different but complementary approaches to an Attitude Control System for Laser Lightcraft. The first approach is to build and fire a novel prototype microthruster. This type of attitude control is attractive due to the small size of the thruster and associated electronics. The second approach is to control the plasma beneath the lightcraft. This approach is attractive since it keeps all the required propulsion components on the ground leaving room in the weight budget for more payload. In addition, the system can be used over and over again and is not expended along with the lightcraft. Phase I will help determine the effectiveness of each approach which will help determine which (or both) system is best suited for guiding the laser lightcraft into the proper low-earth orbit.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5532
Margaret Roylance
AF 00-222
Title:Lightweight, High-Temperature Thermoplastic Case and Motor Insulation for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to develop techniques for processing novel thermoplastic elastomers which incorporate inorganic additives and modifiers to produce an integral, functionally graded solid rocket motor (SRM) insulation and case. Foster-Miller will team with Thiokol Propulsion and Hybrid Plastics to apply proprietary polymer and polymer matrix composite processing techniques to meet the goals of the Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) initiative with regard to performance, cost and environmental impact. A series of novel formulations of thermoplastic elastomers will be evaluated for use as SRM insulation. These materials offer enhanced processability and decreased scrap rate to meet IHPRPT goals. Foster-Miller will work with Thiokol Propulsion and Hybrid Plastics to identified selected thermoplastic elastomers and to produce nanocomposites containing Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS) materials developed by Hybrid to enhance oxidative stability and flammability resistance. Foster-Miller will demonstrate the feasibility of producing integrated motor case structures using advanced techniques such as Ultrasonic Tape Lamination (UTL) and Counter Rotating Die (CRD) Technology. (p00439)

PROMET TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
23190 Del Lago
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 583-9364
Albert Sickinger
AF 00-223
Title:Rapid Prototyping of High Temperature Ceramic and/or Metal Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) Combustion via Low Pressure Spray
Abstract:The Low Pressure Spray (LPPS) technology is an attractive alternative to current state of fabrication for Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) components. Successful application of LPPS techniques to LRE components will enable low-cost near-net shape production of articles such as thrust chambers, injectors, nozzles, and inserts. The choice of refractory materials useful for LRE applications depends on a number of factors including in part: i) chemical stability of the material systems in an high temperature (>2400deg.C) oxidizing environment, ii) relative thermal expansion of the material systems and between the liners and structural reinforcement composite, and iii) high temperature wear and erosion resistance. The objective of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility to produce near theoretical density and largely stress-free refractory material coatings and to synthesize engineered material systems of interest to the rocket propulsion community using LPPS technology. Phase I research will be restricted to showing feasibility of producing tungsten (W) and rhenium (Re) metallic, and hafnium boride (HfB2) and hafnia (HfO2) ceramic coatings and 3-D nozzle liners, followed by structural reinforcement with an overwrapped low-cost carbon-carbon composite material. The technical objective of Phase II is the exploitation of this rapid prototyping processing technique to decrease the cost by >50% and manufacturing time by ~90% of these materials, making them attractive for applications in the auto, aircraft, medical, and general materials industries.

ARACOR
425 Lakeside Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 733-7780
Robert S. Frankle
AF 00-224
Title:Extraction of Rocket Propellant Physical Properties Via Computed Tomography
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop enhanced capabilities to detect and evaluate aging of solid rocket motors (SRMs) by analyzing data from X-ray computed tomography (CT) inspection. Techniques for accurate and reliable numerical analysis of CT data will be developed. The proposed technical approach is to first process the data to minimize the effects of the CT inspection and then analyze the data to detect parameters indicative of propellant aging. A CT inspection databasewill be developed for data analysis and visualization. Capabilities for electronic transmittal and review of CT data (Tele-CT) will be developed to support real-time consultation with personnel at various sites. The proposed Phase I project will evaluate the feasibility of developing and applying the required capabilities. In Phase II, a prototype system with these capabilities will be created and delivered to OO-ALC at Hill AFB, for use at the Minuteman missile CT inspection facilities.

SKIAMETRICS, INC.
19 Glengarry
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 721-2908
Paul Burstein
AF 00-224
Title:Extraction of Rocket Propellant Physical Properties Via Computed Tomography
Abstract:Our Computed Tomography Materials Property (CTMP) program provides 3D information on materials properties of solid rocket motors. CTMP begins with a subscale experiment conducted on a 10 inch diameter inert rocket motor specimen of a special construction so that calibrated stresses, both tensile and compressive, can be applied externally. We utilize a high resolution area x-ray imager, originally delivered under the Air Force's IHPRPT program, to produce dimensional precision measurements of 1 part in 1,000,000, and very high accuracy density measurements in 3 dimensions. The reconstructed data are analyzed with software that contains specialized algorithms for high precision spatial resolution in intrinsic feature identification, recognition and location. CTMP is applied to aggregates of subcritical features, where the centroid of any volume element can be located. By identifying, locating, and following features and agglomerated volume elements in time, we derive a 3D map of the strain as a function of stress. This technique is extensible to large rocket motor CT data, with dimensional precisions of 1:100,000 inherent in existing data. The 3D data map of various moduli can be exported to a finite element modeling program. Team members include Skiametrics as prime, with Perceptics/Northrop and Alliant Techsystems as subcontractors.

JOHNSON ROCKETS
359 Fairview Drive
Carson City, NV 89701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 885-0112
Gary R. Nickerson
AF 00-225
Title:Advanced Materials and Cooling Schemes for Rocket Engine Combustion Chambers
Abstract:Due to their promise to reduce weight while at the same time accommodating higher combustion chamber heat fluxes and increasing component durability, transpiration cooled combustion chambers have been the focus of rocket propulsion research for decades. Research has shown that a major obstacle to producing a workable transpiration cooled chamber design for production rocket engines has been the large axial differences in pressure drop across the combustor. The problem results from using sintered liners that are ineffective at controlling the coolant mass flow. Sintered liners require porosity to be sized for the throat pressure drop. This sizing creates coolant flow rates that are too high in the barrel portion of the chamber and the diverging portion of the nozzle, resulting in pressure drop differences. These pressure drops require using higher transpiration coolant flow rates than theoretically required, negatively impacting engine performance. This project applies a new fabrication technology to the problem of pressure drop difference. Using a special fabrication process that enables metals such as copper, nickel, or stainless steel to be filled with cylindrical pores of precisely controlled dimensions and density, designers will be able to precisely control the porosity of the wall, thereby optimizing the coolant flow.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Joseph Martinez
AF 00-225
Title:Novel Manufacturing of Functionally Graded Al Matrix Composites Over Dissimilar Materials for Combustion Chambers
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. proposes to combine a novel method that enables the cost-effective manufacturing of functionally graded metal matrix composites (MMC's) for casting aluminum MMC's over dissimilar materials for fabricating advanced rocket engine combustion chambers. This unique and innovative approach leverages Triton's experience with Enhanced Pressure Infiltration Casting (EPIC), a rapid, low-cost manufacturing method for MMC's, and recently demonstrated success in casting aluminum MMC's over steel and titanium. Triton has teamed with Boeing-Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power to adapt these technologies to produce a structural jacket with integral manifolding that will be cast over a copper liner. A Triton proprietary method for the production of a functionally graded, continuous-fiber-reinforced aluminum MMC will be used to produce a near-net-shape component with integral manifolding. Additional Triton proprietary technology will be utilized to create a compatible interface between the aluminum MMC structural jacket and the copper liner. This low-cost manufacturing method, the decreased part count due to integration of the structural jacket and manifolds and the decreased system weight due to the high specific strength of aluminum, is a combination of technologies that makes the next generation of advanced rocket engine combustion chambers a reality.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Jeff Monheiser
AF 00-226
Title:Micro-Newton Thrust Stand
Abstract:With recent advances in microelectronics, the capabilities of progressively smaller satellites continue to increase. In contrast, the power levels available for propulsion do not increase correspondingly, thus the need to develop highly efficient micro-thrusters. To enable the design of these micro-thrusters and to quantify the performance of these devices, a micro-Newton thrust stand having a sub-micro-Newton resolution is required. Currently, no such device exists, so in the proposed multi-phase program, Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop such a device. The design will include the use of novel apparatus to significantly reduce the effects of external forces, that in the current state of the art would overwhelm the thrust measurement. In the Phase I, Busek Co. Inc. plans to demonstrate the feasibility of the novel concept and in Phase II a complete system capable of measuring micro-Newton thrust levels with sub-micro-Newton resolution will be constructed.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Lawrence R. Grzyll
AF 00-227
Title:Demonstration of Safe-Solvent Replacements For CFC-113 For Cleaning Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Residues
Abstract:This proposal involves the application of an innovative screening approach to identify, select, and demonstrate environmentally safe-solvent alternatives to CFC-113 for cleaning hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon residues from liquid and gaseous oxygen systems. A computational-chemistry-based screening tool will be used to develop quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) that correlate the molecular structure of solvents to key solvent properties. The value of this screening tool will be to use the QSPRs to accurately predict the key properties of untested replacement compounds and identify those compounds with the highest likelihood of having the desired properties, without having to incur the cost and time of laboratory evaluations of large numbers of expensive compounds. Those compounds that do show the most potential are then evaluated experimentally, validating the predictions and drastically reducing the time and expense of laboratory evaluations.

ENVIRONMENTAL AEROSCIENCE CORP.
7290 SW 42 Street
Miami, FL 33155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 267-7588
Korey R. Kline
AF 00-228
Title:Low Cost, High Performance Rocket Motor Technology
Abstract:In the past several years there have been many attempts at developing a low-cost liquid or hybrid space launch size propulsion system. All of the systems share a common flaw in the lack of a reasonable and believable liquid feed system. When designing even small space launch systems the trade-off between heavy pressurized tanks verses the more traditional turbo pump feed systems with light weight propellant tanks, the choice has always been dictated by System cost rather than performance. Various clever schemes such as heated helium have been employed to pressurize liquid feed tanks, however none of these systems have proved workable in large-scale weight requirements or demonstrated flights. It as occurred to us that the development of a truly low-cost and simple turbo pump liquid feed system for both storable and cryogenic propellants could facilitate the development of several low-cost launch system designs. A low cost turbopump fed system integrated into hybrid propulsion designs offers many of the inherent advantages of hybrid motors such as improved storage, deployment and long term stability. Because the oxidizer is stored separately from the fuel component until use, the need to compound the oxidizer with the appropriate fuel/binder system is eliminated. In addition, mass fraction is improved by eliminating high-pressure tanks and pressurization systems. Such a system could also incorporate temperature-sensing devices at the fuel/case insulation interface that could initiate a controlled burn termination sequence. This could reduce case insulation requirements and further improve mass fraction.

W. E. RESEARCH LLC
4360 San Juan Ct
Rosamond, CA 93560
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 275-6795
John Schilling
AF 00-229
Title:Micro Propulsion Technology Development
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop and test an advanced micro pulsed plasma thruster suitable for TechSat21, with substantially higher energy and propellant efficiency than current designs, resulting in correspondingly higher operational performance (i.e. thrust and specific impulse). The purposed thruster will be coaxial and 1/20th the size of current models. With this geometry change and scaling down of the thruster there is a corresponding decrease in the mass and volume of the support electronics.

ACELLENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 4
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 745-1121
Louis Dagba
AF 00-230
Title:A Built-In Active Sensing Structural Diagnostic (BASSD) System for Rocket Motors
Abstract:It is proposed to develop a cost-effective innovative Built-In Active Sensing Structural Diagnostic (BASSD) system for monitoring the health of Solid Rocket Motors using embedded piezoelectric sensors. The development of the BASSD system is primarily based on the SMART layer concept invented by Acellent Technologies. United Technologies Corporation has expressed significant interest in such a monitoring system and has offered technical support for the proposed SBIR Phase I program. The BASSD system will consist of a SMART layer for monitoring the condition of the motorcase, a SMART cable for monitoring the condition of the solid fuel, a SMART suitcase for collecting information, and intelligent software for processing the information. Both the SMART layer and the SMART cable use active piezoelectric sensors, which have advantages over conventional passive sensors (strain, stress, fiber optic, MEMS, etc.) because they are able to input a controlled diagnostic signal to actively interrogate the structure. The BASSD system can be used to monitor cracks and voids in the solid fuel, debonds between the liner and the fuel, delaminations in the composite motor case, and other types of damage. Once completed, the BASSD system could potentially provide real-time automated inspection, reduce maintenance cost, and improve rocket reliability.

COMPOSITEX
7117 Boulder Way
Frisco, TX 75034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 712-0241
Daniel J. Moser
AF 00-231
Title:Highly-Simplified Micro-Spacecraft Propulsion Development
Abstract:Compositex proposes to develop and demonstrate a chemical propulsion system for small spacecraft. The proposed system combines the Isp performance of a bipropellant system with the simplicity and ease of operation of a monopropellant system. When compared to existing systems, it offers improved safety, reliability, performance, and cost effectiveness. Both the fuel and oxidizer are storable, non-toxic, non-hypergolic, low-freezing point liquids. The high-density propellants are contained within a single, lightweight filament-wound composite tank, enabling a propellant mass fraction of over 90%. The propulsion system effectively provides both spacecraft main propulsion and attitude control functions. A proof-of-concept prototype system will be designed, fabricated, and static tested under this proposed Phase I effort. This prototype system will includes 100 lbf thrust main engine, a 5 lbf thrust attitude control engine, a 20 liter composite propellant tank, and all associated plumbing, valves, actuators, and instrumentation.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Manish Sutaria
AF 00-232
Title:C3 Composites For Boost Engine Nozzles
Abstract:The goal of this program is to develop an innovative, rapid and low-cost manufacturing technique to produce critical high temperature structural ceramic materials for propulsion related components, such as turbopump components, injectors, thrust chambers, ducts and nozzles for use in liquid, solid and hybrid propellant rockets. Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. (ACR) has the technical expertise to develop the technology necessary to fabricate propulsion material(s) that will be able to demonstrate excellent ablation and oxidation resistance at temperatures approaching 3000C coupled with adequate load bearing capability, non-catastrophic failure modes, and be able to withstand transient thermal shock. Current and future propulsion technologies will require novel high temperature materials to meet Airforce goals of increased efficiency and reduced weight and costs. Airforce desires materials to operate at temperatures up to 3000C, while maintaining excellent thermal, physical and mechanical properties.

