---------- BMDO ----------

213 Phase I Selections from the 00.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ADVANCED ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
27 Industrial Blvd, Unit E
Medford, NY 11763
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 430-2125
Alan Todd
BMDO 00-001
Title:Superconducting RF Injector for High-Power Free-ELectron Lasers (FEL)
Abstract:With the achievement of 1.7 kW CW IR operation at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory and a major upgrade underway, free-electron lasers (FEL) must be considered a serious option for high-power, commercial material processing and military applications. THE key technology issue on the path to high-power FEL deployment is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, photo-cathode injector operation. It is this technology that is addressed in the present SBIR proposal where, in collaboration with Jefferson Laboratory, we propose to design a novel, compact, efficient high-brightness electron gun in Phase I and build and test a prototype in Phase II. This source will directly benefit both near-term commercial material processing and various military directed energy weapon (DEW) applications. The discriminating attributes of FELs are their wide-band tunability, their implicit potential for very high-power operation and the intrinsic picosecond pulse structure that promises superior performance for certain applications. Commercial applications spanning high-value-added micro-machining to low-value-added, high-throughput surface processing of metals and polymers have been demonstrated and patented. Their immediate deployment is prevented only by the availability of suitable, economic, high-power light sources that the present project seeks to demonstrate. Significant military FEL directed energy weapon (DEW), countermeasure and communication applications at various power levels also exist that will benefit from this proposed SBIR project. The development of a superconducting, photocathode gun, such as is proposed here, would provide a significant benefit in terms of improved reliability, efficiency and cost reduction for both the military and commercial FEL applications. In addition, the proposed material processing with radiation applications could lead to the development of new, beneficial on-shore high-tech, "green" manufacturing opportunities.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Sergei Krivoshlykov
BMDO 00-001
Title:High-power fiber laser system based on compound-core multimode fiber
Abstract:Altair Center proposes to develop high-power fiber laser system based on a novel and innovative compound-core multimode active fiber capable to operate in a single-mode regime. The compound multimode core of the fiber is designed to support propagation of a higher order mode exhibiting a sharp peak of its field in the central region of the core. The sharp-peak mode extracts energy form the entire volume of the active fiber core and concentrates it in the core central region. The output sharp-peak beam is a well-collimated waveguide mode that can be easily focused and coupled into a standard single-mode fiber. The compound-core fiber has many unique properties including the ability to operate at several different wavelengths simultaneously, wavelength selective and filtering properties, regimes of high sensitivity of the central mode peak to the external perturbations of the fiber, etc. This suggests its numerous applications in active and passive fiber based devices and sensors. The possibility of fabricating the compound-core fiber has been already demonstrated in preliminary experiments. In Phase I project, we will optimize the technology and apply it to fabrication of active version of the fiber. A prototype high-power fiber laser system will be assembled and tested in Phase II. The proposed compound-core fiber is an excellent candidate as a product in several markets, including: fiber lasers, telecommunication, wireless optical communication, electronic printing, remote sensing and monitoring, industrial cutting and welding, parametric frequency conversion, sensors, medical applications, etc.

APPLIED OPTOELECTRONICS, INC.
242 Kingfisher Drive
Sugar Land, TX 77478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 242-2588
Wen-Yen Hwang
BMDO 00-001
Title:Single-Mode High-Power High-Brightness Grating Coupled Surface Emitting Lasers Based on InAs/InGaSb Type-II Structures at 3 to 5 um
Abstract:We propose to develop single-mode high-power high-brightness Mid-IR lasers. Previously, we have demonstrated many high-performance mid-IR lasers based on type-II structures at 2.8 to 4.7 um. We have achieved above room temperature operation for optically pumped (op) lasers at 3.4 to 4.6 um. A maximum quasi-cw output power of 1.72 W was achieved for op lasers at 3.9 mm with a pulse length of 0.1 ms and a duty cycle of 10%. For IC lasers, an output power > 300 mW at 4.2 um was achieved at 90 K with a pulse length of 10 us and a duty cycle of 10%. CW output power of 53 mW with an injection current of only 250 mA was achieved from a 4.45 m IC laser at 80 K. For 3-um type-II IC lasers, lasing was observed up to 286 K. Nevertheless, the maximum CW output power is mainly limited by the high internal loss increasing dramatically vs. temperature. Additionally, due to the nature of edge emitting lasers, the lasing spectrum is multi modes with a linewidth > 40 nm and the beam quality is more than 10 times of diffraction limited, which strongly limit Mid-IR lasers in many important applications. In order to solve these problems simultaneously, we propose to develop novel grating coupled surface emitting lasers based on InAs/InGaSb type-II structures at 3 to 5 um. Critical military needs include IR countermeasures, remote chemical sensing for defense against biological/chemical warfare, eye-safe covert illumination, and free-space communications. Commercial markets include leak detection, chemical process control, remote chemical sensing for atmospheric pollution and drug monitoring, IR spectroscopy, and medical analyses. With the development of single-mode high-power high brightness Mid-IR GCSELs, this program should create revolution in the commercialization of mid-IR lasers to meet the potential needs of the huge defense and commercial market.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
602 Explorer
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 261-0098
Jon Mayes
BMDO 00-001
Title:Marx Generator-Based PFN Systems
Abstract:Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) are rapidly becoming attractive due to their reusability and the fact that unlike mechanical weapons which rely on magazines of explosive shells, these weapons rely on power supplies. The most attractive aspect of DEW lies in the fact that an electromagnetic missile is delivered at nearly the speed of light, negating the advantage of increasing velocity of tactical missiles. High power microwave (HPM) devices such as the Virtual Cathode (Vircator) or the Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO) required large amounts of energy at several hundred kV, requiring large, massive, and complex pulsed power machines as their primary energy source. These systems are plagued with problems associated with high voltage switching and massive step-up transformers, and are primarily based on conventional Pulse Forming Network (PFN) technologies. This proposal details PROPRIETARY alternatives to the HPM source methods in the form of a Marx generator-based power supply. The proposed systems offer compact solutions that are man portable, capable of being battery powered, and offer higher repetition rates than their convention counterparts. The development of the Marx generator-based PFN systems is a relatively inexpensive method for producing repetitive, high powered, trapezoidal shaped electromagnetic pulses for driving low impedance microwave devices. In the military market, this man portable system could further control the battlefield, as well as provide portable missile defense systems. The same system is compact enough to be mounted in a missile, a conventional gun shell, or on board a fighter aircraft.

CVI LASER
200 Dorado Pl. SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 296-9541
Lilian Hoines
BMDO 00-001
Title:DIRECTED ENERGY CONCEPTS AND COMPONENTS
Abstract:CVI wishes to demonstrate the feasibility of producing superpolished surfaces on CaF2 for use as substrates of laser mirrors, windows, beamsplitters, etc. in the deep UV (DUV) wavelengths (<200 nm) and infrared (IR) wavelengths (>1060 nm). Smoother substrates promise to lower the scatter from the optic and improve the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT). The polishing methods proposed combine standard techniques for flouride polishing followed by glancing ion radiation polishing, while maintaining CVI's high standard for optic surface figure, or determine possible improvements in the Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT). Full evaluation of the polishing methods will include: (1) atomic force microscopy (AFM) for surface roughness, (2) Total Integrated Scattering measurement (3) Interferomety investigations for correct optical surface figure (4) LIDT testing to determine if optic is improved through a better surface or degraded through induced subsurface damage or contaminants. CVI expects that laser optics made with Superpolished CaF2 will be of immediate use to our customers who manufacture the laser equipment used in metrology and IC chip manufacturing for their low scatter in the UV wavelengths, as well as those customers desiring to use higher laser power, such as weapons applications, in both the UV an IR wavelengths.

DIRECTED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
14125 Candlewwod Ct.
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 277-1451
Jeff Nicholson
BMDO 00-001
Title:Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser
Abstract:An electric generator of metastable, singlet delta oxygen is demonstrated which can lead to an oxygen iodine laser with a wall plug efficiency of greater than 20%. Modeling and analysis of the electric/optical interaction with the oxygen and subsequent oxygen kinetics will be completed. Characterization experiments will verify the efficiency of key electric, optical, and kinetic processes. An experiment will be performed which demonstrates electric oxygen iodine laser operation. An all electric version of a chemical oxygen iodine laser eliminates the use of toxic and explosive chemicals, improves performance, reduces operating cost, and broadens the mission areas in which this laser can be employed as a weapon. This laser could serve as the advanced technology device for the space based laser program. Its shorter wavelength and all electric operation offers significant advantages over the current chemical HF device. Technology insertion of this device into the Airborne Laser would eliminate the use of toxic and explosive chemicals saving over a billion dollars in logistic support costs over the life of the program. This technology is enabling technology which allows the oxygen iodine laser to be considered for inclusion as an offensive or defensive weapon in all services' weapons' platforms. Finally this technology will provide commercial industry with a high power, near perfect beam quality laser device for material processing applications.

ELECTRODYNAMICS ASSOC., INC.
409 Eastbridge Drive
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 977-1825
Jay Vaidya
BMDO 00-001
Title:Novel Light-Weight High Voltage Generator for Directed Energy Systems
Abstract:Directed Energy (DE) systems require compact, lightweight power sources for high voltage power generation. In th 100 kW- 5 MW range, electromagnetic generators are difficult to construct due to the insulation problems relating to the multiple turns of output coils. This proposal addresses generator concepts based on electrostatic fields. These types of generators are a natural choice because of their operation at high voltage and low current. In the past only laboratory prototypes have been built in US, USSR, and Germany for very low power levels using this technology. This proposal extends the application to practical flightworthy and portable turbo-generators for use in aerospace vehicles, aircraft, and land based portable systems. Issues relating to selection of the electrostatic approach based on a complete system performance will be addressed during Phase I. Selected generator concept will be fully anlyzed and the system performance will be demonstrated through simulation. Conceptual generator design will be finalized with a generator design layout for use in hardware development during Phase II. Electrostatic generators produce high voltage power directly, eliminating the need for step-up transformers. They are lightweight, and efficient compared to conventional electromagnetic generators. Potential exists for applications in DoD DEW systems, as well as commercial areas such as shale oil extraction, coal de-sulphurization, coal gasification, lumber drying, and for improved asphalt road repairs.

ELECTRON ENERGY CORP.
924 Links Avenue
Landisville, PA 17538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 898-2294
Christina Chen
BMDO 00-001
Title:High Performance 2:17 Permanent Magnets for Traveling Wave Tubes
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR Phase I effort is to establish the feasibility of developing high performance 2:17 rare earth permanent magnets that possess magnetic properties that are essentially constant over a temperature range of -50 to 500C for TWT applications. The approach is to develop 2:17 rare earth permanent magnets of 2:17 phase [rare earth (RE), transition metal (TM) compounds with TM/RE ratio of 8.5] using a combination of a light rare earth (Sm) with heavy rare earths (Gd, Er, Ho) to provide a low temperature coefficient of magnetization over a wide temperature range. Gd-TM and/or Er-TM compensates the magnetization loss of Sm-TM at the lower temperature range, while Ho-TM compensates the magnetization loss of Sm-TM at the higher temperature range. These compensations will result in new 2:17 magnets that possess near zero temperature coefficients of magnetization and remanence over a broad range for such applications as TWTs. EEC and UDRI also propose to establish the feasibility of developing magnets with a TM to RE ratio less than 8.5, approaching the range of 7.5. Their recent research efforts resulted in new 2:17 type permanent magnets that have constant coercivity over a wide temperature range from 20 to 550C. TWTs are vacuum devices that use an interaction between the microwave signal and a focused electron beam to amplify the RF to high power levels. In most (>80%) of the TWTs, the electron beams are focused by highly optimized magnetic fields from permanent magnet assemblies. Constant performance over large temperature ranges and temperature induced degradation effects are major problems that exist with permanent magnets for TWTs. Permanent magnets that maintain acceptable performance over broad temperature ranges will provide manufacturing advantages as well. They will also reduce the weight of cooling systems required to maintain magnet performance. This weight savings will translate into increased payload capability or lower cost smaller launch vehicles. The system applications include airborne radar and weapons control, ships' search and track radar, electronic counter measures, satellite and terrestrial communications terminals and missile seekers. TWTs are also used in nearly all commercial communications satellites and in most DoE accelerators and colliders.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Everett Farr
BMDO 00-001
Title:A Low-Jitter High Voltage Dual Gas Switch for Driving Ultra-Wideband Arrays Based on a Ferroelectric Trigger
Abstract:We consider here a method of arraying multiple high-voltage gas switches with low jitter and high repetition rate. The technique takes advantage of the ferratron, which was recently developed by Farr Research. The ferratron uses a ferroelectric ceramic to inject electrons into a high-voltage gap to trigger breakdown. In this proposal we extend that technique to multiple switches by taking advantage of the fact that a single large piece of ferroelectric material must flip its polarization all at once, so it should be possible to inject electrons into multiple switches with low jitter. High power output Ultra-Wideband (UWB) systems operating at high voltages encounter efficiency problems due to corona effects as the voltage keeps on increasing. These corona effects place a practical limit on the output power achievable from a single antenna and source combination. To get around this limitation, an obvious method is to array the antennas and drive them each with a separate source at the same time, with low switch-to-switch jitter. The array can only work, however, if the two sources have low switch-to-switch jitter. The proposed switch makes a UWB array possible, thus allowing higher power systems operating at lower voltages. During Phase I we will demonstrate the principle by building a two-element switch array that is triggered by a single piece of ferroelectric material. We expect to measure a low jitter between the two switches, thus demonstrating the suitability of the proposed switch for UWB array applications. This research will lead to a new design for high-voltage Ultra-Wideband triggered sources that have a jitter low enough to allow them to drive arrays of antennas. This will be of use as a Directed Energy Weapon, or as a component of an Ultra-Wideband radar system.

JAYCOR, INC.
9775 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 837-9100
T. Henderson
BMDO 00-001
Title:High Energy Density Capacitors
Abstract:A high voltage high energy density capacitor will be developed utilizing Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond. CVD diamond is the best dielectric material available, and will be deposited and formed into layers to support fabrication of high energy density capacitors. Previous measurements indicate breakdown voltages in the 3 to 4 kV/micron range and a dielectric constant of 5.5. The high temperature capability of diamond and its non-dipole crystal structure will allow rapid charge/discharge cycles without damage. During Phase I, a single layer test capacitor 5 cm. in diameter will provide 1 nano-farad of capacitance and 20 Joules of energy with an energy density of 10 kJ/kg. Phase II will develop a multi-layer capacitor in a stacked configuration to increase the energy density, capacitance, and total energy stored in the capacitor. The Phase II device is expected to have energy density greater than 25 kJ/kg, provide 100 nano-farads capacitance, and store 200 Joules of energy. Directed Energy Weapons of all types need high energy density capacitors. These capacitors will provide the energy density required for directed energy systems including lasers, radar, high power microwave, and rail guns. Many systems are limited in their operational capability or portability due to the lack of a high energy density capacitor. As the energy density decreases, the physical size becomes an important consideration in discharge times and equivalent series resistance. In addition to the energy density advantages, the high temperature capability of diamond, and its non-bipolar nature provide more tolerance of rapid charge and discharge cycles. The energy densities achieved here will support hand held pulsed power applications as well as portable and fixed systems at much higher power levels. The commercial applications of high energy density capacitors are numerous and include all the normal high power and voltage applications such as RF and non-traditional applications such as non-lethal shocker technology for personnel control and pulsed power systems to disable automobiles in high speed chases. A major commercial application is expected to be short term energy storage in electric vehicles.

METASTABLE INSTRUMENTS, INC.
P. O. Box 3858
Chesterfield, MO 63006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(636) 536-1993
George Dube
BMDO 00-001
Title:DIRECTED ENERGY CONCEPTS AND COMPONENTS
Abstract:The precise and timely control of the direction of laser beams is crucial to a wide variety of industrial, commercial, scientific and military activities. Examples include, material processing, projection displays, micro/nano fabrication and missile tracking/defense. A new type of lubricated adjustable optical wedge shows great promise as a beam steerer, but has yet to be optimized or tested for use with high power laser beams. Compared to Risley Wedge beam steerers this new device features higher transmission, Cartesian (not polar) adjustments and a single on-axis pivot point (no astigmatism). The purpose of this project is to demonstrate, for the first time, an adjustable optical wedge beam steerer that is compact, precise and able to handle a peak laser power density of 500 MW/sq. cm and an average laser power density of 1 kW/sq. cm. The plan is to experimentally determine those components (transparent lubricants, coatings and lenses) with the highest laser damage thresholds, assemble the best into adjustable optical wedges and measure their laser power handling capability. Initial tests will be done at a nearby university. Final tests will be done at a commercial facility for determining and certifying laser damage thresholds. The virtual lever arm design of this new type of beam steerer offers a combination of compactness, preciseness and cost effectiveness not previously available. It should replace many tilted mirrors and Risley Wedges in existing laser applications and create new applications in metrology, image stabilization, projectors and projection displays.

MSE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.
200 Technology Way P. O. Box 4078
Butte, MT 59702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 388-0542
Jean-Luc Cambier
BMDO 00-001
Title:Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation in Space from a Repetively Detonated Device
Abstract:MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) proposes to evaluate and test the concept of a hybrid device combining a Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) with a Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) generator for electrical power generation in space. The proposed system would be designed to provide the power for Direct Energy Weapons (DEW), such as compact Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) High-Power Microwave (HPM) beams or Kinetic Energy Weapons (KEW) launched from railguns. Power extraction from stored chemicals provides more power density and flexibility than solar cells. The PDE is a novel propulsion technology which can be adapted to pulse power generation. The PDE can be approximated as a cycled, constant-volume combustion process leading to higher temperatures and therefore higher gas conductivity than constant-pressure combustion. The device is lightweight, robust, can easily be started up, and does not require high chamber pressurization. Preliminary evaluations of the hybrid concept suggest that good performance is possible. The concept presented herein improves on the earlier study by proposing a new design that would greatly improve the power to weight ratio. The concept also has a number of other important applications leading to substantial advances in aerospace propulsion and power. The proposed PDE-MHD generator concept can be used for pulse power production, with applications initially focused on space-power generation for DEWs. If successful, other applications deriving from the technology may include the following: 1) on-board power generation for aerospace vehicles; 2) hybrid PDE-MHD ejector concepts for propulsion; and 3) repetitive, non-destructive Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) generators for battlefield and mine field applications.

NOVA PHASE, LLC
435 Route 206
Newton, NJ 07860
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 300-3065
Michael Scripsick
BMDO 00-001
Title:All Solid State Generation of UV-VUV Radiation
Abstract:This Phase I research effort will characterize four nonlinear optical materials with the potential for applications in novel frequency conversion strategies in order to generate UV-VUV laser radiation via cascaded second harmonic. Distinguishing features of the proposed UV laser system include all solid state construction, high conversion efficicency, and generation of wavelengths not currently available. Particular attention will be given to the generation of 248nm and 193nm by cascaded harmonic generation of Ti:Sapphire and/or Alexandrite lasers as a replacement for existing excimer laser systems. Sources of laser radiation in the ultraviolet(UV)and vacuum ultaviolet(VUV)spectral region are increasingly important in a variety of both military and commercial applications. Military applications include countermeasures for UV tracking and targeting missles, light detection and ranging (lidar), target illumination and designation, and standoff detection of chemical and biological agents. The most notable commercial application of UV lasers is for photolithography. Other significant commercial applications include compact disk mastering, nonofabrication, optical data storage, madicine and spectroscopy.

Q PEAK, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Kevin Wall
BMDO 00-001
Title:MPS Yb:YAG Laser
Abstract:The Airborne Laser (ABL) program, for defense against theater ballistic missiles, will provide a testing ground for a number of directed-energy concepts. A crucial element of the ABL is the Illuminator Laser, currently composed of high-power, diode-pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs). Future directed-energy systems, such as the Space Based Laser (SBL), may follow the same path of the ABL system in the use of DPSSLs for tracking and target illumination. Such lasers are required to produce the combination of near-infrared wavelengths, moderate power levels and high beam quality not produced by other devices. Efficient laser operation in terms of converting electrical power to laser output is an important feature of the DPSSLs, especially for space-based systems. In the past decade, the development of DPSSLs has led to greatly improved laser efficiency and power density (in terms of Watts per pound). There still remains the opportunity to further enhance these systems by use of improved high-power, diode-laser pump sources and the low-heat-load laser material Yb:YAG. In this proposed effort we plan to use these components in a innovative, side-pumped multipass-slab laser geometry that produces a unique combination of simplicity, high efficiency and excellent beam quality, while being well suited for aircraft or space-based systems. The proposed Yb:YAG MPS commercial system would generate powers in the 50-500 W range now served by more conventional lamp-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. A MPS Yb:YAG laser with high beam quality could provide a relatively low-cost solution for precision machining applications such as marking, cutting, welding and drilling, of interest to the electronics, automotive and medical-device industry

SPECTRAGEN, INC.
1700 S. Mount Prospect Road
Des Plaines, IL 60018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 699-5850
Richard Jarman
BMDO 00-001
Title:Passive Q-switches for High-Efficiency, Solid-State Eyesafe Lasers with Improved Performance
Abstract:Spectragen proposes to investigate the growth of alkaline earth fluoride crystals doped with uranium ions that will demonstrate improved properties over current materials for application as passive Q-switches in lasers operating at the eye-safe wavelength of 1.5 m. These materials will constitute an enabling technology for the development of compact, solid-state, eye-safe laser transmitters. Specific objectives are: 1, the growth of low-loss crystals of U:MF2 (M= Ca, Sr, Ba) using a modified Bridgman growth technique; 2, the characterization of electronic and structural properties of the U dopant, with the goal to identify the optimum doping conditions, and to correlate these with the crystal growth parameters; 3, the derivation of a scheme of charge compensation that will maximize the concentration of the desired U4+ ion and eliminate structural defects; 4, modeling of Q-switch performance Crystals will be grown using commercially available, high-purity fluoride starting materials, with lead fluoride added to scavenge oxygen, and direct the oxidation state of U to the desired value. Spectroscopy will be used to evaluate site symmetry and oxidation state of the U dopant. These data will be used to devise a scheme of charge compensation of the U4+ ion that will reduce crystal defects and provide improved device performance. Pulsed lasers that operate at eye-safe wavelengths have far-reaching applications in both military and commercial arenas for laser radar, rangefinding, communications, collision avoidance, environmental monitoring and atmospheric sensing

V CORP. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
388 Ocean Avenue Suite 1613
Revere Beach, MA 02151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 284-1011
Scott Velazquez
BMDO 00-001
Title:Very High-Performance Advanced Filter Bank Digital-to-Analog Converter (AFB DAC)
Abstract:This is Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project demonstrates a breakthrough approach to very high-speed, high-resolution D/A conversion which improves the speed by up to five times the state-of-the-art by using a parallel array of individual converters. This significant performance improvements afforded by the Advanced Filter Bank Digital-to-Analog Converter (AFB DAC) architecture will be demonstrated by building and testing a pre-prototype breadboard implementation of the back-end electronics of a 14-bit AFB DAC system with 200 MHz sample rate (twice the speed of state-of-the-art). A faster 14-bit AFB DAC with 450 MHz sample rate will be developed in Phase II. The architecture works because the filter banks signal processing significantly reduces the sensitivity to analog mismatches (e.g., phase distortion, clock skew, temperature drift) which prohibit existing parallel conversion methods from achieving high resolution. The V Corp has proven the technical efficacy of the Advanced Filter Bank concept by successfully building and testing analog-to-digital converter hardware with 12-bit resolution and 260 MHz sample rate under another SBIR project. The AFB DAC architecture will always exceed the state-of-the-art because it can easily be upgraded as new, more powerful DAC products become available. The architecture is amenable to single-chip integration for compact, low power applications. Virtually any high performance modern electronics system will benefit greatly from the AFB DAC. Significant applications include enhancement of radar systems, wideband universal RF transceivers, specialized test equipment, and medical imaging systems.

V CORP. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
388 Ocean Avenue Suite 1613
Revere Beach, MA 02151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 284-1011
Scott Velazquez
BMDO 00-001
Title:High-Resolution Linearity Error Compensator (LinComp)
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project demonstrates a breakthrough approach to high-resolution linearity error compensation (LinComp) using computationally-efficient digital signal processing to reduce harmonic and intermodulation distortion in digital-to-analog converters (DACs), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), sampling circuitry, and radio frequency amplifiers by at least 24 dB. This technology improves the dynamic range by at least four bits, enabling very accurate synthesis of data at high intermediate frequencies (IF) with very high sample rates (e.g., 18-bit dynamic range with 100 MHz sample rate or 12-bit dynamic range at GHz sample rates). The LinComp technology reduces the size, power, and cost of radar systems and RF transceivers by eliminating much of the RF electronics and reducing the digital signal processing requirements. The significant performance improvements afforded by this approach over traditional compensation techniques will be demonstrated in Phase I by developing a system which will achieve 18-bit resolution at 100 MHz sample rate (4 bits greater than state-of-the-art). Efficient auto-calibration routines will also be perfected. A compact, realtime hardware implementation will be built in the Phase I Option. V Corp has confirmed the technical efficacy of the LinComp processing methodology by testing with state-of-the-art converters. This compensation approach requires less hardware and provides much better dynamic range than competing linearity compensation methods. Very importantly, the LinComp processor will always exceed the state-of-the-art because it can easily be upgraded as new, more powerful DAC, ADC, and amplifier products become available. During Phase II, a compact LinComp DAC prototype will be developed with a high-speed PCI-based waveform generator and RF electronics to enable high IF direct digital synthesis (DDS). The LinComp approach overcomes the critical D/A conversion bottleneck which limits performance of state-of-the-art radio frequency transceiver systems. Virtually any high-performance modern electronic system will benefit from the LinComp DAC. Significant applications include enhancement of radar systems, wideband universal RF transceivers, specialized test equipment, and medical imaging systems.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Avenue, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Rahul Prasad
BMDO 00-002
Title:Time domain polarization metrology for Fiber Optic Gyroscope coils
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation proposes to commercialize a simpler instrument to measure parasitic polarization coupling in Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG) coils using a short pulse laser and making measurements in the time domain. The conventional approach uses a white light source and Fourier transforms to make the measurements. Our instrument will use a high repetition rate, short pulse (?100 ps) laser to achieve spatial resolution as small as 10 mm (versus 60 mm with white light) and characterize fiber coils up to 1 km long. The ultimate resolution is limited only by the shortest laser pulse available and depends only weakly on its coherence properties. Such short pulse lasers are commercially available and the telecommunications industry continues to develop shorter pulse lasers for faster communications. Also, the location of polarization cross coupling can be determined while the fiber coil is being wound, thereby increasing the production efficiency. The short pulse/time domain approach also gives instantaneous readings at each location, without having to wait until the entire length has been scanned. Phase I will demonstrate the concept. Phase II will develop the instrument for characterization of FOG coils. Phase III will commercialize the instrument for DoD and other customers. The proposed instrument will allow better development and cheaper manufacture of FOGs and will thus find application where FOGs are used. FOGs find use in military guidance systems, such as in ballistic missiles, missile interceptors, the precision strike navigator, while their commercial use is in the realm of GPS systems for automobiles, boats etc.

POWDERMET, INC.
9960 Glenoaks Blvd, Unit A
Sun Valley, CA 91352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 768-6420
Andrew Sherman
BMDO 00-002
Title:Refractory Metal Bonded Carbon Composites
Abstract:Kinetic kill vehicles rely on using hot gas divert systems to provide vehicle control enabling target intercept. With high Mach hit to kill vehicles, divert systems capable of upwards of 100g capabilities are used, requiring using high pressure, high energy (temperature) hot gas divert systems. These structures must be manufactured from refractory materials, which are currently very costly and difficult to manufacture. The proposed Phase I program will develop a refractory metal bonded carbon fiber composite suitable for use in solid divert systems. Specifically, the program will demonstrate using Powder metallurgy techniques to produce net-shape, complex components from refractory metal-carbon fiber composite alloy materials with both low (comparatively) cost and high performance. These components are suitable for hot gas valves (fluidic, pintle-operated, and poppet and seat types), nozzle structures, and other components used in kinetic kill vehicle propulsion and divert systems. Innovative powder coating and low temperature sintering technology will be used to produce and characterize refractory metal composite structures for use in divert propulsion systems. If successful, the technology developed in the proposed program will have applications to longer life vacuum heating elements, polycrystalline superabrasive and superabrasive hardfacing commercial markets.

RHENIUM ALLOYS, INC.
P.O. Box 245 1329 Taylor St.
Elyria, OH 44036
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 365-7388
Todd Leonhardt
BMDO 00-002
Title:KINETIC ENERGY KILL VEHICLES AND COMPONENTS
Abstract:The key to near net shape rhenium components will depend on the development of spherical rhenium metal powder with a low oxygen content, high density, and high flowability. It is our intention to produce spherical rhenium metal powder. This will be the enabling technology to allow the development of affordable SM-3 SDACS hot gas valve components. This new powder will allow the development of advanced manufacturing techniques such as HIP to net shape, vacuum plasma spray, and directed light fabrication. These advanced techniques will reduce the cost of manufacturing and improve reliability and repeatability. In Phase I of the SBIR, the goal is to produce spherical rhenium metal powder of the correct particle size and morphology. In Phase II, actual SM-3 SDACS components will be manufactured using these advanced techniques. We will also produce and test specimens for room temperature and elevated temperature properties on the various advanced manufacturing methods. This will allow the design engineers to fully utilize rhenium in Block I procurement. This technology is also of great interest in the commercial aerospace industry as well as the nuclear industry. We can demonstrate almost immediate dual-use for this innovation. The benefits and commercial applications that will result from this innovation are immediately evident. The development of spherical rhenium metal powder will allow the development of near-net shape (NNS) manufacturing techniques for the Navy's NTW SDACS program. This will reduce the amount of rhenium required per unit, reduce the number and cost of the machining steps required, and reduce the lead-time per unit. Commercial applications include NNS rhenium combustion chambers for satellite propulsion, crucibles for nuclear research, heat pipe applications, and other high temperature applications such as solar thermal propulsion.

RRR TECH
P.O. Box 305
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 280-2002
Robert Buchl
BMDO 00-002
Title:Toroidal Munition Study
Abstract:Several toroidal munition designs are presented which after detonation each forms a single projectile from its central axis. Both concave and convex toroidal liners are considered in this study. One munition design has three forward-firing projectiles. Only one initiation point is required in all cases. The computer preliminary simulations were accomplished with the hydrocode EPIC96. Further study will optimize the speed, mass and profile of the projectiles. RRR Tech has written both mesh and sliding surface Fortran code to display the initial designs presented. Benefits include use by military agencies. The toroidal munitions are small and easily integrated into existing weapon systems. Commerialization applications are in the munition and demolition fields.

THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
499 Mount Herman Rd.
Shelbyville, TN 37160
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(931) 680-1295
Henry Moody
BMDO 00-002
Title:Atmospheric Interceptor Externally Cooled IR Windows
Abstract:The proposed program will involve the development of a Cooled Window Frame for Atmospheric Interceptor Technology (AIT). The innovations to be integrated into the frame include: a) The ability to externally cool an IR window in extreme endo-atomospheric environments, including vehicle Yaw Angel-of-Attack, b) Improving Aero-Optical performances by insuring that boundary layer transition and the associated large axial gradients in turbulence do not occur over the IR aperture, and c) Developing an "Aerodynamic Fence" to help insure that Divert Thrustor combustion products do not migrate into the seeker's Field-of-Regard. Prior externally cooled windows (HEDI and AIT) have not adequately demonstrated the ability to cool the entire window, even under most favorable conditions. Adding vehicle Yaw, the occurrence of boundary layer transition on the window, and the migration of Divert Thrustor combustion products into the FoR; further complicate the ability of an IR seeker to operate in endo-atmospheric environments. In Phase I, aerothermal and CFD analyses will support a design effort to help optimize the use of coolant for Yaw mitigation and producing boundary trips-aerodynamic fences. A prototype window frame will be fabricated. Phase II will involve test evaluation of the prototype and further improvements, optimization, and testing of cooled window frames. The Cooled Window Frame designed in the proposed Phase I Program should improve IR window cooling and IR aero-optical performance of seeker systems for hypersonic applications.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Fred Lauten
BMDO 00-002
Title:High Temperature, Light Weight, Impermeable Rocket Thrust Chambers
Abstract: Triton Systems, Inc. is teaming with a manufacturer of Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS) in order to develop lower cost and better performing high temperature propulsion components for this and future generations of DACS. Triton will combine our innovative fiber preform designs and our low-cost fabrication processes to develop DACS ceramic composite thrust chambers having, low permeability, improved durability, and reduced unit cost during production. In Phase I we will work with our team member to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing the current, expensive designs with lighter weight, higher performing and significantly less costly components. In Phase II the Triton team will further develop the ceramic composite component technologies and begin the process of qualifying the component for use on specific KVs in order to impact missile defense in the near term. CMCs are an enabling material for a range of advanced rocket propulsion components, and we are working to insure that the product and manufacturing development Trition accomplishes in this SBIR will immediately benefit both liquid and solid propulsion systems, including those being developed for launch vehicles, tacticle missiles and the next generation of reusable space vehicles.

ADVANCED MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY, INC.
176 Waltham Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-6700
Joseph Gerstmann
BMDO 00-003
Title:High Efficiency 10K Cryocooler for Space Applications
Abstract:Existing technology for cryogenic cooling of instruments, sensors, and other electronics is either overly expensive, too large and/or heavy, or inefficient. It is proposed to develop an innovative cryocooler capable of 0.5 Watts of cooling at temperatures on the order of 10 Kelvin which is more compact, lighter weight, more reliable, lower cost, and more efficient than present technology. The proposed research and development project will start by applying an inherently energy- efficient cycle to a small-scale machine and achieve a cost effective design by taking advantage of several new innovations and developments in cryogenic technology. Future space exploration programs will require more advanced thermal management technology to address the demands of ever more sophisticated sensors and instruments, and the need to build more compact space craft. The proposed cryocooler will address these challenges by developing a smaller, lighter and more efficient device than is currently available. Applications for this technology are not limited to space exploration or military applications. Existing devices such as MRI machines can benefit from improved cryogenic cooling, and high temperature superconducting devices currently under development such as electric motors and superconducting magnetic energy storage systems are also possible applications. Commercial applications for this technology fall into the categories of existing and emerging applications which require cryogenic cooling of superconducting circuits and devices. Existing applications include the superconducting current leads and SQUIDS of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, as well as other electronic applications such as superconducting communications filters used in cellular telephone networks. Emerging applications include superconducting devices currently being developed such as motors, power transformers, magnetic energy storage, and possibly transmission cable which will make use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Igor Levitsky
BMDO 00-003
Title:X-Ray Detector System Based on Emissive Conjugated Polymers
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop a simple and efficient x-ray detector system for medium energy X-ray computed tomography imaging with very high spatial resolution and field-of-view based on emissive conjugated polymers. The proposed system employs the effect of strong quenching of visible light emission in the polymers under X-ray irradiation. This light quenching is detected by a CCD. Specially designed polymers will be deposited as a thin active layer on the movable plastic substrate. Polymer fluorescence can be initiated by any inexpensive source of blue/green light or applied electric field (electroluminescence). X-ray exposure induces the fluorescence quenching that is proportional to the intensity of X-ray radiation. Such detection method has a number of important advantages over traditional scincillator methods due to low scattering, high spatial resolution, large field-of-view and high miniaturization using CCD detector matrices. Also, high accuracy and stability can be attained because of relative detection of the ratio of fluorescence intensity in each pixel before and after irradiation. In phase I of the project we will demonstrate and study the effect of polymer fluorescence quenching in polymers under medium energy X-ray irradiation. In Phase II we will assemble, optimize, test and deliver to DoD a prototype X-ray detection system. In addition to such immediate applications as high resolution X-ray detector for industrial computed tomography, the proposed system can be applicable in medical and biological industry. Only minor changes in screen design are required for obtaining quick and accurate response signal to low energy X-ray radiation used in medical tomography. There is great niche market for such new cost-efficient devices.

