---------- DARPA ----------

53 Phase I Selections from the 00.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
AEGIS TECHNOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
6703 Odyssey Drive, Suite 200
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 876-1902
Philip Reiner
DARPA 00-001
Title:Conductive Coating with Mid-Infrared Transparency
Abstract:Recent results show that the newly emerging photonic bandgap technologies can be used to produce composite materials that exhibit energy band structures that resemble semiconductors. These structures have forbidden gaps as well as transmissive bands. The opportunity now exists to apply this technology to produce a highly concuntive transmissive window in the mid-infrared region.

GEOSPACE RESEARCH, INC.
550 N. Continental Blvd., Suite 110
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 322-1160
Frank Djuth
DARPA 00-002
Title:MEMS RF Switches with Ultra-High Switching Speeds
Abstract:The proposed investigation focuses on the research and development of a fundamentally new, high-speed, radio-frequency (RF) switch. It is designed for frequencies in the range 1-100 GHz. The switch is predicated on thin-film microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology with piezoelectric actuation. In general, piezoelectric materials develop strain when an electric field is present, which allows mechanical expansion and contraction of the material to be controlled by an applied voltage. Unlike traditional electrostatic MEMS switches, the closing force between the metal-to-metal contacts can be significantly improved by increasing the bias voltage (electric field strength) across the piezoelectric material. The piezoelectric material lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is employed in the current project. Phase 1 is expected to result in the validation of a sol-gel PZT actuator for use in MEMS RF switches. This research entails the development of a prototype with a standard cantilever design. It is unimorph in nature and utilizes a single layer of PZT; it is activated by piezoelectric strain that is transverse to the imposed electric field (d31). The Phase 1 cantilever will limit the switching time to a few microseconds because of limitations brought about by the mechanical resonance frequency of the cantilever itself. This is done to alleviate the need for a costly mechanical analysis in Phase 1. However, PZT actuators will make new mechanical designs feasible in Phase 2 that will lower the switch time constant into the tens of nanoseconds range (e.g., multi-layer PZT stacks with linear (d33) piezoelectric strain modes).

MICROLAB
6401 E. Hummingbird Ln.
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 483-3458
Charles Wheeler
DARPA 00-002
Title:Magnetic MEMS Switches for RF Missile Seeker Applications
Abstract:We have developed a new type of magnetic MEMS microswitch within the past year that, based on experimental evaluations to date, should enable significant performance improvements for RF missile seeker subsystem applications. This new type of magnetic MEMS microswitch technology has several fundamental properties that we believe will provide a level of RF performance not currently available using other forms of MEMS technology. The large magnetic forces used to actuate the swith give rise very low series resistance (45 milliohms) and very large (off-state) contact separation distances (40microns), that in turn, should yield low insertion loss and high off-state isolation. Our specific Phase I plan is to design, fabricate and characterize a SPST series-configured resistive cantilever switch optimized for X-band operation (as an initial demonstration of the concept). The switch will be embedded in a 50 ohm CPW that is compatible with our MEMS fabrication technology. To support very high frequency signal propagation, the cantilever and contact region of the switch will be designed to prevent RF signal propagation through the cantilever. A thorough characterization of s-parameters will be performed to determine insertion loss, off-state isolation, and frequency bandwidth of the switch. Based on this information, a critical evaluation of the feasibility of this technology for RF missile seeker applications will be performed.

SEMICUBE, INC.
10509 Audubon Court
Eden Prairie, MN 55347
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 925-2061
R.M. Jr.
DARPA 00-002
Title:Sputter Epitaxy for MEMS Applications
Abstract:MEMS technology leans heavily on the micromachining of silicon, often in polycrystalline form because the deposition temperatures required for epitaxial growth by the usual methods would damage what had achieved in prior processing steps. The use of sputter epitaxy processing provides an alternative deposition step to be carried out at temperatures low enough to preclude such damage. Depositions of multiple doped layers could be used to fabricate high-performance transducers along with interface electronics on the same substrate. Epitaxial single crystal silicon offers far superior mechanical properties (internal friction, Q, stability) which can enhance the performance of many microsensors. This Phase I project will evaluate the feasibility of using the sputter epitaxy process in MEMS applications (RF and others) by means of analysis of design approaches and evaluation of a test vehicle will be designed, fabricated and characterized.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Carl Lewis
DARPA 00-003
Title:Mortar Launched Surveillance Systems
Abstract:Accurate Automation Corporation (AAC) proposes to design a miniature air vehicle system to perform over-the-horizon surveillance missions. It is important for small military field units to have an organic capability to obtain real-time intelligence information of over-the-horizon areas. During Phase I, we will design a conceptual surveillance system - from launch to recovery - with a simple, reliable deployable wing. Our approach will focus on designing the vehicle system to maximize operational radius and sensor field coverage. Design trade results of vehicle efficiency and payload capacity at the operational range for various projectile sizes will prove our concept's technical merit. We expect to achieve an integrated surveillance system design capable of rifle or mortar deployment with a maximum radius of 30 kilometers - retrievable within a 500 meter radius of its launch.

SYSTEMS PLANNING & ANALYSIS, INC.
2000 North Beauregard Street, Suite 400
Alexandria, VA 22311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 474-1310
Peter Chen
DARPA 00-003
Title:Mortar or Rifle Launched, Low Cost, Miniature Ballistic and Glided Flight Surveillance Sensor Systems
Abstract:SPA proposes to perform a detailed performance trade-off study to investigate the feasibility of a low-cost, mortar-launched, lighter-than-air system for over-the-horizon battlefield surveillance. The mortar launched lighter-than-air recoverable sensor (MOLTARS) system will provide U.S. military ground forces with greater battlefield situational awareness. This system will be fired from a standard 60mm mortar and will possess a cruise and loiter capability of at least two hours. The sensor system will return to the launch site for retrieval. During the Phase I effort, SPA will perform a detailed study to determine the optimal system configuration. The proposed system will be primarily comprised of commercial off-the-shelf components. One critical technology, the bag inflation system, will be prototyped and experimentally demonstrated during the Phase I effort.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Igor Ternovskiy
DARPA 00-004
Title:Automatic Representation of Image-Extended Singularities (ARIES) Target Classification Algorithm
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes an entirely new classification algorithm to detect and classify targets of interest. It is based on an advanced brand of analytic geometry of manifolds, called theory of catastrophes. POC's Automatic Representation of Image-Extended Singularities (ARIES) is a scalable 3D model representation and provides automatic and real-time analysis of a discrete frame of sensed 2D imagery of terrain, urban, and target features. It then transforms this frame of discrete different-perspective 2D views of a target into a 3D continuous model called a pictogram. The unique local stereopsis feature of ARIES modeling is the surprising ability to locally obtain a 3D pictogram from a single monoscopic photograph. For DARPA, the ARIES 3D modeling, combined with more standard change detection algorithms and 3D terrain feature models, will constitute a novel classification algorithm and a new type of 3D digital battlefield imagery for Imaging Systems. For the first time, the locally-stereoscopic and fully-scalable ARIES 3D model representation will be able to synthesize a highly accurate 3D image continuum from significantly-dispersed (less than or equal to 6 degrees angular separation) discrete 2D-projections. Thus, providing significant data reduction, while still preserving essential image features.