SIGTEM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
113 Clover Hill Lane
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-9477
Chun Yang
AF 00-235
Title:Frequency-Domain Adaptive Antenna Processing for GPS Jam Suppression and Attitude Determination
Abstract:Two technological innovations are proposed in the framework of a unique frequency-domain GPS receiver architecture for GPS jam suppression and attitude determination. The first innovation is a frequency-domain blind adaptive processing technique used to steer nulls to suppress both narrowband and wideband jammers. The second innovation is a new concept of angle-locked loop (ALL) based upon frequency-domain digital beamforming and spatial processing for attitude determination. This will lead to a frequency-domain GPS receiver as a genuine navigation sensor that will provide the full six degrees of freedom (6DOF) position and attitude plus timing information. In Phase I, the proposed concepts will be formulated, analyzed, and simulated in computer for performance prediction and engineering tradeoff. In Phase II, the Phase I approach will be implemented into an operational prototype for testing and demonstration.

KERNCO, INC.
28 Harbor Street
Danvers, MA 01923
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 777-1956
Martin Levine
AF 00-237
Title:Ultraminiature Laser-Based Atomic Clocks (ULAC)
Abstract:As navigation accuracy, code encryption and data transmission rate requirements become more critical, it is a requirement that a suitable timing device be at the heart of the system. A Ultraminiature Laser-Based Atomic Clock (ULAC) will be a necessity to realize the stringent size, weight, and system performance requirements. While many solutions may exist, two technologies that appear to be the most viable for the ULAC application are: Coherent Population Trapping (CPT) and conventional Intensity Optical Pumping (IOP). It is inappropriate at this time to attempt to directly compare the relative merits of the various technologies as applied to a ULAC concept since existing data has been accumulated under widely varying conditions and incompatible environments. The IOP approach to the ULAC has previously been developed in prototype units with limited success. This SBIR Phase I program will provide further advances in the art of ultraminiature atomic clocks by: direct comparison of CPT and IOP technologies, selection of the optimum candidate, and fabrication of a demonstration unit. The natural follow-on to this effort would be a Phase II SBIR to demonstrate a prototype unit capable of interfacing with multiple application platforms which would allow simultaneous pursuit of DoD and Commercial applications.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd. Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2210
Don Woods
AF 00-238
Title:Automatic Cartographic Data Translation and Registration
Abstract:The Air Force needs the capability to land aircraft at any suitable landing site worldwide, in any weather conditions, and on short notice. This requires the development of instrument approach procedures (IAPs)for areas where there is no current knowledge of obstruction locations and heights, and where terrain data coverage may not be adequate. The IAPs must comply with the terrain and obstacle clearance requirements of the FAA, ICAO, or other governing agency. The Phase I effort will be to design an automated, near real-time data integration system that interoperates with existing and future automated approach design programs, such as the USAF AFTERPS-R. The system architecture will include four processes: (1) Given the current cartographic data, determine and prioritize the data required for IAP design, (2) allocate available collection assets and design plans to collect the data, (3) acquire, transform, and integrate the collected data with existing cartographic and remote sensing data, and (4) interface the integrated data in an automated instrument approach and departure procedure development workstation. The result will be a top-level architecture for an automated IAP data acquisition system.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Chi-Keung Kwan
AF 00-239
Title:A single Chip Solution for Fusion of LWIR and MMW Array Outputs
Abstract:Novel sensors are proposed to perform for detection in two separate wavebands within a single integrated circuit. LWIR sensing is achieved within a single or double quantum well at a modulation-doped interface by intersubband absorption between the first bound state and the continuum. The charge at a quantum well inversion-channel interface is depleted by the input light and the emitted charge is removed through the forward-biased gate contact. The detected signal is proportional to the charge deficiency and a differential amplifier converts to the desired output. The readout technique may be a CCD with a single output amplifier or an active pixel array with column by column readout. MMW sensing is accomplished with a novel technique in which the the dark current within the active pixel is the thermally sensitive mechanism. The pixels are formed in pairs and only one side is exposed to thermal radiation. The charges are transferred to the balanced inputs of a differential amplifer which produces an output proportional to the input radiation intensity. The proximity of the two cells and the differential input provides high common mode rejection to reduce multiple noise sources. A monolithic optoelectronic GaAs circuit technology is proposed to achieve the single chip solution. A single epitaxial growth and fabrication sequence produce the modulation-doped structures to implement both arrays based upon the HFET device. Standard floating diffusion and floating gate structures convert charge to voltage. In this SBIR, the focus will be on demonstrating and characterizing both detector structures within the technology framework.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Todd Grimes
AF 00-240
Title:High Speed/Resolution Parallel Delta Sigma ADCs
Abstract:Systran Federal Corporation (SFC), proposes a Parallel Delta Sigma (PDS) Architecture for use in defense systems requiring a high speed/high resolution Analog-to-Digital conversion (ADC). As jamming-to-signal ratios increase, an alternative to the limitations of today's ADC architectures is required. Current requirements mandate ADC of reaching 100 MSPS, 16-bits of resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 90dB, and a low power draw of 100mW. The combination of parallelism and recent advances with PDS can provide the architecture to reach the desired specifications. In Phase I we will investigate PDS techniques to develop the optimal ADC configuration. Simulations of the selected configuration will be performed and it will be implemented in Phase II. Devices resulting from Phase III would find uses in the communications, data I/O, and military markets.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7677
Anthony Wilson
AF 00-241
Title:Radiation Tolerant Field Programmable Mixed-Signal Array
Abstract:A proposal is made for the design, demonstration, and productization of a radiation tolerant field programmable mixed-signal array (RT-FPMA) suitable for space and terrestrial applications. Phase 1 activities include evaluation and selection of an RT-FPMA architecture, demonstration of the RT-FPMA interconnect technology, and evaluation and selection of CAD support tools for RT-FPMA configuration. The proposal is based on the application of the following five enabling technologies: Mission Research Corporation's (MRC) hardened-by-design (HBD) technology that permits radiation hardened CMOS circuits to be fabricated at a commercial foundry; MRC's digital FPGA architecture and configuration software that provides the basis for the radiation hardened digital portion of the FPMA; MRC's patented temporal latch technology for SEU hardening; laser formed metallic connections that provide the basis for high quality programmable interconnects needed for programmable analog arrays; and a high performance BiCMOS process that provides the semiconductor technology for fabrication of the RT-FPMA.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
12 Elizabeth Drive
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mitchell Shifrin
AF 00-242
Title:Low Power InP MMICs for Low Noise Receivers
Abstract:In large phase array antenna systems, the power dissipation in the receiver becomes a limiting factor, as the small space between array elements limits the heat dissipation allowed in the space. This problem becomes more pronounced at millimeter wave frequencies, as the spacing between elements is further reduced. One of the most promising approaches to overcome this problem is to develop T/R modules using indium phosphide (InP), as InP devices provide the low noise performance at millimeter wave frequencies at very low drain bias. This proposal is addressed to the need to develop a low-noise receiver front end for a millimeter wave phased array using an advanced InP process. In addition to the low-noise amplifier (LNA), which is the most critical element of the receiver chain, the proposal also describes Hittite's design approach for phase shifter and attenuator circuits built in InP. A preliminary assessment shows that the power dissipation in a receiver chain may be reduced by 50% compared to a similar T/R module built in GaAs. Hittite Microwave Corporation is a "fabless" semiconductor supplier with access to a variety of advanced processes including GaAs, Si, Si-Ge and InP. For the proposed program, Hittite will rely on the InP process available at TRW. This proposal outlines Hittite's design approach for InP LNAs and other receiver components.

CUSTOM MANUFACTURING & ENGINEERING
2904 44th Avenue North
St. Petersburg, FL 33714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 548-0522
Mark Strain
AF 00-243
Title:Antenna Control Computer for TT&C Phased Array Antenna
Abstract:The overall objective of this effort is to develop and demonstrate a low-cost processor and associated software that will provide phased array antenna control in support of satellite tracking, telemetry and commanding (TT&C) operations such as the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN). Phased array antenna offers improved performance over the existing parabolic dish antenna presently used in ground stations for satellite control. However, high phased array cost due to stringent TT&C requirements prevent it from adapting for satellite control application. There is no computer in existence today that can support control of phased array antenna for TT&C operation. Teamed with our partner Ball Aerospace for this project in cooperation with the Air Force, CME will deliver a design at the end of Phase I, for a low-cost antenna control computer. CME and Ball Aerospace recently demonstrated actual hardware and software for a phased array antenna to prove that a low-cost approach was feasible with the transmit/receive modules integrated into the aperture along with portions of the beamforming network to achieve a higher level of integration. During Phase I, CME will develop all requirements for a controller approach, conduct a trade analysis of the candidates, and design candidate software architectures. The antenna control computer will be designed to perform phased array antenna monitoring and control, diagnostics, beam steering, scheduling, and command and control functions. The antenna control computer will a GUI interface for the satellite ground station control network as well as input/output units for operator interface.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
12 Elizabeth Drive
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mitchell Shifrin
AF 00-244
Title:Low Cost T/R Module for TT&C Phased Array Antenna
Abstract:In today's advanced phased array antennae, an active transmit/receive (T/R) module is used with every radiating element. A T/R module is typically a MMIC assembly made of amplifiers and a phase shifter. For low-cost production of T/R modules and low-cost operation of phased array radars, design concepts for T/R modules must be improved to reduce the parts cost and assembly labor and easy replacement without disruption of the radar operation. This proposal is addressed to those needs and describes Hittite's approach for implementation of low-cost T/R modules. The proposed approach is based on maximum utilization of available low-cost MMICs, development of unique MMICs for further cost reduction, and development of low-cost, multi-chip, ball-grid array (BGA) type of packages for easy assembly and replacement. Hittite Microwave Corporation is a developer of highly integrated MMICs with an established record of high volume production of packaged MMICs for both commercial and military applications. Hittite offers some commercial mixers and switches for less than $1 and supplies fully integrated low-cost transceivers to the military end users.

ALPHA OMEGA ELECTROMAGNETICS, LLC
24 Cascade Road
Arnold, MD 21012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 626-7682
Robert G. Schmier
AF 00-245
Title:Affordable Beamforming Network for TT&C Phased Array Antenna
Abstract:Satellites are linked to an earth station by transmitting and receiving a microwave beam through antennas. The current antennas of choice for earth stations are parabolic reflector antennas such as those used for tracking telemetry and control (TT&C) for the AFSCN. These antennas are required to have horizon-to-horizon, full-hemispherical coverage and often several antennas are required at each remote tracking station site. A single active hemispherical phased array antenna composed of flat-panel subarrays could replace all the reflector antennas at a remote tracking station site. The objective of this SBIR effort is to develop and demonstrate the technical feasibility of a low-cost beamforming network (BFN) that will meet the requirements for TT&C in satellite control operations. The feed network is responsible for distributing radio frequency (RF) power to, and combining RF signals from, individual transmit/receive (T/R) modules and it must accommodate multiple independent transmit and receive beams with full duplex operation. Alpha Omega Electromagnetics, LLC (AOE) will employ proprietary finite element and moment method electromagnetic simulation software to develop and accurately predict the BFN performance for AFSCN applications. The results of this investigation will yield low-cost BFN technology that is suitable for implementation in an AFSCN subarray. The technology will be demonstrated with hardware during Phase II of this effort.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Sheryl Atterberg
AF 00-246
Title:Miniaturized Antenna Array for GPS Anti-Jam Applications
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR effort is to develop a miniature Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna (CRPA) containing at least 7 elements using NAVSYS Mini-Array technology. The proposed antenna array shall be capable of working with current antenna electronics units, such as the GAS-1 AE, and will be packaged within a 5.3" form factor diameter. In Phase I, a prototype shall be built of a 7-element L1 CRPA Mini-Array based on our existing 4-element Mini-Array design. Measurements shall be made of the prototype CRPA Mini-Array performance to determine the antenna patterns, VSWR and mutual coupling. Test data will also be collected of the CRPA operating with NAVSYS' digital array antenna electronics module. This test data will be analyzed for compatibility with existing antenna electronics, such as the GAS-1, and the test data will be used to develop a design for a dual frequency (L1/L2) CRPA Mini-Array to be delivered under the Phase II effort. In Phase II a breadboard CRPA L1/L2 Mini-Array will be fabricated and tested with GFE antenna electronics in an anechoic chamber to demonstrate the A/J performance provided. The CRPA Mini-Array will be delivered for use in jammer field trials by our customer.

CENTER FOR REMOTE SENSING, INC.
11350 Random Hills Rd. Suite 710
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 385-7717
Suman Ganguly
AF 00-248
Title:Re-Configurable Fractal Based Plasma Antenna
Abstract:Conventional antenna concepts do not allow truly broadband beam control. This proposal describes a plan to design and develop reconfigurable broadband antennas which can be embedded in aircrafts or other platforms. To achieve reconfigurability, we propose to use fractal elements which can be formed (wholly or partly) by using plasma columns. Plasma columns can be switched on or off almost instantaneously and will provide control over the antenna patterns and other characteristics. Plasma columns will also offer stealthy operation. Proposed effort will allow us to design and develop various innovative antennas covering a wide range of frequencies for numerous airborne and spaceborne applications.