AMAIN ELECTRONICS CO., INC.
1875 Angus Ave., Unit C
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 577-0583
William Mandl
BMDO 00-003
Title:Per Pixel Digital Focal Plane with Systolic Array Image Processor
Abstract:Amain has developed a new smart focal plane technology that not only addresses the issue of video data reduction but also provides a low noise, low power approach to reading pixel data digitally. Uniformity correction, thresholding, temporal filtering and other algorithms for target extraction and data reduction can be accomplished at the pixel level or on focal plane. The approach, based on classical sample theory with an added Amain patented process, provides an oversample A/D converter at each pixel site. Each pixel response is converted to a one bit digital data stream. This data is linear and without offset to the limits of the detector itself. Inherent in the pixel A/D converter is the ability to do integration, differentiation and other arithemtic processes. This provides the means to do massively parallel computations at the pixel or in an adjoining systolic array of small distributed processing elements. This new data format also simplifies displaying the image by eliminating the need for D/A or pulse width modulation at the display. An all digital imaging and display camera can be built with this newest technology using less electronics and lower power. Amain plans to develop this system for target recognition applications. This new technology provides a substantial reduction in electronic content and power consumption for all camera and display applications. It also provides new methods of image data analysis and compression that can improve image quality at lower cost. The approach is universally applicalbe to all imaging including UV, visible light and IR. It will have broad base application into home entertainment, law enforcement, personal computers, xerography as well as military systems

ARETE ASSOC.
333 North Wilmot Road 4th Floor
Tucson, AZ 85711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Anthony Gleckler
BMDO 00-003
Title:3D Imaging Polarimeter Lidar System
Abstract:Arete proposes a lidar sensor system that is capable of simultaneously imaging the contrast/reflectivity, 3D shape, and the polarization properties of targets and background. The ability to get three separate images of an object, where each image interacts with fundamentally different physical aspects of the target, provides significant benefit to automatic target recognition (ATR) tasks, particularly in the areas of enhanced target detection, reduction of clutter, and in segmentation (i.e., the separation of target pixels from background pixels). Because the measurements are all made with a single receiver and transmitter, the system design is simple and can be compact. Also, because the measurements are all made with a single laser pulse, there are no deleterious artifacts caused by trying to spatially or temporally register the data. This can provide outstanding discrimination capability for a number of BMDO missions. A simple compact sensor can be used in a number of applications: as a missile seeker, as an airborne or spaceborne remote sensing system, or as a sensor carried on the ground for tracking airborne objects. The three separate images (i.e., polarization, reflectivity, and 3D shape) will provide excellent data for ATR algorithms to work with. In addition, the polarization aspect of the sensor can be added to our commercial 3D terrestrial mapping sensor, which will enable the sensor to classify in greater detail the type of ground over which the sensor is flying (e.g., water, dirt, vegetation, etc.).

BRIMROSE CORP.OF AMERICA
5024 Campbell Blvd., Suite E
Baltimore, MD 21236
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 668-5800
C.C. Wang
BMDO 00-003
Title:SENSORS #D (Visible (0.3-0.9 Microns): Phase Tunable Spatial Light Modulator Using Semiconductors with DX-Defects
Abstract:Development of a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) capable of offering 2pi gray scale pure phase modulation with 1 mm spatial resolution is presented in this proposal. By using the DX-defect containing material CdF2:Ga, the proposed novel SLM can offer phase-only modulation on optical images with sub-millisecond framing rates and the operating spectrum spanning throughout the visible region. The DX material based SLM is polarization insensitive, operates in either transmission or reflection modes, has 100% fill factor, and offers direct optical manipulation of the input images without the cumbersome optical-to-electrical and electrical-to-optical signal conversions. Because the proposed DX-based SLM does not depend on pixel-wise operations, it is immune to the difficulties associated with individual pixel failures found in conventional SLMs. During this research program, the feasibility of the proposed phase-only SLM will be investigated under laboratory settings. Conclusions arrived at during the Phase I program will be adopted during the Phase II program to develop prototype phase-only SLMs ideal for optical signal processing applications. The potential commercial applications of the proposed novel spatial light modulator include optical phase correlator for optical information processing, optical signal switching and routing for telecommunication industries, optical display, and computer information processing technologies.

BRIMROSE CORP.OF AMERICA
5024 Campbell Blvd., Suite E
Baltimore, MD 21236
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 668-5800
G.V. Jagannathan
BMDO 00-003
Title:SENSORS #C (UV (<0.3 Microns): A Compliant Lattice Matched Substrate c-NbN/MgO for Epitaxial Growth and Testing of Cubic Al0.60Ga0.40N for UV Detectio
Abstract:Brimrose has identified a closely lattice matched compliant substrate system for direct nucleation and epitaxial growth of c-Al0.60Ga0.40N. The compliant substrate system is NbN (Niobium Nitride)/MgO (Magnesium Oxide). NbN grows epitaxially on MgO at low temperatures. c-III-V nitride grows on this NbN film directly without the need for nitridization of the substrate surface or the use of a low temperature buffer layer. The lattice mismatch of c-NbN (4.41angstrom) to c-GaN (4.52 angstrom) and c-Al0.60Ga0.40 N (4.44 angstrom, cut off UV wave length of 270nm) are -2.4% and -0.67% respectively. The main objective of the proposed program is to develop Solar Blind Photovoltaic UV Detectors. During Phase I, we will optimize the growth conditions for direct deposition of Al0.60Ga0.40N epi layers on a 1" diameter NbC/MgO compliant substrate at low growth temperatures (600-700 degreesC). We will then fabricate and test a Schottky or an MSM device structure for UV detection in order to demonstrate superior performance of c-nitride based detectors over those based on h-nitride. Phase II objectives are three fold. They are (1) Optimization of growth of Al0.60Ga0.40N on a 2" diameter NbC/MgO substrate, (2) Optimization of n- and p-type doping and (3) Production, packaging and testing of a high performance photovoltaic (PV) n-i-p, p-n UV photodetectors. At the end of Phase I representative samples will be provided to BMDO for evaluation. The success of Phase I research will result in the demonstration of, for the first time, a c-AlGaN UV detector exhibiting improved performance compared to h-AlGaN detector. Optimized PV detectors for UV detection will be useful for integration in missile defense and counter measure systems, space-to-space communications secure from detection by earth based receivers, for controlling the operation of UV light sources, UV exposure, UV astronomy, in high temperature environment applications such as flame/combustion control and in outer space.

BSEI
1453 Beulah Road
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 759-4518
Terence Barrett
BMDO 00-003
Title:MAP: Matched Adaptive Time-Frequency Packet UltraHigh Resolution ATR Sensor
Abstract:This proposal addresses the reduction of false alarms and increase in speed of ATR of missiles with reduction of decoy/debris return, by transmit signal design using a matched envelope frequency-time packet signal (MAP) - the carrier of which is to be identified - and using a priori information. In Phase I, simulations will quantify S/N and ATR speed enhancement and a detailed system design. Phase II addresses hardware prototype fabrication. Fast ATR discrimination of missiles from decoys/debris. Commercial air radars with clutter mitigation in presence of known target/classes of targets. "Selective attention" for locating target/class. Increased resolution for geophysical GPRs.

EAST WEST ENTERPRISES, INC.
524 JORDAN LANE
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 534-4782
RAMARAO INGUVA
BMDO 00-003
Title:ENHANCED MULTI SENSOR TARGET TRACKER WITH GEOMETRICALLY INVARIANT NONLINEAR FILTERS
Abstract:East West Enterprises Inc., (EWE) proposes to develop a new target tracker technology based on the geometrically invariant (coordinate free) nonlinear filter of Darling and also Bayesian methods. This new tracker technology with software offers a robust and accurate method for combining multi sensor data on targets as it is based on coordinate free methodology and uses all the available information to provide state vector updates. This unique formulation will have several advantages over the Kalman filter based trackers in use: (1)coordinate free frame work allows efficient and accurate way to combine informaton from several sensors. (2) The nonlinear nature of (quadratic function of the observations) the filter gives more accuracy;(3) The Bayesian method incorporates more information than the Kalman filter again leading to better accuracy. The methodology based on sound probability theory and rigorous mathematical principles offer the most optimal method of state vector estimation and its covariance. In Phase I, EWE will focus on building an appropriate model based on the current sensors such as the ALTAIR and GBR with the proposed nonlinear filter. Computer simulation will be performed to evaluate the geometrically invariant filter based tracker algorithms. The proposed new tracker technology will have numerous applications such as for NMD,THAD, air traffic control, autonomous robotic navigation, speech recognition, target tracking , mathematical genetics, real time video coding, financial forecasting.

EAST WEST ENTERPRISES, INC.
524 JORDAN LANE
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 534-4782
RAMARAO INGUVA
BMDO 00-003
Title:ELECTRO - OPTICAL DATA FUSION ENVIRONMENT FOR ENHANCED TARGET DETECTION AND TRACKING
Abstract:East West Enterprises Inc., (EWE) proposes to develop an electro-optical data fusion system for real time fusion of infrared (IR), visible, and ladar data. A novel sensor system environment (based on WESCAM's technology) consisting of IR, visible, and ladar sensor systems mounted on a 2-axis gimbal, IR scene projector, and synthetic scene generation software will be designed for the capability of performing feasibility studies. The data collection portion of this environment will be multi-faceted with sub-systems consisting of the sensor instrumentation, the readout electronics and signal processor, and a non-real time simulation environment for verification and real time algorithm development. The readout electronics and signal processor will be running in a real time environment. Within the signal processor EWE will develop fusion algorithms using model based Bayesian methods. The electro-optical data fusion environment will be developed fully in Phase II. Using this environment the Bayesian sensor fusion algorithms will be evaluated for real time performance. Synthetically generated scenes with embedded targets corresponding to a number of realistic situations will be used in this Phase I feasibility study. Performance improvements resulting from this real time fusion environment will be quantified. EWE will design in Phase I, a prototype electro-optical real time fusion system. The proposed system will have numerous NMD and TMD applications, such as SBIRS, THAAD, and automatic target recognition , as well as Autonomous Robotic Vehicle Navigation, and Medical Diagnostics

EPITAXIAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5594
Olaleye Aina
BMDO 00-003
Title:High Speed GaSb-based Near-Mid Infrared Photodetectors
Abstract:Epitaxial Technologies proposes to develop the enabling material technology for the realization of near-mid infrared photodetectors operating in the 1.7 - 3.5 mm wavelength spectral band. We will achieve this by performing device designs to determine suitable material structures, epitaxial growth and device fabrication processes. The primary goal of this proposed Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of mid-near infrared photodetectors by developing techniques for growing highly absorbing heterostructures with high carrier confinement properties using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and projecting the detector performance that can be realised from the proposed detectors through material and device designs. In Phase II, we will further optimize the material structures and design and fabricate near-mid infrared photodetectors and optoelectronic integrated circuits based on them. This project will result in two products: photodetectors in the 1.7 - 3.5 um spectral band and the wafers for fabricating them. The photodetectors will be applicable in missile seekers, battlefield target identification and recognition systems, and eyesafe LADAR. Civilian applications include fiberoptic telecommunications, remote sensing and laser spectroscopy.

GT TECHNOLOGIES
19 Courtney Rd.
Farmingville, NY 11738
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 696-4898
Liu Zhimin
BMDO 00-003
Title:MEMS IR SENSOR
Abstract:This proposal addresses the fabrication of a novel uncooled IR detector array having significant spectrum coverage, size, weight, speed, and cost advantages over the current ones. The innovation is based on the utilization of micro-mechanical-system (MEMS) of high figures of merits and Si monolithic integration compatibility. The proposed simple MEMS photon detector structure allows optical read-out design. Optical read-out is an attractive alternative to uncooled IR imagers, which potentially eliminates the major drawback of electronic means that inevitably introduce additional thermal loss to the signal due to the contact made to the detector element. In the Phase I a high-performance MEMS photon detector coupled with a compact optical read-out system will be demonstrated. Success in the Phase I effort will identify a viable manufacturing route for advanced uncooled IR imaging array fabrication. These devices have a wide range of "dual use" applications, from various DoD's space-based applications to commercial applications of fire fighting, law enforcement, industrial control, and driver's aid.

HR TECHNOLOGY
1248 Cresthaven Dr.
Silver Spring, MD 20903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 445-2051
Rui Yang
BMDO 00-003
Title:Mid-IR Photodetectors Based on Type-II Quantum Wells
Abstract:In this program, we propose to develop complex superlattices based on type-II InAs/Ga(In)Sb/AlSb heterostructures for mid-IR (~3-12 microns) detectors. These type-II InAs/Ga(In)Sb/AlSb heterostructures have relatively larger electron effective masses compared to the state-of-the-art IR material HgCdTe, leading to a strong reduction of leakage currents due to tunneling. Also, Auger recombination can be suppressed in these type-II InAs/Ga(In)Sb/AlSb heterostructures through band structure engineering, which has been evidenced in type-II quantum well lasers demonstrated by us and others. The phase I effort will be directed towards the design, MBE growth, characterization and optimization of type-II InAs/GaInSb/AlSb superlattices to demonstrate their feasibility for mid-IR applications. High performance detectors will be developed in Phase II. The proposed approach will greatly improve overall performance of semiconductor photodetectors in the long wavelength infrared spectrum. This research should considerably accelerate the realization and commercialization of efficient semiconductor long-wavelength infrared photodetectors to meet the demand for defense and commercial applications.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Igor Vernik
BMDO 00-003
Title:High Resolution STJ X-ray Detectors with Annular Geometry
Abstract:Superconducting X-ray detectors offer the potential for improved performance over detectors that are now commercially available. HYPRES proposes to design superconducting detectors that realize this improved performance. HYPRES will exploit its ability to produce ultra-high quality Nb STJ's with improved energy resolution. This goal will be met using specially designed STJs with annular geometry; NbN leads to enhance trapping efficiency, and, ultimately, fabrication of STJs on SiN membranes. Annular geometry STJs have already established the feasibility of performance as high-quality STJs offering stability of the operating point together with suppression of the Josephson effect and the Fiske resonances as well as reduction in quasiparticle losses. The Phase I work plan calls for calibration of annular STJs as X-ray detectors. NbN leads be added and, in Phase II, STJs will be developed on micromachined silicon nitride, 0.6 mm thick, membranes. HYPRES will become a commercial source of cost-effective, reliable high-energy resolution monolithic X-ray detectors for soft X-rays. These sensors are in demand at synchrotron sources, for X-ray astronomy, and for elemental compositional analysis. This project will produce an X-ray detector with an enhanced performance/cost ratio, suitable for application as well as in the microelectronics fabrication and metallurgy industries.

LICOM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
200 Innovation Blvd. Suite 236
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 234-4012
Edward Novitsky
BMDO 00-003
Title:Parallel Polarimeter Using Liquid Crystal Patterned Phase Mask
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project is directed at developing a liquid crystal patterned phase mask that can be coupled with a CCD detector array to allow single-frame characterization of an image's polarization content in terms of Stokes vectors. A major objective of this project is to demonstrate a proof-of-concept for the use of the phase mask in a functional polarimeter through a display of its operation. Polarization imaging provides a greater set of information and can provide scene details normally inaccessible with intensity imaging alone. For example, a thin sheet of ice is normally difficult to detect with conventional imaging but is readily identified by examining its polarization signature. There is a broad interest in the effective use of polarized light in both the civilian and millitary sectors, especially with respect to hazard and target identification. Due to the adaptibility of the proposed phase mask approach, it is anticipated that real-time polarization imaging can be realized to complement existing technology and provide the end user with additional imaging enhancements. Through this development, it would be possible to carry out polarization sensing for better quality imaging for a vriety of military and commercial applications. This includes, but is not limited to, 2-D ellipsometry for sensing properties of surfaces and interfaces, spectra-polarimetry for chemical applications, remote sensing, astronomical polarimetry, polarization meteorology, and radar polarimetry. We believe that this technology development will result in a substantial cost reduction compared to currently available polarization analyzers and imagers.

LICOM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
200 Innovation Blvd. Suite 236
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 234-4012
Edward Novitsky
BMDO 00-003
Title:Portable Polarimeter
Abstract:Polarization imaging is a promising technique that can provide scene details otherwise obscurred with conventional intensity imaging. The polarization characteristics of radiation contain a greater amount of information about the origins of the radiation and can aid in target identification and hazard detection. This SBIR Phase I project is directed at developing a liquid crystal polarization analyzer that will form the core technology behind a real-time polarization imaging system. The approach uses innovative liquid crystal materials and structures to simultaneously accomplish the necessary polarization retardation and rotation changes. Using liquid crystals allows an all-electrical approach to polarzation imaging and offers significant advantages in terms of higher speed and lower cost over the current class of mechancially-driven devices. Since intensity imaging is a subset of polarization imaging, in essence, anywhere a conventional intensity-based imaging system is used, a polarization imaging system can be substituted. As imaging plays a vital role throughout military and commercial sectors, polarization imaging is expected to have wide-spread applications. Additionally, the proposed liquid crystal approach is well-suited for incorporation into existing technology and may obviate the need for equipment replacement. Polarization imaging systems accel at enhancing scene details, especially in low-contrast or intensity-cluttered environments. For example, polarization imaging can benefit the civilian sector, by detecting ice on airplane wings, and the military sector, by detecting partially submerged land mines.

LIGHTWAVE ELECTRONICS CORP.
2400 Charleston Road
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 526-1288
Mark Arbore
BMDO 00-003
Title:Coherent laser radar sensor with pump-resonant OPO
Abstract:The purpose of this SBIR program is to develop an ultra-narrow linewidth laser technology capable of efficiently producing continuous-wave (CW) output in the mid-IR wavelength range. Such sources are required for coherent laser radar systems used for (acoustic signature)target identification. This need is particularly strong in the littoral battle environment. However, no suitable laser sources are currently available. In this program, we will demonstrate a pump-resonant optical parametric oscillator at 3.82 microns, verify kilohertz linewidth operation, and identify a technical path to Watt-level power scaling. Compact and efficient sources of single-frequency radiation are used in numerous communications and sensing systems, and in instrumentation for testing these systems. The improvements in available wavelength range and high-power operation to be developed during this project will enhance their applicability to these industries, particularly for telecommunications device testing.

LIGHTWAVE ELECTRONICS CORP.
2400 Charleston Road
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 526-1219
Donna Howland
BMDO 00-003
Title:Infrared Countermeasure Source based on Mode-locked Master Oscillator-Power Amplifier Laser
Abstract:Results have shown that CW optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) can produce high power at 3.5 micron, but have problems going to longer wavelengths. Synchronously-pumped mode-locked OPOs pumped by diode-pumped solid-state lasers are emerging as solutions to the CW problems at the longer IR range. The key to obtaining longer wavelengths is short pulses, which allow shorter lengths of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) to be used since PPLN is absorptive beyond 4.3 micron. To pump the synch-pumped OPO, we propose to build a low-power (air-cooled), short-pulse source based on a mode-locked master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) laser. We will then amplify the master oscillator with a new fiber amplification approach that has recently come available from great advancements in the fiber optic technology. There are many advantages of the fiber amplifier including it's straight forward design. Although, the main risk to consider with this fiber amplification approach is driving the fiber with too much signal peak power. The nonlinear problems associated with having too much peak power could be solved by increasing the core size of the fiber relative to the cladding size. This would help because not only will the intensity decrease, but the absorption per unit length will increase. One particulary valuable application of synchronously-pumped mode-locked OPOs pumped by master oscillator-power amplifiers for the military is in high-power laser systems used for IR countermeasures (IRCM). Other applications in the commerical sector include remote sensing, spectroscopy, medical instruments, and laser display systems. Laser display systems require ~10 W per color (red/green/blue). The market for laser sources for projection displays is estimated to be 5,000 units per year starting in a few years. This is a huge business by the current standards of the solid-state laser industry.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Lev Tuchinskiy
BMDO 00-003
Title:High-Efficiency Low Temperature Cryocooler
Abstract:A new design for low temperature cryocooler regenerators for advanced infrared sensor systems is proposed. The porous regenerator matrix includes at least two microchannel segments made of different materials whose maximum thermal capacities correspond to the temperature zones where these segments operate. One of the materials is a magnetic rare earth intermetallic compound (e.g. Er3Ni), and another one is lead. Microchannel structure of regenerator matrices offers the highest ratio of heat transfer area to pressure drop and more efficient use of heat capacity of matrix materials. The project deals with a novel patented method for fabrication of microchanneled regenerators from lead, which exhibits high heat capacity in the temperature range of 10 K-30K. The fabrication technique includes co-extrusion of Pb powders with fillers. It offers a possibility to fabricate most efficient regenerator matrices with a controlled surface area and a low fluid flow resistance. The mechanical stability and thermal performance of these regenerators is expected to be much better than that of the beds packed with spherical particles. In cryogenic applications, the high performance regenerators are instrumental in the development of small refrigerators for military infrared sensors, electronics, and superconductors. Commercial uses involve cryopumping and cooling superconducting magnets in medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, wireless communications, missile tracking, surveillance, astronomy, mapping, weather monitoring, and earth resource monitoring.

MICROLAB
6401 E. Hummingbird Ln.
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 483-3458
Charles Wheeler
BMDO 00-003
Title:Far-infrared Photo Detectors based on Photo-assisted Interband Tunneling
Abstract:Semiconductor detectors based on quantum wells and superlattices for Teraherz (THz) range (0.3THZ to 10THz or far infrared) have not been explored fully in comparison with detectors in shorter wavelengths. Various other approaches (Ge, GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP, HgCdTe, etc.) have been proposed and experimented, but progress has been hindered by the low sensitivity, high leakage current, and low operating temperature limitations. Here, a new device concept for the detection of THz radiation is proposed. The working principle is based on the THz photo-assisted interband tunneling in a semiconductor multi-quantum well structure under a high electric field. The proposed device has the potential advantages of high speed, high sensitivity, and wide voltage tunability. The device structure can be based on the relatively mature InGaAs/InAlAs/InP material system and the device fabrication is similar to conventional p-i-n photo-diodes. During Phase I, both theoretical and experimental studies will be carried out to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed device concept. The Phase II work will focus on the optimization of the device structure and fabrication process to provide prototype detectors and detector arrays suitable for THz radiation detection. Sensitive, high speed and wavelength tunable THz detectors have many potential applications such as T-ray imaging, covert communication, environment sensing, and chemical agent detection.

MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10386B Democracy Lane
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 293-8910
Jose Velazco
BMDO 00-003
Title:A Compact Cold-Cathode Electron Buncher
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will involve the experimental investigation of a compact cold-cathode microwave electron buncher (CCEB) that has diverse applications such as high-frequency radiation sources for BMDO sensors. The CCEB combines the features of novel microscopic vacuum triodes with the robust and reliable solid-state technology and should provide order of magnitude improvements in size and power over state-of-the-art counterparts. Initial studies for an X-band buncher indicate that driving the CCEB with 0.4 watts at 8.4 GHz, narrow electron bunches with a current of 30 milliamperes at a voltage of 10 kV can be achieved. The use of a reliable cold-cathode, in addition to its compactness, power efficiency and ruggedness, makes the CCEB ideal for airborne applications. Commercial applications of the CCEB include electron sources for the next generation of microwave devices such as klystrons and travelling wave tubes for satellite communications. Another key application of the CCEB is as a source of very short electron bunches for medical and industrial electron accelerators. Phase I is aimed at an initial dc study of the CCEB cathode, design of impedance matching networks, as well as particle-in-cell computer studies to establish credible estimates of beam power, input power, efficiency, maximum current and other key parameters. The CCEB should provide order of magnitude improvements in size and power over existent technologies by using a miniature gated cold-cathode which eliminates the need for heating elements and yields a super-fast turn-on microwave-driven electron source. The CCEB is a very compact, high-speed buncher that should be able to provide narrow high-frequency electron bunches for many applications. Of particular interest are electron accelerators and millimeter-wave sources for airborne radar, satellite communications, wireless television and communications, cellular telephones, and the microwave power module.

MS TECHNOLOGY
7922 Avenida Kirjah
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 558-6363
Saeid Ghamaty
BMDO 00-003
Title:Low Cost Magnetometer For Target Identification
Abstract: MS Technology (MST) proposes to develop a new type of low cost, low power, fast and small magnetometer that could attain a sensitivity of approximately 1 femto Tesla (10-15 T) per root hertz. Magnetometers with such sensitivity could easily be used for small target identification from rifles, to vehicles, or large targets such as planes, boats and submarines, on ground, air, or water. This new magnetometer could be in a small (~SO8, ~5x4x2mm3), low power instrument package operating at ambient temperature. Such sensitivity currently requires costly superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) that needs expensive and cumbersome cryogenics to operate. In Phase I, MST will quantify the performance gains possible from this new magnetometer and its measurement of magnetic field and noise in operational contexts for target identification. MST will develop system concepts, evaluate and benchmark performance, cost and compatibility for a complete magnetometer system. MST will explore all additional uses/value-added of the sensor option, and will specify hardware/software requirements and sources for a complete prototype system. MST will limit demonstration of selected sensors to provide proof of feasibility. The development of low cost, high performance, modular, miniature magnetometer delivery systems will expand the commercial markets for home and industrial security systems, industrial process monitoring systems, and environmental monitoring systems. The magnetometer would also augment the capability to detect submarines by using an array seeded around narrow traffic lanes. It could find use in detecting land and naval mines, and in making sensitive proximity fuses. Commercial uses include prospecting for mineral deposits, nondestructive testing, and research in geomagnetic and biomagnetic studies.

NITRONEX CORP.
616 Hutton Street - Suite 104
Raleigh, NC 27606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 807-9100
Mark Johnson
BMDO 00-003
Title:Pendeoepitaxy of III-Nitride Based Photodiodes for Solar Blind UV Detection and Imaging
Abstract:Nitronex, in collaboration with North Carolina State University (NCSU), proposes to develop the world's first pendeoepitaxy grown aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) short wavelenth / solar blind UV heterojunction photodetector. During Phase 1, epitaxial layers for photodiode detector structures based on our proprietary pendeoepitaxy process will be synthesized and prototype structures will be demonstrated. Issues addressed during Phase 1 are the pendeoepitaxy growth of AlGaN via MOVPE; growth and doping of high mole fraction AlGaN for solar blind spectral response with x~0.50 for n-type and x~0.35 for p-type; graded active layer AlGaN heterostructure of p-i-n devices for maximized solar blind spectral sensitivity; and pendeoepitaxial device layout design rules for minimum junction leakage and maximized (D*) detectivity. The proposed device structure is a back illuminated p-on-n diode on an UV transparent substrate. With the successful demonstration of the AlGaN pendeoepitaxy approach using discrete photodiodes, an imaging focal plane array may be developed during Phase 2 via hybridization with a silicon-based readout device, as has been demonstrated by NCSU for III-nitride based visible blind UV detectors. The growth, fabrication and characterization of high mole fraction AlGaN and pendeoepitaxial structures will be performed by Nitronex personnel, using facilities at Nitronex and NCSU. Development of high-detectivity diode sensors for UV applications have the potential to replace photomultiplier tubes in `solar blind' and other applications due to their performance, cost and functional superiority. In critical DoD applications, such as UV-imagers for missile plume tracking, these detectors will be smaller, lighter weight, and more rugged than existing technologies. Other potential product applications include: Industrial flame sensing and weld imaging, UV and solar astronomy FPAs, extremely high density optical data storage, and consumer oriented personal solar exposure meters.

NOVA PHASE, LLC
435 Route 206
Newton, NJ 07860
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 300-3065
MIchael Scripsick
BMDO 00-003
Title:Broad Electronically Tuned mid-IR OPO
Abstract:We propose a broadly-tunable mid-IR laser based on an efficient, electronically tunable frequency conversion technique. This Phase I research effort will investigate the development of an electro-optically tuned, periodically poled optical parametric oscillator. Distingushing features of the proposed laser system include all solid state construction, a broad continuous tuning range, rapid frequency agility, and compact, rugged construction, and low cost. Frequency agile mid-IR sources are increasing important in a variety of military and commercial applications. Military applications include infrared countermeasures (IRCM, DIRCM. CMWS), standoff detection of chemical and biological weapons (LR-BSDS, SR-BSDS), standoff detection of weapons of mass destruction, and treaty verification. The proposed systems provides a low-cost, ruggedized and portable solution well suited for mass production.

OPTOLOCITY, INC.
7159 E. Cortez Rd.
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 991-4593
Sergio Chaparro
BMDO 00-003
Title:Resonant-Cavity Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors
Abstract:The next generation sensors and imagers will require low-cost and multi-wavelength high-performance infrared detector technology in the 3-5 mm and 8-15 mm windows. We propose to design and fabricate prototype highly efficient, radiation hard, and narrow-band resonant-cavity quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIP). One of the novelties of the proposed quantum-dot infrared photodetectors is the introduction of a resonant cavity. By introducing it, a very high spectral resolution from such photodetectors is expected with a close to 100% quantum efficiency. The optical transition selection rules in semiconductor quantum dots allow normal incidence detection. This new design is potentially able to provide monolithically integrated multi-color photodetectors with a spectral response in more than 3 colors, which has not been demonstrated so far by using other materials but which is highly desirable for newer generation high performance IR photodetectors. Optolocity is committed to develop MWIR lasers and photodetectors for free space optical wireless communications, chemical sensing, IR imaging, and IRCM applications. It will license and commercialize numerous patented technologies and inventions in his research group at ASU. This Phase I program provides an opportunity to Optolocity to demonstrate a prototype resonant cavity IR quantum dot photodetector.

PHOTONICS LABORATORIES, INC.
University City Science Center 3624 Market Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 387-9970
Rachid Gafsi
BMDO 00-003
Title:Novel Heterodimensional Sensors
Abstract:The sensing element is the heart of a sensor. A generic requirement for any sensor is that it only responds to the particular stimulus since all other stimuli are considered noise. The basic physics of the operation of a sensor thus determines the limit of its sensitivity. Here we build upon a family of proposed light sensors in which sensor noise is substantially reduced by altering the nature of current transport. This is done by 1) confining the electrons in a reduced dimensional regime such as a quantum well or wire, and 2) producing a contact of a different dimension to this electron cloud. These hetero-dimensional Devices substantially affect current transport. We will fabricate and test detectors for operation in near infrared (NIR) regime that will surpass present technology in terms of dark current and responsivity. We will fabricate and test Photodiodes, Photoconductors, Schottky diodes, and HEMTs on the same monolithic substrate demonstrating the feasibility of the fabrication of all the elements necessary for a photoreceiver, or an imaging array. We show that by applying this design strategy to a different material system operation in 1300 and 1550 nm range will be possible. As result of the phase I work, devices that exceed present technology in terms of noise performanc and sensitivity will be fabricated and tested. Initial concentration is on 700-900 nm range followed by work in 1300-1550nm range. Applications of these devices are in a variety of areas, but the most promising are the following: 1. Sensory array for remote sensing. 2. Laser communication in free space 3. Wavelength Division Multiplexing receivers 4. Near Infrared Medical Imaging.

POLAR MATERIALS CO.
5505 Castle Manor Drive
San Jose, CA 95129
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 255-8345
Gary Bush
BMDO 00-003
Title:SENSORS
Abstract:Many uses of cryocoolers, such as spacecraft and weapons systems, place a premium on a light, compact compressor. Those applications, as well as most terrestrial applications, prize reliability, which is enhanced by eliminating rubbing parts. The standard space-qualifiable cryocooler compressor today is a variant of the "Oxford" approach, in which flexures support the piston with a clearance seal. Tactical coolers typically employ contact seals. Oxford-type compressors tend to be large; tactical coolers tend to wear out fairly quickly. The concept proposed here is a compact helium compressor using balanced diaphragms with minimal dead volume and high specific output. It will generate minimal vibration. There will be no rubbing parts to wear, and the fatigue life of the diaphragms can match that of the flexure springs in Oxford-type compressors. The proposed compressor will be scaleable over a wide range of sizes to accommodate a variety of applications where relatively high frequency operations are required. Everything needed to produce a very compact cryocooler system exists except a light weight, efficient compressor. This proposal is to design that compact compressor. The compressor will find immediate applications driving Stirling and pulse tube coolers for infrared sensors. It will also find utility wherever volume and weight are at a premium. Its low vibration characteristics will be valuable to the IC chip manufacturing process and in MRI applications.

RADIANT RESEARCH, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd, Suite 105
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-0500
Suning Tang
BMDO 00-003
Title:Monolithic Integrated Optical True-Time-Delay Modules for Wideband Phased Array Antennas.
Abstract:It has been realized that the lack of enabling technology and of miniaturized system architecture of beam forming and steering network significantly slow down the process in implementing photonic phased array antenna systems. Radiant Research, Inc. proposes a compact optical switched true-time-delay network for wideband phased array antennas. The unique feature of this proposed approach is that both the true-time-delay waveguide circuit and 2x2 waveguide switches are made by using a single polymeric waveguide system and are monolithically integrated in a single substrate. As a result, it eliminates the most difficult packaging problem associated with the delicate interfaces between optical PM fibers and 2x2 optical switches. Such a monolithic approach offers more precision for the RF phase control than the fiber-delay-lines due to the sub-micrometer accuracy of lithography-defined polymeric waveguides. More important, the proposed optical switched true-time-delay network requires a very low electrical power consumption due to the low power consumption of polymeric thermo-optic waveguide switches. Furthermore, the switching performance is independent of the surrounding temperature but the local temperature difference between the two-coupled waveguides, which is ideal for airborne and space-based applications. The proposed integrated waveguide beam steering network represents a crucial technology for advanced photonic radar systems. The technology developed can also be directly employed in optical switching network for fiber-optic transmission systems. Realization of optical switched polymeric waveguide circuits represents a new technology that may create many new photonic devices with superior performance at a reduced cost.

SAGE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1601 N Sepulveda Blvd, P.O. 501
Manhattan Beach, CA 90266
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 455-0665
Keith Norsworthy
BMDO 00-003
Title:Hyperspectral Infrared Signal Processing (HISP)
Abstract:On a current SBIR Phase II program (Reference 1), SAGE Technologies Inc. has developed infrared sensor signal processing algorithms that promise significant improvements in BMD infrared sensor performance when detecting and tracking target objects that move relative to a strong background clutter. The findings show that best performance is obtained using a "Short Scan" sensor mode. This new Phase I proposal recommends a method for implementing Hyperspectral measurements that is compatible with the "Short Scan" sensor mode and should lead to further improvements in background clutter suppression and target / decoy discrimination. The new sensor design uses a Hyperspectral filter in direct contact with the cryogenically cooled detector array. The sensor image is scanned over the detector array and modified Time Delayed Integration (TDI) processing is used to derive multiple sensor images that are weighted according to their Hyperspectral properties. Preliminary discussions with industry organizations, and Government program organizations, have shown a wide degree of interest in supporting joint development of the new integrated technology. Based on this broad interest, and the possible impact on near term National Defense (Ballistic Missile Defense and Cruise Missile Defense), SAGE Technologies and its team partners expect to recommend a Fast Track approach to the technology development and technology insertion. Improved performance of Ballistic Missile Defense and Cruise Missile Defense systems, particularly in regard to the suppression of background clutter and the discrimination of targets from decoys. Commercial surveillance of crop quality and environmental pollution.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21 Cavalier Way
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 783-4369
Remis Gaska
BMDO 00-003
Title:Solar Blind AlInGaN Photodetectors
Abstract:We propose to develop solar-blind Schottky barrier AlInGaN-based photodetectors by combining our novel Strain/Energy Band Engineering (SEBE) technology, selective area growth technique, and device passivation for the leakage current reduction. The major advantages of the proposed design are (i) reduction of strain and, thus, epilayer cracking, in selectively grown active regions of the detectors; (ii) reduction of epilayer cracking by growing nearly strain-free AlGaN-AlInGaN heterostructures. We will use AlInGaN layers and multi-layered structures with graded Al/In molar fractions in order to accommodate lattice mismatch between the substrate and active AlGaN photodetector layer. We will grow epilayers on conducting SiC substrates with conducting buffers. The conducting SiC substrates will allow us to not only to improve material quality, but will also act as bottom electrode of the detectors and detector arrays. By the end of Phase II, we will complete the development of the fabrication process for these detectors and detector arrays and scale up this technology to the production levels. Potential military and commercial applications include missile detection, flame sensing and UV spectroscopy

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1 Building 12
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-0610
J. Dries
BMDO 00-003
Title:A Two-Dimensional Lock-in Imaging InGaAs Focal plane Array
Abstract:We propose an innovative near-infrared (0.9 m - 1.7 m) imaging device with synchronous detection capability. The device will consist of an InGaAs focal plane array that is "bump bonded" to an array of GaAs MESFET preamplifiers. The preamplifier architecture is unique in that the user may actively modulate the transimpedance gain of the amplifier array. This enables the system designer to fabricate an "imaging" lock-in amplifier, wherein very small signals may be extracted from a much larger ambient background if the frequency of an illuminating source is known. Such a system would have utility in covert surveillance systems and would enable the use of low-power diode laser designators. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the synchronous detector architecture using our production InGaAs linear arrays hybridized to commercially available Si transimpedance amplifiers. In addition, a linear array of pre-amps will be designed using a commercial GaAs MESFET process. In Phase II, the GaAs linear arrays will be fabricated and the final two-dimensional array designed, fabricated, and tested. Prof. S. R. Forrest of Princeton University will consult. In addition to the utility of the above device in low-light level imaging systems, there is a tremendous opportunity for commercialization of a similar product in the field of fiber optic telecommunications. Currently deployed Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed (DWDM) systems operate in the wavelength band of 1.530 m - 1.565 m and use single element InGaAs based receivers. The amplifier architecture developed within this program is directly applicable to use in DWDM systems by simply fixing the transimpedance gain at a particular value instead of actively modulating it in a synchronous detector configuration.

