DoD SBIR FY00.2 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Army - Navy - DARPA - OSD - SOCOM

---------- ARMY ----------

253 Phase I Selections from the 00.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Jordan C. Bonney
ARMY 00-
Title:Determination of Distributed Modeling System Interoperability
Abstract:This proposal suggests an approach for determining interoperability between disparate distributed modeling and simulation software. The approach is based on the network-level analysis of the information sent between the constituent hosts of the distributed simulation and modeling systems, developer-provided descriptions of data format, and research into an information ontology that can help define the commonality between the disparate systems. Software that can successfully ascertain the interoperability between simulation systems can be used to dramatically reduce the time required to integrate disparate systems. The integration time is reduced because the system integrators can quickly determine what data can be interchanged, the format of the interchanged data, and data timing. Beyond simulation systems, such a tool can be used to assess the interoperability of any disparate distributed systems. Automating system interoperability is a powerful tool for system integrators.

ELO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2443 208th St. Unit E4
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 782-8314
Luan Vo
ARMY 00-
Title:Epitaxial Liftoff for Laser Integration onto Silicon
Abstract:The Epitaxial Liftoff (ELO) Packaging Process for integration of optoelectronic devices onto silicon-based circuitry allows for optimized device performance of dissimilar materials, such as CMOS and III-V laser systems, since the liftoff optoelectronic device structure is grown on its native substrate. In comparison, other proposed techniques, such as wafer bonding and direct grown of crystalline epitaxial multilayers on a dissimilar lattice constant substrate, have very challenging problems with large dislocation densities and thermal stresses. The liftoff optoelectronic and the silicon electronic devices can be processed separately prior to bonding, in a fashion not constrained by the presence of the other. This technique is particularly attractive for low cost, high yield, high reliability, and high performance integrated optical interconnects. Integrating the ELO laser structures on top of CMOS integrated circuits will enable cost-effective and space saving packaging optical interconnection for high data rate communication. The optical interconnects will reduce planar metal interconnects and input/output bottlenecks, thereby, increasing overall processing speed and reducing packaging dimensions significantly. In addition, optical interconnects also reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) due to conventional metal interconnect and wire bonds. Integrating the ELO laser structures on top of CMOS integrated circuits will enable cost-effective and space saving packaging optical interconnection for high data rate communication.

CAE SOLUTIONS CORP.
40935 Camero Place
Fremont, CA 94539
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 226-6021
Mr. Douglas Stillman
ARMY 00-001
Title:Software System for Advanced Warhead Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)/Computer Aided Design (CAD)
Abstract:Advanced EFP warheads provide a number of modeling challenges that must be handled well to make designs feasible, but are very difficult to accomplish with current state of the art general purpose solver technology. A new modular, object oriented hydrocode system including graphical interfaces and optimizers has been developed using the Java programming language. Testing indicates that its performance is similar to existing packages, but the object oriented design of the coding permits it to be adapted and extended at rates that are more than an order of magnitude faster than traditional hydrocode systems. The Java based graphical interfaces are also easily adapted to provide exactly what is needed for a particular design problem, thus, providing enormous benefits to users in terms of faster learning and much less time spent on the warhead design process. Additional modules will be developed in this effort to provide support for advanced EFP designs. The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the usage of non-linear finite elements and hydrocodes for many different kinds of design activities. Much of this increase in use has been the result of rapidly decreasing in computing costs. Over the past two years, however, the computing costs have dropped to a level that is less than the cost of a specialized engineer to run these systems. Thus, the emphasis in mechanical simulation technology must necessarily be shifted from the traditional one of high performance computing oriented products to one of more user friendly and intelligent systems. A separate problem is that non-linear finite element software simply cannot address all of the problems presented by engineering. Thus, today's software is both too complex and frequently inadequate for a given systems' unique needs. Another complication is that the time necessary to train an engineer to properly use the general purpose software systems if frequently greater than the average time he is likely to stay at a company. The software system developed under this contract is being done using the Java programming language which represents a major change from the traditional usage of Fortran. A modern object oriented programming structure for the system is used which allows numerical methods that are ideally suited to mechanical design problems to be implemented along with appropriate graphical user interfaces. Testing has shown that newer releases of Java are only slightly slower than Fortran for scientific programming. Most specific problem classes, however, have properties that can be exploited to make the Java based simulations even faster than the general purpose Fortran systems. With an object oriented modeling system, it is possible to produce better and faster simulations and designs at lower overall cost, including the customization of the software system. A final benefit of the system is that the Java language provides immediate access to standardized interfaces for a variety of technologies which are taken for granted in consumer software, but largely absent from mechanical engineering software. The most important of these are internet technologies, database interfaces and multimedia. A proper exploitation of these capabilities will provide productivity improvements to engineers for a long time to come.

NOVA R&D, INC.
1525 Third St., Suite C
Riverside, CA 92507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 781-7332
Dr. Martin Clajus
ARMY 00-002
Title:Development of Polarization Free CdZnTe Detector Arrays for Ultra-Fast Hyperspectral X-Ray Imaging
Abstract:X-ray imaging has become an essential tool in various medical, industrial, and military applications. In its most advanced form, this method combines the shape information obtained in the imaging process with spectral information obtained by measuring the attenuation of the x-rays at different energies. Immediate discernment of material composition defects and anomalies at production rates in all kinds of products requires fast imaging. Therefore, ultra-fast hyperspectral imaging will be an important next step in this field. CdZnTe is the detector of choice at present for hyperspectral imaging because it works at room temperature with excellent energy resolution and it has a large atomic number (Z), which is essential for high sensitivity detection of x-rays. However, polarization in these detectors at high x-ray rates is hampering the application of CdZnTe to hyperspectral imaging. We propose to study this effect in CdZnTe detector arrays and develop polarization free detector arrays for room temperature ultra-fast hyperspectral x-ray imaging. Commercial Applications: The first application we propose is for automatic baggage inspection for contraband such as explosives, agricultural products, drugs and currency. Today, baggage inspection is limited to transmission/absorption image reconstruction. To detect, identify, characterize and quantify the various items, the system must also be able to detect and quantify the energies of the characteristic x-rays that are produced by the items in the bag, box or container. Federal Government Use: High-quality, CZT-based, detection systems can be used by both government and industry. Baggage inspection is a prime example of government use. Other applications, such as the medical and industrial imaging, are also of major interest to federal, state, and local government agencies. Therefore, the government sector can be a major market for the proposed detector system.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-1167
Dr. Gerald Entine
ARMY 00-002
Title:CZT Arrays for Ultra-fast X-ray Imaging
Abstract:Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is the room temperature x-ray detector of choice for non-destructive imaging applications. Monolithic arrays with high count rate capability (> 1 x 106 counts/pixel) are required for ultra-fast hyperspectral x-ray imaging. Presently, the yield of CZT arrays which can perform hyperspectral imaging in milliseconds, is very low. Most monolithic arrays suffer from "polarization" when exposed to high flux levels (> 106 photons/sec-mm2) which are required for rapid imaging. Polarization is manifest as a leveling off or reduction in count rate when incident flux is increased beyond a certain level. The goal of this Phase I program is to identify the underlying cause(s) of polarization in monolithic CZT arrays at high count rates and determine means to prevent polarization within the arrays. To achieve this goal we will experimentally explore the dependence of high count rate induced polarization on (1) CZT crystallinity, (2) CZT crystal orientation, (3) monolithic array geometry, and (4) electrodes and surface treatment. Additionally, a new source of CZT will be evaluated to determine if polarization can be eliminated through improved crystal growth. Monolithic CZT arrays with high count rate capability would enhance imaging systems which require detector arrays with energy resolution and high throughput for fast, accurate imaging. Benefits realized in the medical field would include bone densitometer systems and combined emission/transmission computed tomography (ET/CT) systems with increased throughput. This would enable the benefits of such imaging systems, namely, the acquisition of information vital for medical diagnostic purposes, to be available to more people. In industrial inspection system applications, such arrays would enable rapid and accurate identification of objects hidden from sight. Potential commercial applications of CZT arrays with high count rate capability include baggage scanner systems in airports, bone densitometer systems in hospitals, and high speed imaging systems in research hospitals.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 351-4440
Dr. Larry L. Burton
ARMY 00-003
Title:Innovative Acoustic Sensor(s) for Multiple Acquisition
Abstract:Current Army acoustic ground sensors are able to detect, track, and classify single vehicles but have great difficulty in performing these functions when multiple closely spaced vehicles are involved. However, it is precisely this capability that is of greatest interest to field commanders, who want to know the numerical size of an enemy mechanized force. To meet this need, ORINCON proposes to develop acoustic algorithms capable of identifying and counting all vehicles within a 1000m square grid. During Phase I, we will define operational scenarios, evaluate alternative sensor configurations, analyze data from acoustic ground sensors, and develop and validate the required acoustic algorithms. This effort will build on previous ORINCON experience in acoustic detection and classification for the Army, Navy, and DARPA; adaptive beamforming for the Navy; and tracking and data fusion for a number of DoD customers. During Phase II, we will implement the recommended sensor configuration, fine tune the algorithms for real-time operation, and conduct a proof-of-principle demonstration in a target-rich field environment. Success during Phase II will allow for transition of these algorithms to other military battlefield surveillance and perimeter monitoring applications. Commercial applications also exist for airport and industrial security and highway traffic monitoring and control. The detection, classification, and counting algorithms for acoustic ground sensors developed for this SBIR will provide a significant enhancement to US Army battlefield awareness capabilities by providing field commanders with information necessary for decisions about fire missions. Our commercialization strategy involves multiple components, including transitioning of these algorithms to other military applications, such as perimeter monitoring, and potential inclusion of this software as a special option feature of our RIPPENr software package that we sell commercially. We also plan to investigate the civilian application, through license agreements, of these acoustic algorithms to airport and industrial security and highway traffic monitoring and control.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. John Spadaro
ARMY 00-003
Title:Innovative Acoustic Sensor(s) for Multiple Target Acquisition
Abstract:Current acoustic unattended ground sensor systems have the capability of detecting, characterizing and localizing vehicle targets with relatively large surveillance areas. One of the major shortfalls of these systems is their inability to perform effectively in multi-target clutter environments. Specifically, the system ability to estimate the number and types of targets when groups of targets are present such as convoys with closely spaced vehicles is limited. The proposed effort presents a multi-target counting (MTC) algorithm based on beam steering and a fuzzy logic volume of noise estimate to attack this problem. One of the keys to the proposed solution is a simulation embedded in the algorithm which allows for iterative estimates of the types and number of targets to in a surveillance area. The algorithm will be tested using simulation techniques previously developed for use with the US Army Scout UAV program, LOSAS (currently a successful Phase II program at SARA). SARA brings over 40 years of combined acoustics experience to bear on the problem leveraging their familiarity with target signatures, sensor technologies, advanced algorithm development and acoustic sensor system architecture. Potential applications will come from organizations requiring acoustic information from remote locations for the performance of their responsibilities. These would include US Army and US Marine special ops, infantry, artillery forward observers, and intelligence; and an assortment of government/private agencies responsible for law enforcement, border surveillance (alien and drug interdiction), remote search and rescue, airport noise monitoring, and environmental assessment.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mr. W. Dodd Stacy
ARMY 00-004
Title:Human Amplification System
Abstract:Creare proposes to develop an intelligent, powered load handling system adapted to the rapid transport of artillery rounds between a support vehicle and a firing platform, or between vehicles. The semi-autonomous system mounts to the support vehicle and transfers loads directly between one crew member working in the bed of the vehicle and one crew member stationed near the weapon's breech. The Phase I effort will produce an engineering design package and a dynamic CAD simulation of the system in operation. The Phase II program will develop and demonstrate a prototype system and conduct extended testing over the full spectrum of applicable platforms, vehicles, and ammunition packaging configurations. The proposed system will reduce injury, reduce labor costs, speed the delivery of goods and materials, and improve the productivity of transportation assets. Commercial applications span the entire trucking and delivery spectrum, especially where product is packaged in manageable but heavy units, such as 80 lb sacks, and unloaded by hand. Transfers involving elevation change will be eased substantially.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Paul G. Gonsalves
ARMY 00-005
Title:Integrated Software Environment for Battlespace Digital Mapping and Target Range Acquisition
Abstract:The explosive growth in information technology provides a tremendous opportunity for enhancing US warfighting capabilities. The associated digitization of the battlespace, in tandem with deployment of highly capable sensor systems, provides a tremendous opportunity to enhance battlespace operations. Additionally, the use and proliferation of Geographic Information Systems (GISs) and digital mapping can further enhance military situation awareness and visualization. These advances have substantial application for the development of improved tactical fire control support systems for target-rich multi-shooter environments. Here we propose an Integrated Software Environment (ISE) for Battlespace Digital Mapping and Target Range Acquisition. Our novel system integrates: an in-house battlefield simulation and visualization software environment with an embedded COTS-based GIS processing for digital mapping support and target range acquisition; and a geometric approach for target location prediction augmented with conventional estimation algorithms. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing fire control support systems and addressing information dominated battlespace requirements. Our Phase I effort will: 1) identify system requirements and scope; 2) formulate and design a limited-scope prototype ISE ; 3) develop a working concept prototype; 4) demonstrate its use and assess overall feasibility in a selected scenario; and 5) develop requirements for follow-on development and commercialization. We see several potential applications of the developed technology. Direct application of the developed ISE exists to DoD C2 and fire control support systems. Generalization of the developed GIS processing and visualization system to other domains, in particular, law enforcement and search and rescue is also apparent. Additionally, we see opportunities for enhancement of our Intelligent Agent Toolkit (IAT) product via the incorporation of the software development environment and visualization components of the proposed ISE.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Mr. David Lee
ARMY 00-006
Title:Digital Wideband Antijam Technology for Global Positioning System (GPS) Protection
Abstract:The proliferation of inexpensive low-power GPS jammers is an increasing concern. These battery-powered jammers are a menacing problem because they can deployed by the hundreds the air by tethered ballons, for example, or concealed on the ground. These low-power jammers operate for several days on a battery pack. Small jammers may be difficult to find and individually are considered low-value targets. Wideband low-power jammers often modulate high-speed CW swept or Chirp interference in order to appear like noise in the frequency spectra. Most spectral analyzers use Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) methods to estimate spectral energy of RF signals. Real time frequency domain filtering using the FFT and inverse FFT has been demonstrated to extract frequency-stable narrow band CW interference in GPS bands. However, Fourier techniques are not effective against frequency-agile sources of interference, which are rapidly being aggressively marketed. In order to address the frequency-agile interference problem, modern spectral analysis techniques such as wavelet analysis are better suited. The singular advantage of wavelets is the multi-resolution time-frequency signal analysis property.(i) Wavelet sub-band coding and filter banks is a promising new signal processing algorithm has been demonstrated to be an effective means gaining of 20-30 dB J/S for spread-spectrum receivers. Wavelet sub-band filters was performed by introducing frequency-agile interference (high-speed swept and chirp) on C/A band of GPS down converted and post-processed. Although the results are promising, the work was not advanced to a wideband (P-code) GPS real-time implementation. (ii) The wavelet sub-band filter technique has been demonstrated to add 20-30 dB of J/S in direct sequence spread spectrum receivers against a catalog of frequency agile jammers. In order for this work to yield practical benefits for tactical system, the algorithm needs transition real-time over a 20 MHz band. This technique can be implemented without high latency. Spectral interference rejection by digital signal processing does not require a special antenna. In addition, it does not assume constantly radiating interference. These issues affect spatially interference rejection (CRPA) approaches. The inherent processing latency is fixed unlike the null steering antennas, which do not converge upon best performance when platform dyamics and interference transmission cycles on and off. Spectral filtering has been demonstrated to be affective against multiple jammers simultaneously, while spatial filters performance degrades substantially with each additional null and has a hard limit of (N-1) jammers. As a result, DSP using wavelet filter banks may be used stand alone or complementary anti-jam technique within a layered approach.

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY & SYSTEMS
5220 Pacific Concourse Dr.
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 643-1315
Mr. Stephen F. Rounds
ARMY 00-006
Title:Low Cost GPS Anti-Jam Processor for Wideband Antijam Protection
Abstract:STS will demonstrate the feasibility of a low cost, GPS Anti-jam Processor (GAP), utilizing Space Time Adaptive Processing techniques to cancel wideband noise jamming of GPS signals (L1 & L2) and provide 60 dB of jamming protection. The GAP is a pre-correlation spatial and spectral jammer canceller, with a scaleable architecture. As a low power silicon device, the GAP is immune to changes in performance due to shock, and therefore especially suitable for volume restricted, precision guided weapons, such as gun launched projectiles. Detailed simulations of the GAP chip were conducted under a DARPA/NCCOSC program entitled "Anti-Jam Enhancements to Direct Y Fast Acquisition." In Phase 1, STS will review the detailed simulations from the DARPA program and study the benefits/risks of implementing the GAP in Phase 2 as an FPGA or as an ASIC. In Phase 1 STS will also define the requirements for a Phase 2 discrete RF section, GPS core software and test plan. Phase 2 will produce an FPGA/ASIC implementation of the GAP and demonstrate its anti-jam performance with a SAASM GPS receiver. The ultimate goal is to produce GAP chips that will cheaply and effectively protect GPS receivers, in precision guided munitions, from wideband jamming. STS's proposed demonstration will prove the feasibility of a low cost, low power, single chip anti-jam processor capable of providing over 60 dB of wideband jamming protection. The performance, size and flexibility of the digital GAP chip surpasses any RF or antenna based anti-jamming process, especially for low cost, small size, high production rate applications such as gun launched projectiles. STS studies show that the use of temporal processing not only equalizes the channel to reject wideband jamming, but also compensates for channel mismatches. Null depths of 50dB are shown to be readily achievable with a small number of temporal taps. The GAP chip is also very useful in commercial applications where protection from unintentional interference from other RF sources is needed or in cases such as commercial aviation where protection from terrorist jamming may be necessary.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
427 South 166th Street
Omaha, NE 68118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(402) 333-2992
Mr. Richard A. Flanagan
ARMY 00-007
Title:Shoot & Scoot Assistant
Abstract:A military combat unit must "see" the battlefield better than the enemy, decide sooner than the enemy to what to do, "move" to see the enemy and fight effectively and "shoot" to destroy the enemy. As the US Army moves toward weapons systems for the digital battlefield, newer, lighter weight and more capable hardware is emerging. These digital data sources may not realize better "seeing", that is, situational awareness. Cognitive task load will be overwhelming if the crew is to interpret and distill the data, deciding what to do fast. Well-informed troops will outstrip a rogue enemy in a combat environment. It's all about whom gets into firing position, first. We propose to first integrate the incoming data to assist the crew in reducing the great amount of incoming data into a timely, relevant, situational awareness picture (the "see" task) and secondly, provide the crew an corresponding, real-time course-of-action aiding based upon the awareness and the crew's mission objectives. Together, these two opportunities form the "Shoot & Scoot Assistant". We will define an agent architecture that supports reuse, all mission phases and conforms to the Technical Architecture. Non-military applications of the agent-based decision aid are the category of where high personal risk needs a "battle-drill" decision aid. Examples include a very wide range of adaptable aids. For example: (1) highway patrolman using a police car aid with digital links during a chase reduces lethal consequences to the patrolman or public, (2) a plant operator's console aid at an industrial production line where fast-acting decisions during automated assembly when equipment malfunctions reduce product waste and increases employee safety and (3) airline flight crew warning, caution & advisory systems reduces crew workload during moments of high stress.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
ARMY 00-007
Title:Intelligent Software Agents for Battlefield
Abstract:Autonomy technologies are key and revolutionary technologies that are needed to fulfill weapon crew operations on the future digital battlefield. This project develops the intelligent software agents consisting of automation in multi levels, knowledge base, inference mechanism, and communication. The proposed intelligent software agents for battlefield not only takes advantage of innovative techniques of individual decision and control methodologies but also, more significantly, emphasizes the synergism among all subsystems to assure the overall system performance. In this project, design issues involved in the choice of a hierarchical intelligent control and health monitoring system architecture, and methods for interfacing elements of the resulting hybrid system are investigated. Efficient and adaptive computational schemes are developed by integrating planning and decision, soft computation, autonomous control, and discrete event control techniques to enhance accommodation of environmental and operational changes. A modeling, design, analysis, and simulation environment is established to implement the system architecture, and environment recognition and adaptation. The performance of the intelligent software agents will be demonstrated and evaluated for battlefield applications. The techniques and systems developed in this project provide technology that can be exploited in various military and commercial applications, such as manufacturing, precision machine tools, process control, smart highway systems, smart weapons, robotics, defense manufacturing and command and control.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 618-1064
Mr. Ken Graves
ARMY 00-007
Title:Adaptable Cognitive Decision Aids For Embedded Weapon Applications
Abstract:The reduction of crew sizes in new Army systems such as Future Combat System (FCS) is threatening to overload the cognitive abilities of the remaining operators. Since past technology advances have already served to automate many of the rote procedural tasks contributing to crew workload, much of the remaining improvement must come through application of automation and aiding for the more complex cognitive tasks, such as interpretation of trends and patterns. A need exists for developing cognitive decision aiding capabilities that reduce cognitive workload of combat systems crews. Proposed effort will develop a cognitive decision aid for FCS addressing the function of tactical trends and patterns analysis for prediction of enemy actions based on current states. Cognitive modeling techniques will be employed first to understand user requirements, then to create a suitable decision aid design and to implement the aid using the iGENT cognitive modeling tool. It will be scaleable and reusable in accordance with ARDEC's component-based reference architecture concepts and will conform to Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTAA), Appendix F. The Phase I prototype will include an executable cognitive model of the trends and patterns analysis process, implemented as a "plug and play" component suitable for use in other systems. This decision aid will fill a need for development of decision aids to reduce cognitive workload on combat systems operators. The reusable cognitive model developed for this program will reduce the costs of software development for other cognitive decision aids to be used on these systems. The concepts and implementations will serve as a technical base for technology insertion into a number of Army Science and Technology Objective (STO) programs under consideration for Initial Brigade Combat Team operations. The cognitive model can also be applied to civilian domains such as stock quoting, logistics management, and police operations.

TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
P.O. Box 4233
Anthony, TX 79821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(915) 886-2478
Dr. Alton Gilbert
ARMY 00-007
Title:Adaptable Cognitive Decision Aids For Embedded Weapon Applications
Abstract:A heavy mortar platoon providing immediate indirect fire (IF) support to an Infantry or Armor Battalion (BN) generates and processes many time-critical and mission-critical events. The effectiveness of the platoon is directly related to its ability to deliver On Order missions and Final Protective Fires accurately and on-time, while exploiting terrain features providing cover and concealment for survivability. Recent advances in battlefield communications, the quality and availability of digital cartography, weapon systems technical architectures and intelligent aiding tools for coordinated tactical activity have created new opportunities for information exploitation to increase the operational tempo and combat effectiveness of the heavy mortar platoon as will be required for Future Combat System (FCS) and Force XXI operations. Intelligent aiding of mortar planning including target area coverage, movement, fire-point selection including generation of hasty fire-points while on the move, and the conduct of On-Order and Final Protective Fire missions is proposed. The resulting decision aiding subsystem will be created by using a combination of analytical and cognitive decision processes implemented in reusable software components conforming to Appendix F of the JTA-A, and implemented so as to be installed on the Mortar Fire Control System. Application Programmer Interfaces will be provided for crew interaction using voice, and other non-contact I/O methods. This effort is a novel decision aid approach for tactical systems, in that it attempts to reason across multiple decision factors by applying decision rules and cognitive processes. Such decision processes have been applied to some extent in data mining, but the approach taken here is more adaptive, in that it monitors for conditions requiring reassessment. This approach is broadly applicable to commercial and military decision making situations.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Dr. Patrick B. Chu
ARMY 00-008
Title:MEMS-based Low Cost Mortar Fuze with Integrated Safe and Arm Mechanisms
Abstract:Existing miniature fuzes tend to be costly, inaccurate, difficult to use, and insufficiently small or sophisticated for advanced munition applications. In alliance with fuze manufacturing experts, Tanner Research proposes to develop a novel mortar fuze with integrated safe and arm (S&A), and fuzing mechanisms based on micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Our innovation is to incorporate a smart, programmable MEMS S&A device in the mortar fuze that minimizes size and weight, increases reliability and safety, improves timing accuracy, and reduces component and system cost. Due to its small mass and mechanical nature, our S&A device will be insensitive to electro-magnetic radiation and able to survive high-g accelerations, while minimizing collateral damage. Tanner Research has demonstrated expertise in the designs of MEMS, integrated circuits, electronics systems, and packaging. During an Air Force Phase I SBIR, we have already developed several designs of MEMS fuze systems and performed feasibility tests with spot charges. Our device will be fabricated using commonly available fabrication equipment to ensure low-cost production and ease of manufacturing and technology transfer. Our S&A design will enable the integration of sensors and electronics with a fuzing device in a compact volume (fraction of a cubic inch). Explosives are commonly used by expert operators in mining, construction, and demolition, rescue/emergency operations, and the entertainment industry. Novel, low-cost, and reliable S&A devices can improve the safety and cost of all electronically-controlled explosive systems, protecting both expert and novice users.

KARNATECH, INC.
2046 La Fremontia
South Pasadena, CA 91030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(323) 254-9232
Dr. Karna J. Wahlstrand
ARMY 00-009
Title:Modeling & Simulation of Directed Energy Weapon Systems for Combined Target Effects
Abstract:The modern battlefield will increasingly make use of directed energy weapons, and a simulation of their effectiveness and utility on the battlefield will be needed to guide their development and operational implementation. We propose the first complete validated source-to-target energy transfer computer simulation of the deployment of millimeter/microwave, acoustic, and laser weapons against personnel and materiel targets, including both theoretical models and experimental data. We also consider energy propagation under weather and other environmental effects, with the eventual incorporation of conventional weapons and a simplified two-party war game in Phase II. The combined effects of these weapons interacting at the single target level will be treated with original theories which will demonstrate the resultant nonlinearly enhanced coupling to the target. Our software approach is graphical user interface (GUI)-based and object-oriented, with modular calculation functions and operated standalone on a personal computer. A relational database of kill and incapacitation probabilities and percent degradations will be generated at the completion of Phase II for use in separate force-on-force codes for further weapons system evaluation. Potential commercial applications of this type of directed energy weapons simulation (with appropriate customization to the relevant markets) include PC-based training simulations for prisons and incorporation into more visually sophisticated law enforcement training simulations, both domestically and internationally, and in aiding the development of directed energy weapon technologies in the larger commercial aerospace companies and other military government customers.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Hartmut H. Legner
ARMY 00-009
Title:Modeling & Simulation for Combined Target Effects
Abstract:Directed energy weapon (DEW) systems can potentially become an important part of war fighting for the Army. Although much is known about the effects of millimeter/microwaves (HPMs), acoustics, and laser/white light on materials and entire systems, no general purpose computational tool exists to evaluate the lethality of individual DEWs. There is even less information available on the combined effects of two or more DEWs on military targets. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to remedy this situation by developing a Personal Computer Code for Combined Directed Energy Weapon Assessment (CDEWA Code). This new computer simulation model is envisioned to evaluate the target effects of DEWs by utilizing detailed geometric and material target models that have evolved over the years for detailed conventional and/or nuclear weapon effectiveness. The leveraging of these resources makes the task of creating CDEWA focus on developing the appropriate physical effects models. The complete CDEWA architecture would be developed for the entire set of DEWs and target scenarios in Phase I. The complete CDEWA would be designed, developed, implemented, tested and validated in Phase II. The Combined Directed Energy Weapons Assement (CDEWA) Code would have direct applications in government and industry for evaluating lethal on non-lethal DEW effectiveness. The DEWs include laser, high-power microwaves, acoustic and white light weapons. The CDEWA Code would be marketed as a software product applicable to industry and law-enforcement agencies.