SICOM, INC.
7585 E. Redfield Road, Suite 2
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 607-4812
Bradley Badke
AF 00-249
Title:Digital Receiver with Multichannel Optimal Detection
Abstract:SiCOM proposes to develop a low-complexity, high-performance ESM digital receiver module based on SiCOM's revolutionary Self-Similar Optimal Detection (SODET) technique. SODET offers a solution to a classic problem in conventional ESM receivers: optimal signal detection requires a detection bandwidth matched to the signal, so any system which must process many signal types with many different parameters must use an impracticably large number of processing bandwidths. The conventional solution is to use a small number of bandwidths (usually one) to keep within physical and cost constraints, resulting in excessive sensitivity loss for most signals. SODET dynamically optimizes the detection bandwidth for any signal, detecting every signal with negligible degradation from optimal sensitivity, regardless of its signal bandwidth. In Phase I SiCOM will design a digital receiver module that balances the conflicting requirements of high spurious-free dynamic range, ADC performance, wide bandwidth, power, size, and cost. SiCOM will also develop a simulation model to predict, simulate, and demonstrate the performance against a postulated set of battlespace signals. In Phase II, SiCOM will develop and test a field-programmable gate-array (FPGA)-based breadboard SODET-based digital receiver module, and in Phase III SiCOM will develop a digital receiver using an ASIC-based SODET Processor.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Charles Garvin
AF 00-250
Title:Hierarchical laser radar data fusion and recognition algorithms for long-range combat target identification
Abstract:A novel approach to long-range combat identification is proposed that fuses 1D and 3D shape echo data with unresolved and range-resolved vibrometry to provide a robust Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) capability to meet Air Force Combat ID objectives. CTI's eyesafe LADAR is capable of acquiring shape and vibration signatures at long stand-off ranges. Range and micro-Doppler data will be fused to provide high-confidence target ID where a single modality fails to recognize. Shape signature precision will be 0.3 m (or better) and micro-Doppler precision better than 0.05 cm/sec/root Hz. Unprecedented low probability of misidentification and low probability of false alarm rates may be possible using fused shape and vibration signatures. Additional target characteristics probed by the advanced agile ladar waveforms will be studied. Combining active sensing of vibration and scale discriminants provides the ability to counteract the effects of camouflage, concealment & deception as well as the influence of clutter that may defeat the separate use of passive, RF and mm-wave sensors. The Phase I Program examines the fusion of shape and micro-Doppler signatures, which will be extracted from existing government & CTI proprietary databases and generated using an existing CTI micro-Doppler signature simulator. Tests on fusion-based ATR will be used to predict classification performance using fused shape and vibrometry data from available target signatures. System level requirements and methods for the combination of shape and micro-Doppler data with radar (non-imaging & imaging) & passive IR for a complete sensor perspective ATR will be developed to lead to advanced hierarchical data fusion capabilities and ATR in Phase II

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Matthew Ressler
AF 00-250
Title:Recognition Algorithms for Combat Identification
Abstract:The ability to identify vehicles with high confidence and track them with great persistence and accuracy is a crucial part of solving the Air-to-Surface Combat ID (A/S CID) problem. Toyon proposes to develop an innovative moving ground target identification algorithm that uses both range and Doppler information from a High Range Resolution Moving Target Indicator (HRRMTI) sensor. The range and Doppler information will be fused using a Bayesian Network. Toyon proposes to show the feasibility of fusing ID information from the new algorithm with track information. The benefit of fusing both range / Doppler ID and track information will be demonstrated using an existing Feature Aided Tracking (FAT) testbed developed at Toyon.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Charles Garvin
AF 00-251
Title:Remote vibrometry sensor design & demonstration for long-range NCTID of aircraft and ground targets
Abstract:Simultaneous and spatially co-registered measurement of 1D and 3D shape echo data with range-resolved vibrometry acquired from an adaptive waveform coherent LADAR provide a robust capability to meet Air Force objectives in non-cooperative combat target identification. CTI's eyesafe LADAR is capable of acquiring shape and vibration signatures at long stand-off ranges (to 20 km or more). Range and micro-Doppler images can be fused to provide high-confidence target ID where a single modality fails to recognize. Owing to the short pulse times and inter-pulse delay of the agile-waveform ladar, shape signature precision will be 0.3 m (or better) and micro-Doppler precision better than 0.05 mm/sec/root Hz, including the platform and atmospheric effects. These ladar waveform characteristics can provide unprecedented low probability of misidentification and low probability of false alarm rates by using fused shape and vibration signatures. Simultaneous measurement of vibration and scale discriminants enables their combination to enhance the ability of an active sensor to counteract the effects of camouflage, concealment & deception and clutter that can defeat the separate use of passive, RF and mm-wave sensors. The Phase I Program examines the acquisition of shape and micro-Doppler signatures and their simulation using a physics-based coherent ladar model. Simulator validation experiments will be performed using in-house agile-pulse coherent laser radar hardware. System level requirements and methods will be developed for the simultaneous measurement of shape and micro-Doppler data; when these data are fused with radar (non-imaging & imaging) & passive IR, they can provide a complete sensor perspective.

ROBERT GOLD ASSOC.
12251 Richwood Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 440-9827
Robert Gold
AF 00-252
Title:Modern Network Command and Control Warfare (Compass Call Block 40 Improvements)
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to investigate and develop new concepts and technology in modern network command and contrl warefare. More specifically to enhance the capability of the Air Force to detect, de-interleave, and predict the frequency hopping schemes used by non-cooperative communicators in a network for the purpose of conducting electronic warfare.The proposed effort is distinguished from past accomplishments in this area. It addresses the heretofore unresolved problem of determining the required code generator logic that will allow the monitor to replicate the hopping pattern of the hostile or uncooperative target using only the time of arrival data of the hopped signal.The goal is to give the monitor the analysis tools that will enable him to configure, in real time and without the need for a priori information about the target hopper, an equivalent frequency hopping system that will replicate the hop pattern of a non-cooperative or hostile target. The solution to the problem to be addressed in this proposed effort will be a major step in providing the Air Force with the vitally important real time tools required to counter and exploit these non-cooperative or hostile signals.

TACAN CORP.
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Paul H. Young
AF 00-253
Title:20 GHz Low Voltage Linear Laser Modulator for RF Distribution
Abstract:TACAN Corporation proposes a novel low-voltage 20 GHz continuous bandwidth electro-optic modulator based on nonlinear optical (NLO) polymer materials. Our proposed approach will be based on TACAN's recent experimental success in achieving 0.8 V halfwave voltage in a novel Mach-Zehnder modulator. Optical push-pull will be used to reduce the half-wave voltage to less than 1 volt. The application of our unique nonlinear cladding layer technology can, in itself, reduce the half-wave voltage by thirty percent. Our three-dimensional adiabatic tapered waveguide transitions together with cylindrical lensed fiber will result in low optical interface loss. Novel optoelectronic signal processing for distortion correction and high dynamic range will accommodate analog RF signals and a wide range of digital modulation formats that require system linearity. The potential for commercial applications is excellent, and high optical power throughput with low losses, high dynamic range, small size, and low cost will satisfy both military and commercial requirements, and fit TACAN's present and continuing marketing and sales agenda.

LSA
1215 Jefferson Davis Highway Suite 1300
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
David Warner
AF 00-255
Title:Laser Navigation Aid
Abstract:It is sometimes necessary to land aircraft at remote locations under reduced visibility in RF silence and without administrative or other logistic support. The covertness of a rugged, eyesafe laser rangefinder system would help guide unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and other aircraft to a safe, stealthy landing. We propose a low-cost, eye-safe laser navigation aid system that provides acquisition and ranging of runway locations and altitude information for aircraft landings at unfamiliar or radio-silent locations. A key feature of our design concept is that it is flexible and can provide a variety of system performance levels depending on user and application requirements. These low-cost advanced features include covert rangefinding, optically secure communications, and autonomous landing. The baseline system will provide acquisition and ranging of runway locations to an accuracy of less than 1 meter.

TENSION SYSTEMS L.L.C.
114 Stoneway Trail
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 658-8222
Philip R. Cox
AF 00-255
Title:Laser Navigation Aid
Abstract:We propose to build a prototype laser navigation aid for aircraft acquiring unimproved airstrips. Our system consists of collapsible fabric retroreflectors runway markers that are illuminated from the approaching aircraft by a pulsed, 903 nm eyesafe laser diode. Laser echoes from the reflectors are measured spatially by a filtered CMOS image sensor and temporally by a PIN photodiode. Digital Signal Processing is used to separate noise echoes from the reflector echoes and to overlay a video image from a low light or thermal image sensor with retroreflector range and position information. The composite video is then displayed to the aircraft pilots as required. The device is built of COTS parts integrated for this specific application - no specific, unique hardware is required.

SONOMA DESIGN GROUP
400 Breezewood Dr.
Geyserville, CA 95441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 857-2010
Allan Voigt
AF 00-256
Title:Low Cost Electro-Optical Reconnaissance Sensor System
Abstract:The development of high altitude, long standoff UAVs for the Air Force creates the need for high performance long standoff gimbaled optical sensor systems that are significantly more cost effective than previous generations originally developed for more expensive manned reconnaissance aircraft. To obtain high performance and low cost we have combined a modular approach to the system design with the use of COTS sensors and electronics. The sensors and electronics are housed in an elegant, low parts count, simple to manufacture gimbal system. The gimbal can easily be scaled to a range of gimbal sizes typical of those required for Air Force applications. This will represent a breakthrough product combining unprecedented gimbaled sensor performance and low cost. We intend to build this system for one-third to one-half the cost of current systems. The Government will realize very substantial cost savings from fielding these systems.Sonoma Design Group has formed a team of capable companies to carry the effort from design to production. During Phases I and II, SDG will do the initial system design and fabrication. Upon completion of Phase II, our team will carry the reconnaissance system into production.

SPACE COMPUTER CORP.
12121 Wilshire Boulevard Suite 910
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 481-6000
William E. Schaff
AF 00-256
Title:Low Cost Electro-Optical Reconnaissance Sensor System
Abstract:This proposal addresses the design and development of an affordable yet high-performance electro-optical (EO) reconnaissance system which operates in the visible to near-infrared wavelength region, and which can be deployed at high altitude on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The proposed approach is to use relatively low-cost, commercially-available optical components (such as a small, inexpensive digital camera) in conjunction with real-time, on-board signal processing to produce high-quality, hyperspectral imagery. Space Computer Corporation recently demonstrated the potential of this approach during airborne tests conducted as part of the CMO-funded Tactical Real-Time Image Processing Spectrograph (TRIPS) project. Under the proposed SBIR program (including Phase II) we will carry out the development and integration of a compact EO sensor and processor, package them for deployment on a high- (or medium-) altitude UAV, and demonstrate their combined utility as a pushbroom imaging and target-location system. In the Phase I study effort, we will survey commercially-available optical and processor components, establish system and subsystem design requirements, develop baseline algorithm and software specifications, and develop a plan for integrating the sensor/processor system with existing UAV inertial and telemetry systems.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Michael I. Anapol
AF 00-256
Title:Next Generation Staring Reconnaissance Sensor
Abstract:SSG is proposing a low cost, next generation high altitude/long range Staring Reconnaissance sensor that provides a smaller overall size, weight and power solution with significant improvements over current gimballed whiskbroom and limited FOV pushbroom approaches; e.g., simpler LOS control at very high precision; high agility multi-mode coverage capability; high resolution imaging and high sensitivity even with a reduced aperture size due to longer stare time and sub-pixel image processing using microscan techniques; and inherent athermal operation over non controlled UAV temperature excursions. Lower cost can be achieved due to a smaller aperture size; advanced SiC telescope manufacturing techniques including bolt together construction; and utilization of commercially available optical encoders, fog gyros and large area digital 2 D CCD arrays with internal image processing and electronic stabilization control. The integration of several key enabling technologies will dramatically improve mission performance and utility, while significantly lowering payload cost. Key technologies include (1) commercially available, large 2 D visible CCD arrays (9000 x 9000 format) with integrated on chip multi-color operation using striped filters and electronic processing; (2) ultralightweight, thermally stable SiC reflective telescope (Vis to IR for day/night operation); (3) sub microradian LOS control over wide Fields of Regard using an inertially stabilized pointing mirror with a highly innovative optical fringe counting encoder (<20 nrad LSB resolution) and smart bearings; (4) sub-pixel image enhancement algorithms combined with a microscan mode; and (5) potential integration of a wide FOV hyperspectral imaging spectrometer for improved target detection against highly cluttered and camouflaged scenes. Phase 1 will develop the preliminary design of the staring Reconn sensor with supporting analyses to validate overall performance and cost advantages. Phase 2 will develop prototype(s) of the key enabling technology subsystem(s), preferably as flight demos. SSG has already obtained very strong commercial support from Emerge (a Division of TASC that distributes commercial remote sensing data products), who is planning to commit matching Phase 2 funding for a next generation commercial airborne digital camera.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street Suite 246
Northglenn, CO 80234
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Wolfgang Kober
AF 00-257
Title:Global Reference Information Management
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) and The Boeing Company propose the development of an integrated package of simulation software tools, called GRIMSIM, suitable for analyzing the performance of space-based imaging and other sensors for "location fusion". This will involve combining elements of DFC's Orbital Tracking Toolbox and RMASIM with Boeing's TRIMSIM. These software packages are briefly described in Section 3.5 and more extensive details appear in Section 5.1. Phase-I _ We will develop software modules to simulate SAR, IFSAR, and bistatic data collection from space-based platforms. Phase-II _ We will use the software tools developed under Phase-I to identify and test reference system technologies required for precisely registering remotely sensed data with data from onboard sources and/or other off-board sources. We will investigate and define candidate space-based SAR imaging capabilities for target location based on IFSAR, stereo SAR, and bistatic SAR. Phase-III _ Dual use applications will involve environmental and geophysical monitoring and military surveillance and reconnaissance applications requiring precise registration of imagery from airborne and space platforms and their use with terrain data sources.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Charles Garvin
AF 00-258
Title:Architecture & Cell Design for Coherent FLIR-Laser Radar FPA
Abstract:Non-cooperative target identification (NCTID) is crucial to the support of all major mission areas of the modern Air Force. Multi-function sensor suites for ground and air NCTID have been shown to provide force multiplication, and to increase the survivability of forces by extending the reach of even numerically inferior forces. The modern Air Force needs affordable "through-the-gunsight" sensor functionality that is integratable with fire-control & countermeasures systems. These sensor suites must collect time-synchronous situational awareness data relevant to the varied missions of military aircraft (surveillance, support, strike, and assessment), and to self-protection of the aircraft - such as missile warning & targeting/fire control for missile countermeasures. Midwave infrared (MWIR) sensor capability is of particular interest for missile detection and countermeasures, owing to the strong MWIR signatures of missile plumes. MWIR provides smoke & obscurant look-through capability, enabling our forces to see the enemy in all conditions of battle. The shape and vibrometry information provided by a coherent laser radar can provide the critical data for NCTID. An ideal combination of sensor modalities brings together high-resolution next-generation forward-looking infrared sensors (FLIRs) and shape & vibration sensing coherent laser radar to provide complete target information and effectively operate in the multiplicity of operating conditions & countermeasures. Significant leverage with a multi-million dollar DARPA MTO 3D Imaging Device program is anticipated. The Phase I effort proposes support of the development of such a multifunction MWIR FLIR-LADAR sensor. With future implementations of the proposed technology, this sensor would provide the combined capabilities of high-resolution MWIR FLIR for passive infrared search & track (IRST), combined with active remote sensing of surface vibrations (ground & hard target), standoff detection of effluents, chemical & biohazards, hard target identification/designation countermeasures, flight data gathering, and sensing of winds & aerosols.

