---------- DARPA ----------

28 Phase I Selections from the 00.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
AEGIS TECHOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
6703 Odyssey Drive, Suite 200
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 876-4604
Mr. Mark Temmen
DARPA 00-034
Title:Dynamic MEMS Based Photonic Bandgap Filter
Abstract:Recent results have shown that photonic bandgap (PBG) technologies can be used to design structures that provide variable broadband filtering of light. Studies indicate that a filter can be designed such that a sharp contrast can be achieved between the "on" and "off" (transmission) state of the filter by changing the thickness of one or more layers within the structure. In addition, micro electromechanical system (MEMS) technologies are rapidly developing for a wide variety of uses. In particular, micro-miniature actuators have been demonstrated that can provide rapid relative motion between two surfaces. A unique opportunity now exists to combine these two technologies to provide a fast, reliable, electrically driven filter that can be fully integrated with current focal plane array technologies. This proposal addresses the development of a fast filter for operation at 3-5 micron wavelengths. The device can be easily tailored for use in the LWIR (8-12 micron) waveband. This technology has applications in military and commercial sensor systems and optical systems that require rapid, electrically driven broadband filtering of light. The technology is particularly suitable for biomedical and space based applications that require small, lightweight filters.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Joel L. Berg
DARPA 00-035
Title:Traction Management System
Abstract:Current robotic platforms lack the versatility in mobility that is required to fulfill future semi-autonomous missions. Although many creative developments have been introduced that enable robots to mimic insects, crustaceans, reptiles, etc. in terms of locomotion, that work has largely focused on specialization rather than versatility. Missing is a means to incorporate multiple forms of complementary locomotion so that platforms can take advantage of each modality's strengths without suffering from their weaknesses. Creare proposes a traction management system (TMS) that uses a robot's suite of organic sensors to determine the optimal modality in real-time, autonomously, and on a continual basis. Creare's TMS enables a platform with multiple forms of locomotion to expand its range of autonomous mobility to the superset of the modalities involved. Phase I will develop the TMS and prove the feasibility of the concept with a hardware demonstration. Creare is well suited for this work; with considerable experience in hardware and software development, signal processing, robotic control systems, and extensive facilities. The proposed innovation greatly expands the autonomous mobility of robotic platforms through a system that provides an intelligent bridge between the platform's organic sensors and its multiple forms of locomotion. Higher autonomy provides reliability during periods of lost communications, and enables missions that demand stealthy maneuvers. Higher autonomy also permits a broader range of missions in which real-time human-assisted navigation and obstacle-avoidance cannot be provided; such as remote explorations, security inspections, search and rescue activities in rural and urban settings, the delivery of blasting explosives, etc. Furthermore, the automotive industry could benefit from the traction management system to optimize comfort and fuel efficiency while providing traction when needed.

UNMANNED SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY
510 Clearwater Loop, #2
Post Falls, ID 83854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 777-4736
Mr. John Cranney
DARPA 00-035
Title:Compliant Surface Robotics
Abstract:This proposal seeks to conduct exploratory research to develop hybrid locomotion techniques that enable a wide range of traction capabilities at small scale to achieve the Compliant Surface Robotics (CSR) goals. The concepts we intend to examine extend current capabilities of wheeled vehicles into "morphable" articulated systems, with overdetermined legs, feet or other motive actuation and that can traverse otherwise impassable surfaces. The uniqueness of our proposal is our: - breadth of kinematic exploration of variable volume techniques - utilization of a MEMS-based, "from the ground up" custom design methodology (MEMS - Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) - utilization of electro active polymer technologies in several of our concepts to develop systems that transform between configurations to comply with the current surface terrain. Our goal is to build a system that is back packable (~5 kg) and supports two phases of operation by transforming from one kinematic configuration to the other, each tuned for the appropriate operational phase, which are: INITIAL PHASE (0 - 10+ miles range). Transit over hard pack ground to light gravel or dirt, desire higher speed transit (20+ kph), stealth of track left (if any) is not critical. FINAL PHASE (0 to several miles). Mission Configuration ("Loiter, Survey, Recon &/or Deliver Payload" , over mushy surfaces from sand, to light snow, at lower speed (0 to 10 kph, and the need to leave "no track" or a "bio-track" that does not appear man made, but appears animal like for the indigenous locale. small robots that are robust to ground surface terrain, including otherwise impassable terrain such as soft snow, deep mud, swamp land, will provide considerable enhancement to Search and Rescue efforts for many applications. Moreover, the development of MEMS integrated designs to support the goals herein will have a broad range of applicability in many aspects of commerce and industry.

IAP RESEARCH, INC.
2763 Culver Avenue
Dayton, OH 45429
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 296-1806
Dr. Bhanumathi Chelluri
DARPA 00-036
Title:Novel Meta Materials for Microwave Power Applications Processed Using Innovative Approach
Abstract:Development of magnetic materials for microwave power applications over a broad frequency range requires careful control of magnetic and loss properties. High frequency (microwave) losses are dominated by eddy current and anomalous losses and therefore strongly dependent on materials resistivities. While, the low resistivity of cubic Mn-Zn and Ni-Zn (Cu) ferrites have made them the materials of choice for microwave antennas and power converters, ferrites are inferior to magnetic metals and alloys because of their low Ms values. We propose to fabricate tailored composite materials from ferromagnetic Fe and FeCo particles to optimize loss and dispersion over a broad range of microwave frequencies. Three innovations are combined to achieve this goal: Since microwave losses are confined to the skin depth, we will process Fe and FeCo powders whose particle size (~100nm) is smaller than this characteristic depth. Produce composite material of enhanced resistivity (lower eddy current losses) using suitable dielectric coatings. Compact composite powders to full density using Dynamic Magnetic Compaction (DMC) process to retain microstructure of original powders. In order to maximize their magnetic susceptibility the compacts will be magnetically deformed to transform spherical particles to oblate spheroids. The composite materials of superior microwave properties will result in smaller and more efficient radar and telecommunications systems for both military and commercial industry.