KNOWLEDGE ANALYSIS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
4001 Discovery Drive Suite 390
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 545-9092
Dr. Thomas Landauer
ARMY 00-010
Title:Latent Semantic Analysis-based tutorial and assessment tools for ADL
Abstract:In today's rapidly changing global operations environments, teams often must be assembled and individuals re-trained quickly for new force requirements, new systems, and changing missions. The goal of this research is to produce innovative computer software for individual assessment and team selection, for adaptive learning, and for cognitive performance support environments that exploit the power, economy, and customization enabled by ADL. A suite of recently developed and proposed cognitive tools based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) can contribute importantly to this goal. LSA is a machine-learning system that can build assessment, tutorial, and knowledge-mining agents automatically from existing instructional and archival text in almost any domain. These intelligent agents are constructed in far less time and expense, and with much less need for rare specialists as has previously been possible. In the combined Phase I and II effort, we will create a prototype of an integrated system, called Military Knowledge Forum (MKF). In Phase I we will plan the system, and perfect or develop several critical LSA-based components that also stand alone as useful ADL/cognitive readiness tools. In Phase II, we will create or perfect additional tools and join them into a total distributed group learning and cognitive support environment. Almost every present-day industry or business has a need to train widely distributed personnel frequently in new operating procedures and group problem-solving methods. They must be able to select, re-train and support adaptable individuals and teams. The individuals and teams must be possess and be capable of verbally communicating all necessary task-relevant knowledge. No integratable set of adaptive automatic assessment, tutorial, knowledge resource, and cooperative problem-solving support capabilities, such as those that would be developed for the envisaged Military Knowledge Forum system described herein, exists. The development of technology of this kind would help government and private-sector organizations meet the needs of rapidly changing markets, technologies, and labor forces in a timely, effective and economical manner. In Phase I, features and functionalities suitable for use either in the envisioned integrated system or in other ADL systems will be demonstrated as stand-alone web-based applications. Some, such as the automatic free-response assessment tool, will be of immediate utility in marketed or marketable commercial and military training systems. Component LSA-based adaptive assessment and tutorial tools from this project, even without combining into an integrated system, will be of significant commercial value for development of ADL and private-sector cognitive readiness and distance-education systems. KAT would embed some of these new capabilities in its own current and future Internet-based educational testing and tutorial services, and offer both piece-part components and appropriate versions of integrated learning environments for purchase or licensing by military, corporate, and other training and assessment organizations.

KINETIC RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, INC.
1143 Tower Rd.
Schaumburg, IL 60173
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 884-0662
Mr. Michael Boruta
ARMY 00-011
Title:Advanced, Small, Internal Combustion Engine
Abstract:We propose the development of a small novel internal combustion engine that can burn heavy diesel fuel, with a disk nutating around the rotating shaft (ref.~1). The uniquely novel arrangement of this engine permits the displaced volume of the engine to be used twice per engine revolution, corresponding to what in piston engines would be considered one power stroke per engine revolution. This feature enables the engine to produce the power/volume and power/weight in small power ranges as required in this solicitation, while the external combustion chamber permits burning diesel fuel as in small gas turbines. The potential of the new technology is high, the risk is manageable, and the probability of success high. The engine can exceed the power/weigh and power/volume constraints of the proposal in engines of under 10 kW power while burning diesel fuel. The engine is inherently balanced, with few and small components, enhancing dynamic durability. Scaling issues of the nutating engine have already been examined in previous publications from 2 kW to 500 kW. This engine when developed has very high potential for commercial applications ranging from engines for aircraft to power generation to land vehicles. Its power density can be utilizd to save fuel due to saving weight in the powertrain of land vehicles as well as in aircraft. Lower manufacturing cost is also a plus that would ensure market success.

LOCUST, USA, INC.
8324 N.W. 74 Ave.
Miami, FL 33166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 691-9585
Mr. Robert R. Sellers
ARMY 00-011
Title:Microturbine Feasibility Demonstration
Abstract:A program is proposed to evaluate the feasibility of using low-cost microturbines to meet the U.S. Army future requirements for small, lightweight engines (less than 10 kW power) that operate on heavy fuel and achieve very high power per cubic foot of engine volume. The program will accomplish this evaluation in two tasks; the basic program using today's technology, and an option that will evaluate innovative technology advances. In the basic program today's state-of-the-art microturbine capability will be demonstrated through both analysis and test. A very simple, low-cost turbojet developed for the model aircraft industry will be modified into a shaft engine and tested to determine it's capabilities, including it's power density. Along with the test evaluation, analysis will be conducted to provide an engineering understanding of the engine demonstration. Analysis will include performance, thermal and stress analysis, sealing/leakage evaluation, dynamic behavior, and life projections. In the program option a microturbine in the power range of interest will be conceptually designed using advanced technology features and innovative component arrangements to maximize the volumetric power density. This program will provide the U.S. Army with an engineering evaluation of the suitability of an important class of engines (microturbines less than 10 kW) for use in air/ground unmanned vehicles and to supply power needs for the Army footsoldier. Commercially, this will provide a heavy-fuel, lightweight alternative to small gasoline engines for smooth and safe aero, marine, business, or home application.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS, INC.
521 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Mr. Patrick McGuire
ARMY 00-012
Title:Low Cost Optical Finishing of Transparent Ceramics
Abstract:Glass and polymer coatings applied to sapphire or other hard transparent ceramics offer several very low-cost approaches for optical finishing. In Phase I, MSI will investigate (A) polishing the applied coatings, (B) bonding of polished glass faceplates, (C) replicating optically smooth surfaces using polished mandrels, and (D) very thin coatings as applied. The resulting windows will be characterized with the objectives to achieve high in-line transmittance, low haze, and angular image resolution quality of less than 1 milliradian. All processes developed will be compatible with the PVB bonding/autoclaving used for assembling transparent armor systems. In the Phase I Option, the most promising approaches will be further optimized and preliminary production cost estimates will be made. In Phase II, MSI will scale-up the most successful low-cost optical finishing processes to 12 x 14 inch windows while the optical quality is increased to at least 80% in-line transmission and less than 5% haze. Commercialization of this technology will be facilitated through MSI's on-going business relationship with Raytheon Optical Systems, Inc. This program will provide new low-cost methods for achieving optically transparent hard ceramic windows by eliminating the expensive and time consuming polishing of the sapphire or ALON itself. As a result, transparent armor will be available at substantially reduced costs, thereby opening up new markets for these products. By so expanding the range of applications, the cost of light-weight, large-area transparent armor panels for military land vehicles and aircraft will be further reduced. Commercial personnel security vehicles will also benefit from the technology developed in this program. The sapphire and/or ALON transparent armor will offer protection against small caliber armor piercing projectiles at substantially reduced weight and thickness.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Jon Nebo
ARMY 00-012
Title:Durable, Index Matching, Coatings for Low Cost AlON Finishing
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes a nanoparticle-enhanced polymer coatings approach to significantly reduce the costs associated with polishing and finishing of large area AlON windows. We will develop novel, high refractive index (RI) coatings that will match the refractive indices of aluminum oxynitride (AlON), spinel, and other transparent armor ceramics. This solution-based coating will be able to fill/level the surface imperfections of unfinished or partially finished AlON and provide an optically smooth surface in a single coating step. This will significantly reduce the time, number of steps, and the cost of finishing these high hardness ceramics. We will use Triton's low viscosity solution-based NanotufT abrasion-resistant coating as the platform, and then incorporate surface-compatibilized nanoparticles to tailor the specific optical and other properties of the coating system. We will achieve index-matching by controlling the index and concentration of the nanoparticles, and will thus design coating systems with indices ranging from 1.46 to ~1.9. This range of indices will be used to form graded index and other coating systems with anti-reflection properties. The mechanical properties of the coatings will also be tailored by using this approach. Our approach will make these materials economically viable for a variety of military and civilian applications. Reduced cost, large area AlON windows will see application in variety of military, law enforcement, safety and other civilian applications. The variable index coatings developed here will be useful for a wide range of optical coatings and high index materials may be of use in electro-optic devices.

RADIOMETRICS CORP.
2840 Wilderness Place, Unit G
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-9192
Dr. Randolph Ware
ARMY 00-013
Title:Wind Radar, Microwave Profiler, and GPS Data Fusion for Mesoscale Modeling
Abstract:New developments in atmospheric sensing and modeling present the opportunity for significant advancements in local weather modeling and forecasting. New sensors include wind radar, microwave profiler and GPS networks. These sensors provide continuous wind, temperature and humidity measurements. We propose in Phase I to demonstrate the assimilation of these data into high-resolution weather models and to evaluate the potential of the resulting weather forecasts for military and commercial applications. If the results are promising, we will propose in Phase II to develop a turnkey system using these new data types for local weather modeling and forecasting. Turnkey systems for local weather modeling can be used to improve artillery and rocket accuracy, to predict atmospheric dispersion of chemical, biological and nuclear materials, and for battlefield visibility and weather forecasting. Similarly, commercial and civil applications include local weather forecasting for efficient and safe management of sporting and other outdoor events, construction projects, airports, space ports, and ground transportation.

AZZAZY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
27111 Aliso Creek Road
Aliso Viejo, CA 92656
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 448-7840
Dr. Medhat Azzazy
ARMY 00-014
Title:Non-Intrusive Gas Turbine Combustor Measurement Techniques
Abstract: Abstract not available...

MEGAWATT LASERS
PO Box 24190
Hilton Head Islan, SC 29925
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 342-7221
Mr. Scott J. Hamlin
ARMY 00-015
Title:Compact Laser Igniter for Medium Caliber Cannon
Abstract:Medium caliber cannons, such as the Army's M230 chain gun, currently utilize a high current electrical pulse to initiate the propellant. While electrical ignition is reliable, electrical based primers are susceptible to premature ignition from EMI, EMP, or other stray or directed electromagnetic sources. In the event of a weapon jam, electrically initiated primers are potentially dangerous as the potential for a static electrical discharge results in a risky task to safely unload and free the jammed mechanism. Furthermore, current electrical based primers contain lead styphnate, which is considered an environmentally hazardous material. The proposed effort will research the design characteristics of a laser igniter, suitable for replacement of existing electrical ignition systems, as used in small and medium caliber cannons. In addition to being inherently electromagnetically safe, laser ignition systems provide the possibility of utilizing `Green' or environmentally friendly propellants, primers, and boosters, thereby eliminating hazardous materials used in conventional primers and possibly reducing ammunition costs. As the intended application is for rotorcraft, particular attention will be directed to minimizing size, weight and power consumption while maintaining the structural integrity to withstand high shock/vibration levels. In addition to providing a safer, more environmentally friendly ignition systems for medium caliber cannons, the proposed research effort will benefit other laser ignited armament systems as well as provide potential commercial and military applications for miniature laser technology. Applications for the technology developed under this effort include remote sensing, such as ranging, chemical/biological sensing, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, as well as medical applications including dermatology, dentistry, and surgery.

BIOCRYSTAL, LTD.
575 McCorkle Boulevard
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 818-1170
Dr. Emilio Barbera-Guillem
ARMY 00-016
Title:Synthesis and Functionalization of Quantum Dots for Bio Agent Detection
Abstract:A new class of fluorescent nanocrystals offers the prospect of replacing organic dyes for many fluorescence detection and analysis schemes commercially in use. BioCrystal has developed a family of proprietary fluorescence-based detection reagents which utilize a semiconductor nanocrystal core(CdSe) encased in a semiconductor(ZnS)shell and one or more organic layers which confer water solubility, as well as reactive sites which may be used to bind molecules such as affinity ligands to the functionalized nanocrystal. They are monodisperse and resist photobleaching. The Phase I work effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the following:(1)the use of a continuous flow production technique to produce monodisperse CdSe nanocrystals (CdSeNC) of uniform size in different colors to industrial proportions;(2)the industrial scale production of water-soluble, functionalized CdSeNC, including the production and purification of avidin-labeled CdSeNC;(3)the conjugation of functionalized CdSeNC to bioreceptors, and their use for detection by FRET or aggregation testing. This work will preface the Phase II objective of developing a procedure for the detection of bio-contaminants using functionalized CdSe nanocrystals, and, in parallel, to produce a miniaturized, autonomous sensor device to perform this procedure under continuous use, or during desired periods of time. Multiplexing, constant emission, particulate structure and energy transfer are inherent characteristics which afford fluorescent CdSe nanocrystals a number of advantages over fluorochromes for use in detecting multiple bio-contaminants in sensor devices, and for a number of other commercial uses: as DNA/RNA probes in qualitative disease detection; viral genotyping; automated biological assays for high throughput screening (HTS) applications in drug discovery; fluorescence-based histological studies, including the identification of cancerous tissue, and as encoded beads in multi-dimensional micro-assay formats.

USA ARMORING
5816 E. Shields Avenue, Suite
Fresno, CA 93727
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(559) 292-3185
Mr. Murray Neal
ARMY 00-017
Title:Flexible-Modular Body Armor For Armor Piercing Protection
Abstract:The overall objective of this proposal is to develop body armor capable of defeating high power rifle threats that are designed as armor piercing; in a flexible manner, that is thinner, lighter, multiple threat resistant, and capable of sustained multiple repeat hits. This armor will also be configured in two formats: conceallable and overt tactical. This armor will be substantially superior to current utilized plate technology with its limited capabilities. Potential post military applications would be flexible and rigid varieties of the same armor, designed for attachment to vehicular, vessel and aircraft upgrade armor applications. This has exceptionally mid to long term enhancements for the U.S. military. This leads to the recapitalization requirement the U.S. Army has to ensure that its equipment remains safe to operate and to provide soldiers with reliable and effective systems to go to war. This new felxible high power armor piercing rifle protection system can be easily integrated into current body armor systems that currently employ a plate component; that is either damaged, missing or ballistically inferior to the current deployment requirement. This makes recapitilization for body armo and hard armor upgrades economically feasible, as it can be interfaced through replacement, extended service programs, pre-planned product improvements, and technology insertion. Potential commercial applications would be all fields of law enforcement such as federal, state and local jurisdictions, to coperate high-risk security concerns. Both of these would also have international markets. Military concerns such as overmatching, could be ensured by offering a lower threat defeating material substrate composite. The post applications are very diverse, but well within current and future demand.

AMBERWAVE SYSTEMS CORP.
7 Camelot Road
Windham, NH 03087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 425-1965
Dr. Mayank Bulsara
ARMY 00-018
Title:Photonic Devices on Si Using SiGe Interlayer Technology
Abstract:AmberWave Systems Corporation (ASC) proposes to implement its proprietary SiGe interlayer technology to demonstrate lasers on Si with emission in the visible spectrum. The technology employs ASC's proprietary SiGe interlayer processes to accommodate the lattice-mismatch and thermal expansion differences between GaAs and Si. In conjunction, ASC has established expertise in the growth of antiphase-domain-free GaAs on Ge. The final result is GaAs (and other III-V compound semiconductors) on Si of unprecedented material quality. ASC will demonstrate the fundamental technology to develop III-V compound lasers on Si and then commercialize the technology in high-speed computation and optical communications systems. The advantages of such systems will be the combination of the high-performance capabilities of III-V compounds with the low cost and very large scale integration capability of Si manufacturing methods. In Phase I, ASC proposes to epitaxially grow, fabricate, and test a laser on Si that emits in the visible spectrum. AmberWave Systems Corporation (ASC) can produce monolithically integrated III-V compound optoelectronic devices on Si of world-record quality. In Phase I, ASC will validate ASC's state-of-the art materials integration technology by fabricating an efficient and reliable visible laser on Si. The commercial application of such devices include high-speed computing via optical interconnects on Si and integrated optical communications systems on Si.

BEAM ENGINEERING FOR ADVANCED MEASURE
686 Formosa Avenue
Winter Park, FL 32789
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 629-1282
Dr. Nelson V. Tabirian
ARMY 00-019
Title:Supra-nonlinear Nano-particulate Liquid-crystalline Opto-electronics
Abstract:The main objective of the Phase 1 of the present proposal will be demonstration of feasibility of multi-functional highly nonlinear materials for photonics and opto-electronics that possess high sensitivity and allow multiple control opportunities of their responses to electromagnetic influences (such as laser beams, electric and magnetic fields). As prime candidate for such materials we will study liquid crystals (LC) that incorporate internal structure made of nanoparticulate networks. We will use proprietary LC with photo-excitation enhanced record high optical nonlinearity as host material, and nanoparticles of various origins such as dielectric, electroconductive, semiconductive, and magnetic for building reconfigurable networks inside LC. The opto-electronic properties of such a material system will be characterized by spatial distribution and dynamics of LC orientation, by the geometry and the dynamics of the structure of the internal network, and inter-coupling between the network and the LC. Such combination will result in the highest number of both control and behavior parameters among all known opto-electronic materials. Coupling and interaction between the network and the LC will ensure sensitivity of the material to a variety of electromagnetic influences and the capability of electronically and optically switchable reconfiguration of the orientation pattern of the LC. Highly nonlinear LC with reconfigurable internal structure will advance opto-electronics beyond their present boundaries of laser beam and optical information control and display. The most versatile multifunctional optical components with strongest light modulating capability will enhance operation of commercial and defense optical systems.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4186
Dr. Bindu Nair
ARMY 00-019
Title:Highly Nonlinear Optical Nano-Networks
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I proposal is to synthesize and characterize supra-nonlinear optical materials in conjunction with nanoparticle networks containing dispersions of highly non-linear optical (NLO) materials. Nematic liquid crystals (LC) doped with methyl red, a photoconducting dye, have shown some of the highest NLO responses recorded to date. Nano-dispersing this dye-doped LC should result in faster NLO responses. Furthermore, nano-dispersed NLO materials can be activated with lower power sources than their bulk counterparts. Fast, low power NLO materials are necessary to develop the next generation of spatial light modulators that are needed for the high mobility applications envisioned by the DoD. Foster-Miller proposes to meet this objective by developing an innovative, low cost, chemically-based method for nano-encapsulating NLO moieties in a reconfigurable matrix. In Phase I, Foster Miller will select the matrix material, produce films using NLO chromophores dispersed at the nanoscale, characterize the material, and test the composite material system for NLO properties and switching speed. Details on the approach and work plan are contained within this proposal. (P-00876) Fast-responding, low-power non-linear optical materials show special promise as optical sensors, and image processing devices. Important applications include protection of sensors and eyes against low energy lasers, advanced (IFF)/Combat ID sensors, image-scene processing for battlefield situational awareness, and countermeasure and protective devices. Other applications include optical computing and image processing.

ATMOSPHERIC GLOW TECHNOLOGIES
2340 Stock Creek Blvd
Rockford, TN 37853
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 583-0985
Dr. Kimberly Kelly-Wintenberg
ARMY 00-020
Title:Decontamination using a One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Cold Plasma
Abstract:Atmospheric Glow Technologies proposes to develop an innovative Mobile Atmospheric Glow Decontamination (MAGDEC) system based upon the patented One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) technology. This advanced system will be a deployable military protection system that will decontaminate highly toxic chemicals and microorganisms on sensitive equipment, personnel protective equipment, and aircraft, vehicle, and shelter interiors. Phase I efforts will focus on neutralization of chemicals while Phase II efforts will extend studies to biological warfare agents including spores, building upon the proven efficacy of the OAUGDP against a wide range of microorganisms. Phase II work will conclude with testing additional simulants and, where possible, CBW agents themselves in collaboration with researchers at Aberdeen Proving Ground. The completion of this Phase I effort will result in the design of the MAGDEC system for the decontamination of chemical warfare agents. The success of the Phase I and Phase II projects will provide the military with a singular means to achieve biological and chemical decontamination of equipment ranging from robust vehicles to sensitive electronic equipment within minutes with no significant production of harmful by-products. An additional arena of use for our design could include domestic Hazardous Materials Management Teams charged with decontaminating buildings or industrial sites following spills or terrorist events.

VIRGINIA DIODES, INC.
8 Deepwater Point DoD SBIR FY00.2 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
DoD SBIR FY00.2 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Army - Navy - DARPA - OSD - SOCOM

---------- ARMY ----------

253 Phase I Selections from the 00.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Jordan C. Bonney
ARMY 00-
Title:Determination of Distributed Modeling System Interoperability
Abstract:This proposal suggests an approach for determining interoperability between disparate distributed modeling and simulation software. The approach is based on the network-level analysis of the information sent between the constituent hosts of the distributed simulation and modeling systems, developer-provided descriptions of data format, and research into an information ontology that can help define the commonality between the disparate systems. Software that can successfully ascertain the interoperability between simulation systems can be used to dramatically reduce the time required to integrate disparate systems. The integration time is reduced because the system integrators can quickly determine what data can be interchanged, the format of the interchanged data, and data timing. Beyond simulation systems, such a tool can be used to assess the interoperability of any disparate distributed systems. Automating system interoperability is a powerful tool for system integrators.

ELO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2443 208th St. Unit E4
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 782-8314
Luan Vo
ARMY 00-
Title:Epitaxial Liftoff for Laser Integration onto Silicon
Abstract:The Epitaxial Liftoff (ELO) Packaging Process for integration of optoelectronic devices onto silicon-based circuitry allows for optimized device performance of dissimilar materials, such as CMOS and III-V laser systems, since the liftoff optoelectronic device structure is grown on its native substrate. In comparison, other proposed techniques, such as wafer bonding and direct grown of crystalline epitaxial multilayers on a dissimilar lattice constant substrate, have very challenging problems with large dislocation densities and thermal stresses. The liftoff optoelectronic and the silicon electronic devices can be processed separately prior to bonding, in a fashion not constrained by the presence of the other. This technique is particularly attractive for low cost, high yield, high reliability, and high performance integrated optical interconnects. Integrating the ELO laser structures on top of CMOS integrated circuits will enable cost-effective and space saving packaging optical interconnection for high data rate communication. The optical interconnects will reduce planar metal interconnects and input/output bottlenecks, thereby, increasing overall processing speed and reducing packaging dimensions significantly. In addition, optical interconnects also reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) due to conventional metal interconnect and wire bonds. Integrating the ELO laser structures on top of CMOS integrated circuits will enable cost-effective and space saving packaging optical interconnection for high data rate communication.

CAE SOLUTIONS CORP.
40935 Camero Place
Fremont, CA 94539
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 226-6021
Mr. Douglas Stillman
ARMY 00-001
Title:Software System for Advanced Warhead Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)/Computer Aided Design (CAD)
Abstract:Advanced EFP warheads provide a number of modeling challenges that must be handled well to make designs feasible, but are very difficult to accomplish with current state of the art general purpose solver technology. A new modular, object oriented hydrocode system including graphical interfaces and optimizers has been developed using the Java programming language. Testing indicates that its performance is similar to existing packages, but the object oriented design of the coding permits it to be adapted and extended at rates that are more than an order of magnitude faster than traditional hydrocode systems. The Java based graphical interfaces are also easily adapted to provide exactly what is needed for a particular design problem, thus, providing enormous benefits to users in terms of faster learning and much less time spent on the warhead design process. Additional modules will be developed in this effort to provide support for advanced EFP designs. The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the usage of non-linear finite elements and hydrocodes for many different kinds of design activities. Much of this increase in use has been the result of rapidly decreasing in computing costs. Over the past two years, however, the computing costs have dropped to a level that is less than the cost of a specialized engineer to run these systems. Thus, the emphasis in mechanical simulation technology must necessarily be shifted from the traditional one of high performance computing oriented products to one of more user friendly and intelligent systems. A separate problem is that non-linear finite element software simply cannot address all of the problems presented by engineering. Thus, today's software is both too complex and frequently inadequate for a given systems' unique needs. Another complication is that the time necessary to train an engineer to properly use the general purpose software systems if frequently greater than the average time he is likely to stay at a company. The software system developed under this contract is being done using the Java programming language which represents a major change from the traditional usage of Fortran. A modern object oriented programming structure for the system is used which allows numerical methods that are ideally suited to mechanical design problems to be implemented along with appropriate graphical user interfaces. Testing has shown that newer releases of Java are only slightly slower than Fortran for scientific programming. Most specific problem classes, however, have properties that can be exploited to make the Java based simulations even faster than the general purpose Fortran systems. With an object oriented modeling system, it is possible to produce better and faster simulations and designs at lower overall cost, including the customization of the software system. A final benefit of the system is that the Java language provides immediate access to standardized interfaces for a variety of technologies which are taken for granted in consumer software, but largely absent from mechanical engineering software. The most important of these are internet technologies, database interfaces and multimedia. A proper exploitation of these capabilities will provide productivity improvements to engineers for a long time to come.

