---------- DTRA ----------

18 Phase I Selections from the 00.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Avenue,, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Xiaoxi Xu
DTRA 00-001
Title:Biological and chemical agent neutralization using electromagnetic radiation
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) proposes to develop a high power electromagnetic beam/RF energy device to neutralize chemical and biological agents that may be used in standard warfare or by terrorists. There are three broad methods for bio/chemical demilitarization: thermal, chemical and electromagnetic processes. Traditional thermal and chemical means lack the attributes of remote operation, mobility and the handling of multiple chemical and biological agents at same time. Our electromagnetic method uses RF radiation (microwave, millimeter) as well as UV to break the molecular (chemical-bond) structures via the resonant interaction between the molecules and the electromagnetic field. A wide band electromagnetic beam source can totally convert hazardous chemical or biological components into non-toxic materials like water, carbon or HCl. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the technology. The critical frequency, power level, waveform and repetition rate of the electromagnetic radiation will be identified. The electromagnetic energy needed to destroy the agent will be analyzed. With this information, a bio/chemical mitigation device will be constructed and validated in Phase II. Phase III will be devoted to an aggressive commercialization campaign aimed at several military and civilian uses of such devices. Military Applications include Weapons demilitarization, Biological demilitarization, Chemical demilitarization Cooperative threat reduction, Base realignment and closure. Commercial Applications included Industrial chemicals, Agricultural chemicals, Medical waste, Waste treatment and Environmental remediation. The proposed RF/UV source can be applied to all of these applications in Phase III.

SUNCREST LABORATORIES L.L.C.
P.O. Box 947
Auburn, AL 36831
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 257-3435
Willard T. Blevins
DTRA 00-001
Title:Gaseous High Temperature Incendiary for Neutralization of Chemical and Biological Agents
Abstract:It is proposed that the use of white phosphorous be explored as the fuel for a gas phase high temperature incendiary (GHTI) weapon for defeat of chemical and biological warfare agents stored in hard or soft structures. Such a weapon would have some unique advantages over conventional high temperature incendiaries including the ability to better deliver heat throughout a structure. The research will model the expected temperatures which could be reached and test the possibility of a residual sporicidal action by combustion products. products is to be investigated a An entirely new approach to the high temperature mediated destruction of chemical and biological agents is expected to emerge from this research. This new approach would enhance the ability to destroy stored agents in targets of unknown and complex geometry.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
William Coirier
DTRA 00-003
Title:Development of a High Fidelity PC Based Simulator for Modeling the Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion of Nuclear, Chemical, Biological, and Radiolog
Abstract:A PC laptop based simulator is proposed to enable rapid prediction of the dispersion of toxic substances in urban areas. The package will be a comprehensive tool capable of automatically generating a model of the urban area based on digitized aerial/satellite images and then predicting the time dependant dispersion of agents within the domain. In the interest of speed and accuracy, the model will first provide rapid estimates of the dispersion based on coarse numerical grids and simplified physical models and then used advanced models to progressively refine the solution, as time permits. The refined solution will use adaptive grid techniques and advanced turbulence models in the context of an unstructured three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code to provide accurate resolution of the dispersion. Operation of the tool and data display will be via graphical user interfaces that can be understood and operated with only a few hours of training. The simulation tool will provide a counter terrorist or collateral damage assessment capability. In that capacity, it can be used to identify worst case release point, help design or identify safe areas, and assist in post event medical response. It will also be marketed to private industry and organizations for enviromental impact studies.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 282-4400
Martin J. Bell
DTRA 00-004
Title:Meteorological Data Reduction Techniques for Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling
Abstract:DTRA currently operates a suite of high resolution forecast models and atmospheric dispersion tools, and plans to implement two further forecast models and ensemble forecasting techniques. DTRA's method of operation is to run the forecasting tools at their central computer facility, transmitting to field locations the relevant dispersion model inputs. The volume of data inherent in these operations is large and unwieldy and can quickly overwhelm communication systems. Mission Research Corporation (MRC) will investigate several techniques aimed at reducing the data issues DTRA faces. In the Phase I project, data reduction schemes will be investigated which minimize what is transmitted to the field location without significant impact on the dispersion simulations. Such schemes will include the removal of unnecessary grid points outside the plume region and the reduction of grid-point data of low intrinsic value. MRC will also investigate the use of diagnostic wind models at the remote locations, possibly including near-plume observations as additional input, to re-enhance the transmitted data. Future extensions for Phase II would include the investigation of further reduction techniques, efficient handling of the different forecast model outputs, investigation of data compression algorithms, development of confidence measures for the forecasts, and automation of data handling procedures. As computing costs are decreasing, the types of systems employed at DTRA are becoming common in both government and commercial sectors. Applications include weather and air quality forecasting, and hazard management. Use of these systems is resulting in data issues that few organizations have experienced, especially since data handling tools lag model application. The work that will be accomplished by this project will increase the accessibility to this data, especially to those users unaccustomed to dealing with such large volumes of raw data.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
99 South Bedford Street, Suite 7
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
James Cho
DTRA 00-004
Title:High-Resolution, Stratospheric Variability and Dispersion Modeling for Assessing Collateral Effects of Hazardous Releases
Abstract: This proposal addresses DTRA's need for characterizing the natural variability of weather and determining the uncertainty of dispersion calculations for accurate assessments of collateral effects from hazardous releases in the upper-troposphere /stratosphere. The transport in the stratosphere, and the exchange between it and the troposphere, can pose a long-term and/or long-distance hazard - as well as a large source of uncertainty in the upper troposphere. We propose to develop an innovative model, which will provide high-resolution predictions of weather and dispersions in the stratosphere. Additional advantages of this model include flexibility in coupling with other types of weather products and its ability to efficiently perform long-duration, physically-robust calculations - making it an important tool for assessing uncertainties in the current models. In Phase I, we will develop the model with relevant physics and chemistry and fully explore the parameter space necessary for accurately modeling the stratosphere. This work will lead to a better understanding of variability and dispersion behavior in the stratosphere and in the upper troposphere. In Phase II, we will extend the model to serve as a fully operational numerical weather prediction model, which can be coupled with DTRA's current tropospheric model. The Phase II/III software will have immediate numerical weather prediction and dispersion modeling applications for DTRA, as well as for DOE, NASA, academic, and commercial programs. Commercial uses are anticipated in prediction of the dispersion of effluents from nuclear accidents, volcanoes, and asteroid impacts; global environmental monitoring, such as from large power and manufacturing plants and from high altitude airplanes; improved hurricane and tornado predictions; and global circulation modeling for other planets.

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
PO Box 3722
Albuquerque, NM 87190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 688-1188
W. R. Seebaugh
DTRA 00-005
Title:Source and Transport Modeling of Biological Agent Slurries
Abstract:The Defense Threat Reduction Agency is currently developing the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC), which is an operational forecasting system for predicting the fate of hazardous materials released into the atmosphere. Experimental data for the physical properties and response to weapon environments of wet biological agent or slurries are required for source terms and transport algorithms for HPAC. This proposal addresses (1) the development of experimental methodologies to determine the required physical properties and responses, (2) the acquisition of laboratory data for the physical properties and response of slurries of Bacillus thuringiensis, an anthrax surrogate, to high temperature environments, (3) the development of algorithms describing these physical properties and responses, and (4) the development of a plan for a field experimental program to determine the potential collateral effects associated with biological agent slurries. The field tests and enhanced modeling using the acquired data will be conducted during Phase II. The experimental data and models that result from the proposed program will be directly usable by DTRA in its collateral effects program. The models will be developed in a form that can be used by other military agencies concerned with the proliferation of biological weapons.

NEW ENGLAND RESEARCH, INC.