ANALYTIC DESIGNS, INC.
245 East Gay Street
Columbus, OH 43215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 224-9078
Harry T. Shamansky
AF 00-259
Title:Advanced Vehicle Surface Mapping System
Abstract:Virtually all modern aircraft radar signature prediction depends on the accuracy and completeness of the aircraft surface model. Often, these models are painstakingly constructed using a variety of measurement techniques. Two significant shortcomings in these manual techniques are the difficulty in mapping surfaces which are not easily reached or illuminated by the optical mapping tools, called coordinate measuring systems (CMS), and the difficulty in mapping surfaces which are interior to the platform, such as inlet, exhaust and environmental ducts. Analytic Designs, Incorporated (ADI) has a novel technique to significantly extend the capabilities of current CMS techniques for exterior surfaces, and will develop a specialized tool to accurately analyze the normally inaccessible interior ducts. Leveraging our extensive AFRL-sponsored RF scanning expertise, we will deliver a sound and capable CMS design package tailored to the needs of modern ATR programs for rapid, portable and accurate vehicle surface mapping in Phase I, and follow with the complete turnkey system in Phase II. The commercial ability to perform accurate analysis of large, complex structures enhances not only AFRL needs, but directly extends to other DoD agencies, and also to airframe manufacturers as well.

HYPERCOMP, INC.
31255 Cedar Valley Drive Suite 327
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 865-3713
Vijaya Shankar
AF 00-259
Title:Hybrid Time-Domain CEM for Automatic Target Recognition Applications
Abstract:HyPerComp, a small business specializing in the development, implementation and dissemination of high performance parallel software in time-domain CEM for scattering and radiation problems of interest to the DoD community, proposes to advance the technology in a three-prong approach: 1) Provide significant advances in preprocessing, processing and postprocessing stages of HyPer Comp's time-domain CEM technology (UPRCS code) for routine X-band parallel applications, 2) in partnership with SAIC-DEMACO, hybridize the time domain with their Xpatch high-frequency technology for minimizing computational efforts in ATR applications, and 3) in partnership with Dr. Kelce Wilson and others at AFRL, integrate their in-house clutter model into the time-domain UPRCS code. With advances in parallel hardware and software, extending the range of applications of a full wave, broad band, time-domain UPRCS code. With advances in parallel hardware and software, extending the range of applications of a full wave, broad band, time-domain CEM technology through hybridization with Xpatch for large-scale target modeling and with a clutter background model for terrain characterization will provide the critical technology base for this decade in meeting Air Force's requirements in target classification and identification.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street Post Office Drawer 719
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
William J. Kent
AF 00-259
Title:Synthetic Prediction Technologies for Multiple Target Scenario Modeling
Abstract:This proposal will present innovative approaches for the verification and validation of synthetic prediction technologies for multiple target scenarios. Mission Research Corporation proposes to investigate and develop the use of an active ground truth and calibration (AGTC) hardware for use in supporting the use of synthetic prediction technologies for Combat Identification (CID). The approach to be presented involves the use of a new class of hardware that can provide ground truthing and calibration. Specifically, this hardware would be developed to provide: 1) One dimensional HRR or LFM waveform time domain registration; 2) SAR image scene calibration; 3) Image registration for RF-EO data fusion; 4) Synthetic vs measured data alignment error assessment. The objectives of this proposed Phase I effort are: 1) Study the hardware configurations of candidate AGTC devices for use in HARR and SAR radar calibration, alignment, and positional error applications; 2) quantify required upgrades, costs, availability of AGTC devices for these applications. In a possible Phase II effort, we would propose to test candidate devices in an outdoor measurement setting and prove their utility for the stated objectives.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Harald Ruda
AF 00-260
Title:Web-Enabled ATR/Fusion Development System (WEADS)
Abstract:With the quickly escalating number of sources for national intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance data, there is a corresponding need to quickly develop ATR and fusion algorithms that provide useful information. We propose to develop a Web-Enabled ATR/fusion Development System (WEADS) that will allow distributed development and execution of ATR and fusion algorithms using currently available infrastructures. WEADS will be built on an existing prototype system that provides a hierarchical GUI for the design, optimization, evaluation, and testing of ATR algorithms. WEADS will transparently permit sharing and configuration management of modules for the required algorithms. The WEADS client will interact with WEADS servers that publish modules as well as provide the ability to execute the published modules. The Web-enabled design and execution avoids the usually onerous requirement to port or install modules from other sources before use. We will implement WEADS using the portable Java platform, which will simplify the implementation of the distributed design and execution protocols. The use of Java also means that WEADS will be able to communicate with CORBA and DCOM (via CORBA) components with minimal overhead in addition to providing wrappers for legacy code and executables.

COGNITECH CORP.
1060 East 100 South Suite 202
Salt Lake City, UT 84102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 322-0101
Jerome B. Soller
AF 00-260
Title:ATR/Fusion Virtual Development and Evaluation Testbed
Abstract:This project will create a prototype for a virtual, distributed testbed for ATR and fusion algorithms. The system's software framework will be implemented as lightweight Java components and will support the following capabilities: web-based access to ATR and Fusion Data; a repository of algorithms; a software interface in Java and CORBA IDL to algorithms; the ability to integrate and mix/match algorithms; and support for metric-based comparison of algorithms on common data sets, target data, and performance measures. Several graphical user interfaces for developers, testers and evaluators will enable them to securely provide, configure, test, and evaluate algorithms. The secure communications will utilize SSL, digital certificates, and role-based access control. This system will interface with HLA-compliant simulations and store logs of inputs, control parameters, incremental outputs, final results, and performance measures to a database. The investigators will demonstrate the prototype using the ATR algorithms developed by Professor Bhanu's group at the University of California, Riverside and presented at SPIE, 1999.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street Suite 246
Northglenn, CO 80234
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Tom Baltzer
AF 00-260
Title:ATR/Fusion Virtual Development and Evaluation Testbed
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation and Lockheed Martin Corporation propose to develop a virtual development environment that supports collaborative ATR and fusion algorithm development.This capability will be built using COTS and GOTS components.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Duane D. Smith
AF 00-261
Title:A New Approach to Active/Passive Sensor Apertures
Abstract:Electro-optic sensor apertures on aircraft face increasing demands for reduced size, low aerodynamic drag, low radar cross section, wide wavelength ranges and flexible placement. Fixed, conformal apertures on airframes, as opposed to gimbals or mechanically steered systems, are potential approaches. However, existing conformal aperture designs are costly to design and fabricate, may present difficult-to-correct optical aberrations across the field of regard, encounter beam steering challenges and may be disadvantageous for integration into different airframes and/or different locations on a single airframe. To address these needs and ameliorate shortcomings of existing designs, an innovative non-mechanical approach is proposed that: combines passive and active functions into a common aperture, provides high peak and average power handling capability, is compatible with adaptive optics and wavefront sensing, has reduced impact on the airframe, is suitable for passive and active aperture synthesis and provides significant precision and coarse beam steering capability. Phase I of the SBIR program will execute numeric and analytic models of the innovative designs and architectures. Demonstrations will be performed to ensure low risk in the Phase II hardware deliverables. This fundamentally new approach offers the potential to reduce sensor integration cost on airborne and spaceborne platforms while simultaneously increasing sensor performance.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Mark W. Schwalm
AF 00-261
Title:Architecture and Encoder Solutions for Common Passive/Active Systems
Abstract:For combined electro-optical (EO) sensors in which infrared and active laser systems operate through a single aperture, beam pointing and hand-over become significant challenges. SSG proposes to address this problem with an innovative optical-proximity sensor (OPS) to replace current temperature-sensitive eddy current devices used in fast steering mirrors. Further, SSG proposes to develop a telescope and pointing architecture that meets the disparate requirements of the passive and active systems, and to compare the results of the OPS against the system design requirements. The OPS will permit agile steering to the micro-radian level without temperature calibration. Combined aperture systems need this accuracy because the active laser beam and field-of-view (FOV) often subtend only 1-2 passive pixels, and thus a thermally sensitive steering mirror can result in misalignment greater than the laser FOV, resulting in a failed hand-over from passive to active. In Phase I, SSG will perform two main tasks: develop a passive/active combined-aperture opto-mechanical design including beam steering provisions; and build and test a brassboard OPS as the baseline for the active channel beam steering encoder. The proposed design and technology will directly apply to passive FLIR targeting with active interrogation, airborne missile warning and countermeasures, and future interceptors.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Stephen M. Crooks
AF 00-262
Title:Registration of Images for Polarimetric Dual-Band FOPEN Radar
Abstract:We propose a comprehensive program to develop and to evaluate registration algorithms for dual-band FOPEN SAR imagery. These registration algorithms are required to support UHF/VHF fusion. We have designed our program to build upon a generic functional architecture for image registration and to leverage our understanding of UHF and VHF phenomenology. Within this architecture we propose to assemble a suite of algorithms that includes geocoding, pixel matching (correlation and mutual information), and feature matching. Image-processing techniques based on FOPEN phenomenology will be used to maximize the commonality of image characteristics across the UHF and VHF frequency bands. Local matching will be investigated as a technique to estimate high order global transformations using estimates of local low-order transformations. The performance of the registration algorithms will be quantified using ALPHATECH's registration testbed on available overlapping UHF and VHF imagery collected in the Keystone '97 FOPEN experiment. We will develop a model for the dual-band FOPEN SAR automatic target detection and cueing (ATD/C) process and will conduct analysis to assess the sensitivity of ATD/C performance to registration accuracy.

IMAGECORP, INC.
4716 Pontiac Street, Suite 301
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 220-2123
Chandra Shekhar
AF 00-262
Title:Registration of Images for Polarimetric Dual-Band FOPEN Radar
Abstract:Conventional methods for image registration tend to be restrictive, fragile, and computationally intractable, and not easily applicable to polarimetric dual-band FOPEN data. ImageCorp, Inc. proposes a novel approach to this problem, based on the present and past work of Prof. Rama Chellappa's group at the University of Maryland and at ImageCorp, Inc. Our approach will make use of all available information that can be extracted from the images, including discrete features (lines and corner points), contours, Fourier phase and mutual information. First, a global geometric transformation between the images will be determined using correspondence-free methods. This initial global alignment will be made more precise using feature-matching techniques, followed by local refinement of the positioning to achieve precise sub-pixel registration. Phase 1 work will involve design of the overall system, and implementation of a candidate registration algorithms. In Phase 2, a prototype version of the system, capable of robust, autonomous and real-time sub-pixel registration of dual-band FOPEN imagery will be developed.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
1430 Oak Court Suite 303
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-2811
Ronald Clericus
AF 00-263
Title:Real-Time High Fidelity Dense RF Environment Simulation Technology
Abstract:Man/hardware-in-the-loop laboratory simulation is the most cost-effective methodology for maturing advanced sensor technologies because the battlefield can be brought to the laboratory through multi-spectral synthetic battlespace simulation. Current laboratory simulation technologies cannot generate the real-time high fidelity dense RF environment required to advance space based and high altitude sensor technology development. DRA proposes to solve this challenging technology limitation by applying commercial satellite tools merged with an intelligent rules based engine to control advanced signal generation components to provide accurate stimulation of space based and high altitude sensor systems. During Phase I, DRA will investigate space based and high altitude RF sensor development requirements for weapons systems such as Global Hawk, define key simulation technologies required for generating a real-time high fidelity dense RF environment simulation, and define an architecture that integrates these key technologies. DRA will utilize the real-time simulation capability in the Sensors Directorate Integrated Demonstrations and Applications Laboratory (IDAL) to demonstrate the architecture's feasibility. During Phase II, DRA will implement a prototype capability into the IDAL and demonstrate key performance characteristics. The Phase II effort will provide a building block capability for rapid evolution of advanced RF sensor technology.

ALPHATECH, INC.
Suite 100 50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 284-8444
William H. Bennett
AF 00-265
Title:Distributed Control Evaluation System for Multi-Platform Applications
Abstract:ALPHATECH proposes to develop tools for evaluating distributed systems for multi-platform, multi-sensor management that extend computational and algorithmic methods of control and estimation theory to heterogeneous distributed sensor systems where task coordination is achieved via a hierarchical information exchange. We will accomplish this by first formulating the multi-platform, multi-sensor management problem as a control problem wherein sensor resources are allocated to sensor coverage service requests in a collaborative environment of information exchange and distributed processing. From this framework, we will develop control theoretic extensions that permit efficient evaluation of distributed system performance through efficient simulation analysis. Implementation of the methodology will provide control system developers with a software toolkit for evaluating distributed systems in militarily important scenarios.

INTEGRITY SYSTEMS, INC.
31 Middlecot Street
Belmont, MA 02478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 839-5107
Daniel P. Martin
AF 00-265
Title:Distributed Control Evaluation System for Multi-Platform Applications
Abstract:In this Phase I effort, Integrity Systems will develop and evaluate a prototype Distributed Control Evaluation System (DCES) for multi-platform military applications. This system will embody a general-purpose evaluation methodology in the form of a testbed designed to simulate the essential features of the battlefield environment, navigation and track sensors, and target-tracking and sensor-control algorithms. The Phase I effort will review and characterize the features of distributed and conventional control methods for managing resources across multiple cooperating platforms in a battlespace environment. It will also review and compile useful metrics for measuring the effectiveness of such methods. It will then develop a prototype testbed (the DCES) for evaluating multi-platform resource management methods within a common framework. The prototype DCES will be relatively general-purpose, with a modular design that can be further generalized in Phase II, and readily adapted to new problems when necessary. The prototype DCES will be demonstrated for a selected sample problem designed to illustrate its evaluation capabilities. At its conclusion, the Phase I effort will provide recommended extensions of the prototype DCES design. The subsequent Phase II effort will implement extensions of the prototype DCES to generalize its applicability to a wider range of problems and control methods.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
79 Timberline Road
Warwick, RI 02886
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 885-3910
William H. Weedon
AF 00-266
Title:A Space-Based Radar Concept Using a Large Inflatable Reflector Antenna with a Reconfigurable Multi-band Phased-Array Feed
Abstract:A novel space-based radar concept is presented that uses a large inflatable reflector antenna with a reconfigurable multi-band phased-array feed. The inflatable reflector that we propose to use here is lightweight and may be compactly stored for transport to a medium earth orbit (MEO). Once in orbit, the reflector is inflated to a dimension of approximately 60 meters. A reconfigurable multi-band phased-array excitation is used to feed the reflector antenna so that both multi-band performance and limited scanning are possible. The system will be capable of supporting both X-band for SAR and GMTI and L-band and below for AMTI and FOPEN radar as well as supporting remote communications operations.