NOVA R&D, INC.
1525 Third St., Suite C
Riverside, CA 92507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 781-7332
Dr. Martin Clajus
ARMY 00-002
Title:Development of Polarization Free CdZnTe Detector Arrays for Ultra-Fast Hyperspectral X-Ray Imaging
Abstract:X-ray imaging has become an essential tool in various medical, industrial, and military applications. In its most advanced form, this method combines the shape information obtained in the imaging process with spectral information obtained by measuring the attenuation of the x-rays at different energies. Immediate discernment of material composition defects and anomalies at production rates in all kinds of products requires fast imaging. Therefore, ultra-fast hyperspectral imaging will be an important next step in this field. CdZnTe is the detector of choice at present for hyperspectral imaging because it works at room temperature with excellent energy resolution and it has a large atomic number (Z), which is essential for high sensitivity detection of x-rays. However, polarization in these detectors at high x-ray rates is hampering the application of CdZnTe to hyperspectral imaging. We propose to study this effect in CdZnTe detector arrays and develop polarization free detector arrays for room temperature ultra-fast hyperspectral x-ray imaging. Commercial Applications: The first application we propose is for automatic baggage inspection for contraband such as explosives, agricultural products, drugs and currency. Today, baggage inspection is limited to transmission/absorption image reconstruction. To detect, identify, characterize and quantify the various items, the system must also be able to detect and quantify the energies of the characteristic x-rays that are produced by the items in the bag, box or container. Federal Government Use: High-quality, CZT-based, detection systems can be used by both government and industry. Baggage inspection is a prime example of government use. Other applications, such as the medical and industrial imaging, are also of major interest to federal, state, and local government agencies. Therefore, the government sector can be a major market for the proposed detector system.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-1167
Dr. Gerald Entine
ARMY 00-002
Title:CZT Arrays for Ultra-fast X-ray Imaging
Abstract:Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is the room temperature x-ray detector of choice for non-destructive imaging applications. Monolithic arrays with high count rate capability (> 1 x 106 counts/pixel) are required for ultra-fast hyperspectral x-ray imaging. Presently, the yield of CZT arrays which can perform hyperspectral imaging in milliseconds, is very low. Most monolithic arrays suffer from "polarization" when exposed to high flux levels (> 106 photons/sec-mm2) which are required for rapid imaging. Polarization is manifest as a leveling off or reduction in count rate when incident flux is increased beyond a certain level. The goal of this Phase I program is to identify the underlying cause(s) of polarization in monolithic CZT arrays at high count rates and determine means to prevent polarization within the arrays. To achieve this goal we will experimentally explore the dependence of high count rate induced polarization on (1) CZT crystallinity, (2) CZT crystal orientation, (3) monolithic array geometry, and (4) electrodes and surface treatment. Additionally, a new source of CZT will be evaluated to determine if polarization can be eliminated through improved crystal growth. Monolithic CZT arrays with high count rate capability would enhance imaging systems which require detector arrays with energy resolution and high throughput for fast, accurate imaging. Benefits realized in the medical field would include bone densitometer systems and combined emission/transmission computed tomography (ET/CT) systems with increased throughput. This would enable the benefits of such imaging systems, namely, the acquisition of information vital for medical diagnostic purposes, to be available to more people. In industrial inspection system applications, such arrays would enable rapid and accurate identification of objects hidden from sight. Potential commercial applications of CZT arrays with high count rate capability include baggage scanner systems in airports, bone densitometer systems in hospitals, and high speed imaging systems in research hospitals.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 351-4440
Dr. Larry L. Burton
ARMY 00-003
Title:Innovative Acoustic Sensor(s) for Multiple Acquisition
Abstract:Current Army acoustic ground sensors are able to detect, track, and classify single vehicles but have great difficulty in performing these functions when multiple closely spaced vehicles are involved. However, it is precisely this capability that is of greatest interest to field commanders, who want to know the numerical size of an enemy mechanized force. To meet this need, ORINCON proposes to develop acoustic algorithms capable of identifying and counting all vehicles within a 1000m square grid. During Phase I, we will define operational scenarios, evaluate alternative sensor configurations, analyze data from acoustic ground sensors, and develop and validate the required acoustic algorithms. This effort will build on previous ORINCON experience in acoustic detection and classification for the Army, Navy, and DARPA; adaptive beamforming for the Navy; and tracking and data fusion for a number of DoD customers. During Phase II, we will implement the recommended sensor configuration, fine tune the algorithms for real-time operation, and conduct a proof-of-principle demonstration in a target-rich field environment. Success during Phase II will allow for transition of these algorithms to other military battlefield surveillance and perimeter monitoring applications. Commercial applications also exist for airport and industrial security and highway traffic monitoring and control. The detection, classification, and counting algorithms for acoustic ground sensors developed for this SBIR will provide a significant enhancement to US Army battlefield awareness capabilities by providing field commanders with information necessary for decisions about fire missions. Our commercialization strategy involves multiple components, including transitioning of these algorithms to other military applications, such as perimeter monitoring, and potential inclusion of this software as a special option feature of our RIPPENr software package that we sell commercially. We also plan to investigate the civilian application, through license agreements, of these acoustic algorithms to airport and industrial security and highway traffic monitoring and control.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. John Spadaro
ARMY 00-003
Title:Innovative Acoustic Sensor(s) for Multiple Target Acquisition
Abstract:Current acoustic unattended ground sensor systems have the capability of detecting, characterizing and localizing vehicle targets with relatively large surveillance areas. One of the major shortfalls of these systems is their inability to perform effectively in multi-target clutter environments. Specifically, the system ability to estimate the number and types of targets when groups of targets are present such as convoys with closely spaced vehicles is limited. The proposed effort presents a multi-target counting (MTC) algorithm based on beam steering and a fuzzy logic volume of noise estimate to attack this problem. One of the keys to the proposed solution is a simulation embedded in the algorithm which allows for iterative estimates of the types and number of targets to in a surveillance area. The algorithm will be tested using simulation techniques previously developed for use with the US Army Scout UAV program, LOSAS (currently a successful Phase II program at SARA). SARA brings over 40 years of combined acoustics experience to bear on the problem leveraging their familiarity with target signatures, sensor technologies, advanced algorithm development and acoustic sensor system architecture. Potential applications will come from organizations requiring acoustic information from remote locations for the performance of their responsibilities. These would include US Army and US Marine special ops, infantry, artillery forward observers, and intelligence; and an assortment of government/private agencies responsible for law enforcement, border surveillance (alien and drug interdiction), remote search and rescue, airport noise monitoring, and environmental assessment.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mr. W. Dodd Stacy
ARMY 00-004
Title:Human Amplification System
Abstract:Creare proposes to develop an intelligent, powered load handling system adapted to the rapid transport of artillery rounds between a support vehicle and a firing platform, or between vehicles. The semi-autonomous system mounts to the support vehicle and transfers loads directly between one crew member working in the bed of the vehicle and one crew member stationed near the weapon's breech. The Phase I effort will produce an engineering design package and a dynamic CAD simulation of the system in operation. The Phase II program will develop and demonstrate a prototype system and conduct extended testing over the full spectrum of applicable platforms, vehicles, and ammunition packaging configurations. The proposed system will reduce injury, reduce labor costs, speed the delivery of goods and materials, and improve the productivity of transportation assets. Commercial applications span the entire trucking and delivery spectrum, especially where product is packaged in manageable but heavy units, such as 80 lb sacks, and unloaded by hand. Transfers involving elevation change will be eased substantially.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Paul G. Gonsalves
ARMY 00-005
Title:Integrated Software Environment for Battlespace Digital Mapping and Target Range Acquisition
Abstract:The explosive growth in information technology provides a tremendous opportunity for enhancing US warfighting capabilities. The associated digitization of the battlespace, in tandem with deployment of highly capable sensor systems, provides a tremendous opportunity to enhance battlespace operations. Additionally, the use and proliferation of Geographic Information Systems (GISs) and digital mapping can further enhance military situation awareness and visualization. These advances have substantial application for the development of improved tactical fire control support systems for target-rich multi-shooter environments. Here we propose an Integrated Software Environment (ISE) for Battlespace Digital Mapping and Target Range Acquisition. Our novel system integrates: an in-house battlefield simulation and visualization software environment with an embedded COTS-based GIS processing for digital mapping support and target range acquisition; and a geometric approach for target location prediction augmented with conventional estimation algorithms. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing fire control support systems and addressing information dominated battlespace requirements. Our Phase I effort will: 1) identify system requirements and scope; 2) formulate and design a limited-scope prototype ISE ; 3) develop a working concept prototype; 4) demonstrate its use and assess overall feasibility in a selected scenario; and 5) develop requirements for follow-on development and commercialization. We see several potential applications of the developed technology. Direct application of the developed ISE exists to DoD C2 and fire control support systems. Generalization of the developed GIS processing and visualization system to other domains, in particular, law enforcement and search and rescue is also apparent. Additionally, we see opportunities for enhancement of our Intelligent Agent Toolkit (IAT) product via the incorporation of the software development environment and visualization components of the proposed ISE.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Mr. David Lee
ARMY 00-006
Title:Digital Wideband Antijam Technology for Global Positioning System (GPS) Protection
Abstract:The proliferation of inexpensive low-power GPS jammers is an increasing concern. These battery-powered jammers are a menacing problem because they can deployed by the hundreds the air by tethered ballons, for example, or concealed on the ground. These low-power jammers operate for several days on a battery pack. Small jammers may be difficult to find and individually are considered low-value targets. Wideband low-power jammers often modulate high-speed CW swept or Chirp interference in order to appear like noise in the frequency spectra. Most spectral analyzers use Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) methods to estimate spectral energy of RF signals. Real time frequency domain filtering using the FFT and inverse FFT has been demonstrated to extract frequency-stable narrow band CW interference in GPS bands. However, Fourier techniques are not effective against frequency-agile sources of interference, which are rapidly being aggressively marketed. In order to address the frequency-agile interference problem, modern spectral analysis techniques such as wavelet analysis are better suited. The singular advantage of wavelets is the multi-resolution time-frequency signal analysis property.(i) Wavelet sub-band coding and filter banks is a promising new signal processing algorithm has been demonstrated to be an effective means gaining of 20-30 dB J/S for spread-spectrum receivers. Wavelet sub-band filters was performed by introducing frequency-agile interference (high-speed swept and chirp) on C/A band of GPS down converted and post-processed. Although the results are promising, the work was not advanced to a wideband (P-code) GPS real-time implementation. (ii) The wavelet sub-band filter technique has been demonstrated to add 20-30 dB of J/S in direct sequence spread spectrum receivers against a catalog of frequency agile jammers. In order for this work to yield practical benefits for tactical system, the algorithm needs transition real-time over a 20 MHz band. This technique can be implemented without high latency. Spectral interference rejection by digital signal processing does not require a special antenna. In addition, it does not assume constantly radiating interference. These issues affect spatially interference rejection (CRPA) approaches. The inherent processing latency is fixed unlike the null steering antennas, which do not converge upon best performance when platform dyamics and interference transmission cycles on and off. Spectral filtering has been demonstrated to be affective against multiple jammers simultaneously, while spatial filters performance degrades substantially with each additional null and has a hard limit of (N-1) jammers. As a result, DSP using wavelet filter banks may be used stand alone or complementary anti-jam technique within a layered approach.

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY & SYSTEMS
5220 Pacific Concourse Dr.
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 643-1315
Mr. Stephen F. Rounds
ARMY 00-006
Title:Low Cost GPS Anti-Jam Processor for Wideband Antijam Protection
Abstract:STS will demonstrate the feasibility of a low cost, GPS Anti-jam Processor (GAP), utilizing Space Time Adaptive Processing techniques to cancel wideband noise jamming of GPS signals (L1 & L2) and provide 60 dB of jamming protection. The GAP is a pre-correlation spatial and spectral jammer canceller, with a scaleable architecture. As a low power silicon device, the GAP is immune to changes in performance due to shock, and therefore especially suitable for volume restricted, precision guided weapons, such as gun launched projectiles. Detailed simulations of the GAP chip were conducted under a DARPA/NCCOSC program entitled "Anti-Jam Enhancements to Direct Y Fast Acquisition." In Phase 1, STS will review the detailed simulations from the DARPA program and study the benefits/risks of implementing the GAP in Phase 2 as an FPGA or as an ASIC. In Phase 1 STS will also define the requirements for a Phase 2 discrete RF section, GPS core software and test plan. Phase 2 will produce an FPGA/ASIC implementation of the GAP and demonstrate its anti-jam performance with a SAASM GPS receiver. The ultimate goal is to produce GAP chips that will cheaply and effectively protect GPS receivers, in precision guided munitions, from wideband jamming. STS's proposed demonstration will prove the feasibility of a low cost, low power, single chip anti-jam processor capable of providing over 60 dB of wideband jamming protection. The performance, size and flexibility of the digital GAP chip surpasses any RF or antenna based anti-jamming process, especially for low cost, small size, high production rate applications such as gun launched projectiles. STS studies show that the use of temporal processing not only equalizes the channel to reject wideband jamming, but also compensates for channel mismatches. Null depths of 50dB are shown to be readily achievable with a small number of temporal taps. The GAP chip is also very useful in commercial applications where protection from unintentional interference from other RF sources is needed or in cases such as commercial aviation where protection from terrorist jamming may be necessary.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
427 South 166th Street
Omaha, NE 68118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(402) 333-2992
Mr. Richard A. Flanagan
ARMY 00-007
Title:Shoot & Scoot Assistant
Abstract:A military combat unit must "see" the battlefield better than the enemy, decide sooner than the enemy to what to do, "move" to see the enemy and fight effectively and "shoot" to destroy the enemy. As the US Army moves toward weapons systems for the digital battlefield, newer, lighter weight and more capable hardware is emerging. These digital data sources may not realize better "seeing", that is, situational awareness. Cognitive task load will be overwhelming if the crew is to interpret and distill the data, deciding what to do fast. Well-informed troops will outstrip a rogue enemy in a combat environment. It's all about whom gets into firing position, first. We propose to first integrate the incoming data to assist the crew in reducing the great amount of incoming data into a timely, relevant, situational awareness picture (the "see" task) and secondly, provide the crew an corresponding, real-time course-of-action aiding based upon the awareness and the crew's mission objectives. Together, these two opportunities form the "Shoot & Scoot Assistant". We will define an agent architecture that supports reuse, all mission phases and conforms to the Technical Architecture. Non-military applications of the agent-based decision aid are the category of where high personal risk needs a "battle-drill" decision aid. Examples include a very wide range of adaptable aids. For example: (1) highway patrolman using a police car aid with digital links during a chase reduces lethal consequences to the patrolman or public, (2) a plant operator's console aid at an industrial production line where fast-acting decisions during automated assembly when equipment malfunctions reduce product waste and increases employee safety and (3) airline flight crew warning, caution & advisory systems reduces crew workload during moments of high stress.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
ARMY 00-007
Title:Intelligent Software Agents for Battlefield
Abstract:Autonomy technologies are key and revolutionary technologies that are needed to fulfill weapon crew operations on the future digital battlefield. This project develops the intelligent software agents consisting of automation in multi levels, knowledge base, inference mechanism, and communication. The proposed intelligent software agents for battlefield not only takes advantage of innovative techniques of individual decision and control methodologies but also, more significantly, emphasizes the synergism among all subsystems to assure the overall system performance. In this project, design issues involved in the choice of a hierarchical intelligent control and health monitoring system architecture, and methods for interfacing elements of the resulting hybrid system are investigated. Efficient and adaptive computational schemes are developed by integrating planning and decision, soft computation, autonomous control, and discrete event control techniques to enhance accommodation of environmental and operational changes. A modeling, design, analysis, and simulation environment is established to implement the system architecture, and environment recognition and adaptation. The performance of the intelligent software agents will be demonstrated and evaluated for battlefield applications. The techniques and systems developed in this project provide technology that can be exploited in various military and commercial applications, such as manufacturing, precision machine tools, process control, smart highway systems, smart weapons, robotics, defense manufacturing and command and control.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 618-1064
Mr. Ken Graves
ARMY 00-007
Title:Adaptable Cognitive Decision Aids For Embedded Weapon Applications
Abstract:The reduction of crew sizes in new Army systems such as Future Combat System (FCS) is threatening to overload the cognitive abilities of the remaining operators. Since past technology advances have already served to automate many of the rote procedural tasks contributing to crew workload, much of the remaining improvement must come through application of automation and aiding for the more complex cognitive tasks, such as interpretation of trends and patterns. A need exists for developing cognitive decision aiding capabilities that reduce cognitive workload of combat systems crews. Proposed effort will develop a cognitive decision aid for FCS addressing the function of tactical trends and patterns analysis for prediction of enemy actions based on current states. Cognitive modeling techniques will be employed first to understand user requirements, then to create a suitable decision aid design and to implement the aid using the iGENT cognitive modeling tool. It will be scaleable and reusable in accordance with ARDEC's component-based reference architecture concepts and will conform to Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTAA), Appendix F. The Phase I prototype will include an executable cognitive model of the trends and patterns analysis process, implemented as a "plug and play" component suitable for use in other systems. This decision aid will fill a need for development of decision aids to reduce cognitive workload on combat systems operators. The reusable cognitive model developed for this program will reduce the costs of software development for other cognitive decision aids to be used on these systems. The concepts and implementations will serve as a technical base for technology insertion into a number of Army Science and Technology Objective (STO) programs under consideration for Initial Brigade Combat Team operations. The cognitive model can also be applied to civilian domains such as stock quoting, logistics management, and police operations.

TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
P.O. Box 4233
Anthony, TX 79821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(915) 886-2478
Dr. Alton Gilbert
ARMY 00-007
Title:Adaptable Cognitive Decision Aids For Embedded Weapon Applications
Abstract:A heavy mortar platoon providing immediate indirect fire (IF) support to an Infantry or Armor Battalion (BN) generates and processes many time-critical and mission-critical events. The effectiveness of the platoon is directly related to its ability to deliver On Order missions and Final Protective Fires accurately and on-time, while exploiting terrain features providing cover and concealment for survivability. Recent advances in battlefield communications, the quality and availability of digital cartography, weapon systems technical architectures and intelligent aiding tools for coordinated tactical activity have created new opportunities for information exploitation to increase the operational tempo and combat effectiveness of the heavy mortar platoon as will be required for Future Combat System (FCS) and Force XXI operations. Intelligent aiding of mortar planning including target area coverage, movement, fire-point selection including generation of hasty fire-points while on the move, and the conduct of On-Order and Final Protective Fire missions is proposed. The resulting decision aiding subsystem will be created by using a combination of analytical and cognitive decision processes implemented in reusable software components conforming to Appendix F of the JTA-A, and implemented so as to be installed on the Mortar Fire Control System. Application Programmer Interfaces will be provided for crew interaction using voice, and other non-contact I/O methods. This effort is a novel decision aid approach for tactical systems, in that it attempts to reason across multiple decision factors by applying decision rules and cognitive processes. Such decision processes have been applied to some extent in data mining, but the approach taken here is more adaptive, in that it monitors for conditions requiring reassessment. This approach is broadly applicable to commercial and military decision making situations.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Dr. Patrick B. Chu
ARMY 00-008
Title:MEMS-based Low Cost Mortar Fuze with Integrated Safe and Arm Mechanisms
Abstract:Existing miniature fuzes tend to be costly, inaccurate, difficult to use, and insufficiently small or sophisticated for advanced munition applications. In alliance with fuze manufacturing experts, Tanner Research proposes to develop a novel mortar fuze with integrated safe and arm (S&A), and fuzing mechanisms based on micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Our innovation is to incorporate a smart, programmable MEMS S&A device in the mortar fuze that minimizes size and weight, increases reliability and safety, improves timing accuracy, and reduces component and system cost. Due to its small mass and mechanical nature, our S&A device will be insensitive to electro-magnetic radiation and able to survive high-g accelerations, while minimizing collateral damage. Tanner Research has demonstrated expertise in the designs of MEMS, integrated circuits, electronics systems, and packaging. During an Air Force Phase I SBIR, we have already developed several designs of MEMS fuze systems and performed feasibility tests with spot charges. Our device will be fabricated using commonly available fabrication equipment to ensure low-cost production and ease of manufacturing and technology transfer. Our S&A design will enable the integration of sensors and electronics with a fuzing device in a compact volume (fraction of a cubic inch). Explosives are commonly used by expert operators in mining, construction, and demolition, rescue/emergency operations, and the entertainment industry. Novel, low-cost, and reliable S&A devices can improve the safety and cost of all electronically-controlled explosive systems, protecting both expert and novice users.

KARNATECH, INC.
2046 La Fremontia
South Pasadena, CA 91030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(323) 254-9232
Dr. Karna J. Wahlstrand
ARMY 00-009
Title:Modeling & Simulation of Directed Energy Weapon Systems for Combined Target Effects
Abstract:The modern battlefield will increasingly make use of directed energy weapons, and a simulation of their effectiveness and utility on the battlefield will be needed to guide their development and operational implementation. We propose the first complete validated source-to-target energy transfer computer simulation of the deployment of millimeter/microwave, acoustic, and laser weapons against personnel and materiel targets, including both theoretical models and experimental data. We also consider energy propagation under weather and other environmental effects, with the eventual incorporation of conventional weapons and a simplified two-party war game in Phase II. The combined effects of these weapons interacting at the single target level will be treated with original theories which will demonstrate the resultant nonlinearly enhanced coupling to the target. Our software approach is graphical user interface (GUI)-based and object-oriented, with modular calculation functions and operated standalone on a personal computer. A relational database of kill and incapacitation probabilities and percent degradations will be generated at the completion of Phase II for use in separate force-on-force codes for further weapons system evaluation. Potential commercial applications of this type of directed energy weapons simulation (with appropriate customization to the relevant markets) include PC-based training simulations for prisons and incorporation into more visually sophisticated law enforcement training simulations, both domestically and internationally, and in aiding the development of directed energy weapon technologies in the larger commercial aerospace companies and other military government customers.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Hartmut H. Legner
ARMY 00-009
Title:Modeling & Simulation for Combined Target Effects
Abstract:Directed energy weapon (DEW) systems can potentially become an important part of war fighting for the Army. Although much is known about the effects of millimeter/microwaves (HPMs), acoustics, and laser/white light on materials and entire systems, no general purpose computational tool exists to evaluate the lethality of individual DEWs. There is even less information available on the combined effects of two or more DEWs on military targets. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to remedy this situation by developing a Personal Computer Code for Combined Directed Energy Weapon Assessment (CDEWA Code). This new computer simulation model is envisioned to evaluate the target effects of DEWs by utilizing detailed geometric and material target models that have evolved over the years for detailed conventional and/or nuclear weapon effectiveness. The leveraging of these resources makes the task of creating CDEWA focus on developing the appropriate physical effects models. The complete CDEWA architecture would be developed for the entire set of DEWs and target scenarios in Phase I. The complete CDEWA would be designed, developed, implemented, tested and validated in Phase II. The Combined Directed Energy Weapons Assement (CDEWA) Code would have direct applications in government and industry for evaluating lethal on non-lethal DEW effectiveness. The DEWs include laser, high-power microwaves, acoustic and white light weapons. The CDEWA Code would be marketed as a software product applicable to industry and law-enforcement agencies.

KNOWLEDGE ANALYSIS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
4001 Discovery Drive Suite 390
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 545-9092
Dr. Thomas Landauer
ARMY 00-010
Title:Latent Semantic Analysis-based tutorial and assessment tools for ADL
Abstract:In today's rapidly changing global operations environments, teams often must be assembled and individuals re-trained quickly for new force requirements, new systems, and changing missions. The goal of this research is to produce innovative computer software for individual assessment and team selection, for adaptive learning, and for cognitive performance support environments that exploit the power, economy, and customization enabled by ADL. A suite of recently developed and proposed cognitive tools based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) can contribute importantly to this goal. LSA is a machine-learning system that can build assessment, tutorial, and knowledge-mining agents automatically from existing instructional and archival text in almost any domain. These intelligent agents are constructed in far less time and expense, and with much less need for rare specialists as has previously been possible. In the combined Phase I and II effort, we will create a prototype of an integrated system, called Military Knowledge Forum (MKF). In Phase I we will plan the system, and perfect or develop several critical LSA-based components that also stand alone as useful ADL/cognitive readiness tools. In Phase II, we will create or perfect additional tools and join them into a total distributed group learning and cognitive support environment. Almost every present-day industry or business has a need to train widely distributed personnel frequently in new operating procedures and group problem-solving methods. They must be able to select, re-train and support adaptable individuals and teams. The individuals and teams must be possess and be capable of verbally communicating all necessary task-relevant knowledge. No integratable set of adaptive automatic assessment, tutorial, knowledge resource, and cooperative problem-solving support capabilities, such as those that would be developed for the envisaged Military Knowledge Forum system described herein, exists. The development of technology of this kind would help government and private-sector organizations meet the needs of rapidly changing markets, technologies, and labor forces in a timely, effective and economical manner. In Phase I, features and functionalities suitable for use either in the envisioned integrated system or in other ADL systems will be demonstrated as stand-alone web-based applications. Some, such as the automatic free-response assessment tool, will be of immediate utility in marketed or marketable commercial and military training systems. Component LSA-based adaptive assessment and tutorial tools from this project, even without combining into an integrated system, will be of significant commercial value for development of ADL and private-sector cognitive readiness and distance-education systems. KAT would embed some of these new capabilities in its own current and future Internet-based educational testing and tutorial services, and offer both piece-part components and appropriate versions of integrated learning environments for purchase or licensing by military, corporate, and other training and assessment organizations.

KINETIC RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, INC.
1143 Tower Rd.
Schaumburg, IL 60173
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 884-0662
Mr. Michael Boruta
ARMY 00-011
Title:Advanced, Small, Internal Combustion Engine
Abstract:We propose the development of a small novel internal combustion engine that can burn heavy diesel fuel, with a disk nutating around the rotating shaft (ref.~1). The uniquely novel arrangement of this engine permits the displaced volume of the engine to be used twice per engine revolution, corresponding to what in piston engines would be considered one power stroke per engine revolution. This feature enables the engine to produce the power/volume and power/weight in small power ranges as required in this solicitation, while the external combustion chamber permits burning diesel fuel as in small gas turbines. The potential of the new technology is high, the risk is manageable, and the probability of success high. The engine can exceed the power/weigh and power/volume constraints of the proposal in engines of under 10 kW power while burning diesel fuel. The engine is inherently balanced, with few and small components, enhancing dynamic durability. Scaling issues of the nutating engine have already been examined in previous publications from 2 kW to 500 kW. This engine when developed has very high potential for commercial applications ranging from engines for aircraft to power generation to land vehicles. Its power density can be utilizd to save fuel due to saving weight in the powertrain of land vehicles as well as in aircraft. Lower manufacturing cost is also a plus that would ensure market success.

LOCUST, USA, INC.
8324 N.W. 74 Ave.
Miami, FL 33166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 691-9585
Mr. Robert R. Sellers
ARMY 00-011
Title:Microturbine Feasibility Demonstration
Abstract:A program is proposed to evaluate the feasibility of using low-cost microturbines to meet the U.S. Army future requirements for small, lightweight engines (less than 10 kW power) that operate on heavy fuel and achieve very high power per cubic foot of engine volume. The program will accomplish this evaluation in two tasks; the basic program using today's technology, and an option that will evaluate innovative technology advances. In the basic program today's state-of-the-art microturbine capability will be demonstrated through both analysis and test. A very simple, low-cost turbojet developed for the model aircraft industry will be modified into a shaft engine and tested to determine it's capabilities, including it's power density. Along with the test evaluation, analysis will be conducted to provide an engineering understanding of the engine demonstration. Analysis will include performance, thermal and stress analysis, sealing/leakage evaluation, dynamic behavior, and life projections. In the program option a microturbine in the power range of interest will be conceptually designed using advanced technology features and innovative component arrangements to maximize the volumetric power density. This program will provide the U.S. Army with an engineering evaluation of the suitability of an important class of engines (microturbines less than 10 kW) for use in air/ground unmanned vehicles and to supply power needs for the Army footsoldier. Commercially, this will provide a heavy-fuel, lightweight alternative to small gasoline engines for smooth and safe aero, marine, business, or home application.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS, INC.
521 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Mr. Patrick McGuire
ARMY 00-012
Title:Low Cost Optical Finishing of Transparent Ceramics
Abstract:Glass and polymer coatings applied to sapphire or other hard transparent ceramics offer several very low-cost approaches for optical finishing. In Phase I, MSI will investigate (A) polishing the applied coatings, (B) bonding of polished glass faceplates, (C) replicating optically smooth surfaces using polished mandrels, and (D) very thin coatings as applied. The resulting windows will be characterized with the objectives to achieve high in-line transmittance, low haze, and angular image resolution quality of less than 1 milliradian. All processes developed will be compatible with the PVB bonding/autoclaving used for assembling transparent armor systems. In the Phase I Option, the most promising approaches will be further optimized and preliminary production cost estimates will be made. In Phase II, MSI will scale-up the most successful low-cost optical finishing processes to 12 x 14 inch windows while the optical quality is increased to at least 80% in-line transmission and less than 5% haze. Commercialization of this technology will be facilitated through MSI's on-going business relationship with Raytheon Optical Systems, Inc. This program will provide new low-cost methods for achieving optically transparent hard ceramic windows by eliminating the expensive and time consuming polishing of the sapphire or ALON itself. As a result, transparent armor will be available at substantially reduced costs, thereby opening up new markets for these products. By so expanding the range of applications, the cost of light-weight, large-area transparent armor panels for military land vehicles and aircraft will be further reduced. Commercial personnel security vehicles will also benefit from the technology developed in this program. The sapphire and/or ALON transparent armor will offer protection against small caliber armor piercing projectiles at substantially reduced weight and thickness.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Jon Nebo
ARMY 00-012
Title:Durable, Index Matching, Coatings for Low Cost AlON Finishing
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes a nanoparticle-enhanced polymer coatings approach to significantly reduce the costs associated with polishing and finishing of large area AlON windows. We will develop novel, high refractive index (RI) coatings that will match the refractive indices of aluminum oxynitride (AlON), spinel, and other transparent armor ceramics. This solution-based coating will be able to fill/level the surface imperfections of unfinished or partially finished AlON and provide an optically smooth surface in a single coating step. This will significantly reduce the time, number of steps, and the cost of finishing these high hardness ceramics. We will use Triton's low viscosity solution-based NanotufT abrasion-resistant coating as the platform, and then incorporate surface-compatibilized nanoparticles to tailor the specific optical and other properties of the coating system. We will achieve index-matching by controlling the index and concentration of the nanoparticles, and will thus design coating systems with indices ranging from 1.46 to ~1.9. This range of indices will be used to form graded index and other coating systems with anti-reflection properties. The mechanical properties of the coatings will also be tailored by using this approach. Our approach will make these materials economically viable for a variety of military and civilian applications. Reduced cost, large area AlON windows will see application in variety of military, law enforcement, safety and other civilian applications. The variable index coatings developed here will be useful for a wide range of optical coatings and high index materials may be of use in electro-optic devices.

RADIOMETRICS CORP.
2840 Wilderness Place, Unit G
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-9192
Dr. Randolph Ware
ARMY 00-013
Title:Wind Radar, Microwave Profiler, and GPS Data Fusion for Mesoscale Modeling
Abstract:New developments in atmospheric sensing and modeling present the opportunity for significant advancements in local weather modeling and forecasting. New sensors include wind radar, microwave profiler and GPS networks. These sensors provide continuous wind, temperature and humidity measurements. We propose in Phase I to demonstrate the assimilation of these data into high-resolution weather models and to evaluate the potential of the resulting weather forecasts for military and commercial applications. If the results are promising, we will propose in Phase II to develop a turnkey system using these new data types for local weather modeling and forecasting. Turnkey systems for local weather modeling can be used to improve artillery and rocket accuracy, to predict atmospheric dispersion of chemical, biological and nuclear materials, and for battlefield visibility and weather forecasting. Similarly, commercial and civil applications include local weather forecasting for efficient and safe management of sporting and other outdoor events, construction projects, airports, space ports, and ground transportation.