INFRAMAT CORP.
20 Washington Avenue
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 234-8024
Dr. Yide Zhang
DARPA 00-036
Title:Nanostructured Metal/Insulator for High Performance Microwave Application
Abstract:DARPA seeks innovative processes for fabricating novel composite materials exhibiting microwave properties superior to conventional ferrites in antenna or rectenna applications. At microwave frequencies (> 1 GHz), ferrites are used in microwave devices and media. Ferrites have been used in soft magnetic applications for five decades without major innovation despite significant power loss as the key factor limiting the miniaturization of magnetic devices. InframatO Corporation proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of exploiting novel soft magnetic nanocomposite materials for significantly improved performance in microwave applications. Insulator (SiO2 or polymer) coated Co nanoparticles will be chemically synthesized using Inframat's economically viable aqueous solution method. The synthesized metal/insulator nanocomposite will be consolidated into desired magnetic component shapes, tested, and compared with conventional ferrite materials in the microwave frequency range for performance. The design of the Co/SiO2 nanocomposite is based on exchange coupling, a quantum effect taking place between neighboring nanoparticles. The Co/SiO2 nanocomposite is expected to possess higher permeability, higher electrical resistivity, higher Curie temperature, and lower core loss than ferrite materials. This advancement can be useful in an entire series of magnetic nanomaterials, including Fe-, Fe-Ni-, or Fe-B-based magnet/insulator- nanocomposites, which is expected to have a major impact on the electronics industry. Commercial applications of the proposed technology include: microwave antenna or rectennas, high frequency electronic parts made by ferrites, such as inductors, chokes, sensors, core-shape transformers, ultra high radio frequency telecommunications, planar transformers, and hybrid circuits. Other applications include telecommunications, industrial electronics, computers, entertainment, automotive, and multimedia equipment.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4270
Dr. Daniela Marciu Topasna
DARPA 00-036
Title:Thin Film Tunable Dielectrics for Microwave Applications
Abstract:Thin film ferroelectric materials are being heavily studied for potential applications as electrically tunable microwave devices including resonators, filters, and phase shifters. Phase shifters play an essential role in phased array antennas, for example. As opposed to the conventional ferrite-based devices, which rely on magnetic fields to vary the magnetic permeability of the material, ferroelectric devices possess an electric permittivity (or, correspondingly, dielectric constant) that is varied by an applied electric field. Electrical rather than magnetic tunability allows more compact and power-efficient devices. Thin film ferroelectrics have further advantages over bulk ferroelectrics in that they operate at lower voltages. Work on ferroelectric materials for microwave applications has concentrated primarily on ceramics such as barium strontium titanate. In this Phase I SBIR project, Luna will develop a new class of materials for electrically tunable microwave device applications that are based on organic polymers rather than ceramic ferroelectric materials. These films are easily fabricated using the simple spin-coating technique. The advantages of polymers include low cost, good processability, low dielectric constant and loss tangent, and the versatility of a wide range of potential materials that can be optimized for a given device through organic synthesis. This technology would revolutionize the fabrication of microwave switching and phase shifting components by reducing size, cost and power requirements while improving performance compared to existing component technologies.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Kristie L. Cooper
DARPA 00-036
Title:Molecular Level Self-Assembly of Magnetic Metamaterials
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed DARPA SBIR program is to demonstrate the feasibility of forming artificial ferrite materials for next generation microwave frequency electromagnetic field control devices. NanoSonic, Virginia Tech and a major U.S. materials and instrumentation company would work cooperatively to investigate molecular-level self-assembly methods to form magnetic nanocomposite metamaterials compatible with microwave frequency waveguide and antenna structures. Such self-assembly processes allow the incorporation of multiple molecules into a unified multilayered or three-dimensionally structured material with macroscopic properties different from those of the individual initial molecular species. NanoSonic has demonstrated the ability to form such self-assembled nanocomposites and to control their optical, magnetic, electronic, mechanical and other macroscopic functional behaviors through design at the molecular level. In particular, we have demonstrated the ability to form magnetic nanocluster-based materials that exhibit giant magnetoresistance and control over permeability and magnetization properties. During the Phase I program we will study how such self-assembly processes may be extended to incorporate a wide range of molecules, determine design rules relating molecular and macroscopic magnetic properties, and form and evaluate initial prototype materials. This will allow us to design and fabricate specific artificial ferrite device components for evaluation for specific applications during Phase II. Metamaterials offer new opportunities for the design and implementation of electronic, optical, magnetic and other devices with functional properties not obtainable using native materials alone. Magnetic ferrite nanocomposite devices have immediate and widespread military and commercial applications in mobile and portable radio systems, antenna systems and microwave engineering devices, including isolators, rotators, circulators, phase shifters, mixers and parametric amplifiers.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. S. Pickard
DARPA 00-037
Title:Low Cost Net Shape Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) matrix composites by Combined Stir Casting and High Pressure Die Casting
Abstract:Die-castable Bulk Metallic glasses (BMG) which can retain amorphous structure at low cooling rates of 10-100K/second have recently been developed based on Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni+Be and Mg-Cu-Y systems amongst others. To increase utility of BMG applications and overcome inherently low ductility and catastrophic failure, composite approaches are needed for the BMG materials where a fine particulate/fiber filler is incorporated into the glassy matrix to homogenize deformation activity and increase ductilty and fracture toughness. MER will incorporate both fine submicron particle dispersions of SiC and milled Carbon fibers into Mg-Cu-Y based BMG using a stir casting route followed by high pressure die casting to eliminate porosity and retain amorphous structure. Strength and ductility of the resulting BMG composites will be assessed to determine commercial potential of the new material BMG matrix composites have a multitude of potential uses due to high strength to weight ratio, increased corrosion resistance and good toughness, in automotive, marine and aerospace arenas.