331 Olcott Drive STE L1
White River Junct, VT 05001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 296-2401
Randolph J. Martin, III
DTRA 00-006
Title:High Strain Rate Measurements of EM in Rocks
Abstract:Although electromagnetic (EM) observations provide useful information about weapon detonation in rock, recent observations imply that the signals may be due to contaminated damage in the rock. To put this use of EM measurements on a stronger footing, it is essential to understand the signal-generating process due to deformation and damage in the rock. An improved understanding will make these measurements more useful and provide opportunities to extend these techniques into other areas, such as mining and oil production in which rock masses are deformed and damaged on a wide variety of time scales. Changes in electrical resistivity, piezoelectricity, piezomagnetism, electrokinetic phenomena, and point defect mobility have been proposed to explain some electromagnetic signals. However, no comprehensive study has been undertaken to look at the relative importance of each effect under dynamic loading conditions. Therefore, during Phase I of the study, a suite of measurements of the total EM response will be performed under three loading conditions (tension, confined compression as a function of strain rate, and impact) for crystalline rocks, carbonate, concrete, and sands. The results of the experiments will be used to separate the EM data associated with the detonation of the explosives from the device-rock mass coupling. Several commercial products will result from Phases I and II of the work: * techniques to measure the total electromagnetic effect observed during detonation of conventional explosives, * a database of rock properties and EM responses for previous explosions will be populated, * interactive software to predict the observed EM effects based on the rock type, the yield of the device, and the emplacement conditions will be developed and made available to other DoD agencies and contractors, the mining industry, and the oil and gas industry. In addition, quantitative understanding of the EM-generation mechanism in rock will open the possibility of new applications in the mining and energy industries. ng and energy industries.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Kevin M. Spencer
DTRA 00-008
Title:A Chemical Sniffer to Detect Nuclear Weapons
Abstract:We will develop a vapor phase detector of the chemicals/explosives associated with nuclear weaponry. Radioactive element detection allows accurate weapons verification, but provides too much information on the weaponry design. An alternative is to detect non radioactive chemicals associated with the nuclear weapons. EIC Laboratories has successfully developed vapor phase Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), a sensitive (5 ppb vapor in < 30 s) gas sensing technology to locate TNT-based landmines. This program will demonstrate the ability of SERS to detect explosives and processing/enrichment chemicals at trace levels in the vapor phase. The Phase I effort will demonstrate vapor phase detection of HMX, PETN, and TATB, as well as the processing chemical tributylphosphate. We will demonstrate that SERS can detect chemical binders of different explosive formulations. We will demonstrate 1) reproducibility, 2) negligible chemical interferences, and 3) detection of encased samples. The Phase II program will complete a SERS spectral survey of all chemicals associated with nuclear weapons, fabricate the deliverable transportable SERS system with sensor, and create software that will automatically provide accurate nuclear weapons verification. Goals are collection times of <5 seconds, a system weight of <20 lbs., and vapor detection with no false positives or negatives. An instrument with the anticipated capabilities will be immediately transferable into several commercially related fields, such as trace detection of narcotics, trace detection of environmental and industrial contaminants, UXO detection, and trace detection of chemical/biological warfare agents. EIC plans to commercialize the SERS probe for these uses.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Steven A. Africk
DTRA 00-010
Title:Innovative Infrasound Sensors with High Reduction of Natural Background Noise
Abstract:A global array of infrasonic sensors to monitor compliance is specified in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. A prototype system of infrasonic sensor stations has been defined but this design is not considered optimal and greater signal to noise and less sensitivity to local conditions (e.g. snow) are sought. PSI will design an innovative replacement sensor subsystem using PVDF piezopolymer sheets or cable. This sensor material has good sensitivity and dynamic range and its properties are well known and uniform. The sensors will be continuous and can provide optimal pressure averaging for local noise suppression and a variety of sensor shapes and sizes will be evaluated. Sensor subsystems will also be all electronic thereby eliminating the need for manifolds and microbarographs in the present system and making possible processing of individual sensors for enhanced signal and noise performance. In Phase I, a simple sensor model will be constructed and validated by experiments with sensors of various sizes. A prototype subsystem including sensors, electronics and signal processing will be defined and itsfeasibility demonstrated in a set of field tests using a full size subsystem. The innovative sensor system will provide better acoustic performance, be less sensitive to environmental factors and require less maintenance than the current baseline system at comparable or lower cost. It will replace the complexities and uncertainties of the present system which uses a microbarograph attached by a manifold to a series of hardware store hoses by a uniform, well characterized state of the art sensor with direct electrical outputs, which will support novel sensor signal processing including monitoring of individual array elements. In addition to test ban treaty monitoring, there are several potential commercial applications of infrasonic sensors including avalanche detection, turbulence monitoring and tornado detection and warning. The technology developed in this program will allow the development of affordable large arrays of well calibrated sensors that will be required for these applications.