SMART PIXEL, INC.
1416, Dunrobin Rd
Naperville, IL 60540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 248-7441
Renganathan Ashokan
BMDO 00-003
Title:Large format HgCdTe/CdTe/Silicon infrared focal plane arrays based on MBE technology
Abstract:The infrared technology has provided the theatrical superiority to U.S Defense. Intensive research and development efforts have led to the existence of a robust infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) technology for small and medium size formats. 256 x 256 IRFPAs are available for inclusion into military systems and 480 x 640 have been demonstrated. Ongoing production programs include JAVELIN, SADA II, JASSM, and AGM130. Large format IRFPA is a critical technology to enhance the resolution and range of detection to meet the U.S future security needs. HgCdTe IRFPAs with 1024 x 1024 elements have been identified as the candidate for the new generation of IRFPAs. The thermal mismatch between the CdZnTe and the readout circuit limits the extension to larger formats. An alternative technology is proposed here, the essence of which is the replacement of the exotic CdZnTe substrate with a readily available and inexpensive silicon (Si) substrate. We propose to exploit the recent advances in molecular beam epitaxially grown HgCdTe/CdTe/Si to produce large format (1024x1024), high resolution IRFPAs. No supplier, domestic or foreign, for mega pixel IRFPAs exists. Optimization of the proposed technology will lead to rugged, low cost, high density and high resolution IRFPAs with operability >99.9%. Large format focal plane arrays will find enormous applications in military, space and medical imaging areas for infrared imaging and low-background detection. It will be particularly suitable for military's intelligence, countermeasure operations and NASA's space based spectroscopic applications. HgCdTe based devices, with the advantage of small electron mass, high mobilities, large electron saturation velocities have considerable advantages for a variety of new micro-electronic and optoelectronic applications. SPI is fully committed to fabricate and commercialize infrared detectors and arrays if this program is successful. Smartpixel Inc will work closely with Northrop Grumman DS to integrate it into the systems.

SPINIX CORP.
43-301 Buena Vista Street Innovation & Technology
Devens, MA 01432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 772-9867
Yi-Qun Li
BMDO 00-003
Title:Novel Acoustic Resonat Readout Technology For IR Imaging
Abstract:This proposal addresses the feasibility of a novel integrated sensor array for uncooled thermal imaging applications. The novel detection concept- resonating acoustic read-out detection technique proposed here will dramatically reduce the noise and increase the sensitivity of infrared photo detection. Most importantly, the detection electronics is thermally isolated from the infrared sensor electrode, therefore nearly eliminates the signal loss due to the thermal link. Success in the Phase I effort will demonstrates the validity of the concept and identify a viable fabrication route for the array which use advanced multifunctional materials. Applications of the developed sensors will have direct application to wide range of uncooled thermal imaging applications.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
Aaron Moy
BMDO 00-003
Title:Quantum Dot Infrared Detectors with Tailored Spectral Response
Abstract:Quantum dot (QD) infrared photodetectors offer promise to improve performance over current bulk material technology. Namely, QD devices can have higher detectivity and reduced needs for cryogenic cooling. An observation made with current QD detectors is the existence of a peaked response window. This is due to the quantum size effects and selection rules that QDs experience, and the fact that these conventional detector structures utilize only one specific type of QD. For this Phase I study, we propose to create multiple layers of QDs, with different layers intentionally comprised of different types of QDs. Combining these layers, each tuned to a slightly different wavelength, we can create a detector which has an overall broader spectral response window tailored to specific applications. Quantum dot infrared detectors can offer better performance with reduced need for cryogenic cooling as compared to current technology, such as HgCdTe. Infrared sensors can be applied to target detection, satellite imaging, gas spectroscopy and astronomy.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
5170 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Suite 240
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9095
Michele Banish
BMDO 00-003
Title:Surface Structures to Improve Sensor Systems
Abstract:Lithographic technology offers opportunities to embed collection optics in detector arrays to improve fill-factor, and sensitivity for the following materials: Si, InSb, CdZnTe, CdTe, SiAs. A proposed surface structure etched into the sensing plane can perform the function of a high-performance multilayer anti-reflection coating and focus light onto the active sensing element. The impact of mating this new lithographic technology to the manufacturing process of military sensor systems is the removal of components (the microlense array and anti-reflecting coating) and minimizing the fabrication steps (microlense mounting and anti-reflective coating) while gaining sensor performance. Recent developments in photo-lithographic, interferometric-lithographic and etching technology make these multi-functional surface structures possible. The technology scales with wavelength and applies to all imaging systems. The integration of optical surfaces into focal planes improves battlespace visualization involving Army thermal imaging systems in tanks, helicopters, missiles, autonomous scout vehicles, and Mounted Battlespace Battle Lab. The Phase I effort demonstrates microlense and anti-reflective surfaces etched in electro-optic materials improve coupling of signals into electro-optic devices that support the next-generation monolithically integrated electronics. Most importantly, the technology offers sensor improvements for a broad spectral range from "UV to radar" which is key to the BMDO mission. Surface microstructures that direct light into electro-optic devices have the potential to be more rugged than conventional coatings. They also offer greatly increased design flexibility, reduced fabrication temperatures, tend to be less thermally sensitive, and do not exhibit cohesion or thermal expansion problems associated with anti-reflection coatings. They can be fabricated with existing equipment and are compatible with sensor manufacturing processes. The proposed path develops a commercial fabrication capability for focal planes and optics. Embedded surface structures are common to commercial systems for telecommunications, automotive and consumer electronics (DVD and CD players).

TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.
5445 Conestoga Court #2A
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-2262
Scott Willen
BMDO 00-003
Title:SENSORS
Abstract:Many advanced space-based reconnaissance systems critical to national security employ infrared detectors that must be cooled to 45 K and below. All current low temperature cryocoolers consume large amounts of power that significantly impact the spacecraft power budget and must ultimately be rejected to space. These cryocoolers are also heavy, very expensive, lack consistency of performance, and do not have demonstrated reliaibility. The objective of this Phase I study is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of an Efficient Low-Temperature Cryocooler (ELTC) that will provide cooling below 45 K with a Carnot efficiency greater than 10 percent. It is based upon a unique expansion engine design that is fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical systems technology. Using this technology, the ELTC will be compact, low-weight, reliable, low-cost, and have negligible vibration. Its operational capabilities include variable load capability and a distributed cold-head that can accommodate large area focal plane assemblies (FPA). These features and capaiblities will significantly reduce satellite power and heat rejection requirements, decrease overall weight, and greatly simplify cooling system integration. The capability to uniformly cool large area FPAs to temperatures of 45 K and below will enable high resolution, large field-of-view sensor systems critical for advanced space reconnaissance missions. The features of this unique cooling system will provide the capability to uniformly cool large area FPAs to temperatures of 45 K and below, ushering in an era of high resolution sensors with large field of views critical for advanced space reconnaissance missions. Development of this revolutionary cooling system will dramatically improve our nation's satellite surveillance capabilities to meet future national security needs. A modification of this technology will provide cooling from 70 K to 240 K for high-temperature superconductors, the telecommunications industry, and CMOS cooling.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Ave, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Danny Eliyahu
BMDO 00-003
Title:Tunable MMW Source Using Stable Infra-red Laser Diodes and Traveling Wave Photodetector
Abstract:WaveBand Corporation proposes to develop a new tunable millimeter-wave (MMW) source compatible with MMIC technology. The source is based on a specially designed multisection distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor laser and ultrafast integrated photodetector. Two sections in the laser segment will provide the different infrared (IR) frequencies that later will be heterodyned into the photodetector to extract the MMWs. The device will have the ability to tune the MMW frequency by controlling the current flowing through one of the DFB sections. Noise will be reduced by a third section, which will couple the light of the two DFB sections, thus decreasing the MMW linewidth. The new source is expected to be much less expensive than the state-of-the-art MMW sources and thus has a high potential for applications as a local oscillator in sensors, MMW radars, steering antennas, and other MMIC devices.

XYBION CORP.
240 Cedar Knolls Road
Cedar Knolls, NJ 07927
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 538-5111
King Leung
BMDO 00-003
Title:HIGH SPEED, LARGE-APERTURE ACOUSTO-OPTIC FREQUENCY MODULATION AND FREQUENCY MULTIPLEXING (AO-FM2) FOR LASER COMMUNICATION
Abstract:Laser communication with satellites and remote vehicles poses particular communication problems be-cause of the severe weight, power and environmental constraints. This proposal examines a new acousto-optic (AO) technique to modulate a retro-reflected laser beam and achieve high-speed communication. The resulting system is compact, low power, low cost, and is capable of exceeding 5 Mbps. Our scalable AO technique utilizes high-speed frequency modulation to provide a high-modulation rate in the commu-nication link, while frequency multiplexing is introduced to overcome the fundamental limitation of the system-response time (imposed by the transit time of the acoustic signal across the diameter of the laser beam in the AO medium). The performance of our AO modulation technique will be examined in order to identify the optimal solution for operations on small, low power, remote platforms in support of Theater Missile Defense battle management, command, control, and communications (BMC3). Specifications, a preliminary design and a performance model will be developed for the optimal modulated retro-reflector system. The high-modulation rate, compact, and secure low-power communication provided by this sys-tem has a wide range of military and commercial applications, including communication to UAVs, covert surveillance devices, TV broadcasting and unattended ground sensors. The AO-FM2 provides an excellent solution for a number of applications, including remote secure com-munication with miniature covert surveillance devices (IUGS, special operations, etc.), ground to micro-UAV communication, and low-earth orbit satellite communication. In addition, the small size, low cost and lack of alignment requirements make is suitable for remote security camera applications, TV broad-casting, and commercial free space communication.

ANVIK CORP.
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Nestor Farmiga
BMDO 00-004
Title:Optimized Microvia Generation Technology for Low-cost Manufacturing of Electronic Modules
Abstract:In the manufacturing of electronic modules, microvias have enabled significant improvements in module performance, weight, and size by allowing much denser interconnects in multi-layer circuits. The microvia generating technology used to drill the vias determines not only the ultimate device density but also the economics of the entire manufacturing process. Conventional microvia generation technologies suffer from either very low speeds, or very expensive additional process steps. This proposal presents a program for developing a novel, optimized microvia generation system technology capable of via formation rates that are one hundred times or more faster than the best current technologies. This throughput improvement can be achieved without loss of the benefits of a maskless, direct-write technology which eliminates additional costly process steps. It is expected that the combined benefits of higher throughputs and direct-writing will dramatically reduce the manufacturing costs for a variety of advanced electronic modules. In Phase I we will investigate several new system concept designs, carry out performance projections, and demonstrate technical feasibility. In Phase II we will design, build and test a fully operational prototype system, which will be developed into a product to be introduced to market in Phase III. The proposed microvia generation system technology will enable significantly higher - on the order of 100X - microvia formation rates than current technologies without sacrificing the benefits of direct writing. These advances will have tremendous benefits to military and commercial advanced electronic module manufacturing, allowing significantly reduced costs.

AST PRODUCTS, INC.
9 Linnell Circle
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 663-7652
Ih-Houng Loh
BMDO 00-004
Title:Novel Anti-Reflective Coating to Improve Microelectronic Processings
Abstract:One of the primary processes used for device patterning in the electronics industry is deep ultraviolet photolithography. However, the highly reflective substrates require reduction of this reflectivity to minimize standing waves and to maintain tight dimensional control. Most of the industry uses anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) which are applied using the spin coating technique. Unfortunately, spin coating is not a conformal coating and tends to planarize complex geometries, essentially filling in the holes and rounding the features. This results in erosion of feature sidewalls and loss of dimensional integrity. The industry requires a new process for application of ARCs which is highly conformal, has low defect density, and is equally applicable to substrates up to 12" diameter. Chemical Vapor Deposition of parylene is a mature technology that has been exploited by the electronics and medical industries for use as a conformal dielectric and biocompatible coating. Parylene, however, also has many properties desirable for ARCs, such as, excellent thickness control and uniformity, absorbance in the deep UV regime, low defect density, and superior conformality. We propose to investigate the deposition of parylene films for use as an Anti-Reflective Coating used in deep UV photolithography. We will assess parylene's suitability for use as an ARC in comparison to spin-coated ARCs. Continuing into Phase II we will develop processes and processing equipment to tailor material properties to enable the use of parylene coatings as fully-functional high performance ARCs. The availability of highly conformal (non-planarizing) anti-reflective coatings is essential for continued improvements in deep ultraviolet photolithographic processes used by the electronics industry. As the market for high performance ARCs grows toward 100 million, it is expected that CVD deposited parylene coatings, with superior conformality and low defectivity, will provide chip makers with high performance ARCs to enable them to meet continuing size reduction and production demands.

BEAMTEK, INC.
3149 S. Chrysler Ave.
Tucson, AZ 85713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 790-0200
Philip Lam
BMDO 00-004
Title:A Novel Method for Fabricating Ultra Low-Cost Radial Gradient-Index Glass Rods for Optic Communication Networks
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project proposes to develop a new fabrication technology that would lead to ultra low-cost, high quality radial gradient refractive index (GRIN) rods, which are widely used in fiber optic communications. Drastic cost reduction is expected because several cost and labor intensive manufacturing processes will be eliminated, the product yield will be increased significantly compared to current existing technologies. The estimated price for our new product is less than 20% of current price. The major part of the cost reduction results from the extremely high productivity. More than ten thousands radial GRIN rods could be fabricated from one preform with a diameter of 5cm and a length of 150 cm. Importantly, this new fabrication technology also provides excellent reproducibility and an extremely high degree of flexibility in fabricating new types of radial GRIN rods. This technology could have an enormous impact in both military and civilian-oriented optical communications, signal processing and medical imaging applications. We estimated that 50 to 200 million dollars per year could be saved in USA by developing this new fabrication technique and commercializing this new product. These low-cost radial GRIN rods will significantly expedite the realization of all optic communication networks for military and Fiber-To-The-Home(FTTH). This proposed radial gradient refractive index glass rods can be used in the rapidly increasing market of civil and military communication networks, sensor networks, computer data links, document reproduction, as well as medical imaging.

CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9036 Winnetka Ave.
Northridge, CA 91324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 727-9786
Haixing Zheng
BMDO 00-004
Title:A Sol-gel Derived Two Layer System for Wideband Anti Reflection Coating
Abstract:Anti-reflective coatings with EMI shielding currently have heen widely used in CRT coatings. Conventional multi-layered sputtering coating with alternating high and low refractive index transparent layers has excellent properties. In order to obtain the wideband anti-reflective coating, more than four layers of coatings have to be deposited. It is the objective of this work to make a novel simple tow layer wideband AR coating via the sol-gel process. Dip coating and spin coating technologies will be used in this research. Great potential exists for this novel two layer wideband ARAS coating in over $31 billion CRT market. Our low cost fabrication of high performance AR coatings on CRT will replace the sputtering process for ARAS coatings. In addition, the low cost high performance AR coatings will readily have applications in other display application with additional a few hundred million dollar market.

EXOTHERMICS, INC.
44 Pine St. Extension
Nashua, NH 03060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 578-9800
Stephen DiPietro
BMDO 00-004
Title:Lightweight, Affordable Multi-Threat Spacecraft Shielding
Abstract:This proposal addresses BMDO's requirement for enhancing the survivability of spaceborne reconnaissance and early warning assets against hostile and natural threats. Exothermics proposes an program to investigate development and refinement of materials and processing methods that will permit fabrication of a net-shape formed, highly affordable multithreat shield system. Key elements of the spacecraft shield system will include a carbon/carbon outer directed energy weapon (DEW) shield, a ceramic or carbon foam DEW insulation layer, and a ballistically efficient kinetic energy weapon (KEW) "mainplate" shield. The protective shield elements will be manufactured by Exothermics and it subsidiary SMJ Carbon using novel, rapid and cost-effective gas phase and liquid phase densification methods. The entire multi-layer shield system will be bonded together in one-step fashion using gas phase nitridation, further lowering system complexity, parasitic weight and unit cost. Ceramic and carbon/carbon composite test coupons made during the Phase 1 program will be subjected to high power laser irradiation and hypervelocity impact testing. This will allow the baseline performance of the materials to be documented and comparatively assessed. The Phase 1 Program will conclude with fabrication of a multi-threat demonstrator shield component which would be available for further testing. Commercial markets which could benefit from products made in support of the proposed work include: (1) Molten metals processing (launders, crucibles, pump parts, furnace liners); (2) Aerospace/defense (solid rocket motor case insulation, rocket nozzle/liner structures, thermal protection systems); and, (3) Chemical processing (toxic waste incineration, low-mass kiln furniture/insulation systems, reformer and catalysis tubes). Product sales in the vicinity of $3-5 million/year within a five year period could come about - at least partially as a result of research contributed from this program.

FARADAY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
315 Huls Drive
Clayton, OH 45315
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 836-7749
E. Taylor
BMDO 00-004
Title:Low Cost Manufacturing of Advanced Electronic Modules
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will enable the development and commercialization of a key enabling technology for the low-cost high-volume manufacture of advanced electronic modules, which are critical for most of the sophisticated technology based systems required by the BMDO. Faraday Technology, Inc. proposes to develop a charge modulated electrochemical deposition (CM-ECD) process for metallization of high density interconnect (HDI) substrates for integrated circuit packaging applications. The roadmaps of NEMI and IPC have projected the need for low-cost, high-volume manufacturing of HDI substrates. Compared to the state of the art, the proposed CM-ECD process will allow 1) high rate metallization, 660-1300 nm/min compared to 25-125 nm/min, 2) metallization of large panels, 450x600 mm compared to 100x50 mm, 3) metallization of multiple feature sizes in one process step without masking, 4) robust metallization not dependent on proprietary and difficult to control plating bath additives, and 5) substantial cost reduction, at least 50%. The proposed CM-ECD process will provide a critical, enabling technology for HDI substrates - a market projected to grow from $2 billion to $24 billion (2007). HDI substrates provide advanced packaging capabilities for microelectronic products in a variety of markets.

LASERGENICS CORP.
6830 Via Del Oro, Suite 103
San Jose, CA 95119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 363-9791
Sandor Erdei
BMDO 00-004
Title:Growth of Gallium Nitride Single Crystals by the PTFG Technique
Abstract:Recently much work has been directed at the growth of epitaxial layers of the group III nitrides because of their potential application in the manufacture of blue LEDs and laser diodes. These layers have been deposited on such materials as sapphire and silicon carbide. Because of the large lattice mismatch of these materials with the nitrides, a large number of defects are generated. If large single crystals of the group III nitrides could be grown, they could be used as the substrate for these devices, resulting in a significant improvement in efficiency. The objective of our proposal is to use our new growth technique, the PTFG method, to grow large crystals of GaN. This technique can also be used for the other group III nitrides such as AlN and InN as well as for many other materials that are difficult to grow. There is much interest in blue laser diodes and LEDs. The group III nitrides are the most attractive materials for this application. The ideal substrate is single crystal wafers of the material to be grown but single crystals of appropriate size are not available. By successfully completing our program, substrates will become available that will make these devices commercially possible.

MOTORCARBON RESEARCH LLC
720 Mound Avenue, COS 316 PO Box 856
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-4429
Joseph Hager
BMDO 00-004
Title:IN SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF PITCH AS AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW-COST C-C COMPOSITES
Abstract:This project addresses unit cost reduction for processing of carbon-carbon (C-C) composites from pitch-based precursors. Pitch matrices, which exhibit excellent char yield and produce graphitic rather than amorphous carbon, must currently be stabilized with a problematic oxidation step prior to carbonization, or be carbonized at high pressures. The project objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing composites using pitch-based precursors without the need for an oxygen stabilization step. This innovation is enabled through the dissolution of a chemical ingredient in the pitch, which prevents bloating during carbonization. The Phase I effort explores the effect of varying percentages of the active ingredient on the pitch viscosity as a function of temperature, and contrasts the mechanism of bloating inhibition versus that provided by conventional oxygen stabilization. Concept viability is demonstrated through the fabrication of carbonized pitch-matrix composites. The ability to use pitch as a carbon matrix precursor without requiring oxygen stabilization may revolutionize the way carbon-carbon is produced. Since the chemical additive is distributed throughout the matrix, stabilization is not dependent on diffusion of a gaseous reactant from the outside of a formed object. With an effective chemical stabilizer, one can envision the forming of thick sections prior to carbonization without fear of bloating. Injection molding of pitch/chopped fiber compound or vacuum assisted pitch transfer molding of continuous fiber preforms may become standard pre-carbonization forming steps for mass-produced C-C parts.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Frank Kuchinski
BMDO 00-004
Title:Low Cost Laser Fabrication of Ceramic Components for Power Conversion in Space-Based Laser and Radar Systems
Abstract:Triton proposes a major breakthrough in ceramic net shape forming that will enable more reliable and affordable high power generation for space and terrestrial applications. Our approach uniquely addresses the costly, time consuming and multi-step fabrication process currently used to fabricate " Alumina Solid Electrolyte (BASE) tube assemblies for Alkali-Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converters (AMTEC). The innovation is based on recent work at Triton employing Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) to produce otherwise unattainable microstructures in ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites. This breakthrough will employ LENS to produce fully integrated and functionally graded BASE tube structures in a single process, thus eliminating the need for multiple joints and expansion rings that are complex, costly and can lead to cell failure. Phase I focuses on production of homogeneous monolithic ceramic and functionally graded components. The Phase II will expand the effort to fabricate prototype sub-components with functional grading between ceramic and refractory metal phases. Process modeling techniques, design methodologies and appropriate performance tests will be conducted to demonstrate proof of concept. Phase III will encompass more extensive space qualification testing followed by manufacturing scale-up to produce the required volume and quality of BASE tube assemblies in the United States. This computer controlled one-step fabrication process promises to yield more robust components at a lower cost than current manufacturing methods, enabling AMTEC to be employed in high power generation platforms such as Space-Based Laser (SBL) and Space-Based Radar (SBR). The availability of high power in space will also significantly enhance data transmission and communication rates via satellites for both military and commercial applications. Terrestrial applications for AMTEC include silent, remote power generation for military operations, solar power conversion, heavy duty trucks and commercial/home furnace attachments. Most terrestrial applications will take waste heat and convert it to useful energy, thus preserving fossil fuel resources.

VARTECH, INC.
2300 N. Yellowstone Highway High Bay #5
Idaho Falls, ID 83401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 523-1026
Lynn Lundberg
BMDO 00-004
Title:Cost-Breakthrough Titanium Production as a Commodity Metal
Abstract:A new, continuous process is proposed for direct manufacture of titanium at very low cost and high energy efficiency. The proposed process is very robust, and could also produce intermetallic TiAl, Ti3Al, TiAl3, and other alloys. The proposed process has inherent economies suitable for making titanium and titanium alloys as inexpensive, commodity metals for general use, rather than as exotic materials to be used only when their high performance is required despite their presently high cost. Titanium and its alloys are important, but costly, materials for aerospace structural and propulsion components. The relatively low density of titanium, combined with its high-temperature properties, high specific stiffness, high strength, high corrosion resistance and relative toughness, are particularly desirable in aerospace systems. Titanium and TiAl are also used, or under development in reinforced composite aerospace components, such as advanced SiC-fiber-reinforced titanium alloy engine and structural components. TiAl automotive valvetrain components also provide improved performance and improved fuel economy, but are prohibitively expensive for general use. A low-cost proess for producing titanium and its alloys would provide enormous savings where it is currently used despite its cost, and would greatly expand the use of the metal and its alloys into general aviation and automotive areas where its cost has been prohibitive.

ACTIVE SIGNAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13025 Beaver Dam Road
Cockeysville, MD 21030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 547-0293
Keith Bridger
BMDO 00-005
Title:Advanced Cryogenic Dielectric Material
Abstract:Active Signal Technologies and Alfred University propose to enhance the cryogenic performance of lead magnesium tantalate substituted with nickel, to develop a new material for cryogenic power electronics with maximum permittivity at 70K (-203 degC). A two-pronged approach addresses dielectric issues in the material and then device issues in the electrodes. Phase I entails compositional, processing, and additive modifications to reduce pyrochlore formation and improve performance and integrity. Established techniques will be used to improve synthesis and processing, focusing on raw materials chemistry, powder processing, heat treatment, and phase composition. The base material powder compositions will initially be refined to achieve lowest temperature performance with minimum processing penalty. Pyrochlore formation will be suppressed using modified tantalate powder production, and MgO additives. Grain and grain boundary phases and porosity will be controlled using a novel powder coating technique and HIP'ing. Potassium fluxing will be applied to promote liquid phase sintering, hence densification and to scavenge tantalum pentoxide which would otherwise form pyrochlore. Electroding issues will also be explored in Phase I as a precursor to development of novel low-thermal-expansion ceramic electrodes in Phase II. Finally, solid solutions will be prepared with Lead Iron Tungstate to expand the temperature range of elevated permittivity. The present dielectric material has application to cryogenic electronic systems that are currently limited by the high operating temperature, low permittivity and poor reliability of current dielectrics. Examples include space-based communication, weapon and exploration systems, advanced avionics and cooled FPA night vision and surveillance systems.

AVONIA
13631 Old El Camino Real
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 793-6762
Andrew Wilson
BMDO 00-005
Title:ION-DOMINATED TRANSPORT IN PRS
Abstract:The objective is to show that plasma radiation source (PRS) behavior during the radiation pulse is controlled by fast ions. They result from both the plasma implosion as well as near-axis acceleration following implosion. They have long collision lengths until slowed by thermal electrons to near thermal ion speeds. This non-fluid behavior leads to the diffuse plasma pinches seen in experiments and results in radiation pulsewidths that are longer, less intense and characterized by cooler plasma radiation spectra than are needed for increased output of soft X-rays. We will develop a computer model to take account of the non-fluid dynamics and to explain observations in experiments using large radiation simulators. Success of this model would impact future machine technology and, to a greater extent, the design of plasma loads. Based on the degree of success achieved will recommend a Phase II program to work with both theory support and experimental groups to refine the model and apply it to plan PRS experiments. These would be planned to (a) test and verify it and (b) guide designs for increased X-ray output of harder spectra than is possible today. The benefits to AVONIA are for a verified and validated software model. This model would find application in both DOD and DOE X-radiation simulation programs as well as in pellet fusion research.

CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9036 Winnetka Ave.
Northridge, CA 91324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 727-9786
Qiang Wei
BMDO 00-005
Title:High Power Density Ultracapacitor by Using Ruthenium Oxide Fibers as Electrode
Abstract: Electrical performance of ultracapacitors based on consolidated powders such as carbon powders is often limited by interparticle electrical resistance, and this requires addition of conductivity enhancing additives or specialized processing steps. Ruthenium oxide is known for its intrinsic high electronic conductance. To reduce the interparticle resistance, in this proposed Phase I program, we are going to make ruthenium oxide fiber electrodes using sol-gel technology. The microstructure of fibers will be tailored to obtain an uniform pore size distribution and high accessible surface area. Therefore, the power density of ultracapacitor made of this material is expected to be notably improved due to a much lower ESR. Load leveling for electric vehicle or as power source for automotive sub-systems such as starter, regenerative braking and air bag. In addition, portable electronic devices such as notebook computers, cellular phones will also be able to use it as primary or secondary power sources.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURE & MATERIALS, LLC
309 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Jeffrey Paine
BMDO 00-005
Title:Simplified Solid-State Thermal Power Generation
Abstract:Solid-state thermal power generation technology for remote missile defense sites and monitoring locations will provide effective long-term solutions for remote power needs. The simplified thermal power generator operates using the concepts of a thermal alkali-metal heat pump. A working fluid is produced by melting alkali metals at high temperatures. The working fluid is pressurized because of the vaporization pressure that develops during the heating process. The high pressure fluid is forced through a ceramic material in an ionic-transport process to produce the electric potential. As the fluid is moved through the system, the electric power produced by the unit is efficient to the level of 30%. Given that current commercial solar cells are only efficient to 5 or 10%, the solid-state thermal cell is significantly more efficient and as simple to implement. The units can be heated by nearly any source of effective heat production: fossil fuels, solar, and geothermal can all be used to power the unit. The unit has no moving parts except for a working fluid that flows under its own vaporization pressure as it is heated. The cost of the thermal cells will also be significantly lower than comparable solid-state technology. The unit will be useful in commercial and military remote sites, ground ballistic missile defense vehicles, and homes or businesses removed from the electric power grid. The military will be able to use it as a portable power generator on many remote missions where ease of use, compactness and fuel insensitivity is important. The unit might also be made cheap enough such that it can be made disposable or expendable for short missions or where return weight must be reduced.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Trung Nguyen
BMDO 00-005
Title:High Energy and Power Density Ultracapacitor
Abstract:Antiballistic missiles strategic weapons require high power sources of minimum volume and weight that are capable of delivering high pulse energy on a suitable time scale. To meet these demands, a new generation of ultracapacitors is proposed that promise energy densities approaching battery levels without compromising power densities and cycle life of current ultracapacitors. The technology entails conversion of high surface area carbon to Ru oxide coated carbon of extremely large capacitance and low resistance. This is achieved via a unique aqueous, room temperature "plating" procedure, adaptable to existing double layer carbon electrodes. In initial experiments we demonstrated a 50 fold increase in capacity and a ten fold decrease in resistance of the carbon electrode. For the electro-deposited RuO2 the measured specific capacitance was almost twice the highest value reported for the RuO2 obtained by a sol-gel process. The high capacity and low resistance hybrid electrode are expected to result, after development, in ultracapacitors with energy densities of about 30 Wh/kg, power densities of about 40 kW/kg, and an operating life of > 10,000 cycles. In Phase I we will demonstrate the feasibility of depositing thin film super high capacity hydrous RuOx over the entire internal surface of porous carbon electrodes and determine the properties of the novel composite structures. In Phase II we will optimize the electrode properties and scale up the fabrication process. We will design hybrid ultracapacitors and perform modeling calculations to optimize power and energy. The technology will then be demonstrated in complete prototype devices. The improved ultracapacitors will find wide spread military and commercial applications to supply pulsed power for lasers and communication equipment. Commercial applications include cellular telephones, two way pagers, scanners, memory protection in computer electronics, uninterruptible power supplies and load leveling for electric vehicles.

ELECTRO ENERGY, INC.
22 Shelter Rock Lane
Danbury, CT 06810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 797-2699
Martin Klein
BMDO 00-005
Title:PEAK POWER BATTERY
Abstract:Direct Energy Weapon Systems and other electric equipment require bursts of high peak power. There is increasing demands for higher power levels, and requirements to reduce the weight and volume of the systems. This project focuses on the developoment of an ultra high power density version of Nickel-Metal Hydride rechargeable battery to meet such applications. The program is directed at optimizing the design of a bipolar Ni-MH battery with ultra thin electrodes and high rate electrode materials. The performance goals are to achieve power densities up to 2000 w/kg for short bursts of power. This represents, approximately, a factor of four improvements of power density over that which is obtainable with conventional Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries and a factor of two over EEI's present status. This performance level would make such devices competitive on a power density with capacitors, yet they would be capable of delivering much greater energy density. Rechargeable batteries and capacities are used in a broad range of military and commercial equipment. Higher power density devices would reduce the size and weight of these systems especially in power tools and Hybrid Electric Vehicles.

EURUS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2031 E. Paul Dirac Drive Innovation Park
Tallahassee, FL 32310
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 574-1800
Michael Tomsic
BMDO 00-005
Title:Development of Chemical Buffer Layers for YBCO Coated Conductors
Abstract:There is a need for small efficient superconducting generators for several military programs supported by BMDO -THADD, DEW, and the Navy's superconducting motor programs. The development of high-temperature superconductors based on YBCO on a textured metal substrate will make a dramatic impact on components for these systems. On short lengths these conductors have demonstrated high current densities of over 1 million amps/cm2 at 77 K in self field. This level of performance will result in higher operating temperatures and efficiencies, plus reduction in size and weight for the system components such as generators, motors, and power supplies. The primary focus of this proposal is to develop long-length textured buffer layers on textured metal substrates for the development of YBCO high temperature superconductors. During this Phase I we will investigate in long length several oxide buffer layers that have shown epitaxial texture on textured metal substrates. These oxides will be applied using low cost reel-to-reel chemical solution processes without any vacuum processing. The commercial benefit of this proposal is to develop and commercialize low cost long length textured YBCO superconductors and make them available for highly efficient and compact generators, motors, MRI, SMES, fault current limiters, and transmission cables.

EURUS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2031 E. Paul Dirac Drive Innovation Park
Tallahassee, FL 32310
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 574-1800
Michael Tomsic
BMDO 00-005
Title:Development of Chemical YBCO Layers for Coated Conductors
Abstract:There is a need for small efficient superconducting generators for several military programs supported by BMDO -THADD, DEW, and the Navy's superconducting motor programs. The development of high-temperature superconductors based on YBCO on a textured metal substrate will make a dramatic impact on components for these systems. On short lengths these conductors have demonstrated high current densities of over 1 million amps/cm2 at 77 K in self field. This level of performance will result in higher operating temperatures and efficiencies, plus reduction in size and weight for the system components such as generators, motors, and power supplies. The primary focus of this proposal is to develop long-length textured YBCO layers on textured buffered metal substrates for high temperature superconductors. During this Phase I we will investigate several YBCO chemical solution routes to form the YBCO layers. These YBCO layers will be applied using low cost reel-to-reel chemical solution processes without any vacuum processing. The commercial benefit of this proposal is to develop and comercialize low cost, long-length textured YBCO superconductors and make them available for highly efficient and compact generators, motors, MRI, SMES, fault current limiters, and transmission cables.

GRATINGS, INC.
7104 Jefferson, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-9564
Saleem Zaidi
BMDO 00-005
Title:Radiation -tolerant Si solar Cells for Space
Abstract:This phase I proposal is aimed at improving radiation tolerance of Si solar cells for space environment. Radiation damage in space causes significant reduction in minority carrier diffusion length resulting in significant loss in efficiency. We propose a novel optical coupling scheme to create electron hole pairs near the front surface pn junction. This is done by using grating coupling to propagate transmitted diffraction orders (inside Si) nearly parallel to the surface. Exact optical modeling and preliminary solar cell internal quantum efficiency measurements have demonstrated enhancement by a factor of 2.2 at a wavelength of ~ 1.05 micron.. The phase I work is aimed at optimization of grating parameters and their incorporation in conventional solar cells. We believe that this approach has the potential to replace existing III-V compound semiconductor based solar cells. High efficiency, radiation-resistant Si solar cells for space Improved Si solar cells for terrestrial applications

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
12401 West 49th Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5155
Lawrence Woods
BMDO 00-005
Title:NON-NUCLEAR POWER SOURCES AND POWER CONDITIONING
Abstract:Power management and distribution (PMAD) systems must ascertain spacecraft power demands, assess the batteries' state of charge, quantify available power from the solar arrays, and route power to maximize spacecraft performance for its mission. While many future spacecraft designs could benefit greatly from localized power generation, management, and in some cases, power storage, conventional electronics are susceptible to radiation and must be protected within the spacecraft within heavy boxes. We at ITN Energy Systems, Inc. propose a completely flexible PMAD solution to this problem, providing a PMAD "patch" on the array to regulate power. Based on our experience in polycrystalline thin-film, flexible, monolithically-integrated copper-indium-gallium-selenium (CIGS), we feel that flexible PMAD is possible. Further, the inherent radiation resistance of CIGS enables co-location of power regulation and its associated load, conformally attached to a suitable radiating surface, or incorporated into a flexible integrated power pack (FIPP) that includes flexible PV array, flexible solid-state thin-film battery, and flexible PMAD (Fig. 1). Such a system is ideal for emerging small satellite applications, as well as very large (> 5 kW) PV power systems. Furthermore, this technology can be enabling to many innovative applications, including very large-area flexible "flat panel" displays for high definition displays. Applications for a completely flexible circuit with active devices are limitless. Automotive applications, such as flexible printed circuits for dash gauge displays, can incorporate the necessary electronics to eliminate discrete electronic boxes and thereby reduces space requirements under the dash. Portable electronic devices also can benefit directly from a commercially viable process for active device deposition. Large-screen graphics displays for computers can also be flexible, thereby providing laptops with a more easily stowed screen with a small footprint. Finally, very-large area displays, such as large-screen digital television, could be made in the future in a flexible form factor, thereby providing low-cost, large-area video with a high degree of portability and ease of transport.