NANOMAT, INC.
1061 Main Street
North Huntingdon, PA 15642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 861-6120
Dr. Weifang Miao
DARPA 00-037
Title:Al-Mg Based Bulk Amorphous Alloys for Structural Applications
Abstract:Amorphous alloys have many highly desirable properties, such as high strength, high hardness, excellent erosion and corrosion resistance. These properties make amorphous alloys ideally suited for a wide variety of structural applications. Aluminum- and magnesium-based amorphous alloys also have the merit of low density. The strength of these alloys would be comparable to that of high-strength steel but with only a fraction of the weight. Therefore, they are particularly interesting candidates for applications in land, sea, air and space vehicles. Thus, aluminum- and magnesium-based amorphous materials are an opportunity of considerable importance. However, the widespread applications of these amorphous alloys are greatly hindered by the lack of a commercial source of bulk amorphous alloys. In this Phase I research, Nanomat, Inc. will develop a process to produce bulk amorphous alloys in an efficient and cost- effective way. The synthesis and structure of these alloys will be evaluated. During Phase I, Nanomat, Inc. will also preliminarily characterize the mechanical properties of these bulk amorphous alloys. Aluminum- and magnesium-based bulk amorphous alloys can be used for many structural applications, especially where the combination of high strength and lightweight is necessary. Such applications include structural components for land, sea, air and space vehicles, and armor systems. Application of these alloys can also be found in automotive, chemical, manufacturing, and construction industries. The application of these alloys will significantly improve energy efficiencies and reduce environmental impact.

QUESTEK INNOVATIONS LLC
1820 Ridge Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 425-8220
Dr. Gregory B. Olson
DARPA 00-037
Title:Damage Tolerant Amorphous Metal Alloys
Abstract:QuesTek proposes to develop a consistent modeling approach that incorporates SRO effects into thermodynamic, viscosity, diffusivity, and atomic volume anomalies in Al liquids. These fundamental quantities will be applied to classical steady-state nucleation theory to predict the kinetics of crystallization from the supercooled liquid. This model for glass formability will then be combined with existing materials design models to design novel fully devitrified L12 strengthened Al alloys. The alloy must pass through the glassy state to achieve a high fraction of fine scale L12 for strength and be fully devitrified to provide ductility and fracture toughness. The Phase I program will demonstrate the capability of the glass formability model and complete and test a conceptual design for a high-temperature Al alloy. The anticipated benefit of this program is the development of high-strength high-temperature Al alloys. Such alloys would provide lighter weight and higher temperature capability in structural members for aerospace components that may currently be accomplished with more costly MMCs or heavier weight materials. This has the opportunity to reduce manufacturing costs for these components and provide higher thrust-weight performance in aeropropulsion in both military and civilian aircraft. Longer-term commercial applications may include automotive markets as well. The fundamental modeling developed in this program could be extended to Fe, Zr, Ti and other alloy systems, accelerating development and reducing the cost for these alloys as well.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-3370
Mr. Michael Winburn
DARPA 00-038
Title:Active Response Technology (ART)
Abstract:Modus Operandi and Professor Sushil Jajodia propose an innovative approach - called the Intrusion Isolation Virtual Network (IIVN) - that takes a pro-active defense posture to intercept, track, redirect, and respond to system intrusions. IIVN assists in gaining intelligence on the source, identity and goals of an intruder and provides an informative view of the intruder's actions. This information is used to formulate a set of responses and to recommend alternative courses of action to decision-makers. IIVN is a virtual space that represents a network topology, complete with various services that are commonly found in an information system environment. IIVN's virtual network is a single computer with multiple IP addresses, running virtual services that seem legitimate when viewed from the Internet. IIVN implements techniques to isolate and confine intruders and possible damage to the information system from an attack. However, instead of providing services that may/will have vulnerabilities, IIVN provides an emulation of systems and services by supplying request/response actions that take place in a real system and that would be expected by an intruder during an actual system intrusion. This allows tracking and possible identification of the attacker without exposure to the inherent vulnerabilities of actual system services. Vulnerabilities and intrusions into military systems have their counterparts in commercial and other government organizations. Intellectual property, trade secrets, monetary transactions, and the ability to do commerce are all at risk from cyber attacks. The IIVN system adds one more level of defense toward a comprehensive security solution. The IIVN system assists in tracking, identifying and prosecution of intruders, as well as, protecting information systems from damage using isolation and confinement techniques. All branches of the military, corporations that are vulnerable to industrial espionage, from the outside and from within, banking and financial institutions, and other entities identified in the report by the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection can benefit from this technology.