AZZAZY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
27111 Aliso Creek Road
Aliso Viejo, CA 92656
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 448-7840
Dr. Medhat Azzazy
ARMY 00-014
Title:Non-Intrusive Gas Turbine Combustor Measurement Techniques
Abstract: Abstract not available...

MEGAWATT LASERS
PO Box 24190
Hilton Head Islan, SC 29925
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 342-7221
Mr. Scott J. Hamlin
ARMY 00-015
Title:Compact Laser Igniter for Medium Caliber Cannon
Abstract:Medium caliber cannons, such as the Army's M230 chain gun, currently utilize a high current electrical pulse to initiate the propellant. While electrical ignition is reliable, electrical based primers are susceptible to premature ignition from EMI, EMP, or other stray or directed electromagnetic sources. In the event of a weapon jam, electrically initiated primers are potentially dangerous as the potential for a static electrical discharge results in a risky task to safely unload and free the jammed mechanism. Furthermore, current electrical based primers contain lead styphnate, which is considered an environmentally hazardous material. The proposed effort will research the design characteristics of a laser igniter, suitable for replacement of existing electrical ignition systems, as used in small and medium caliber cannons. In addition to being inherently electromagnetically safe, laser ignition systems provide the possibility of utilizing `Green' or environmentally friendly propellants, primers, and boosters, thereby eliminating hazardous materials used in conventional primers and possibly reducing ammunition costs. As the intended application is for rotorcraft, particular attention will be directed to minimizing size, weight and power consumption while maintaining the structural integrity to withstand high shock/vibration levels. In addition to providing a safer, more environmentally friendly ignition systems for medium caliber cannons, the proposed research effort will benefit other laser ignited armament systems as well as provide potential commercial and military applications for miniature laser technology. Applications for the technology developed under this effort include remote sensing, such as ranging, chemical/biological sensing, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, as well as medical applications including dermatology, dentistry, and surgery.

BIOCRYSTAL, LTD.
575 McCorkle Boulevard
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 818-1170
Dr. Emilio Barbera-Guillem
ARMY 00-016
Title:Synthesis and Functionalization of Quantum Dots for Bio Agent Detection
Abstract:A new class of fluorescent nanocrystals offers the prospect of replacing organic dyes for many fluorescence detection and analysis schemes commercially in use. BioCrystal has developed a family of proprietary fluorescence-based detection reagents which utilize a semiconductor nanocrystal core(CdSe) encased in a semiconductor(ZnS)shell and one or more organic layers which confer water solubility, as well as reactive sites which may be used to bind molecules such as affinity ligands to the functionalized nanocrystal. They are monodisperse and resist photobleaching. The Phase I work effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the following:(1)the use of a continuous flow production technique to produce monodisperse CdSe nanocrystals (CdSeNC) of uniform size in different colors to industrial proportions;(2)the industrial scale production of water-soluble, functionalized CdSeNC, including the production and purification of avidin-labeled CdSeNC;(3)the conjugation of functionalized CdSeNC to bioreceptors, and their use for detection by FRET or aggregation testing. This work will preface the Phase II objective of developing a procedure for the detection of bio-contaminants using functionalized CdSe nanocrystals, and, in parallel, to produce a miniaturized, autonomous sensor device to perform this procedure under continuous use, or during desired periods of time. Multiplexing, constant emission, particulate structure and energy transfer are inherent characteristics which afford fluorescent CdSe nanocrystals a number of advantages over fluorochromes for use in detecting multiple bio-contaminants in sensor devices, and for a number of other commercial uses: as DNA/RNA probes in qualitative disease detection; viral genotyping; automated biological assays for high throughput screening (HTS) applications in drug discovery; fluorescence-based histological studies, including the identification of cancerous tissue, and as encoded beads in multi-dimensional micro-assay formats.

USA ARMORING
5816 E. Shields Avenue, Suite
Fresno, CA 93727
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(559) 292-3185
Mr. Murray Neal
ARMY 00-017
Title:Flexible-Modular Body Armor For Armor Piercing Protection
Abstract:The overall objective of this proposal is to develop body armor capable of defeating high power rifle threats that are designed as armor piercing; in a flexible manner, that is thinner, lighter, multiple threat resistant, and capable of sustained multiple repeat hits. This armor will also be configured in two formats: conceallable and overt tactical. This armor will be substantially superior to current utilized plate technology with its limited capabilities. Potential post military applications would be flexible and rigid varieties of the same armor, designed for attachment to vehicular, vessel and aircraft upgrade armor applications. This has exceptionally mid to long term enhancements for the U.S. military. This leads to the recapitalization requirement the U.S. Army has to ensure that its equipment remains safe to operate and to provide soldiers with reliable and effective systems to go to war. This new felxible high power armor piercing rifle protection system can be easily integrated into current body armor systems that currently employ a plate component; that is either damaged, missing or ballistically inferior to the current deployment requirement. This makes recapitilization for body armo and hard armor upgrades economically feasible, as it can be interfaced through replacement, extended service programs, pre-planned product improvements, and technology insertion. Potential commercial applications would be all fields of law enforcement such as federal, state and local jurisdictions, to coperate high-risk security concerns. Both of these would also have international markets. Military concerns such as overmatching, could be ensured by offering a lower threat defeating material substrate composite. The post applications are very diverse, but well within current and future demand.

AMBERWAVE SYSTEMS CORP.
7 Camelot Road
Windham, NH 03087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 425-1965
Dr. Mayank Bulsara
ARMY 00-018
Title:Photonic Devices on Si Using SiGe Interlayer Technology
Abstract:AmberWave Systems Corporation (ASC) proposes to implement its proprietary SiGe interlayer technology to demonstrate lasers on Si with emission in the visible spectrum. The technology employs ASC's proprietary SiGe interlayer processes to accommodate the lattice-mismatch and thermal expansion differences between GaAs and Si. In conjunction, ASC has established expertise in the growth of antiphase-domain-free GaAs on Ge. The final result is GaAs (and other III-V compound semiconductors) on Si of unprecedented material quality. ASC will demonstrate the fundamental technology to develop III-V compound lasers on Si and then commercialize the technology in high-speed computation and optical communications systems. The advantages of such systems will be the combination of the high-performance capabilities of III-V compounds with the low cost and very large scale integration capability of Si manufacturing methods. In Phase I, ASC proposes to epitaxially grow, fabricate, and test a laser on Si that emits in the visible spectrum. AmberWave Systems Corporation (ASC) can produce monolithically integrated III-V compound optoelectronic devices on Si of world-record quality. In Phase I, ASC will validate ASC's state-of-the art materials integration technology by fabricating an efficient and reliable visible laser on Si. The commercial application of such devices include high-speed computing via optical interconnects on Si and integrated optical communications systems on Si.

BEAM ENGINEERING FOR ADVANCED MEASURE
686 Formosa Avenue
Winter Park, FL 32789
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 629-1282
Dr. Nelson V. Tabirian
ARMY 00-019
Title:Supra-nonlinear Nano-particulate Liquid-crystalline Opto-electronics
Abstract:The main objective of the Phase 1 of the present proposal will be demonstration of feasibility of multi-functional highly nonlinear materials for photonics and opto-electronics that possess high sensitivity and allow multiple control opportunities of their responses to electromagnetic influences (such as laser beams, electric and magnetic fields). As prime candidate for such materials we will study liquid crystals (LC) that incorporate internal structure made of nanoparticulate networks. We will use proprietary LC with photo-excitation enhanced record high optical nonlinearity as host material, and nanoparticles of various origins such as dielectric, electroconductive, semiconductive, and magnetic for building reconfigurable networks inside LC. The opto-electronic properties of such a material system will be characterized by spatial distribution and dynamics of LC orientation, by the geometry and the dynamics of the structure of the internal network, and inter-coupling between the network and the LC. Such combination will result in the highest number of both control and behavior parameters among all known opto-electronic materials. Coupling and interaction between the network and the LC will ensure sensitivity of the material to a variety of electromagnetic influences and the capability of electronically and optically switchable reconfiguration of the orientation pattern of the LC. Highly nonlinear LC with reconfigurable internal structure will advance opto-electronics beyond their present boundaries of laser beam and optical information control and display. The most versatile multifunctional optical components with strongest light modulating capability will enhance operation of commercial and defense optical systems.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4186
Dr. Bindu Nair
ARMY 00-019
Title:Highly Nonlinear Optical Nano-Networks
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I proposal is to synthesize and characterize supra-nonlinear optical materials in conjunction with nanoparticle networks containing dispersions of highly non-linear optical (NLO) materials. Nematic liquid crystals (LC) doped with methyl red, a photoconducting dye, have shown some of the highest NLO responses recorded to date. Nano-dispersing this dye-doped LC should result in faster NLO responses. Furthermore, nano-dispersed NLO materials can be activated with lower power sources than their bulk counterparts. Fast, low power NLO materials are necessary to develop the next generation of spatial light modulators that are needed for the high mobility applications envisioned by the DoD. Foster-Miller proposes to meet this objective by developing an innovative, low cost, chemically-based method for nano-encapsulating NLO moieties in a reconfigurable matrix. In Phase I, Foster Miller will select the matrix material, produce films using NLO chromophores dispersed at the nanoscale, characterize the material, and test the composite material system for NLO properties and switching speed. Details on the approach and work plan are contained within this proposal. (P-00876) Fast-responding, low-power non-linear optical materials show special promise as optical sensors, and image processing devices. Important applications include protection of sensors and eyes against low energy lasers, advanced (IFF)/Combat ID sensors, image-scene processing for battlefield situational awareness, and countermeasure and protective devices. Other applications include optical computing and image processing.

ATMOSPHERIC GLOW TECHNOLOGIES
2340 Stock Creek Blvd
Rockford, TN 37853
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 583-0985
Dr. Kimberly Kelly-Wintenberg
ARMY 00-020
Title:Decontamination using a One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Cold Plasma
Abstract:Atmospheric Glow Technologies proposes to develop an innovative Mobile Atmospheric Glow Decontamination (MAGDEC) system based upon the patented One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) technology. This advanced system will be a deployable military protection system that will decontaminate highly toxic chemicals and microorganisms on sensitive equipment, personnel protective equipment, and aircraft, vehicle, and shelter interiors. Phase I efforts will focus on neutralization of chemicals while Phase II efforts will extend studies to biological warfare agents including spores, building upon the proven efficacy of the OAUGDP against a wide range of microorganisms. Phase II work will conclude with testing additional simulants and, where possible, CBW agents themselves in collaboration with researchers at Aberdeen Proving Ground. The completion of this Phase I effort will result in the design of the MAGDEC system for the decontamination of chemical warfare agents. The success of the Phase I and Phase II projects will provide the military with a singular means to achieve biological and chemical decontamination of equipment ranging from robust vehicles to sensitive electronic equipment within minutes with no significant production of harmful by-products. An additional arena of use for our design could include domestic Hazardous Materials Management Teams charged with decontaminating buildings or industrial sites following spills or terrorist events.

VIRGINIA DIODES, INC.
8 Deepwater Point
Palmyra, VA 22963
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 923-0542
Dr. David W. Porterfield
ARMY 00-021
Title:Integrated Terahertz Transmit/Receive Modules
Abstract:The Terahertz frequency band, from roughly 300 GHz through 10 THz, is often sited as the most scientifically rich, yet unexplored region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The major problem that continues to forestall the full exploitation of the terahertz band is the lack of compact, reliable and cost efficient terahertz sources and receivers. Previous research has shown that GaAs diode technology can be used for terahertz frequency transmit/receive modules, but the cost is prohibitive, the reliability is poor and the frequency agility is limited. This SBIR proposal promises a radically improved T/R architecture based on the integration of GaAs mesas and the associated embedding circuitry on low-loss dielectric substrates. Such integration is the key to improving electrical performance and greatly increasing power handling, while also creating a compact, highly reliable, and manufacturable technology. Phase I will end with a clear demonstration of the potential of this technology. A successful Phase II program will culminate in the demonstration of militarily practical T/R modules in the terahertz frequency band. The integration of terahertz technology is the key to opening this region of the electromagnetic spectrum to military and commercial applications. Successful completion of this SBIR research program will lead to militarily practical Teraherz components. These will find immediate application in laboratories throughout the US and Europe that strive to investigate and develop terahertz science, technology and applications. The military applications of this technology will include communications systems (ultra-secure, ultra-broadband, satellite), bio/chem threat detection, collision avoidance radars that penetrate smoke and fog, space communications, compact range radars, fuses for smart munitions and medical diagnostics.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. W Kowbel
ARMY 00-022
Title:Multifunctional Carbon, SiC and Polymer Textile Fibers Reinforced with Nanotubes for Enhanced Performance
Abstract:Due to poor nanotube-matrix interactions, the exemplary properties of carbon nanotubes have yet to be realized in composite applications. Fiber architectures offer promise for allowing integration and alignment of the nanotube into the matrix, yielding a composite fiber that fully realizes the extraordinary mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of the nanotube reinforcement. High purity single wall nanotubes (SWNT), double wall nanotubes (DWNT) and multiwall nanotubes (MWNTS), relatively free of contaminating byproducts, can be synthesized and functionalized with a variety of adducts that permits easy dispersion and chemical incorporation of the nanotubes into the surrounding fiber matrix. In a team effort between MER and the University of Kentucky (UK), as-grown and functionalized nanotubes with adducts to interact with the fiber matrices will be investigated to produce carbon, SiC, polyolefin, polyester and polyamide fibers. Both MER and UK have incorporated nanotubes in carbon, SiC, and polymer fibers with very promising results of increasing fiber strength, modulus and electrical conductivity over the base fiber. This collaborative, ongoing effort regarding nanotube fibers, utilizing the resources of the world's largest producer of nanotubes of all types and an institution leading the development of nanotube composite materials, assures that this program will demonstrate carbon nanotube reinforced fibers with significantly enhanced properties. There is an extensive market in textile and carbon/graphite fibers that would be expanded and/or replaced with nanotube fibers exhibiting enhanced properties and specialty textile fibers with electrical conductivity, increased stiffness and strength. Fiber applications include ballistic applications for military and law enforcement, conductive housings such as telephone and a plethora of electronic devices, photovoltaics and even power transmission.

REYTECH CORP.
742 SE Glenwood Dr
Bend, OR 97702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 617-1556
Dr. Thomas A. Reynolds
ARMY 00-022
Title:Ultra-High-Performance Carbon Nanotube-Based Fibers
Abstract:Development of carbon nanotube-based composites offers a promising pathway toward the realization of novel materials for a broad range of military/civilian applications. This SBIR project is focused upon developing multifunctional, ultra-high-performance fibers containing carbon nanotubes (CNT's) that will meet Army requirements in applications requiring fibers that are superior to those based on conventional carbon, polymer, ceramic, and composite technology. The goal is to produce the next generation of fiber technology-paving the way for major improvements in existing fiber-based applications and allowing for new technologies to be tested and implemented. The specific Phase I goal is to establish the feasibility of developing two types of fibers containing CNT's that demonstrate favorable adhesion and orientation within the fiber matrix. ReyTech Corporation proposes to prepare and evaluate composite fibers based on a combination of CNT's and high-performance, robust polymers based on proprietary techniques developed during previous work at ReyTech. Successful demonstration of feasibility will set the stage for initial prototype development under the Phase I Option and for a follow-on, full-scale Phase II prototype development and demonstration project. Success in this multi-phase project will result in a broad range of important military and civilian applications, including the following: high-strength and lightweight composites for armor; structural, electronic, and thermo-mechanical components; protective clothing for chemical and biological warfare; chemical and electromagnetic sensors; electromagnetic shields; and advanced device applications. It is likely that fibers containing carbon nanotubes can be formed to serve multiple, concurrent functions-e.g., as a lightweight structural member that also shields against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or that senses strain, radiation, or chemical agents.

IPITEK PHOTONIC TECHNOLOGY
2451 Impala Drive
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 930-2220
Dr. Araz Yacoubian
ARMY 00-023
Title:Heterogenous Integration of MEMS and GHz Electro-Optic Polymer Modulators for RF Communications
Abstract:Heterogeneous integration of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) with polymer based electro-optic modulators is proposed, to produce compact and deployable modulators for RF photonics applications. Current technology allows fabrication of compact and light-weight modulators, but these interferometric devices are still not truly deployable, because they require control and feedback electronics for balancing and stabilization. Here we proposed to integrated GHz Mach-Zehnder modulators with KHz-MHz MEMS based oscillator and feedback electronics to balance the modulator at quadrature, thus eliminating the need for bulky and power dissipating external oscillators and lock-in amplifiers. The method takes advantage of two state of the art technologies that have reached certain degree of maturity. Polymer modulators have been shown to work at frequencies over 100 GHz with drive voltages of less than 1V, whereas MEMS based oscillators and high Q filters have been successfully fabricated in the KHz-MHz frequencies. Integration will be carried out on Si substrates, where polymer waveguides will be grown and processed on top of MEMS circuitry. Combining feedback electronics will allow 2 to 3 orders of magnitude reduction in size, mass and power consumption over current methods, and will enable mass production and low cost fabrication of high-frequency modulators. The proposed integration approach allows for fabrication of low power consumption, compact, lightweight and deployable modulators to be used for high-speed communication systems. In the commercial industry, markets include telecommunication industries for voice, video and data transmission. Military markets include RF photonics and phased-array radar applications. Both MEMS and polymer electro-optics use the same lithographic processing step on Si substrates, therefore heterogeneous integration has the potential for low cost mass production.

BOULDER NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, INC.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-0077
Mr. Steve Serati
ARMY 00-024
Title:Wavefront Control and Sensing System based on an Opto-Silicon-Integrated Phase-Contrast Technique
Abstract:This proposal describes the design and development of a high-speed, high-resolution wavefront sensing and control system. The system will couple high-resolution analog liquid crystal spatial light modulators with an innovative subtractive imaging sensor. The resulting system will acheive vast improvements in resolution, size, weight and cost over currently available systems. The system will be capable of sensing and correcting strong disturbances in the atmosphere, resulting in a device suitable for astronomy, military imaging, fluid flow measurement and point-to-point laser communications.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3055 Plymouth Road, Suite 205
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 747-6646
Dr. Kazem F. Sabet
ARMY 00-025
Title:Enhanced Computer Analysis and Computer Aided Design (CAD) of Active Radio Frequency Antenna Arrays
Abstract:The objective of this Small Business Innovation Research project is to lay the foundation of a CAD software tool for the design of large-scale active radio frequency antenna arrays. A circuit-based global modeling strategy is proposed that can integrate the analyses of spatially distributed electromagnetic structures, linear passive networks and nonlinear active circuits within a unified framework that can even incorporate thermal analysis self-consistently. The proposed strategy can be utilized in both frequency and time domains. In the Phase I feasibility study, we will interface a general-purpose planar structure simulator based on the method of moments with a general-purpose linear/nonlinear circuit simulator that uses a harmonic balance technique. The Phase I effort will be confined to the frequency domain and the time domain development for transient analysis is relegated to Phase II of the project. The object-oriented software architecture of emPiCASSO, our commercial antenna CAD tool, will be used as the foundation of the proposed software. Active antenna arrays are finding growing applications in radar and guidance systems and wireless communications. The proposed active antenna CAD tool will drastically facilitate the design of such sophisticated systems. It can also be used for global modeling and design of any active microwave circuit.

ETECH, INC.
1310 E. Boston St.
Altadena, CA 91001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 540-1623
Dr. David M. Owen
ARMY 00-026
Title:Blast Resistant Glass Facades for Structural Applications
Abstract:Glass panels are the weakest element in the fa‡ade of any structure. Under blast loading due to accidental or intentional explosion, standard plate glass shatters into dangerous, high speed shards that are often the cause of a significant fraction of serious injuries. Although tempering and lamination with plastics can improve both the strength and failure behavior of glass, they are typically relatively thick and heavy and significantly more expensive. This project is undertaken to develop new design methodologies for light-weight, cost-effective blast-resistant glass. The fundamental design concept involves the multi-dimensional tailoring of the failure behavior through the manipulation and variation of material properties through the thickness and in-the-plane. The approach involves a unified experimental / computational effort. The experiments feature high-speed diagnostics to obtain real-time, detailed quantitative information regarding the response of glass to blast overpressures. The computations feature cohesive elements which enable to the simulation of the complex failure patterns associated with the failure of glass under blast loading. It is anticipated that this approach will lead to the development of a design tools and rules that will lead to the fabrication of inexpensive, light-weight blast-resistant glass panel systems. Through a unified experimental / computational approach tools and rules for the design of blast resistant glass will be developed. In this manner, plate glass having optimized cost, failure characteristics and/or weight can be fabricated. Plate glass having high strength combined with controlled failure behavior in the face of blast overpressures will have use in architecture, automotive and even consumer products - anywhere the shattering of glass poses a significant threat to safety.

INTREPID, INC.
2533 N. Carson Street
Carson City, NV 89706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 622-0240
Mr. Tom Wollny
ARMY 00-027
Title:Broadband Focused Radar at Ground Penetrating Frequencies for Detecting Mines, Unexploded Ordnance, or Mobility Related Surface Layers
Abstract:The above ground penetrating radar systems for close-up surveying of terrain are inadequate for the detection of frozen or thawed soil layers (which is important for mobility determination) and for locating near surface buried objects such as pipes, waste containers, mines, or unexploded ordnance. Current antenna systems are not capable of providing a small spot size at a useful frequency. Antennas that can provide a small spot size operate at too high a frequency to adequately penetrate wet soil. The current low frequency antennas are not suitable for coherent signal processing and accurate ranging due to the non-planar wave fronts at short ranges. We propose a novel antenna approach to cover the frequency band from 10 MHz to 1000 MHz which provides a small footprint on the soil surface A convincing demonstration of a cost effective Broadband Focused Radar at Ground Penetrating Frequencies for Detecting Mines, Unexploded Ordnance, or Mobility Related Surface Layers design would provide the Government an opportunity to provide this equipment to the military forces operating to clear mines, UXO or when operating on frozen terrain. This technique if successful can make a significant contribution to the use of Ground Penetrating Radar at frequencies that really do penetrate the ground. The Military and Commercial demand for this type of instrument is expected to be significant.

ROCKY MOUNTAIN RESOURCE LABS, INC.
801 N. Lincoln
Jerome, ID 83338
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 324-7522
Dr. Bruce J. Bradley
ARMY 00-028
Title:Wet-Vacuum Sampler For Surface Biocontamination Detection
Abstract:In response to possible biological warfare (BW) attack, accurate sample acquisition and rapid detection of point microbial contamination on military equipment, housing and supplies is required for personnel safety and early response strategies. A novel hand-held, wet-vacuum sampling unit (VSU) is proposed, which will allow application of sterile rinse solutions onto diverse material surfaces or textures to promote detachment and recovery of biological agents (BA). Dried material of interest may be pre-hydrated without vacuum as needed to improve microbial detachment. Liquid-suspended BA's are collected and filtered onto a 47mm disc filter within the VSU in a single operation. Liquid transport or resuscitation media may be added. Simple removal of the VSU's final filter will accommodate conventional or rapid detection method (RDM) processing. The feasibility of utilizing Solid Phase Laser Cytometry for rapid detection of microbes directly on the VSU's filter is also proposed. In future R&D, procedure development is anticipated to back-flush microbes off the VSU's filter for PCR, ELISA and other RDM or further processing in liquid. This unique system is projected to offer a more reliable sample acquisition alternative to military and civilian environmental and health safety officers to counter acts of bioterrorism or hostile BW attacks. The proposed microbial sampling system will provide improved health and safety potential for military and civilian personnel by allowing more rapid and accurate sample acquisition and monitoring of contamination from biological warfare and terrorist threats or attacks. Other government and civilian agencies involved in food safety issues resulting from pathogenic contamination of food or food-preparation surfaces and environments will also benefit from the commercial availability of this improved microbial sampling and detection system.

FIBERTEK, INC.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Dr. Ti Chuang
ARMY 00-029
Title:Man-Portable LIFDAR System for the Remote Detection of Clandestine Laboratories
Abstract:The proliferation of clandestine laboratories for illegal drug manufacturing has escalated throughout the years. National total of methamphetamine laboratories seizures has grown from 43 in 1973 to a 2025 in 1999. Last year it registered an increment of 24% compared to the previous year. These statistics only reflects the number of sites that were detected and seized. It is recognized, however, that many more labs are operating than those that are discovered. Detection of clandestine labs is accomplished by a number of intelligence gathering procedures, including reporting of activity by suspecting neighbors. There is a need to insert more advanced techniques to acquire evidence of illegal drug manufacturing activities at a suspected location. The proposed effort will begin with the selection of volatile compounds that will be considered the targets of interest (TOIs) for the duration of the project. An analysis of the fluorescence properties of these TOIs will be performed using 266 nm excitation. A system architecture and performance model for a laser-induced fluorescence LIDAR (LIFDAR) system will be defined. The Phase I effort will end with the development of a preliminary design for this system. Phase II will cover the production of a fieldable system for customer evaluation. The man-portable LIFDAR to be developed under the proposed SBIR program has significant potential for application in military sensing, environmental remediation and biological agent detection. In addition, a market exists for advanced sensors, primarily for airborne biological agent detection. The cost of the proposed system should be low enough in production that sensors based on this technology could be acquired by virtually every single law enforcement unit dedicated to the detection and seizure of clandestine laboratories. We have estimated potential business in excess of >$130 M based on the proposed technology. Not all of this would be realized by a single company, but the business and potential saving clearly justifies investment in this technology by government and industry.

PACIFIC ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
P.O. Box 359
Santa Ynez, CA 93460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 688-2088
Ms. Michele Hinnrichs
ARMY 00-029
Title:Remote Detection of Hazardous Chemicals
Abstract:Clandestine laboratories produce illegal drugs through the chemical synthesis of precursors, reagents and solvents. These laboratories are not only illegal in their operations, but these processes are extremely dangerous because of the hazardous chemicals used for the extraction of the product, as well as the by-products and residues produced. This produces a hazard in operations due to the explosive and safety nature of these materials, and these facilities pose a safety hazard for the government investigative agencies, particularly policing agencies that must enter these facilities. Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed a field portable infrared imaging spectrometer technology (Image Multi-spectral Sensing or IMSS) for defense related applications such as the detection, analysis and warning of numerous targets from missile plumes to chemical warfare agents. PAT proposes to utilize this new IMSS technology and apply it to hazardous chemical vapor detection and analysis. This technology can provide a small, hand held camera that can detect and analyze gases and determine their chemical species. PAT proposes to analyze and test the IMSS technology during the Phase I effort and fabricate a chemical detection camera during the Phase II program. An inexpensive, small, lightweight, portable, hand held "instrument" that could remotely detect and classify hazardous chemicals and vapors would be a tremendous asset to law enforcement agencies in the detection and enforcement actions against clandestine drug labs. Such a camera would also be a significant improvement in chemical detection for the petrochemical industry where fugitive gas leaks are a problem due to both the environmental impacts and lost product costs.