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20955 Morris Avenue P.O. Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 489-4889
M. Munshi
BMDO 00-005
Title:High Power Hybrid Electrochemical Capacitors
Abstract:Electrochemical capacitors based on very high surface area activated carbon or valve metal oxides offer high power but at the expense of high equivalent series resistance (ESR) at low temperatures leading to a leaky capacitor during charge and discharge. To exacerbate the problem, their energy densities or discharge time is often too low for most new applications such as telecommunications and their cost per unit energy is also very high. Lithium power foresees a new eightfold more cost-effective electrochemical capacitor technology to replace present materials such as carbon or ruthenium oxide that cannot alone meet the future rising military or commercial demands. We will investigate a new design of thin film polymer electrolyte electrochemical capacitors that delivers higher energy and power capabilities at lower ESR with significantly extended discharge times, higher efficiency, higher cycle life and excellent reliability. As a consequence of this Phase I program, an opportunity will arise to develop, for the first time, a truly flexible, polymeric electrolyte electrochemical capacitor with a wide range of form factors, ideal for thin portable devices. The markedly higher performance values (energy density, ESR, weight) combined with a markedly lower cost per unit of performance will energize a commercial market to drive these capacitors into every military and civil use where electrochemical capacitors go today. The driving force is the telecommunication, medical and electric vehicle applications.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Robert Scaringe President
BMDO 00-005
Title:Demonstration of a Compact Cryocooling System for High Temperature Superconductor and Electronics Cooling Applications
Abstract:Rapidly advancing electronics technology require new thermal control concepts that operate at multiple temperatures, have high efficiency, high reliability, and are transportable for mobile ground-based or spacecraft systems. Mainstream has developed a unique patented cryocooler and two-phase cold-plate. For a potential ground based BMDO cooling requirement of 3.5 kW at 100 K and 12 kW at 150K, (cryoocooled GBR system with a conventional non-cooled radar), the entire cooling system cube would measure 2' x 2' x 2'. This is an order of magnitude smaller than current cryocooler configurations while providing ten-times the cooling capacity! Mainstream will demonstrate in Phase I, a patented cryocooler which utilizes multiple isothermal cold-plates operating at different temperatures. The cryocooler's design uses a unique single-stage cascade vapor compression refrigeration configuration that allows for multiple-cold plates operating at different temperatures. (The temperatures can be selected anywhere from ambient to 80K.) Phase I will include a demonstration of a complete breadboard unit utilizing isothermal cold-plates at four different temperatures! Mainstream has completed its commercialization research and secured non-federal funding for successful commercialization following a successful Phase I. A Fast-Track Phase II is planned. Phase I will demonstrate this reliable, high efficiency electronic cryocooler, thereby removing any doubts as to the SIZE, practicality, performance, reliability, or configuration of the system. This will allow Phase II and Phase III commercialization to focus on specific DoD and commercial applications for High-Temperature Cryogenic Cooling (100-240K) for BMDO and wireless telecommunication applications. Commercial partners have been secured, and market research has indicated tremendous commercial potential in the wireless communication, and sensor industries. This technology will benefit BMDO ground-based missile defense systems, naval avionics systems, and other high-energy-density military electronics.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 734-2441
Zane Shellenbarger
BMDO 00-005
Title:High Efficiency InAsSbP Thermophotovoltaic Cells
Abstract: The IR Devices, Modules, and Materials Group at Structured Materials Industries (SMI) proposes the development of high efficiency thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells based on InAsSbP material. Working with Sarnoff Corporation, SMI recently demonstrated a high-efficiency InGaAsSb TPV cell with a cut-off wavelength of 2.4 microns and is developing a 1.8/2.4 micron tandem TPV cell. The overall efficiency of these cells when used with a ~1000 C or lower temperature blackbody heat source could be greatly improved by extending the cut-off wavelength out past 2.5 microns. This is difficult in the InGaAsSb system due to a miscibility gap in the solid composition. The use of InAsSbP material for the active region of the TPV cells will extend the cut-off wavelength into the 2.5-3.0 micron range. In the Phase I program, we will determine the most promising structure for a high-efficiency InAsSbP TPV cell. When fully developed, this technology will result in significantly higher performance of TPV energy conversion from lower temperature heat sources including low temperature burning fuels such as wood, conventional furnace burners, jet exhaust cowlings or rocket nozzles and even automotive engines. This program will provide cost-effective, high-efficiency InAsSbP TPV cells for space power and other commercial and military applications. Specific applications include combustion-fueled portable battery chargers, co-generation of electricity from furnaces and nuclear reactors, and power for deep space missions utilizing radioisotope heat sources.

T/J TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3850 Research Park Drive P.O. Box 2150
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 213-1637
John Miller
BMDO 00-005
Title:High Energy Density Ultracpacitors
Abstract:Ultracapacitors improve the performance of electronic power sources in applications calling for high peak power at low duty cycles. Porous activated carbons are established electrode materials. In this project the carbon electrode composition will be modified to increase the energy density of ultracapacitors. This will be achieved by shifting the open circuit potential of carbon electrodes to increase the cell potential limits. Several different metal species will be inserted in varying atomic fractions. Prototype capacitor cells will be prepared and evaluated to determine the open circuit potential and cell voltage window. Extended charge/discharge and constant potential measurements will be made to assure that the shift in open circuit potential is sustained. In Phase II the pore structure of the doped carbon materials will be optimized to increase capacitance and frequency response. Larger scale prototypes will be fabricated to specifications for load-leveling power supplies for BMDO applications such as burst communications or electromechanical actuators. If successful, this approach could double the energy density of ultracapacitors and reduce the overall power supply weight and volume. Ultracapacitors complement or replace batteries in applications where weight, peak power, and battery life are key factors. Commercial applications include cellular phones, power conditioning (UPS), electromechanical actuators, and conventional or hybrid vehicles. In aerospace applications, ultracapacitors could supplement batteries or photovoltaics to handle high peak power loads such as mechanical actuation, weapon fuzing, burst communications, or high power radar.

T/J TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3850 Research Park Drive P.O. Box 2150
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 213-1637
Daryl Clerc
BMDO 00-005
Title:High Capacity Metal Nitride Anodes for Lithium Batteries
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop new high capacity metal nitride anode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The work builds on prior development by Matsushita of Li3-xCoxN materials with capacity and rate capability superior to graphite. T/J Technologies will exploit its expertise with metal nitride electrodes to modify the composition of these materials with the objective of increasing cell energy density and reducing cost. A range of new compositions will be examined. Test cells will be prepared and subjected to standard battery performance evaluations to determine the capacity and rate capability of the new electrode materials. The composition and processing conditions will be correlated with electrochemical performance. Phase I will focus on anode performance and electrolyte compatibility. Phase II will adopt a broader systems-level perspective to optimize cell performance, including factors such as cathode performance, separator, binders, cell balance, particle size, and electrode thickness. This project will develop advanced electrode materials to increase the energy and power delivered by rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Such batteries would benefit space and defense applications that require high power and low weight. There is also a very rapidly growing market for higher power lithium ion batteries for consumer applications (wireless communications, laptop PC's, camcorders) as well as for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion.

US NANOCORP, INC.
20 Washington Ave. Ste. 106
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 234-8024
Pritpal Singh
BMDO 00-005
Title:Fuzzy Logic-Based Prediction of PEM Fuel Cell Failure
Abstract:Fuel cells are perceived to be the power source of the future because they potentially offer much greater energy per unit weight and volume than any battery. The proposed program will assess the feasibility of a fuzzy logic approach to determination of state-of-health (SOH) in PEM fuel cells as a means to predict failure under operating conditions. Once the onset of failure is identified, corrective action can be taken through adjustment of cell operating conditions. For remote service, this is of inestimable value. This enabling technology is expected to dramatically increase reliability of PEM and other fuel cell types, especially for those devices operating at their limits in high power critical missions. In the proposed program, partial H Power PowerPEM fuel cells will be subjected to failure mode analysis. A gradual onset of PEMFC failure will be created by invoking dryout and flooding conditions. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy will be used to analyze the membrane electrode assembly. Fuzzy logic methods will be used to reduce the multivariate data. In the Phase II program, controller circuitry will be designed and assembled and a prototype PEMFC management system will be delivered to a PEMFC manufacturer. Commercial PEM fuel cell development is being targeted for transportation, electricity generation, and portable power. A leader in the development of PEM fuel cells is Ballard Power Systems, which is partnering with DaimlerChrysler, Ford, and GM in commercialization of a fuel cell engine.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Avenue, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Niansheng Qi
BMDO 00-006
Title:Vacuum arc thrusters for small satellite applications
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation plans to develop and commercialize a new vacuum arc thruster (VAT). For BMDO missions, electrical propulsion systems are playing an important role. Missile defense places unprecedented demands on various types of propulsion systems: orbit transfer, orbital maneuvering and station keeping. The proposed Vacuum Arc Thruster should meet TMD and NMD's challenging requirements. One of the key technologies that could lead to the successful deployment of NMD is ~1-2kW plasma thrusters. The key milestone of Phase I is to achieve an efficiency of >=50% with a specific impulse of 1000-2000 s, which is a practical requirement. Another Phase I goal is to firmly establish the key advantages and disadvantages of the VAT vs. existing PPT and MPD thrusters by measuring the efficiency and the thrust, and conducting system and mission analysis. The Phase II effort will develop the VAT as a suitable engine for propulsion, validate and deliver the device to BMDO. The Phase III effort will commercialize and supply the VAT to the government for electric propulsion applications as well as modify the source for other commercial applications. The primary application of the specific thruster to be developed will be for spacecraft, (less than 250 kg) propulsion. The thruster could also be miniaturized for microsatellite and micro-spacecraft Class I applications. Other commercial applications include: sources of heavy ion beams for heavy ion fusion reactors, for materials surface characterization, for experimental research in atomic physics and in the nuclear physics community.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2744 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Patrick Hood
BMDO 00-006
Title:Nematic Thermosets for Rotationally Molded Tanks
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc., proposes to develop new materials and processing technology for potential application to solid rocket motors (SRM). SRM casings require high-strength, high-temperature stability, low-weight and low-cost. We propose to develop materials and processing technologies for cost-effective rotational molding of new nematic liquid crystalline thermosets. We seek to accomplish this by developing nematic thermoset mixtures whose synthesis procedures are well established. The proposed materials should feature low viscosity and attractive curing behavior amenable to conventional rotational molding procedures. The research will focus primarily on the material development - including synthesis, cure characterization, and chemorheological characterization - but will also include prototype tank manufacturing utilizing laboratory-scale rotomolding equipment to be designed and built. The roational molding of new nematic thermosets will generate high-strength, light-weight, thermally- and chemically-stable tanks. This technology offers significant advantages for the automotive industry for fuel storage tanks, reducing weight and increasing fuel efficiency. Use of non-metallic casings offers the potential for the space community to simultaneously reduce vehicle weight (which increases the thrust to weight ratio reducing launch per kg cost), reducing capital cost, and increasing reliability/safety based on intrinsically reduced probability of bondline delamination (adhesive failures).

ELECTRON ENERGY CORP.
924 Links Avenue
Landisville, PA 17538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 898-2294
Christina Chen
BMDO 00-006
Title:Rare Earth 1:7 Metastable-phase Permanent Magnets for Ion Propulsion Systems
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR Phase I effort is to establish the feasibility of developing high performance 1:7 metastable phase rare earth permanent magnets that possess superior magnetic properties to temperatures as high as 600C for ion propulsion system applications. It is also possible that the magnetic properties will be essentially constant over a wide temperature range of -50 to 550C. The approach is to develop anisotropic sintered rare earth permanent magnets with general composition based on the 1:7 metastable Sm-Co phase [rare earth (RE), transition metal (TM) compounds with TM/RE ratio of 7]. These new magnets will possess near zero temperature coefficients of magnetization, remanence, and coercivity over a broad range for such applications as ion propulsion systems. The basic EEC and UDRI approach will be to use powder metallurgy techniques to produce sintered anisotropic Sm-Co magnets that incorporate element(s) from the IVB group (Ti, Zr, Hf) to stabilize the Sm-Co 1:7 metastable phase structure. We will also use partial Fe substitution for Co to increase the magnetization values. The payoff for DoD and commercial ion propulsion systems includes high temperature, stable permanent magnets that permit ion engines to operate at higher temperatures and minimize the system cooling requirements and weight. Easier processing of these 1:7 metastable phase materials also make them attractive economically. The primary applications that will benefit from these improved high temperature permanent magnet materials are ion propulsion systems for space applications. Ion propulsion is an extremely efficient alternative to chemical propulsion for space applications such as station keeping, orbit raising from LEO or MEO to GEO, satellite repositioning, and deep space scientific missions. For these applications, ion propulsion is approximately ten times more efficient than chemical propulsion. It is also inherently easier to control the thrust of an ion propulsion system. These new magnets will also reduce the weight of cooling systems required to maintain magnet performance. This weight savings will translate into increased payload capability or lower cost smaller launch vehicles.

RICE SYSTEMS, INC.
1150 Main Street, Suite C
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-8768
Colleen Fitzpatrick
BMDO 00-006
Title:PROPULSION AND LOGISTICS SYSTEMS
Abstract:Contamination due to incomplete combustion of effluents can cause a reduction in efficiency of spacecraft propulsion systems and instrumentation. For example, liquid droplets from spacecraft verniers can condense on surveillance sensors such as infrared detectors, or reduce power generation of solar panels. While such problems have been addressed for large scale propulsion systems through extensive diagnostic analysis, the results cannot be extrapolated to small scale systems, because the physical principles involved cannot be applied to such small dimensions. Also, because of the large scale of diagnostic equipment, most propulsion system measurements have been ground-based. However, the extrapolation of these results to flight conditions remains uncertain. Rice Systems, Inc. propose to resolve many of these problems with the development of miniature nonintrusive optical diagnostic sensors for measuring the flow characteristics of microthrusters. These microdiagnostic sensors are based on monolithic silicon optical bench technology, and can be made an integral part of microthruster walls, providing real-time, in-situ measurements, even in flight. This project will result in the design of an integrated optics microsensor capable of nonintrusive monitoring of combustion exhaust parameters, to increase thruster efficiency and control sensor contamination. The ultimate goal is the reduced cost of miniature satellite propulsion systems used for surveillance, communications, and other applications. The development of surveillance and communications microsatellites would greatly benefit from the development of the proposed microdiagnostic sensors, in terms of reducing contamination, increasing efficiency, and ultimately lowing the cost of production.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Fred Lauten
BMDO 00-006
Title:Materials for Low and Zero Erosion Rocket Motors
Abstract: Triton Systems, Inc. proposes to develop a novel ceramic-metal composite for use as solid rocket motor components which exhibit low (or zero) erosion in current and next generation missile defense systems. The Triton team has worked to develop a revolutionary ceramic-metal hybrid material, which during a limited battery of rocket motor testing exhibits very promising low erosion properties for use as motor components with advanced propellants. Combined with the material's excellent high temperature thermal-mechanical properties, low density, and resistance to thermal shock, the motor test results are an exciting indication of the high-payoffs this material will yield tactical launch systems and SDACS. It is the primary goal of the Phase I SBIR to take the next development step by performing the stringent test, design and analysis necessary to demonstrate its feasibility for use in launch systems for small and full system payloads. As a result of a successful Phase II program, we will have performed full-scale component testing, and the technology will be poised for insertion into US military missile defense systems. Triton anticipates a broad range of applications for rocketry related products, including SDACS hot gas valves, nozzle inserts, and TVC vanes. All would advantageously impact DOD military missile defense systems. A number of non government commercial products will utilize this technology, including cutting tools, chemical processing apparatus and high temperature sensing devices.

W. E. RESEARCH LLC
4360 San Juan Ct
Rosamond, CA 93560
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 275-6798
John Schilling
BMDO 00-006
Title:PROPULSION AND LOGISTICS SYSTEMS
Abstract:This proposal is to develop and test a small solid fueled thruster using an Electrically Controlled Extinguishable Solid Propellant (ECESP). The resultent thruster will combine the simplicity and storability advantages of solid fuel with controllability of the short duration pulsed thrust from a small liquid thruster. The fuel burns only in the presence of electrical current, and extinguishes quickly when that current is removed. Versatile smallsat and microsat propulsion systems will be a key enabling technology for a wide range of Air Force missions in the early 21st century. Flight-qualified PPTs derived from this research could be available to meet this demand in the 2003- 2004 timeframe.

ATEC, INC.
11890 Old Baltimore Pike, Suit
Beltsville, MD 20705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 931-3221
Reza Shekarriz
BMDO 00-007
Title:EHD Enhanced Chip-Integrated Sensor Cooling System
Abstract:Advanced Thermal and Environmental Concepts (ATEC), Inc. and Technology Assessment and Transfer, Inc. (TA&T) propose to develop a chip-integrated cooling system using a ceramic packaging fabrication process called stereo-photolithographic technique. The proposed stereolithography process will enable automated layer-by-layer fabrication of ceramic packages directly from a CAD representation of the circuit. Using this process, ATEC and TA&T are proposing to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of fabrication of a micro-channel heat sink directly integrated into the multi-chip module. Further, various micro-structures are being proposed along with electrohydrodynamic (EHD) micro-pumping. The EHD micro-pumping is proposed for enhancement of the heat transfer rate within the micro-channels. The heat sink is then coupled into an external radiator for dissipation of the heat. The challenges in the proposed project are the development of the optimal geometry for the micro-channel structures, fabrication of the micro-structures, and EHD near surface micro-pumping enhancement within the micro-channels. The advantages of the proposed system are: 1) light-weight ceramic material, 2) easily integrated into multi-chip module manufacturing process, and 3) higher system by actively controlling the local cooling rate with a micro-pump. Heat rejection from microelectronic devices has been recognized to be a problem for more than two decades and with the increasing demand on miniaturization and compaction of electronic components, the demand for heat rejection continues to increase. Therefore, the final product, EHD enhanced, package-integrated micro-channel heat sink, in addition to application in defense-related technologies, will have a significant commercial value to a broader industry, including the aerospace, computer electronics, and communications industries.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
500 Office Center Drive Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 858-9308
Mark Montesano
BMDO 00-007
Title:LOW COST MODULE DEVELOPMENT (kTC P k001)
Abstract:Many government development programs are "designed to cost". Should a subsystem meet only 90% of a specification at the design cost, it will most likely be selected and the specification changed. The F-22 program has taught that achieving 100% compliance on every system increases, by many times, the ultimate platform cost. The standardization of all common components is an excellent method of minimizing costs. Electronic systems that use standardized thermal cores with common connectors, edge clamps, card extractors, and chassis provide high value while minimizing costs. kTC's encapsulated APG module is a high conductivity (>1000 W/mK) macrocomposite comprised of annealed pyrolytic graphite (APG) encapsulated within an aluminum shell. The high cooling capacity of the encapsulated APG module permits the use of low cost commercial components obviating the need for liquid flow through modules. This represents a significant cost and weight savings (approximately $150 and 0.7 pounds per module). This performance has made this component the leading technical choice for future avionics platforms. The opportunity outlined in this Phase I program will lower the production of these modules by 2X. kTC will develop the process that will provide an equivalent level of performance to current designs at significantly lower costs. The reduced cost of this component will impact the price of avionics platforms for the next twenty years. The encapsulated APG materials to be demonstrated under this program would have applications in the commercial satellite market, as well as the obvious military and NASA uses. Key potential post applications rely heavily on the successful verification and certification of the proposed materials' performance. With increasing acceptance, encapsulated APG will be attractive to automotive and power supply manufactures. Enabling technologies will allow the increase of production and the realization of the economies of scale. At this level, one can only estimate the potential impact on the personal computer and other high volume heat sensitive products.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Gregory Cole
BMDO 00-007
Title:Demonstration of Spray Cooling for High Power Amplifier Chips
Abstract: Mainstream and ITT-Avionics will demonstrate the value of integrating a spray cooling system into solid state amplifier chip modules. ITT's solid state high power microwave amplifiers, which have application in solid state phased array transmitters used in military and commercial radar, ship and aircraft electronic defense systems, and satellite communication data links, can be improved by lowering chip operating temperatures. Mainstream, through an Internal R&D program, has demonstrated a spray cooling technique that is ideal for such systems. An optimized cooling system will increase reliability by an order of magnitude, improve efficiency by 30%, and increase output power by 30%. Mainstream will improve both the thermal and physical characteristics of spray cooling through a series of experiments. ITT will supply chips for testing. A combined effort will be used to optimize the design of a complete integrated cooling system for the target application. Spray cooling will then be experimentally validated on a total system basis. There is an urgent need to develop advanced cooling methods that can be implemented into the thermal packaging of the next generation of military, aerospace, and commercial electronics. Commercial applications include satellites and super-computer chip modules. IR&D research has demonstrated that a spray cooling systems are indeed possible and practical.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Jared Sommer
BMDO 00-007
Title:Novel Boiling Enhanced Microchannel Heat Sink with Low CTE
Abstract:As the speed of advanced electronic systems has increased dramatically in recent years, there has been growing interest in substrates containing arrays of boiling-enhanced actively-cooled micro-channels for use in the thermal control of high power transistors and electronic circuits. The internal structure of these heat sinks requires multiple arrays of microchannels within a high-conductivity substrate. These devices can dissipate heat fluxes over 700 W/cm2 due to the latent heat of vaporization of the liquid. MER Corporation has recently developed a novel method to incorporate arrays of micro flow channels within metal with effective capillary diameters <200 microns. It is therefore proposed to investigate this novel development to fabricate micro-cooling channels on a metallic substrate that exhibit a thermal expansion similar to silicon-based electronic components. Low-cost methods to form vapor nucleation sites within selected areas in the microchannels will also be developed. The proposed technology will allow the fabrication of virtually any open-ended microchannel structure design to allow easy manifolding and heat dissipation in critical heat sensitive areas. The heat sink plates can be used in commercial electronic systems where space is limited and high heat flux dissipation is required. The technology can also be used for fabrication of micro heat pipes and micro radiators.

MATERIALS RESOURCES INTERNATIONAL
403 Elm Avenue
North Wales, PA 19454
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 616-0400
Ronald Smith
BMDO 00-007
Title:Graphite Foam Core Heat Exchangers for Thermal Management
Abstract:Thermal management is key to the reliable operation of space platform instrument and avionics enclosures. To control temperatures, many thermal control devices and high "k" materials are employed, however; many increase the weight and cost of satellites, space platforms and missile structures. MRi is proposing, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to produce high performance, low weight graphite foam cored heat exchangers that have the potential to reduce the size and cost of thermal management devices. The innovation combines MRi's low temperature active metal joining technology with ORNL's graphite foam technology. Key to the proposed fabrication process are MRi's family of active low temperature (200-450C) Sn(Zn)-Ag-Ti-X alloys that can directly react with and wet many materials. The proposed processes form bonds without the need for fluxes or special surface treatments. The Phase I research will center on developing the specific joining processes for joining carbon foam to Al, Al:SiC and copper face-plates and tubes. The Phase I work will investigate the low temperature active metal bonding processes and characterize and test their resultant structures then measure the thermal properties through the joints. A demonstration graphite foam core heat exchanger device will be modeled, designed and fabricated to verify the feasibility and performance of the proposed approach. The graphite foam core heat exchanger is a significant advance over other heat exchanger cores. It increased heat transfer effiecienies and low weight make it an ideal concept to reduce size and weight of thermal management devices. The proposed graphite foam core heat exchanger is major advance thermal control technology enabled by MRi's joining technology. High commercial potential lies in the use of these graphite foam heat exchangers in thermal management devices for commercial aircraft avionics, computing equipment and electronic enclosures, such as in notebook computers or high power computers where space and weight are at a premium. The other areas of high commercial potential include coolers for aircraft cabins and automotive systems where compact lightweight heat exchangers would bring savings and increased performance.

MUDAWAR THERMAL SYSTEMS, INC.
1291 Cumberland Avenue, Suite G
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 494-5705
Chad Boyack
BMDO 00-007
Title:Ultra-High-Heat-Flux Dissipation using Multi-Level Enhancement
Abstract:Despite the many recent developments in the area of thermal management, there is a growing need for the dissipation of enormous heat loads that are concentrated in very small areas. While most cutting-edge thermal management techniques promise heat dissipation capabilities up to about 100 watts per square centimeter, the proposed project aims at greatly enhancing the heat dissipation potential by about an order of magnitude (500 watts per square centimeter during the Phase I study alone) to meet thermal management needs of the defense industry for decades to come. Key to accomplishing this goal is to capitalize upon the merits of phase change heat transfer and muti-level heat transfer enhancement techniques. The proposed work is expected to provide thermal management solutions for future defense electronics and power systems. This work will also impact the development of supercomputers, x-ray medical devices, and compact heat exchangers

RINI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
467 Carolyn Drive
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 579-9099
Daniel Rini
BMDO 00-007
Title:Advanced Cooling System for High Power Solid State Lasers
Abstract:This project will determine the feasibility of developing an advanced cooling system for high-power solid state lasers. If successful, this technology will allow the design of the most efficient, compact and most powerful diode pumped solid state lasers ever built. An innovative cooling system for diode lasers is crucial since thermal management is the single largest limiting factor in the development of next-generation lasers. A small, high power laser has applications with BMDO as a weapon or communication device and with industry as a welder, metal cutter or surface processor. The personnel at Rini Technologies have advanced knowledge of high performance evaporative cooling techniques and are uniquely qualified to develop evaporative cooling systems. For this program, RTI will team with Schwartz Electro-Optic, a laser manufacturer, to develop the technology. The proposed cooler will replace the current water-cooled heat sinks used to cool diode stacks and the gain crystals. This system will maintain diode junction temperature at 25 C instead of 80 C when operated at high power. Thus, by using evaporative cooling vs. single-phase convection, a considerable increase in power density and reliability can be realized. This means smaller, more powerful, more efficient, and less expensive solid state lasers. A cooling system for solid state lasers that will increase the efficiency, reliability, and power while reducing the size and cost of the system is of significant interest to laser manufacturers that build lasers for industrial applications. Laser use in the materials processing industry is rapidly increasing due to its superior versatility. This type of system will increase the scope of use for industrial lasers while reducing the overhead cost of using a laser on the floor of an industrial plant. A small, powerful laser can be integrated into the "hand" of a robotic arm for welding and cutting in automotive assembly lines, or material trimming in a microchip fabrication plant.

SIERRA LOBO, INC.
308 S. Clover St.
Fremont, OH 43420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(419) 624-8447
Mark Haberbusch
BMDO 00-007
Title:Densified Cryogen System for Maximum Storage and Delivery Performance in Zero-Gravity
Abstract:A system is proposed for producing and maintaining densified cryogens aboard a space platform. This system increases the mass of cryogen that can be stored in a fixed tank volume and allows higher delivery rates by virtue of the increased density of the cryogen. Patent-pending sensor technology is incorporated to provide information on the cryogen thermodynamic state as well as gauge the quantity of liquid present in the tank. Other unique features of the proposed system include: reduced tank structural requirements due to lower saturation pressures; elimination of boiloff; and an autogenous pressurization subsystem. Phase I of this proposal will analytically verify the feasibility of the system and demonstrate operation of a breadboard sensor array in liquid nitrogen. In addition, selection and initial design of the critical components will be completed, and a prototype concept for experimental validation will be developed for the subsequent Phase II effort. Technology developed under this proposal has direct and immediate application to aerospace vehicles using cryogenic propellants. Increases in payload capacities as high as 29% have been predicted in independent government studies for densified propellants. In addition to the aerospace market, other industries where cryogens are stored or transported could benefit from the increased capacity and elimination of boiloff enabled by this technology. Candidate nonaeropace markets include: industrial gases; chemical and petroleum processing; metallurgy; electronics; food processing; medical oxygen; and automotive fuel cells.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
5170 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Suite 240
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9095
Russell Shaw
BMDO 00-007
Title:An Optimally Designed, MEMS-Fabricated, Enhanced Surface, Boiling Heat Sink for Passive Immersion Cooling of Integrated Circuits
Abstract:Passive immersion cooling is one of the leading candidate cooling architectures being considered for future use in the cooling of integrated circuits. The main technical hurdle that has prevented the current widespread use of passive immersion cooling of IC chips has been the temperature overshoot associated with incipient nucleation. Recent experimental ebullient heat transfer studies have been conducted on re-entrant cavity enhanced surfaces made with micro-machine fabrication techniques. These studies demonstrate the superiority of such surfaces to substantially reduce the wall superheat at moderate to high surface heat flux levels in the nucleate boiling regime. SY Technology, Inc. proposes an innovative enhanced surface concept that may be incorporated into a heat sink for passive immersion cooling of integrated circuits. The innovative surface is composed of re-entrant cavities for maximizing the surface heat flux in the nucleate boiling regime and sub-micron surface structures for minimizing the temperature overshoot at incipient nucleation. The Phase I effort will demonstrate that the proposed surface can perform as intended. The Phase II effort will determine the optimal dimensions and shapes of the surface geometry for the proposed surface, and incorporate the optimized enhanced surface into a heat sink for commercialization of passive immersion cooling. It is anticipated that the innovative enhanced surface proposed herein will permit the commercial development of passive immersion cooling of integrated circuits. The commercial development of passive immersion cooling of microprocessors will greatly benefit products such as personal computers, automotive power-train electronics, medical diagnostic equipment, military hardware, and many other high-power consuming electronic devices.

TTH RESEARCH, INC.
3403 Londonleaf Lane
Laurel, MD 20724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 641-2954
Triem Hoang
BMDO 00-007
Title:Multiple Pump Loop Heat Pipe with Temperature Control
Abstract:In the current state of spacecraft thermal control technology, Capillary Pumped Loops (CPLs) and Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) are at the forefront of intensive research and development. Both CPLs and LHPs are capable of dispersing heat quickly from a concentrated heat source and transporting it to remotely located heat sinks via small and flexible transport lines. CPLs were originally developed in the United States by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in the early 1980s. CPLs demonstrated that they could acquire waste heat from separate heat sources and transport it over long distance to multiple heat sinks located at different places. CPL start-ups however involved tedious and time-consuming procedures that sometimes required more than one hour of pre-conditioning prior to the loop operation. LHPs were invented in the former Soviet Union at about the same time. LHPs did not require loop pre-conditioning for start-ups. Nor did the capillary pumps ever deprime during operation. LHPs could start, stop, and re-start under almost any condition. An Advanced LHP (A-LHP) concept is proposed for Phase I that combines LHP and CPL technologies into a single loop. A-LHP inherits both CPL and LHP attributes: start-up without loop pre-conditioning, tight temperature control, reliability and operational robustness. A-LHP will perform like a CPL that can acquire waste heat from multiple heat sources and dissipate it to different heat sinks. Since it can start up just like a LHP, A-LHP does not require a tedious and lengthy pre-condition procedure. A-LHP will be ideal for advanced concepts of spacecraft thermal control such as central thermal bus or deployable radiator.

FRACTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
14200 Carlson Circle
Tampa, FL 33626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 854-4332
Matt Aldissi
BMDO 00-008
Title:Multifunctional Conductive Polymers for Broad-Frequecy Radiation Hardening Applications
Abstract:Survivability countermeasures against nuclear, laser, EMI/EMP and radar/microwave radiation are needed, particularly with the strong dependence of US defense on more complex microcircuitries incorporated in the various military components. Furthermore, the increasing use of composites, which do not incorporate conductive elements, in electronic equipment, aerospace and other hardware requires radiation hardening. In the absence of inadequate hardening, failure of electronics could result due to, for example, changes in frequency characteristics of the various components such as capacitors, resistors and inductors. In this program, we will develop novel products that encompass several materials with different electromagnetic properties at the particle level, which can be easily processed in one layer into the desired shape. The materials will be engineered for specific applications with performance throughout a wide frequency range, in collaboration with our industrial and military partners. The Phase I program will address materials fabrication, processing and characterization. Our partner Lockheed Martin Skunkworks will perform absorption/reflection measurements. The Phase II program will be geared towards material optimization so that it meets the necessary electrical and mechanical requirements. The successful materials will be easily commercialized due to the existence of a wide market for their use through our commercial partners. Low cost, easily processable and multifunctional radiation hardening materials in one single layer, with high performance in a wide frequency range, will be beneficial for immunity in a large number of military and commercial components. Aeronautic, telecommunications, missiles and electronic equipment are examples of potential markets for the proposed technology.

FULL CIRCLE RESEARCH, INC.
PO Box 4010
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 431-5622
James Spratt
BMDO 00-008
Title:RAD-HARD CCDs FROM COMMERCIAL SUPPLIERS THRU COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN TECHNIQUES
Abstract:Full Circle Research, Inc. (FCR) proposes a program to develop radiation-inclusive technology computer aided design (RH-TCAD) modeling techniques which will permit commercial suppliers to manufacture rad-hard charge coupled devices (CCDs) for use in imagers and star trackers for space applications. Successful completion of this program will facilitate the procurement of rad-hard CCDs from commercial microelectronic foundries at reasonable cost for use in space surveillance and navigation systems. This proposal discusses the applications in which CCDs are being used in military and commercial space systems, and the importance of radiation hardening in these applications. It then discusses how TCAD tools are used by commercial foundries, and how these tools are used today to procure commercial (unhardened) CCDs. It then discusses the differences between unhardened CCDs and rad-hard CCDs, and explains what improvements need to be made to the commercial TCAD tools to permit these tools to be used to design and manufacture rad-hard CCDs. A specific program of RH-TCAD development for CCDs for use in military and commercial space systems is then presented which will permit recent advances in our understanding of space radiation effects in CCDs to be implemented in production devices, at reasonable cost. This project would benefit military and civilian space users by permitting commercial IC manufacturers to build CCDs hardened to space radiation. Applications for CCDs such as space navigation, surveillance, terminal guidance etc., are curently limited by the sensitivity of conventional CCDs to radiation. This project will permit commercial production of hardened CCDs.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Kristie Cooper
BMDO 00-008
Title:Self-Assembled Radiation Resistant Thin Films and Devices
Abstract:High performance microelectronic and photonic systems developed for missile defense systems are often particularly susceptible to radiation damage due to their small feature size and novel material composition. Radiation shielding coatings, as well as radiation hardened system elements themselves, which are durable in the space environment, are required to reduce the susceptibility of these components to radiation effects from either nuclear weapons or the natural space environment itself. Such coatings require a physical and chemical structure suitable to withstand exposure to ionizing radiation, charged particles, small particle impact, and atomic oxygen exposure. NanoSonic, Inc. proposes to investigate the feasibility of incorporating such electrical and structural multifunctionality into multilayer thin film coatings and devices using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) processes. Recent results of the PI and colleagues have demonstrated the ability to produce such properties through the incorporation of carefully selected metallic and metal oxide nanoclusters in combination with high-performance polymers. The low-cost layer-by-layer ESA method allows the inclusion of multiple critical properties in a single film. NanoSonic has licensed the enabling ESA patents from Virginia Tech, and would work with Lockheed-Martin and Virginia Tech researchers to design, fabricate and evaluate prototype multifunctional radiation hardened coatings. ESA processing may be used to fabricate high performance hardened coatings and devices for aerospace, commercial, industrial and military electronic systems. The same process may be used to fabricate protective UV filtering coatings, protective ultrahard coatings for tools and consumer products, ultrahigh conductivity thin film electrodes and interconnects, and giant magnetoresistance (GMR) thin film devices and sensors.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd. Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 565-2970
Ronald Helmick
BMDO 00-009
Title:LETHALITY AND VULNERABILITY
Abstract:The development of adaptive guidance filters for terminal homing guidance is critical for the successful engagement of maneuvering Theater Ballistic Missiles (TBMs). Re-entry maneuvers, such as spirals and weaves, may occur as the result of re-entry or by deliberate design. In the exoatmosphere, divert maneuvers are the result of deliberate design. Technology Service Corporation (TSC) proposes to develop guidance filters based on the Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) algorithm for use in missile systems with seekers providing line-of-sight (LOS) measurements and varying degrees of range/range-rate accuracies. The focus on LOS information is important because some missiles only have a passive seeker, and for missiles having an active or semi-active seeker, the range information may be denied or degraded in the presence of countermeasures. The IMM algorithm is a self-adjusting variable bandwidth estimator that is robust and adaptive to target maneuvers, and it is implemented using multiple (interacting) filters. The IMM provides better tracking performance than either a single Kalman filter or maneuver detection schemes. TSC will extend an existing missile simulation, develop the IMM estimators, and conduct a series of Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the performance of the IMM against various types of targets and maneuvers. The potential for commercialization is primarily related to missile systems. The technology developed under this program will improve guidance performance for Navy, Army, and Air Force missile systems including active, semiactive, and passive seekers. The technology will also have non-military applications. For example, it could have potential applications to air traffic control and airspace monitoring systems, precision landing applications, GPS guidance, and guidance/control for aircraft in general. The IMM estimators could be applied to adapt the state estimators to the characteristics of each aircraft. This would provide increased accuracy which would enhance the performance of traffic alert and collision avoidance systems, automated landing systems, etc.