AZTEX, INC.
360 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5529
John Harris
AF 00-268
Title:Advanced Clevis Joint Technology for Composite To Metallic Attachment
Abstract:A key roadblock to producing affordable composite airframe structure is the poor damage tolerance and ballistic survivability of conventional 2D joints. To address these issues, fasteners, radius blocks, ply build-ups, etc. are typically added to the structure, dramatically effecting cost, weight and manufacturability. The combination of 3D woven preforms with Z-Fiber through-thickness reinforcement provides an enabling technology to create robust composite stiffening elements with inherently damage tolerant joints. However, to take full advantage of this technology, a low cost, damage tolerant link to the metallic components of the airframe must be developed. This Phase I program will develop and evaluate a joint design for attaching composite to metallic structures. Static strength and fatigue (D&DT) of this composite to metallic clevis joint attachment technique will be evaluated on a coupon level. This will involve developing the basic technology to prepare the metallic surface followed by fabrication and testing of double lap shear coupons to evaluate the clevis joint shear capability. The ultimate goal for combined Phase I and Phase II programswould be to implement this technology in an application such as a metallic pivot shaft attachment to an all composite horizontal stabilator for F-16 or JSF.

ENGINEERED CERAMICS, INC.
9617 Distribution Avenue
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 621-7455
Jean Stojak
AF 00-269
Title:Repair of Ceramic Matrix Composite Structures
Abstract:Bonded patch and reprocessing techniques will be developed and evaluated for the repair of advanced aircraft Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) components. We will concentrate on repair of the non-oxide S200 system developed by Dow Corning and licensed to ECI, which is baselined on the F-22 and JSF aircraft. The development effort will build on results obtained in a DOD program on the reparability of ceramics, in which the bonded patch and reprocessed repair approaches were determined to have the most potential. We will develop these repair methodologies and evaluate the feasibility for use in depot level and on-aircraft field level repairs. Repairs will be conducted on CMCs in the as-damaged state, as well as on CMCs exposed to simulated mid-flight damage, in which the damaged material is subjected to high temperatures while the aircraft completes its mission. The repaired materials will be evaluated for mechanical and electromagnetic performance. The knowledge gained from this program will provide a critical step towards optimizing repair methodologies and identifying suitable repairs for various levels of damage within specific components, such as the gas path liner of an advanced exhaust nozzle.

MSNW, INC.
P.O. Box 865
San Marcos, CA 92079
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(904) 794-2071
Gail H. Cullum
AF 00-269
Title:Repair of Ceramic Matrix Composite Structures
Abstract:The proposed Phase I research will build on previous oxide/oxide ceramic matrix com-posite (CMC) repair studies. Two state-of-the-art CMCs, one from Engineered Ceramics, Inc. and one from Boeing - Huntington Beach, will be used as the base com-posites. The project will develop and demonstrate ceramic adhesive materials which are chemically compatible with the CMC constituents. The compatible adhesives will be reinforced with discontinuous oxide fibers and/or oxide fabrics identical to those used to produce the base composites. Experimental evaluation of the reinforced adhesive materials will include microstructural studies of adhesive/composite bonds to assure chemical compatibility. Quantitative adhesive/composite bond strength measurements will be made to select the most appropriate adhesive materials. Reinforced adhesive materials containing chopped fibers and/or fabric plies will be used to produce prototype repairs in damaged composite panels (Level 3 or Level 4 damage) using a pressure-molding and low temperature cure process. Final heat treatment will be in air. The repairs will be evaluated via mechanical testing at ambient and elevated temperatures and both microstructural examination and fractography. The project will target applica-tions in the SITE-M and X-37 programs for the two oxide/oxide CMC materials. The project will be performed with engineering oversight and testing assistance provided by Boeing-St. Louis (SITE-M) and Boeing-Huntington Beach (X-37).

FOAM MATRIX, INC.
1123 E. Redondo Blvd
Inglewood, CA 90302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 680-0777
Michael S. Kramer
AF 00-270
Title:Design for Limited Life Airframes
Abstract:Future unmanned air vehicles will have very different structural requirements than the current generation of manned aircraft. Vehicles may be built, stored in a near ready to fly condition for many years and then subjected to a limited life of all combat hours. The current requirements for durability and damage tolerance may be replaced by a requirement that components are inexpensive and interchangeable. These vehicles will be built in low quantities and may need to be built many years in the future at high production rates with minimal lead times. A highly integrated structure is one possible solution to the problem. These structures would replace the large number of individual parts required with a single component that satisfies the requirements using a common set of commercial off the shelf materials. Foam Matrix has developed a unique process for net molding lofted composite structures such as wings or control surfaces. The molded cores may incorporate mechanical and electrical components directly into the structure without additional tools or parts. The goal of this research is the development of highly integrated composite structures using the molded foam core technology with reduced weight and cost of current aircraft structures.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5504
Thomas Campbell
AF 00-270
Title:Design for Limited Life Airframes
Abstract:The concept of a UCAV enables a different approach to airframe design and fabrication. Expected mission profiles will be executed with minimal g-load. The aircraft will experience long periods of storage in humidity controlled containers with no damaging training missions. The UCAV requires new thinking in terms of design criteria that can take advantage of these conditions for the lowest cost, lightest weight, and most reliable aircraft. Foster-Miller proposes a combined approach to design for limited life UCAV. Design requirements will be studied with support from Boeing St. Louis and nationally recognized consultants. We will develop manufacturing approaches that take advantage of innovative Boeing airframe structures for UCAV. Out-of-autoclave primary assembly bonding using ultrasonics is proposed. This will be combined with solid-state curing concepts that enable low cost, positional tooling in out-of-autoclave cure processes. Use of long discontinuous fiber preforms for rapid formation of complex shapes will be examined. This combination of innovative, low-cost fabrication approaches and the knowledgeable review and recommendations of experts in establishing design criteria and their impact on design and fabrication of the UCAV are the essence of the proposed program. A follow-on Phase II program will target implementation of these ideas on the RR&OE aircraft. (p00428)

PEPIN ASSOC., INC.
PO Box 397 North Main St.
Greenville, ME 04441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 695-3434
John N. Pepin
AF 00-270
Title:Hybrid Tailored Preform for Limited Life Airframe Structures
Abstract:In this Phase I program Pepin Associates, Inc. develops a hybrid tailored (HT) preform for low cost fabrication of a keel subcomponent of the Boeing Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV). The hybrid tailored preform is a multiply, woven preform capable of being formed into complex shapes without sacrificing fiber orientation or fiber volume fraction. This formability is derived from the long discontinuous tow segments which comprise the preform. The HT Preform concept allows rapid preform fabrication thereby lowering the labor time and hence cost of fabrication. The Phase I program tasks include discontinuous tow fabrication, preform development, molding the keel subcomponent, mechanical testing and cost analysis. Pepin Associates, Inc. is developing the preform while Boeing in St. Louis is performing the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) of the UCAV keel subcomponent. Low cost carbon fibers are used where appropriate to reduce the part cost but most of the cost savoings will likely result from the rapid preforming capability of the HT Preform. Cost data from Phase I will support an expanded Phase II program to develop the full scale UCAV keel.

WEBCORE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
591 Congress Park Drive
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-5034
Rob Banerjee
AF 00-270
Title:Development of Low Cost Composite Structure for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project is intended to develop TYCOR(tm) fiber reinforced foam cored composite sandwich panels for low cost design and manufacturing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) airframe fuselage and other components. Phase I work involves design, fabrication and testing of TYCOR panels as well as manufacturing process trials to validate the feasibility of using TYCOR panels in UAV fuselage. Detailed cost benefit analysis will be conducted for this new design and manufacturing approach involving TYCOR panels in VARTM process.

LSP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6145 Scherers Place
Dublin, OH 43016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 718-3000
David F. Lahrman
AF 00-271
Title:Laser Shock Peening for Exfoliation Detection
Abstract:Exfoliation corrosion occurs around fastener holes in the aluminum wing skins of aircraft. This type of corrosion is difficult to detect, and current methods are costly in maintenance down-time and clean-up. The objective of the proposed program is to demonstrate the feasibility of laser shock peening as a method for search peening for exfoliation corrosion in aluminum alloy panels. The program will include developing a corrosion protocol to produce aluminum plates containing specific levels of exfoliation for consistency in the evaluation tests. The exfoliated aluminum plates prepared with this protocol will be laser shock peened to raise the exfoliation areas and render them visible. Based upon the results, concepts for laser search peening hardware will be identified and evaluated.

J. R. JAMES ASSOC., INC.
8327 Armetale Lane
Fairfax Station, VA 22039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 690-3929
John R. James
AF 00-272
Title:Verification and Validation of Integrated and Adaptive Control Systems
Abstract:This project will extend previous work in formal methods, functional languages, adaptive control and hybrid control to establish a methodology and a framework for validation and verification of adaptive/intelligent software systems. We will apply recent results in creating logical abstractions in Haskell to build a capability for automatic verification of new or modified components that meet the constraints imposed on the resulting system. If ready for use, we will apply the specification for the Open Control Platform, currently under development as part of the DARPA Software-Enabled Control project, as the definition of our distributed control platform. Our approach emphasizes the use of off-line verification and validation techniques to establish ranges of parameter variations to be allowed by the adaptive/intelligent control software and on-line techniques to ensure that approved constraints are being met. We will develop an engineering plan to demonstrate use of the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) and Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) extensions to Haskell to automatically validate an adaptive, on-line control law redesign and implementation to meet performance specifications. This implementation will be designed to demonstrate an initial capability that can be extended to other adaptive and intelligent control systems safety critical tasks.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2706
Sivaram Gogineni
AF 00-273
Title:MHD Control of Boundary Layer Transition in External Hypersonic Flows
Abstract:Sustained hypersonic flights offer potentially revolutionary improvements in space access for civilian and military applications. Limiting factors in hypersonic-vehicle performance include aerodynamic drag and heating rates exerted on the vehicles by surrounding flow fields. Recent research has indicated that hypersonic flow fields may be modified significantly by magnetic Lorentz forces through the creation and manipulation of plasma near the vehicles. Such concepts can be used to control hypersonic flows by suppressing or enhancing hypersonic boundary-layer instability and transition for drag and heating reduction or for mixing enhancements. On the other hand, MHD control of hypersonic flows presents a challenge which requires an understanding of both the complex hypersonic MHD flow physics and the creation of large volumes of plasma and strong magnetic fields. The objectives of the present SBIR proposal are: 1) to develop a highly accurate direct numerical simulation tool for transient hypersonic MHD equations for the purpose of MHD hypersonic transitional flow control, 2) to use numerical simulations as a tool to develop MHD flow-control concepts and conduct feasibility studies of these concepts, and 3) to identify and design new laboratory-scale experiments to prove the concepts of MHD control of hypersonic flow transition.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dan L. Grecu
AF 00-274
Title:Testbed for Air Vehicle Coordination Techniques (TACT)
Abstract:Rapid advances in aircraft, sensors and weapons technology have opened a considerable potential for the development of novel Air Force mission concepts relying on large numbers of heterogeneous air vehicles. Such missions require advanced inter-vehicle coordination capabilities that scale up to the mission size, structure, and the mission environment. To meet the challenge of generating and testing coordination techniques for large numbers of air vehicles, we propose to prototype a Testbed for Air Vehicle Coordination Techniques (TACT). The testbed integrates modern software agent technology, advanced coordination concepts and techniques, and high-fidelity tactical mission simulation. TACT will allow mission experts to prototype missions with various air vehicle compositions, and to design coordination strategies for particular mission scenarios. TACT supports high-fidelity mission simulation from the physical aircraft level, to the high-level coordination interactions; captures relevant mission data; and includes analysis tools that enable mission experts assess coordination effectiveness and robustness. The development effort will comply with DII-COE standards and integrate with the toolsets that are currently part of the USAF's information systems framework.

OR CONCEPTS APPLIED
7032 Comstock Avenue Suite 100
Whittier, CA 90602
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 907-6700
Rubin Johnson
AF 00-274
Title:Large Number of Air Vehicles Simulation (LNAVSIM)
Abstract:The use of Large Numbers of Air Vehicles (LNAV) such as the Uninhabited Air Vehicle (UAV) for theater reconnaissance, effects surveillance, target detection and location, defense, electronic warfare and, the Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) for tactical operations, will continue to alter the theater dynamic. The Air Force is investigating ways to utilize large numbers of offensive weapons such as the UAV/UCAV and micro-miniature air vehicles (MAV) as a means to locate high-value, strategic, movable targets and deliver firepower. Air campaign tactics, strategies, and operations will never be the same. Mission planning, simulation and rehearsal tools need to address coordinated air vehicle movement and operational scenarios involving large numbers of differing entities. Multiple entities such as weapons of varying mission designations, and/or "flocks, pods or clusters" of UAV/UCAV weapon systems or "swarms" of MAV entities released from within UAV/UCAV payload bays. The mission planning and simulation environment that possesses a full-suite of mission planning tools will benefit planning process by providing the capability to assess the C2 effectiveness of these systems when integral to a much larger force structure. Mission planning and simulation for multiple flying vehicles in dynamic environments involves asset allocations, tiered tactics and collaborative strategies designed to accomplish goals of the mission, given the current knowledge available about the world. As knowledge changes, the planning system should dynamically replan to best accomplish the mission. In this proposal, this domain is explored and mission planning concepts and simulation approaches for this dynamic environment are presented.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY
174 North Main Street P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Neeraj Sinha
AF 00-275
Title:Flow Control for Vehicle Propulsion/Weapons Integration
Abstract:An internal aircraft weapons bay, when exposed to freestream flow, experiences an intense aeroacoustic environment and varied suppression concepts have been tested for attenuation of flow-induced oscillations. Recent testes with open-loop, high-frequency excitation have shown great promise in providing broadband attenuation and elimination of tones. High frequency actuation alters the dynamics of the turbulent energy cascade and accelerates the transfer of energy from low-frequency, large scale eddies to high-frequency, small-scale eddies, where it finally gets dissipated as heat. However, these tests have also indicated the need to provide adequate levels of actuation and a robust and scalable high-frequency actuator remains to be designed. The proposed program is focussed on exploiting the high-frequency excitation phenomena to accomplish acoustic attenuation of a cavity. A robust, electro-mechanical shaker will be used to drive a vibrating spoiler at a frequency which is high relative to the cavity resonant modes. This actuator design is not amplitude-limited and is consistent with safe weapons release. Its performance will be demonstrated at the Lockheed Compressible Flow Wind Tunnel (CFWT) utilizing a 20% scale F-111 weapons bay model at subsonic and supersonic freestream conditions. An alternate high-frequency actuator (Glow Discharge) will also be demonstrated.