PRIME PHOTONICS, INC.
1872 Pratt Drive, Suite 1525
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-2245
Russell G. May
DTRA 00-010
Title:Innovative Infrasound Sensors with High Reduction of Natural Background Noise
Abstract:Nuclear denotations generate low frequency infrasound, which can be detected using infrasound sensors and used to assess the yield and location of an atmospheric nuclear explosion. However, the current infrasound sensors do not provide satisfactory performance because of a number of inherent limitations. Prime Photonics, Inc. proposes to develop an optical fiber sensor technology for highly-sensitive detection of infrasound under all-weather conditions. The proposed sensor is based on the self-calibrated interferometric/intensity-based (SCIIB) technology recently developed at the Virginia Tech's Photonics Laboratory, the subcontract collaborator of the proposed Phase I program. The SCIIB method for the first time successfully combines fiber interferometry and intensity-based devices into a single sensor system so that it possesses all the major advantages of the two types. The successful completion of this Phase I will lead to a clear demonstration of highly-sensitive infrasound detection with full compensation of undesired optical and environmental changes. Prime Photonics, Inc. will collaborate with Virginia Tech's Photonics Laboratory, where the SCIIB sensor technology was invented and an advanced CO2 laser-based SCIIB sensor fabrication facility is available. In the event of a Phase award, Virginia Center for Innovative Technology will provide $18K match funding to support the subcontracted research to Virginia Tech. The proposed research will lead the development of ruggedized acoustic sensors, which will have a wide range of industrial applications. One of these is fiber instrumentation for on-line detection and location of partial discharges in high-voltage power transformers. It is believed that initiation of partial discharges is responsible for about 1% of annual failure rate, and no sensors that can be used directly inside transformers are currently available for this application. As a new start-up, Prime Photonics is committed to the development of products for instrumentation in harsh environments, and has identified sensors for electric utilities as its first target market. Following successful field demonstration of prototype sensors during the Phase II program, Prime Photonics will seek investment capital to put in place the infrastructure necessary for product manufacture and marketing.

FERMIONICS CORP.
4555 Runway St
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0155
Muren Chu
DTRA 00-011
Title:Low Power, Room Temperature Systems for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides from Atmospheric Nuclear Tests
Abstract:CdTe has been used as x-ray detectors, gamma ray detectors, and modulators for many years. Recently, after the introduction of ZnCdTe, there are tremendous interest in using this semiconductor system to develop advanced high-sensitivity x-ray and gamma ray focal plane arrays for real time imaging. The applications of the advanced new imaging systems are immense. However, the quality of the ZnCdTe/CdTe has never met the expected goals. Our results indicate that the most possible cause of the material degradation is the incorporation of crystalline defects into the material during the crystal growth. The first innovation of this proposed program is to develop a method to eliminate the crystalline defects during the crystal growth. The second is to re-investigate the impurity doping mechanisms in ZnCdTe/CdTe. After the study, high resistivity ZnCdTe/CdTe photo-conductive detectors and arrays will be fabricated and tested. The industry of x-ray and gamma ray equipment has a multi-billion dollar market each year. for the next generation imaging equipment using the focal plane array technology, ZnCdTe/CdTe sensors are urgently needed. There are tremendous applications of the advanced new imaging systems. For example, such systems can be used for crystallography, security inspection, packaging control, laboratory particle analysis, and numerous medical applications.