AERO OPTICS, INC.
655 Deep Valley Drive Suite 335
Rolling Hills Est, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 541-1933
G. Freeman
BMDO 00-010
Title:Flow Advanced Simulation Tool (FAST)
Abstract:A comprehensive rigorous unified physical formulation and accurate efficient robust computation technique are described for simulating complex compressible viscous reacting multiphase flow phenomena which can affect or control the performance or signature of a flight vehicle during all phases of operation. The method enables continuous seamless predictions for internal, external and unbounded subsonic and supersonic flow regions (nozzle, plume, body, wake) from ground to space including turbulent, laminar, and noncontinuum regimes and transitions. The computations provide three- dimensional nonsteady flow properties for evaluating engine propulsion/products, body aerodynamics/heating, plume/wake signature, etc. This unique fully-automated computation capability combines the efficiency of special-purpose tools such as the BMDO standard plume codes with the utility of more general tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Advanced enabling technologies include a finite-element flow-conformal computation grid which is coupled to the flow and determined simultaneously. The grid captures automatically the local flow features and boundary conditions (surface or free) and is ideally suited for treating coupled nonequilibrium reactions and transport phenomena. The proposed Phase I effort is intended to demonstrate the essential proof-of-concept and validation for each enabling technology as a basis for full implementation in Phase II. Benefits to BMDO include enhanced capability, fidelity, and speed for flow computations to support target optical signature analysis and simulation with application to detection, tracking, typing, targeting, and intelligence. Potential commercial applications include advanced computational fluid dynamics and imaging methodologies with broad utility for investigating flow-dependent physical phenomena and related optical effects.

AERO OPTICS, INC.
655 Deep Valley Drive Suite 335
Rolling Hills Est, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 541-1933
Blaine Pearce
BMDO 00-010
Title:Radiation Advanced Simulation Tool (RAST)
Abstract:New innovative concepts and formulations for spectral radiation in plumes and atmospheres are proposed for incorporation in an advanced unified comprehensive radiation simulation tool for complex flow phenomena at arbitrary altitude. The innovations enable unprecedented accuracy, efficiency, and generality for optical signature simulation to support multiple scientific and systems applications which include infrared-ultraviolet, line-band, spectra-imagery, gaseous-particulate, emission-scattering, equilibrium-nonequilibrium, high fidelity - real time. Key enabling innovations include a fundamental generalization of classical band-model theory to account for the combined line-strength/spacing statistics at arbitrary resolution and a revised formulation of the integral equation of transport to account for highly nonuniform paths with coupled emission, absorption, scattering. The Phase I effort is designed to implement and demonstrate the new innovative concepts and formulations compared to current methods as a basis for determining the feasibility and payoff of incorporating these innovations in an advanced radiation simulation tool. The software product contains extensive capabilities for broad commercial applications in research and development which include engine performance diagnostics, pollution/contraband monitoring, molecular spectroscopy, remote sensing, hyperspectral imagery, environmental monitoring, global warming, and computational fluid imaging. Anticipated benefits include the consolidation and advancement of current state-of-art spectral image radiation technology within a unified comprehensive adaptive computation tool with unprecedented accuracy, efficiency, and utility.

ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM CONCEPTS, INC.
22 Haverhill Road P O Box 128
Windham, NH 03087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 924-3572
Robert MacDonald
BMDO 00-010
Title:Rad Hard Very Deep Submicron Design by Concurrent Error Recovery
Abstract:VLSI systems implemented in VDSM technology are vulnerable to radiation effects such as neutron, total ionizing dose, transient dose, and Single Event Upsets (SEU). ASC proposes to develop an EDA tool for the reconfiguration and optimization of behavioral VHDL into RTL synthesizable code for radiation hardened designs. This will require an extension of the proven technology that was developed for reducing power in DSP in fixed architecture semiconductor circuits. Off-line testing and on-line fault-tolerance techniques will be applied to detect errors and correct them "on the fly." ASC will use XML information architecture and methods for these EDA tools. A comparative study of existing XML resources and methods will be conducted. The goal is to create and utilize spare capacity for error checking. The validation laboratory at Boeing will be used because this independent resource has the facilities and expertise to validate the functional performance of new Rad Hard designs that have been optimized by the new ASC Reconfiguration Tool. The ASC Reconfiguration Tool will equip designs for radiation tolerance by creating and utilizing spare capacity for error checking. Both military and commercial markets can benefit from radiation tolerance achieved through circuit design rather than expensive foundry qualification.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes Circle Suite 500
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Joe Murray
BMDO 00-010
Title:COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE, ALGORITHMS, AND MODELS/SIMULATIONS
Abstract:The Internet has motivated the introduction of Java as a programming language and development environment. Java has many advantages over existing programming languages including software development productivity of two to five times that of C, lower defect rates, rapid development of new technology, and complete dynamic portability. However, Java also has a significant disadvantage which is inefficiency of execution relative to C applications. While Java is not presently viable for developing complete combat systems, DSR proposes an innovative and unique technology to develop systems with Java that will run as efficiently as C, be developed over twice as fast as C, and incorporate the entire software base from the commercial Java industry. DSR proposes in this Phase I to select a COTS architecture for a Phase II demonstration relevant to ballistic missile defense, and identify all of the necessary peripheral devices for application of this new technology and Combat System Java Beans. As part of this Phase I effort, DSR will demonstrate this revolutionary capability using a specified architecture and several simple Java applications in a simple implementation. This technology is revolutionary, but requires a focused effort to mature it for use with large systems. The advancement of the technology described in this proposal represents a solution to the most significant technical problem faced by the Java community. Maturing this technology offers unparalleled performance increases for all embedded systems from thermostats to refrigerators to large scale military systems and server-based systems including large SMP servers. This technology can be used to replace monolithic operating systems in every area of the computing industry. This new technology can also be used to eliminate the need for underlying operating systems including Windows, MacOS, and all flavors of UNIX, but most significantly embedded operating systems like VxWorks and Lynx. This technology can execute applications more efficiently than any operating system. The commercial potential for DoD applications and civilian applications is enormous, but the technology must be matured in a Phase I and Phase II development program to the point where it can be fully implemented for major systems.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
2161 Blanton Dr
Dayton, OH 45342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Praveen Chawla
BMDO 00-010
Title:COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE, ALGORITHMS, AND MODELS/SIMULATIONS
Abstract:EDAptive Computing, Inc. presents a solution to the problem of effective high-frequency, mixed-signal system design, using a hardware description language (HDL), under the subtopic of "Very high-level language (VHLL) design for development and testing extremely large systems." Through our RF Applications in VHDL-AMS Environments (RAVEN) approach, we can enable VHDL-AMS to simulate RF designs as well as merely low-frequency analog and digital designs. This will provide an order-of-magnitude improvement in RF sensor system design effectiveness, enabling more efficient and less costly development of the RF sensors which are so vital to missile defense systems. Our RAVEN program will apply the standard constructs of VHDL-AMS, embellished by supporting tools and applications, to the problem of simulating secondary RF effects such as coupling and interference. This will permit immediate use of VHDL-AMS for RF design, without the need for any language revision. Our Phase I Objectives are to (1) define requirements, (2) prepare a preliminary design, (3) develop and test an experimental prototype (using an actual RF receiver design and test results for comparison), and (4) assess commercialization potential. The results will be an experimentally-tested and analytically-quantified feasibility assessment, a working, demonstrable prototype, and a preliminary design to carry into Phase II. By enabling VHDL-AMS to function as an RF design tool, we open the potential for significant government and commercial sales. Military RF systems developers (RADARs, ESM receivers, warning receivers, etc.), and commercial RF product developers (CBs, wireless communications, cell phones, radio and television, etc.) will be our markets. By enabling HDL-based RF design and simulation, RAVEN will enjoy immediate market demand as an extension to already-popular VHDL/VHDL-AMS tools and design suites.

FANTASTIC DATA LLC
207 Prospect Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 643-9555
Thomas Hammel
BMDO 00-010
Title:Automatic Partitioning of a Common Information Space Based on Policy and Usage
Abstract:We propose to develop a tool that determines the correct partitioning of a common information space to minimize a composite cost function based on the organization's policies. Cost function components include storage limits or cost, transmission limits or cost, and information criticality. The proposed tool can gather usage statistics over a period of time to produce partitioning recommendations. In can also make real-time corrections based on changing usage patterns for systems that support dynamic filter changes. Incorrect partitioning of an information space produces great direct and indirect costs. Direct costs include excessive payments for storage or transmission capability. Indirect costs can include poor or slow performance when the required information for decision making is either unavailable or difficult or slow to retrieve. In a military environment incorrect partitioning can leave units without the information they need to function when communications are restricted due to hostile action. Currently, partitioning is performed by guesswork by high paid consultants, sometimes well, but often poorly. The proposed tool will make the partitioning process scientific and accurate leading to lower costs and better decision making.

HYPERSPARSE TECHNOLOGIES
3557 Lesser Drive
Newbury Park, CA 91320
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 480-4017
Francis Canning
BMDO 00-010
Title:Fast Solver for Electromagnetic and Acoustic Computation
Abstract:Calculations of radar scattering, acoustic scattering, electromagnetic interference, high frequency circuit's properties, antenna patterns, etc. often strain or are beyond the capabilities of even today's computers. Roughly half of the computer programs used in these fields are based on integral equations, and result in a large full matrix which must be stored and inverted. Wavelets can compress the matrix to reduce storage requirements. However, they are difficult to use for general geometries and at best require extensive rewiring of existing programs. An algorithm has been discovered for taking the matrix from existing computer programs and transforming it to reduce storage requirements by two orders of magnitude. This is done one block of the matrix at a time, so all of the original matrix is never stored at once, resulting in a new matrix in a wavelet like basis. Our new algorithm allows this transformation to be computed from readily available information. The transformed matrix is sparse, and the locations of the non-zero elements allows a rapid sparse inverse of the matrix to be calculated by well known methods. A solver based on this algorithm will be tested as a way to speed up existing computer programs. We have discovered an extremely efficient algorithm which allows the solution of wave scattering problems in realistic times with very high accuracy on objects significantly larger in size than possible with currently available methods. Our algorithm can be implemented in existing computer programs with minor changes to interface to our solver module, in a way transparent to the end user. There is no expensive retraining of the user. The wave scattering problems to which our solver module applies include radar scattering, antenna design, circuit design, acoustics whether for undersea for medical ultrasound or for nondestructive testing, synthetic array performance modeling, electromagnetic interference, etc. Our solver removes the need to rewrite each computer program to improve its speed and memory requirements.

IC TECH, INC.
4295 Okemos Road Suite 100
Okemos, MI 48864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 349-9000
Gail Erten
BMDO 00-010
Title:Hidden Markov Model (HMM) Topologies for Robust Object Recognition
Abstract:Visual object recognition has been an active research topic for decades, but a robust solution to this difficult problem is yet to be identified. During this Phase I SBIR project, we propose to approach object recognition from a different point of view, by applying to it a technique that has worked very well for speech recognition, namely Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). HMM's success with speech recognition can be attributed to its flexibility and ability to solve two problems at once, namely segmentation and recognition. This is precisely the case with object recognition, as well. In the HMM based object recognition technique we propose, the hypotheses formation and verification steps of traditional object recognition architectures are thus merged without a mandate for a priori segmentation: HMM receives a set of image features in context, and in response, produces an "object word." The words may be connected to form sentences. Two or three dimensional "object sentences" may be synthesized from object words. Hierarchies of object primitives defined in this manner will further embellish the extent of the object description. During Phase I, we will design feature detection and analysis algorithms and define hierarchies of HMM topologies for object recognition. The work will also include an investigation of the impact of occlusion, lighting, and shadows on the proposed architecture. Object recognition, especially in real dynamic environments will be benefit many commercial and military applications. A specific application that analyzes existing video footage to label objects can create virtual representations of real world data and at the same time allow for searchable databases of visual information - much like text keyword search on the Internet.

IC TECH, INC.
4295 Okemos Road Suite 100
Okemos, MI 48864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 349-9000
Gail Erten
BMDO 00-010
Title:Ultra low power motorless pan/tilt control for single chip cameras
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate and implement a low power motorless camera pan/tilt mechanism and control. The platform, as well as the image processing and control modules will be tailored for single chip and miniature cameras that can be readily interfaced with personal computers. A wide expanse of fields, ranging from the biological modeling of the ocular motor system to the engineering design of adaptive control mechanisms, will be put to use upon the proposed work. Rather than using motorized mechanisms, shape memory alloy (also known as "muscle") wires are proposed as the means of actuation. The control objective during Phase I of this project will be to position an object of interest, e.g., a face or a hand, on the center image plane. A variety of control procedures will be investigated, including, first the conventional PID method, as well as methods based on sophisticated kinematics and dynamics models of the actuation platform, best described as nonlinear differential equations. A demonstration is planned at the end of Phase I to illustrate the results. The novel vision oriented control techniques developed and implemented during this project will expand the domain of vision based human-machine interaction. Moreover, an active camera can facilitate an enhanced telepresence experience through video. As a participant in the SBIR Fast Track program, IC Tech has an established ongoing commercialization process and the proposed project is fully aligned with that on going effort.

NGS
PO BOX 31205
Dayton, OH 45437
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1132
Martin Davis Jr.
BMDO 00-010
Title:A Real-Time Fibre Channel Switch
Abstract:Fibre Channel has gained market momentum not only in the commercial storage industry but also in avionics applications. For instance, Fibre Channel is being used on a number of avionics weapon systems upgrades. Of the viable, available commercial standards that can be used today or will be implemented in the reasonable future, Fibre Channel is the best fit for both DoD and commercial real-time, fault-tolerant, high-availability systems. Current Fibre Channel switch vendors have not effectively addressed these needs. To meet this market, we propose a Fibre Channel switch which will simultaneously support switching both a comprehensive set of physical layer classes of service and the logical protocol layer called Virtual Interface Architecture. We will first build a model of our switch. We then will enumerate various configurations of the switch which potentially will meet our design goal. With the model, we will evaluate which configuration is best. We will then translate the best configuration into a documented system design (including implementation plan and timetable), which will then form the basis of our Phase 2 effort. Throughout the Phase 1 effort, we will work with our projected Fast Track partners/investors to incorporate their requirements and feedback into the design. Fibre Channel was a $1+ billion industry in 1999. Estimates are that by 2010 Fibre Channel will be a $10-20 billion industry. The amount of data that is stored is growing by orders of magnitude daily. Many companies involved in transaction processing have such a magnitude of data changed in a day that they cannot reliably back it up. These companies increasingly depend on reliable media that must be up nearly 100% of the time. System/Storage Area Networks for these customers must be increasingly secure, fault tolerant, and reliable. These are all characteristics of DoD systems - and increasingly becoming characteristics of commercial systems. Commercial Fibre Channel switch companies are becoming increasingly concerned about providing fault tolerance and reliability in their products. But, their products do not support the range of classes of service that our switch will. Our switch's enhanced classes of services will enable our product to fill niches that others' switches cannot fill.

QUADRANT ENGINEERING, INC.
107 Sunderland Road
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-4402
Ivan Popstefanija
BMDO 00-010
Title:High Dimension Clustering for Computer Intrusion Detection
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal describes high dimensional data classification algorithm applicable to the problem of real-time intrusion detection. Our approach to this problem involves using generic, robust data classification algorithms for very large sets of high dimensional data vectors. The algorithm is based on three successful projects in data clustering carried out in recent years by researchers at the University of Massachusett. Our phase I goal is to test our clustering algorithms on ground truth data in a mutually blind fashion and to clarify the concept of similarity used in the particular case of intrusion detection. The algorithms are developed independently of the ground truth data and will be generically applicable. Applications of this technology include protecting government, military and private computer systems against unauthorized intrusion.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-0863
Andrew Schooley
BMDO 00-010
Title:Agent-based Knowledge-design Assistance (AKA)
Abstract:Over the past decade the growth of data, information and knowledge has been accelerating and search engines and simple automation have proven to be inadequate at addressing the ensuing information glut. This points to the opportunity to apply Intelligent Agent technology to the problem by using them as assistants in managing data/information and developing the needed knowledge. Our proposed "Agent-based Knowledge-design Assistance (AKA) Environment" concept is a significant opportunity for the creation of an integrated environment for rapidly formulating knowledge bases utilizing agents in conjunction with design pattern concepts. The AKA concept provides an environment for hosting knowledge design pattern agents, called Template Agents (TA) and using XML as a run-time tool for conversion, storage, and maintenance of knowledge. The environment presents the user with an integrated view of the available TAs using an orchestrating agent, called Design Assistant Agent (DAA), which manages, arbitrates and negotiates with the TAs. All the agents act autonomously to promulgate their design pattern and agenda within the context of the AKA environment and the knowledge base content. We believe that the application of design patterns with the AKA environment will reduce risk, lead-time, complexity and level-of-effort associated with creation of knowledge and management of information. We expect the AKA project to be on a FastTrack due to commercialization plans of our teammates, Boeing and KnoWave, both of whom have immediate need for the technology. The AKA is targeted at the "solution seeking" market which is projected to grow from $240M in 2000 to about $1.9B in 2002.

THE ATHENA GROUP, INC.
3424 N.W. 31 Street
Gainesville, FL 32605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-2567
Jonathon Mellott
BMDO 00-010
Title:An Advanced Digital Signal Processor for Adaptive Beamforming Applications
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project will develop an innovative new technology to enable the implementation of robust, high-performance adaptive beamforming wireless communications receivers using low-cost digital signal processing (DSP) hardware. Athena possesses an advanced DSP technology capable of performance levels well beyond those of conventional DSP technologies. This project will adapt well-known robust beamforming algorithms to enable their optimization within Athena's DSP technology. Beamforming algorithms have historically been developed in the context of general purpose computing environments featuring floating-point arithmetic. Athena's DSP technology is not suitable for general purpose computing and does not use floating-point arithmetic. Therefore, it will be necessary to carry out significant reorganization of the selected beamforming algorithms to implement them using Athena's DSP technology. The commercial value of the developed technology is substantial. Affordable beamforming antenna array processing could potentially be retrofitted onto any existing cellular communications system. The benefits of applying beamforming to a cellular communications system include increased performance and quality of service, increased handset to basestation range, and increased system capacity. The result would be lower cost and greater quality of service.

EOSPACE, INC.
8711 148th Ave NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 869-6975
Suwat Thaniyavarn
BMDO 00-011
Title:High-Speed, Polarization Independent, Integrated Optical Switch Matrix
Abstract:A new and innovative high-speed, polarization independent, integrated optical switch matrix is proposed. The goal is to realize a state-of-the-art optically transparent switch capable of high speed switching (<< 1 microsecond) with no polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and no polarization dependent loss (PDL). The basic 2x2 switch will have very low-insertion loss (<3 dB) and very low crosstalk (<-40 dB). The 2x2 basic switch is scalable and can be integrated to form a larger NxN switch matrix. At present there is no viable high-speed optical cross-connect switch element, which limits the performance and implementation of the next generation optical switching network. This type of high-speed optical switch is a critical building block for the next-generation of fiber-optic "cross-connect" switching networks for ultra-wideband multi-gigabit/sec optical communication systems. This switching element is also a key enabling element for ultra-wideband optical signal processing applications. These include programmable single mode fiber-optic switched delay lines and optical transversal filters for wideband true-time-delay (TTD) elements as well as optical filters for microwave electronic surveillance and radar phased-array antenna beam forming. A high-speed, optically transparent, polarization independent switch with low insertion loss and very low-crosstalk is the key optical building block for the next generation of ultra-broadband, multi-gigabit/sec fiber-optic Internet "switch cross-connect" networks. This switching element is also a key enabling element for ultra-wideband optical signal processing applications, including programmable single mode fiber-optic switched delay lines and optical transversal filters for wideband true-time-delay (TTD) elements in addition to optical filters for microwave electronic surveillance and radar phased-array antenna beam forming. The development of this advanced state-of-the-art switch element will greatly increase the feasibility of these systems applications. The switch can leverage the potential implementation of these cross-connect systems which are expected to be worth billions of dollars per year.

ETALON, INC.
2565 Third Street Suite 205
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 285-2090
Mark Miles
BMDO 00-011
Title:High Speed MEMS Based Optical Backplanes
Abstract:Etalon intends to apply its patented interferometric modulator (IMod) technology to the development of next generation integrated optical components. IMods will allow for the fabrication of a high speed reconfigurable optical backplanes that can serve as an all optical switch, and as the basis for an array of photonic subsystems. These optical backplanes are unique in that they will allow for reconfiguration times in the 100 nanosecond regime, and are extremely simple in construction. Additionally, they will be especially amenable to the integration of other photonic components including VCSELs, attenuators, modulators, tunable filters, and other optical functions, many of which can be fabricated in the form of IMods. Etalon will model and evaluate the potential for these devices, as well as perform some basic process experimentation to assess fabrication risk. The result will be a thorough optical and electromechanical design and process specification for an IMod based photonic switch, with additional models for optical subsystems based on this switch The device concepts resulting from the application of this technology will enable an array of optical subsystems for use in telecommunications, optical computing/storage, and IC interconnects. As a switch, an IMod based backplane will bring exceptionally fast reconfiguration speeds, design flexibility, and ruggedness. As the basis for highly integrated optical subsystems, this device has the potential to reduce racks of electronics and optics to a single chip. Significantly reducing cost and complexity in the manufacture of elaborate photonic networks and ultra high performance optical processing hardware

EUMI SYSTEMS CORP.
12334 Knightsbridge Drive
Woodbridge, VA 22192
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 590-2920
Tae Oh
BMDO 00-011
Title:Compact, High Resolution Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter
Abstract:The ultimate goal of the proposed Phase I work is to demonstrate the feasibility of miniaturized compact 1.55 mm acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF), and to establish the technical foundation for the fabrication of the tunable filter. This proposed innovative approach will permit the development of compact tunable filters capable of advanced performance for commercial and military applications. This tunable filter could be met by a WDM International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard grid for channel spacing of 100 GHz, higher spectral resolution, a tuning range covering the entire EDFA, and a very fast response time. This filter also permits simultaneous and independent selection/routing of many wavelength channels, and is designed for multi-channel dense WDM filters/routers/switches or fast scans optical spectrum analyzers. This acousto-optic tunable filter will permit simultaneous and independent selection/routing of many wavelength channels, and is designed for multi-channel dense WDM filters/routers/switches or fast scans optical spectrum analyzers. The tunable filters can be applied to both circuit-switched networks, and to packet- and cell-switching networks.

F&S, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4270
Daniela Topasna
BMDO 00-011
Title:ISAM Photorefractive Polymers for Holographic Data Storage
Abstract:Revolutionary ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) methods of creating multifunctional thin-films monolayer by monolayer have recently been proven to yield self-assembled, electronically and photonically-active polymeric thin films. F&S and its research collaborators have demonstrated that the ISAM technique can be used to fabricate both polymer light emitting diodes and inherently noncentrosymmetric electro-optic polymer films. In the latter case, we have shown that the ionic nature of the deposition process results in a polar ordering of organic second order nonlinear chromophores that requires no additional processing after creation of the film and exhibits inherent long-term stability, in contrast to nonlinear optical poled polymers. Here, we propose to fabricate improved photorefractive polymers using the ISAM technique. The ISAM process allows precise nanoscale control over the assembly of the individual components (charge generator, photoconductor, and electro-optic chromophore) of a photorefractive polymer thin film with exceptional homogeneity and ease of processing. ISAM photorefractive films offer additional major advantages of excellent homogeneity for low scattering loss, high thermal and chemical stability, simplicity and low-cost. F&S will work with university nonlinear optical researchers to rapidly transition recent laboratory results to prototype device products. ISAM photorefractive polymers have immediate application in military and commercial areas for high volume, holographic data storage.

NANOWORKS, INC.
7289 Dabney Lane
Fayetteville, NY 13066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 443-1847
Damian Allis
BMDO 00-011
Title:OPTICAL COMPUTING AND OPTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
Abstract:The basis of current optical computation involves nonlinear optical materials for optical switching, mass storage and other related functions. Current nonlinear optical (NLO) molecular materials, however, are relatively inefficient and subject to environmental and thermal degradation. Thus, new classes of highly efficient NLO materials are required in order to make feasible certain components of optical computation. In this application, recently discovered polyhedral-based NLO molecules are proposed as a new class of optical materials with potentially very high second-order response and significantly improved chemical and physical properties. These materials have several distinct advantages for NLO applications arising from their synthetic availability and accessibility, the diversity of available three-dimensional structures, the extreme chemical and thermal stability of the polyhedral units, the aromatic electronic nature of the polyhedra, their stability to photochemical and neutron irradiation, and the UV-visible and infra-red features of the polyhedral species. New NLO materials would find a significant number of direct commercial applications to areas such as frequency doubled lasers, video displays and optical computation-based markets.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9370 SW 72nd Street, A-142
Miami, FL 33173
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Ralph DeMasi
BMDO 00-011
Title:Novel Photonic Switch Matrix With Large Scale Matrix Forming Capability
Abstract:Photonic approaches are attractive for next generation computing and communication systems. Large-scale photonic switch matrix is however difficult to realize because of the limitation of existing switching device architectures and fabrication technologies. Typically the photonic switch matrix requires N square cascaded matrix switching elements for N x N non-blocking switching. The large number of switching nodes involved makes the switch matrix suffer from significant crosstalk due to imperfect analog switching. This limits the matrix size that can be achieved. Using binary switching control can facilitate the formation of large-scale switch matrix. But current technology suffers from slow switching reconfiguration rate. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. proposes a novel photonic switch matrix using diffractive optical element array for switch pattern reconfiguration. By minimizing the switching nodes and incorporating binary switching the novel device should minimize the switch crosstalk, improve device throughput, and offer the simultaneous advantages of large-scale matrix forming capability and fast switch pattern reconfiguration. Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed photonic switch concept. Phase II study will optimize the device and realize a large-scale photonic switch matrix for communication and computing applications. The successful development of the photonic switch matrix with large-scale matrix forming capability and fast switch pattern reconfiguration can result in dual use applications. It will benefit greatly to military and aerospace systems for fast computing and signal processing for targeting, missile interception, and fast access to large intelligent database. It will also benefit the communication industry to improve network routing speed for better video conferencing, video e-mail, and internet access.

NP PHOTONIC TECHNOLOGIES
UA Science and Technology Park 9030 S. Rita Road,
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 799-7408
David Geraghty
BMDO 00-011
Title:Optical Waveguide add/drop filters for dense wavelength division multiplexing systems
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project deals with the development of novel wavelength add/drop filters using ion-exchange glass waveguide technology. The wavelength selectivity of the devices is based on waveguide Bragg gratings directly UV-imprinted in the waveguides. These innovative wavelength add/drop filters are key devices in advanced multi-wavelength computer and telecommunication networks. The proposed devices feature low losses, low-cross talk and are polarization insensitive which is of crucial importance in practical applications. The new devices have potential for extremely low production costs. Successfully meeting the goals in this Phase I project will provide an excellent foundation for the development of fully packaged fiber pigtailed devices. The key advantage of this integrated optics approach is the possibility to integrate several add/drop filters in a single substrate, which will increase the functionality of the devices and reduces the production costs. The proposed devices meet the needs of the rapidly growing telecommunications market and have great commercial potential. The proposed devices meet the needs of the rapidly growing telecommunications market and have great commercial potential

NP PHOTONIC TECHNOLOGIES
UA Science and Technology Park 9030 S. Rita Road,
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 799-7412
Mohammed Fardad
BMDO 00-011
Title:Multi-mode interference splitters for integrated optics
Abstract:Realization of customer access in photonic networks is strongly dependent on a low-cost technology for optical components of high performance. Basic research has indicated that glass-on-silicon employing the sol-gel process may provide the excellent solution to this requirement. The purpose of project is to exploit the potential of sol-gel towards the accomplishment of customer access photonics. The primary goals are as follows: i. To establish the viability of a low-cost photonic component technology based on sol-gel glass on silicon. ii. To demonstrate the potentials of the technology by fabricating key integrated optical components. iii. To bring successful basic research in this technology forward and towards commercial exploitation. The industrial viability of technology is established by developing reliable processes to produce the required waveguiding structures at relatively low temperature with high quality and repeatability. The potentials of this process will be demonstrated by fabricating some key integrated optic components based on multimode interference (MMI): 1' N (N x 64) splitters and combiners; with the emphasis on the optical quality and stability. To establish a low-cost, reliable and flexible process for the mass production of photonic components based on sol-gel technology. The process will greatly benefit the applications that require compact structures for signal splitting, coupling, routing, filtering and sensing.

OPTICOMP CORP.
PO Box 10779
Zephyr Cove, NV 89448
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 588-4176
Peter Guilfoyle
BMDO 00-011
Title:Terabit Optoelectronic Backplane
Abstract:The primary goal of the proposed Phase I effort is to configure an optoelectronic crossbar for a high performance backplane using the company's enabling optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) device technologies. These components have been developed under previous and current BMDO sponsored programs. Specifically leveraged is the company's waveguide technology to achieve a zero latency fully transparent backplane. The virtual crossbar eliminates the requirement for centralized backplane switching boards. This system architecture integrates vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), photodetectors, and smart pixel CMOS circuits, which eliminates expensive implementations using complex two dimensional edge emitting laser configurations. The optoelectronic backplane will provide a cost effective, scalable system by incorporating the company's enhanced parallel (N^3) and global (N^4) architectures using high fan-in and fan-out as well as wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The proposed dual-use optoelectronic backplane can be implemented into military systems for datacom and telecom applications such as battle management command, control, communications, and intelligence (BMC^3I). This Phase I program has a degree of technical risk because the system architecture has not been previously implemented. Nevertheless, the company is currently holding product discussions with selected network suppliers for subsequent commercialization. The program technology will be integrated into current and future backplane configurations. The optoelectronic backplane market is projected to have sales of $1.95 billion by 2008. During Phase III, the program technology will be commercialized through a strategic partnership and/or a joint development effort with a telecommunications company which specializes in backplane production.

PHOTON-X, INC.
291 Great Valley Parkway
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 240-9773
Anthony Garito
BMDO 00-011
Title:Novel Broadband Rare Earth Fluoro Polymer/Glass Optical Amplifiers
Abstract:The objectives are to address the major problem of broadband optical amplification through the optimization of Photon-X rare earth fluoro polymer/glass material compositions and compatible fluorinated cladding materials, to demonstrate an ultra high gain fluoro polymer/glass medium several centimeters in length, and to analyze the most cost effective way to deploy the technology. The proposed work will involve the formulation and characterization of materials, fabrication of test samples for amplifier characterization, and analysis of the impact on optical amplifier module cost and performance. The polymer materials allow for high concentrations of rare earth ions without clustering effects, resulting in measured gains greater than 5 dB/cm in related systems. Our approach further addresses key problems such as optical attenuation, pump efficiency, nonradiative decay and gain spectrum flattening. Key amplifying medium properties to be characterized include gain, gain spectrum, and noise. Numerical modeling of the relevant three and four-level atomic systems will be used to compare theory with experiment. Successful demonstration of high gain amplifying media at 1310 nm, for example, would significantly accelerate deployment of optical networks closer to the home and provide for ultra high data transfer rates in critical ballistic missile applications. The major anticipated benefits of the Photon-X broadband optical amplifier technology development are to give greatly increased telecommunications network capacity through broader coverage of the available fiber bandwidth, provide for reduced size and cost of optical amplifier modules, enable amplification in previously inaccessible wavelength windows such as 1310 nm at high efficiency, and facilitate new device architectures. A broadband compact optical amplifier provides a solution for both commercial and ballistic missile systems, enabling ultra high data transfer rates, cost efficient use of DWDM technology, security and immunity to electrical interference.

REVEO, INC.
85 Executive Blvd
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-9556
Jianjun Xu
BMDO 00-011
Title:Oriented Crystal Thin Films for Optical Signal Processing
Abstract:This SBIR proposal is to develop the first low-cost fabrication technique for high performance nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. By enabling the first low cost, all-optical, high bandwidth, low latency switch this innovation will have a tremendous impact on worldwide telecommunications. Reveo proposes the first viable fabrication method for oriented organic NLO crystal films. The technique uses the self-ordering mechanism of the liquid crystal host to align the `guest' NLO molecules and field-poling to remove the centro-symmetry. With additional processing, the guest concentration is increased a thousand-fold and oriented nano-crystallites are formed within the film. The NLO properties of the nano-structured films are expected to approach those of the bulk crystal, typically much higher than that of poled polymer films. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed technology. These films will exhibit higher NLO effect, lower scattering losses, and substantially improved long-term stability compared to poled organic NLO materials. In Phase I, the film preparation and characterization techniques will be further developed and optimized. In Phase II, the technology will be expanded to a variety of nonlinear materials, and prototype devices will be developed and characterized. These devices will ultimately lead to dual-use applications in Phase III. The proposed technique represents a fundamental improvement over existing NLO crystal film fabrication techniques, and as such will enable the commercial viability of NLO devices for optical switching and signal processing. Highly integrated devices such as high-speed light modulators and switches will find an immediate market in telecommunications and optical computing. Other applications include all-optical logic devices (light-controlled switches) and wavelength conversion devices (second/third harmonic generation and parametric oscillator). Reveo will leverage its successful SBIR commercialization strategy and existing industry contacts to accelerate the process of bringing this technology to all of these markets.

SRICO, INC.
2724 SAWBURY BOULEVARD
COLUMBUS, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 799-0664
Stuart Kingsley
BMDO 00-011
Title:Ultrafast Optical Tuner for DWDM Systems
Abstract:The late 1990's have seen a substantial interest by long and medium-haul network companies in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed (DWDM) systems. In DWDM systems, more and more closely spaced laser carriers are transmitted down each fiber to increase fiber channel capacity. In military RF photonic links and photonic phased array antenna systems, the ability to multiplex and demultiplex closely spaced laser wavelengths adds enormously to the benefits of implementing a fiber optics approach. The increased density of laser wavelengths in high-speed communications systems, however, requires the ability to rapidly tune these wavelengths. Srico proposes to develop a novel, ultrafast, integrated optic filter that can be used as an optical tuner for DWDM systems. The device uses a Mach-Zehnder interferometer platform. By cascading additional interferometers on the chip, this technology could be extended to more than 1000 laser channels. The push for increased capacity in the installed base of fiber optic networks requires the ability to select and route optical channels at different wavelengths. This ultrafast, tunable optical filter, is a key sub-system for Broadband Optical Networks, RF Photonic Links and Phased Array Antennas. This innovative optical chip development would benefit radar signal processing and photonic based phased array antennas used in national missile defense (NMD).