JAYCOR, INC.
9775 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 623-3718
Norbert Wild
DARPA 00-005
Title:Low Cost, Miniature RF MASINT Unattended Sensor Systems
Abstract:The current battlefield RF environment is complicated with traditional sources, e.g., communications, radar and jamming, as well as other less powerful sources such as vehicles, munitions, computers, power distribution equipment, and ancillary electronic equipment. Recent advances in electronic miniaturization facilitate the design and ultimate development of a deployable, stand-alone sensor for battlefield RF MASINT. Phase I will produce a technical paper assessing battlefield RF signatures, a trade-space study of sensitivity, size and number of sensors for optimal coverage, plus recommendations and schematics for high pay-off sensors. Ruggedness and low-cost will be emphasized to enable redundant data gathering and increased operability and confidence in the acquired RF data stream. Additionally, Phase I activities will include a review of emerging low power internet communication systems.

AURORA FLIGHT SCIENCES CORP.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-3633
Glenn Jackson
DARPA 00-007
Title:CUAV for Precise Deployment of Communications/Sensor Packages
Abstract:The best solution to deliver small, covert communications/ sensor packages is an autonomous airborne vehicle that operates outside the enemy's threat envelope: the Clandestine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (CUAV). Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to explore CUAV designs that emulate natural or common airborne objects to deploy covert packages on the highest local terrain "perch" for maximum line-of-sight viewing. This strategy enables the delivery vehicle to loiter or cruise in the enemy's area of operation and identify the optimal site for covert package delivery. Aurora will apply its expertise in UAV configuration synthesis, flight control design, and scene interpretation to create a CUAV system to meet the Concept of Operations. Aurora will investigate a range of designs, trading cost, covertness, and military effectiveness and using the requirements to down-select for Phase II prototyping and system demonstration. Aurora Flight Sciences is an internationally recognized leader in the development and rapid prototyping of unconventional military and civilian UAV configurations. Aurora has 10 years of successful UAV design, fabrication, and operation experience, including high-altitude UAVs, Micro-Air Vehicles, Vertical Take-off and Landing UAVs, planetary UAVs, and aerodynamically unstable Unmanned-Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) prototypes.

CONDUCTUS, INC.
969 W. Maude Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 523-9484
John Ramsden
DARPA 00-008
Title:Miniature Cryoelectronic Receivers
Abstract:Cryogenic receiver "front ends" that incorporate high-temperature superconducting (HTS) filters and low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) have proven to significantly improve the performance of several kinds of communications receivers. A barrier to their integration in certain classes of systems has been their size and weight. We propose to design a miniature cryogenic receiver front end where the entire cryo-module weighs less than 2 pounds. This will be accomplished by reducing the amount of cooling required from the system cryocooler so that one of the existing 0.25 W cryocoolers can be used. Specifically, the RF input and output cabling will be targeted for reduction of the heat input. All aspects of current design approaches will be reviewed and improved where possible.

ADA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
Craig Turchi
DARPA 00-009
Title:Photocatalytic Self-Decontaminating Surfaces
Abstract:Chemical and Biological (C/B) warfare is now considered one of the most serious threats of the modern world. In recognition of this threat, the US military continues to seek out and develop new decontamination methods and chemicals. The challenge is to develop countermeasures that can rapidly detoxify a broad range of potential C/B warfare agents without harming personnel or damaging equipment. Of great value would be passive, "self-decontaminating" methods that require little input from the soldier. These surfaces would function even if the threat is unperceived and could augment or replace other, more labor-intensive decontamination procedures. The goal of the proposed work is the development of a self-decontaminating coating that can be applied to metals, plastics, and fabrics. The coating itself is nontoxic and can be applied prior to entering a combat situation. A light-activated catalyst within the coating serves as a powerful oxidation catalyst to decompose and detoxify C/B agents. It is well documented that self-cleaning photoactive films can be made and that these films will degrade both organic molecules and microorganisms. ADA's approach is to examine the most promising film formulae known and to explore ways of utilizing existing coatings for photocatalytic use.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2355
William Bell
DARPA 00-009
Title:Catalytic Self-Decontaminating Coatings
Abstract:Equipment exposed to chemical or biological (CB) agents must be decontaminated to ensure the safety of personnel and allow its continued use. Current decontamination systems either are corrosive or produce hazardous byproducts. An ideal solution to decontamination of equipment after a CB attack would be a Self-decontaminating surface that could deactivate the threat agents by a catalytic reaction at ambient temperature. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a catalytic self-decontaminating coating system for military vehicles. The planned research will build on previous and current projects at TDA to develop improved chemical agent resistant coatings (CARCs) and catalytic technologies for low-temperature oxidation of hazardous materials in air. TDA will collaborate with a leading university research group who will prepare improved catalysts. TDA will incorporate the catalysts into the coatings and evaluate their chemical resistance using methods and in-house apparatus developed for previous projects. We will collaborate with a U.S. Army unit to test the biological resistance using well-established methods. Continuing development and commercialization in Phase II and III will be assisted by industry contacts TDA has formed through previous projects.

ARDAL ELECTRONICS, INC.
1165 Sessions Drive
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 432-0040
Allan Lightman
DARPA 00-010
Title:Layered Manufacturing of GRIN Optics
Abstract:A layered manufacturing process is proposed for solid freeform production (SFF) of gradient index of refraction (GRIN) optics. The process will be based upon modifying a commercial off-the-shelf ink-jet printer to deposit "inks" composed of mixtures of liquid monomer and ceramic nano-particulates, each "ink" having a different concentration of ceramic. The multiple "ink" reservoir heads will provide "inks" with finely graded ceramic loadings, so that the printing process will be able to achieve concentration gradients with optical quality smoothness. The printer will be controlled by a GRIN CAD system that will optimize the performance of printed optic, using the known performance of the materials and the printer. Use of layered manufacturing will permit production of optic elements with arbitrary three-dimensional index of refraction profiles, a goal that cannot be achieved by current GRIN manufacturing systems. This system will enable a major advance in optical systems for DoD applications, providing lighter weight optics having optical properties not achievable by either current standard or GRIN lens fabrication. Furthermore, the SFF approach will yield cost-effective first-article optics and it can be scaled to meet full production needs.

MICROFAB TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1104 Summit Avenue, Suite 110
Plano, TX 75074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 578-8076
W. Cox
DARPA 00-010
Title:Ink-Jet Printing of Gradient Index of Refraction Lenses
Abstract:We will design a 3D-ink-jet-type of printing platform capable of printing disk-shaped GRIN (gradient index of refraction) lenses greater than 5 inches in diameter, utilizing, in part, our experience in manufacturing commercial, high-temperature, polymer/micro-optics printing platforms. We will also demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for GRIN lens fabrication by formulating UV-curing optical fluids of differing refractive index and using our existing dual-print-head micro-optics printing platform to print from data files and characterize for optical performance GRIN lenses on the order of an inch in diameter of various index profiles, building on our experince in micro-jetable optical fluid formulation and micro-optics printing.