ODYSSEY RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. Frank Adelstein
DARPA 00-038
Title:ASTER: Active Smart Targets for Effective Response
Abstract:Current technology for defense against coordinated computer system attacks is passive, trying to perform analyses on attack fragments with limited information. One major problem is that the relationship between fragments-for example, the relationship between a port scan and a later buffer overflow attack-is unknown. The defenders' lack of information about the overall structure of an attack hampers attack assessment and response. In this Phase I SBIR, we propose to create Active Smart Targets (ASTs), which feed "marked cards" to attackers during the reconnaissance phase of an attack. The marked cards serve both to identify later phases of the attack, regardless of how many IP addresses are used, and to influence the attacker's choice of target machines, possibly away from valuable resources. By identifying all IP addresses involved in an attack, the AST approach facilitates early warning, attack assessment, including attack redirection and countermeasures. The main benefits of this technology are twofold. First, when used in conjunction with existing security mechanisms, this can provide enhanced protection and earlier warning of vulnerable systems with lower false alarms than is currently possible. Second, attackers can be identified and redirected away from important systems. The main beneficiaries of this technology are sites with large installations of systems, which have a high risk of attack. Commercial applications of this are applications for administrators of such large systems to provide a higher level of protection.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Joao B.D. Cabrera
DARPA 00-039
Title:Intelligent Active Profiling for Detection and Intent Inference of Insider Threat in Information Systems
Abstract:The Phase I effort will investigate the utilization of Machine Learning (ML) and Statistical techniques for active detection and intent inference of malicious insider activity. These data-driven techniques will be combined with domain knowledge at two levels. At the bottom level, the raw data of system calls and commands will be coded into a more semantically meaningful vocabulary. At the top level, domain knowledge will be used to set up a hierarchical structure for fusing the detection blocks, and for ranking the detections according to lethality. ML and Statistical methods will enable the following capabilities: (1) Sensitivity to the temporal relation among events; (2) Reasoning with intermediate degrees-of-belief; (3) Adaptive Thresholding according to variations in the environment; and (4) Optimal combination of multiple detection systems. Aprisma Management Technologies (manufacturer of SPECTRUM) will provide consulting in network management and network security, and access to real datasets. These datasets will be obtained on a research testbed combining SPECTRUM, and attending systems management software. Professor Wenke Lee from North Carolina State University will provide consulting in machine learning and computer security. The best techniques will be further developed on Phase II, where schemes for active monitoring and response will be designed and prototyped. The National Center for Computer Crime Data reports that malicious activities from Insiders is responsible for far more damage to Information Systems than attacks from outside. Protecting institutional networks from malicious activity accounts for about 25 billion US dollars each year. 95 percent of the DoD communications pass through the National Information Infrastructure (NII) at some point. The proposed technology has the potential to provide the NII with a much needed capability for detecting malicious activity from Insiders.

ODYSSEY RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. Matt Stillerman
DARPA 00-040
Title:Efficient Code Certification for Open Firmware
Abstract:Maliciously constructed boot firmware is a threat to our information infrastructure that has largely been ignored. Boot firmware controls the power-up procedure initializing a computer's hardware and loading its run-time system. This code, embedded in all third-party device drivers, can easily be corrupted and then exploited to undermine security engineering and enforcement implemented at the operating system, protocol, application, or enterprise levels. Authentication techniques (e.g., digital signatures) provide limited protection by ensuring the provenance of the firmware. Efficient Code Certification (ECC), the technique we propose, can establish the trustworthiness of code regardless of its origin. ECC guarantees certain dynamic safety properties of compiled code by performing efficient static checks. A single ECC module would verify the safety of all boot firmware (before it is run) every time a system is booted. It relies on a certifying compiler that produces particularly well-structured code, so that a verifier can perform the static checks. The user need only trust the verifier, a particularly simple program that can be persuasively validated by inspection. By applying ECC to boot firmware based on the widely used Open Firmware standard (IEEE-1275) we can provide an effective countermeasure to potentially devastating attacks. At the end of this project we will have a practical new technique for detecting malicious code in boot firmware. Our result, based on direct examination of the code for safety properties, will be complementary to existing and proposed schemes that employ digital signatures. Our technique is targeted at Open Firmware, which is an IEEE standard for boot firmware, and will be able to detect malicious fcode programs within such systems.