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
Gregory Whaley
BMDO 00-011
Title:InGaAsN/GaAs Surface Emitting Laser for 1300 nm Communication
Abstract:Optical fiber systems are increasingly used in computer networks, secure telecommunications systems, military aircraft, and even in missile guidance systems. Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) are emerging as a preferred technology for optical fiber transceivers in short- haul, on-premise, data networks. VCSELs have not yet become practical for long haul 1300 and 1550nm fiber communications primarily due to material limitations. Solving these materials problems would allow the performance and cost advantages of the short haul VCSEL technology to be applied to the medium and long haul fiber communication networks. SVT Associates proposes a new material system utilizing a nitrogen-incorporated III-V semiconductor, InGaAsN, grown on GaAs, to form multiple quantum wells for the active region of the VCSEL. High performance Bragg reflecting mirrors composed of simple GaAs/AlGaAs layers can then be used without the need for exotic wafer fusion techniques. In Phase I, we will establish the critical growth parameters needed for creating high performance, 1300nm emitting, active layers and then perform ex-situ testing of the grown materials to demonstrate its high optical quality. In Phase II we will fabricate monolithic 1300nm VCSELs for high speed single mode fiber transmission. Optical fiber data transmission, optical scanners, environmental sensing, optical computing.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
Peter Chow
BMDO 00-011
Title:Enhanced GaN:Er LED for Integrated Optoelectronics
Abstract:Advances in optical computing and signal processing would benefit from the breakthroughs in materials technology for monolithic optoelectronics integration. A key component of the optoelectronic chip is an efficient light source. SVT Associates proposes an enhanced GaN:Er light emitter diode fabricated on silicon substrate and integrated with optical waveguide, such that light propagation can be manipulated for fast on-chip or chip-to-chip communications. Since high quality GaN can be grown directly on Si, and it is a very robust material capable of withstanding high processing temperature, its integration to Si electronics could lead to high performance photonic chips. Based on demonstrated results we plan to investigate methods to improve the luminescence quality and device structure such that the efficiency of the device could be significantly enhanced. The proposed concept would lead to integrated electronics and photonic devices. Because of it is silicon based, such "superchip" could result in economical, large scale, high performance super computers and high bandwidth optical communication systems.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Francis Keohan
BMDO 00-012
Title:STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS AND COMPONENTS
Abstract:A new type of interply fabric connection system is proposed for simplifying resin transfer molding (RTM) composite fabrication processes. The proposed research explores the feasibility of incorporating micromechanical connectors between dry fabric layers to stabilize the stacked preforms during resin infusion. The ultimate objective of the program is to develop a process for fabricating composite structures of varying complexity having preforms held in place without tackifying adhesives. The novel interply connecting system will be delivered in a form that is amenable to both hand lay-up or automated preform assembly. Adhesiveless assembly of the dry fabric plies can dramatically reduce the level of 'touch labor' and consumable waste materials associated with RTM processing. In the proposed study, the methodology for fabricating and applying this preform stabilizing system will be developed. The new interply anchoring method will be tested in RTM processes using traditional tackifying adhesives as a control. The physical and mechanical properties of the resulting composites will be compared to demonstrate feasibility. The new preform stabilizers could potentially be used in a variety of RTM processes to reduce costs and improve the reliability of composites manufactured by this increasingly important technique. The benefits of an easy-to-apply, adhesiveless preform anchoring system include: simplification of the RTM composite fabrication process, less 'touch labor' costs and material waste high, and improved composite mechanical properties. Potential commercial applications lie in the manufacture of aerospace, marine and terrestrial vehicles for both military and civilian markets.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Joseph Maly
BMDO 00-012
Title:Pre-Processed, Containerized BMDO Payloads for Quick Reaction Launches on Reusable Launch Vehicles
Abstract:During times of conflict or potential conflict, there will be requirements for a class of surveillance satellites to detect missile launches. Although systems are currently under development, if this system is not yet deployed or one or more of the satellites is knocked out or fails, the requirement still remains so that the US, its allies, and their troops will be protected. The US may also need the ability to rapidly launch a satellite to provide coverage of a specific area. Because of the orbit required, the launch site may not be one of the usual secure sites currently used. This SBIR proposes an innovative approach to allow rapid launches of classified satellites on reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), such as the DoD Space Plane, where the satellite will also have vibration and acoustic protection during shipping and launch. The satellite will be preprocessed and stored in a protective launch container that will provide environment protection during launch. This launch container will be placed in a special shipping container that will provide environment protection and control during shipping. In addition to this environment mitigation, elimination of time consuming payload integration at the launch site will enhance the ability to maintain surveillance during times of conflict by decreasing RLV turnaround time. Greater protection of satellites during shipment to remote launch sites, rapid integration of satellites into payload bays of RLVs, reduced launch environments of satellites launched on RLVs, improved shipping containers for large, sensitive commercial products including commercial communication satellite constellations.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Shawn Kelso
BMDO 00-012
Title:A Semi-Active MR Solution for SBL Vibrations and Controls
Abstract:Precision controlled actuation and vibration isolation utilizing magnetorheological (MR) fluid technology for critical locations aboard the Space-Based Laser (SBL) is proposed. The proposed MR solution will provide robust semi-active vibration isolation and passive damping to aid in line-of-sight (LOS) jitter reduction. This technology is also proposed to aid in the precision pointing efforts by controlling actuation and mitigating transient energy imparted during active pointing operation. As a baseline, the proposed MR solution will serve as a passive, failsafe vibration isolation system. Candidates for this new MR technology aboard the SBL include the beam expander pointing system, vibration isolation of the optical transfer assembly (OTA), and vibration isolation of the laser resonator. The research will utilize SBL-based finite element models to determine the performance characteristics of the semi-active MR devices. New MR technology prototype hardware, innovative in its use of the MR-effect, will be fabricated and comprehensively characterized. New MR fluid, tailored specifically for this application, will also be developed and tested. Mechanical and electromagnetic design will be carried out simultaneously. The result of this research will be the proof of concept of the benefits offered by the new MR solution, fueling development of space flight hardware in Phase II. For the SBL program, it is anticipated that the benefits of a simple, semi-active MR solution will increase the margin of line-of-sight (LOS) jitter reduction by actively addressing frequency-specific vibration phenomena. Vibration isolation systems using this technology will find wide commercial acceptance, including applications in ground transport vehicles, aircraft and precision manufacturing equipment.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURE & MATERIALS, LLC
309 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Jeffrey Paine
BMDO 00-012
Title:Miniature Compliant Spatial Parallel Manipulators
Abstract:An innovative solution for the design of a miniature and potentially micro high-performance active-structure is proposed. When developed this device will find use in various military, commercial and medical applications to provide miniature, mobile control surfaces for manipulating, pointing and tracking tasks. To be innovative and viable, this device must demonstrate characteristics such as the ability to provide sufficient control authority, withstand high dynamic loads and provide sufficient rigidity all while offering the necessary mobility to accomplish a specified task. We propose to achieve this through the development of a compliant, three-dimensional parallel manipulator to serve as a miniature (or micro) pointing system or platform manipulator. This effort combines innovative technology developments in the area of compliant mechanism research as well as parallel manipulator research. Specifically, we will create a spatial, three-degree-of-freedom, compliant parallel manipulator suitable for fabrication at a miniature or micro level. This manipulator will be capable of rotational motion about two axes and translational motion about a third axis. This compliant manipulator will form the first in a class of such compliant manipulators that combine the characteristics of parallel manipulators with the low cost, small-scale capabilities resulting from a compliant structure design. Candidate applications of miniature compliant spatial manipulators include non-invasive surgery that require endoscopic and laparoscopic tools; miniature tracking and pointing systems for mirrors, solar arrays, view stabilization and lens focusing for surveillance cameras; remote inspection in equipment; platform manipulators for flight simulators, virtual flight devices test application.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
56 Rogers Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 252-0660
M.C. Schoor
BMDO 00-012
Title:STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS AND COMPONENTS
Abstract:Mide is proposing innovative modular components for a new generation of spacecraft. The components will allow these new spacecraft to be serviced and repaired on-orbit. Servicing can be replacement of expendables, upgrading of capabilities and replacement of payloads. In Phase I Mid will define a set of requirements, establish standards to maximize the benefits of modularity and examine several concepts to refine these requirements, standards and to prepare a preliminary system design. In Phase II a spacecraft, using the proposed modular components, will be designed for prototyping and space flight in Phase III. A new generation of spacecraft with modular components, that will simplify on-orbit servicing, will reduce the cost and extend the life of future government and commercial spacecraft.

MOHAWK INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Hooshang Heshmat
BMDO 00-012
Title:Innovative Structural Damping
Abstract:A novel class of light-weight, extreme temperature structural dampers for advanced missile defense systems is now possible through the use of compacted powders. The proposed program will demonstrate the feasibility of integrating the powder damping treatment into structural elements such as plates, beams and cylindrical struts. On a fundamental level powder damping has already been demonstrated in a simple cylindrical rod and a beam type specimen. Thin powder layers (on the order of only mils thick) integrated into beams have already demonstrated damping levels equal to or better than conventional viscoelastic materials. The thin powder material damping treatment and test beam were also subjected to temperatures above 1500F and subsequently tested without adverse effects to the measured damping. Additionally, powder material rheological and damping properties have been determined at temperatures to 1000 F. The available beam and rod test data will be used to assess the feasibility of using powders to damp larger platelike structures. The developed manufacturing methods and issues will also be reviewed. Benefits of this technology are reduced system weight and structural resonances in high speed systems. Powder damping will also benefit turbine engine blades and exhaust ducts, aircraft structures, and space based platforms. Damping treatments for machine tools and large towers are also possible.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2620 Trade Center Avenue
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 702-1672
Stephanie Hooker
BMDO 00-012
Title:Low-Power Flextensional Piezoelectrics
Abstract:This proposal seeks to overcome one of the fundamental limitations associated with flextensional piezoelectric actuators. These unique components offer very high physical displacement due to the presence of internal stresses accomplished during manufacture. However, high voltages are required to achieve these displacements, often precluding their use in aerospace systems. This work will produce high-displacement actuators that can operate efficiently at 50V or less, for application in satellite, aircraft, and commercial systems. The proposed devices will reduce the voltage required to operate flextensional actuators from 400V or more to 50V or less. Power consumed will also be significantly reduced. Applications in smart structures for spacecraft and aircraft, diesel engines, and industrial manufacturing equipment exist

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Kristie Cooper
BMDO 00-012
Title:Electrostatic Self-Assembly Fabrication of Structural Control Actuators
Abstract:The objective of the proposed BMDO SBIR program is to demonstrate the feasibility of electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) processes for the integration of multiple functionalities into nanostructured organic/inorganic thin film actuator materials for spacecraft structural control. The ESA process consists of alternately adsorbing cationic and anionic molecules, nanoclusters, fullerenes, nanorods and other materials, onto substrates at room temperature and pressure, to build up multilayer material structures. Electromechanical actuation, semiconductor junction-based signal processing, thermal transport, optical switching and modulation, and other functionalities may be achieved, combined and spatially-graded throughout the material, and at its surface, by proper selection of the material species adsorbed into each monolayer, and the sequence of the monolayers used to form the total nanocomposite. NanoSonic has demonstrated piezoelectric and electrostrictive behavior, light emission and detection, ultrahigh electrical conductivity and other properties, in thin films of such self-assembled materials. During the Phase I program, NanoSonic will demonstrate the ESA synthesis of conformal, self-assembled piezoelectric thin film actuator devices with conducting electrodes and external packaging, in cooperation with a major U.S. manufacturer of polymer-based actuator materials and devices. This will lead to the cooperative Phase II development and Phase III commercialization of self-assembled sensor, actuator and other materials and devices. Multifunctional thin film materials and devices based on self-assembly methods have applications as sensors, actuators and MEMS devices, in thermal control, as atomic oxygen degradation mitigating coatings for space structures, in active optical and electronic devices, and other areas. The Phase I program focuses specifically on fabricating piezoelectric thin film actuator materials for space system structural control using ESA processing.

SPACEWORKS, INC.
7937 E. Cave Creek Road P.O. Box 2014
Carefree, AZ 85377
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 575-1676
John DiPalma
BMDO 00-012
Title:Compression Molding Multi-Functional Structure
Abstract:The use of advanced composites has allowed space systems designers to exploit the inherent advantages of these materials, including lower mass and dimensionally stable structures. However, the manufacturing processes employed in most space applications have not progressed beyond traditional techniques. These processes limit part design to simple geometric shapes and flat or smoothly curved surfaces. In contrast, the automobile industry has utilized the Compression Molding process to achieve rapid, semi-automated fabrication of high performance, complex composite parts. We propose to take advantage of these developments and design, fabricate, and validate a representative, multi-functional spacecraft part that includes integrated thermal features and cabling using Compression Molding. The process can be adapted to these functions by incorporating thermally conductive fibers and co-molding electrical conductors into the finished part. The goals of the proposed investigation are: 1) fabrication of a representative spacecraft part using Compression Molding; 2) incorporation of conductive fibers to tailor thermal conduction paths; and 3) integration of cabling to examine the potential for a "cable-free" spacecraft. Based on the results of the phase I investigation, we expect to propose the design, fabrication, and qualification of a full-scale, flight quality, multi-functional spacecraft structure for phase II. By applying the latest techniques in composite fabrication to space and missile systems, we expect to: 1) reduce the total cost of spacecraft structure fabrication by more than 30%; 2) reduce structure mass by as much as by 20%; and 3) incorporate multi-functional elements into the structure to reduce labor and complexity associated with the design, integration, and assembly of other subsystems. We believe that these advancement in producing multi-functional spacecraft structure will accelerate the deployment of the low-cost, quick turnaround multi-spacecraft constellations that are currently being conceived.

ACELLENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 4
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 745-1188
Amrita Kumar
BMDO 00-013
Title:Development of Intelligent Composites using Integrated SMART Layer Technology
Abstract:Acellent Technologies, Inc. proposes to build an innovative and cost-effective structural health monitoring system which upon integration would render composite structures "intelligent" by virtue of its ability to monitor in real-time: a) alterations in external loads and stresses; b) location and extent of damage; c) integrity of the structure for residual life estimation and d) cure process during manufacturing. Additionally, this system will find application in quality control of large scale structures during mass production and in telemetric tracking of material data from individual components of a unified composite structure. This system will utilize Acellent's SMART layer technology, based on a built-in network of sensors and actuators embedded on a thin dielectric carrier film, to query, monitor and evaluate the condition of a structure. The proposed system will automatically instruct actuators to generate pre-selected diagnostic signals and transmit them to neighboring sensors whose response will then be interpreted in terms of damage location and size or material property changes within the structure. The monitoring layer can either be surface-mounted or integrated into the structure itself during fabrication. Sensory data from the monitoring layer obtained remotely via telemetry during service or manufacturing will be interpreted and processed by a multifunctional portable computer system running diagnostic software. Upon completion of the development of the proposed system, many industries such as aerospace, automotive, civil & military infrastructures, could benefit substantially from the product which will provide the following advantages: real-time structural monitoring; improvement of reliability; reduction of maintenance cost; reduction of downtime and improvement of readiness for service.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
1505 Coal Creek Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Fred Beavers
BMDO 00-013
Title:Deployable Antenna Hinge
Abstract:CTD proposes to develop and demonstrate a hinge for deployable spacecraft antennas using Elastic Memory Composite (EMC) material. The Phase I program will focus on the design, analysis, fabricability and stowage/deployment behavior of the EMC hinge. The effects of hinge materials and design parameters will be evaluated. A prototype hinge article for a representative spacecraft deployable antenna application will be designed, fabricated and tested to demonstrate stowage and deployment. Development of an improved hinge for deployable spacecraft antennas and similar components will enable the development of small satellites with large deployable antennas. The materials and designs developed in the proposed effort will be applicable to future military and commercial satellites, and have broad commercial potential.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
Pamela Calcar
BMDO 00-013
Title:In-Situ VLS Titanium Carbide Whisker Growth in Aluminum Oxide
Abstract: This proposed program will develop methods for in situ titanium carbide whisker growth in preformed ceramic green bodies. Whisker growth will be done by VLS methods with the activating metal catalyst is dispersed onto carbon particle substrates. The carbon particles will be mixed in with the alumina ceramic powder and formed into shape. Subjecting the preformed part to appropriate gaseous atmospheres will produce TiC whiskers within the green body prior to sintering. In situ production of refractory whiskers within ceramic matrices will make the composites more commercially viable by removing the health risks and decreasing the costs associated with whisker fabrication. The methods proposed here would be applicable to many reinforced ceramic composite materials. Success of this program could lead to continuous production methods for making whisker reinforced ceramic structural materials.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
500 Office Center Drive Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Anthony Caiazzo
BMDO 00-013
Title:Design and Manufacture of Lower Cost Composite Structures for Launch Vehicles (MSC P0B38-011)
Abstract:The opportunity presented in this proposal is to develop and demonstrate innovative damping treatments for noise isolation and vibration control that are integral with launch vehicle fairings, and hence do not add significant weight to the vehicle system. The emphasis of the proposed research program is on development of new structural configurations and lower cost manufacturing techniques for our innovative approach for producing high levels of material damping in composite structures. Design concepts for stiffened plate and shell structures will be developed. An unstiffened flat panel will be fabricated and tested to validate vibro-acoustic performance predictions. Because we have data from previous research to show that our damping concepts out-perform traditional constrained layer treatments, there is a high probability that we will be successful in reducing vibration levels in launch vehicle components using this lower cost technology. Launch vehicles have significant vibration levels induced by the propulsion engines and boundary layer turbulence. These vibration levels limit the performance and reliability of on-board hardware. Launch vehicle manufacturers are actively seeking innovative solutions. The damping treatment proposed here will meet these companies' performance requirements. Targeted applications include payload fairings and equipment mounting brackets. Other applications include those in industry and commercial sectors where vibration is problematic and the high performance of advanced materials is required.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3901 Green Industrial Way
Chamblee, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-2417
Subu Shanmugham
BMDO 00-013
Title:Low-Cost, Repairable Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Carbon-Carbon Composites via CCVD
Abstract:C-C composites are desired for use at temperatures up to 2000C in oxidizing environments for military and civilian applications. However, they are vulnerable to oxidation above 400C. Past efforts have developed single and multilayer coating systems for C-C composites to improve oxidation resistance. Even the successful coating architectures are yet to demonstrate reliable performance and repair capability in oxidizing environments at low cost. MCT proposes to use the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition(CCVD) process for depositing coatings to protect C-C composites. The key advantage of the CCVD technology is its ability to deposit thin films in open atmosphere using inexpensive precursor chemicals, obviating the need for costly furnaces, vacuum equipment, and reaction chambers. This Phase I effort will deposit at least twenty different coatings comprised of metals, oxides, or carbides or their combinations on C-C composites. Morphology, microstructure and composition of these CCVD coatings will be characterized before and after isothermal and cyclic oxidation testing at temperatures up to 1500C. This research will demonstrate at least 100% increase in oxidation resistance or lifetimes of these composites over uncoated samples. The promising results will be sent to AirForce or industrial customers for evaluation and feedback. In Phase II, MCT will work with commercial partners and DOD to coat components for civilian and military applications. The ceramics composite market is estimated to be between $700 million and $1.4 billion by 2005. However, the mechanical integrity issues of ceramic composites have been their limiting factor. If successful oxidation resistant interfaces or coatings are developed, it will pave the path for lighter, tougher, and more oxidation resistant composite materials for use at elevated temperatures in applications such as heat exchangers, power generation, future generation missile systems, automotive, and aerospace. CCVD process could be the enabling low-cost, high throughput technology for enhancing the performance of C-C composites for military and civilian applications.

MORGAN RESEARCH CORP.
2707 Artie Street Suite 17
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 533-3233
Michael Kranz
BMDO 00-013
Title:Embedded Microinstrumentation for Health Monitoring of Composite Structures
Abstract:The scope of this effort encompasses designs for structural health monitoring using interferometric techniques previously discounted due to high instrumentation costs. A method is proposed that will develop handheld inexpensive instrumentation for interrogating interferometric fiber sensors. The method will employ advanced MEMS design and fabrication processes, and apply them to fiber sensing techniques. Applications for this type of instrumentation include health monitoring of: buildings/bridges, space-based platforms, stored military assets, and re-usable launch vehicles.

NANOPAC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
35 Hutchinson Road
Allentown, NJ 08501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 445-2330
James Colaizzi
BMDO 00-013
Title:Development of Ceramic Nano-nano-composites for High Performance Applications
Abstract:The proposed project will merge two recent breakthroughs in nanomaterials research to develop ceramic composites with an extraordinarily fine scale, uniform structure to produce a new generation of materials for use in high performance applications. By combining Rapid Solidification Processing (RSP) of metastable ceramic powders and Transformation Assisted Consolidation (TAC) of powder compacts, we will be able to produce bulk samples that are fully dense and still retain the nanoscale grain size. More importantly, the composite will consist of a homogeneous network of two ceramic phases, each of which retards the grain coarsening of the other and provides mechanical reinforcement. The result will be a material that combines the advantages of composite structures with those of nanomaterials. Our previous research has shown that such materials have extraordinarily high wear resistance, low friction, high strength, and high toughness. In addition, we expect the materials to have a very high thermal shock resistance and to be transparent. Our goal in the project will be to scale up the technologies developed to date and to produce nano-nano-composites that are useful for high performance applications in harsh environments. These components will have properties that are far superior to conventional ceramics and composites whose grain sizes have the usual micrometer dimensions. There are many potential applications for these types of materials in both the military and civilian sectors. Examples are plungers, shaft seals, optically flat components, heat resistant and tough components, optically transparent and erosion resistant ceramics, optical sensors in gas turbine engines, and optical sensors in power plants.

SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY, INC.
15 WARD STREET
SOMERVILLE, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 547-1122
CATHERINE BYRNE
BMDO 00-013
Title:NON-AUTOCLAVE MATERIALS FOR LARGE COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
Abstract:Launch vehicles for the Space Based Infrared System will include Titan Launch vehicles and the Air Force Space Operations Vehicle(SOV). Composite structures on the SOV (the military version of NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) will be too large to cure inside existing autoclaves. Electron Beam processing is one of the most promising approaches for out-of-autoclave composite curing and bonding. Recent technology demonstration programs have shown potential cost savings and the ability to make large parts using EB curing at low temperature. However, additional development of EB-cured materials is required to meet RLV and SOV mechanical and thermal design specifications. Science Research Laboratory will work with the University of Dayton Research Institute to fabricate EB cured composites and to test the properties of these composites over a wide range of temperatures from 250F to -423F. These materials promise to meet or exceed the properties of Cytec Fiberite 977-2 (baseline for RLV cryotank composites) and to exceed the properties of the EB curable cationic epoxy currently used in the Lockheed Martin EB program. Electron beam curing and electron beam curable composites, adhesives and coatings have applications as reduced cost materials and processes for fabrication of large and small commercial and military aircraft structures, reusable launch vehicles, space operations vehicles, helicopters, cryotanks for liquid propellants, ground vehicle structures for military and civilian applications, in the fabrication of commercial automobiles and in the fabrication of composite shelters for military and humanitarian use. The total market is estimated to be at least $20M over the next five years.

SENSORTEX
515 Schoolhouse Road
Kennett Square, PA 19348
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 444-2383
William Biter
BMDO 00-013
Title:Structural Monitoring Via Embedded Magnetic Wires
Abstract:Stress monitoring in composite materials is difficult but useful for testing to compare measurements with modeling and to monitor flexing and vibration under load. There are only a limited number of methods to measure strain that are suitable to be embedded in a composite material and all either expensive or complex. This proposal is for a new and novel strain sensor. It uses a small diameter wire coated with a magnetic film. The magnetic film dominates the impedance of the wire and is strain sensitive. The wire is very cheap to manufacture and the readout electronics simple so that overall system cost is low with a potential cost advantage over fiber optic sensors of a factor of 100. This proposal introduces a new technology with potentially wide applications. The ability to plate controlled magnetic films on small diameter wires opens multiple applications. The wire can be used to obtain curing information of a composite in addition to information on external strain. Since the system can be used in a modified array structure, the strain at different points can be measured versus time, giving information on the vibration of the structure, including modal analysis. This proposal addresses one specific application of a new technology, a wire sensor for embedding in composites to monitor internal strain, both initially and as the composite ages. Such sensors can be used to monitor the health of advanced composites used for airframes and space applications, as well as more conventional structures such as buildings, bridges, etc. Additional applications, including shielding and power filtering, are possible with a slightly different configuration of the wire.

SYSCOM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2880 Wynneleaf Street
Hilliard, OH 43026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 850-7314
Jar-Wha Lee
BMDO 00-013
Title:Preparation of Multifunctional Metal/Polymer NanoComposite Fiber
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I Program will test a solution processing scheme for fabricating a multifunctional Metal/Polymer NanoComposite (MPNC) fiber from a class of rigid-chain lyotropic liquid crystalline polymers. The functionality is introduced by incorporation of a metal precursors that can be blended in with the polymer host and then converted in-situ, templating the morphology of the polymer fiber matrix and form a continuous metal network in the polymer host. The proposed processing scheme can be readily incorporated into the commercial production of many high-performance polymer fibers. The host polymers include rigid-rod polymers such as poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO), poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBZT) and extended-chain polymers such as poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA). These high performance polymers exhibit exceptional mechanical tensile strengths of 400-800 Ksi and Young's moduli of 25-50 Msi, and thermal degradation temperature up to approximately 500C. Most importantly, since the metal network is embedded in the polymer matrix, the metal to polymer interface adhesion is dramatically improved via an interlocking mechanism. In contrast, the commercially available metallized fiber suffers from potential fatigue or delamination in thermal or mechanical cycles owing to the metals being coated only on the surface of the polymer fiber. These light-weight conductive high performance Metal/Polymer NanoComposite (MPNC) fibers will have tremendous potential for the near term applications such as signal and power transfer and electromagnetic shielding (EMI). The replacement of metal signal wires in existing aircraft and satellites with the MPNC fibers will result in substantial weight-savings which will lead to enhanced system performance.

TAL MATERIALS, INC.
1375 Folkstone Ct.
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 647-7647
Sai Kumar
BMDO 00-013
Title:Lightweight Nanocomposites for Missile Defense Applications
Abstract:Although nanocomposites composed of layered clays and polymers have been made with impressive performance enhancements, their full commercial exploitation has been limited by restrictive processing techniques. The key requirement for nanocomposite formation is dispersion of clay particles at nm length scales in polymer matrices, which is not trivial. Such a molecular-level dispersion necessitates complete exfoliation of clay particles, which occurs sporadically with the fabrication procedures currently in use. We propose to use stagnation flow (S-flow) of clay dispersions in an opposed-nozzle device, generating adequate extensional forces to exfoliate smectite clays. We propose to fabricate nanocomposites based on Nylon 6, Nylon 6,6 and polyester resins with montmorillonite as the clay filler using a two-step process: the clay/prepolymer mixture is first subjected to S-flow to cause exfoliation, which is then polymerized to advance the resin molecular weight to desired levels. The primary objective of this proposal is to identify the S-flow process conditions to cause efficient clay exfoliation, which in turn produces nanocomposites with greatly improved modulus, strength and thermal stability. With proof of concept, we propose to extend this work to develop a low-cost, versatile processing technique to produce high modulus, damage-tolerant nanocomposites for missile applications. Polymer-clay nanocomposites possess mechanical properties that set them apart from conventional fiber-reinforced or mineral-filled materials. Property enhancement in nanocomposites occurs at very low clay loadings, < 5 wt%. This means that superior performance can be realized with significant weight savings, which is highly desirable in ballistic missile applications, especially where high stiffness is required in thin-walled sections. Unlike their conventional counterparts, polymer-clay nanocomposites offer superior barrier resistance and flame retardation, both of which are desirable attributes. We have proposed a simple approach to cause efficient clay exfoliation, which is crucial for property enhancement. Our approach calls for a simple, low-cost extension of existing polymerization technologies. We therefore believe that our approach has the potential to revolutionize the polymer composite industry upon successful development and implementation.

THE TECHNOLOGY PARTNERSHIP
8030 Coventry
Grosse Ile, MI 48138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 675-8295
David Bettinger
BMDO 00-013
Title:FIXED & EXPANSION CONNECTORS FOR COMPOSITE CRYOPIPE
Abstract:The conversion of alloy rocket engine ducts and lines to lighter, polymer composites raises the issues of cost effective joining/assembly for cryogenic operations. Dynamic Polymer Composite (DPC) connectors use the release of circumferential prestress to clamp cylindrical lines, ducts, and valves with forces as strong as the members themselves. For cryogenic piping, DPC connectors eliminate flanges, optimize component prefabrication, simplify assembly, and connect dissimilar materials. By varying the design, an axial expansion joint results that eliminates heavy, expensive alloy bellows. DPC connectors have been validated for airframes under an AF SBIR. These cryogenic connectors are two of seven, patented/proprietary DPC technologies. Together these make flange-less assembly of light-weight composite piping practical and cost effective, current BMDO goals. Using space qualified materials, Phase I will model, fabricate, and evaluate fixed and expansion DPC cryogenic connectors against equivalent flanged and bellows members. Phase II will develop and test prototype rocket engine sections connected by DPCs in a cyclical, cryogenic environment in preparation for Phase III contractor flight testing. A large composite pipe producer is a commercial partner for use in cryogenic process plants and oil/gas fields; $300,000 committed. Eight market segments have a potential of $200 million a year. The EELV has $6.2 billion in orders.

THOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7600 Jefferson NE Suite 9-115
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 296-3615
Stuart Schwab
BMDO 00-013
Title:Rapid, Low-Cost Manufactruing Process for Net Shape Refractory Ceramic Composites
Abstract:Replacing metal missile components, such as nozzles and hot-gas valves in divert and attitude control systems (DACS) with continuous fiber-reinforce ceramic composites (CFCCs) will dramatically enhance the performance of theatre missile defense systems, but no acceptable manufacturing method currently exists for CFCCs. Thor Technologies, Inc. will team with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), NASA-Glenn Research Center (NASA-GRC) and Aerojet to: i) demonstrate an innovative process for producing net-form CFCCs rapidly and cheaply, ii) manufacture fiber-reinforced silicon carbide test articles, and iii) validate their performance through hot-fire testing in a subscale motor at NASA-GRC. Thor Technologies will use LANL facilities to manufacture CFCCs using an innovative polymer infiltration/microwave pyrolysis (PIMP) process. Aerojet will provide material performance requirements. Prototype nozzles will be tested in NASA-GRC's 25 Lbf subscale motor using H2/O2 propellant. The Principal Investigator has many years of experience with polymer infiltration/pyrolysis processing, and has unique experience in the PIMP processing of CFCCs at LANL. Aerojet is a leading developer of rocket motors for theatre missile defense systems. NASA-GRC has extensive experience in subscale motor tests. Demonstration of low cost CFCCs will allow designers to consider them in baseline system designs, opening large markets for this class of material. The replacement of metal alloys with ceramic composites will enable dramatic reductions in rocket system weight and complexity. In addition to processing fiber-reinforced silicon carbide, the PIMP process can be used to produce a wide range of other ceramics and ceramic composites, many with commercial and consumer applications. The successful completion of this Phase I effort will enable us to begin exploring the use of microwave heating with other materials systems that have large commercial markets. The preparation of CFCCs in this Phase I is a critical milestone in the development of microwave-based material manufacturing processes.

UHV TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
113B West Park Drive
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 608-0311
Bawa Singh
BMDO 00-013
Title:High Strength Carbon Nanotube Composites
Abstract:Carbon nanotubes have not found many commercial applications in spite of intense research effort since their discovery almost a decade ago. This lack of commercial success is due to the un-availability of nanotubes in suitable formats and sufficient quantities. We propose to develop an innovative nanotube manufacturing technology whereby nanotubes are grown on suitable fibers by hot filament PECVD in a continuous manner. The nanotubes grow radially owtwards from the fiber surface forming a hair brush like structure that can be easily handled. This enables deposits of nanotubes to be fabricated at commercially viable high rates onto unique format substrates that are specifically configured for applications such as composites, gas and liquid filtration/separation systems, energy storage and field emission cathodes. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition used in conjunction with metallic catalysts will be the primary growth technique. The resulting nanotubes will be characterized to determine the adhesion, structural and other properties. The feasibility of the proposed concept will be demonstrated in phase I, while a high rate manufacturing system will be constructed during phase II to produce nanotubes on pre-production basis for several applications. The anticipated benefits include low cost manufacturing of high strngth composites for various structural applications. In addition, the core technology can be used for other products such as field emission cathodes, gas/liquid filters and catalysts.

ACTIVE SIGNAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13025 Beaver Dam Road
Cockeysville, MD 21030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 547-0293
Keith Bridger
BMDO 00-014
Title:ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
Abstract:Employing commercially robust and environmentally sound processing technology, Active Signal Technologies and Alfred University propose to develop a novel bismuth sodium titanate (BNT) ceramic for high temperature capacitors. The dielectric properties of this material will enhance weapon capability by allowing denser packing of electronic components and location of circuits nearer to hot operating elements of the system. Compositionally, we will fine tune the high temperature response and make its dielectric constant uniform across a broad range of temperatures. Lead doped baseline material will be the starting point based on its excellent mechanical integrity and outstanding values of dielectric constant (several thousand, between 50C and 500C). A variety of other dopants will be investigated to replace the lead and/or modify the electrical characteristics of the material. In addition, the material chemistry will be manipulated with a variety of A - and B - site replacement cations which do not compromise the high-temperature properties and at the same time extend them to lower temperature and flatten the dielectric response. In addition, a matrix of additives will be investigated to explore the limits of available material properties and thereby determine how well the ceramic can be tailored for specific applications. Capacitors represent a multibillion dollar established market worldwide. High temperature dielectrics are needed as processors and electronic instrumentation moves closer to the hot stages of automotive / aircraft power plants and other machinery. Specific components include power-filters, inverters, generators, motors and electronic control systems.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Sergei Krivoshlykov
BMDO 00-014
Title:Modification of Semiconductors for Bandgap Engineering and Monolithic Integration of Optoelectronic Devices
Abstract:Altair Center proposes to develop a revolutionary new technology for room temperature selective modification of semiconductor materials adjusting bandgap, refractive index and quantum confined properties of the semiconductor structures already after their growth. The selective processing of the semiconductor materials employs a novel process assisted by illumination of the semiconductor with a laser beam at the fundamental absorption wavelength. The process of modification creates nanoclusters (quantum dots) in the semiconductor material dramatically changing its bandgap and electromagnetic properties. The proposed technology can be applied to many semiconductor-based devices. For some semiconductor materials (GaAs, CdS), the process has already demonstrated huge change in the refractive index (as large as 0.8-1). The large index change can be employed for fabrication and monolithic integration of a broad class of active or passive semiconductor-based components using simple direct laser beam writing. In Phase I the proposed technology will be demonstrated and developed in detail. In Phase II a prototype apparatus for processing various semiconductor materials will be fabricated with final product delivered to DoD. In addition to immediate military applications, the proposed technology is an excellent candidate for fabrication of different photonic products in several markets, including: diffractive gratings, computer generated holograms, spatial light modulators, diode lasers, photonic bandgap structures, thin film photovoltaic devices, etc.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Alexei Vitukhnovsky
BMDO 00-014
Title:Novel Abiotic Devices Based on Doped Dendrimers and Hyperbranched Polymers
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop new dendritic and hyperbranched materials with cascade, tree-like architecture for two complementary abiotic devices: light emitting diodes (LED) and photovoltaic cells (PV cells) having important military and civilian applications. The proposed approach takes advantage of two novel findings in this field: light-harvesting effect and segregation of the emissive core molecules/Ln ions by dedritic shell. Both processes offer a way of enhancing the luminescence by vectorial exciton migration to the core (energy acceptor, reaction center) and preventing selfquenching of the emissive core molecules/Ln ions. We will use specially designed high emissive dendrimers with dye or Eu3+/Tb3+ ions based core providing efficient light harvesting similar to bacteriorhodopsin and other natural photosynthetic systems. In Phase I of the project we will develop novel perfluorinated polyphenylenepolygermane (PPG) and polyphenyl dendritic and hyperbranched polymers doped with specific dye or lantanide ions for application in the abiotic devices. In Phase II the developed technology will be applied to fabrication of a prototype abiotic device for immediate application at DoD - LED based on doped hyperbranched polymers/dendrimers with light-harvesting effect. Polymer light emitting devises have an important niche market including TV and computer displays. In additional to immediate military application as novel LED and light-harvesting systems (artificial photosynthetic antenna, photoconverters, optical data storage devices) the proposed systems will find numerous applications in electronic and medical industry.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Igor Levitsky
BMDO 00-014
Title:Porphyrins based luminescence chemical sensors with enhanced sensitivity
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop a simple and cost-efficient optical sensor for detection of volatile organic compounds (VOC), NOx and SO2 producing strong enhancement/quenching of the emission in presence of these gaseous pollutants. The main principle of signal amplification is based on an antenna effect of the energy transfer/migration among excited chromophores. Specially synthesized highly luminescence compounds (porphyrin based chromophores) will be made specific to different kinds of target molecules. The active layer will be fabricated as a uniform mono- or bichromophore film. Analyte binding to the porphyrins core will form the quenching sites randomly distributed through the films. These luminescence traps quench the luminescence due to energy migration among porphyrins chromophores. The luminescence quenching induced by the antenna effect is much stronger than that for matrix isolated chromophores leading to small and cost-efficient sensors for detection of different pollutants exhibiting an extraordinary high sensitivity. In phase I of the project we will synthesize the receptor chromophores specific to most common gaseous pollutants and demonstrate strong change of the luminescence in presence of the target molecules. In Phase II the developed technology will be allied to fabricating a Prototype chemosensor system. The developed sensors can be immediately applied to monitoring air pollution in places with toxic emissions, hazardous waste sites, different industrial sources releasing volatile chemicals to the atmosphere. Fiber optical sensors will be able to detect remote area without any risk for human activity. In addition to immediate military applications, the sensor system will find many commercial applications in chemical and biotechnology industry for real-time monitoring gas mixture in technological processes.