EGEA BIOSCIENCES, INC.
1652 Via Cancion
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 744-4429
Glen Evans
DARPA 00-011
Title:Comparative Gene Sequence/Expression Analysis of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Micro-Organisms
Abstract:Biological warfare (BW) and bioterrorism are significant and escalating global threats. Genetic and genomic engineering made possible by the Human Genome Project may allow the customization of BW agents and escalation of the BW threat. Major problems in biological weapons defense are the identification of the biological agent, determining the pathogenic genes, and providing counter agents including vaccines and targeted antibiotics. This application will apply high-throughput DNA sequencing developed for the Human Genome Project to sequence conventional and non-conventional BW agents or near neighbors and develop this sequence information for rapid detection. Phase I will develop libraries and clone resources for determining the DNA sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis, a non-pathogenic near neighbor of Bacillus anthracis. At the option of the sponsor, other selected organisms could be substituted. Phase I will carry out pilot level sequencing of about 10% of the genome and exploit bioinformatics tools andtechniques to identify specific diagnostic sequences. Phase II will focus on completing the sequence of the BW pathogen and/or near neighbor and developing a DNA chip biosensor for the BW agent using proprietary technology developed by Egea, Inc. Phase II will also exploit the rapid expression of gene sequences as targets for diagnostic or therapeutic antibody development.

ONYX CONSULTING, INC.
1300 El Paseo, Suite G,PMB236
Las Cruces, NM 88001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 243-1023
Charles Watts
DARPA 00-012
Title:Improving Recall in Domain Independent Information
Abstract:This project is devoted to enhancing the recall of general-purpose domain-independent information retrieval systems. Its unique contribution is the incorporation of four different sources of knowledge for evaluating the match of a particular document to a query: the broad-coverage lists of proper names ("onomastica"); the knowledge of the syntax of the text in the documents; the knowledge of the ontological-semantic properties of words in the text; and knowledge to help resolve problems with anaphoric reference as well as metonymy and other tropes in the input text. These individual sources have been researched in academia and are available to Onyx Consulting for integration and incorporation in a working proof-of-concept system.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 S. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Ronald Braun
DARPA 00-012
Title:Ontology-Based Information Extraction from Free-Form Text
Abstract:We propose an innovative combination of machine learning techniques coupled with a novel end-to-end system architecture built around a shared domain ontology to permit ontology-based information extraction (IE) from free text. Our Ontology-Based IE (OBIE) system will significantly increase end-to-end recall for the IE task while maintaining or improving precision. OBIE will accomplish this by enabling interaction between different levels of the IE processing pipeline simultaneously through a shared ontology. IE components will be developed to demonstrate increases in recall permitted by the inclusion of hierarchical knowledge in their learning algorithms. Active learning and bootstrapping algorithms will be extended to automatically learn the ontology of a new domain, to assist in training the IE components, and to reduce the burden of annotation on the end-user. Performance metrics in a variety of system configurations will allow a characterization of performance gains enabled by the proposed architecture. Phase I research and development of a proof-of-concept limited prototype will demonstrate the feasibility and utility of OBIE's ontology-based IE capability and will lay the groundwork for its Phase II implementation.

DISCOVERY MACHINE, INC.
265 Dogwood Ridge Road
Montgomery, PA 17752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 547-6774
Todd Griffith
DARPA 00-013
Title:Intelligent Adaptive Software Construction
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to show the feasibility of building a set of software tools enabling researchers (i.e. scientists, inventors, designers, planners, or investors) to represent multiple problem-solving strategies. These DiscoveryTools will allow researchers to quickly and cheaply automate discovery processes thereby increasing the productivity of R&D budgets. The tools will provide a graphical user interface for encoding the strategies (i.e. tasks, methods, and knowledge) required to solve specific problems, and will allow the users to "run" these strategies over sets of data. Most software tools attempt to retrieve or display knowledge from databases so that researchers can act on that knowledge. This research attempts to show that this can be done the other way around. Instead of supplying researchers with knowledge to solve problems, supply a program with strategies to act on the knowledge to which it has access. DiscoveryTools will allow researchers to specify multiple high-level strategies, each of which can be used to solve some set of problems. The tools assist researchers in explicating their problem-solving tasks as a hierarchy of methods and subtasks. In essence, DiscoveryTools will multiply expert researchers leaving more time and money available to pursue the most promising options.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street, Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Azad Madni
DARPA 00-013
Title:Case-Based Planning and Construction of Adaptive Software
Abstract:The integration of Case-based Planning and rule-based composition of software units is a promising approach to intelligent adaptive software construction. Our R&D effort proposes a meta-level architecture, in which the base level consists of rules embodying knowledge to compose software units into larger units to achieve greater functionality, and the meta-level is a case-based planner that can retrieve similar cases and recommend specific units and compositional strategies to the rule-based composer. The case-based planner contains strategic knowledge while the rule-based composer contains domain knowledge (e.g., what the various software units are and their relationships along with how the various units can be composed into larger units). Phase I of this effort will create the design specification and "proof-of-concept" demonstration prototype along with a Phase II implementation plan. These accomplishments will pave the way for a successful, risk-mitigated Phase II implementation.

TERRASIM, INC.
4620 Henry Street, Third Floor
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 681-3703
Jefferey Shufelt
DARPA 00-014
Title:Visualization of Information in Support of Asymmetric Operations
Abstract:This research will identify, prototype, and evaluate the utility of several techniques to take a minimal amount of geospecific data within a proposed area of operations and automatically extrapolate geotypical data in a large surrounding area. The geospecific data, primarily road networks, lines of communication, significant buildings, and representative buildings will be used to gather patterns of manmade construction to drive the automated generation or selection of suitable models and their placement in the surrounding area. We coin the term composite three dimensional geospatial environments to describe the resulting visualization that seamlessly combines geospecific and geotypical data sources.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 30
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Wayne Zachary
DARPA 00-015
Title:Adversarial Reasoning
Abstract:We propose to develop a software tool called Socio-Culturally Oriented Planning Environment or SCOPE to support the analysis of adversarial reasoning in a broad context that includes both military and sociocultural factors. In the first stage of tool development, a multi-layered theoretical model of adversarial reasoning and decision making will be constructed, leveraging on recent advances in the modeling and simulation of individual cognition. We propose an innovative approach to constructing this model that will link multiple levels of phenomena - individual cognition, situational factors, sociological factors, and cultural factors. The resulting ETHOS model will be computational in nature allowing it to be transitioned into software and embedded in SCOPE to support planning and analysis of adversarial reasoning. SCOPE will consist of three major subsystems: (1) a model-development subsystem that supports development of ETHOS-based models for specific situations; a What-if Adversarial Cognitive Wargaming subsystem that supports wargames by providing ETHOS-generated opponent responses; and (3) a Post-Simulation analysis subsystem that captures the results of a wargame and supports analysis of the action-counter-action sequence and the reasoning and decision making processes executed by the ETHOS model.