BIOPRAXIS, INC.
PO Box 910078
San Diego, CA 92191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 452-2413
Ms. Ann E. Grow
DARPA 00-041
Title:Analysis and Simulation of Integrated Microsystems for Detection of Chemical and Biological Agents
Abstract:CBW agent detection is an exceptionally challenging problem, since the threat ranges from low molecular-weight CW agents, bioregulators, and nonpeptide toxins, to protein toxins, to microorganisms; and the biomolecules needed for their detection are just as diverse. Biosensors integrated with microfluidic devices (bio-microsystems) offer the potential to significantly improve speed, sensitivity, efficiency, and affordability. However, the development of such systems requires a detailed understanding of fundamental biomolecular binding processes which, in turn, requires empirical data. Few tools are available for studying molecular recognition interactions in real time, directly, without the use of labels or tags. Under PhaseˇI, Biopraxis will demonstrate the feasibility of using a new technology that offers the potential to study the binding interactions of virtually any biomolecule-target pair, directly, even when targets as small as ammonium and cyanide are involved; study the competitive binding and displacement interactions of multiple, cross-reactive targets; and evaluate the impact of the microenvironment (e.g., localized extremes in pH, ion concentration, and temperature) on biomolecule activity. The binding rate data produced by this new approach will be readily interpreted for use in developing and applying numerical tools for component-level design of bio-microsystems. By the end of PhaseˇII, the DARPA SBIR will yield (1)ˇsoftware with enhanced binding assay simulations capable of modeling interactions involving cross-reactive targets, and the impact of microfluidic environments on biomolecule performance; and (2)ˇan open data base on biomolecular recognition processes, including data on the impact of competitive binding and displacement interactions. The tools that will come out of the program will be of exceptional value to the bio microsystems industry, including not only the defense, security, and counter-terrorism sectors, but also the in vitro diagnostics and drug development and delivery sectors. In particular, the program will lead directly to the development of systems for high-throughput screening of molecular binding interactions, most notably the binding of very small molecules, which will have a significant impact on pharmaceutical discovery.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Mahesh M. Athavale
DARPA 00-041
Title:Multiscale Design Tools for Non-Homogeneous Microfluidic Biochips with Electronic/Optical Readout
Abstract:Nonhomogeneous-flows of media carrying macroparticles and macromolecules are routinely encountered in bioanalytical and biodetection microsystems. These fluids interact with different fields for detection and transduction. Comprehensive modeling tools for these flows will find tremendous use in design validation, performance and optimization of the next-generation bio-systems. We propose to develop multi-scale modeling tools for macroparticle and macromolecule- laden flows in microdevices under the influence of hydrodynamic, thermal, chemical, AC/DC electric, optical and electromagnetic fields. A two-level development effort is proposed. High-fidelity simulations of the particle dynamics will be performed using an existing, novel, level set formulation. A large number of individual particles are tracked in this method and effects of macroparticles on the flowfield are calculated. In Phase I part of the work the level set methodology will be extended to include particle-particle and particle-wall interactions with stiction as well as particle interaction with electric fields. The high-dimensional results will be used to generate global parameters (drag, mobility). to be used with reduced scale models and point-based particle tracking models. In Phase II the methodology will be extended to include interaction with optical, chemical and electromagnetic fields used for detection and transduction. Detailed models of macromolecules/DNA will be developed and implemented for global property predictions for use with high-fidelity and reduced scale models. This suite of prediction tools will significantly impact the design process of the new generation of biosystems through design validation, performance prediction and design optimization. The tolls will be extremely useful to the teams working on DARPA BioFlips and other programs as well as leading commercial producers of micro-bioanalytic and biodetection systems. These tools will also find extensive use in other fields dealing with nonhomogeneous flows, such as particle sepa-rators, chemical reactors.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
Dr. Z. Z. Ho
DARPA 00-041
Title:Microsystem Simulation of Optical-Based Biochip
Abstract:The total integration of micro/nano-systems with several different technologies (such as chemistry, biology, fluidics, electronics, optics, mechanics, etc.) on the chip scale presents a daunting challenge for engineers and scientists. There are currently no computational modeling tools that can simulate fundamental experimental measurements and predict microsystem performance over a range of operating conditions. Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., with its unique combination of skills in biolayer deposition, optical waveguide biosensor design, and high-accuracy modeling of the collection and propagation of optical energy in guided-wave systems, proposes to develop a highly innovative optical biochip microsystem computation model (MCM). The proposed optical biochip modeling system will provide a method for researchers to develop a quantitative understanding of the interaction between the guided light, optical waveguide cahnnels, and biological layers, will and also provide a tool for the routine analysis and design of integrated optic microsystems. The primary goals of this Phase I effort will be to obtain a quantitative characterization of 1) the integrated optic chip configuration, 2) the bio-molecular recognition process, and 3) the transduction of the molecular recognition signal into an optical signal. Integrated microsystems have become the new generation of bio-medical and military analytical devices. The proposed MCM technology will lead to the development of new sensing devices and applications. Significant potential markets include chemical and biological warfare agent detection, medical diagnostics, high throughput drug screening, environmental monitoring, chemical process control, and food process control.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 891-0070
Dr. Mark E. Fraser
DARPA 00-041
Title:Virtual Instrument Development and Test Suite (VIDTS)
Abstract:There is an urgent need for fast, man-portable point chemical and biological agent detection technologies for both civilian and military applications. Microsystems employing high volume air samplers integrated with microfluidics and highly specific detectors show great promise but many issues need to be resolved to develop this new lab-on-a-chip technologies. To facilitate the development process, MRC will develop a Web-based, expert-assisted graphical user interface called a "Virtual Instrument Development and Test Suite". This comprehensive software package will encompass fundamental sensor component physics and scaling laws, full sensor and sensor system modeling, functional requirements definition and CONOPS models. The finished product will be compatible with the Virtual Proving Ground. MRC will perform the project in collaboration with the New Jersey Institute of Technology and the City College of New York. The Phase I program will develop the prototype software with specific emphasis on dielectrophoresis separation of bioagents from natural species with Raman detection. Phase II will incorporate the full range of microsystem configurations from sample collection to detection and will include key supporting experimental measurements. At the end of the program, the completed software will be compiled on a CD-ROM and made available to technology developers and the Virtual Proving Ground. We anticipate a limited number of sales of the VIDTS software to biological and chemical agent technology developers. A broader market will result from the extension of this technology to other systems engineering applications.