APPLIED CERAMICS RESEARCH CO.
1420 Owl Ridge Dr.
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 948-2109
Lee Kammerdiner
BMDO 00-014
Title:A Superior High Dielectric Constant Capacitor with Nickel Electrodes for Use in Integrated Circuits
Abstract:High dielectric constant materials are increasingly important for pushing the state of the art in semiconductor integrated circuits. They are necessary in applications that require high capacitance values per lateral area. One example technology currently under development uses Barium Strontium Titanate BST), planned for use in DRAM's. Although the dielectric constants are considerable, one disadvantage is the need for plantinum electrodes. Another example occurs in Radio Frequency Identification Chips that require high capacitance to store charge. Frequently these use separate discrete devices which are undesirable in regard to cost and yield. The device proposed here has potentially higher dielectric constants than BST and can be used with nickel instead of platinum electrodes. DRAM's represent by far the largest integrated circuit market at this time. As this industry moves to the 256 Mb level high dielectric constant materials will be necessary. The device proposed here can satisfy that need. The device also provides advantages of cost and complexity in any integrated circuit application requiring high capacitance such as in RFID chips

ASTRALUX, INC.
2500 Central Ave.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 413-1440
John Torvik
BMDO 00-014
Title:Low-cost hybrid SiC wafers for optoelectronic and electronic device applications
Abstract:In this proposal, researchers at Astralux, Inc. in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder propose to fabricate low-cost SiC wafers. Specifically, the goal is to commercialize low-cost semi-insulating SiC wafers for the emerging wide bandgap microwave device market and SiC wafers of different conductivity types for applications such as SiC growth or III-V nitride optoelectronics. The targeted price per SiC wafer is 10 times less than the current price of commercially available SiC wafers. We propose to use a three-step process to create hybrid and low-cost SiC wafers on a substrate of choice tailored for the end-users' application. Low-cost hybrid SiC substrates will greatly benefit the III-V nitride optoelectronic market and the emerging high-power microwave device market. Specifically, such substrates will provide the mechanical and structural support for a wide variety of devices including blue, green, and white light emitting diodes, blue and ultraviolet diode lasers, high-frequency and high-power transistors, cold cathode emitters, and visible-blind detectors, all of which have military and commercial applications. The total market for such devices is expected to reach $3 billion by 2006, and the majority of these devices could be fabricated on SiC substrates.

BAND GAP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
800 N. Lucas St. Apt. U7
West Columbia, SC 29169
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 794-3125
Yuri Khlebnikov
BMDO 00-014
Title:Silicon Carbide Bulk Crystal Growth at High Growth Rates
Abstract:This Phase I program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of a novel rapid growth rate technique for bulk silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal growth. The growth rate is expected to be approximately 3 times higher (3 mm/hr) than that of present conventional methods using the sublimation growth method. This technique has the potential to yield low cost, high quality bulk crystals greater than 100mm in diameter having polytype homogeneity, uniform distribution of dopant concentration, low micropipe density (< 30/cm^2), and low dislocation density (<10^4/cm^2). The boules grown using the proposed technique will be sliced into wafers, polished, and the material will be characterized for its structural and electrical properties. The main advantages of the proposed rapid growth rate method are: uniformity of material properties (doping concentration, defect density, etc.) across the wafer area, lower density of structural and crystallographic defects, high efficiency of conversion of the source material into the grown boule, high yield of wafers having the same properties, and good yield of high performance devices fabricated on a SiC wafer. Most importantly, the lower cost of superior quality SiC wafers will be an impetus to more rapid commercialization of SiC based devices. Silicon carbide boules with homogeneous material properties grown at high growth rates will result in a considerably higher yield of wafers that are significantly lower in cost but which also possess material properties that are uniform across the entire diameter of a wafer. These properties are highly desirable for the fabrication and commercial acceptance of SiC based power electronic and microwave devices. Therefore, a successful program in low cost, high quality SiC bulk crystal growth has a high potential for yielding a commercial product for Band Gap Technologies, Inc (BGT).

BAND GAP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
800 N. Lucas St. Apt. U7
West Columbia, SC 29169
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 794-3125
Yuri Khlebnikov
BMDO 00-014
Title:A Novel Approach for the Growth of Low Defect Density, Semi-Insulating Silicon Carbide
Abstract:This Phase I effort represents a radically new approach for the synthesis of high purity SiC source material that can solve many of the problems inherent to the boule growth of semi-insulating (SI) silicon carbide (SiC) using the conventional compensation method. The program is aimed at conducting process development and testing to show proof of concept of a novel synthesis technique that will produce very high purity SiC source material. We will also demonstrate that the high purity SiC source material can be produced with high yields and hence low costs. Characterization will be performed on the source material, to demonstrate that it is pure, free of metallic impurities. The high purity SiC source material produced by this technique is conducive to the growth of semi-insulating SiC boules ( >10^8 ohm-cm) with low density of crystallographic defects and with material characteristics (resistivity, defect density) that are uniform across the boule volume. Hence the resulting SI SiC wafers are expected to significantly increase device yield. In Phase II, we will demonstrate the growth of SI SiC boules >50mm in diameter of superior quality, having low density of crystallographic defects and variation in material characteristics <10% across the volume of the boule. With the proposed approach, three specific advantages are anticipated: (a) the high yield of the synthesis process is expected to result in low cost of the pure source material, (b) the high purity source material will produce boules whose characteristics are uniform over its volume ( <10% variation in resistivity and defect density), (c) high wafer yield and reduced cost of SI SiC wafers, which stimulates the widespread commercialization of the material for microwave and RF system applications.

BELFORD RESEARCH, INC.
100 Marshland Road
Hilton Head Islan, SC 29926
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 681-9353
Rona Belford
BMDO 00-014
Title:Enhanced Silicon for Higher Performance Integrated Circuits
Abstract:The research proposed here aims to develop a simple method to substantially improve silicon integrated circuits (ICs), at both device and system level, by the mechanical application of tensile strain. At present, high performance at device level, is achieved by introducing bi-axial tensile strain into the silicon by pseudomorphically growing Si on top of Si/Ge. Devices created in these strained-Si heterostructures have not been integrated even to the extent of fabricating the simplest CMOS circuits. In our case circuit integration is achieved prior to applying the strain and is therefore not a problem. Our method can be applied to virtually any IC. It is inexpensive to research and to implement. Both uni-axial and bi-axial tensile strain is possible, uni-axial strain can give better results than bi-axial strain at substantially reduced strain levels. The level of applied strain can easily be varied. The benefits are many and range from increasing the performance of existing integrated circuits, while lowering their energy consumption, to increasing the ultimate limits of miniaturization for future devices. The impact of the expected improvement in the basic properties of silicon would substantially improve the operating characteristics of existing sub-micron MOSFETs, and extend the ultimate limit of IC miniaturization by the equivalent of about two generations in the history of microelectronics. Increasing the conductivity/mobility causes a consequential and proportionate improvement in the speed of a device, whether it be a bipolar transistor or a MOSFET. With decreasing MOSFET dimensions in ICs, device and system performance is degraded by more subtle effects. These effects directly diminish with increased conductivity and/or mobility. Increasing the carrier mobility of silicon is therefore especially significant in the future development of ICs. Strain also causes a decrease in the band gap. In the case of Si on Si/Ge alloys, it can be reduced from 1.1 eV to 0.95 - 0.8 eV, i.e. bringing the band gap into the near-IR (1.3 - 1.55m) which is of importance in opto-electronics. Achieving the same effect by simple mechanical means, offers the opportunity of developing silicon opto-electronic devices for applications in the near-IR.

BOSTON NITRIDE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20 Taylor St.
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 353-1910
E.Fred Schubert
BMDO 00-014
Title:Novel Low Resistance Ohmic Contact Technology for High-Power GaN Devices
Abstract:Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors, namely SiC and GaN, have been considered ideal materials for high power microwave devices since they were first studied over 30 years ago. Among all GaN related technologies, p-type doping of GaN, and low resistivity ohmic contacts to p-GaN are the least mature ones. At the same times, virtually all characteristics of electronic semiconductor devices depend on the ohmic contact resistance including: the wall-plug efficiency, heating of the device, reliability, noise figures of merit, ft , fmax , power added efficiency (PAE), and maximum power. Therefore, the development of low resistivity contacts to GaN, and in particular to p-GaN, has an enormous commercial potential, by virtue of the involvement of all major application areas of GaN-based devices such as high-power electronics, wireless communications and photonics. The major technical objective of Phase I is the demonstration of a new class of low-resistance ohmic contacts to GaN based semiconductors that exhibit internal electric fields due to spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects. In addition, the novel contact will be integrated in a test device - namely a high voltage rectifier diode based on an AlGaN/GaN p-n junction. New contact technology can find its application in BJTs and HBTs for high power electronics, LEDs and laser diodes for optical storage devices.

CERAMARE CORP.
12-D Jules Lane
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 937-8261
Robert Uhrin
BMDO 00-014
Title:A New Method for Growing Single Crystal ZnO at T < or = 100C
Abstract:Not only has single crystal ZnO emerged as a viable prospect for use as a substrate for GaN deposition but it is a more promising candidate than GaN for blue light emitting diodes. ZnO is potentially superior to GaN because it has a higher exciton binding energy, is more beam damage tolerant and crystals can be grown by a variety of methods (hydrothermal, melt, CVD). Thermodynamic modeling is a suitable tool for predicting conditions for low-temperature phase-pure growth of ZnO crystals. Preliminary calculations have led us to believe that ZnO crystal growth in a hydrothermal medium is possible under ultra-mild conditions (T < or = 100C, P=1atm). Our Phase I program will demonstrate a new process for achieving ZnO crystal growth in hydrothermal solution without the need for a pressure confinement vessel. The process has the significant advantage of enabling visual monitoring of the crystal as it grows. Results of crystal growth experiments performed under ultra-mild conditions and thermodynamic calculations conducted in the Phase I program will be used to demonstrate p-type ZnO growth by this method in a Phase II program. Currently there is no commercial source of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals even though hydrothermal conditions for growth of large crystals are known. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO crystals at T < or = 100C and P = 1atm will reduce production costs by elimination of the need for a pressure containment vessel and by drastically reducing power requirements compared to those incurred with melt growth methods. Further refinement of our thermodynamic model for hydrothermal growth of ZnO will provide guidance for bandgap engineering and for development of p-type growth. Success in this program could make the hydrothermal method the most cost effective and preferred commercial method of growing ZnO crystals.

CERMET, INC.
1019 Collier Road Suite C1
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 351-0005
Vicente Munne
BMDO 00-014
Title:Bulk Growth of Aluminum Nitride
Abstract:The primary goal of this Phase I will be to demonstrate the growth of high quality aluminum nitride single crystals by the physical vapor transport method, using Cermet's novel crystal growth system. This technique will enable the production of high purity aluminum vapor at high rates, which will be reacted with high purity nitrogen to form aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride reaction product will be seeded on heterogeneous and homogeneous seeds to form ingots of aluminum nitride. A secondary objective of this work will be the development of a wafer finishing process, suitable for epitaxial growth of nitride films. The crystals produced in this work will be characterized using x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The advantages of this crystal growth method are the source containment method, potentially substantial crystal growth rates, and process scalability. The Department of Defense will benefit from this program by providing a significant number of DoD contractors with a source of native substrates for nitride device development. This technology will provide a source for AlN single crystal wafers, which will be used in the fabrication of GaN laser diodes, high power nitride transistors, nitride blue and white light emitting diodes, and nitride photo detectors.

CHEMICON, INC.
7301 Penn Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15208
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 241-7335
Matthew Nelson
BMDO 00-014
Title:High Throughput Optical Screening of GaN and Related Materials
Abstract:GaN and its alloys lag far behind other semiconductor systems in crystal quality, purity and alloy composition uniformity due in part to a poor understanding of certain basic material properties. The need exists for non-destructive techniques which allow rapid, high throughput screening of material both in the research laboratory and in production environments for the determination of crystal quality, doping levels and uniformity, strain, alloy composition and defect content. The overall technical objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of combining Raman Chemical Imaging Spectroscopy (RCIS) and Photoluminescence Chemical Imaging Spectroscopy (PCIS) into a single instrument. The integrated chemical imaging approach will provide high speed analysis of chemical composition, structural quality, doping levels and uniformity, strain, and structural quality of GaN and related semiconductor materials by extending existing chemical imaging technology currently optimized for visible wavelength operation into the UV. GaN is already achieving a certain level of commercialization, primarily blue LEDs and single element UV photodetectors. Increased commercialization, particularly lasers, microwave devices and power electronics, will depend on improved material quality and uniformity. The current complicated growth schemes based on lateral overgrowth lead to non-uniform material with inherently low yield. The proposed chemical imaging system will allow rapid screening of materials early in the process to eliminate unsuitable material and to help in maximizing material usage. This will lower per device cost while enabling fast determination of the effects of process changes, leading to ultimate higher yield. The tool will be particularly useful in enhancing the speed of materials development programs which will increase the pace of the development for this commercially and strategically important semiconductor material for numerous civilian and military applications. Commercial end uses include the communication and display industry, commercial microwave market, power electronics manufacturers and end users, any market using display electronics, markets requiring robust or high temperature, possibly solar blind UV detectors, and LED and laser manufacturers. Military applications include many strategic and battle-field applications including high power microwave devices (such as radar and high bandwidth communication), solar blind, high resolution UV detector arrays, high temperature electronics, blue and UV lasers for communication and information storage/display, and military applications of power electronics.

COVA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2860 South Circle Drive Suite 2323
Colorado Springs, CO 80906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 538-9030
Gregory. Huebner
BMDO 00-014
Title:A Novel Ferroelectric Material For Nonvolatile Memory Applications.
Abstract:Interest in ferroelectric technology for Nonvolatile Memory Applications has increased in recent years and first products are now commercially available. Ferroelectric memories offer many advantages over competing technologies, but they still suffer from unresolved problems that have prevented them of becoming mainstream products. One of these issues is to scale the technology to make a high density (>16 Mbit) low cost (small cell size) memory feasible. The most attractive approach to a high density memory is to use a merged cell consisting of only one transistor with a ferroelectric gate dielectric, without a separate storage capacitor; a cell that would be considerably denser than any other semiconductor memory cell. One of the difficulties in realizing such a cell is to find a ferroelectric material that can be deposited directly on silicon without forming an unwanted interfacial layer and that shows good performance, particularly adequate retention time. We believe that we have found such a material and propose to conduct a feasibility study in Phase I, building capacitor structures and characterize them using standard test methods. In Phase II we will build arrays of 1T cells. The results are applicable to commercial NVRAMs (EEPROM, Flash), but can also directly replace DRAMs. Benefits: A novel ferroelectric material will be developed that will make a reliable, low cost , ferroelectric gate transistor in a 1T nonvolatile memory cell feasible. Applications: A ferroelectric memory using the proposed merged 1T cell can be used as a replacement for EEPROM or flash non volatile memories but also as a replacement for DRAMs

DENDRITECH, INC.
3110 Schuette Drive
Midland, MI 48642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 832-5555
David Dalman
BMDO 00-014
Title:PAMAMOS Copper Nanocomposite Coatings for Advanced Microelectronic Applications
Abstract:Electronics, the world's largest manufacturing industry, is not without its business and technical challenges. The industry must keep up with a relentless pace of technology advances to meet consumer demands. Chemical materials technology for electronics, a $37 billion industry, will enable future advances in IC and packaging technology. This SBIR proposal will test the feasibility of the recently discovered PAMAMOS polymer copper nanocomposites coatings to allow direct metalization of printed wiring boards. If successfully demonstrated, this unique technology could make a significant difference in the technical capability and lower cost of future generations of microelectronic, optoelectronic and magnetic information storage technologies. The opportunities for dual use military and commercial applications for this SBIR program based on PAMAMOS copper nanocomposites are numerous. They include, among others, (a) direct printing of signal traces for ICs and PWBs, (b) integrated passive capacitors, (c) reworkable flip chip underfill, (d) magnetic disk and tape storage, (e) optoelectronic coatings, and (f) low Dk/Df substrates for high frequency digital applications. The value of these unique new materials for electronics applications could realistically be into hundreds of millions of dollars in product and license fees.

EMCORE CORP.
394 Elizabeth Avenue
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 271-9090
Ian Ferguson
BMDO 00-014
Title:1300 nm Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers
Abstract:In order to develop high performance, cost effective and manufacturable Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) at 1.3 um, it would be advantageous to use mature VCSEL structures on GaAs substrates along with a more novel active region to reach 1.3 um. It is proposed to develop the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) growth process for InGaAsN in order to develop a manufacturable 1.3 um VCSEL on GaAs substrates. GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures are known to have a large conduction band offset to confine the electrons, which drastically improves the high temperature device performance in comparison with traditional AlGaAs-GaAs and InGaAsP-InP systems. We propose to employ advanced MOCVD rotating disk technology to overcome the difficulties in the growth of GaInNAs epitaxial layers on GaAs, which has primarily been grown by Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy to date. The excellent high temperature properties of the AsN materials will minimize the use of large and heavy thermal coolers for devices allowing the development of new light electronic systems for military and commercial applications. The success of this proposal for GaInNAs-GaAs materials will provide a driving force to replace the current AlGaAs-GaAs and InGaAsP-InP systems for Near InfraRed (NIR) and other device applications. Navy missile systems, as well as other military and space systems, are demanding new advanced Nitride and Asenide combined III-V materials to fabricate new generation electronic devices. New quantum well and vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes, high efficiency solar cells and other functional devices working at high temperature, high frequency and high power are required for the operation, control and communication systems, and will have broad applicability in many, dual use, commercial markets.

EPITAXIAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5594
Olaleye Aina
BMDO 00-014
Title:Novel Long Wavelength VCSELs
Abstract:Epitaxial Technologies proposes to develop a novel material technology for the implementation of long wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). We will achieve this by investigating new material structures that will enable large differential refractive indices as well as low electrical resistances in VCSEL mirrors and by devising epitaxial growth and device fabrication processes to realize VCSEL operation in the 1.3 - 1.5 mm wavelength range. The primary goal of this proposed Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of new heterojunction combinations using antimony-based semiconductors for highly reflective long wavelength mirrors. By developing techniques for growing and fabricating these heterojunctions with high differential refractive indices that can enable high reflectivity mirrors at long wavelengths, Epitaxial Technologies will project the performance that can be realized from the proposed long wavelength VCSELs . In Phase II, we will further optimize the material structures, design and fabricate long wavelength VCSELs based on the developed technology. This project will result in two types of products: long wavelength VCSELs and the epitaxial wafers for producing them. These products will be applicable in military systems such as advanced electronic warfare systems, combat aircrafts, missiles, intelligent platforms and smart bombs. Commercial applications include transceivers for gigabit ethernet and fibre-channel networking and microphotonic devices for optical computing and optical signal processing.

INTEGRATED DATA SYSTEMS
6001 Chatham Center Drive Suite 300
Savannah, GA 31405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(912) 236-4374
Vladimir Gorelik
BMDO 00-014
Title:Self-assembly of Ge Quantum Wires on bent Si membrane
Abstract:We propose to develop technology for self-assembly of quantum wires on bent single-crystal membranes. The proposed process does not require expensive lithographic or any other pattern transferring techniques. Instead, regularly spaced arrays of quantum wires of a dissimilar material are produced on the strained surface of a single-crystal membrane. For Ge wires on Si substrate a tensile strain is introduced by bending the membrane to a cylindrical surface to produce parallel wires, or around a conical surface to produce an array of diverging from a single point quantum wires. Due to the fact that Ge lattice constant is ~4% greater than that of Si, the unidirectional surface strain creates thermodynamic conditions favorable for Ge nucleation in a shape of quantum wires; as the result of implementing a two-step procedure intersecting arrays of such can be grown. Multiple layers of such structures, separated by host material, can be produced on a single membrane, which creates a new type of superlattice substrate. The technology has potential for expansion into non-semiconductor materials applications A new type of substrate material, namely a silicon wafer with embedded Ge quantum wires will open broad opportunities for the future research and development in both material sciences and in fabrication of advanced devices. Morphological modification of the surface layer on a nanometer scale will benefit the DoD and BMDO applications by creating new opportunities in advanced quantum, optical and electronic devices, bio-electronics and bio-MEMS technologies, controlled assembly of organic and complicated inorganic molecules, DNA and protein classification, etc. Such superlattices will offer opportunities to introduce new types of devices based on 1D and 0D quantum transport properties. In particular single-electron transistors will permit dense memory and logic devices, extremely fast and low power A/D converters can be developed with Q-dots in their core and new optical materials and structures, based on band-gap engineering approaches, can also be envisioned.

MULTIPLEX, INC.
115 Corporate Blvd
South Plainfield, NJ 07080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 757-8817
Won Tsang
BMDO 00-014
Title:ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
Abstract:The fabrication, characterization, packaging and commercialization of optoelectronically integrated lasers and modulators are proposed. These sources are important for a wide range of applications including wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical fiber transmission, all optical networks, free space communication, and, sensing systems. A multisection tunable single wavelength laser with curved waveguide would be designed , fabricated and integrated with an electroabsorption modulator. We propose (i) to carry out a systematic analysis and experimental demonstration of selective area growth process for various device integration schemes ; to design and develop tunable lasers in Phase I ; to design and fabricate integrated electroabsorption modulator and tunable laser device in Phase I, ; (ii) to carry out further design and development, packaging and commercialization of these devices in Phase II. Tunable laser technology has a wide range of applications including telecommunication systems, RF photonics systems, cable TV systems and sensor systems. These systems would benefit significantly if tunable lasers and integrated tunable laser and electroabsorption modulator with low cost are commercially available.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Kristie Cooper
BMDO 00-014
Title:Electrostatic Self-Assembly Processes for Synthesis of Electro-Optic Materials and Photonic Crystal Devices
Abstract:The proposed BMDO SBIR program would develop new polymer-based electro-optic materials and device structures for use in high-speed optical communication systems. NanoSonic Inc. would work with two research universities, and a major company involved in the development of electro-optic device products. During Phase I, this team would design and synthesize nanorod precursors, form these precursors into electro-optic materials and photonic crystal structures by modified electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) processing, and evaluate the electro-optic coefficients, waveguide loss, environmental stability and other properties. The ESA process consists of the alternate adsorption of oppositely charged molecules onto substrates to form multilayered films. Prior NanoSonic research has demonstrated that the ESA processing of appropriate molecules leads to the formation of noncentrosymmetric materials without the need for electric field poling. The proposed new and separate work would approach ESA synthesis using a different strategy, involving a different molecular design approach intended to yield larger electro-optic coefficients while retaining other desired properties. Further, the proposed photonic crystal device structures will allow controlled optical propagation as well as high-speed switching, modulation and other important functionalities. Extensive facilities for the design, processing and evaluation of molecular precursors, ESA thin films and devices are available to support this program. Polymer-based electro-optic materials have important applications in high speed optical communication devices and systems for military and commercial use. The ESA process is a potentially useful manufacturing tool for the fabrication of such devices, as well as a wider range of nanostructured organic/inorganic materials and device products.

NITRES, INC.
5655 Lindero Canyon Road Suite 404
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 967-9433
Yifeng Wu
BMDO 00-014
Title:Packaging High Power Internally Matched AlGaN-GaN HEMTs
Abstract:Nitride based wide bandgap semiconductors have resulted in power densities close to 10 W/mm at X-band for realization of high power, high frequency transistors. This is due to the combination of the wide-band gap and hetero-structure in the AlGaN/GaN system, where high voltage, high current and low on-resistance can be simultaneously achieved, resulting in high power-high efficiency operation. Hence, for similar output power, a 10-x reduction in device periphery can be realized using Nitride-based devices in place of conventional GaAs/InP based technology. This will result in reduced circuit complexity, improved gain, efficiency, yield and reliability. However, since the power can reach a much higher level than conventional transistors, packaging issues need to be addressed to assure efficient power transmission and heat dissipation. Nitres Inc. AlGaN-GaN HEMT devices and circuits have reached a stage where they are ready for insertion into package and subsequent testing. In this program, Nitres Inc. proposes to develop a reliable high power AlGaN-GaN HEMT based microwave device and circuit packaging technology, with efficient electrical transmission characteristics and thermal management. The goal of the phase I shall be to evaluate commercially available packages for Nitres Flip-Chip Devices, develop Internally Matched AlGaN-GaN HEMTs, package and test Internally Matched HEMTs. C, X band operation with output power levels of ~10-20 W shall be targeted. A more intense effort in phase II will seek to include Ku, K band operation, address input-output matching requirements, increase output power levels and address packaging of ICs. Both phase I and phase II efforts shall directly focus on advancing the AlGaN-GaN HEMT technology from R&D/Prototyping to Product. AlGaN-GaN HEMT based devices and circuits are envisioned to improve the power amplifier performance for military and commercial applications. The former include Phased array radars, Space based electronics. The latter include Base Stations, Satellite Communications, LMDS, Wireless LANs, Digital Radio, Automobile Sensors/collision avoidance systems. Furthermore, robust operation in harsh environments such as high temperature and radiation could also be realized.

PEREGRINE SEMICONDUCTOR CORP.
6175 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 646-8880
Ron Reedy
BMDO 00-014
Title:Silicon-on-Sapphire Radiation Hard EEPROM Cell
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate and characterize the radiation performance of a new EEPROM cell fabricated in Ultra Thin Silicon, UTSi. Peregrine Semiconductor Corp. has invented and patented a novel non-volatile memory cell. The cell has been shown to be fully functional but has not been fully characterized or tested for use in military, radiation or high temperature environments. The cell will be characterized for data retention, write cycle endurance, radiation response, write and read times and temperature response. The cell is fabricated without any additional processing or masking steps, making it appropriate for embedding in virtually any integrated circuit. The impact of this work will be far-reaching, especially military and satellite systems, for which embedded non-volatile memory in a radiation hard process has not been available. Potential applications include digital, mixed signal and RF IC's, stand-alone memory chips and field programmable gate arrays. The use of non-volatile memory in radiation environments has not been widespread due to issues discussed above. Once a complete characterization of the core cell is completed, a follow-on project will be proposed to demonstrate a complete 64k EEPROM block, including on-chip charge pumps, integrated sense amps and all other circuitry necessary to enable on-orbit read and write functions. That Phase II SBIR proposal will be based on the data from this Phase I and demonstrate the capability to make large (>1M) EEPROM/flash and embedded EEPROM. Once the Phase II SBIR is completed, the EEPROM will be incorporated directly into Peregrine's core product offerings for satellite customers, both commercial and military. If the cell show's promise for non radiation hard markets (such as integration with RFIC's) it will be included in those products as well.

RADIANT RESEARCH, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd, Suite 105
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-0500
Suning Tang
BMDO 00-014
Title:Optical Superprisms Based on Photonic Bandgap Structures in Block Copolymers.
Abstract:Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic structures with high index contrast, and promise to control photons in the same way that conventional crystal in solids control electrons. It has been realized that the lack of fabrication technology and the lack of materials significantly slow down the technology advancement in this area. In this Phase I program, Radiant Research, Inc. proposes an innovative optical superprism based on self-assembled photonic bandgap block copolymers. Such a superprism has the dispersion of light 100-1,000 times stronger than the dispersion in conventional prisms. The physics behind this superprism concept will open a novel field called photonic dispersion optics. The application of superprisms can create the next generation of integrated micro-scale lightwave circuits (micro-LC's). The proposed self-assembled photonic bandgap block copolymers provide us a new solution for fabrication of photonic materials. The large number of block compositions and block arrangements, leading to a wealth of periodic morphologies, provide a unique material template for novel and innovative photonic bandgap structures. We will deliver an optical superprism made of photonic bandgap copolymers, with dispersion of light 1,000 times stronger than the dispersion in conventional prisms, by the end of Phase I program for concept demonstration. The proposed optical superprism concept will open a novel field of photonic dispersion optics. The application of superprisms can create the next generation of integrated micro-scale lightwave circuits (micro-LC's). Such micro-LC's will allow more efficient use of wavelength resources when used in the wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers for fiber optic transmission systems.

RADIANT RESEARCH, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd, Suite 105
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-0500
Jeffery Maki
BMDO 00-014
Title:Semiconductor Device for Steering Blue-Green High-Power Laser Beams
Abstract:Proposed is a new beam deflector device based on electro-optic prisms formed in a semiconductor planar waveguide for the fast steering of a blue-green diode-laser source. Employment of prism-shaped regions within a Schottky-barrier thin layer allows the electro-optic effect to be driven at a much reduced voltage level than required by any previous electro-optic beam deflector. More than thirty resolvable spots will be achievable; and, therefore, it is possible to multiplex angularly in the same volume equivalent numbers of page-oriented data in a holographic memory system. Furthermore, semiconductor-material systems exist for which the electro-optic effect occurs at the desirable blue-green wavelengths down to 480 nm. The proposed device will improve upon the deflection performance of existing beam deflectors, have a simplified device configuration, and have no moving components. Holographic optical memory systems will immediately benefit from the proposed beam deflector. These memory systems, whether using currently developed or anticipated material systems, all face obstacles in the area of dynamic control of the optical waves required to record and read the typically two-dimensional page-oriented data. Existing page-addressing deflectors, furthermore, require a moving mechanical optical assembly using a stepper motor that results in a poor stability and a low throughput rate. Beam deflectors are essential components in optical disks (i.e., CD, DVD), optical data storage systems, laser printers, and optical-computing systems. Specifically, a high-speed electro-optic beam deflector can significantly improve the performance of volume holographic memory based on the angular-multiplexing technique, which would enable commercial applications in telecommunication, large database storage, and large database processing.

RADIANT RESEARCH, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd, Suite 105
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-0500
Bipin Bihari
BMDO 00-014
Title:Polymer-Based Packaging-Compatible Board-Level Optical Bus
Abstract:Early new millennium may foresee GHz PC. However, the slowness of transmitting signals off the processor-chip, for example, processor to memory, makes the system bus speed (~100 MHz) significantly slower than the clock speed. Consequently, the off-processor interconnection speed becomes a major bottleneck to further upgrading the system performance. In this program, RRI proposes a packaging-compatible fully embedded optical bus based on polymeric waveguides within the circuit board where high-speed ICs are located. This optical bus will follow IEEE-standardized ones such as VMEbus and Futurebus. The optical interconnect elements including waveguides, couplers, lasers and detectors are all embedded in the three-dimensional interconnection layers involving both electrical and optical interconnections. Electrical-to-optical and optical-to-electrical signal conversions are realized within the optical interconnection layers using polymer-based waveguide-couplers. Modulation and demodulation signals are tapped in and out through the electrical vias. The input and output signals on the surface of the PC-board are purely electrical. Such a structure has fully bandwidth advantage promised by optics while keeping the packaging-compatibility with IC chips. Performance enhancement and cost-effectiveness are achieved simultaneously through the proposed approach. In phase I program, the polymer-based optical bus layer will be developed. The optical bus protocol suitable for the proposed system architecture will be investigated. Due to the acceleration of interconnection speed, the proposed polymer-based optical bus is expected to attract a number of computer companies to jointly support the phase II efforts. A fast track phase II program will be arranged. Realization of optical communications depends on the successful transmission of high-speed signals among processing elements, memories and other peripherals with minimum losses. A packaging-compatible embedded photonic integrated circuit involving lasers, waveguides, and detectors is essential for such a task. The transferability of the embedded thin-film structure can be realized on any substrate of interest including Silicon. Other potential applications include perfect shuffle networks, optical sensing devices, nonlinear optics, switching devices, and Si CMOS process compatible optical interconnection and intra- and inter-MCM optical interconnects. The pay load reduction due to the nature of thin film optics is also important for space-borne applications where BMDO has an important role.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21 Cavalier Way
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 783-4369
Remis Gaska
BMDO 00-014
Title:Large Periphery AlInGaN-GaN MOS-HFET Device for High Power X-Band Microwave Amplifiers
Abstract:We propose to develop and commercialize AlInGaN-GaN based metal-oxide semiconductor heterojunction field-effect transistors (MOS-HFET) as a building block for high-power (>20 W/mm), high frequency (X-band) amplifiers. Our technical approach will use our proprietary technology of deposition and processing of SiO2 on AlGaN, forming a high-quality heterointerface with low-interface state density. Our results for relatively small periphery devices proved that this approach results in high breakdown voltage, six order of magnitude reduced gate leakage, lower 1/f noise, large gate and drain voltage swings, improved frequency response, and the absence of the gate lag, making these novel device superior candidates for high-power amplifiers. The objective of the Phase I program is to establish the feasibility of a large periphery MOS-HFET device structure using multi-gate device geometry. This is to be followed by incorporating sub-micron gate-lengths in conjunction with the multi-gate MOS-HFET in a Phase II program. A successful Phase II program will yield transistors to be used in MMIC modules for fabrication of highly efficient X-band power amplifiers. These have direct applications in several commercial and military systems such as radars.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21 Cavalier Way
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 783-4369
Remis Gaska
BMDO 00-014
Title:High Power Linear Microwave Amplifiers Based in InGaN (Ternary) and AlInGaN (Quaternary) Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors
Abstract:We propose to develop and commercialize AlInGaN-InGaN-GaN based heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFET) as a building block for high-power (>20 W/mm), high frequency (X-band) linear amplifiers. The undoped wide-band-gap barrier layer with high Al content and high In content in InGaN quantum well will allow us to increase the maximum electron sheet density in the HFET channel. The selective re-growth of ohmic contact regions will be used in order to minimize the series resistance. We expect that this novel design will allows us to combine high breakdown voltage, high power dissipation and large transconductance, which is constant over a wide voltage range and results in a high linearity and low inter-modulation distortion of the AlInGaN-based microwave power amplifier. A successful Phase II program will yield transistors to be used in MMIC modules for fabrication of highly efficient X-band power amplifiers. These have direct applications in several commercial and military systems such as radars.