TAO OF SYSTEMS INTEGRATION, INC.
471 McLaws Circle Suite 1
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 220-5040
Siva M. Mangalam
AF 00-275
Title:Active Control of Compact Diffusing Inlets Using SMA-Actuated Micro-Vortex Generators and Non-Intrusive Hot-Film Sensors
Abstract:A compact, diffusing inlet incorporating active flow separation control will be developed for Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles (UCAV). An array of micro-thin, surface hot-film sensors operated by automated Constant Voltage Anemometer (CVA) system will be used to monitor inlet boundary-layer characteristics. Tao Systems' flow-diagnostics tools will be used for the identification and real-time tracking of unsteady flow separation in the duct. Shape Memory Alloy-Actuated Micro-Vortex Generators (SMA-MVG) will be used for active control of flow separation. Rule based and/or fuzzy logic control algorithms will be developed for feedback control to optimize the active control of flow separation.

UNIVERSAL SPACELINES, INC.
1501 QUAIL ST STE 103
NEWPORT BEACH, CA 92660
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
( ) -

AF 00-277
Title:Simulation Based R&D for Space Vehicle Concepts
Abstract:The feasibility of an integrated design software tool set that incorporates a simulation based design environment, a modern trajectory/design optimizer and a framework to create a high fideity 6 degree of freedom simulation with a common database tailored to easily evaluate space vehicle concepts will be investigated.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1160 Pepsi Place Suite 300
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 973-1215
John D. Schierman
AF 00-279
Title:Adaptive Guidance System for Hypersonic Vehicles with Reconfigurable Inner-Loop Control
Abstract:Reconfiguration for a re-usable launch vehicle (RLV) presents a number of unique challenges not addressed in prior fixed-wing controls work; these challenges include extremely fast dynamics in the hypersonic regime and the need to adapt trajectory profiles quickly to achieve (possibly revised) mission objectives safely. Barron Associates, Inc. (BAI) has teamed with Orbital Sciences Corporation to develop a continuously adaptive-reconfigurable guidance system for hypersonic RLV systems. BAI will leverage its past achievements in the field of reconfigurable controls and optimal guidance, and Orbital will substantially contribute with its vast experience in hypersonic vehicles. In Phase I, the BAI/Orbital team will concentrate on X-34 elevon effector failures; these failures are particularly challenging in that there is not enough control-effector redundancy to recover the original decoupled closed loop responses. The approach taken is to develop an innovative modular guidance technique that autonomously identifies degraded closed-inner-loop performance and adapts the guidance for the compromised system. A long-prediction horizon module is utilized to estimate final trajectory states and manage the RLV energy. A primary guidance module, concerned with overall stability, generates achievable trajectory commands at each update based on a short-prediction of the current identified closed-inner-loop system and the estimated long-prediction module.

GUIDED SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 1453
McDonough, GA 30253
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 898-9100
J. Eric Corban
AF 00-279
Title:Adaptive Guidance and Control for Autonomous Hypersonic Vehicles
Abstract:A control system adaptive to failures was recently flight demonstrated onthe X-36. This technology is now being applied in simulation to study the potential to improve the performance and reliability of the X-33 demonstrator. A recoverable failure will generally lead to a reduction in total control authority. Thus, adaptive guidance technology is required to realize the potential of adaptive control and to overcome potential failures in autonomous launch systems. Effective means for on-line trajectory regeneration is required. The guidance laws need to be adaptive to unknown variations in the force equations, and atthe same time require minimal variation in the anticipated trim control effort. An innovative approach to adaptive guidance is proposed based on computing aneighboring solution. It seeks to minimize the perturbation in trim controleffort, while having an adaptive component that can be used to cancel the forceperturbation induced by the failure. Energy state methods are to be used to pre-compute attainable energy levels, which will in turn be used to predict reachable sets. The feasibility of this new technology is to be demonstrated in X-33 simulation in Phase I, and fully developed and evaluated for both the X-33 and X-37 in Phase II.

HIGH TECHNOLOGY CORP.
28 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 865-0818
Mujeeb R. Malik
AF 00-280
Title:Computational Tool for Advanced Transition Prediction
Abstract:Laminar-Turbulent transition phenomenon in hypersonic flows remains poorly understood although it has a profound impact on the thermal protection system weight, vehicle drag and air-breathing engine performance. Transition location uncertainties force designers to be conservative by adding weight and reducing thrust. Efficient techniques for prediction and control of boundary-layer transition are needed. The proposed effort deals with the development of an advanced transition prediction tool which will include the effect of external (free-stream, wall-induced) disturbances on boundary-layer transition. This will be accomplished by coupling a receptivity module with a disturbance growth module. The receptivity module determines the relationship between the imposed disturbances and boundary-layer instability waves. The disturbance growth module computes the evolution of these instabilities and determines the location of transition.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5509
Sara E. Rosenberg
AF 00-281
Title:Innovative Composite Process Modeling Using Adaptive Modeling Language (AML)
Abstract:In order to more quickly and efficiently incorporate new composite processes into airframe design, Foster-Miller will team with TechnoSoft, Inc. to develop Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) modules for innovative composite processes. Current design methods require an extensive knowledge base of the technology, and thus often limit the design to well known processes. Using object oriented programming, the modules developed will enable new technology insertion earlier in the design process. The Phase I program will define, in terms of the AML paradigm, several innovative new composite processes, and develop limited implementation of one. The Phase II will continue to develop a portfolio of AML modules for new composite processes, which can be used in cooperation with the existing AML base. At the end of Phase II, these modules will become commercially available via TechnoSoft's current licensing methods. (p00420)

BIHRLE APPLIED RESEARCH, INC.
400 Jericho Turnpike
Jericho, NY 11753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 766-2416
Jennifer Player
AF 00-282
Title:A Single Software Application for the Comprehensive Analysis of UCAV Stability and Control Characteristics and Flying Qualities
Abstract:Bihrle Applied Research Incorporated proposes a single Windows based software application capable of supporting flight dynamics analysis and simulation tasks from the conceptual design phase through flight test. This document is a Phase I proposal that describes the function and benefits of the proposed software, defines objectives for developing and demonstrating a prototype component of the total application, and outlines addition Phase I tasks that will form the foundation for a Phase II effort. The proposed work plan is comprehensive and designed to facilitate the development of a commercially viable software tool for conceptual design, flying qualities analysis, and task-oriented performance evaluation of UCAV and other aerial vehicles. The proposed software will provide computational aerodynamics and stability and control analysis tools, complete with interactive help and graphical user interfaces, as modules to the existing D-Six simulation environment. The use this versatile tool will lower the initial investment into candidate concepts and will facilitate more efficient engineering processes throughout aircraft development.

OPTELECOM, INC.
9300 Gaither Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-8852
Ronald H. Smith
AF 00-282
Title:Aeronautical Sciences and Flight Control Technology for Military Aerospace Vehicles
Abstract:Use of photonic communications technology on military aerospace vehicles offers significant advantages in weight and volume. Photonic technology can also reduce cost and improve reliability for these vehicles. Weight and volume savings come from replacement of copper wire and electronic termination hardware in cable assemblies having large wire counts with optical fiber cables having small fiber counts. Cost savings are associated with the weight and volume savings and with integration of control, power and communication systems. Reliability is enhanced through ElectoMagnetic Interference (EMI) susceptibility reduction, multipath redundant communication lines and communication system simplifications which are part of an integrated vehicle management system design. Specific technology which will be required in a fully optimized photonic aerospace vehicle communication system and which is not currently available for the aerospace environment includes 1) multimode optical fiber Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) tap for wavelength selective drop and insert of optical signals along a multimode optical fiber bus, 2) advanced methods for providing electrical power to equipment located at the terminal end of optical fiber communication paths and 3) Optimized electro-optic interface hardware for aerospace vehicle systems. Optelecom proposes to investigate adaptation of present day communications technology in these three areas to the aerospace environment.

STAR TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH, INC.
3213 Carmel Bay Drive Suite 200
Mount Pleasant, SC 29466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 856-3590
Jerome Pearson
AF 00-282
Title:Actively Controlled Multi-Winglets
Abstract:This innovation applies multiple winglets to reduce induced drag without increasing the span of aircraft wings. The advantages of conventional single winglets have been demonstrated on transport aircraft and business jets, and new designs are now incorporating them. However, biologists have shown that the multiple, individually controlled winglets used by soaring birds show significant improvement over single winglets, not only by reducing the overall magnitude of the tip vortices, but also through the active control of the individual winglet angles of attack, dihedral, and sweep during flight. This program will develop and demonstrate smart-structure-controlled multiple winglets that show potential for a variety of applications in aircraft, propellers, watercraft, and helicopter rotors. The multiple winglets will show significant improvements over the performance of single winglets, and the active control will allow them to be optimized over a wide range of flight conditions. The total combination of multiple winglets, smart structures, and active control will produce maximum reduction in induced drag, leading to improved performance and reduced fuel costs.

AZTEX, INC.
360 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5529
John Harris
AF 00-283
Title:Hybrid Structures for Efficient Combined TPS and Mechanical Performance
Abstract:Significant resources have been invested to develop high temperature structural materials for access to space. Development has focused primarily on systems with operating temperatures in excess of 2000F. The idea of these high temperature materials is to provide thermal shock resistance, protection to substructure materials, and structural performance. Currently these materials have fallen short of their goals. Reasons for this include joining of dissimilar materials, poor interlaminar properties, and oxidation protection. As a result many vehicles depend on a stand-alone non-structural thermal protection system (TPS) which protects an underlying conventional structure. The philosophy of one material system which can react structural loads and withstand extreme thermal loading is sound. The problem is that high temperature systems needed to react thermal shock are not structurally efficient. The team of Aztex and Boeing propose to demonstrate a hybrid high temperature (+2000F) and conventional (350F) composite structure. High temperature oxide matrix material would be used on the outside surface where the temperature is intense. This structure would be integrally connected to a conventional structure such as BMI which would react the structural loads. This proposal introduces novel high temperature core materials and through-thickness attachment techniques which are essential to achieve success.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Kristie Lenahan Cooper
AF 00-284
Title:Electrostatic Self-Assembly Processes for Synthesis of Integrated Multifunctional Structures
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR program is to develop and demonstrate electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) "beaker chemistry" processes for the integration of multifunctional thin film materials and devices directly onto and into lightweight aircraft structural components. ESA processing consists of alternately adsorbing cationic and anionic molecules from water-based solutions onto substrates at room temperature and pressure to form organic/inorganic nanocomposite coatings. Electrical, optical, mechanical, thermal and electric field-controlled functional properties of the coatings may be created by incorporation of selected molecular nanoclusters, advanced polymers and other molecules, by processing conditions, and by controlling the order of the multilayer geometry. NanoSonic has demonstrated the ability to achieve high electrical conductivity, piezoelectric, photovoltaic and light emitting behavior, controlled permittivity, ultrahardness and abrasion resistance, and electro-optic switching in ESA-formed materials, and multiple such functionalities may be incorporated into a conformal coating. During Phase I, NanoSonic will study how coatings with combined functional properties may be patterned on lightweight flexible composite substrates by its patented ESA approach. A technology demonstrator structure will be fabricated and evaluated in cooperation with a major U.S. aerospace contractor. During Phase II, NanoSonic will develop methods for upscaling and transitioning the ESA process to manufacturing in cooperation with that company.

BIHRLE APPLIED RESEARCH, INC.
400 Jericho Turnpike
Jericho, NY 11753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 766-2416
Jacob Kay
AF 00-285
Title:Low Speed Testing and Simulation Modeling for Powered Configurations
Abstract:Traditional wind tunnel testing to determine the effects of power setting on the vehicle's aerodynamic characteristics are conducted at specific scaled power level and characterized as functions of the corresponding thrust coefficient, Tc. Unfortunately, the application of such parameter encounters a theoretical and fundamental limit when the airspeed significantly deviates from the nominal range. Consequently, the resulting wind tunnel data cannot be applied directly to the simulation database across a wide range of airspeed and power combination.The development and testing of the high-performance T-6A primary trainer for the U.S. Air Force and Navy is providing a unique opportunity to investigate wind tunnel test techniques to assess the power effects on the vehicle's aerodynamic characteristics and simulation modeling methodology that can easily accommodate such nonlinear characteristics across a wide range of airspeed and power matrix. A novel solution is proposed in this Phase-I to address the power/airspeed issue associated the current powered test technique. Limited static powered testing will be conducted for the T-6A configuration at a low-speed wind tunnel facility to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed test technique, followed by detailed analysis and a preliminary simulation flight model development.

M.L. ENERGIA, INC.
P.O. BOX 470
PRINCETON, NJ 08542
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 799-7970
Moshe Lavid
AF 00-292
Title:Jet Engine Test Cell Air Pollution Control
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I offers a novel technology, based on Spectrally Selective Photo-Destruction (SSPD), for destruction of air pollutants in exhaust emissions from jet engine test cells (JETCs). Operations of JETCs are characterized by extremely high air flow rates containing relatively low concentration of pollutants. This combination of diluted but colossal flows poses a difficult challenge. All existing and emerging technologies treat the entire mass. Consequently, they all suffer from prohibitively high costs and impose unacceptable limitations on the operation of JETCs. In contrast, the proposed SSPD discriminatively treats only the pollutants while leaving the bulk of the flow unaffected. By judiciously applying spectrally selective light, the flow remains virtually transparent to the photons, and only the targeted pollutants are destroyed. This clever approach has great potential to be efficient and cost-effective. The overall objective is to demonstrate both technical and economical feasibility. To meet this objective, a three-task work plan is proposed. Experiments with simulated streams containing representative pollutants will be performed in a bench-scale photothermal flow reactor. Computer simulations will guide the experimental effort and will aid in optimizing the operating conditions. Lastly, Phase I results will be used to perform a cost analysis. Successful completion of phase I will provide the technical foundation for a comprehensive Phase II R&D, in which a prototype unit will be designed, constructed and tested.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2620 Trade Center Avenue
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 702-1672
Tapesh Yadav
AF 00-292
Title:Air Pollution Control Technology for Jet Engine Test Cells
Abstract:The testing of off-aircraft jet engines typically emits large amounts of NOx, HAPs, and VOCs. Air Force bases require technologies that can enable them to meet or exceed performance under EPA emission standards. Previous research into developing control technologies for jet engine test cells had demonstrated reductions in NOx and VOC emissions. However, these efforts were based on existing air pollution control technologies, were impractical or too expensive to implement, and imposed too many limitations on the operation of the test cell. Completely new control technologies are desired that will reduce NOx, HAP, and VOC emissions by 50% without imposing any restrictions on jet engine test cells. Nanomaterials Research Corporation (NRC) proposes to develop a recently discovered phenomena which enables catalysis at near ambient temperature and pressure. Phase I will establish the proof of concept - both from feasibility and cost point of view. Phase II will scale up the technology and demonstrate a prototype at an Air Force facility. Phase III will commercialize the technology.