EVOLVING LOGIC
21280 Colina Drive
Topanga, CA 90290
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 836-0958
Steve Bankes
DARPA 00-015
Title:Incorporating Adversarial Reasoning in COAA Planning
Abstract:A key challenge for adversarial reasoning within COAA planning tools is capturing both the full range of information planners have about adversaries' future actions and the true extent of their uncertainty. Evolving Logic develops software technology to facilitate Computer Assisted Reasoning (CAR ), a new method for planning under conditions of deep uncertainty, which combines the best features of traditional decision analysis and scenario-based planning. The technology provides a general object-oriented framework for encapsulating a wide variety of simulation models, performing computational experiments on them, and visualizing the results. In this proposed project, Evolving Logic will demonstrate how the CAR approach and enabling software technology can address the problem of adversarial reasoning. In particular, the approach can capture diverse information about adversaries by employing ensembles of a variety of different model representations, can effectively use these ensembles for planning by findingstrategies robust against a range of plausible future scenarios, and can naturally support an interactive planning process through its inductive approach to quantitative reasoning. When fully developed, CAR-based planning tools will give military and business planners a facile means to evaluate plans in the face of imperfect knowledge about adversaries' potential actions.

SCALABLE SIMULATION SOLUTIONS
2500 Angelo Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90077
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 477-4320
Julian Hsu
DARPA 00-016
Title:QualNet: Real-Time Service Provisioning Over Mixed Wired and Wireless Networks
Abstract:The growing commercialization of the Internet and the heterogeneous traffic requirements from a diverse set of new applications, has created strong demand for provisioning of service guarantees. The problem is compounded by the anticipated future growth in the wireless Internet and the resulting need for the QoS provisioning to adapt dynamically to a network with diverse bandwidth and loss characteristics. The objective of this SBIR effort, over two phases, is to design, evaluate, and implement scalable algorithms for real-time provisioning/ protection of end-to-end communication services subject to meeting quality of service, security and reliability requirements, over unreliable, heterogeneous IP networks that include both wired and wireless components. The QoS metrics of interest include bandwidth guarantees as well as delay and packet loss bounds to account for soft QoS degradation. The objective of the Phase I study is to evaluate the effectiveness and degree of responsiveness of different packet marking and buffer management schemes in provisioning QoS metrics in a wired IP network, and to develop novel multi-layer approaches for real-time QoS provisioning that exploit interactions between the MAC, network, transport, and application layers in a network that includes wired and wireless subnets.

LIGHTEL SYSTEMS CORP.
462 Herndon Parkway, Suite 203
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 834-1155
Nara Kamath
DARPA 00-017
Title:Applications for Multi-Terabit Networking
Abstract:Lightel has discovered a design approach that maps the computing model with the communication protocol models and the transmission infrastructure. This approach has resulted in designs that are not only compatible between each of these different models and existing networking solutions but provide fundamentally integrated network solutions to solve the problems of QoS and convergence. Lightel design makes use of the bandwidth multiplying capability of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) of optical/Laser signals over optical fiber, and maps these transmission capacities with the computing and software open system interface designs. The result is mapping of processes, tasks, daemons and program to program communication threads in the computing model to the different wavelength streams and, if required, sub channels within the wavelength streams. These design concepts enable to project the computing, processing, and communications intelligence of one device through the wavelength streams to another device very efficiently at the required high speeds with practically no flow control and no media contention. In doing so, the design will create systems with zero latency computing and communications that can send multiple traffic types to be delivered simultaneously to the receiving device, creating a fundamental solution for convergence of voice, data and video.

TRILOKOM
124 Vista Circle Drive
Sierra Madre, CA 91024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 836-5545
Jayant Shukla
DARPA 00-017
Title:Applications for Multi-Terabit Networking
Abstract:Trilokom proposes to develop algorithms and hardware to provide a cost effective solution to the security problem for ultra high-speed networks. Our system will have a plug-in hardware module with pipelined architecture that will be able to provide encryption at various levels in the open systems interconnect (OSI) networking model. This allows the system to be much more flexible and user friendly, while relieving the CPU of the compute intensive work. We will draw upon existing and emerging commercial technologies to develop the plug-in hardware module. This module will be useful for high-speed networked applications such as interactive video and large scale virtual private networks (VPNs). A key challenge is to keep the cost of the hardware low, and we will explore innovative hardware architectures and develop new compact and high speed encryption algorithms. At the end of Phase I, we will deliver our design for a high-speed networked application. We will provide detailed information about the component technologies and our integration methodology for the COTS and custom components.

HYSIGNAL, INC.
2309 Pacific Coast Highway, Suite 104
Hermosa Beach, CA 90254
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 376-7193
David Wright
DARPA 00-018
Title:Alternative High-Bandwidth Communications Technologies
Abstract:Secure terminals for Alternative High-Bandwidth Communication (AH-BC) systems oriented towards distributed computing applications and based on commercial communication facilities will be researched and a demonstration system will be developed. Key issues include: characteristics of the access medium; suitable protocols for data transfer on the AH-BC; and, especially, security for privacy and against unauthorized usage. We believe the preferred access medium for AH-BC is the new generation of commercial processing satellites ("SuperSats"), currently under construction - e.g. Spaceway and Astrolink. SuperSats' features include: datalink layer with negligible error rate; multiple earth coverage cells interconnected using ATM; very small, low cost, terminals; one-hop mesh connections; large available bandwidth - with fine-grained allocation on demand; low usage costs - all highly desirable for AH-BC. Since the Supersats will not begin service until after Phase I of this SBIR R&D, we propose to use available commercial medium speed DSL service for a Phase I demonstration and to focus on the protocol and security issues during Phase I. Planning for Phase II prototype development of a AH-BC SuperSat terminal will be formulated during Phase I, also. We believe commercialization of this R&D has immense potential for future government and private sector business.

SECURE COMPUTING CORP.
2675 Long Lake Road
Saint Paul, MN 55113
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 628-1538
Mike Carney
DARPA 00-018
Title:Secure High Performance VPNs
Abstract:Commercially available VPN solutions provide secure links between fixed sites. Some also support remote users, but those typically lack adequate security features and are difficult to configure and use. This effort provides DARPA remote users with a secure, easy to use and configure, high bandwidth solution for connection to their office. The solution allows remote users to establish VPN tunnels directly or over the Internet via a local ISP connection using dial-up, cable modems, or DSL. The VPNs will be fully IKE/IPSec compliant and provide strong remote user authentication, data privacy, authenticity and integrity. The primary Gateway and VPN management station will be Secure Computing's Sidewinder, a highly secure application level firewall that is the largest selling firewall in the government market. Remote user clients will incorporate best of breed commercially available VPN components and will be offered on Windows 95/98/2000 and NT 4.0 platforms.