ASTRALUX, INC.
2500 Central Ave.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 413-1440
Dr. J. I. Pankove
DARPA 00-042
Title:Integrated Device Cooling Based on Hot Electron Emission
Abstract:In 1941 Nottingham( 1) proposed that the emission of electrons at some energy lower than the Fermi level would represent a net energy loss resulting in cooling of the emitter. Recent experiments and calculations by Miskovsky, et al.( 2) and by Shakouri, et al.( 3) suggest that heat extraction by electron field emission is capable of a cooling power in excess of 100 W/cm2. Their experiments consisted of field emission from a microtip or through a thin barrier between a cathode and an anode so that the electrons exited at a potential energy lower than the Fermi level in the cathode. In this proposal, the "Nottingham cooling" will be greatly enhanced by separating the cathode and the anode by a thin vacuum layer that thermally isolates the two electrodes. The active device or integrated circuit (IC) to be cooled will be fabricated in a wide bandgap semiconductor chip having one surface treated to exhibit negative electron affinity (NEA).( 4) This surface will be a cold cathode emitting hot electrons to be collected by an external anode. This arrangement should be most effective in cooling the active device or IC because it separates the cooling function from the optoelectronic functions. The proposed effort will lead to a compact mostly solid state refrigerator coupled to an electronic or optoelectronic device. Such a refrigerator will be light and portable and will not require consumables because only electric energy will be needed. The electric power can come from solar cells or fuel cells that are already present for energizing other equipment. This refrigerator will be suitable for space applications. Since no mechanical pump is involved, the proposed refrigerator will be quiet and long-lasting. It will find numerous laboratory applications that will spin off many other new commercial products.

MICROOPTICAL ENGINEERING CORP.
33 Southwest Park
Westwood, MA 02090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 326-8111
Dr. Noa M. Rensing
DARPA 00-043
Title:Compact Integrated MEMS Devices and Package Solutions for Fiber-Optic Network Switches
Abstract:The use of optical rather than electronic switches can help resolve bottlenecks in fiber-optic data networks. MicroElectroMechanical (MEMS) components offer an opportunity to reduce the size and cost of these switches. However, assembly, optical performance, and packaging considerations can still limit the price/ performance point of the switches. We propose developing a switching system using single crystal silicon MEMS mirrors with superior optical and mechanical properties. The bulk etch step used to fabricate them will also be used to incorporate other optical and mechanical alignment features on the same chip, guaranteeing the alignment of the optical system. The rest of the optical system along with mating mechanical alignment features will be molded into the device package. Thus the performance will be high the cost of fabrication low, and the process of assembly and packaging can be streamlined, reducing the cost and size of the final part. Optical performance will benefit from the superior mirror surfaces, improved alignment, and reduced optical path length. These switches will be particularly suitable for temporary or portable local area networks (LAN's), where cost, size, and power consumption are critical factors. The proposed switch makes optical switching practical in installations where larger and more expensive switches cannot be justified or supported. Its small size, low cost, and low power consumption will be beneficial in portable or temporary installations of local area networks in vehicles, at military encampments, or in crisis response centers. It addresses a market segment that is not well served by existing or other developing technologies.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-0610
Dr. J. Christopher Dries
DARPA 00-044
Title:A 160 Gigabit/sec Fiber Optic Receiver Array
Abstract:Sensors Unlimited will develop and deliver a 16-channel optical receiver array for use in wavelength division multiplexed optical networks. The receivers will consist of monolithic InGaAs photodiode arrays hybridized to monolithic GaAs transimpedance amplifier arrays. The receivers will be designed to operate at 10 Gbps/channel, resulting in an aggregate data rate of 160 Gbps for a 16-channel receiver. The use of InGaAs photodiodes will result in responsivities > 0.9 A/W at 1.55 śm, with bandwidths exceeding 10 GHz. The GaAs transimpedance amplifiers will be fabricated using a commercial GaAs foundry process on a 250 śm amplifier pitch. Thus, the amplifiers may be wirebonded to the photodiodes without incorporating a microwave fanout. Additionally, the 250 śm pitch enables relatively simple mating to commercially available 250 śm pitch singlemode fiber ribbon cable. Challenges of the program include the elimination of crosstalk among the channels of the receiver array, and the design and fabrication of the transimpedance amplifier array. The InGaAs photodiode arrays will be fabricated using Sensors Unlimited's standard backside illuminated focal plane array process with 30 śm diameter photodiodes. The bandwidth requirements for the Internet double every 4 months. Higher data rates and channel counts are required for optical networks to keep up with this demand. Our marketing studies predict a 1st year market of $10 million, rising to over $100 million in 3 years, after commercial introduction of a 160 Gbps receiver array. Furthermore, the size and weight of the array-based components are greatly reduced, increasing the feasibility of their use in military communications systems. Multiple channel receivers enable link redundancy, in addition to providing very wide (10 Gbps) bandwidth data links. Commercial applications for the receiver array include O-E conversion in optical cross connects, high bit rate parallel optic data links, and replacement and sparing for currently fielded optical receivers. The proposed receiver will reduce cost and space requirements over 10x when brought to market.