APPLIED THIN FILMS, INC.
1801 Maple Avenue, Suite 5316
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 467-5282
Dr. Sankar Sambasivan
ARMY 00-030
Title:Low Conductivity for Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs)
Abstract:Higher inlet operational temperatures for turbine engines is expected to provide significant benefits in fuel efficiency and performance for both military and commercial air vehicles. To accomplish this goal, new generation of thermal barrier coatings with superior reliability and durability will be needed. While the currently-used zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings provide excellent thermal protection, they suffer from thermomechanical degradation during exposure at elevated temperatures. In this Phase I effort, a crystal chemistry approach is being explored to examine a new family of layered perovskites. Key properties of these highly anisotropic materials include low thermal conductivity (0.7 W/M.K @ 13000C), tailorable CTE to match substrate, and inherent toughness/compliance primarily imparted through weak bonding between interbasal planes. In Phase I, coatings will be developed by plasma spray techniques with subsequent characterization of microstructure, texture, and thermal conductivity. The objective is to induce microstructurally designed features via texture and porosity to further lower thermal conductivity and to improve mechanical properties. The multifunctional nature of these materials will allow for their use in a broad range of applications. Potential commercial applications include TBC coatings for helicopter engines, diesel engine components for low wear and friction, and coatings for MEMS and microturbines.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Mr. David J. Scott
ARMY 00-030
Title:Low-Cost, High-Performance Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Turbine Engine Applications
Abstract:Brayton and combined-cycle (turbine) engines are widely used for a variety of applications, including aeropropulsion and power generation. The performance of turbine engines is limited by the allowable use temperature of their hot-section components. Due to increasingly complex cooling passages and greater turbine temperature and life requirements, current protective coating compositions and deposition/application technologies are inadequate for future turbine engines. In this project, Ultramet will develop a low-cost, low temperature wet chemical synthesis and application technique to produce a superior thermal barrier coating (TBC) system consisting of high melting point, low thermal conductivity, low oxygen permeability oxides. The low oxygen permeability and improved thermal insulation properties, particularly at higher temperatures, of this TBC system will be demonstrated through cyclic oxidation verification testing. This new TBC system for high temperature turbine engines will allow operation at higher temperatures (>=2800øF) while increasing the life and reducing the cost of such systems. Not only will the new coating system allow turbine engines to operate more economically, but it will also reduce coating cost relative to existing state-of-the-art systems. The next-generation TBC system to be developed in this project will have improved thermal performance, longer life, and greater quality comparable to current coatings, with the potential for an 80-90% reduction in cost. Improved TBCs will have wide application to military and commercial propulsion and power generation systems, including turbine and reciprocating engines.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. James Eilbert
ARMY 00-031
Title:Comanche Tactics and Survivability Expert Planner
Abstract:There is a great need for innovative tools to support training, mission planning and cognitive decision aiding for tactics and survivability of advanced rotorcraft systems like Comanche and Apache Longbow. As the Rotorcraft Pilots Associate (RPA) program is demonstrating, recognizing human cognitive limitations and capabilities enables development of cognitive technologies for dramatically aiding aviators to overcome these limitations and take maximal advantage of their cognitive capabilities. The proposed research will identify and characterize advanced mathematical modeling techniques supporting identification of aircraft vulnerabilities, learning, and selection of courses of action (COA). The key innovation proposed, however, is the integration and development of a context-sensitive cognitive agent capable of representing, reasoning about, and deciding in real-time when and how to apply expertise. In this case, expertise includes that required for selection and use of these mathematical techniques, and the expertise in tactics and survivability necessary to enable real-time context-sensitive COA generation and selection. Such a cognitive agent, iCTEP, is inherently compatible with RPA's cognitive decision aiding processes, and utilizes one of the most advanced executable cognitive architectures currently available in a COTS IDE: the COGNET architecture as implemented in the iGENTM cognitive agent software toolkit and integrated development environment (IDE). The iCTEP will be applicable for commericial avaiation and military aviation trainng systems such as the Commanche and Longbow. By the end of Phase II, a desktop planning system is expected to be integrated into a stimulator which will determine which technique (Baysian, etc.) will be optimal for the situation at hand.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 671-0508
Mr. G. Ed Crowder
ARMY 00-031
Title:Comanche Tactics and Survivability Expert Planner
Abstract:U.S. Army attack helicopters are arguably among the most lethal, responsive and flexible components of U.S. armed forces today, and the Comanche weapon system will see that they remain so for the foreseeable future. To live up to its potential, however, the Comanche must also be survivable on the modern battlefield, which in turn demands fast and accurate organic tactical decision making processes and supporting information technologies/tools/systems. An automated Comanche survivability and tactics expert planner (C-STEP) is needed to recognize battlefield situations, support identification of routes and tactics that reduces/minimizes detection by threats, increases survivability, and maximizes target detection and Comanche lethality. An easy-to-use, intuitive automated tool that could aid the Comanche pilot in either pre-planned or real-time selection and evaluation of alternative routes/tactics according to user-selected criteria will be tremendously valuable to Comanche pilots. A tool that could also automatically find and display optimal routes and tactics according to user-selectable criteria will be even more valuable, with the potential to increase the probability of success of any Comanche mission where survivability is an issue. This research will research and prove the concept of such a C-STEP tool. Commercial applications of automated real-time adaptive decision support include transportation applications analogous to the Comanche expert planner problem and financial industry applications where complexity and time-sensitivity make human performance problematic.

THORPE SEEOP
320 S. Nina Suite #14
Mesa, AZ 85210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 969-2021
Mr. Douglas T. Thorpe
ARMY 00-032
Title:Wing-Store Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Abstract:A wing-store unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is presented deployed from widely fielded existing weapons launchers. Computational simulation and modeling of the UAV as it is launched from a helicopter in hover, forward and sideward (crosswind condition) flight is considered. Comparison of simulation with data from a company 100% scale model test flown previously demonstrates accurate results of simulation. The present effort is directed at the preliminary design of the wing-store UAV for use as a "Bird Dog" off aircraft sensor provider. The pre-design UAV will be modeled and a computer simulation of the launch envelope with a helicopter downwash flow field will be conducted. A "Concept Demonstrator" UAV will be built and test flown from a test stand and from an aircraft during the proposed effort. Off aircraft sensor providers such as a "Bird Dog" UAV would have significant benefits to warfighter and commercial aviation users. Law enforcement, search and rescue, and resource managers would benefit from the application of this technology.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Thomas L. Larry
ARMY 00-033
Title:Retrofit Anti-Jam CRPA for Handheld GPS Receivers
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation proposes to design a low-cost, jammer resistant antenna element suitable for legacy handheld GPS receivers. The design will mechanically and electronically interface with the handheld unit and require no change to the receiver. This active antenna device will provide 35 to 40 dB of improvement in the J/S (jammer to signal) ratio. The design itself will use Toyon's innovative electronically reconfigurable antenna (ERA) techniques. Such antennas make use of active control load devices in the antenna aperture. These devices enable the antenna characteristics to adapt to the signal environment. Toyon has considerable experience in ERA design and the design and fabrication of the associated control devices and processes. For this Army handheld application, we have taken Toyon's innovative anti-jam GPS antenna design approach and developed new innovative control techniques that allow it to retrofit the existing PLGR (AN/PSN-11) receiver. The jammer resistant GPS antenna proposed for this handheld unit will fit in a package that is 4-inches long and one inch in diameter. At the end of Phase I a proof-of-concept breadboard version of the antenna will have been designed, fabricated, and tested for its suitability as a GPS CRPA with anti-jam capabilities. Applications range from military applications, including the obvious handheld Army GPS antennas to commercial GPS applications. This electronically reconfigurable antenna concept is applicable for any commercial application of GPS, which is subjected to electromagnetic interference such as business aircraft or helicopters flying in and out of populated areas.

WANG ELECTRO-OPTO CORP.
2140 Newmarket Parkway
Marietta, GA 30067
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 955-9311
Dr. Johnson J. H. Wang
ARMY 00-033
Title:Retrofit Antijam Applique for Handheld GPS Receivers
Abstract: Abstract not available...

ATLANTIC CONSULTING SERVICES, INC.
167 Avenue at the Common
Shrewsbury, NJ 07702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 460-9416
Mr. Mark R. Lambert
ARMY 00-034
Title:Interoperability between Modeling and Simulation Applications and Army Command and Control (C2) Systems for Planning/Decision Support
Abstract:The utilization of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) technology to support the life cycle development, fielding, training and sustainment of military systems has demonstrated tremendous benefit as M&S applications have matured. The benefits of interoperability between M&S applications and Command and Control (C2) systems are becoming increasingly more evident as successful implementations are developed and used in Army experiments and exercises. As M&S technology improves, more successful use has been applied across domains and the benefit of interoperability, particularly in time, cost and effectiveness, has been demonstrated. The purpose of the Phase I effort is to investigate approaches for defining interoperability standards between M&S applications and Army C2 systems for planning and decision support. This will focus on Army C2 systems and constructive force-on-force simulation systems that are used for analysis, training, and as scenario drivers (e.g., OneSAF, Janus, Eagle, WARSIM 2000). This will be accomplished by developing an object model that captures the common data representation requirements to promote better interoperability between M&S applications and C2 systems. ACS will use an innovative approach for this problem through specification of the C2 representation from a purely data perspective that is independent of a particular simulation interoperability architecture. Will leverage significant investment in simulation technology to provide capabilities as part of Future Combat Systems (FCS) that will allow warfighters to "train as they fight."

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Div.
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Tin M. Aye
ARMY 00-035
Title:Spectral Camouflage Holographic Coating for Photovoltaic Solar Panel
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) will camouflage solar panels by modifying the reflective properties of the photovoltaic (PV) silicon cells. In current solar panels, multilayer thin film antireflective coatings and cut-off filters reject some visible wavelengths (mostly blue-green) transmit near-IR, giving them a highly reflective, specular blue-green spectral signature. POC proposes to develop a new holographic coating technology, multiplexing subtractive and additive reflection holographic structures. This can produce solar cells in any color (including black) by combining (multiplexing) three narrowbands primary color holographic coatings, which are flexible environmentally stable, rugged, nonspecular (diffuse), and exhibit no color shift with changes in incidence angle or temperature. The proposed holographic coating is commercially attractive because of its low-cost material and fabrication and compatibility with state-of-the-art solar cell technology. In Phase I, POC will investigate the proposed concept by theoretical analysis and computer simulation, and by experimentally fabricating solar cell coatings in at least four colors: black, green, brown, and tan, and will demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. The proposed spectral camouflage holographic coating will be a new generation of camouflage material, which can be applied to many kinds military equipment, vehicles, command posts, and field stations. The technology developed for camouflaging solar panels will also make solar panels that are integral to buildings aesthetically appealing.

EAST WEST ENTERPRISES, INC.
524 JORDAN LANE
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 534-4782
Dr. RAMARAO INGUVA
ARMY 00-037
Title:ADAPTIVE INFORMATION AND AUTOMATED DECISION AIDS FOR THE WARFIGHTER
Abstract:East West Enterprises Inc. (EWE) proposes a novel method to integrate individual personal profiles of the decision maker into the overall decision making process and human system interface to achieve improved battlefield situational awareness for the command post. Through a technically sound survey and interviews with decision makers personal profiles will be generated. This will involve collection of verbal, non-verbal and neurophysical cues. Using the Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) tool, a model for the decision process in terms of audio (A), visual (V) and kinesthetic (K) responses will then be developed. Using this unique tool, the amount of information displayed as well as the information display system (graphical user interface) will be completely redesigned. EWE expects performance enhancements of several orders of magnitude in the decision making process as measured through more timely and accurate decisions because of improved situational awareness. Not only will this NLP approach improve the decision making process it will help alleviate the problem of information overload in a information rich time critical environment. This new architecture will have many applications in the government and industry. Defense and commercial applications include improved Battlespace Management Communication, Command, and Control (BMC3) human interface systems, improved decision/display aids for pilots, increased safety in the nuclear industry, and applications in the security industry. The new technology would greatly benefit all DOD agencies wherever human systems interface is involved and other agencies such as Department of Energy for safeguards and security of nuclear material, airport security,airline pilots,NASA and pilot decision making and learning strategies.

JONA GROUP LTD.
140 Marine Street
Farmingdale, NY 11735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 420-1271
Dr. Ronald Rothchild
ARMY 00-038
Title:Integrated Computer Mouse (ICM) For On-The-Move Operations
Abstract:Increased use of computers on military vehicles requires operator interface with a mouse or mouse-equivalent, regularly or continuously. The interface is susceptible to influence by vehicle random motion; the differential motion between the mouse platform and the operator's hand, induced by bumps and vibration appears as a random component of on-screen cursor motion that can degrade operator effectiveness. There is a need for a practical mouse-equivalent that eliminates the effects of vehicle-induced differential motion between it's platform and it's control element. Jona proposes to address this need with a combination of hardware and signal processing. The hardware will reduce actual differential motion to a very low level. The signal processing will eliminate the effects of unintended motion that still remains. Objectives of Phase I are: 1. Develop a controller configuration that can significantly reduce vehicle-induced differential acceleration. 2. Design a package geometry that will allow precise use with minimum physiological stress and maximum long-term comfort. 3. Develop signal-processing means to remove unintended signals from the controller output. 4. Demonstrate the rejection of unintended signals by simulation. 5. Prepare a preliminary package design and formulate a test plan for prototypes to be built in Phase II. The proposed Integrated Computer Mouse (ICM) will have immunity to inertial effects up to a generous threshold, and a superior combination of high operator effectiveness with low fatigue, in a low-cost device including adaptive self-optimizing signal processing.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata Das
ARMY 00-039
Title:Network-Based Truth Maintenance System for Tactical Situation Assessment
Abstract:The growing digitization of the battlefield gives the intelligence analyst a unique opportunity to access large amounts of information collected over time across a variety of sensors to achieve an unparalleled level of tactical situation awareness. However, before using this array of dynamically changing tactical information, the data must be correlated and fused, and, most of all, managed in a truth maintenance system (TMS) ensuring logical data consistency. Rather than adopting a highly inefficient logic-based theorem-proving approach to maintain consistency across the entire database, we propose a Bayesian belief network (BN) approach that focuses truth maintenance only on the portions of the fused data relevant to the current assessment task. Each BN is constructed to assess a specific high-level situation in the form of the commander's priority intelligence requirement (PIR). Before posting incoming evidence at a BN node, a truth maintenance procedure is invoked to detect information inconsistency between the node's current state and the state of the evidence to be posted. In the case of inconsistency, the truth maintenance procedure isolates only relevant inconsistent nodes based on the causal dependency of the network. The proposed network-based TMS thus incrementally maintains only consistent BN states to ensure trustworthy situation assessment. Commercial applications of the proposed approach to truth maintenance in situation assessment incorporating Bayesian belief network technology exist in many areas including operation centers for complex process control (e.g., nuclear power plants), financial services, credit verification, loan approval, and rail and air traffic management centers. A belief network based situation assessment procedure that focuses only on the relevant data can also solve the information overload problem in high-value complex operational environments.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison Brown
ARMY 00-040
Title:Geolocations with Distributed Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Sensors
Abstract:Under this proposed SBIR effort, NAVSYS will develop a design for a networked SIGINT sensor architecture use Software Radio signal processing, GPS geolocation, and data fusion techniques to detect and geolocate interference sources. To achieve this propose to leverage the inherent signal processing capabilities available in the next generation of Software Radios being purchased by the US Army to allow them to act as SIGINT sensors in this Software-Radio Networked SIGINT (SRN-SIGINT) architecture. In Phase I we propose to develop the SRN-SIGINT architecture and produce a design for a Software Radio with embedded SIGINT capability to be built under the Phase II project. Our plan is to develop a design that is compatible with the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS). The operation of the SRN-SIGINT capability will be demonstrated using simulation data to show the capability to fuse TDOA, FDOA and AOA SIGINT information from multiple Software Radios. We are also proposing to demonstrate the SRN-SIGINT concept with in-house software radios and a data fusion workstation developed on another contract for GPS jammer location. Under Phase II, we propose to partner with the JTRS prime contractors to enable the SRN-SIGINT capability to transition into this operational program. The SRN-SIGINT capability integrated into the multi-spectral JTRS will provide a powerful yet inexpensive mechanism for collecting SIGINT data and distributing it to a SRN-SIGINT workstation for analysis, using a networked architecture. Commercial applications exist for this capability, embedded into personal communication systems, for geolocation of both interference sources and also personal geolocation in support of mobile E-9-1-1 applications. NAVSYS' commercial partners have applications for this capability for emergency medical response, personal safety and convict tracking operations.

SIGNATRON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
29 Domino Drive
Concord, MA 01742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 371-0550
Dr. Steen A. Parl
ARMY 00-040
Title:Geolocations with Distributed Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Sensors
Abstract:The proposed research will address issues of locating an emitter with unknown waveform, and will assess the potential for improved performance through channel multipath estimation and through the synchronized diversity effect of multiple sensors. The proposed approach embodies a new algorithm that determines the location of an emitter with enhanced accuracy by combining the data from multiple SIGINT sensors in a synchronized network. The approach generalizes AOA and TDOA, normally used in triangulation methods, and combines them into an algorithm estimating location directly. The resulting location can be distributed for digital map display over a wireless virtual private network. Sensor platforms of different capabilities and sizes are automatically combined. Sensors may include random arrays and space-time processing of varying complexity. The approach is based on a new distributed signal-combining method developed by the proposing firm for geolocation of tags. Experiments with this system for known waveforms have successfully demonstrated improved location accuracy. In Phase I the performance with unknown waveforms will be studied through analysis and simulation. Performance improvements will be investigated and compared with other techniques of comparable complexity. A prototype design will be developed for a Phase II implementation planned to be demonstrated in a JTRS-type radio. The primary application is the location and tracking of potential emitters in military operations. The proposed geolocation technique also has many law enforcement and emergency applications for locating target radios. It can be used for the location of callers using cellular handsets or wireless PDAs. In addition, the technology can be used for other emitter location and tracking problems such as locating special tags to find lost children, patients, and pets, as well as tracking parolees, cargo and vehicles.

STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, INC.
1909 Jefferson St.
Napa, CA 94559
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 226-9933
Dr. Chris W. Reed
ARMY 00-040
Title:Geolocations with Distributed Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Sensors
Abstract:SSPI proposes to develop a SIGINT tool that would produce high-accuracy emitter position estimates for a large class of measurement types including propagation time (PT), time difference of arrival (TDOA), frequency difference of arrival (FDOA), and angle of arrival (AOA). If the source is known to be near the surface of the earth and a digitized terrain map is provided, this information can be used to enhance the quality of the estimate. The robustness and general applicability of the proposed Maximum Likelihood approach make it ideally suited for high-accuracy geolocation through the combining of multiple geo-observables from distinct types of SIGINT sensors. The proposed general-purpose geolocation technique can be used for law enforcement and emergency services to locate a transmitter. The technique is also applicable for FCC to locate unauthorized transmitters. Another potentional application is to locate malfunctioning or modified radios in a cellular or PCS communications system.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Greg L. Zacharias
ARMY 00-041
Title:Information Operations Decision-Aid for Rapid Response Individual Vulnerability Assessment
Abstract:Information Operations (IO) preparation typically takes advantage of large staffs and years of planning, with much of the effort focused on well-researched threat decision-makers. The situation is different now, with a rapidly changing focus towards unpredictable "hot spots" on the globe, and with unconventional Operations Other Than War (OOTW) missions. We propose to address this problem by prototyping a decision-aid that compensates for small staffs, short response times, and, most critically, a lack of knowledge concerning the individual decision-makers targeted by a PSYOPS operation. The approach is based on the following: 1) we have available a long-term knowledge store on potential threat groups and their associated key psychosocial/behavioral attributes; 2) we have only limited knowledge of threat individual decision makers, possibly only their group affiliations; 3) we can combine known group attributes with known individual affiliations, to infer likely psychosocial/behavioral attributes of that individual; 4) we can combine key situation characteristics with the inferred individual psychosocial/behavioral attributes, to make reliable estimates of expected behavior in a given OOTW situation. We propose to evaluate different approaches to researching and prototyping this type of decision-aiding function by combining behavioral and organizational knowledge within a hybrid architecture of complementary artificial intelligence inferencing techniques. We see considerable potential for application of the behavior prediction, decision-aiding, and visualization prototype in the commercial area, specifically in high volume, time critical financial transactions. These include the commodities futures market, local and national stock exchanges, and international currency markets where much, if not all, of the market movements are governed by psychological and organizational factors, well beyond the ken of conventional financial and economic analysis. The focused application of a PSYOPS-oriented tool in these arenas could have a significant impact on the perceptions of other players in the market and could translate to significant increases in profit margin for active traders in these markets.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Mr. Fred Reed
ARMY 00-042
Title:Data Sonification
Abstract:A Semiotic Design Methodology for Data Sonification Display of complex information through sound, or Data Sonification (DS), is a promising technology that remains relatively unexploited in both military and non-military information systems. The primary reason for this deficit is the lack of satisfactory design knowledge, methods, and process for economically and reliably deploying DS applications. We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel, unified design methodology for Data Sonification (DS) based on a fundamental theory of sign systems, or "semiotics". Using semiotic theory as a framework, CHI proposes to integrate and extend DS-relevant research and practices into a comprehensive, systematic, end-to-end process for deploying DS applications. This effort will enhance development of DS applications through: maximum use of existing design knowledge, greater synergy of all design phases based on a common theoretical foundation, reduced time and cost to deploy DS applications, and better integration of DS in multi-modal workstation design. This enhanced development capability would open up new opportunities for commercialization of DS technology in a broad range of applications, including data mining, process control, simulation and modeling, software engineering, education and training, and games. In addition, DS has broad applicability anywhere the user is visually disabled or in reduced-visibility environments.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
101 West Sixth Street
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. N.B. Penrose, P.E.
ARMY 00-043
Title:Electronic Warfare Environment Simulator System (EWESS)
Abstract:SPEC proposes to develop an Electronic Warfare Environment Simulator System (EWESS) based on the latest digital synthesis modulation techniques. The hardware-in-the-loop simulator system will be based on SPEC's state-of-the-art Advanced Digital RF Memory (DRFM) Kernel architecture based on its proprietary direct digital synthesis (DDS) coherent modulation core. The Advanced DRFM Kernel architecture's inherent characteristics will provide the EWESS the ability to simulate any radar or communications system in its frequency range, including those with complex emitter characteristics such as stagger, agile, jitter, pulse Doppler, and other scan types. It will be capable of creating scenarios where many different emitters separated by frequency, time and other parameters can be simulated. The system will retain the major beneficial operating characteristics of the synthesizer; low cost, sub-microsecond response time, phase coherence, low phase noise and spurious content, high reliability, small size and weight for airborne or man-portable applications. In the Phase I program, SPEC will work with potential customers to determine required parameters and system performance specifications. Following this, SPEC will determine the key software and hardware components that will interface with the Advanced DRFM Kernel to produce the EWESS. In Phase II, SPEC will build and demonstrate a prototype EWESS. The development of the EWESS will provide the Government with the state-of-the-art in EW hardware-in-the-loop simulation capabilities. This capability is critical for the next generation warfighter. The EWESS technology has immediate application to the digital wideband communications market.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-0610
Dr. Robert M. Brubaker
ARMY 00-044
Title:A 640x512 Short Wave Infrared Mini-Camera for Low Light Level and Range-Gated Imaging
Abstract:Sensors Unlimited Inc. will deliver a 640x512 pixel miniaturized camera utilizing a new Indium Gallium Arsenide focal plane array. The array will be sensitive to the 0.9 æm to 1.7 æm short wave infrared wavelength band. The final camera will include system noise less than 20 electrons for night vision imaging, no image lag at video display speeds, and snapshot-mode exposures less than 5 æs for range-gated imaging. During Phase I, we will design and simulate CMOS readout integrated circuit architectures. The 32 best candidates will be combined in a 128x128 pixel array. The final layout, ready for fabrication, will be delivered at the end of the program. We will also improve the InGaAs photodiode array using a novel buffer structure. The new array will be hybridized to an existing readout to characterize the material. The focal plane array will be delivered at the end of the program. During Phase II, we will submit the readout design to a foundry for fabrication. The readout will be hybridized to an InGaAs array and evaluated. The results will be used to select the best design for fabrication in a 640x512 pixel format. The final FPA will then be characterized and delivered in the final miniaturized camera. The output of this program will be the next generation FPA, with a lower noise readout and improved InGaAs material. Generally, this will allow use of cameras at lower light levels and higher temperatures, which will extend their use and decrease costs associated with cooling. Commercially, a high resolution, low noise device is desired for applications such as night surveillance by civilian police departments, and ice detection for aircraft, bridges and roadways.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 Court St.
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 798-1377
Dr. Charles Ferrara
ARMY 00-045
Title:Real-Time Image Restoration for Generation 3 Forward Looking Infrared Systems
Abstract:Integrated Sensors, Incorporated (ISI) proposes to evaluate a variety of image restoration algorithms for a compact, real-time, high-resolution FLIR implementation. The target hardware solution is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) multiprocessor architecture. These provide the speed of a hardware implementation, while offering the reprogramming flexibility of a general-purpose processor. Algorithms such as adaptive Wiener filters and recursive maximum likelihood / entropy optimizations are among those under consideration. All of these require precise models of the system MTF (Modulation Transfer Function). The Wiener approach is nonrecursive and would be the simplest to implement, while the recursive approaches tend to perform better under nongaussian conditions. A major challenge is to improve the convergence time of the recursive approaches. Innovation is also required to structure these algorithms for an efficient, real-time solution. The algorithms will be evaluated using restoration performance and computational requirements as key discriminants. The performance will be evaluated subjectively on real images and quantified using minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) measurements on simulated data. A hardware solution will be customized to support the most promising algorithm. ISI will include this technology as part of its ImageExpressT commercial motion analysis system, to enhance measurement accuracy. Commercial applications include the enhancement of ISI's ImageExpressT product line and marketing the technology to vendors of high resolution FLIR and consumer video systems.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
Dr. Emile Fiesler
ARMY 00-045
Title:Real-Time Image Restoration for Image Enhancement and an Increased Target Acquisition Range
Abstract:The U.S. Army has expressed a need for improved real-time target acquisition capabilities of strategic systems for tactical applications such as battlefield data collection, reconnaissance, and search and rescue operations. To address this need, Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to develop a super-resolution processor module that will greatly improve the imagery of third-generation, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor systems. The IOS Super-Resolution (SuRe) processor will be a digital signal processor (DSP) chip that will implement a state-of-the-art restoration and super-resolution algorithm in real time. The processor will significantly extend the range of third-generation FLIR sensors, significantly increasing their capabilities for target surveillance and tracking. An image restoration algorithm capable of processing the output of a staring, focal-plane array with a time delay of less than two frames will be demonstrated during Phase I. During the project, IOS will conduct market analysis and identify financial and other support to ensure the successful commercialization of the SuRe processor. The ability of the SuRe processor to function in real time and its significant benefits in size, weight, and cost will make it extremely competitive in many areas where the enhancement of acquired imagery data is desired. In addition to greatly enhancing the target surveillance and tracking capabilities of military sensors, the SuRe processor will be beneficial in non-military applications such as: air traffic control (landing aids and runaway monitoring); improved video cameras for surveillance and security applications; enhanced imagery devices for industrial product inspections and quality control; and numerous civilian airborne-surveillance tasks such as crop and forest monitoring, and the monitoring of land-use.

OBSERVERA, INC.
4451 Brookfield Corp. Dr.
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 444-6905
Mr. Todd Jamison
ARMY 00-045
Title:Real-Time Image Restoration for Generation 3 Forward Looking Infrared Systems
Abstract:Observera, Inc. has teamed with the Sarnoff Corporation to research, design and prototype a real-time image restoration system for large format, low noise IR focal plane arrays (FPA). Phase I will identify and prototype an image restoration algorithm that is capable of increasing the target acquisition range of third generation FLIR systems by 50%. The Phase I "option effort" will look at multiple image restoration techniques as a means of improving image quality. A real-time image restoration system will also be designed that meets the latency requirements with less than 2 frame delay between input of image and output of restored image. The Phase II effort will be characterized by rapid prototyping methodologies, spiral development, and real-time processing objectives. The Observera/Sarnoff Team has a strong record of past performance and proven capability in commercializing advanced imaging and video technologies. Our extensive experience in algorithm/hardware evaluation, real-time video exploitation, advanced image processing, and high-performance computing hardware technology make our team uniquely qualified for this task. Super resolution technology will be incorporated into our commercial video processing hardware and software. This effort will allow high-resolution displays for low-resolution video and digital cameras and allow aerial video images to be more fully utilized for intelligence, targeting, damage assessment and battlespace awareness. Civilian applications for our products include land-use management, utility and transportation corridor monitoring, surveillance, and environmental protection.