MAYA DESIGN GROUP, INC.
2100 Wharton Street, Suite 702
Pittsburgh, PA 15203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 488-2900
David Lucas
DARPA 00-019
Title:Worldwide Workflow : Software Applications for Asynchronous Collaboration
Abstract:"Worldwide Workflow" : This project explores advanced techniques for asynchronous collaboration. The work focuses on visualization, management, and vastly scalable and robust distribution methods for shared collections of any type of information. We propose to design, pototype, and test a collaborative system based on repositories of declarative data objects (UForms) -- repositories will be replicated through the use of robust computational agents ("shepherds") to form a world wide dataflow of information. The model introduces an abstraction called GRIS ("Grand Repository In the Sky). Repositories can be thought of as imperfect portals into the GRIS. Users will view the GRIS as a source of pools and streams of information that can be manipulated in both simple and subtle ways to form workflows and collaboration groups. Tools for visualization and configuring such a system will be explored and attempts will be made to blend synchronous and asynchronous collaboration methods into a spectrum of tools that fade into the background and make the data and collaboration immediately perceptible to the user. It should be natural to collaborate -- not additional work.

PROMIND SYSTEMS, INC.
333 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 1100
Chicago, IL 60601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(312) 460-9196
Srdjan Mijatovic
DARPA 00-019
Title:Dynamic Group Workflow Collaboration Using Agent-Based Asynchronous and Fault-Tolerant System
Abstract:The application focuses on Asynchronous Collaboration within Groups of Participants as well as among Groups. We utilize dynamic workflow in Agent-based system, with Agents representing Participants that can be Human or computer Applications. System utilizes dynamic information space and information routing based on context. The solution proposed is based on a fault-tolerant system.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8809 Sudley Road, Suite 101
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Gary Sikora
DARPA 00-020
Title:Representations and Protocols for Universal Access to the World-Wide Web
Abstract:Today, a problem involves the increasing number of Web Meta-language standards causing Web Masters to design the same Web sight multiple times. Driving this is the increasing trend of new devices developed within the commercial and defense sector due to technology advancements and needs driven by the information evolution. With these new devices comes a varying multimedia capability.Progeny Systems proposes using the formatting power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) technology to obtain a "write once" and "publish anywhere" approach. A Multi-Device XML (MDX) framework is defined encompassing a scalable, adaptable, portable MDX client. This architecture allows migration from a no World Wide Web impact solution, to a next generation Internet, Jini architecture providing multimedia service and MDX at the Web server. Multimedia device conformance of the XML abstraction data is performed through Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL). The appropriate XSL is generated based on the consumer device. Both multimedia tag assignment and declaration deletion methods will be researched. A bi-directional Automated Internet Operator (AIO) is implemented for voice-only devices. An open source strategy will accelerate the maturity process and acceptance through industry involvement.

BUSINESS & TECHNICAL SERVICES
7830 Greeley Blvd
Springfield, VA 22152
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 569-9287
Edward Allard
DARPA 00-021
Title:The RADICON
Abstract:An uncooled thermal detector with low heat transfer connecting wires allows the detector to approach the S/N limit of a cooled photon detector. The limitation of the detector is not heat transfer. It is the thinness of the material that can be manufactured with the required mechanical integrity. A thin detector is proposed that will meet many imaging requirements and still be close to the photon S/N limit. A detector of one half the thinness would approach the limit even closer.

INDIGO SYSTEMS CORP.
5385 Hollister Ave, #103
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 964-9797
William Terre
DARPA 00-021
Title:Read-Out Technology for Uncooled Thermal Imaging Arrays
Abstract:The performance of an uncooled imaging system is inherently determined by the characteristics of the readout integrated circuit (e.g. noise performance, power, dynamic range, etc.), detector responsivity and thermal signal loss. Indigo Systems, through its unparalleled mixed signal design expertise, proposes to study, analyze and optimize the ultimate performance levels attainable for uncooled sensors using state-of-the-art readout integrated circuit design, semiconductor processes, detector materials and thermal insulation. The main goal is to achieve ultra low NEDT (high temperature resolution) and ultra low cost to penetrate mass production applications. Readout noise, the dominant performance limitation, will be analyzed and optimized as a function of the readout integrated circuit process, operating point, power dissipation and detector characteristics. Embedded innovative, ROIC design features and processing functions will enable the realization of a new class of state-of-the-art uncooled sensors. Current uncooled focal plane arrays require temperature stabilization which is nominally provided by a thermoelectric cooler (TEC). The TEC is eliminated through the application of an innovative method (Indigo Patent) of dynamically adjusting the microbolometer operating point within the ROIC and subsequently performing on-chip non-uniformity correction (NUC). In addition, planar semiconductor submicron processes, now commercially available, reduce considerably the complexity and the cost of the detector integration to the ROIC. This in turn enables uncooled thermal imaging systems to be lighter weight, lower power, occupy less volume and ultimately at very low cost. During Phase I, Indigo will develop and evaluate concepts for high performance (ROIC) for uncooled infrared detectors with optimum noise performance, dynamic range, power consumption, real-estate, and state-of-the-art detector material and thermal isolation. Figures of merit for the focal plan array as a function of the detector characteristics and readout architecture will be developed and analyzed. Detector and readout circuit constraints and tradeoffs will be studied for best possible performance.

ADVANCED SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
27970 Orchard Lake Rd., Suite 6
Farmington Hills, MI 48334
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 539-0867
Hal Cantor
DARPA 00-022
Title:Chip-Scale Integrated Micro-fluidic System, Including Valves and Pumps, for use in Transdermal Biological Monitoring
Abstract:Advanced Sensor Technologies, Inc. (AST) proposes to develop an integrated microfluidic sensor system towards the goal of online, real-time monitoring of biological fluids, consistent with the goals of DARPA's MicroFlumes project. The MEMS microfluidic system will incorporate AST's innovative, microscopic designs for pumps, valves, fluid channels, sampling and sensing chambers. Utilizing AST's mature sensor technologies, the system will be capable of monitoring a variety of biological fluids including saliva, perspiration, urine, and, most importantly, interstitial fluid. The most promising noninvasive technique for continuous monitoring of molecules within the body is to measure interstitial fluids obtained transdermally. Due to the high concentration of capillaries in dermis, interstitial fluid concentration of relevant molecules, including blood electrolytes, stress hormones, medical and recreational drugs, pesticides, and chemical warfare agents have been shown to correlate directly with their humoralconcentration. AST's Phase II goals includes incorporation of the chip-scale MEMS microfluidic system into a "dermal patch" that will contain the interstitial fluid sampling system, calibration system, pumps, valves, sensors, and electronics for incorporation into telemetric systems. The resulting microfluidic system will have the capability to continuously monitor the concentration of a large number of relevant biological molecules continuously from ambulatory patients and soldiers.