HARRIS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2431 Beekay Court
Vienna, VA 22181
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 255-9456
James C Harris
DTRA 00-014
Title:Wide-Area Detection and Mapping Hyperradar
Abstract:The proposal research examines the potential of contractor proprietary hyperradar technology and hardware designs to provide a very high resolution, all weather wide area detection and mapping capability with affordable, robust hardware incorporating data efficient archiving ability. If successful, the proposed research will yield an functionally correct hardware prototype of the operation hyperradar during the Phase II research, and will accelerate entry of ground penetrating radar products into the commercial marketplace.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle, Suite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
James D. Trolinger
DTRA 00-014
Title:Wide-area Detection and Mapping Technique to Locate Minefields Containing Antipersonnel Landmines
Abstract:This is a proposal to develop and apply state-of-the-art technology to detect and map anti-personnel landmines (APL). The proposed concept exploits new findings that certain classes of acoustical waves reflect from buried, man-made objects much more efficiently than from natural objects. Studies have further shown that a measurable effect is present on the ground surface to detect the presence of the reflected waves. The method has been shown potentially useful for the location of individual APL's. This proposal shows how an adaptation of the concept may be even more applicable for use in verification and monitoring regimes of potential APL agreement/ban treaty violations. An acoustic source generates the appropriate frequencies and a sensor detects the presence of reflected waves near the surface, ultimately recording a picture of what lies beneath the ground. A system to remotely identify the presence of buried landmines will be a major contribution to humanity. The proposed system is anticipated to be fast, accurate, and cost effective. Its commercial potential will be largely driven by the need to locate the many millions of landmines that have been buried worldwide. Other commercial applications include modal vibration measurements in the automobile and aerospace industries.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7709
Jeffrey D. Black
DTRA 00-016
Title:Rad Hard Flash Technology
Abstract:The highest density radiation hardened non-volatile (NV) memory currently available is a 256 kbit EEPROM based on SONOS technology. One of the major limitations in developing rad hard NV memory has been the cost in bringing up the NV technology in a dedicated rad hard process facility, especially when weighed against the limited market size. One way to bring radiation hardening to an advanced electronic product on a cost-effective basis is to leverage the commercial product by applying the hardening to the commercial fab instead of bringing the commercial technology to the rad hard fab. NV flash memory technology is popular in the commercial marketplace, with densities up to 256 Mbit in production. Unfortunately, flash memory is not available, at any density, in total dose rad hard versions. And, most commercial flash memories are so soft that impractical amounts of shielding are required to survive even moderate radiation environments. This effort will be the first step in developing rad hard flash technology at a commercial fab. Rad hard flash technology will be a near-term solution to the problem of high density NV memory for space applications. It will enable the development of rad hard flash memories and embedded NV memory for rad hard ASICs.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 766-9844
Ted Lehman
DTRA 00-017
Title:Statistical HPM/EMP effects assessment
Abstract:Scientific Applications and Research Associates (SARA), Inc proposes to investigate and demonstrate the applicability of statistical electromagnetic techniques to HPM/EMP effects assessment. The need for statistical techniques arises because almost all high frequency interacted fields are chaotic. Experience has shown that traditional deterministic EM methods are not efficient, accurate, and manageable when the fields are chaotic. Recently developed statistical techniques have been used to develop CW EM assessment methods, which are directly applicable to chaotic fields. The resulting assessment method is simple, accurate, robust, manageable, and efficient. SARA proposes to extend the statistical techniques to the wide-band fields associated with HPM/EMP environments. SARA will derive the statistical models for enclosure field norms; for the threshold of LRU's located in enclosures; and for the shielding effectiveness of enclosures. SARA will derive the expressions for the probability of effect at the LRU level. Limited testing to verify the field norms and shielding effectiveness statistical models will be performed. Because low level testing is proposed for shielding effectiveness parameter determination, SARA will investigate the impact of arcing and TPD firing on the probability of effect estimates. The robustness, efficiency, and accuracy of the statistical assessment methods will be used to establish feasibility. The statistical assessment methods have a number of potential post Phase II applications including both the military and private sectors. Many military aircraft and naval vessels are subject to HEMP, HPM, EMC, and/or HIRF requirements. In the private sector, commercial aircraft are subject to HIRF requirements and more equipment and systems such as automobiles are subject to EMC immunity standards. The commercial market is relatively new to HPM, HIRF and European EMC requirements. Much of the commercial aircraft hardness surveillance evaluation has been through "visual inspection." FAA is in the process of requiring a much more rigorous hardness surveillance and maintenance program (per the draft copy of Section 10 of the HIRF User's Guide). This upcoming policy and the European standards should open the door to a very large and exciting market for our product line.