EE SOLUTIONS, LLC
219 West Main Street
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 831-8170
Dr. Dennis W. Prather
ARMY 00-046
Title:Electromagnetic-Based Computer Aided Design (CAD) for Wavelength Scale Optics
Abstract:In this effort we proposed to develop an integrated software environment for the rigorous electromagnetic analysis and design of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). To this end, we will develop a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) specifically geared towards DOEs; we will refine, expand and integrate our suite of electromagnetic analysis tools based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method; and we will incorporate both discrete and continuous optimized design methods. The need for such a tool arises from the rapid miniaturization in modern technologies. Manufacturers are pushing for linewidths of 0.1 um and less in mass production. Thus, optical and electro-optical devices fabricated with subwavelength features will go from state-of-the-art to ubiquitous. As the components within these systems reduce to a scale comparable to their operational wavelengths, traditional methods used to analyze their performance become inaccurate. Therefore we propose to overcome this limitation through the development of a computer aided design (CAD) and analysis package that is based on an exact 3D electromagnetic model. The software will be designed specifically for a PC platform and incorporate an intuitive graphical user interface. To create and enabling tool for the burgeoning field of diffractive optical elements and micro-optical devices.

INDIGO SYSTEMS CORP.
5385 Hollister Ave #103
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 690-6640
Mr. William Terre
ARMY 00-047
Title:Micro Air Vehicle and Weapon Sight Infrared (IR) Camera
Abstract:While the advantages of a thermal weapon sight are well-recognized, the disadvantages of all current IR sights include excessive weapon-borne weight (>5 lb), awkward size (>>100 in3), and high power consumption (>5 W). These drawbacks significantly detract from the utility of a weapon sight, making it a burden rather than a battlefield aid. Recent advances in the development of very low-powered miniature IR cameras (i.e. the UL3 camera developed by Indigo Systems) offer tremendous opportunity to eliminate these drawbacks. UL3 stands for Ultra-Low Size, Ultra-Low Weight, and Ultra-Low Power. The UL3 family of uncooled microbolometer cameras has unleashed exciting new opportunities for the application of infrared technology in important commercial applications such as fire-fighting, security/surveillance, and predictive maintenance. UL3 also provides critical new technology to substantially advance the effectiveness of man-portable military systems and micro-sensors. Indigo Systems, in conjunction with Insight Technology, propose to develop a weapon sight based on the UL3 family of miniature IR cameras. During Phase I, a conceptual design of a ruggedized, wireless sight employing a 320x240 microbolometer array will be developed. In parallel, the detailed design of a demonstration sight built around Indigo's ALPHA„ camera will be completed. Miniaturized electronics will be designed to generate reticle patterns and menu overlays on the IR imagery. User controls and a battery compartment will be developed with a strong focus on ergonomics, location, and ease of use. To optimize the design around these and other MANPRINT considerations, Indigo will enlist the considerable experience of Insight Technology. A prototype of the ALPHA„-based demonstration sight will be fabricated as a Phase I Option. The proposed development will result in a configuration of an IR micro-camera featuring an integral battery compartment, user controls, on-screen symbology, and a wireless video link. In addition to its military utility, this complete stand-alone system serves a broad range of man-portable sensing applications, such as firefighter vision systems, law enforcement, environmental and industrial imaging.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8833
Mr. Charles S Kaufman
ARMY 00-047
Title:Micro Air Vehicle and Weapon Sight Infrared (IR) Camera
Abstract:Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) will develop a modular miniaturized uncooled thermal imaging system. The system's camera head will be based on a miniaturized microbolometer sensor head currently under development at ISC. This camera head can then either be integrate with a miniaturized wireless data link or an image stabilization module. When configure with the wireless data link this system is a mini-thermal imaging targeting system for handheld weapons. This configuration will include the camera that will display imagery on a GFE HMD via a short range covert wireless link. The output to the HMD will include an aim sight that will overlay the camera's image. The input to the HMD will be a standard video format that will be compatible with COTS HMD as well as integrate Helmet/HMD currently under development for the US Army. The other configuration will replace the short range wireless link with a miniaturized image stabilization module, and is intended for a Micro Unmanned Air Vehicle application. The technical innovations that will be addressed include the development of a short range covert wireless link between the weapon/weapon sight and a HMD, and the low power miniaturized image stabilization function. The anticipate benefit of this project is the development of a imaging sighting system for handheld weapons and UAV applications. The potential commercial applications include both local and federal law enforcement agencies. A simple derivative of the system (without the HMD and wireless link)

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. Maher N. Kaddoura
ARMY 00-048
Title:Adapting IP QoS Provisioning Techniques to Wireless Networks
Abstract: Abstract not available...

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9551
Dr. Peter Sholander
ARMY 00-048
Title:Adaptable Packet-Switched, Battle Command Information
Abstract:True end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) support for DoD applications requires the integrated use of various protocols and services. Some of the necessary tools include policy management that distributes QoS policy to the network links/nodes, policy enforcement methods, QoS-aware routing for mobile ad-hoc networks, traffic classification, and resource reservation techniques (e.g. signalling support) so that applications can request their desired QoS from a network. Systems that address policy management and policy enforcement are commercially available and gaining acceptance. As such, this Phase 1 SBIR effort will focus on the traffic classification, resource reservation, and QoS-based routing problems, with an emphasis on retrofitting technically and economically viable solutions onto legacy end systems such as Windows workstations and PCs. In particular, SRC will develop an architecture which may use one signalling technique (such as RSVP) between the user and the first network element, and different techniques (such as Diffserv) within the network core. SRC has already developed software technology (IP Overdrive) for the Windows platform that classifies important network traffic, and hence enables QoS in the both Local Area Networks and the network core. Enhancing the existing IP Overdrive software to provide support for resource-reservation signaling will successfully address both the traffic classification and resource reservation problems. Finally, SRC can leverage its existing work on the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) to address QoS-aware routing for the mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) prevalent in DoD tactical applications.

TRLOKOM, INC.
124 Vista Circle Dr.
Sierra Madre, CA 91024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 836-5545
Dr. Jayant Shukla
ARMY 00-048
Title:Security and QoS in Packet-Switched Networks
Abstract:IP is today's dominant networking protocol. Newer version of this protocol is expected to be used in the next generation wire and wireless networks. However, the lack of quality of Service (QoS) and data security are the two major shortcomings of the IP protocol. Unauthorized data or resource access on IP networks has been facilitated by the lack of these services. Trlokom proposes to develop a system that integrates data security and QoS. Our system will use dedicated hardware to improve the cryptographic data processing to the wirespeed. Strong authentication of the data packets transmitted over the network will form a natural defense against the network based attacks, such as the DoS attacks. The APIs for RSVP and Differentiated Services (DS) will be used to provide QoS for the applications. The QoS and security support in our system will ensure proper functioning of the applications even when the network is under an attack. Our proposed system can also be used for building interactive video applications, virtual private networks (VPNs), and multi-level security systems at a low cost. At the end of Phase I, we will deliver an architecture to provide security and QoS to the applications in the IP networks. A security system with QoS and hardware crypto accelerator can be used for various applications, such as virtual private networks, multi-level security system, multi-media multicast etc. This system will provide end-to-end security and QoS that is easy to use at a reduced cost.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4171
Dr. Patricia Wilson
ARMY 00-049
Title:Embedded Antenna Loops for the VHF-UHF
Abstract:The next generation Warrior systems pose a number of challenging problems for communications. In particular, the fast-growing amount of information the individual soldier is required to receive and transmit requires radio and communication systems with increased performance. This need is complicated by current antennas which impede the mobility of the soldier by protruding from the soldier system. In addition, the high loads carried by the soldier put pressure on system designers to seek technology which can reduce weight. What is needed is an antenna system which is conformal to the body and which can be embedded into the soldier system to optimize performance and mobility. Foster-Miller and its partner, BAE Systems, plan to design and evaluate such an embedded antenna system as part of the proposed program. (P-00860) The proposed development of a wearable antenna system for the dismounted soldier will provide a major improvement in communication performance, operational logistics and soldier safety. Body borne, loop antenna technology, which eliminates the need for antennas that protrude from the body, has high market potential in applications such as the following: law enforcement, large system maintenance, wearable computers, and special operations and disaster relief.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4266
Mr. Scott Meller
ARMY 00-050
Title:Bluetooth RF Solutions for Short Range Military Applications
Abstract:Wireless communications are becoming a preferred method of sending information anywhere in the world. Wireless systems have gone beyond radio, telephones, and television, to include computer networks, merchandising services, data systems, and personal communications devices. Advances in technology are making wireless communications easier, safer, of higher quality, and less expensive every month. This rapid development of wireless technology is creating new opportunities and challenges for communications users and suppliers. Recent Army battlefield experiments have identified the need for more effective wireless communications. The military needs RF systems with the ability to self-assemble in ad-hoc networks when brought in close proximity to one another. Short range wireless systems are needed both for dismounted soldiers voice/data communications and for quick network assembly of computer equipment in Command Posts. The opportunity now exists to leverage new short range RF devices developed by the computer and communications industries to military applications at significantly reduced cost. Luna Innovations and the Center for Wireless Telecommunications at Virginia Tech propose to develop a miniature, robust, telemetry system for military applications based on the emerging Bluetooth technology, standard for short range RF communications championed by the major companies in the computer and communications industries. Luna Innovations anticipates large non-defense related markets in industrial preventive maintenance systems and diagnostic instrumentation. Specific applications include spacecraft and aircraft monitoring and control, nuclear/conventional power plant health monitoring, transportation vehicle design and testing, and industrial rotating machine monitoring.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7780
Mr. Dan Bindbeutel
ARMY 00-050
Title:Single Chip, Low Cost, Very Short Range Radio Frequency (RF) Systems for Military Applications
Abstract:Recent advancements in integrated circuit miniaturization and network topologies in the communications industry have given rise to the development of products providing short range (less than ten meters) wireless connectivity for both voice and data communications. Several industry initiatives, among them Bluetooth and HomeRF, have created de facto standards for RF systems that operate using spread spectrum modes in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands of frequencies, at very low power levels. One promising application for this emerging technology is in the area of wireless personal area networks (WPANs). Trident proposes exploiting this technology to provide secure wireless voice and data links between soldier-borne systems such as combat net radios, personal GPS units (PLGR), and digital message transfer devices (DMTDs), as well as tetherless intercom connections for vehicle crews and associated dismounted personnel. These links will enhance operational efficiency by eliminating cabled connections and providing dynamically self-configuring personal voice and data network connectivity on the battlefield. Trident will exploit its background in portable SA/C2 systems to develop a solution that integrates readily into the Army's battlefield digitization effort. The successful completion of this project will provide the Army with a flexible, practical solution for short-range wireless voice and data connectivity. This capability will reduce task complexity and enhance operational efficiency associated with tactical communications for both mounted and dismounted personnel. The resulting system would be immediately applicable for use by other military services (USMC, SOCOM), and has direct applications for a variety of commercial markets, from wireless industrial control systems to personal voice and data connectivity for mobile internet and intranet users.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Dr. Leonard Haynes
ARMY 00-052
Title:Survivable Networks Based on Mobile Agents
Abstract:The innovations herein described are specific methods to use active networks hosting mobile agents to achieve efficient, flexible, survivable wireless communication networks. The methods proposed use mobile agents interacting using a contract net paradigm to maintain dynamic knowledge of the network connectivity, to select near optimal routes, and to provide bandwidth and latency control for a wide range of instantaneous user requirements. A specific method which we have used very successfully in other domains is also detailed to provide in-network data mining for certain classes of data anomalies. This capability will allow the network to detect situations requiring increased priority and possibly modifications to packet destinations. Lastly, this proposal describes a fundamental problem with fully decentralized networks, gives data to support its occurrence, and proposes a specific method to reduce the occurrence and mitigate the impact of this problem. During the proposed Phase 1 work, these innovations will be investigated using proprietary tools designed specifically to build mobile agent systems. These tools will simplify the development of a network simulation, and will also simplify the development of the agent code that will form the basis of the active network. IAI has investigated one small application for robust wireless networks for wireless interconnection of hospital equipment, and for high value inventory tracking within hospitals. Even this tiny domain is estimated to be in the several billion dollar range.

APS MATERIALS, INC.
4011 Riverside Drive
Dayton, OH 45405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 278-6547
Mr. Philip H. Chitty
ARMY 00-054
Title:Advance Anode Materials for Electro-Osmotic-Pulse Technology to Control Water Intrusion in Porous Structures
Abstract:There is a need for research and development of new and cost effective anode materials and processes to facilitate the already successful Electro-Osmotic-Pulse (EOP) Technology for controlling moisture in existing concrete structures. The new anode technology will extend use of EOP to a broader range of construction materials to include masonry block, brick and stone structures. There is also a need for the innovative anode technology to be integrated with these building materials during new construction. Moisture control can be accomplished by the onsite thermal spray deposition of suitable EOP anode materials. This involves the possibility of several different thermal spray processes including but not limited to two-wire arc and plasma spray. In addition, further enhancement of existing anode technology for new and existing building structures using various precious metal catalytic coating processes in conjunction with a greater variety of titanium substrate configurations also provide the opportunity for significant EOP Technology advancement. For Phase I, CerAnode Technologies Division of APS Materials, Inc., will investigate at the laboratory scale the practical options available for eventual use in the field during phases II & III. The availability of the new cost-effective anode technologies tailored for the construction market described will create many new applications in both commercial and military sectors. The successful control of moisture intrusion into building facilities will increase the quality of life in terms of health and comfort as well as greatly reduce the traditional costs associated with providing moisture free storage and warehousing. Consequently, the innovative anode technology will find immediate interest in the overall construction market. Reliable state-of-the-art anode materials for 20 to 50-year life are expected. APS Materials, Inc. has 25 years of experience and has applied well over 2000 different material systems using a variety of thermal spray processes in the laboratory, in our production facility and in the field. It will therefore be in a position to commercialize the anode technology in phases II & III.

ADVANCED FUEL RESEARCH, INC.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 528-9806
Dr. Stuart Farquharson
ARMY 00-055
Title:Combinatorial Synthesis and Screening of Sensing Nanomaterial for Warfare Agents
Abstract:The overall goal of the proposed program is to provide military personnel with a hand-held analyzer capable of detecting chemical and biological agents, as well as toxic industrial chemicals. This will be accomplished through the use of a new nanocomposite material (metal-doped sol-gel) that enhances analyte specific Raman signals sufficiently to allow identifying and quantifying agents at relevant concentrations (microgram/liter, part-per-billion). Phase I will employ combinatorial chemistry to synthesize four medium sized libraries of sol-gel coated sample vials varying in composition and properties (e.g. polar, non-polar, positive charge, negative charge) and screen their surface-enhanced Raman (SER) activity towards chemical simulants and potential biological agent signatures. Baseline performance will be established using a high resolution, high sensitivity, hand-held Raman spectrometer. Phase II will automate the combinatorial synthesis and screening process to allow the generation of large sol-gel nanomaterial libraries to determine the chemical compositions that maximize detection of each chemical agent, bioagent signature chemical, and toxic industrial chemical by SER spectroscopy. Screening with actual agents will be performed at U.S. Army facilities. Finally, the sol-gel nanomaterial will be designed into sampling systems for discrete or continuous monitoring of air or water by a hand-held Raman analyzer capable of wireless data transmission. In addition to military personnel, the proposed technology would have immediate use in monitoring domestic water supplies (drinking and recreational) and detecting release of toxic chemicals at industrial plants. It would also be applicable to environmental analysis of groundwater (e.g. leaking agent storage facilities or pesticides from agricultural). The proposed SER active medium represents an enabling technology and is broadly applicable to pharmaceutical, biologic, medical, and chemical research.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Huaibing Liu
ARMY 00-056
Title:Novel Integrated Materials for Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits
Abstract:The use of plastic-encapsulated microcircuits (PEM's) is one of the new major thrust areas in military electronic component packaging. PEM will potentially replace hermetically-sealed ceramic and metal devices presently used to achieve and maintain high reliability in military use environments. On the proposed Phase I effort, Triton Systems will apply its broad experience in polymeric materials design, nanomaterial engineering and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding to create integrated polymeric materials that will have the potential of significantly advancing the current state-of-the-art in encapsulation material performance for non-hermetic integrated circuits. The materials will be designed to have a microporous percolating structure for rapid escape of moisture during thermal assembly to eliminate popcorning effect. Inorganic fillers will be incorporated in the formulations to lower the coefficient of thermal expansion and to enhance the thermal conductivity. Incorporation of rubber particles into the matrix will also be evaluated as a way to lower the modulus. During the Phase I option, the selected formulations will be further enhanced to provide integral EMI shielding without comprising electrical resistivity. In Phase II, we will optimize the material formulations and carry out a component-level demonstration by applying the selected materials to the integrated circuit package frames. There is an immediate need of plastic-encapsulated microcircuits with improved high reliability in military electronics packaging. Materials optimized for better thermal and mechanical characteristics will lead to increased operational cycles before failure and lowering replacement costs. The integral EMI shielding and increased thermal conductivity will allow further integration, higher density integrated circuits, reduced volume and increased functionality.

UTILITY DEVELOPMENT CORP.
112 Naylon Avenue
Livingston, NJ 07039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 994-4334
Mr. Harry S. Katz
ARMY 00-056
Title:Non-Hermetic Electronic Encapsulant Materials
Abstract:Our main objective will be to investigate and develop an affordable, high performance organic material formulation and application/molding process that will significantly advance the state-of-the-art in current encapsulation material performance for non-hermetic integrated circuits (ICs). The new encapsulants will be permeable to moisture and have controlled coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and modulus of elasticity properties that minimize stress between the printed circuit board (PCB) substrate and integrated circuit. Fillers will be used to improve thermal conductivity and reduce the thermal expansion coefficient. Additives will be used to improve the adhesion and fire retardance. The developed encapsulants will be tested by the encapsulation of small parts by UDC and testing by end users. At the end of Phase I, we will provide a report with results and conclusions, and a Phase II plan, schedule and cost estimate. This program will provide a high performance non-hermetic electronic encapsulants. These encapsulants will improve the performance, lower the cost, and improve reliability of nearly all electronic components used in weapon systems. Encapsulants for microcircuits are urgently needed throughout the commercial sector as well as in defense. Examples include computers, cell phones, and all devices with microcircuits. This technology will provide lower cost and higher performance in all of these applications.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY
174 North Main Street
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Dr. Sanford M. Dash
ARMY 00-057
Title:Transient Jet-Interaction Combustion Modeling
Abstract:Interceptor missiles achieve high maneuverability in final phases of their mission via the use of divert/attitude control jets. Jet firings are of relatively short duration (10-40ms) and the aerodynamic interaction process is highly transient, characterized by large regions of jet-induced separation. The interactive process is strongly dependent on afterburning of jet exhaust constituents and on particulate interactions for heavily metalized DACS motors. Concerns of combustion products reaching seeker windows and related particle obscuration/radiative heating issues also need to be addressed. Present abilities to support missile design are limited by computer resources with high-fidelity simulations for a fraction of the transient event requiring use of 64 or more processors and taking months to complete. This proposal addresses present limitations by advances in numerics and parallel code architecture, as well as in inclusion of pertinent physics and thermochemistry. Key elements of work proposed address: new zonal, multi-time step parallel architecture strategies to make the solution process more efficient, and, inclusion of advanced dynamic turbulent transitional models and pdf-based turbulent combustion models which have a first-order effect on jet interactions at higher altitudes (h>30km). An optional task to examine use of unstructured numerics with specialized dynamic grid adaption is also proposed. The research proposed is of obvious benefit to the interceptor missile community and we have supported both DoD and prime contractors (Lockheed, Raytheon, .) for many years in design-related issues pertinent to divert/attitude control jet interactions. This effort will clearly enhance our commercial relationships with both DoD and prime contractors. In addition, transient jet interactions are of interest to the automotive and spray coating communities and we have been working with industry (Ford Motor Co., Sulzer Metco, .) in supporting advanced design work. Lastly, pulsatile spray injection is being investigated to enhance mixing in next generation airbreathing missile systems and this work has great relevance to the design of next generation combustors.

CONTINUUM DYNAMICS, INC.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 538-0444
Dr. Alexander H. Boschitsch
ARMY 00-058
Title:A Revolution in Heat Conduction Software
Abstract:This research will revolutionize commercial software for heat conduction by using non-Fourier conduction to predict transient temperatures in solids. Here "non-Fourier" refers to applications where the standard model of Fourier's law fails to provide accurate predictions. Using non-Fourier conduction is revolutionary because commercial software currently uses Fourier's law despite the growing number of applications that can be correctly simulated only with non-Fourier conduction. Incorporating non-Fourier conduction into these simulations can improve the accuracy of predictions that rely on temperature, including thermal stress, solid-phase reactions, and phase changes. Also, the effects of non-Fourier conduction can be exploited to devise new materials and processes not obvious with Fourier conduction. The key objectives for Phase I are to: (i) Provide an analytical expression for determining the relative importance of non-Fourier and Fourier conduction, (ii) Demonstrate a technique for numerically solving non-Fourier problems as a precursor to software development in Phase II, (iii) Determine the conditions for which non-Fourier conduction is important to help identify experiments needed in Phase II to validate non-Fourier software. The non-Fourier software resulting from this research will have an impact across an enormous range of applications, such as improving the performance of rocket nozzles and heat shields constructed of composite materials, optimizing the ignition of granular propellants in rocket motors, advancing the laser-fabrication and repair of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and microchips, designing better clothing to protect against thermal burns, and guiding laser surgery.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Philip Gatt
ARMY 00-059
Title:Agile-Pulse Dual-Mode High-Power Eyesafe Doppler Lidar
Abstract:CTI has demonstrated helicopter signature detection using both long and short pulse lidars. A long-pulse lidar is optimal for sensing increases in spectral width, however this signature is susceptible to wind turbulence and shear clutter. Short pulse lidars are optimal for inflow-signature detection, however they require much longer update times. To satisfy these two competing effects, CTI proposes to develop a novel agile-pulse dual-mode coherent lidar. In the turbulence-detection mode, the scan rate of this compact 5 W lidar will exceed 90 degrees in 15 sec, while providing 5 m cross range resolution at 5 km. CTI will leverage its experience in the field of wake-vortex detection and tracking to develop advanced algorithms for the reduction of clutter-induced false alarms. Inflow-signature detection will be accomplished using a short-pulse. Here, update rates less than 10 seconds per LOS are expected. In both modes, a velocity precision better than 20 cm/s at ranges in excess of 5 km is expected. In Phase I CTI will develop, test and refine advanced clutter rejection algorithms utilizing previously and newly acquired data sets and develop a preliminary lidar design. In Phase II CTI will develop, test, and demonstrate the prototype sensor and implement the advanced clutter-rejection algorithms in CTI's real-time signal processor. The proposed Phase I/II program will result in the development of a compact, agile-pulse, efficient, high power eyesafe coherent lidar. This technology will have application in many military as well as commercial settings. Potential commercial applications include clear-air-turbulence detection, general aviation wind shear detection, airport wind surveillance, and environmental monitoring. Military applications include helicopter signature detection and correction for precision airdrop and ballistics weapon systems.

LITE CYCLES, INC.
2301 N. Forbes Blvd.
Tucson, AZ 85745
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 798-0652
Dr. James T. Murray
ARMY 00-059
Title:Portable High Resolution Doppler Lidar
Abstract:The Phase I effort will define an optimized, portable, rugged, incoherent, eye-safe Doppler lidar system for use in detecting wind velocity above helicopters at ranges greater than 5 km. Initial system design and component specifications will be completed in this effort. Lite Cycles, Inc. intends to commercialize this technology within both the DoD and the private sector. There are three primary private sector markets that have applications for this technology: (1) Wind shear detection at high altitudes for Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) for commercial airlines; (2) Wake vortex detection lidar systems on major airport runways to space incoming landings safely; and (3) Wind sensing for weather prediction. The Clear Air Turbulence requirement is a result of passenger and crew injuries and death on commercial flights when encountering CAT during a flight. The CAT risk is higher when flying over certain mountain ranges. Airlines are interested in an affordable solution to early warning instruments that will allow either flight course changes or a seat belt buckle advisory for passengers. Coherent lidar systems have limited use at 30,000 ft altitude and above because they depend on aerosol scattering for the return signal. Direct detection can use the return from molecular scattering, so it is not dependent on the availability of aerosols to provide the return. Incoherent Doppler lidar is less complex than coherent systems and will be more robust, compact, and less expensive. CAT instruments could potentially be installed on most commercial aircraft worldwide. This is a large number of systems and constitutes a large enough market to justify development of a system both for incorporation into new aircraft and for retrofitting existing aircraft. The wake vortex detection instrument is used to determine the wake vortex trailing large aircraft during landings at airports. Current airport regulations for time between aircraft landings are based on experience. An instrument to measure and report wake vortex data for each aircraft would allow far safer and considerably higher landing rates at busy airports. The market is worldwide, and airports with high traffic rates would be targeted for installation of these systems. Larger airports may require several systems to cover multiple runways.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Paul Shnitser
ARMY 00-059
Title:High-Precision Eye-Safe Doppler Wind LIDAR
Abstract:In response to the Army's request for a compact eye-safe light detection and ranging (LIDAR) device for high-precision, remote measurement of atmospheric turbulence caused by air vehicles or natural phenomena, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a frequency modulation (FM) LIDAR based on a powerful continuous wave (CW) laser diode. Utilizing the possibility of direct modulation of the laser diode emission with a high frequency, such a system can provide both a high-range resolution and a high accuracy of Doppler shift measurement. Simplification of the signal processing electronics will be achieved by employing a voltage-modulated optical detector for range measurement. The Phase I project will include a comprehensive system analysis and design of its major components. In Phase II, the LIDAR prototype will be built and delivered for testing and performance evaluation. During both Phases I and II, POC will conduct market analysis and identification of financial and other resources that will ensure successful commercialization of the new technology in Phase III. In addition to its specific military application for the detection airborne targets by their turbulence signatures, the proposed compact, eye-safe LIDAR can be widely used at military and civilian airports for detection of wind shear and other strong atmospheric vortexes. Such vortexes can be generated by large aircraft and can exist in the atmosphere for a long time after a large aircraft lands. They are extremely dangerous for smaller aircraft. Wind shear, microbursts, and other clear-air disturbances are dangerous for both large and small aircraft. The proposed LIDAR will enhance air traffic safety.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY
174 North Main Street
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Dr. Sanford M. Dash
ARMY 00-060
Title:Missile Aero-Acoustic Response Modeling
Abstract:Large dynamic pressure loads occur on missile airframes produced by aerodynamic interactions associated with lateral/divert jet firings and from varied separation events (stage, shroud, submunitions dispense). The accurate prediction of such loads is a critical element of missile design since mission failures have been directly related to vibration problems (e.g. guidance component failure) stemming from such interactions. No first-principles-based simulation methodology is available to support design, and present engineering methods have proven to be inadequate. The Phase I effort initiates the path towards development of an advanced modeling framework. Key elements include: (1) the formulation of a hybrid LES/RANS CFD framework to predict rigid body dynamic pressure loads associated with divert jet firing interactions; (2) the validation of this framework using new PIV data with detailed turbulent statistics; (3) the inclusion of rudimentary structural response capabilities into the CFD code which will primarily attenuate the dynamic loads on the missile surface. An optional task is proposed to investigate the dynamic loads on a seeker window associated with the shroud separation event. The partially open shroud has resonant characteristics of a forward facing cavity and there are very strong bow shock oscillations and resultant large dynamic loads on the seeker window. There are no existing high-fidelity techniques to predict hypersonic flow structural aero-acoustic response associated with events producing surface vibrations. In addition to providing major benefits to the entire missile community, this research has direct applicability to the design of reusable launch vehicles and to space planes which must perform multiple missions and thus have more stringent structural requirements. It is also directly applicable to the design of missile launchers and to scramjet combustors where plume/fuel jet aerodynamic interactions produce large dynamic pressure loads. Discussions with NASA and prime contractors have indicated significant commercial potential for this modeling to support space/launch vehicle design.