BIOARRAY SOLUTIONS, LLC
120 Centennial Avenue
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 457-0300
Michael Seul
DARPA 00-022
Title:Integrated Microfluidic Technologies for Molecular Level Manipulation of Biological Fluids
Abstract:A program of research and development is described to develop a fully integrated biofluidic system-on-chip hosting multiplexed DNA, protein and cellular analysis. A novel methodology of on-chip flow programming, enabled by Light-controlled Electrokinetic Assembly of Particles near Surfaces (LEAPS) is introduced along with requisite tools for biofluidic chip design. Fabrication technologies and architectures are identified which support the progressive integration of on-chip flow programming and microfluidic dispensing of sample and reagents from individually programmable reservoirs with a novel optically programmable bead array technology which accommodates polymeric microbeads as well as cells in a highly parallel assay format. Specific applications of this integrated biofluidic processor to cellular functional assays include cytokine profiling as a broad-band indicator of infection.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02154
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4047
Paul Haugsjaa
DARPA 00-022
Title:Integrated Microfluidic Technologies for Molecular Level Manipulation of Biological Fluids
Abstract:This project will develop a new class of integrable chip-scale microfluid pumps and valves to transport fluids without regard to their properties (i.e., viscosity, ionic concentration, solid/liquid phases, or polarizability). The proposed device is a positive displacement pump without dead volumes - a problem for other mechanical pumping approaches. Our design is capable of high back-pressure, unlike electrokinetic approaches which suffer from leakage and low back pressure. Moreover, it is simple, uses little energy, and is applicable to a wide range of integrated microfluidic devices and micromechanical systems. In Phase I we will demonstrate the ability of the materials and designs to transport fluids of interest at chip scale dimensions, transport rates, and tolerances. In Phase II, prototype microfluidic devices will be built and evaluated. Foster-Miller envisions commercialization of the technology by teaming and licensing agreements with manufacturers and users in the biochip market for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents, drug discovery screening, DNA analyses, point of care clinical analyses, and environmental monitoring. This technology will be applicable to a wide variety of devices, and we have the capability and charter to work with a large number of companies, forming alliances over a broad range of applications. (p00458)

REDEON, INC.
124 Mt Auburn St., Suite 200N
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 942-0301
Donald Ackley
DARPA 00-022
Title:Battlefield Sensing and Drug Delivery System
Abstract:The objective of this project is to do a feasibility demonstration of a modular microneedle system for delivering drugs to the warfighter on the battlefield. We have developed cheap, flexible microneedle arrays for transdermal drug delivery which are painless and minimally invasive, making them an an ideal device for extended use in a battlefield environment. By arranging microneedle arrays in tandem in a laminated structure and integrating them with simple microfluidic components, a modular drug delivery system may be developed that allows the arfighter to access needed drugs, either manually or under computer control, from replacable reservoirs. Since the microneedles may be used to extract body fluids for sensing as well, the system could be used to sense the condition of the warfighter and dispense therapeutic drugs, either locally or remotely using a wireless telemetry system. During the course of the program we will fabricate and test a prototype modular system for drug delivery.

SEIRAD, INC.
483 Paige Loop
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 672-9525
Joe Gatewood
DARPA 00-022
Title:Development of DNA Sequencing Instrumentation based on Microfluidics and Molecular Level Sensors
Abstract:SeiraD is proposing to develop an innovative DNA sequencing device incorporating silicon-based microfluidics and molecular level sensors. The US government has invested over $2,000,000,000 to sequence the first human genome. This investment is expected to exceed $3,000,000,000 before the task is complete. The full potential of DNA sequence information will only be realized when multiple genomes are rapidly and inexpensively sequenced. This will be possible if the SeiraD approach proves successful. Health care therapy will be tailored to the individual patient, disease genes will be identified quickly and inexpensively, DNA damage resulting from environmental exposure will be identified before the onset of disease, and harmful biological agents will be rapidly identified. The SeiraD approach is based on research conducted by Dr. Joe Gatewood (SeiraD) while at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Dr. Gatewood and colleagues developed the nanotechnology that provides the foundation for the SeiraD approach. During the Phase I effort, SeiraD will surround a DNA-sized pore with molecular level sensors and determine if DNA sequencing is feasible using this device. The SeiraD approach has the potential for reducing the cost of sequencing an entire genome from billions to hundreds of dollars while reducing sampling time from decades to days.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Avenue, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Danny Eliyahu
DARPA 00-023
Title:Low Timing-Jitter Semiconductor Mode-locked Laser as Fast Sampler in Analog to Digital Converter
Abstract:WaveBand Corporation proposes to develop a new compact monolithic semiconductor hybrid mode-locked laser capable of producing ultrashort pulses with high timing and amplitude stability. The specially designed two-section laser will serve as a high-speed sampler in analog to digital (A/D) devices of optical communication networks. The laser will be modulated through its saturable absorber by a stable microwave signal. The absorber's nonlinearity will generate short pulses while the pulse timing will be determined by the external modulator. Moreover, since the laser is hybridly mode locked, pulse-to-pulse timing will be correlated over a substantially long period, i.e., a large number of adjacent pulses will have a uniform repetition time. Additionally, the laser will be temperature-regulated to maintain stability over time longer than the correlation time. The proposed compact laser will generate infrared (IR) pulses with an average output power of more than 10 dBm and timing jitter that is less than 10 f-sec at a repetition rate of 10 GHz. At this sampling rate and timing jitter, signal quantization with resolution of 12 bits is possible.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Drive, 5th floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Phillip Stout
DARPA 00-024
Title:CAD Tool for Terahertz Device Development
Abstract:The overall objective of this effort is to develop a commercial quality, validated computer aided design (CAD) tool to aid in the development of THz quantum based semiconductor devices. THz device design must account for quantum effects such as quantum resonant modes, quantum mode mixing, tunneling, intersubband transitions, side wall scattering, and surface recombination. Currently, there are no CAD tools available that incorporate all the proper physics for designing THz quantum devices. The proposed quantum CAD tool will be a device simulator with the ability to investigate the operation of and generate reduced models (S-parameters) for quantum based, electronic and photonic THz sources and detectors such as quantum cascade lasers, superlattices, and multiple quantum wells. In phase I an existing quantum simulator, NEMO, will be coupled to drift-diffusion and/or hydrodynamic models to enable multi-scale studies of semiconductor devices. Physics for optical pumping effects will be added to the AC analysis to allow the study of laser illuminated devices such as a THz receiver. The quantum device simulator linked to classical models will be demonstrated and verified on several different Quantum devices using published experimental results. Finally, the tool will be integrated into CFDRC's commercial CAD environment. The integration will leverage existing commercial physics models, numerical solver, database, and GUI library technologies at CFDRC.

STERLING SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
22660 Executive Drive, Suite 101
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 834-7535
Larry Rowland
DARPA 00-025
Title:High Power Silicon Carbide Diodes With Novel Edge Termination
Abstract:Sterling Semiconductor (Sterling) in conjunction with University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) will develop a a novel edge termination for SiC diodes which provides the capability to withstand 95-98% of the theoretical breakdown voltage. This edge termination also consumes less device area than other standard edge termination techniques. In Phase I our team will design and fabricate 4 kV/1A 4H-SiC Schottky diodes to test this novel edge termination of proprietary design. These diodes will serve as the basis for development of Schottky and junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes for high-power electronic components in Phase II.