WADDAN SYSTEMS
8801 Encino Ave
Northridge, CA 91325
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 257-4172
Mahendra Singh
AF 00-293
Title:High Speed Time Space Position Information (TSPI) Encoded Radar Transponder
Abstract:Development of a High Speed Time Space Position Information (TSPI) Encoded Radar Transponder is proposed. The goal of this system is to automatically transmit a vehicle's TSPI to a ground tracking station from ranges as far as 1000 km. The proposed effort encompasses a trade-off study of design concepts for a modular C-Band transponder and related ground system modification using commercially available hardware (Receivers, Transmitters, Power Amps, decoders and encoders). This would include an evaluation of the current C-Band transponders and ground support system in use at Edwards AFB, and determination of hardware and software modifications necessary to yield a TSPI encoded transponder. An end-to-end computer simulation will be developed to demonstrate the capabilities of the conceptual systems. The most promising design concept will be selected for a prototype build (transponders and ground system mods) in Phase II.

WANG ELECTRO-OPTO CORP.
1335 Capital Circle Suite G
Marietta, GA 30067
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 955-9311
Johnson J. H. Wang
AF 00-294
Title:Directional Airborne Telemetry Antennas
Abstract:Telemetry of data from an air vehicle to ground processing and display facilities is required in many test and training missions. The test and training communities have seen a twenty fold increase in the telemetry data rates over the past 10 years. When this increase in need is coupled with the reduction in available spectrum, caused by the sell-off of government spectrum, the combination creates a major test and training cost and schedule impact to major weapons system programs. Advances in technology may make the application of directional antennas to telemetry practical. WEO proposes to develop an affordable, directional airborne telemetry antenna to functionally replace existing omni-directional antennas on a variety of test vehicles. The approach is based mainly on a helmet-mounted beam-steered array WEO recently developed for the US Army, which represents the first affordable battery-operated smart array antenna. With respect to geolocation and adaptive beam control, the proposed research will also draw heavily from WEO's 3-year experience in developing an ultra-wideband photonically-controlled phased array. This beam-steered array antenna will allow the ranges to support more missions without additional spectrum by letting multiple telemetry users to operate on the same frequency, on the same range, with different acquisition antennas.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
9131 Mason Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 407-0092
Ching-Fang Lin
AF 00-295
Title:Low Cost Autonomous GPS Based Collision Avoidance System
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to develop and demonstrate an innovative Low Cost Autonomous GPS Based Collision Avoidance System for aircraft operating in the same airspace. The innovative system combines a synthetic GPS relative positioning module, a target tracking and collision threat detection module, and a collision avoidance guidance aide module. The innovative GPS relative positioning module provides the precision position information of other aircraft in the surrounding airspace at a high update rate. The target tracking filter predicts the projected trajectory of the surrounding aircraft that are flying into a congested caution area of the primary aircraft to the collision detection module to determine a potential collision threat. The collision avoidance guidance aide module produces an evasion trajectory aiding information for the aircrew with aural alarms and visual display if a collision threat is detected. The unique solution of the combined GPS relative positioning capabilities and advanced collision detection and collision avoidance guidance technologies will provide enhanced flight control and safety qualities. In the Phase I project, the feasibility, as well as functions, specifications, hardware architecture, and software of the proposed system will be investigated and conducted.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
900 Middlesex Turnpike Building 8
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 436-9600
George Dimos
AF 00-295
Title:Low Cost Global Positioning System (GPS)-based Collision Avoidance System
Abstract:This proposal is responsive to the Air Force objective to develop a low-cost GPS-based Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) which uses GPS technology not only for determining the participating aircraft's position and velocity, but also for broadcasting that information continuously over a range in excess of 10 km around the aircraft, and for receiving the position and velocity information from up to (12) other participating aircraft. The GPS datalink equipment consists of COTS components, or subsystems which have been developed or are currently being developed at Mayflower through various DoD programs. The production cost of the proposed L-band/S-band GCAS equipment is conservatively expected to be less than $10,000. Our specific objectives for the Phase I demonstration are: a) Upgrade an existing 2-channel GPS Datalink Traner design to assemble a 10- channel unit. b) Demonstrate 10-channel S Datalink Receiver-Transmitter operation and collect and analyze performance characteristics regarding near-far effects and cross correlation distortion effects. c) Prepare a low-cost approach for Phase Iflight demonstration, which, in addition to the Phase I functionality contains equipment for suppression of the RFI due to the datalink transmitter emissions. The Phase I research will demonstrate, via laboratory bench tests, the feasibility of the GCAS prototype system to meet AFFTC requirements. The Phase II program will include in-flight evaluation of the standalone GCAS system in the R2508 complex.

BIHRLE APPLIED RESEARCH, INC.
400 Jericho Turnpike
Jericho, NY 11753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 766-2416
Randy S. Hultberg
AF 00-297
Title:Hybrid Cable Rig (HyCR) for Virtual Flight Testing
Abstract:Super-maneuverability is a must for future military aircraft and missiles. The higher angular rates displacements associated with this capability necessitate an understanding of their effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of any configuration. This influences the design and performance of the flight vehicle as well as its flight control system. Devices will be exercised on a Virtual Flight Test rig in the wind tunnel. To accomplish this a tunnel rig must be designed to provide restraint of the forces as well as complete data acquisition and control system feedback. The rig would allow freedom of angular motion about the roll and pitch axes and will include a data acquisition and hardware interfacing for complete system control. Several objectives will be accomplished.1) Using simulation and previous flight test results,resolve the motions and forces that will be produced by typical test articles using this rig. 2)Assess the structural requirements including vibration and supersonic flow effects needed to produce a successful test device. 3)Demonstrate a limited force measurement system to be used for data acquisition on the test rig The completion of this dynamic test rig will allow hardware to be tested in a realistic Virtual Flight Test environment of supersonic flight.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
John C. Magill
AF 00-297
Title:Motion Enabling Device for Virtual Flight Test Application
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a cable suspension system to enable model motions in Virtual Flight Testing. The system consists of an arrangement of six cables, each instrumented with a tension load cell, that supports a missile model in a wind tunnel. The load cells measure the fores acting on the model. A three-axis collar will permit the model to pitch, roll, and yaw. In the Phase I program, a design will be developed for implementation in a 16 ft wind tunnel at AEDC. Experimental validation of key components will be completed during Phase I. The test results will help refine the preliminary system design so that a cable mount for a 16 ft tunnel can be built and delivered in Phase II. The experimental demonstration will be accomplished using scale mockup and will involve static laboratory tests and a simple wind tunnel test. These experiments will also show that actuators intended for inducing model pitching motions can also be used to damp oscillations that might occur in a dynamic test. The test results will help refine the preliminary system design so that a cable mount for a 16 ft tunnel can be built and delivered in Phase II.

ADVANCED FUEL RESEARCH, INC.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 528-9806
James R. Markham
AF 00-298
Title:Control Sensor for Turbine Engine Augmentor Rumble and Screech
Abstract:During aircraft turbine engine operation, augmentor (afterburner) operation is often associated with combustion instabilities (oscillations) that can be potentially detrimental to the turbine engine if the resonant amplitude levels are excessive. Oscillation in the frequency range of 50-100 Hz is commonly called "rumble," where as higher frequency oscillation, up to 600 Hz, is "screech." A current method to control the potentially devastating combustion instabilities, after the instabilities have begun, is to reduce the fuel flow to the augmentor. The Air Force would benefit from a simple, rugged, low cost sensor system that can determine incipient combustion instability and provide feedback for combustion control. Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) proposes a novel sensor that can determine incipient combustion instability and provide feedback for combustion control. The sensor system will measure key signals from the combustion flow at a position slightly downstream of the augmentor.. The Phase I prototype will be demonstrated with a turbine engine undergoing testing in a propulsion development test cell of Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) at Arnold Air Force Base.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
10299 Scripps Trail, PMB 231
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 586-6628
Paul Grabill
AF 00-298
Title:Turbine Engine Augmentor Rumble and Screech Indicator
Abstract:Jet engine augmentor operation is often associated with combustion instability called rumble and screech that can be potentially detrimental to the turbine engine if the levels are excessive. An automated detection system could effectively protect the engine from extended operation with combustion instability. Intelligent Automation Corporation (IAC) proposes to develop a PC based test cell engine health monitoring system that will use a unique combination of signal processing algorithms to detect and indicate the presence of augmentor rumble and screech. The Automated Engine Health Monitoring System (AEHMS) will utilize the existing engine instrumentation such as case mounted accelerometers, rotor speeds, and throttle inputs as well as general purpose area microphones located in the test cell as inputs to the fault detection algorithms AEHMS software features a combination of advanced spectral feature estimators, state-of-the-art condition indicators coupled with a rules based expert system. The features are fused with a unique neural network processor to provide novelty identification and early fault detection with a low false alarm rate. Pratt and Whitney has agreed to supply data to validate the signal processing algorithms and will support this Phase I research.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
14A Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2030
Ed Salley
AF 00-299
Title:Low Cost Production of Large Area X-Ray Foils
Abstract:Metal foils have found various high technology uses in the fields of nuclear testing, x-ray sources, and optics. Currently thin foils (a few microns in thickness) are readily available commercially up to about 6 inches in diameter. These foils however are extremely costly prohibiting their wide spread use and limiting the capability of researchers in the aforementioned fields. Additionally, there are applications for which even larger area foils are desired. In this proposal, we intend to develop a fabrication method for producing large area foils that is cost-effective, of high quality, and easily manufactured.

F&S, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4266
Scott Meller
AF 00-300
Title:Ultra-Wideband Telemetry System for Aerospace Ground Testing
Abstract:All advanced aircraft structures and components require extensive ground and flight tests before being incorporated into field use. Extensive instrumentation is required to verify designs and validate proper operation, which creates an enormous amount of cabling and high test set-up costs. The rapid development of wireless technology is creating new opportunities and challenges for communications users and suppliers. Wireless sensor systems can significantly decrease instrumentation set-up time and cost, while simultaneously improving sensor signal-to-noise ratios and instrumentation system flexibility. Unfortunately, there is no wireless solution available that can interface with several different sensor types and survive the harsh environments found in aerospace testing. Luna Innovations (formerly F&S, Inc.) and the Center for Wireless Technology at Virginia Tech propose to develop a miniature, robust multichannel telemetry system for aerospace ground testing based on ultra-wideband technology. Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology (sometimes called digital pulse wireless or impulse radio) is an exciting new approach to wireless communications with several advantages over existing technology including low power operation, secure communications, improved transmission through structures, and high data rates. The 50 channel system will be capable of interfacing with common sensors to measure parameters including heat flux, pressure, strain, vibration, and temperature.

SCIENTIFIC MONITORING, INC.
4801 S. Lakeshore Drive Suite 103
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 752-7909
Joseph Michalski
AF 00-300
Title:Miniaturized Robust Multichannel Telemetry System
Abstract:SMI proposes to investigate the feasibility of producing a robust multi-channel telemetry system for use in hostile environments. The electronics package will be designed for the measurement of sensors for temperature, pressure, strain or stress, and vibration with a modular design to accommodate the different gain configurations required for the task. A surface mount prototype will be constructed for the multi-channel front end electronics, data acquisition at 16 bit resolution, and output circuitry for a serial output to the transmission link. High temperature micro-electronics technology can be implemented in phase II to reduce size to a .5" cube or less and using advanced military electronics construction techniques to make the device 50K g shock survivable. The data link considered in the primary investigation will be optical in nature to avoid electrical interference and reduce cost and power consumption. Emerging RF technologies will also be studied in this Phase I effort.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC.
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Maxim L. Seleznev
AF 00-302
Title:Integration of Design and Rapid Response Manufacturing of Components by the Solid Freeform Fabrication/Tool-less Mold/Advanced Pressure Infiltration C
Abstract:Computers and their networks are revolutionizing the way metallic and metal matrix composite net-shape parts are manufactured. The ultimate goal of this revolution is to create a completely tool-less or free-form manufacturing process. The most promising technologies in that realm are Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Three Dimensional Printing (3DP). However, both technologies are more suitable for rapid prototyping than for high-volume flexible manufacturing. A new Laser Diode Array Solid Free-Form Fabrication technology for making ceramic preforms is proposed. It builds on the strengths of both SLS and 3DP processes, leaving their weaknesses behind. As a result, two orders of magnitude improvements in manufacturing rate become possible which for the first time puts a solid free-form manufacturing in the same league as tool-based fabrication technologies. Preform manufacturing using this new technology then could be pressure infiltrated with liquid metal using another novel tool-less casting process from MMCC, Inc.-Tool-Less MoldTM process. As a result, net-shape metal matrix composite parts can be manufactured from CAD model to actual component,without dies or molds. This technology will enable flexible, fast and economical net-shape manufacturing of stiff, light and strong components for modern Air Force applications.

NEOTERIC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3077 Leeman Ferry Road P.O. Box 4709
Huntsville, AL 35815
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 650-4601
James W. Neiers
AF 00-303
Title:EMI Control via System Design
Abstract:This project encompasses an investigation of sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) in hybrid electric vehicles. EMI resulting from current implementations limits the suitability of otherwise attractive hybrid vehicle around flight lines where there is a potential for interference with critical navigation equipment, around explosive ordnance, and for use in military operations requiring stealth. EMI from hybrid vehicles has been characterized but not related to specific sources. A result of this project will be a codification of techniques for both new design and for correcting unsatisfactory legacy systems. Information learned leads to improved components and reduced EMI. Information learned will provide guidance for producing hybrid vehicles with reduced EMI.

UNIQUE MOBILITY, INC.
425 Corporate Circle
Golden, CO 80401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 278-2002
Josh M. Ley
AF 00-303
Title:Reduction of EMI from Hybrid Electric Drivetrains
Abstract:Hybrid electric vehicle technology has proven to be an effective method of reducing fuel consumption and improving the overall efficiency of any given vehicle. The benefits of hybrid technology are extremely valuable to the military, where vehicle range and fuel logistics have become of the utmost importance. Perhaps the main drawback to hybrid electric vehicles lies in their high levels of electromagnetic radiation. Unique Mobility, Inc. has years of experience in the development of hybrid and pure electric vehicles. Our focus is on high efficiency, brushless, permanent magnet drive trains specifically designed for these vehicles. In recent years UQM has begun a program to evaluate the EMI problems in our own drive systems. We have acquired the test equipment needed for EMI diagnostics and identified the source(s) of EMI in some of our own drive train products. Phase I endeavors would give us the opportunity to research and evaluate new technologies that serve to decrease EMI without sacrificing efficiency. Some ideas include new switching devices, PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) schemes and field cancellation methods. Unique's products have already been incorporated into military vehicles (ie. DARPA's hybrid Hmmwv and hybrid buses and vans put into service at Robbins Air Force Base).