STERLING SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
22660 Executive Drive Suite 101
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 834-7535
Larry Rowland
BMDO 00-014
Title:SILICON CARBIDE HETEROSTRUCTURES FOR MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
Abstract:In reponse to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization SBIR topic BMDO 00-014, Sterling Semiconductor proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of switching SiC polytype from 6H-SiC to 4H-SiC controllably during vapor phase epitaxy. Our novel method for doing this transition will enable cost-effective production of these heterostructures, which have never been made before by the vapor phase. These heterostructures will serve as the basis for development of all-SiC heterojunction bipolar transistors in Phase II. These HBTs to be developed in Phase II would greatly increase the microwave power capability of semiconductor devices in the 10-20 GHz range. Use of SiC HBTs would give similar or better performance than GaN based devices but without the materials problems that plague this technology. Radar transmitters with higher power than currently available can be made using these devices and would not only improve the National defense but would also be transitioned into the commercial sector.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-5909
John McAleese
BMDO 00-014
Title:ZnO Laser
Abstract: Recently, GaN and ZnSe based semiconductor blue lasers have become a fact. However, another material system, ZnO (3.2 eV, 380 nm), has also recently shown great promise as a blue laser material. Specifically, optically pumped ZnO nanocrystal arrays have demonstrated lasing like properties. Structured Materials Industries, Inc. has been a leading developer of ZnO based materials, produced by MOCVD, for the past several years. We propose to apply our capabilities to develop a packaged optically pumped ZnO based laser. We will do this with Northwestern University and Wright State University--two of the leading US research organizations experienced in the lasing and electronic properties of ZnO. In Phase I we will show proof that we can make such a laser and in Phase II we will optimize packaging of the laser. The packaged ZnO laser has applications in data storage, displays, biological assays, spectroscopy, communications, and so on, and will be commercialized for such applications in Phase III. An alternative, more economical blue/UV laser has immediate market need.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 260-9589
Joe Cuchiaro
BMDO 00-014
Title:Increased Retention Ferroelectric Transistor
Abstract:The "Holy Grail" of Random Access Memory (RAM) is one that exhibits the speed, operational voltage and memory density of a current DRAM, but is resistant to radiation effects with a non-volatile behavior. These features are obtainable when using a non-volatile ferroelectric material to modulate the FET transistor gate (1T device). The ferroelectric dipoles are a physical distortion of the crystal lattice, which unlike electronic tunneling is resistant to a state change from exposure to radiation. We propose to build a proof of principle radiation resistant DRAM type 1T device. We will use lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) in series with a MOS substrate and obtain inversion for greater than one hour retention in Phase I. In Phase II, we will extend this work to a 1k arrayed logic device. To accomplish this task, we will work with Ramtron International Corporation, the leading U.S. ferroelectric foundry, to assure that a commercializable structure and process are developed. A ferroelectric FET offers the possibility of an integrated processor that can be powered up or down in the same state, operate at present device speeds and simulate a neuronal architecture as an added future feature. Phase III commercialization will begin with the introduction of a non-volatile transistor and licensing of project generated intellectual property, followed by integration of the innovation to next generation IC's and memory device. The successful integration of ferroelectric FET would create a main memory commodity product that has the potential to replace all existing nonvolatile memory and volatile memory that currently addresses a market over $30B.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
James Hove
BMDO 00-014
Title:AlGaN PN Junction Technology
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal addresses the need to improve existing AlGaN-GaN PN junction technology through improvements to the basic properties of the nitride material. In the Phase I program, GaN and AlGaN will be deposited by molecular beam epitaxy using a unique ion filtered RF plasma source. The physical, electrical and optical properties of doped material will be examined. GaN and AlGaN junctions will be fabricated and tested to determine if improved device performance is achieved. In the Phase II program, the improved junction technology will be used to demonstrate AlGaN photodetectors and nitride heterojunction bipolar transistors. PN junctions form the basis for a wide variety of devices including diode rectifiers, laser diodes, light emitting diodes, UV photodetectors, heterojunction bipolar transitors and thyristors. Improvements to the basic PN junction technology would improve each of these devices by increasing device breakdown, reducing leakage currents and reducing diode series resistance.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 934-2100
Gregory Whaley
BMDO 00-014
Title:Gallium nitride transistor for high temperature and high frequency power switching
Abstract:A new type of high power, high frequency switching transistor is proposed. Modern, high performance military electronics systems are requiring radiation hard, high temperature electronics components in battlefield situations as well as in space systems. We proposed to develop material processes and device designs to manufacture a static induction transistor (SIT) from gallium nitride (GaN) grown on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The SIT design provides high efficiency and high voltage power conversion due to its high frequency response, and the high bandgap GaN material allows higher temperature operation. The high temperature capability can be implemented in operation at high ambient temperature, or at MIL SPEC temperatures driven at higher power operation. This process in unique in that a p-type GaN is used to form the gate of the FET structure. The Phase I program will demonstrate sufficient material quality to fabricate devices, and Phase II will fabricate prototype SIT power transistors. High voltage and high temperature switching transistors for compact and efficient power supplies and RF transmitters.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL
8660 Dakota Dr.
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-8342
Vladimir Dmitriev
BMDO 00-014
Title:Novel Approach for AlN Boule Growth
Abstract: TDI proposes to develop aluminum nitride bulk growth technique based on a new version of hydride vapor phase (HVPE) method. The HVPE technique is a well-established, relatively cheap method to grow thick layers of GaN on sapphire and silicon carbide substrates. Our recent experiments showed that AlN thick epitaxial layers can be grown by HVPE. AlN and GaN free-standing platelets have been obtained after the substrate removal. The goal of this Phase I project is to prove the concept and demonstrate 1 inch AlN boule grown by the proposed technique. Test samples will be delivered. In the Phase II, we will focus on the development 2 inch diameter AlN boules. Large area, high quality AlN substrates will find a host of applications in optoelectronics, high-power, high-frequency, and high-temperature electronics for military and industrial needs.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL
8660 Dakota Dr.
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-8342
Vladimir Dmitriev
BMDO 00-014
Title:Conductivity control for bulk GaN crystals grown from liquid phase
Abstract:TDI proposes to develop bulk growth technology for GaN single crystals with controlled electrical conductivity. The proposed technical approach is based on liquid phase seeded technique. Our recent experiments showed that GaN ingots could be grown from liquid phase at growth temperatures of about 1000oC and at relatively low ambient gas pressure. These results open the opportunity to grow large GaN crystals by a melt-solution technique. The goal of the Phase I is to prove the concept and grow doped single crystal GaN materials from liquid phase. Doping concentration and electrical properties of grown materials will be studied. Test samples will be delivered. In the Phase II, we will focus on the development of production technology for large size GaN boules with controlled electrical conductivity. Large area, high quality GaN substrates with different conductivity level both n- and p-type will find a host of applications in optoelectronics, high-power, high-frequency, and high-temperature electronics for military and industrial needs.

TLC PRECISION WAFER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1411 West River Road North
Minneapolis, MN 55411
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 341-2795
Timothy Childs
BMDO 00-014
Title:Bandgap Engineered Rad-hard Multi-Function Digital/MMW/Photonic Circuits
Abstract:TLC will develop an innovative multi-component Radiation hard InP HEMT based chip that provides monolithic digital, millimeter-wave and photonic functions for airborne, spaceborne and THAAD systems. Using proven lattice engineering epi-growth, advance design and fabrication capabilities, ultra high speed signal processing with efficient injection seeding at various wavelength and remote millimeter-wave communication (X-band to tetrahertz) capabilities will be demonstrated. In phase I, the epitaxial wafer structure with multi devices will be developed and demonstrated. In Phase II, the multi-function digital/photonic/MMW circuits will be simulated, design, fabricated, tested and delivered, in cooperation with BMDO specifications. There is a wide variety of possible post applications in both the commercial and defense sectors. The proposed project will have potential use for the Federal Government in telecommunications portable and satellite applications as well as radar and meteorological sensing systems. Because of the promise for ultra-high reliability rad-hard performance of digital and photonic, the application potential for deep space and long term space flight and missile systems is enormous.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Dean Anderson
BMDO 00-014
Title:Optimization of Piezoelectric Materials for Vibrating Structure Gyroscopes
Abstract:For this Phase I SBIR, piezoelectric materials will be evaluated for a vibrating structure gyroscope (VSG) application. VSG's offer the potential for gyroscopes of reduced size, complexity, and cost while increasing reliability for space and avionics applications. Key to the performance of VSG's is the vibrating structure fabricated from piezoelectric material. Piezoelectric materials with varying key materials parameters will be evaluated to determine the optimal material for the VSG application. The primary goals of this work are: 1) evaluate known piezoelectric materials in the VSG application; 2) analysis of resulting VSG performance versus piezoelectric materials parameters to determine a material figure of merit for this application; 3) evaluate device size and piezoelectric grain size on VSG performance and manufacturability; 4) research and propose optimal piezoelectric material for the VSG application. TRS Ceramics has extensive experience with custom piezoelectric compositions, fabrication on fine grain size piezoelectrics and fabrication of specialized piezoelectric components. TRS will team with Ithaco Space Systems, a company with a long history of development and fabrication of gyroscopes and other motion sensors for the evaluation of piezoelectric materials in functional VSG devices. Smaller, lower cost and highly reliable gyroscopes are required for space platforms and lauch vehicles. Current technology is larger, more complex and more costly. In addition, if successful in space platforms, vibrating structure gyroscopes of this type could also be used in a wide variety of avionics platforms.

UHV TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
113B West Park Drive
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 608-0311
Vipul Patel
BMDO 00-014
Title:High Performance Diamond MEMS Devices
Abstract:In this project, we propose to develop nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) thin film technology for micro-electro-mechanical devices. Diamond thin films have strength almost 5 times that of silicon, allowing higher performance MEMS to be fabricated. Additionally, diamond has lower friction coefficient, higher thermal conductivity and much higher wear resistance than silicon, resulting in new applications of MEMS devices. In this phase I project, we will work with Argonne National Laboratory to use their NCD deposition process to fabricate free standing diamond cantilevers. In phase II, these cantilevers will be integrated to fabricate and demonstrate high performance accelerometers. Diamond MEMS will have widespread applications due to their long life, less wear resistance and higher thermal conductivity. These devices include un-cooled IR sensors, inertial sensors, acceleometers for air bags, gyroscopes, miniature mass flow controllers and micromotors.

UHV TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
113B West Park Drive
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 608-0311
Bawa Singh
BMDO 00-014
Title:Highly Efficient Carbon Nanotube Cathodes
Abstract:This project focuses on development of reliable, low-voltage electron emitters based on recently discovered carbon nanotubes. There have been many reports in the last few years where electron emission at low threshold field has been reported. However, the electron emission site density is very low and the emission uniformity is poor. We believe that by applying the emission optimization concepts learned during the optimization of carbon/diamond field emitters by our team, we can improve the carbon nanotube cathodes. The optimization strategy involves fabrication of aligned nanotubes of controlled diameter and density on electronically useful substrates. This is accomplished by depositing an extremely thin (<5nm) discontinuous seeding film (stopping the film growth in the nucleation phase) of the catalyst (e.g. Ni) material on the substrate followed by nanotube growth. The primary synthesis techniques involve a laser ablation and hot filament CVD nanotube fabrication. In Phase-I, the main objective of this team is to perform closely coupled theoretical and experimental investigations to optimize carbon nanotube cathodes. In Phase-II, we will further optimize, fabricate larger size cathodes and demonstrate use of these cathodes in several cathode based products under development at UHV for many commercial applications. The applications of these cold cathodes include e-beam sublimation thrusters, drinking and waste water purification ozonators, high efficiency coolers, multi-pixel array x-ray sources, advanced light sources, vacuum microelectronics, high speed and high temperature electronics, and flat panel displays.

UNIAX CORP.
6780 Cortona Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 562-9293
Hailiang Wang
BMDO 00-014
Title:Oxadiazole Polyfluorenes as Materials for Stable Blue Light Emitting Diodes
Abstract:Semiconducting, conjugated polymers have been the subject of intense investigation for light emitting displays since the early 1990s. While significant progress has been achieved in the areas of red, yellow and green light emitting displays (LEDs), the search for an efficient, long-lived blue emitting polymer is still ongoing. In this Phase I SBIR effort we propose a synthetic strategy to prepare blue emitting polymers with the attributes needed for efficient, long lived displays. The proposed polymers will have charge transport groups built into the polymer structure, to ensure balanced hole and electron injection. During Phase I, monomers and polymers will be synthesized and physical and optoelectronic properties will be optimized. Polymer LEDs will be fabricated using the polymers synthesized during Phase I. Physical, optoelectronic and LED data will be used to identify the most suitable class of blue-emitting materials for display applications. Portable display devices are of vital importance in both the military and civilian arenas. Military personnel utilize many pieces of equipment that incorporate display components, including computers, global positioning systems (GPS), hand-held flat panel displays, helmet mounted displays and weapons. Portable display devices need to be light and have low power consumption in order to minimize battery consumption and hence weight carried. There is great synergy between the military and commercial markets, because civilian consumers are also increasingly turning to portable communication devices such as pagers, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants, digital books and hand-held computers. All of these units need highly readable, low power consuming information displays. Emissive polymer displays offer the key advantages of high brightness, low weight, thin profile and low power consumption, combined with the potential for low cost, high volume fabrication. The advantages offered by this general technology area eclipse those of any other technology being developed for such applications. The first consumer product that this technology will be targeted towards is hand-held devices that require alphanumeric displays, where weight and portability are key issues.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Ranji Vaidyanathan
BMDO 00-015
Title:Solid freeform fabrication of high temperature superconducting components with improved flux pinning and texture
Abstract:Advanced Ceramics Research Inc. (ACR) has developed solid freeform fabrication (SFF) techniques for polymers, ceramics, metals, and composites. In this phase I program, ACR will freeform fabricate high temperature superconducting structures directly from CAD designs. The primary goal of this phase I program will be to optimize the processing conditions coupled with electrical property characterization for Y-Ba-Cu-O HTSC coils and cables with enhanced flux pinning. ACR will also provide a preliminary cost/economic analysis for prototype components. The extrusion process will produce a low cost geometrically complex HTS components and structures with a higher degree of flux pinning and texturing than is currently possible as well as materials with higher critical current densities for BMDO applications. Apart from BMDO applications, HTSC components directly fabricated from CAD designs could be used as windings and cables for electrical machines, and complex shaped magnets for MRI and magnetic levitation.

ATEC, INC.
11890 Old Baltimore Pike, Suit
Beltsville, MD 20705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 931-3221
Reza Shekarriz
BMDO 00-015
Title:High Efficiency Cryogenic Cooling System Using Electrohydrodynamics (EHD)
Abstract:Advanced Thermal and Environmental Concepts, Inc., in collaboration with the University of Maryland, propose to perform a feasibility study for the development of a highly efficient, MEMS-based, ultra compact cooling system with broad applications in military and commercial sectors. The proposed work will utilize an EHD-enhanced ultra thin film evaporation concept to achieve high cooling rates with minimum pressure drop and power consumption penalties while benefiting from an on-line/on-demand feature for active control of the cooling surface temperature. The work proposed in Phase I intends to address two key issues in heat rejection from sensors and detectors: rate of cooling and the parasitic noise introduced by the cooling system. While high pumping rates and passive use of microchannels may be able to provide high heat transfer rates, they also present problems in power consumption and high noise generation. The approach presented in this proposal will be able to provide localized cooling at the heat source level through the use of an integrated electrohydrodynamic (EHD) micro pump in conjunction with a micro heat pipe or condenser. The proposed work includes key innovations and embodiments to obtain a low noise, high efficiency cooling system: 1) it provides a localized EHD micro pump integrated into the sensor substrate, chip, or detector to be cooled for reducing the pressure gradients and flow fluctuations imposed in the system, 2) high heat transfer coefficients are achieved through combined thin film evaporation and EHD-enhanced pumping without transmission of any hydrodynamic or structural noise, and 3) a micro heat rejection loop, also mounted on the substrate and an integral part of the system, condenses the generated vapor and returns it back to the coolant liquid pool. Phase I efforts will focus on performing a feasibility study for achieving the appropriate cooling loads using selected liquid and pump design options. During Phase II we will continue our efforts to demonstrate the performance of the integrated system and the development of a prototype unit for defense applications. High efficiency and low noise thermal management systems are of value to a number of industries, particularly for the cooling of high-density electronics and super conductors with broad application in commercial and military systems. Furthermore, long duration missions to space require the use of extremely sensitive sensors, detectors, telescopes, and instruments requiring cooling. The technology proposed here will be of dual use in that our product will be tailored to meet the needs of the growing commercial satellite communication industry, as well as target niche markets such as coolers for mega computing and medical equipment, scientific and research equipment, ultra high sensitivity sensors used in mine sweepers and anti-terrorism electronics.

CONDUCTUS, INC.
969 West Maude Ave.
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 523-9448
Seva Kaplunenko
BMDO 00-015
Title:SUPERCONDUCTIVITY CONCEPTS AND MATERIALS
Abstract:The increased size of increasingly complex modern electronics reduces speed because of the interconnection time delays. For frequencies above a few GHz, asynchronous communication between subsets of a complex system is unavoidable. To facilitate such a system, it is necessary to recover the phase (clock) of the digital signal, which for semiconductor circuits requires a few thousand clock periods. Recovering the phase of multiple bit-rate signals is even more difficult. A clock recovery circuit (CRC) with a locking time of one bit has been developed at Conductus, which is suitable for use for asynchronous communication. Conductus has also developed an optimum architecture for a multiple bit-rate CRC system, which can use only a few bits to define the signal frequency in a range from 10 to 40 Gb/s. For Phase I of the effort, Conductus will demonstrate the concept of the multiple bit-rate CRC including the design and fabrication of an adjustable bit-rate ring oscillator and an input frequency sampler. A computer model of the complete circuit will be also demonstrated. The chip will be fabricated using the HYPRES foundry on a subcontract basis. During the Phase II of the project a fully functioning multiple bit-rate CRC with an optical link will be demonstrated working in a closed-cycle refrigerator. Anticipated Benefits/Potential Commercial Applications of the Research or Development. The applications of integrated cryogenic clock recovery units range from sophisticated digital data acquisition systems to regular optical communication links in telephone switching systems. The superconductive circuits developed under this program will also have potential commercial applications in cryo-radar, high-speed instrumentation, fiber-optic communication receivers, wireless base station receiver front ends, particle detectors for high-energy physics and in satellite communications. It also can be used as a frequency-domain encryption tool for high-security communications.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Deepnarayan Gupta
BMDO 00-015
Title:SUPERCONDUCTIVITY CONCEPTS AND MATERIALS
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research project proposes to develop a superconducting multi-chip digitizer module with a bandwidth of at least 10 GHz. HYPRES has been refining a wideband digitizer technology and have demonstrated a transient digitizer with clock speeds of 16 GHz using a flash architecture. To commercialize wideband digitizer instruments based on this technology, we need to provide about 1 kilobit of fast memory for each digitized bit. With the present integration density of our fabrication process, it is not possible to fabricate a single chip digitizer with the required memory. Therefore, our strategy is to divide the circuit into smaller blocks and to assemble it on a multi-chip module (MCM). Under a separate BMDO program, we have developed high-speed (20 GHz) interface circuits that allow fast interchip data transfer. Our objective is to utilize this interface technology to realize a digitizer MCM that will meet the commercial needs. In Phase I, we will investigate the MCM configuration and prove its feasibility by demonstrating a single bit-slice of the entire digitizer. We will also design digitizer and memory chips, focusing on optimizing modularity, extendibility and reliability for the complete multi-chip digitizer module that will be demonstrated in Phase II. A transient digitizer (or digitizing oscilloscope) is indispensable for measuring single-shot ephemeral data on sub-nanosecond time scales. Many academic, commercial and military laboratories need to measure short electrical, magnetic, or optical pulses of duration from 0.1 to several nanoseconds. A wideband digitizer has many other applications including a microscan receiver and in digital beamforming.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue Building #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8715
Volkan Ozguz
BMDO 00-015
Title:High-Capacity High-Speed Serial 10 K Superconductor Memory Modules
Abstract:This proposal is to combine the proven high density 3D packaging technology with the ultra high performance of low temperature superconductor memory technology. The maturity level of this memory technology is approaching 16 Kbits per square centimeter. The memory is a key enabler for superconductor electronics processing but to be practical for near-term applications, larger blocks of this memory must be assembled into very compact packages which maintains the high speed and low latency attributes of this very high speed, ultra low power memory technology. The dense packaging technology as developed by ISC provides such an assembly capability. The focus will be on developing a high density NbN, serial memory module of 4 Mb capacity in a footprint of few cm2. Serial superconductor memory is the only memory technology that provides the speed of access and data transfer rates necessary to match future requirements of ultra fast processors for focal plane array signal processing and high density, ultra fast telecommunication switches.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3901 Green Industrial Way
Chamblee, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-2448
George Cui
BMDO 00-015
Title:A Mini-Prototype YBCO SMES Using Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique
Abstract:MicroCoating Technologies Inc., (MCT) proposes to utilize its patented Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process for investigation of a mini-prototype YBCO SMES (Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage). The idea presented here is to use the next generation HTS wire technology to investigate the feasibility of a portable mini-sized SMES. It could be operated at liquid nitrogen with good performance, which is intended for military application. A closed-loop style coil (in persistent superconducting current operation mode), which can provide more mobility for military use, will also be investigated. The experiences accumulated during the project will benefit the further scale-up to large YBCO SMES at liquid nitrogen temperature employed to limit power surges in electrical networks for both military and civil power stations. MCT has demonstrated high quality buffer layer coating on textured nickel tape (RABiTS) provided by ORNL. MCT is exploring its technology to fabricate the next generation HTS wire with long length, which will be used for this project. MCT is proposing to build a YBCO coil with its possible maximum length in Phase I and test its performance, which will provide a few key parameters for its design for a mini-prototype SMES in Phase II. Our key collaborator is Oxford Superconducting Technology (Dr. Kenneth R. Marken). SMES devices provide a perfect solution when the line quality is important. The SMES overcomes problems like sags, spikes, voltage and frequency instability exhibiting many advantages over the conventional methods. For high-tech industry, line instability may cause severe damage and loss of time and money. It is expected that power facilities will purchase SMES devices and place them.

APPLIED OPTOELECTRONICS, INC.
242 Kingfisher Drive
Sugar Land, TX 77478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 242-2588
Wen-Yen Hwang
BMDO 00-016
Title:Monolithic 1.3-um VCSEL's Grown on Alternative Substrates
Abstract:We propose to develop monolithic high-power room-temperature 1.3-m vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) using novel alternative substrate technology. Long wavelength (1.3-1.55 m) VCSELs are the key device for future local area networks and interconnection systems in both commercial and military applications. The advantages of using VCSEL's include dynamic single mode operation, low packaging cost, on wafer test capability, higher achievable direct modulation speed and easiness of high-dimensional arrays. In this project, we propose to demonstrate high-performance monolithic 1.3-um VCSELs grown directly on alternative InGaAs/GaAs bonded substrates. Recently, we have demonstrated high-power 4-um Mid-IR type-II quantum-well (QW) lasers grown directly on InGaAs/GaAs alternative substrates. The lattice mismatch between the type-II QWs and GaAs substrate is as high as 8.5%. Excellent device performance results were achieved. After several days of high-power pumping condition, there is no observable degradations in the laser performance, which demonstrates the feasibility of alternative substrates. We have also demonstrated many high-performance photodetectors from 10 to 19 um directly grown on alternative substrates with no threading dislocation from cross section TEM. In this project, monolithic high-power room-temperature 1.3-um VCSELs and large high-quality alternative substrates will be developed. These will have a huge impact on the optical communication industry. The developed 2-inch GaAs on Si alternative substrates will create a revolution in the space solar cell industry. These alternative substrates can also be used for blue LEDs and lasers, Mid-IR photodetectors and lasers.

APPLIED OPTOELECTRONICS, INC.
242 Kingfisher Drive
Sugar Land, TX 77478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 242-2588
Sergey Zaitsev
BMDO 00-016
Title:Room-Temperature cw 1.3-um Quantum DoT Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers
Abstract:We propose to demonstrate room-temperature cw 1.3-um vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) using self-alignment InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots grown on GaAs substrates. Long wavelength (1.3-1.55 m) VCSELs are the key device for future local area networks and interconnection systems in both commercial and military applications. The advantages of using VCSEL's include dynamic single mode operation, low packaging cost, on wafer test capability, higher achievable direct modulation speed and easiness of high-dimensional arrays. The distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are composed of AlO/GaAs quarter-wavelength stacks, providing high quality and low internal optical losses. The active region is composed of vertically-aligned InAs quantum dots providing enough high optical gain at 1.3 um. Previously, we have demonstrated low threshold lasing in quantum dot devices at 1.0 um and 1.9 um, and efficient edge-emitting lasers. Quantum efficiency in such lasers exceeds 65% and modal gain in 10 stacked quantum dot structures reached 100 cm-1. The phase I efforts will be directed towards the demonstration of 1.3-um Quantum-Dot VCSELs grown on GaAs. In this project, room-temperature 1.3-um quantum-dot VCSELs will be developed. These will have a huge impact on the local area networks and interconnection systems for many military and commercial applications. The technologies of quantum dots will also enable the next generation electronics circuits and novel quantum computing.

F&S, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4270
Daniela Topasna
BMDO 00-016
Title:Fullerene-Polymer Photovoltaic Thin-Film Devices
Abstract:Revolutionary ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) methods of creating multifunctional thin-films monolayer by monolayer have recently been proven to yield self-assembled, electronically and photonically-active polymeric thin films. F&S and its research collaborators have demonstrated that the ISAM technique can be used to fabricate both polymer light emitting diodes and inherently noncentrosymmetric electro-optic polymer films. Photovoltaic devices are another important area of opportunity for conducting polymers. When the fullerene C60 is incorporated into conducting, conjugated polymer films, photoexcitation results in a rapid charge-transfer from the polymer to C60. The resultant dissociation of the photoexcited electron-hole pair enhances the polymer photovoltaic response by orders of magnitude. The precise spatial positioning of the C60 and polymer layers using ISAM fabrication provides enhanced charge separation and photovoltaic response. ISAM fullerene-polymer photovoltaic thin-films offer additional major advantages of excellent homogeneity, high thermal and chemical stability, simplicity and low-cost. The films can be conformally fabricated over large areas on flexible substrates. The development of ISAM photovoltaic devices can result in low-cost, high-efficiency polymer photodiodes and solar cells. ISAM polymer-fullerene photodiodes and solar cells have immediate application in various commercial areas for inexpensive, large area, flexible optical detection and energy conversion devices in optical communications, household appliances, and commercial electronics.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27613
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 656-0820
Mark Williams
BMDO 00-016
Title:A Novel Approach to the Bulk Growth of Gallium Nitride
Abstract:A novel process has been developed to grow large area bulk GaN substrates. Utilizing a technique that combines a novel high rate material transfer process with the defect reduction capabilities of lateral growth, low defect density, free-standing GaN substrates will be fabricated. Thick GaN films will initially be grown up to 50 mm in diameter using a high rate growth process developed in our laboratories . Layers will then be grown using lateral growth techniques to produce large area substrates with a low defect density surface. The resultant GaN substrates will have a total thickness of 250-500 mm. The Phase I work in this proposal will focus on optimization of the sputter deposition of GaN thick films and the demonstration of laterally grown layers on these substrates.. Maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining the desired optical, electrical and microstructural properties will be paramount. From a processing standpoint, the rapid deposition rates used will enable a more cost effective approach to making bulk substrates through shorter growth times as compared to other technologies currently being used. Phase II will involve the further reduction of the microstructural defect density in the substrates by addressing specific lateral growth process problems. Attempts to grow low defect density gallium nitride (GaN) thin films on substrates such as sapphire and silicon carbide (SiC) have had limited success due primarily to differences in lattice and thermal property differences which gives rise to defects. Therefore,homoepitaxial growth of GaN thin films on bulk GaN substrates is of great interest. Heteroepitaxially grown materials grown on sapphire and SiC suffer from large concentrations of threading defects, on the order of 108 - 1010 cm-2. As a result, the operation of high performance devices, such as high speed, high sensitivity UV photodetectors, and high power, high frequency microelectronic devices, is limited. These defects increase leakage currents in diode and FET structures and act as a significant source of noise in photodetectors. Reduction of the density of these defects through homoepitaxial growth of device layers will increase the performance of these devices.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27613
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Drew Hanser
BMDO 00-016
Title:Large Area Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy of Gallium Nitride
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) system capable of growing high quality, low defect density epitaxial gallium nitride (GaN) layers on substrates up to 4" in size. The HVPE process has gained attention as a technique to grow free-standing bulk GaN films for use as substrates for other growth techniques, such as MOVPE and MBE. This technique has the advantage of a high growth rate (up to 1-2 mm/min) and relatively low cost. We propose to enhance the HVPE technique to produce large area GaN substrates. The development of a low defect density GaN substrate through the investigation of the initial nucleation and the improvement of the surface of the material by utilizing lateral growth techniques will result in improved properties of epitaxial GaN films, and subsequently will improve the performance of GaN-based devices. Moving to wafer sizes larger than 2" will also create lower cost opportunities through process scaling. Phase I of the research will demonstrate this technology. Phase II will focus on the reduction of defects in the material and characterization of as deposited epitaxial GaN and AlGaN films on the GaN substrates. One of the key materials issues in the growth of GaN-based semiconductors is the lack of availability of a nitride substrate. The limiting factors in many high performance applications based on GaN and related materials can be attributed directly to material defects in epitaxially grown layers. Achieving low defect density, free standing GaN layers will enable many new technologies to be commercialized. Some of these applications include short wavelength optical applications, such as blue and UV light emitting devices (LEDs and LDs), visible- and solar-blind UV detectors, and high-speed power switching components.

NANOPOWDER ENTERPRISES, INC.
Suite 106, 120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-1088
Amit Singhal
BMDO 00-016
Title:Ultrahigh Energy Density Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries
Abstract:We propose to develop a novel class of nanocrystalline anode materials that will lead to lithium-ion rechargeable batteries with exceptional energy densities (> 250 Wh/kg) and a long cycle life (> 250). This will represent a 100 % improvement compared to state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. In contrast to other approaches that utilize either an amorphous/crystalline oxide of tin (with and without glass formers), or pure tin, we have shown in preliminary experiments that control over the oxidation state of the element has the potential to lead to retention of near theoretical capacity (600 - 850 Ah/kg) over a large number of cycles, with minimal irreversible capacity loss in first discharge/charge cycle. Capitalizing on this innovation, and using our vapor phase process for producing nanoparticles, in Phase I of the program, we will produce nanoparticles of Sn1-yOx:Sby; the combination of a specific oxidation state and alloying element will lead to high specific capacity and good cycle life. Electrochemical properties, such as energy density, power density and cycle life, will be evaluated by working with our industrial partner. The properties will be optimized in Phase II, so as to lead to lithium-ion batteries with far superior properties relative to what is available today. Nanocrystalline anode materials will be produced and marketed on a commercial scale in Phase III. There are many markets for rechargeable, lightweight and flexible lithium batteries. These batteries can be used in a variety of applications, such as, electric vehicles, cellular phones and portable computers, just to name a few. Our innovative approach to synthesizing a new class of anode materials will have a tremendous impact on the rechargeable lithium battery market, which is expected to reach $10 billion by 2003.

ROGUE SYSTEMS, INC.
P O Box 473
Fairhaven, MA 02719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 999-1575
Kenneth Paulsen
BMDO 00-016
Title:SURPRISES AND OPPORTUNITIES: Advanced Solid Polymer Electrolyte for Li-ion Batteries
Abstract:Solid state rechargeable batteries offer potentially greater energy density than conventional nickel cadmium batteries and could foster the development of more sophisticated implantable medical devices and electronic equipment if successfully developed. These solid state batteries will have improved lifetimes and higher energy to the extent that they can be used to power conventional implantable devices such as the implantable gait assist device or the left ventricular assist device. More importantly, however, this research will point the way to the development of more advanced secondary batteries for powering the next generation of implantable devices. The proposed research effort will involve computer-assisted evaluation of new polymers and polymer composites which will hasten the selection of candidate materials for synthesis. These select materials will then be synthesized and characterized electrochemically to determine which are most likely to yield the desired electrochemical properties. Success in the Phase I effort will lead to commercialization of the proposed innovation through cooperation with our Phase III battery manufacturing partner. The technological success of developing a solid polymer electrolyte that is equal to liquid electrolytes will mean a whole new era for lithium batteries in the consumer market. This will occur because a competitive solid polymer electrolyte will put and end to safety problems with lithium batteries. The private sector would benefit from this technological development since the market for portable power to run the latest electronic gadget seems insatiable. With each passing year, there appears to be an ever increasing bevy of new portable electronic devices. All of these gadgets require power and batteries are the only answer. Development of improved, safe high power batteries must continue since the demand for new electronics continues unabated. The pressure for this development is market driven and will eventually be met, the proposed innovation is one possible way of meeting this demand.

SHAYDA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2201 West Campbell Park Drive Suite 111
Chicago, IL 60612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(312) 455-9080
Alireza Gharavi
BMDO 00-016
Title:Mid-Infrared Stacked Waveguide Laser Arrays with Organic Light Emitting Diodes
Abstract:We propose organic light emitting diode lasers incorporating dyes, short length polymers (oligomers) and rare-earth organometallic complexes of erbium, neodymium, praseodymium or Ytterbium as emissive layers. The wavelength is tunable by the active Bragg grating incorporated in its cavity. The materials for these emissive layers are tailored in such a way as to produce emissions in the 1 to 3 mm range covering the critical telecommunication windows between 1.3 mm and 1.6 mm of the fiberoptic channels. In general the proposed fabrication process may be adapted to cover electroluminescence (EL) emissions from blue to infrared wavelengths. Optical amplifiers and laser sources made with these materials can be modular or be integrated into polymer optical integrated circuits (OICs) giving greater flexibility to configuration. The fabrication process is done by direct uv and/or laser patterning, making component integration simple. Waveguides and Bragg-gratings can be easily patterned by direct-writing, a process well developed in our laboratories at Shayda. This way it is possible to pattern closely spaced laser arrays in a given layer and, further, stack multiple layers to obtain a dense mxn array of tunable waveguide lasers. The pumping of the emissive layer is done directly by current injection which drastically simplifies the fabrication of a laser/optical amplifier. Ease of fabrication, handling, availability and versatility of the organic material along with low production costs will make them a likely competitor to existing products and provide new opportunities to meet future demands. The potential use of a compact, inexpensive, waveguide laser and optical amplifier such as the one described here is readily evident. Its use in the private sector will range from communication and information systems to future optical switching and computing to display panels. An inexpensive laser source and optical amplifier will help deployment of all-optical communication networks.

T/J TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3850 Research Park Drive P.O. Box 2150
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 213-1637
Michael Wixom
BMDO 00-016
Title:Carbon Nanotube Electrodes for Mechanical-to-Electrical Energy Conversion
Abstract:Electromechanical actuators based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) provide very efficient conversion of electrical to mechanical energy. This proposal demonstrates the reverse operation in which SWNT electrodes transduce mechanical energy into electrical energy. Such transducers will be attractive alternatives to piezoelectric sources which have lower energy conversion efficiencies and generate charge at higher potentials. Applications are numerous, ranging from MEMS power supplies to remote sensors to the conversion of ocean wave energy to electricity. In Phase I, electrode sheets will be fabricated and characterized using scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry. The energy conversion response will be investigated in two electrolytes using a specially designed apparatus to control the magnitude and rate of applied strain. Electroanalytical chemistry methods will be used to determine fundamental properties such as the relationship between the generated charge and the applied strain. Frequency response and cycle life will be investigated. In Phase II the response will be optimized through efforts to reduce bundling and improve the mechanical properties of the SWNT electrodes. Phase II will also include connecting multiple SWNT electrodes in series to increase the device voltage, and investigating the use of higher temperature and higher voltage electrolyte systems. Carbon nanotube transducers convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, which is more readily stored or transmitted. For example, the energy in vibrating or rotating shafts could be used to charge batteries. The technology could be miniaturized as rechargeable micro-power supplies for MEMS. On much larger scales, wind and wave energy could be harvested and stored.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL
8660 Dakota Dr.
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-8342
Vladimir Dmitriev
BMDO 00-016
Title:HYDRIDE VAPOR PHASE EPITAXY FOR Ga(In)N/AlGaN QUANTUM WELL STRUCTURES
Abstract:We propose to develop hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) for the fabrication of multi-layer epitaxial structures for advanced GaN-based devices with quantum wells. Currently, only metal organic vapor phase deposition is employed for the production of GaN-based devices including light emitters and high-power microwave devices. Another epitaxial method known to deposit high quality GaN layers is the HVPE. Recently, we demonstrated GaN-based device structures grown by HVPE. These results open the opportunity to develop a new epitaxial technology for quantum size epitaxial structures based on the HVPE technology. Phase I objective is to prove the concept and demonstrate GaN-based quantum well structures grown by HVPE High performance GaN-devices with quantum well structures fabricated by HVPE technology will find a host of applications in high-power, high-frequency, high-temperature electronics and optoelectronics for military and industrial needs.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Paul Rehrig
BMDO 00-016
Title:High Temperature Piezoelectric Systems for Actuators and Sensors
Abstract:For this Phase I SBIR, high temperature piezoelectrics are proposed based on the breakthrough technology of crystallographic engineering. Based on the perovskite (ABO3) structural tolerance factor, new morphotropic phase boundaries are projected in the PBTiO3-Bi(B)O3 system with transition temperature >600 degrees C. In contrast to Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), novel piezoelectrics with transition temperatures nearly 300 degrees C higher than that currently available are anticipated. In this program, further crystallographic engineering as well as donor and acceptor dopant strategies will be investigated. Dielectric and electromechanical characteristics as a function of temperature and stress will be used to demonstrate the significance of this new family of functional materials, for high temperature, high performance applications that include accelerometers, high force actuators, vibration sensors and related smart systems. Phase I research will provide a basis for further formulation and processing optimization in Phase II, that includes the manufacturing of monolithic, multilayer actuators and sensors. Piezoelectric components from the new class of perovskites are expected to meet the demand for higher temperature operation in high stress environments required by DOD applications that include smart aerospace platforms and commercially in automotive fuel injectors, etc.

US NANOCORP, INC.
20 Washington Ave. Ste. 106
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 234-8024
Jinxiang Dai
BMDO 00-016
Title:All Solid State Thin-Film Rechargeable Microbattery for MEMS
Abstract:Major interest is growing in the area of Micro-electromechanical Machines (MEMS), and with it, the requirement to power MEMS with microbatteries. To fulfill this need, this proposal outlines a program that will develop an all solid-state microbattery that will be small enough to be incorporated with electronic devices or on semiconductor chips. Thermal spray techniques will be used to sequentially deposit cobalt oxide, LiPON and Li2Ti3O7 to form a solid-state high energy density microbattery. This all solid-state cell will also be amenable to high volume, low cost manufacturing process such as the "Direct Write" fabrication technique. Innovations in this area will increase performance through tighter tolerances and quality control (longer life, lower failure rates) and dramatically lower cost both with respect to intrinsic materials and reduced labor. US Nanocorp, Inc is pioneering the area of thermal sprayed thin film electrodes, first to be reduced to practice in pyrite (FeS2) cathodes for thermal batteries in a Phase II SBIR program (U.S. Army). The proposed 6-month program will determine the feasibility of the microbattery concept using thermal sprayed nanostructured materials. Success in this technology will have profound implications in the rapidly growing MEMS field, and other areas that require ultra-small rechargeable batteries. A high energy density, all solid-state rechargeable microbattery will provide an integrated power source for MEMS, volatile CMOS memories and other integrated circuits requiring significant backup power. This development will be of interest to both the military and commercial sectors.