UNITED SILICON CARBIDE, INC.
100 Jersey Ave., Bldg D
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 565-9500
Maurice Weiner
DARPA 00-025
Title:Development of an Advanced High Yield Cost Effective SiC Process Technology for Manufacturing a New Class of SiC Power Devices
Abstract:We propose to develop an innovative cost-effective SiC process technology that would make it possible for the first time to fabricate and commercialize a whole now class of SiC power switches covering voltages from 1,000V to 10,000V. The proposed innovative process technology, if developed successfully, would make it possible to (i) reduce the high power dissipation of SiC devices to less than 200 W/sq.cm, (ii) drastically improve SiC power device reliability when operating at high temperatures, and (iii) reduce the costs of SiC power devices as a result of the greatly improved process and device yield. In Phase I, we plan to (i) perform fundamental experiments and computer simulations to show the feasibility of the innovative technology for applications to high power devices, (ii) demonstrate experimentally the proposed innovative technology through the fabrication of a novel SiC power switch, and (iii) deliver two novel SiC power switches capable of 10 Amp-1,000V with low power dissipation by utilizing theinnovative SiC process technology. In Phase II, we will greatly improve the process technology for the commercialization development in Phase III.

JETEK, INC.
54 Danbury Road, No. 244
Ridgefield,, CT 06877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 445-0104
L.David Bollinger
DARPA 00-026
Title:Materials and Tools for Heterogeneously Integrated Microelectronics
Abstract:We propose an exploratory development program to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel Atmospheric Rapid Thermal Processing (ARTP) concept to provide very rapid, spike-like, temperature rise and cool-down times. Initial studies show the concept meets the Rapid Thermal Process requirements of the 11/99 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) for the 100nm node and beyond. A temperature rise time of >104 oC/sec has been demonstrated to date. The proposed technology utilizes convective heat transfer to the wafer from a highly repeatable and controllable, stream of hot gas. Advantages include a high heat input rate and a heat transfer mechanism that is independent of pattern or material on the wafer. The hot gas stream is generated from an atmospheric pressure, high temperature plasma. Rapid cool-down is obtained by a novel wafer holder that provides direct convective gas cooling to the wafer backside. Precisely controlled motion of the wafer through the hot gas stream provides uniform thermal treatment to the full wafer and control of the local maximum wafer temperature. The principle has been demonstrated with heat inputs in the range of 107 to108 W/m2 and temperatures up to approximately 1400oC. The proposed program will increase the ARTP capabilities by improving the heat input to 109 W/m2 and demonstrate the feasibility of the ARTP approach for advanced microelectronics by evaluating applications such as doping vertical silicon structures and multi-layer SOI formation.

IMAGECORP, INC.
4716 Pontiac Street, Suite 301
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 220-2123
Philippe Burlina
DARPA 00-027
Title:Automatic Terrain Characterization and Feature Identification in FOPEN SAR Imagery
Abstract:ImageCorp, Inc. proposes to develop and implement algorithms for the robust characterization of terrain cover, cultural features and topographic information from single and multi- pass processing of FOPEN SAR data. The robust classification of terrains from FOPEN imagery would significantly improve the performance of state-of-the-art Automatic Detection algorithms and provide contextual information for processing other imaging modalities such as GMTI, EO or IR. ImageCorp proposes to adopt heavy-tailed stochastic modeling approaches that are derived from physical considerations and conform to the phenomenology of the FOPEN SAR sensors. We will apply selective feature characterization in VHF and UHF bands, and develop band specific- and adaptive methods to improve segmentation. We will also use subaperture processing algorithms for the characterization and disambiguation of terrain features. We will derive contextual information from multipass exploitation to allow for false alarm mitigation. The result will bethe development of a suite of algorithms allowing for the fine site modeling of terrain features in FOPEN SAR including both man-made and natural objects. The team assembled for this proposal has extensive hands-on experience in FOPEN SAR image formation and processing, and is in a unique position to address the challenges associated with the task at hand.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 W. Olympic Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 261-3508
Alan Pieramico
DARPA 00-027
Title:Automatic Terrain Characterization and Feature Identification in FOPEN SAR Imagery
Abstract:Automatic Target Detection and Cueing (ATD/C) procedures are being implemented using VHF and fully polarimetric UHF SAR to detect vehicles concealed in heavy foliage. The local terrain slope and foliage density in the treed areas significantly effect vehicle signatures, as well as the intensity of returns due to tree trunk dihedrals. Stem spacing, and diameter can be used to reduce the false alarm rate by identifying areas that are unreachable by ground vehicles. TSC proposes to develop procedures to extract a number of features from the UHF/VHF SAR imagery. Locations and types of forested regions will be determined using a multi-stage/variable window size decision tree approach. The fully polarimetric UHF data will be exploited to enhance the detectability of vertical, horizontal, and diffuse clutter sources. These polarimetric features will also be used to aid in the automatic identification of tie-points, to extract height from the multi-pass UHF data. Methods to estimate foliage density, stem spacing, and stem diameter will also be investigated. TSC will leverage existing stereo SAR techniques and software, Automatic Terrain Classification and Cultural Feature Identification software developed for DARPA and the Army Topographic Engineering Center, and image processing and general classification techniques developed during current and previous efforts.

VEXCEL CORP.
4909 Nautilus Court
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 444-0094
Richard Carande
DARPA 00-027
Title:Automatic Terrain Characterization and Feature Identification in FOPEN SAR Imagery
Abstract:Vexcel Corporation proposes to address the challenge of improving overall FOPEN Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ATD performance by providing new and innovative algorithms and software which address the possibility of extracting terrain characteristics from UHF FOPEN SAR data. In order to meet this challenge, Vexcel will bring to bear related on-going and in-house work in the area of FOPEN SAR ATD and automated feature extraction. Specifically, we will develop techniques to extract characteristics of the terrain and features in the FOPEN SAR data automatically. Through use of this information, it will be possible to both improve existing ATD algorithms in terms of detection and false alarm rates, and provide context data that may be critically important to other in-theater assets.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Narasimha Prasad
DARPA 00-028
Title:Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Based Compact Spectra-Polarimetric Active Imager for Long-Wave IR Operation
Abstract:It is critical to extract maximum information from IR images for target detection, identification and classification systems. The physical information in an image is contained in basically four parameters namely the intensity, phase, polarization and wavelength of the received light. Besides acquiring intensity variations, rapid collection of corresponding polarization signatures at desired wavelengths can enhance the information content in an IR scene. Present systems are heavy (~800 lbs), slow and operationally complex. Coherent Technologies Inc. (CTI) is proposing an active device that simultaneously measures the spectral intensity and polarization content of an image in real time. The device will generate four images that correspond to each of the Stokes vector components. From Stokes components, degree and type of polarization of a scene can be ascertained. This Stokes device will be aided by a LWIR transmitter for active imaging, and a tunable acousto-optic device for wavelength selection. The entire unit will be compact and is anticipated to weigh less than 100 lbs. In Phase I, designs of a LWIR spectra-polarimeter will be generated including a performance evaluation. In Phase II, a portable, field-operated, brassboard device operating over LWIR wavelengths will be developed and delivered.