ELECTROSYNTHESIS CO., INC.
72 Ward Road
Lancaster, NY 14086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 684-0513
Dr. Peter M. Kendall
DARPA 00-045
Title:Neutralization or Decontamination of Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents
Abstract:This proposal presents means to render ineffective and non-lethal aerosolized biological agents released in a building, either during an attack or after the event, with minimal damage to occupants or the building surfaces. Certain organoiodine-based salts are known to destroy bacteria, molds, spores, and some viruses at very low concentrations. These salts are very effective, both in dry form and in aqueous solution. At the same time, the toxicity to mammalian life is low. Commercial disinfectants were contemplated in patents related to their use, but never implemented due to the high cost of synthesis by conventional means. A relatively inexpensive electrochemical synthesis route, patented and demonstrated on a pilot scale for a few of these salts, is proposed to prepare a number of biologically active candidate neutralization/decontamination salts. Candidate samples would be tested on simulant organisms in Phase I. Biological neutralization agents could find use in treating hospital air to eliminate airborne pathogens, including Pseudomonas bacteria, without adding chemicals to the air stream. The salts could be used to decontaminate housing after floods and could be used to prevent mildew and other spore-generated microbial infestations on surfaces. The salts may have application to kill nematodes and disrupt attachment of mollusks to water inlets and ship hulls.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2355
Dr. William L. Bell
DARPA 00-045
Title:System to Protect Building Occupants from Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents
Abstract:Government buildings may become contaminated by chemical or biological weapons either by drawing contaminants in from a contaminated environment or by discharge of a CB weapon from within the building. In either case, the CB weapon aerosol would rapidly spread throughout the building and cause serious health risk to the building personnel. TDA Research, Inc., (TDA) proposes a decontaminant system that will neutralize all common chemical and biological weapons, without producing corrosive byproducts or damaging Government property. The system can also be operated without endangering unprotected personnel within the building during decontamination. Furthermore, the system is safe and inexpensive and is easily incorporated into a building's HVAC system using commercially available technology. This system will protect government buildings and personnel from chemical and biological attacks, thereby increasing the productivity of personnel working in a contaminated environment. Additionally, this system would also have dual use potential in abatement of building contaminants, such as the combination of factors (toxic substances, allergens, pathogens) that have been reported to cause sick-building syndrome.

ZOEIC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
101 West Sixth Street
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. John G. Bruno
DARPA 00-045
Title:Aptamer Spray for CBW Agent Neutralization and Decontamination
Abstract:Zoeic Technologies (Zoeic) proposes to develop an anti-Chemical and Biological Warfare (CBW) agent spray composed of a cocktail of different specific DNA aptamers. The proposed sprayable aptamers will be developed by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) against a variety of CB agents high on the potential threat list. The spray will be nontoxic and harmless to building surfaces with a long shelf life in aerosol cans. Simple tight binding to most toxins is sufficient for neutralization, however, aptamers with enzymatic activity (aptazymes) can also be engineered to breakdown CBW agents into harmless substances. In Phase I, Zoeic proposes to generate a set of specific DNA aptamers to bind nonpathogenic Bacillus subtilis (BG) spores and horseradish peroxidase (HRPO; as a model biotoxin). Aptamers will be tested for their ability to halt spore germination and inhibit HRPO activity. Zoeic will also examine the feasibility of applying aptamers in a sprayable form. In Phase II, Zoeic will add more anti-CBW agent aptamers to the cocktail formulation, and demonstrate their utility in a contaminated area. Clearly first reponders to any potential bioterrorist activity will require the aptamer spray for neutralization and decontamination. However, a broader market exists for hospitals to prevent nosocomial infections. In addition, use of the aptamer spray by public health officials to prevent or limit "sick building syndrome", Legionnaire's Disease and the spread of tuberculosis or influenza represents even greater commercial potential.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Stephen M. Crooks
DARPA 00-046
Title:Assessing Battle Damage Automatically from Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery via Adaptive Background Cancellation
Abstract:We propose a revolutionary, data-adaptive approach for processing operational synthetic aperture radar (SAR) phase history data to automatically assess subtle damage inflicted by small sub-munitions on military ground vehicles. Our new signal processing technique, termed Adaptive Background Cancellation (ABC), has been specifically designed to exploit a battlefield scenario in which the ground vehicle under attack is illuminated by a stand-off airborne SAR sensor before, during, and after the weapon strikeall in a seamless, continuous-dwell collection mode. By leveraging our experience in non-traditional SAR image formation techniques, we have tailored the basic structure of ABC to solve each of the critical sub-problems in small-weapons battle damage assessment (BDA), including detection of target disturbances at impact, characterization of impact severity, and localization of subtle weapon-induced target signature changes. By using accurate mathematical models of weapon/target interactions, together with state-of-the-art XPATCH signature simulation tools, we propose to construct a BDA simulation test database covering a wide range of strike scenarios, sensing parameters, and small-weapons effects. We present a systematic, comprehensive plan to characterize the robustness of ABC with respect to these test variables, and to demonstrate the real-time capability of ABC through an analysis of its computational complexity. The technology developed under this program will contribute directly to the overall military objective of using existing airborne synthetic aperture radar to assess subtle damage to battlefield ground vehicles caused by small sub-munitions. Beyond this purely military application, however, the technology proposed herein offers significant advantages in the growing application of commercial airborne and space-borne remote sensing data to problems such as land use planning, demographic analysis and disaster relief planning. Moreover, our new techniques could be used for disease detection and diagnosis in modern medical imagery, including tomographic radiography (CAT scans) and magnetic resonance imagery (MRI). We anticipate that successful real-time SAR BDA technologies will also be directly applicable to a variety of civilian monitoring applications, such as the evaluation and assessment of large structures (e.g., pipelines, oil platforms, and power production facilities). Such nondestructive evaluation techniques would offer significant advantages over current practice, as they could be performed quickly and remotely, thereby avoiding the need to interfere with operations at the evaluation site. Finally, we anticipate that new SAR BDA methods could also be used in peacetime applications such as treaty compliance assessment and monitoring.