OPTICAL INSIGHTS, LLC
1807 Second Street, #28
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 955-1585
Dr. Mark Hopkins
ARMY 00-061
Title:Polarization Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR)
Abstract:Optical Insights (OI) proposes to successfully marry its polarization imaging technology with LADAR imaging technology to create an integrated imaging system. The introduction, by OI, of its multi-channel imaging technology makes simultaneous acquisition of two-dimensional polarization images possible using a low-cost, portable, lightweight, and rugged optical system. OI will team with LADAR system manufacturer, Schwartz Electro-Optics, Inc. (SEO), to create the integrated system. The Phase I effort will significantly contribute to the state-of-the-art by (a) quantitatively defining the requirements for coupling polarization and LADAR imaging into a single imaging system using existing technologies and products and (b) developing a conceptual design, based on the defined requirements, to marry two separate, but complementary, technologies for improving target detection and discrimination. While most Phase I efforts attempt to establish the feasibility of design ideas via modeling or simple breadboard experiments, this Phase I effort will accomplish a more thorough and convincing feasibility study by leveraging products that have already been developed for these purposes. OI and SEO propose using their existing base of products to carry out the initial feasibility assessment. With minor modifications, both products can work side-by-side to acquire both polarization and LADAR images of the same scene. There are a variety of applications that could benefit greatly from a portable polarization LADAR imaging system. Aside from the target identification and discrimination applications in the defense industry, polarization LADAR imaging systems can be useful in meteorological applications such as identification of the constituents of cloud formation for determining storm development. The aviation sector as well as the department for transportation (DOT) represents two other markets that can use polarization LADAR sensing. In both cases it can be used to identify ice formation (on wings, runways and roads) and fog for collision and crash avoidance. Additionally, polarization LADAR imaging can have significant utility in crop inspection applications. Recent research has suggested that polarized laser remote-sensing measurements can be correlated to crop yield, the NDVI, and the leaf area index.

ANVIK CORP.
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Mr. Marc Zemel
ARMY 00-062
Title:Maskless Lithography System for Generation of High Density DNA Microarrays
Abstract:Recent developments in DNA microarray generation technology have made entirely new methods of gene analysis feasible. The DNA microarray can greatly facilitate research in the areas of drug and vaccine discovery, disease screening, and toxicology, among others. Therefore, the importance of a low-cost, high-resolution, high-throughput DNA microarray generation system cannot be understated. Current DNA microarray generation techniques suffer from severe limitations. The development of a new DNA mircoarray generation technique that has the high resolution of photolithography with the low cost of operation of mechanical deposition would significantly accelerate the pace of gene research. In this proposal, we present a method to generate DNA microarrays using a maskless lithography system. The maskless lithography system incorporates a large-array spatial light modulator to serve as a programmable mask. The spatial light modulator technology is integrated with Anvik's patented seamless scanning technology to produce a breakthrough in lithography system development that allows rapid, high-density DNA microarray generation at low cost. In the Phase I program, we will optimize the design the lithography system and develop the process specifically for DNA microarray generation. In a follow-on Phase II program, we will optimize the process and construct a fully functional DNA microarray generation system. The proposed system will enable the generation of DNA microarrays at higher densities, higher throughputs and lower costs than possible with current manufacturing techniques. These advances will benefit numerous military and commercial researchers in the areas of drug and vaccine discovery, disease screening, toxicology, and biological warfare agent detection.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4174
Dr. Vladimir Guilmanov
ARMY 00-063
Title:Design and Characterization of a Two-Bag Blood Products Lyophilization System
Abstract:Storage blood bags become vulnerable when they are defrosted. In particular, the U.S. Army has reported many instances of significant loss of blood products from storage bag breakage. Freeze drying of blood products may be considered to be an alternative to the current practice of cryopreservation. In general this technique is well established and is widely used for the preservation and long term storage of protein drugs and microbial cells. The lyophilization of platelets and red blood cells has recently been demonstrated. This proposal addresses the problem of lyophilizatoin of the blood products in a collection and storage bag. The general design and experimental strategy for the program involves the design of a two-bag, blood products lyophilization system, the selection and characterization of the inner and outer bag materials, and lyophilization of the test product. In particular, the water vapor transmission rates of commercially available polymer membrane materials will be experimentally determined. The optimization conditions for lyophilization of bovine serum albumin and various blood products will be determined. A Phase I Option task will extend the test program to include modification to the polymers to obtain optimum water vapor permeation and to carry out extensive blood product testing. (P-00886) This system provides the desired simplicity of collection, preservation, storage, reconstitution and dispensation of the blood product in one device. The primary use of the technology will be for improving the availability of blood products in the field under emergency situations for the Department of Defense. Commercial applications would include use in rural and disaster care situation where freezer facilities are not available.

MINI MITTER CO., INC.
20300 Empire Avenue
Bend, OR 97701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 322-7272
Dr. Jack E. McKenzie
ARMY 00-064
Title:General Purpose Miniature Thermometer for Remote Monitoring of Soldiers
Abstract:Mini Mitter Co., Inc. will design a body temperature telemetry system that will provide the US Army with an innovative and cost-effective method for monitoring body core temperature and skin temperature of soldiers in the field. We will demonstrate the feasibility of a system supporting ingestible pill thermometers as well as multiple skin patch thermometers with on-board transmitters. The precision thermometer sensors and the thermometer packaging will be derived from Mini Mitter's proprietary temperature transmitters. A body-worn receiver will identify individual thermometers and automatically calibrate each sensor. Periodic radio-frequency transmission techniques will multiplex thermometers and eliminate cross talk between their transmitters. Microelectronic assembly techniques with simplified manufacturing processes will meet the US Army's price objectives of $10 - $20 per thermometer. Mini Mitter's solution will apply directly to the US Army's Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring program. Phase I objectives are: (1) verify that our existing technologies can support the performance requirements, (2) determine a method of data transmission, and (3) compose a high-level engineering plan for system development in Phase II. Mini Mitter's unique combination of experienced physiologists and strong engineering staff creates an optimal environment for success, providing the scientific and technical expertise to design this system. Mini-Mitter has identified several market segments that will benefit from the development of a General Purpose Miniature Thermometer for Remote Monitoring. These segments include Military Operations, Medical Clinical Research, Hospitals, and Industrial Heat Stress monitoring. The most important and most immediate are the military applications. Key military operational applications include (1) scientific research to evaluate the effects of thermal stress on physical performance; (2) improving the guidelines for troop training regimens; and (3) monitoring of the soldier's physiological data for evaluating the combat efficiency, mission readiness, and safety of troops.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
Dr. Allan Wang
ARMY 00-065
Title:Imaging Modality to Identify Angiogenesis
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop intelligent imaging software for the automated identification and analysis of angiogenesis. The project will demonstrate the feasibility of using this innovative technique for clinical angiography. The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is a critical component in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as in the healing of wounds, bone fractures, and ulcers and other angiogensis related diseases. There is, however, no software specifically designed for analyzing angiogenesis. Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc. (IOS) proposes to develop a user-friendly innovative method for the automatic, reliable, rapid, sensitive, and accurate identification and analysis of angiographies acquired from Magnetic Resonance Imaging, computerized tomography, or Doppler ultrasound. This method will use neural network assisted imaging analysis software to identify and analyze the angiogenesis. This software will be useful in the diagnosis of angiogenesis in bone fractures, ulcers, cancer growth and metastasis, diabetes-induced retinal pathy, rheumatoid arthritis, and coronary disease. In addition, the timely analysis of angiogenesis may help soldiers avoid unnecessary surgical interventions and reduce injury morbidity and mortality resulting from complications. Over 1000 research laboratories and 200 companies are engaged in angiogenesis research and development. These studies will potentially benefit over 65 million surgical patients, 10 million eye patients, 7 million heart patients, and over 9 million cancer patients in the U.S. IOS will demonstrate the feasibility of this new technology by using innovative imaging analysis to meet the requirements for the specific, rapid, and accurate diognosis of clinical angiography.

ANTEX BIOLOGOCIS, INC.
300 Professional Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20879
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-0129
Dr. Richard Walker
ARMY 00-066
Title:Development of a Microbead Whole Cell Delivery System for Oral Immunization against traveler's diarrhea
Abstract:Antex biologics is developing inactivated whole cell vaccines for oral delivery to prevent infections by bacteria causing traveler's diarrhea. A new, possibly breakthrough, microbead formulation technology is being developed which should be evaluated for its potential to enhance these inactivated whole cell vaccines. These beads should improve the safety, stability and immunogenicity as well as ease of administration of the whole cell vaccine. In this Phase I SBIR, Campylobacter jejuni, a major cause of diarrhea, will be prepared as a dry formulation by spray-coating the inactivated bacterial cells onto a sugar/starch microbead core and then covering the antigen-coated core with a methacrylic acid copolymer. The microbeads will be insoluble at gastric pH, but will be readily soluble at higher (intestinal) pH. This formulation will be tested for its oral immunogenicity and efficacy in a mouse model Antex has developed. This effort should provide a means to better achieve immunoprotection against enteric infections, for which no vaccines are now available. It may also establish an approach for more effective oral vaccines against a broad range of infections. Potential populations for use of such a product include deployed military personnel, international travelers, and global and national public health and child immunization programs.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Duncan Hitchens
ARMY 00-067
Title:A New Soluble Powder for the Sterilization of Medical/Dental Instruments
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop a new disinfectant/sterilization system that can be easily deployed to support troops in the field. The standard method of sterilizing medical instruments, by high temperature steam autoclave, is impractical for many field uses due to size, weight, and power constraints. Liquid sterilization methods can be used to sterilize medical equipment when autoclaving is impractical. However, existing liquid sterilants have a number of limitations. Many liquid sterilants are unstable, contain ingredients that are potentially harmful to personnel, or are difficult and costly to transport. Thus, there is a continuing need for a new practical, safe, sterilants for medical instruments in challenging environments. This project concerns development of a novel cold sterilant formulation consisting of a stable dry powder. Large volumes of liquid sterilant can be prepared from potable water, thereby minimizing logistic demands. The proposed formulation is stable at room temperature and is effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms, including bacterial spores. Preliminary testing of the formulation indicates a high potential for sterilization of medical equipment in 30 minutes at room temperature. The prospects for regulatory acceptance are high because the ingredients have little potential to impact on human health. The proposed research will demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, focusing on sterilization verification and stability testing protocols. A powdered sterilization formulation has significant dual use applications in medical situations in an austere environment. In addition to military uses, the resulting technology has numerous uses in the private sector including, industrial hygiene, food safety, hospital infection control, hazardous spill cleanup, and emergency response management. Lynntech's management team is experienced in obtaining private sector funding for technology commercialization through strategic partnerships with companies serving the infection control market.

SRICO, INC.
2724 SAWBURY BOULEVARD
COLUMBUS, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 799-0664
Dr. Stuart A. Kingsley
ARMY 00-068
Title:High Frequency Optrode System for Ambulatory EEG Monitoring and Wireless Signal Transmission
Abstract:There is a need for small, lightweight, low-power sensors for real time, unobtrusive monitoring of the physiologic status of individuals in military and civilian environments. Studies show that sleep deprivation can dramatically reduce performance. For example, monitoring the electroencephalogram (EEG) of military personnel can indicate a soldier's level of alertness and sleep/wake status. Such monitoring would enable field commanders to assess and predict the overall group performance level and take appropriate action. This study will design and demonstrate the technical feasibility of a high frequency (1 kHz) optical electrode (optrode) system for acquisition, transmission, and analysis of EEG signals for real time determination of alertness state. The optrode sensors will meet real world needs for insensitivity to motion effects and electromagnetic interference. Also the sensors should be comfortable enough to be "wear and forget". Only in this totally non-intrusive format will the sensors provide for monitoring of physiologic parameters in a realistic, free-ranging scenario. Further, the sensors will be compatible with the standards set for the soldier's wireless personal area network (pLAN) to allow for transmission of the physiologic information to military command and medical personnel. Benefits are all-optical, insensitivity to electromagnetic interference and motion, no adhesives or gels, timesaving, cost saving, non-intrusive. The EEG optrode technology can also be used in civilian settings to evaluate alertness levels of operators of heavy machinery, truck drivers, aviators, and others working in around-the-clock occupations that demand high levels of performance. Other commercial applications include anesthesia awareness monitoring, sleep study research, and mobile medical monitoring for space flight, commercial aviation, emergency patient care, and routine diagnostic assessment.

SOLUS BIODEFENSE
700 New Hampshire Ave NW
Washington, DC 20037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 215-9373
Dr. Roger von Hanwehr
ARMY 00-069
Title:Synthesis of Combinatorial Chemical Libraries Containing Potential Inhibitors of Botulinum Neurotoxin Protease Activity
Abstract: Abstract not available...

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Div.
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Andrew Kostrzewski
ARMY 00-070
Title:Virtual Medical Training System
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a high resolution, high quality image generator and display for combat trauma surgery training. The Virtual Medical Training (VMT) system, based on our patented 3-D display technology, includes a 3-D display (horizontal geometry without headwear) for the trainee and instructor linked to a virtual human database with an injury generator and a haptic feedback device. The Holographic Horizontal (H2) screen and 3-D projection display 3-D objects floating over the screen surface where each viewer can see the same object from his or her own perspective. The 3-D effect is achieved by projecting slightly different views of the object in front of each viewer at a high refresh rate. The viewer can move freely within the volumetric 3-D zone that extends out from the edge of the screen. The essence of the system is a special type of screen that converges the light into a narrow beam slice of about 1 degree (2 mm wide) representing a single view of the object that is time multiplexed (shifted in front of the viewer), producing a multiplicity of views. The narrow beam position is synchronized with the rendering of the corresponding view, producing a true 3-D effect. The major benefits are efficient training of medical personnel. The system can also be used in television, robotics, and teleoperation. Additional applications include video games and CAD/CAM simulation.

MATTEK CORP.
200 Homer Ave
Ashland, MA 01721
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 881-6771
Dr. Seyoum Ayehunie
ARMY 00-071
Title:Development of a Vaccine for the Treatment and/or Prevention of Cancer
Abstract:Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin malignancy in the United States. With the exception of lung cancer, it is the leading cause of death in men in the country. By age 80, the risk of developing prostate cancer is estimated to be 1 in 7. Despite increased public awareness, regular check-ups, and improved therapeutic interventions, greater than 31,000 American men will die from prostate cancer during calendar year 2000. The current proposal seeks to develop a new form of immunotherapy using dendritic cell based DNA vaccines to combat this serious disease. During Phase I, in vitro studies will be performed to lay the groundwork for an improved DNA vaccine against prostate cancer. This vaccine will result in increased antigen presentation by utilizing dendritic cells (DC) to administer a combination of prostate cancer, immuno-stimulatory cytokines, and chemokine receptor genes. The transformed DC will be more efficient at presenting antigen to T cells resulting in enhanced killing of prostate cancer tumor cells by cytolytic T-lymphocytes. The proposed vaccine offers a therapy for advanced prostate cancer for which currently no cure is available. The proof of concept in vitro studies in this proposal will form the basis for Phase I and Phase II human clinical trials. In addition to providing a means of combating this serious, often-fatal disease, the proposed vaccine strategy will find applications in other fields of cancer, including breast and ovarian cancer, as well as in fighting infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS.

MEGAWAVE CORP.
PO Box 614
Boylston, MA 01505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 869-2700
Mr. Marshall Cross
ARMY 00-072
Title:Innovative Soldier Conformal Antenna Suite
Abstract:This proposal describes our approach for establishing the technical feasibility of developing an innovative, body conformal VHF/UHF antenna suite capable of being integrated into the MLLE and providing mixed polarization coverage regardless of the soldier's position (prone-to-standing) and orientation. We will investigate three advanced techniques: use of Tesla's series connected bifilar-wound ribbons of metal sputtered upon Kapton film around small diameter flexible ferrite-in-rubber tubes forming a loop around the back of a soldier's waist; feeding COTS "T" and grounded-line "postage-stamp" PCS/ISM elements against artificial dielectric groundplanes to improve performance and decrease SAR and switching these elements using miniature gravity-actuated liquid, ball or moving magnet/reed RF switches to select the element, from sets of elements located at various positions on the MLLE, that best provides the required radiation pattern as a function of soldier position. Our proposed work is divided into mostly analytical during Phase I followed by laboratory evaluation of several key and enabling technologies during the Phase I Option period. Body conformal VHF/UHF antenna systems that can be incorporated into military or civilian worn equipment items and clothing will eliminate the need for protruding whips or "rubber-ducks," reducing size and weight. When used with artificial dielectric groundplanes, "postage-stamp" sized wireless antennas will have increased efficiency and decreased SAR.

STAR-H CORP.
51 Spring Dell Rd.
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 394-1981
Mr. G. Yale Eastman
ARMY 00-072
Title:Soldier Conformal Antenna Suite
Abstract:The team of STAR-H Corporation and the Electrical Engineering Department of The Pennsylvania State University propose to develop for the Army a high performance, wide band, VHF/UHF receiving and transmitting antenna, or suite of antennas, that can cover an unusually broad range of frequencies and be worn by a soldier in the field. It will be light in weight, weatherproof, launderable, efficient and as nearly omni-directionable as possible. The enabling technology originated in a totally different field, thermal radiators for NASA lunar and Martian power plants, and lends itself well to this new purpose. The proposed technical approach is inherently low in cost, readily adaptable to quantity production and compliant. Preliminary models of the new antenna have been designed, fabricated and tested over a ten kilometer range at power levels from 1 to 35 watts in the UHF portion of the spectrum, meeting several of the Army's goals in advance. The proposed antenna has potential beyond its military significance. It is expected to be adaptable for use for relaying cell phone and data communications inside buildings and tunnels.

STIRLING TECHNOLOGY CO.
4208 West Clearwater Ave
Kennewick, WA 99336
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 735-4700
Mr. Raymond M. Erbeznik
ARMY 00-073
Title:Feasibility Study of a Diesel-Fueled Micro-Cogeneration System Integrated with Military Experimental Mobile Kitchens
Abstract:Stirling Technology Company proposes to perform a feasibility study of a Micro-Cogeneration System based on a proven free-piston Stirling engine to provide quiet, efficient and reliable electricity and thermal energy for advanced military field kitchens that use Centralized Thermal Fluid Heater technology. Diesel fuel will be combusted in a radiant matrix burner to provide heat for the Stirling engine. Waste heat from the engine will be used to heat water while the burner exhaust provides heat for the thermal fluid heater. The system will provide up to 3 kW of electricity and 100 kW of heat at efficiencies well above 75%. The design of the system will incorporate an existing Stirling cycle engine and leverage heavily from natural gas fired cogeneration and boiler systems already developed for European homes. A conceptual design will be developed to address any foreseeable integration issues, and the feasibility of a diesel-fired radiant matrix burner will be demonstrated in the Phase I project. Introducing the Stirling Micro-Cogeneration System (SMCS) into the Rapid Deployment Kitchen will have several benefits. First, the SMCS will eliminate the need for noisy, dirty, high-maintenance and inefficient internal combustion (IC) generators to supply electricity for the field kitchen. The SMCS can be integrated directly into the kitchen's Central Thermal Fluid Heater System (CTFH) to provide electricity and thermal energy internally. The SMCS will also dramatically improve the efficiency of the kitchen by reducing the wasted heat from 27.5 kW to less than 15 kW. The reduction in waste heat provides a more safe and comfortable working environment for the kitchen staff. With the cooling fan as the loudest component, the Stirling cycle generator operates in virtual silence so the introduction of the SMCS will not add any audible noise to the normal operation of the kitchen Without the need for lubricating oil or periodic maintenance of any kind, the RG-3000 is very clean and easy to operate once installed, with no harmful or unsanitary fluids to dispose of. The maintenance-free, useful life of a Stirling generator typically far exceeds the total operating life of even a well-maintained IC engine. The inherent long life of the Stirling cycle generator, combined with superior fuel efficiency makes the Stirling more cost effective to operate than an IC generator. The RG-3000 is clearly preferable to IC engine generators for providing heat and power cogeneration in, not only kitchens and laundries, but in many types of field logistical equipment. Following development for military applications, this technology will be viable for use in commercial mobile kitchens, laundries and for use in rural and off-grid homes.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Richard Barnard
ARMY 00-074
Title:Flame/Thermal Protective Fabric Test Apparatus
Abstract:In this Phase I program, Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a prototype testing apparatus to evaluate protective clothing fabrics for military procurement approval and test the protective performance of commercial fabrics. PSI's design includes an IR radiant heat source, skin temperature measurement, a skin-simulant material, an adjustable sample platform, sensors measuring incident heat fluxes and thermophysical properties of the fabric sample, and relevant burn injury calculations. The system components will be integrated into an automated system that is capable of running multiple test scenarios and analyzing the data directly from the user interface. Phase I will demonstrate that an innovative system design utilizing the latest technologies is feasible for meeting the specified technical objectives. During the proposed program, PSI will evaluate a series of design concepts and develop a prototype to demonstrate concept feasibility. A detailed design and additional testing of the prototype is included as a Phase I Option task. The successful completion of this program will provide the Army with a new and quantitative capability for the evaluation and procurement approval of protective fabrics. The proposed development will benefit government agencies in effectively evaluating protective fabrics in flame/thermal testing. The Army will obtain an improved capability in testing commercial fabrics for military procurement purposes. The apparatus will also be applied to commercial companies and organizations that produce and test fabrics for industry use. These industries include factories, power plants, car racing, airlines, and others involving fire hazardous environments.

CLEVER FELLOWS INNOVATION CONSORTIUM
302 10th St.
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 272-3565
Mr. John A. Corey
ARMY 00-075
Title:Thermoacoustic Refrigeration of Large Food Storage Containers
Abstract:Operational demonstration of a CFC-free, electrically-powered thermoacoustic refrigeration unit is proposed, enabled by cost-shared availability of proposer's patented STAR resonant drivers. STARs (developed in part through previous SBIR work and already used in acoustic cryocoolers) uniquely resolve the primary performance problem demonstrated in all previous thermoacoustic refrigerators: the efficiency and power limitations of conventional drivers. STARs exhibit high electro-acoustic efficiency, intrinsic capacity modulation, and compact power delivery. The proposer's extensive experience with Stirling and thermoacoustic machine development assures similarly effective results in analysis, design, and production of specialized heat exchangers and other components proposed for this integrated thermoacoustic system. The work statement includes analysis, design, construction, and a proof test. There is a configuration study with cycle analyses to compare mechanical arrangement options in simulation (using DeltaE and Sage modeling codes). This is expected to show (for the optimal configuration) an average energy efficiency greater than existing vapor-compression equipment. Construction of a proof unit is included, using an existing STAR motor drive from the proposer's cryocooler products. Testing of the proof unit against a laboratory load will be done, to demonstrate electrically-driven thermoacoustic cooling power sufficient to serve the Army's 40 cubic foot field kitchen refrigerator (650 Btu/hr). STAR-powered, modulating, thermoacoustic refrigeration can significantly improve the logistical impact of food storage on Army field operations. Commercialization of this technology depends on early demonstration of superior energy efficiency and operational flexibility. The proposed Phase 1 project enables both military and commercial gains. For the Army's use, the anticipated results of this project provide a food storage cooling system that consumes less energy overall and exhibits significantly lower peak power, noise, and maintenance demand. Total field-use energy consumption includes not just steady-state operation, but transportation and support logistics. STAR-thermoacoustic cooling, lower peak power draws (through modulation) and lower maintenance demand (of simpler, long-life non-lubricated components) can reduce the size of field generators and the spare parts inventory essential to fielded readiness. Less to haul means more energy savings and enhanced operational flexibility. Smaller generators and higher efficiency mean less fuel carried and lower thermal signatures, too. The absence of conventional refrigerant in the proposed equipment also furthers the Army's mission to minimize adverse environmental impact in its operations. For commercial use, the proposed development of a military refrigerator is a necessary catalyst and a proving ground for advanced equipment that can address a huge number of civilian applications. The STAR-thermoacoustic cooling system is expected to offer overall performance superior to conventional vapor-compression systems, at comparable cost and size, in most cases where the cooling is delivered directly adjacent to the refrigeration machinery. These include: household and commercial refrigerators and freezers, grocery storage and display cases, vending machines, hotel room air conditioning/heat pumps, window and rooftop air conditioners, industrial cabinet and electronics cooling, and truck trailer and railcar cargo coolers. Only split system uses, like household central air conditioning, are not now practical to address. The proposers have identified a $16 billion/year addressable US market for these target applications. Present technologies use refrigerants that retain significant ozone-depletion or global-warming potentials and must be phased out soon. Other identified alternatives (e.g., absorption, thermoelectrics) have severe penalties in size, complexity, or efficiency. Adoption of the STAR-thermoacoustic technology proposed for this project in even a small fraction of these applications can eliminate the environmental threat while reducing the enormous electric energy consumption applied to such cooling, without major changes to the packaging or production of most products and at a reasonable cost. 1) 1.9 Trillion kWhr/yr, $73Billion/yr for US Household 1997& commercial buildings 1995. This represents about 1/4 of total electric consumption for these sectors.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Dr. John Mankowski
ARMY 00-076
Title:Development of Radio Frequency Mitigation Technologies for Missile Defense Electronics
Abstract:Accurate Automation Corporation is proposing the development of a plasma limiter for the protection of sensing electronic equipment from high power EM radiation. The Limiter is essentially a self-breaking, fine-point, electrode placed within the receiving transmission line. In Phase I, AAC will begin development and testing of the concept in an S-band resonant ring located at Texas Tech University. The testing matrix will include breakdown for several gases at a range of pressures, various point diameters, and gap distances observing primarily breakdown development time and reflection and transmission characteristics. This work will lay the foundation for future Phase II development and research into an X-band system. The commercialization of this product will apply to a variety of sensing technologies. The potential market is tremendously broad and includes radar systems, telecommunication systems (mobile phones), and DSTV. Additionally, this technology applies to both ground based and spaced based systems.

GOMEZ RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
2707 Artie Street
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 551-0431
Mr. Michael Madewell
ARMY 00-076
Title:Development of Radio Frequency Mitigation Technologies for Missile Defense Electronics
Abstract:Increased demands on the reliability of solid state electronics operating in an enriched electromagnetic environment necessitates the development of protection devices that cover a broad frequency band and that protect against high powers and pulses with very short rise times. Current limiters have not been able to provide this wide range of protection. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a Fractal Limiter Device (FLD) that will protect sensitive electronic systems from various forms of high power Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The physical realization of such a device is accomplished by exploiting the fundamental properties of fractal antennas and signals (i.e., their geometrical similarity). In this proposal, it will be shown that the geometrical self-similarity of radiation patterns emitted by fractal antennas allows one to construct transmit and receive fractal antenna elements that function as a receiver protection device (i.e., limiter). The FLD offers substantial advantages over traditional limiters in that it will exhibit faster response times (picoseconds) and will provide reliable protection from a wider variety of high power external signal interference. The objective of Phase I is to prove, through assembly and test, that a FLD can be produced that will mitigate the effects of various forms of high power electromagnetic pulses on electronics. The need for cost effective limiter devices exhibiting fast response times and high power handling capabilities is continually growing in both commercial and defense electronics markets. Specific FLD applications include protection of communication receivers, computer networks, radio and television receivers, and medical diagnostic equipment.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Dr. Everett G. Farr
ARMY 00-077
Title:An Ultra-Wideband Antenna Built Into a Parachute
Abstract:While explosive munitions are quite effective at causing damage due to blast and fragments, their radius of damage is somewhat limited. We seek here to introduce a method of increasing the damage radius by adding an RF weapon system to the munition, consisting of an impulse source and a broadband antenna. By this technique, additional damage will be created in the area by upsetting computers and communications systems in the vicinity of the attack. A key part of the RF weapon system is the antenna. We propose incorporating an antenna into the parachute of a munition as it approaches its target. Such a device would be similar in form to a collapsible impulse radiating antenna (CIRA) that is currently manufactured and sold by Farr Research. The parachute would be fabricated in part from a conducting ripstop nylon that would simulate a parabolic reflector. We call the combination of parachute and IRA the Para-IRA. During Phase I we will build a prototype antenna on a small scale. We will test the device at our time domain test facility, and we will provide a preliminary design for a larger-scale design. We will talk with parachute manufacturers to investigate the challenges of incorporating an antenna into a standard parachute design. This research will lead to a new design for an ultra-wideband antenna embedded into a parachute. This device will be one part of a hybrid system that combines an UWB RF weapon with a high explosive munition. Such a weapon extends the damage radius beyond that of a simple explosive munition.