OPTOMECHANICAL ENTERPRISES, INC.
7 Waterbury Ct.
Allentown, NJ 08501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 758-8898
Arthur T. Poulos
AF 00-305
Title:Low-cost and low-footprint OP-FTIR based on wavefront-division interferometry
Abstract:Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) Spectrometry is a promising techniquefor in-situ multi-component analysis of vapors in open air environments. However, current commercial units have drawbacks of high cost, low portability, cryogenic detector cooling, difficulty in generating baseline spectra, and over-reliance on operator judgements. This proposal offers to engineer and test a novel monostatic OP-FTIR spectrometer based on wavefront-division interferometry. Benefits of this innovation include: small spectrometer footprint, low sensitivity to temperature fluctuations and vibrations, automated background measurement, optical filtering for enhanced sensitivity, reduced sensitivity to atmospheric jitter, correction for mild fog and haze, and minimal reliance on operator judgement. In Phase I we will assemble a bench-scale prototype containing wavefront-dividing interferometer, pyroelectric detector, chopped source, reference optics, lock-in amplifier and data acquisition card, portable PC, control software, reduced spectral data base, and classical least squares multi-component analysis algorithms. The device will be tested in the laboratory and in open field runs. Figures of Merit include: noise in 100% T baseline, baseline drift, spectral resolution, wavelength accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, average relative accuracy, average relative precision. Phase II will undertake design refinements, software enrichment, prototype fabrication, performance qualification in realistic field applications, and production engineering.

OPTRA, INC.
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Julia H. Rentz
AF 00-305
Title:Low-Cost OP-FTIR Spectrometer with Nanoscale Reference for Industrial Monitoring
Abstract:OPTRA proposes a compact, low-resolution open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer incorporating a OPTRA Nanoscale? position sensor as the reference channel. This 16 cm-1 spectrometer system is designed for optimal signal to noise and selectivity for the identification of medium-sized industrial organic molecules in the 7 to 14 micron spectral region. The Nanoscale(TM) reference replaces the traditional helium neon laser reference and an uncooled amorphous silicon microbolometer replaces the typical cryogenically cooled mercury cadmium telluride detector

SUPPORT SYSTEMS ASSOC., INC.
Marina Towers 709 S. Harbor City Blvd., Suit
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 657-2300
Harry McGuckin
AF 00-306
Title:Conversion of Static Models and Stimulus Files to Digital Test Interface Format (DTIF)
Abstract:Differences in digital functional test source file formats and tool usage requirements can complicate the manual translation from one format to another. The involved complexities and high count occurrences of needed operations clearly require the use of modern automated software and computers. One instance of a need for digital test information translation is apparent in the case of LASAR V files. The files were generally developed on VAX or Sun computer based tools and have become obsolete and unusable without conversion tools to update them to newer versions of LASAR or preferably the IEEE 1445 standard for digital test interchange format (DTIF). PC based tools would by far be the preferable methodology for doing this translation because the overhead and system management required for the VAX and Sun Sparc systems can add excessive costs to any comparable effort. What is needed is a PC based set of tools for conversion of LASAR V data files to IEEE-1445 DTIF format and a comparable translation from the DTIF to LASAR VI. The associated proposal discusses an approach for researching, developing, producing, and commercializing such a tool.

VOSS SCIENTIFIC
418 Washington St., S.E.
Albuquerque, NM 87108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-4201
Clifton Courtney
AF 00-306
Title:A Windows Application to Translate LASAR 5 Model Files to LASAR 6 Format, and a Static to Dynamic Stimulus File Converter
Abstract:Teradyne Inc.'s LASAR (Logic Automated Stimulus and Response) software simulates the electrical behavior of complex electronic circuits, and generates the Test Program Sets (TPS) used as input for Automated Test Equipment (ATE) systems. The ATE exercises circuit boards by applying combinations of stimuli at input terminals, and observing the circuit's response at its output terminals. The Air Force has used LASAR for decades, and maintains a large library of legacy LASAR 5 files; however, manually converting these files (model and stimulus) to a LASAR 6 format is time consuming and error prone. Automatically converting these files would greatly reduce the time and errors associated with manual conversion. Voss Scientific proposes to design and implement a LASAR version 5 to 6 input file converter by employing recognized language translation principles and off-the-shelf programming tools. In addition, we propose to develop a post-conversion utility that will allow personnel to specify timing relationships of input signals within a clock cycle via a graphical interface - effectively converting a static stimulus file to a dynamic stimulus file. Dynamic testing capability will aid in the resolution of major problems identified by ATE during aircraft and other electronic equipment repair and maintenance.

NIELSEN ENGINEERING & RESEARCH, INC.
526 Clyde Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 968-9457
Patrick H. Reisenthel
AF 00-308
Title:Nonlinear Characterization of Electromagnetic Pulse Response Using Continuous Wave Electromagnetic Data
Abstract:Although anticipated developments in directed energy weaponry require the characterization of electromagnetic hardness with respect to short duration electromagnetic pulse energies, continuous wave radiation, rather than pulse bombardment, is currently used to nondestructively test aircraft systems. This proposal addresses the need for an analysis methodology capable of converting system continuous wave response to system pulse response. The proposed innovation is based on nonlinear indicial theory and on a recently developed identification tool allowing the extraction of a system's impulse response kernel from essentially arbitrary data. The goal of the proposed effort is to adapt this method for the present needs, test the method on continuous wave data, and demonstrate that the correct nonlinear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) response can be accurately predicted. In Phase I, a blind prediction of a pulse test currently scheduled by the Air Force will be generated. This bold approach will allow a critical assessment of the method's success. Phase II will produce the software, verification test plan, and new data acquisition procedures. The resulting technology will provide the Air Force as well as airframe and satellite manufacturers with a robust capability to estimate EMP response from nondestructive tests.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
John Robinson
AF 00-308
Title:Model Characterizing Electromagnetic Pulse Response from Continuous Wave Electromagnetic Data
Abstract:Military and commercial aircraft are hardened against natural lightning and HIRF (high intensity RF generated by nearby man-made radiators). Strategic military aircraft are additionally hardened against high altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (HEMP). Once an aircraft fleet is hardened against specified EM threats, the EM hardness levels must be maintained throughout the system's lifecycle. To accomplish this, each individual aircraft must be periodically evaluated. These periodic evaluations are called "Hardness Surveillance (HS)". Existing HS test techniques require hardness maintenance actions as soon as any hardness degradation is observed without regard to inherent excess design margin which may be present. We have proposed a low risk, but robust, approach for correlating Low Level Swept CW (LLCW) HS measurements to EM threats and to the actual LRU interface vulnerability levels. Such a system will significantly reduce HM costs, increase readiness of the fleet (fewer days in depot maintenance), and increased confidence in the HEMP hardness of the fleet.

BERNIER & ASSOC., INC.
458 Boston St
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-8867
Leo Bernier
AF 00-309
Title:Virtual Office Application for Next Generation Internet (NGI)
Abstract:The Next Generation Internet is planned to be 100 to 1000 times faster than today's Internet. It will also be a functionally richer and a more secure environment. This new and still evolving technology base can and will have a profound impact on the way organizations conduct business. Groupware is another budding technology that will have a significant impact on business by making it easier for people that may be geographically dispersed to work together. The success of Groupware concepts will in large part be determined by how well this technology takes advantage of the Internet. Virtual Office concepts are one form of Groupware that attempt to create an environment where people that may be geographically dispersed can work together as though they physically shared the same office. This project explores how the evolving Internet technologies can impact and change State-of-the-Art Virtual Office concepts.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Azad M. Madni
AF 00-309
Title:NGI-enabled Collaborative Planning and Management of Organizational Initiatives
Abstract:The Next Generation Internet (NGI) is expected to be 100 to 1000 times faster, much more reliable, and far more secure than today's Internet. However, to realize the full benefits of NGI requires creating applications that exploit NGI's capabilities. This effort is concerned with creating virtual office applications for NGI that fully exploit the advantages of NGI. Phase I of this effort will create a system concept, technical architecture, implementation plan, and "proof-of-concept" prototype demo that clearly illustrates the dramatic improvements in performance and the major benefits that accrue from NGI utilization. These accomplishments will set the stage for a successful, risk-mitigated Phase II implementation.

CLEVELAND MEDICAL DEVICES, INC.
11000 Cedar Avenue Suite 130
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 254-4155
Farron Dacus
AF 00-310
Title:Smart Wireless Sensor and Subminiature Telemetry System
Abstract:The proposed program will provide a unique new system design and a Wireless Sensor Module (WSM) that significantly extends the usability, convenience, and security of the Advanced SubMiniature Telemetry (ASMT) system for airborne testing. The Wireless Sensor addition allows for a totally cable free installation of a modern wireless style sensor and telemetry system featuring greatly improved levels of reliability, spectral efficiency, and cost effectiveness. The system can gather a variety of information, such as acceleration, air flow and pressure, and vibration from anywhere on the aircraft or store under test, without modification of standard aircraft, telemeter it to ground at ranges up to 50 miles, store large volumes of data on generic PC plaforms in IRIG-106 compliant form, maintain previously unachieved levels of reliability thus saving expensive repeated test missions, avoid suffering from and causing interference to standard upper S band systems, and do so for a small fraction of the cost of currently fielded systems. The reason these large advances are possible is a somewhat obsolete standard in typical telemetry systems that may be hugely improved by use of state of the art wireless techniques and Cleveland Medical Devices proprietary MicroRadio(TM) technology.

INVOCON, INC.
19221 I-45 SOUTH SUITE 530
CONROE, TX 77385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 292-9903
Paul Zymowski
AF 00-310
Title:Wireless Autonomous Telemetry Sensor
Abstract:A need exists for miniature devices that can measure various static and aerodynamic parameters associated with flight testing of military aircraft. The sensory device must have a low profile to minimize interference with the airflow/airfoil relationships being measured. The device must be autonomous and non-intrusive. Autonomy is defined as a self-powered device, with its own transducer, that communicates its data without wires. Non-intrusive is defined as bonded attachment to an airfoil or airframe; and, subsequent removal without shape or structural damage. The proposed device is unique due to the integration of low power electronics, "stick on" installation, low profile, and integrated wireless communications. Further innovation is involved with the spectral and temporal modulation used to wirelessly transmit data from the device to a remote data recording and transmission location. The device would be invaluable to flight testing operations for quickly getting data from areas on airframes where wiring interconnect and installation difficulties currently deny access. Further, the use of such a device would reduce the cost of test equipment setup and installation. Flight test cost reductions result in lower cost aircraft with a shorter time to market.

CONTROL SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
P. O. Box 357 301 South Ferdon
Crestview, FL 32536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 689-3284
Mike Chaloupka
AF 00-311
Title:Advanced Global Positioning System Hybrid Simulator
Abstract:CSR and IEC will take advantage of legacy hardware and software designs and the tremendous advances in high-density semiconductor technology to perform a system engineering definition for the Advanced GPS Hybrid Simulator (AGHS). This approach minimizes the scope of the effort and reduces the technical and schedule risks associated with producing the AGHS. We will use existing software as much as possible; in particular, the COTS and application code for the visualization scenario generation and the simulator receiver communication tool and numerous signal generation software models.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Alison Brown
AF 00-311
Title:Advanced Global Positioning System Hybrid Simulator
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR is to produce a GPS simulator, which incorporates the new signals and provides for controlled reception pattern antenna simulation. In Phase I a system design will be developed for the Advanced GPS Hybrid Simulator which will incorporate the capability to test new GPS technologies including (but not limited to) the new civilian and military signal structures, the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), the Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS), and the Joint Precision Approach Landing System (JPALS). This design will also include the capability to test Navigation Warfare technologies including receivers incorporating controlled reception pattern antennas (CRPA). The simulator designed for this SBIR will be a hybrid digital and Radio Frequency GPS simulator based on a re-programmable signal generator, which will allow for easy upgrading to support changes in GPS signals. The end result of Phase I will be a system engineering design report showing how the simulator will be built, what technologies will be incorporated, a capabilities assessment, and information on how the design can accommodate potential future upgrades. In Phase II the design from Phase I will be built and demonstrated.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Hartmut H. Legner
AF 00-312
Title:Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) Vulnerability and Lethality Analysis
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a new general purpose computational code to evaluate the effects of high power microwaves (HPMs) and lasers on materials and entire systems. This Personal Computer Analysis Tool for Directed Energy Weapons (PCAT-DEW) will enable the vulnerability evaluation of specific weapons systems or the lethality of specific DEWs. A key architectural design feature of the new code will be to directly utilize the detailed geometric models that have evolved over the years for detailed conventional and/or nuclear effectiveness evaluations. The leveraging of these resources makes the task of creating PCAT-DEW focus on incorporating the appropriate physical models. The Phase I effort will include the delivery of a preliminary version of PCAT-DEW including laser and HPM models. The complete code will be designed, developed, tested, demonstrated, and documented in Phase II. The key attribute of the validated PCAT-DEW code will be its ability to utilize existing structural models for weapon systems.

PHOTERA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 755-8855
Robert Bergstedt
AF 00-314
Title:Flickerless Electro-Optic Imagery for Simulation and Test Instrumentation (FEISTI)
Abstract:All present-day projection display devices exhibit fluctuations in their instantaneous brightness. More importantly, when used without synchronous framing to project moving objects in a weapons simulator, they also suffer from intermittent image breakup, image doubling and loss-of-image. Hence, such devices are unsuited to the testing of weapons seekers; this being particularly true whenever it becomes impractical to synchronize the framing rate of a projector with that of a seeker. In response to this problem, the present proposal addresses a novel electro-optical projection concept which provides flickerless images that remain free of artifacts no matter at what framing rate they are viewed. The concept also provides image refresh rates which are far in excess of those available with conventional projectors. Our Phase I program includes the demonstration of a flickerless and artifact-free projector that combines 1280 x 1024 resolution with high brightness and a solar-like spectrum. Although still a breadboard, this projector can be tested in conjunction with an AGM-654/K guidance unit. Meanwhile, at the conclusion of a Phase II program, we propose to provide a projector which combines the above-noted features with a flickerless frame rate in the 120-180 Hz regime.