VEXCEL CORP.
4909 Nautilus Court
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 444-0094
Mr. Richard E. Carande
DARPA 00-046
Title:Automated Battle Damage Indication from Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery
Abstract:In recent history, battle damage has tended to be large-scale, and battle damage assessment (BDA) from a distance has been effectively done through manual interpretation of imagery. However, modern smart munitions are designed to do s urgical strikes on targets of military significance, and are not meant to do large-scale damage to surrounding areas. Thus the BDA problem has become more difficult. Battle damage assessment must now involve detection of very small physical changes in the target in question. Vexcel proposes here to explore advanced SAR signal processing technique s to this new BDA challenge. In particular, we will explore the application of coherent change detection, dynamic im aging and other advanced techniques. We expect to rank the potential of the techniques with regard to type of damage , extent of damage, and signal processing requirements. Furthermore, we will consider the existing SAR capabilities as well as offering insight into the value of future SAR architectures for the BDA problem. Vexcel will prototype th e various algorithms and provide a summary of their performance using GFI data. The type of applications we are proposing to develop under this SBIR will be capable of measuring very small change i n targets using SAR. There are a number of military and non-military applications to which this basic ability would be applicable. Some examples include remote monitoring of facilities and storage yards, as well as change detection in urban areas. These can be used for tax assessment, structural health assessment as well as automatic enumeration .

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, Suite 50
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Jason Geng
DARPA 00-048
Title:A Novel Omnidirectional Infrared (OMIR) 3D Sensor
Abstract:The primary objective of this SBIR is to investigate a novel infrared (IR) imaging sensor concept, dubbed as OMIR (OMnidirectional InfraRed), that provides an all-weather, high resolution, and low-cost solution to obtain video rate IR images with 360-degree viewing angle for both 2D and 3D near-vehicle situation awareness applications. Despite the rapid advances in both cooled and uncooled sensor technologies, existing approaches to build IR sensor systems suffer several drawbacks, including low resolution, small field of view, and expensive. The propose OMIR concept is aimed to address these problems and provide viable solutions. Two major innovations proposed in this SBIR program are: (a) A novel scheme to dramatically increase resolution of IR images without using expensive high resolution sensor chip. (b) A low-cost solution to obtain 360-degree panoramic viewing angle for IR sensor systems without using any moving part. We will focus our Phase 1 SBIR effort in the design, prototyping and testing of the OMIR system concept and to demonstrate its feasibility to near-vehicle situation awareness applications. The Omni-directional Infrared Imaging is a fundamentally new concept and has broad applications, ranging from government, military systems to consumer products, such as periscopoes for tanks, helicopters, submarines and unmanned aerial ground vehicles, fire fighting, agriculture, home security systems, medical endoscopy, intrusion detection in sensitive facilities, bank security, industrial pipe inspection and automatic vehicle navigation for intelligent transportation systems.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Mr. Michael I. Anapol
DARPA 00-048
Title:Coherent Laser Radar as a 3-D Close-Vehicle Surveillance Tool
Abstract:SSG proposes a compact, 3-D imaging device based on Coherent Laser Radar (CLR) technology to provide 360 degree close range situational awareness for personnel and battlefield assets. The 3-D CLR camera technology is based on a commercial 3-D metrology product developed jointly by SSG and MetricVision Inc (ThermoElectron spin-off), which operates at much slower rates than required for the present application. The proposed system combines SSGs expertise in high performance pointing and scanning systems with the 3-D metrology capabilities of the CLR. The final system will consist of a modified CLR unit, an optical pointing mirror assembly (PMA) which enables 360 degree CLR coverage, and stereoscopic 3-D display capability. Significant innovative technology advancements are proposed to (1) provide 360 degree FOR, (2) improve the framing speed by >1000X using a MEMs based optical scanner or other advanced optical scanner technologies; (3) 20X improvement in the CLR sample rate and associated electronics using arrayed laser diode sources and detectors; and (4) development of stereoscopic, 3-D display capability. SSG has already obtained very strong commercial support from MetricVision , who is planning to commit matching Phase 2 funding when Phase 1 shows a viable 3-D CLR based camera design solution. Robotic Imaging Reverse engineering of prototypes-to-CAD/CAM drawings Real-time feedback for machine vision control during manufacturing In-process CAD/CAM and PC board inspection; move QC lab to shop floor over machine Non-contact replacement of Coordinate Measuring Machines 3-D metrology measurement of remote, high value objects (e.g. aircraft) 3-D desktop scanning into computer.