EQUINOX CORP.
9 West 57th Street, Suite 1650
New York, NY 10019
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 421-2999
Lawrence Wolff
DARPA 00-029
Title:Longwave IR Acousto-Optic SpectroPolarimeter
Abstract:We propose to design and build a longwave IR spectropolarimeter using an integrated design of acousto-optics and liquid crystal technologies measuring all 4 Stokes parameters at each of a multitude of narrowpass spectral bands. This will be applied to automatic target recognition and spectropolarimetric modeling in the longwave IR region.

LASER ENERGETICS, INC.
4044 Quaker Bridge Road
Mercerville, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 977-6648
Jason Eichenholz
DARPA 00-029
Title:Gain-Guiding, A New Concept for High Power Fiber Lasers
Abstract:The incorporation of a new approach, gain-guiding, into high power fiber laser engineering will allow much larger mode diameters in fibers, leading to greatly increased single-mode signal powers, and substantial gain discrimination in favor of single-mode operation. The impact of this development could be as significant as the introduction of double cladding was several years ago. It will effectively increase the effective core diameter of single-mode fiber lasers thereby lessen the pump-power restrictions of diode lasers, and provide a pathway to the development of fiber lasers, lessening the deleterious impact of nonlinear effects as well as the power restrictions on the diode pump laser. Gain-guiding will require the fabrication of special fibers, in which a radially varying doping density extends over a diameter as large as several hundred microns. In the first phase of this development, we will demonstrate the increased mode size that comes from including gain guiding in a small fiber laser of intermediate power. Special fibers with radially varying doping will be acquired through collaboration with a state-of-the-art fiber research facility. A firm foundation will thus be created for the development of Kilowatt-class fiber lasers using gain-guiding in the second phase of this project.

BERKELEY RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
P.O. Box 241
Berkeley, CA 94701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 750-3434
Jeffry Golden
DARPA 00-030
Title:Development of Optical Gating Techniques for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Switches
Abstract:On-board optical triggering of solid-state thyristors (patent pending) holds the promise of semiconductor switches having very high current, high charge transfer, and very high current rate of rise (di/dt). Advances in semiconductor lasers make possible low-cost, on-board gating of silicon devices. However, switch devices made of wide bandgap material require greater photon energy. The proposed work will identify photon sources for on-board gating of SiC and diamond based switches. Recent developments in blue-violet semiconductor lasers and high pressure flashlamp sources will be investigated. Photon source coupling, gate driver, and photon transport will be addressed. The Phase I effort includes a demonstration of on-board optical-gating techniques in a silicon thyristor and the identification of experiments with wide bandgap devices that will be performed in Phase II.

UNITED SILICON CARBIDE, INC.
100 Jersey Avenue, Building D
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 565-9500
John Carter
DARPA 00-031
Title:Development of a High Performance SiC-Based Inverter for Motor Control Applications
Abstract:We propose to develop and demonstrate a SiC inverter for controlling a three phase motor up to 5 HP in Phase I and up to 43 HP in Phase II. In Phase I, we propose to design, analyze, build, and test a SiC inverter by using initially a hybrid SiC diode/Si IGBT package. Efforts will be focused on design optimization based on inverter performance, modeling, and experimental testing. Digital signal processing controller will be used for effective and efficient control of a variable speed three phase motor. High ambient temperature testing of the inverter will be carried out so that the high temperature capability of the SiC inverter can clearly demonstrated. Power losses, inverter efficiency, and high frequency operation will be the key issues in Phase I study, which will provide the necessary information for estimating the effects of using SiC switches and diodes on an all-SiC inverter to be built in Phase II. The Phase II SiC inverter will provide the key to a 43 HP motor controller for the HMMWV demonstration.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Peter Shea
DARPA 00-032
Title:Group Tracking Algorithms for Improved MTI Performance
Abstract:A surveillance system needs to accurately locate and identify not only single targets, but also groups of targets engaged in a common activity. Existing tracking systems are capable of tracking individual targets quite accurately; however, they fail to use information related to group behavior in order to improve these estimates. ORINCON proposes the development of algorithms that are able to exploit group motion and classification information in order to improve the estimate of the individual targets that are contained within the group. These techniques will improve the operational capability of existing and future surveillance systems. During this Phase I effort, ORINCON will demonstrate these algorithm enhancements within the existing Precision Fire Control Tracking (PFCT) system.

NIELSEN ENGINEERING & RESEARCH, INC.
526 Clyde Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 968-9457
Laurence Keefe
DARPA 00-033
Title:A Self-Scaling, Two-Stage Fluidic Amplifier Device for Flow Control at Large Scales
Abstract:Many of the flow control devices developed and tested in laboratory environments do not scale to realistic flow conditions, i.e., they become ineffective at high Reynolds numbers and/or high Mach numbers. This decreased effectiveness may be due either to fundamental flow physics (e.g., compressibility effects limiting effectiveness), physical limitations of the devices (limitations on jet momentum flux), or to practical energy scaling considerations (e.g., extreme sound levels, interference with other phenomena, vibration). At high Reynolds numbers, the scales of the turbulent flow dictate that micro-sized control be used, but an essential problem is that of effectively coupling micro-control with desired large scale flow effects on a flight vehicle (disparity of scales). Applying control at points of high receptivity (sharp leading/trailing edges,changes of curvature) is a solution to this scale disparity problem, but the location where the flow needs to be controlled can be some distance away from natural regions of receptivity. To solve this problem, Nielsen Engineering and Research proposes an experimental program to demonstrate the operation and technical feasibility of a non-rectangular, micro-controlled cavity,that operates to energize the boundary layer by seeding streamwise vorticity into the flow. The cavity carries its receptivity with it, and thus may be placed wherever needed to obtain the optimum control authority. In a two-stage process, micro-control adjusts the cavity response, and the cavity response generates the streamwise vorticity used for flow control.

PHYSICS, MATERIALS, & APPLIED MAT
1333 N. Tyndall Avenue, Suite 212
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 882-7349
Kevin Kremeyer
DARPA 00-033
Title:Experimental Demonstration of No-Moving-Parts Electro-Optic High-Speed Flow Control
Abstract:A no-moving-parts electro-optic actuator is described for supersonic and hypersonic flow control. The method takes advantage of the interaction of a shockwave with different fore-shock density and temperature distributions. The resulting dynamics are exploited to reduce local pressures and create pressure differentials which can be used to steer the vehicle, reduce stagnation temperatures, and potentially reduce overall drag. The method is increasingly effective and efficient with increasing Mach numbers. An experimental proof-of-concept of the method is proposed in this Phase I SBIR project.