DIANA HI-TECH, LLC
152 HARRISON AVE.
JERSEY CITY, NJ 07304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 332-2962
Jan S. BRZOSKO
DTRA 00-018
Title:X-ray SOURCE/SIMULATOR BASED ON THE PLASMA FOCUS
Abstract:Overall proposed program is aimed on development and construction of X-ray-simulator for a nuclear weapon testing. The X-simulator based on plasma focus with a low-voltage (V<50kV), fast capacitor bank (1micro-s)is expected to serve as pulsed (40ns)and intense (0.1-1 MJ/4p) source of soft (~1keV) and warm (~50keV) X-rays with Hz's pulse repetition rate. In phase-I will be carried on a limited testsof performance and scaling of the SXR and WXR production using existing APF-50 and Ne static filling. Obtained results should allow for realistic planning of the size and parameters of the intermediate scale X-simulator. Such X-simulator will serve as demonstration unit for full size machine and optionally for adaptation of the electrode system to a large pulsed power sources such as ACE-4 or Shiva Star. In addition to applications as X-simulator, the technology could be useful for X-ray lithography as it was already proven in a microscale experiments. If adapted, APF-50 will have an impact on further development of microelectronic and quantum wires.

ECOPULSE
PO Box 528, zip 22150, 7844 Vervain Ct
Springfield,, VA 22152
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 623-0099
Nino R. Pereira
DTRA 00-018
Title:Passive debris shields
Abstract:Following a preliminary test of compliantly supported cryogenically cooled lithium (CSCL) foil as a debris shield for flash x-ray testing, we propose to develop this debris shield for use at larger areas. The concept should work up to 1000 cm2. Under Phase I we will also demonstrate a convenient way to handle the lithium. The CSCL debris shield might replace beryllium as a large area debris shield for modest fluences, and in other applications where its high cost and problems with safe handling make beryllium problematic.

STARMARK, INC.
P. O. Box 270710
San Diego, CA 92198
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 676-0055
Franklin S. Felber
DTRA 00-018
Title:Innovative Flux-Compression Approaches for Next Generation Machines
Abstract:Starmark and Maxwell Systems Division have teamed to demonstrate the feasibility of using flux compression to achieve pulse sharpening and power compression in Next Generation Machines (NGMs) and to demonstrate that flux compression can be a simple, robust, efficient, and reliable means of doing so. Using flux compression for pulse sharpening on x-ray simulators promises potential savings of many tens of millions of dollars on NGMs. The objectives of the Phase I program are: (1) To assess the feasibility of various flux-compression design configurations for pulse sharpening of x-ray simulators, including inside-out coaxial sweeping-wave and helical-coil generators, as well as outside-in designs. (2) To integrate plasma stability analysis into the design evaluation and design optimization processes. (3) To systematize the process for optimizing flux-compression design parameters and implement the process to produce a conceptual design of an effective and efficient flux-compression generator and design options for an NGM. Anticipated products of the program include an assessment and conceptual designs of the most promising candidates for configurations and design options for flux-compression generators for NGMs. The Starmark/Maxwell team will work closely with DTRA to ensure that the program contributes to the major investment decisions that must be made in planning and designing NGMs. DTRA can realize huge cost savings on future x-ray simulators if flux compression will allow use of long-rise-time (250 - 500 ns) voltage pulses to achieve short (50 - 100 ns) implosion times of plasma radiation sources. Opportunities for application of flux-compression technology in the commercial arena include all high-power pulsed-power applications in which cost savings can be realized by building microsecond-pulse, moderate-voltage generators and using low-cost flux compression to sharpen the pulses and compress the power.