ENGINEERING MATTERS, INC.
23 Farwell St.
Newton, MA 02460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 965-8974
Dr. David Cope
ARMY 00-079
Title:Large-Scale Common-Mode Current Rejection
Abstract:There is a demonstrated need to protect power lines from disruptions to the Earth's magnetic field which can induce currents in the electrical conductors of such communications systems and pipelines. These disruptions can be caused by high altitude detonation of nuclear weapons or by solar activity. These geomagnetically-induced currents (GICs) cause saturation of the transformers, resulting in increased heating, generation of harmonics, and reactive power demand, each of which can lead to problems with system operation and dramatically increased corrosion rates of metallic pipelines. During the Baseline program, Engineering Matters will develop protective system designs for transformers and transmission lines in conjunction with our commercial utility teammate. We will then demonstrate the success of these designs in tests using sub-scale systems. During the Optional Task, we will design an additional technique to protect rotating synchronous generators. Electric system infrastructure preservation and reliable delivery of high quality electric power will be aided by the development of GIC mitigation techniques.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL
8660 Dakota Dr.
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-8342
Dr. Alexander Syrkin
ARMY 00-080
Title:High-Temperature High-Power Silicon Carbide Power Device for Hybrid Vehicles
Abstract:TDI proposes to develop high-power silicon carbide normally off junction field effect transistor (JFET) for military and commercial applications. Recently TDI has reported silicon carbide pn structures grown by sublimation and liquid phase epitaxy and demonstrated building blocks for SiC power devices including low resistivity Ohmic contacts to p-SiC, highly doped p+-4H-SiC layers, 4H-SiC pn diode chips with breakdown field > 2MV/cm and low leakage current. 6H-SiC diode chips with stable electric breakdown at 50 kW/cm2 dissipating power were demonstrated. These results open the opportunity to fabricate robust high-power high-current SiC devices. JFET is known as most reliable and rugged device with excellent current sharing capabilities having much better high-temperature reliability than Schottky diodes, MESFETs or MOSFETs. The goal of the Phase I is to prove the concept, design, demonstrate and test 4H-SiC normally off JFET. Detail device modeling will be performed to optimize high-power/high-current device performance. Modeling and experimental results will be compared with published data. In the Phase II, we will focus on the fabrication and characterization of SiC power JFETs scaled to 1500 V and 2000 A level. High performance SiC power devices for electric power conversion and traction motor control will find a host of applications in military vehicles, air platforms, space platforms, in commercial components like industrial motor drives, power converters and power supplies.

UNITED SILICON CARBIDE, INC.
100 Jersey Ave. Building D
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 565-9500
Mr. Peter Alexandrov
ARMY 00-080
Title:Design and Fabrication of a Novel SiC Power Device
Abstract:We propose to design, fabricate, and commercialize a novel SiC power device for high temperature and high power applications. The proposed device does not reply on a future solution to the problem of gate dielectric reliability at high temperature and electric field. Successful demonstration of the proposed device would rapidly accelerate the development and pratical applications of SiC power devices in harsh environment. In Phase I, we plan to carry out a detailed computer modeling and experimental study (i) to show the expected performance advantages of the proposed SiC power switch over the existing SiC devices, (ii) to simulate both DC and AC performances at temperatures up to 250 C, (iii) to quantify a structure for experimental demonstration, (iv) to experimentally fabricate the proposed power switch, and (v) to fully characterize the device performance. In Phase II, we will further develop the required processing technologies to fabricate improved versions of the proposed device based on improved design and modeling. We will reduce the ON-state voltage drop, increase the blocking voltage, substantially improve the current capability, and clear show the advantages of the proposed SiC power switch over the existing SiC switches. High temperature SiC power switches for ground and sea vehicles, for actuator controllers and power supplies in air platforms, space platforms and weapons systems with extensive commercial applications in traction drives in electric and hybrid electric vehicles, industrial motor drives, power converters, power supplies and appliances.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4283
Mr. Robert Lee Cardenas
ARMY 00-081
Title:Bridge Anchorage Systems
Abstract:Anchor systems are used to keep military support bridging in place and to withstand the water currents flowing in the wet gap they span. Current anchorage systems use kedge anchors, which are dropped from individual pontoons of the floating bridge to the streambed, and a combination of overhead lines connected to towers at each shore and guy lines. Experiences at the Sava River at Zupania, Croatia, demonstrated several specific shortcomings in the present anchorage system. The systems are time consuming to emplace, cumbersome to transport, prohibit periodic opening of the waterway for river traffic or to clear debris buildup on the upstream face of the bridge, and in the case of the poor river bottom conditions in Croatia just didn't work. By developing a system that is operationally more flexible and effective than current equipment, is easily maintained by operational units and is based on widely available commercial and industrial components, we can both increase the operational effectiveness of US Army bridging units and reduce the overall costs of the Bridge Companies. The new system may incorporate a system of lightweight, rapidly deployed anchors which can provide reliable anchorage for dry (access/egress situations) and submerged conditions. (P-00808) A successful development program will result in a logistically efficient system that will support the future Ribbon Bridge installations. Rapidly deployed and lightweight anchor systems have application in the maritime support, construction and forestry industries and will find utility in Emergency Response situations.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Magnus Snorrason
ARMY 00-082
Title:Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME)
Abstract:Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) must have self-localization capabilities, not just in abstract units like longitude & latitude, but with reference to real terrain. The ideal solution uses both onboard sensing (for real-time local scene information) and preloaded digital maps (for a global perspective). We propose to develop a Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME) to accomplish this goal for UGVs such as Utah State University/TARDEC's T3. Our design will use mature commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) stereo cameras and computer vision processors, enabling us to deliver a robust, fully-functional system at the end of Phase II that does not rely on exotic, high-cost hardware. In Phase I, we will specify hardware requirements (and optionally evaluate available COTS stereo camera vision systems & acquire one), design the overall system architecture and all algorithms, and implement & evaluate software prototypes for key algorithms. Our mapping engine will generate local high-resolution digital elevation maps (DEMs) in real-time from stereo input and integrate with preloaded low-resolution DEMs. Our scene understanding algorithms will use color and shape to classify objects by material class (grass/foliage vs. rock/concrete, etc.) and category (tree vs. road, etc.). Situational awareness is then derived from correlating detected objects with known locations. SESAME has direct commercial potential to numerous DoD, DoE, and private industry UGV projects as a situational awareness module designed for low-cost COTS stereo cameras. The developed situational awareness algorithms also have excellent commercial potential as a spin-off product for the computer game industry: a software development kit that enables game developers to easily add sophisticated path planning capabilities to their games' built-in artificially intelligent opponent.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. B. Ravichandran
ARMY 00-082
Title:Navigation, Scene Understanding, and Situational Awareness for an Unmanned Ground Vehicle
Abstract:The objective of this project is to design and implement a system to provide accurate position and situational awareness for an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). These tasks will be accomplished by a modular system where each module will accomplish the functions of (1) navigation (2) scene understanding and (3) situational awareness. In order to accomplish these functions, we will design and develop three modules. The Positioning Sensor Module (PSM) will address navigation, Local-scene Sensor Module (LSM) will address scene understanding and the Internal Representation Module (IRM) will address situational awareness. The focus of Phase I will be on: (1) demonstrating the capability of the scene understanding tasks (the Local-scene Sensor Module) and (2) the design of an architecture for the three modules (PSM for navigation, LSM for scene understanding, and IRM for situational awareness). Phase II will focus on all the modules and demonstrate their capabilities via field tests using on a UGV. The project team is composed of Scientific Systems Company Inc (SSCI), The Sarnoff Corporation and the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at Utah State University. This SBIR project will complement these ongoing efforts between CSOIS and TACOM and focus on developing the position sensing and situational awareness system. During the course of this project the CSOIS UGVs will serve as a platform for the basis of our design and demonstrations. The development of the above core technologies in position sensing and situational awareness for a UGV will serve as a foundation for Phase III commercialization. Commercial application of this technology exist in several areas such as: remote sensing, road and bridge inspection, buried and/or hazardous waste detection, unmanned space exploration, and counter terrorism.

TURING ASSOC., INC.
1392 Honey Run Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 665-4818
Mr. Gary Witus
ARMY 00-082
Title:Position Sensing and Situational Awareness for Robotic Vehicles
Abstract:The proposal is to develop low-cost technologies for enhanced perception and terrain understanding for robotic ground vehicle navigation. We propose to combine structured lighting with stereo vision, using innovative image processing based on shape-from-shading and shadow processing. This will provide robust ability to detect and segment negative obstacles (e.g., down steps), to estimate upcoming terrain slope, to improve object detection and segmentation (including porous obstacles such as fences), and improve texture characterization. We propose to use internal self-status sensors (e.g., inertial navigation sensors, current meters, load sensors) to collect data to characterize terrain trafficability (e.g., roughness, slope, ground resistance, traction limits, slip) for path planning. The mobile robot will exectute stylized maneuvers to measure terrain trafficability characteristics. We propose to use frequency analysis feature extraction and machine learning to classify terrain based on its trafficability (supporting landmark recognition and map region localization). We propose to train machine leaning systems to predict trafficability characteristics from structured lighting/stereo vision image texture metrics and segmented-region shape features. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated the feasiblity of key elements of the proposed approach. The research products will be applicable to DoD unmanned ground vehicle programs including the Future Combat Systems (FCS) vehicles, security robots, mine clearing and unexploded ordnance removal robots. The products will have potential applicability in commercial automotive intelligent vehicle development.

NANONEX CORP.
7 FOULET DRIVE
PRINCETON, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 683-3973
Dr. Jian Jim Wang
ARMY 00-083
Title:High Performance Nano-Wire-Grid Wide-angle Broadband Polarizing Beamsplitters
Abstract:This small business innovation research phase-I project will provide the design and the proof-of-principle demonstration of high-performance wide-angle, broadband (over the visible spectrum) polarizing beam-splitters. The proposed polarizing beam-splitters (PBSs) use nano-wire-grid as the polarization element, and hence is coined nano-wire-grid PBS (NWG-PBS). The proposed research will optimize the design of the geometry (size, pitch and shape) of the metal wire girds and supporting dielectric materials, as well as the selection of these materials, to achieve the desired extinction ratio, splitting efficiency, and transmittance in the wavelength range from near-infrared down to 400 nm. The designs will be first tested using simulation tools, then will be fabricated and characterized experimentally. The key tool of the fabrication is nanoimprint lithography, which can allow low-cost, high throughput patterning of sub-10 nm features over a large area- one of the expertise of Nanonex Corporation. The proposed NWG-PBS has many superior performances over existing PBSs, including (1) high polarization efficiency (> 99%) and high extinction ratio (> 100:1) for both s- and p- polarizations throughout the visible spectrum; (2) high transmission and reflection efficiencies (both > 95%); (3) large working incident angle range (0øñ45ø) and acceptance angle throughout the visible spectrum; (4) large clear working aperture (up to 5 inches in diameter); (5) ultra-thin active layer (< 0.5 micron); and (6) capability of integration with other devices. The proposed NWG-PBSs have many significant applications, which include projection TVs, liquid crystal displays & projectors, color copies/color printers, communications and computing components and vision systems. This proposed device, if successfully developed, would revolutionize the optics industry by significantly improving the performance of numerous optical & electro-optical products for both civilian and military applications.

NMI
53 Plymouth St
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 492-3984
Mr. Timothy A. Savas
ARMY 00-083
Title:Wide-Angle Broadband Polarizing Beamsplitter
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating polarizing beamsplitters that are broadband and have a wide field of view. We propose to use lithographic techniques to fabricate a polarizing beamsplitter that has acceptance angles up to +- 55 degrees and extinction ratios greater than 50:1 throughout the visible spectrum. Various materials and processing techniques will be investigated. In addition, we propose to fabricate small prototype polarizing beamsplitters and measure their polarization properties. The efficiency and extinction ratios for both S and P beams will be measured as a function of incident angle and wavelength. This beamsplitter device, if successfully developed, may not only find use in advanced imaging for military and medical systems, but may also prove indispensable for consumer applications such as projection displays.

PHOTERA TECNOLOGIES
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 755-8855
Dr. Maurice Pessot
ARMY 00-083
Title:Polarizers for High Angular, Spectral, and Efficiency Requirements (PHASER)
Abstract:Polarizing beamsplitters are critical to optical systems which range from head-mounted displays (HMDs) to electronic cinema; their efficiency often dictating the size, weight and cost of such systems. Hence, nominal improvements in polarizer performance have far-reaching implications. Relative to a figure of merit which assigns equal weights to polarizer efficiency, field of view and spectral coverage, we show that the performance of beamsplitting polarizers can be greatly enhanced. Innovative refinements of age-old technology can yield a two-fold improvement, while the successful application of new technologies could offer a revolutionary four-fold improvement. Moreover, three of the newer technologies lead to beamsplitting polarizers which operate at normal incidence; thereby opening up a host of new system geometries. Our proposed Phase I program involves the experiments and analyses necessary to establish the viability of several different approaches. It also involves the gathering of information concerning the availability, size limitations and cost of all materials and processes required to produce full-scale versions of each polarizer type. Hence, at the conclusion of the Phase I effort, not only will we be in a position to assess technical viability, but also to assess the cost effectiveness of each approach. Successful development of any one of the proposed polarizers will have a profound effect upon the performance, size, weight and cost of numerous military and commercial optical systems. Relative to pancake-window-based HMDs, for example, such a development would enable an order of magnitude improvement in performance.

PRECISION MAGNETIC BEARING SYSTEMS,
36 Green Mountain Drive
Cohoes, NY 12047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 783-4343
Dr. Dantam K. Rao
ARMY 00-084
Title:Compact All-Silicon Carbide Inverter Development
Abstract:We propose to develop an Inverter Test Facility to evaluate the performance of Silicon vs. Silicon Carbide power devices. In Phase-I, we will use this Test Facility to measure the performance of a baseline Silicon-based 5 HP inverter; in Phase-II, we will use this data as bench mark to evaluate the superiority of Silicon Carbide devices. The intent is to demonstrate key benefits of high temperature capability, small-size or higher efficiency of SiC devices over existing Si devices. In Phase-I, we will (i) develop an Inverter Test Facility that can accept either Si or SiC devices or modules and (ii) develop a high speed CAN-based DSP controller card that drives the test bed (iii) develop DSP software to control a 5 HP 3-phase motor, (iv) develop a dyno test rig to measure its performance and (v) test the full-power performance of the Si inverter, including the effect of temperature on efficiency. We will also review the advances in SiC power device development and identify leading suppliers or developers. In addition, in Phase-I Option, we will continue the preliminary design of the All-SiC inverter and will finalize the procurement or engineering sample development strategies for the All-SiC devices and modules. With SiC devices inverters can operate at higher temperatures than those possible by the current technology Si inverters. They also reduce size or increase efficiency. Applications include military vehicles, mining industry motors, More Electric Aircraft , Navy and Pulse Power as well as numerous commercial markets.

PZ TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1209 Gulley Road
Neptune, NJ 07753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 599-5837
Mr. Bill Wright
ARMY 00-084
Title:High-Speed High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Motor Drive Inverter for Hybrid Vehicles
Abstract:We propose to develop a SiC inverter for controlling a three-phase AC induction motor of at least 6 HP. In Phase I, we shall concentrate on (i) building a Si-based inverter with DSP for real time control by using high speed Si devices for over 30 KHz operation, (ii) building a hybrid SiC-diode/Si-IGBT based inverter and evaluating its performance, (iii) preliminary design of a SiC-based inverter, (iv) survey of state-fo-the-art in SiC device development and identifying the type of SiC devices for Phase II SiC inverter development, and (v) drafting a test plan for the SiC inverter. In Phase I, inverter characterization will be concentrated on switching losses vs. temperature, inverter efficiency at different temperatures, and the highest possible operating frequency and temperature. We shall also, in Phase I, characterize state-of-the-art SiC diode as well as its performance in the hybrid inverter circuit. In Phase II, SiC devices will be procured to build SiC inverters for motor control up to at least 6 HP. Improved SiC inverter design will be identified and used to guide the commercial development in Phase III. High performance SiC inverters for motor control in Army vehicles such as HMMWV and for commercial hybrid and all electric vehicles as well as for numerous commercial power electronic systems.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 694-8054
Mr. William Hall
ARMY 00-084
Title:High-Speed High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Motor Drive Inverter for Hybrid Vehicles
Abstract:Silicon carbide has long held the promise of founding a new generation of higher-density power electronics and its beneficial characteristics of higher temperature and higher frequency operation have been demonstrated. The question of how to package and apply SiC devices to take best advantage of these beneficial characteristics is largely unanswered. With the recent availability of prototype power devices, however, it is now possible to build a practical power-electronics circuit using SiC devices and explore its operational bounds in an attempt to provide these answers. A hybrid-electric vehicle motor drive, which potentially has widespread future use in both military and commercial vehicles, has been identified as a suitable application for this research. The construction and evaluation of a SiC based inverter driving a hybrid-vehicle induction motor is proposed. A significant increase in power density of power electronics would be of great benefit in reducing size and cost. Power-density improvement is presently limited by silicon device operating temperature and heat removal technology, both of which are receiving research attention. Silicon carbide with its higher operating temperature offers the hope for a step increase in power density. This project will be one of the first efforts to bring silicon carbide out of the research laboratory and into a practical realm and will benefit others in industry seeking higher power density or extended temperature range operation.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Raman Mehra/Sanjeev Seereeram
ARMY 00-085
Title:Intelligent Classification and Clustering Techniques for Text Data Mining
Abstract:For Federal agencies' management programs, there exists a specific need for an integrated software analysis suite which can: (1) process online information relevant to their needs, (2) provide pattern and trend identification, and (3) link solicitations and requirements documents to open-source suppliers, research and development capabilities. Automated information retrieval and document classification has become one of the most important technologies for web-based applications. Integration of data mining algorithms with textual analysis systems, termed Text Data Mining (TDM), represents a promising approach to such a knowledge management problem. The objective of this Phase I research is to design an overall system architecture for an Information Intelligence-based Program Management System, and investigate classification and clustering techniques to analyze document collections, classify incoming documents and identify trends within the subject areas. In particular, we will investigate the use of selected statistical, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Neural Networks (NN) techniques for improving the classification and clustering performance of TDM systems. Profesors Daniella Rus (Dartmouth College) and Joydeep Ghosh (University of Texas) will provide consulting support for this Phase I. The Phase I base will investigate the feasibility of the proposed approaches for TDM. The Phase I option will create a detailed design specification for a prototype IIPMS. Commercial applications of the proposed technology include all private sector companies, federal and state agencies with either technology requirements, or products and services for sale. It will appeal to high-technology businesses, prime contractors, small/medium companies, individual consultants, innovators, university and federal research institutions as a cost-effective alternative to traditional (in-house) sales and marketing. Federal, state and local agencies, prime contractors and other businesses are increasingly in favor of acquisition and licensing of technology items instead of in-house engineering (buy vs. build). The total potential market for the company's products and services is estimated to be over one million subscribers worldwide.

SEARCH TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4960 Peachtree Industrial Blvd
Norcross, GA 30071
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 441-1458
Mr. Paul R. Frey
ARMY 00-085
Title:An Integrated Suite of Text and Data Mining Tools for Program Managers
Abstract:This proposal describes an effort to build an integrated suite of tools for R&D Program Managers, incorporating text mining and data mining tools for information extraction and knowledge discovery from requirement sources and bibliographic databases of R&D literature. Successful program management depends in part on identifying and understanding requirements, discerning linkages among requirements (e.g., commonality, dependency, priority, etc.), and recognizing correspondence between program requirements and the capabilities of available resources. Requirements take several forms, but of particular interest are large written documents, such as Strategic Plans and R&D Master Plans. Requirements may originate from databases of operating experience and maintenance information. In either the database form or the resulting documents, mastery of these information sources presents a daunting challenge. The technologies of text and data mining have great potential for assisting Program Managers in their task of defining or understanding requirements from these very large data sources by identifying relationships among requirements and discovering connections between the requirements and other R&D activities reported in bibliographic databases. In Phase I, we will 1) analyze requirements sources, 2) prepare a report on text and data mining techniques, 3) develop a software specification, and 4) demonstrate the feasibility by developing a demonstration prototype. Successful completion of all three phases of this program will result in a powerful suite of tools for text mining. Program Managers in large organizations (government and commercial) will be able to use these tools to extract knowledge from databases of operational and maintenance experience. This knowledge will assist the Program Manager in defining, articulating, and defending programmatic requirements. The suite of tools will also allow the manager to mine clusters of requirements from free text documents such as Requirements Documents, Science and Technology Master Plans, and Strategic Plans. These requirements clusters can then be used to mine open literature S&T bibliographic databases to identify centers of excellence and assess the qualifications of individuals and organizations submitting proposals. By cross-mining requirements documents and S&T literature, the manager can also find new relationships among technologies and applications that may provide leverage points for investment of R&D resources. By mining internal research plans against patent databases, managers can enhance their protection of an organization's intellectual property by assessing how their research agenda and product development plans compare with their competitor's patent strategy.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd.
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Ronald Braun
ARMY 00-085
Title:Employing Data Mining to Create an Improved Information Intelligence System
Abstract:We propose an innovative combination of text analysis and data mining techniques in the design of an information intelligence-based program management system. By drawing on our extensive experience, we have devised a novel approach to translating free and field-delineated text into quantitative data suitable for use with a wide range of data mining techniques. In particular, our system (FlexiMiner), will support the application of text preprocessing, term discovery, concept formation, and automated text segmentation techniques in the encoding of text documents. The resulting quantitative data can take on a variety of forms depending on the goals of the analyst and the available computational resources. FlexiMiner will offer an improved capability to explore material needs documents and open source R&D abstracts, as well as discover logical linkages between these two sets of information. Finally, the ability to do cross-field pattern discovery and free-text analysis will offer more flexibility than that offered by the Technology Opportunities Analysis System. Phase I research and development of a proof-of-concept limited prototype will build on our existing data mining toolkit, IKODA, and lay the groundwork for the Phase II implementation of a fully functional common tool suite for both text and quantitative data mining. The US military is not alone in its need for advanced text mining tools. The proposed system would be very valuable to venture capitalists, medical researchers, and engineering design firms.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4379
Mr. Arnis Mangolds
ARMY 00-086
Title:Mission Payload for Small Urban Robots
Abstract:This proposal will address the payloads and the integration issues associated with small unit UGV robot systems defined as systems that could be disassembled and backpacked or hand carried to a forward position. These robots will support dismounted and mounted infantry and will be particularly useful in urban and dense forest terrain that will not be directly addressed by the larger FCS systems. The focus will be on developing an ability to hotswap payloads in a self configuring plug and play format. The payloads will be automated to the degree possible, as will the Operator control unit. Three payloads will be selected and the physical, electrical and software integration techniques will be demonstrated. (P-00809) Small robotics has the potential of extending the soldier's reach and minimizing his risk. A modular robot that can be reconfigured in the field will greatly expand the utility of the base system. By automating the swap-out configuration, less training and stress will be placed on the solider/operator, resulting in a more reliable system.

INDUSTRIAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS, INC.
245 West Roosevelt Rd.
West Chicago, IL 60185
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 876-8981
Dr. Donald E. Yuhas
ARMY 00-088
Title:An Ultrasonic Tomography System for Imaging Reinforcement Steel in Concrete Bridge Girders
Abstract:Recent studies have indicated the potential of reconstruction methods such as tomography as a modality suitable for finding and imaging steel reinforcement encased in bridges. The objective of the proposed research is to develop and demonstrate an ultrasonic tomography system capable of imaging reinforcement steel in concrete bridge girders. The system will be capable of locating position and size of the reinforcement to less than 1/8". Initial experiments in this Phase I program are directed at establishing baseline resolution data using existing commercially available tomographic reconstruction algorithms as well as existing synthetic aperture code. Next, in order to improve resolution, we formulate and evaluate two diffraction tomographic algorithms. In a series of experiments using concrete test specimens we formulate design rules for optimal tomographic sensors and requirements for automated data collection under field conditions. Finally, using the optimal reconstruction methods we assess image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution. Current technology uses magnetic or eddy current based approaches to locate subsurface reinforcement or relies upon large-scale tests to determine load ratings. An ultrasonic approach for verifying steel placement will have several distinct advantages over other available technologies. These include, increased accuracy, ease of operation, ease of interpretion and speed of operation.

INNOVATIVE MECHANICS, INC.
265 Coe Road
Clarendon Hills, IL 60514
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 887-9020
Dr. Andres Peekna
ARMY 00-089
Title:Measuring Time Dependent Pavement Surface Deflection Profiles Under Rolling Vehicles Using a Portable System
Abstract:Several of the approaches proposed would involve arrays of vertical-sensing sensors plus horizontal-sensing sensors supported by a 4-meter long lightweight beam. End supports could extend out from the roadside, or consist of longitudinal extenders. The vertical-sensing sensors would sense road profile and pavement deflection under load. They could be either contact sensors (linear variable differential transformers) or optical distance sensors. The horizontal-sensing sensors would be low-cost ultrasonic sensors, and would be aimed toward the vehicle's tires. They would record the actual lateral position of the tires during the test. By clearly indicating whether there is a tire next to any of these horizontal-sensing sensors, they would also record the longitudinal position of the vehicle wheels at any instant in time. Representing a different approach, a scanning laser option would also be considered. The Phase I development would center on survey of different technologies and choosing the best candidate design. The Phase I Option would include evaluation of candidate sensors under laboratory conditions and subsequently, completing a final hardware design. Such a system would provide the Army with a portable method for assessing load carrying capacity of roads in widely different world locations, before driving military convoys over them. This would help minimize potential friction with the governments involved. Use in airport runway testing may also be anticipated. In assessing the load carrying capacity of roads in the USA, in view of the low estimated cost per system, interest by county governments as well as state departments of transportation is anticipated.

SIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3307 BOB WALLACE AVENUE
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 876-4204
Mr. Jody S. Loyd
ARMY 00-090
Title:Advanced Multispectral Decoy Technologies
Abstract:This proposal shows a comprehensive approach for the development of advanced decoy technologies that answers key issues in fidelity and validation in all the important signature realms. The basis of the SimTech approach is a full "virtual prototyping" environment that utilizes computer modeling, state-of-the-art signature analysis, plus experience in fabrication and design. The SimTech team's abilities in these areas are documented in numerous publications. The proposed products from Phase I are examples of decoy virtual models - complete with signature analysis, and validation approaches - including novel evaluation metrics. Overall, the Phase I approach is shown to lay a foundation upon which a Phase II effort may be built. Several goals of a Phase II effort are discussed, including development of an innovative decoy/target signature testbed. This novel product would be as a logical and much needed spin-off from the decoy world to the target world, and carries the potential for outside investment. This novel product would be as a logical and much needed spin-off from the decoy world to the target world, and carries the potential for outside investment.

EFX SYSTEMS, INC.
3900 Collins Road
Lansing, MI 48910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 336-4630
Dr. Robert Hickey
ARMY 00-091
Title:In situ Biological Treatment for Explosives in Ground Water
Abstract:The U.S. Army has 21 ammunition plants in the U.S. along with a large number of Army Depots and Forts. It is estimated that 40 of these installations reqire clean up of explosives such as TNT, RDX and their partai; breakdown products such as TNB. A low cost method for treatment of explosives in-situ for soils and groundwater is needed. Anaerobic reductive transformation appears to be a promising option based on successful use of this technology for treatment of explosives containing wastewaters such as pinkwater. Better information on the factors that will control the rate and extent of explosives treatment in-situ is needed before proceeding to the field. The objectives of this proposed effort is to examine both nitrate reducing and methanogenic anaerobic conditions with a suite of different possible electron donors to determine the best conditions for proceding to field tests in future work. The information and know how developed as a part of this proposed effort will provide the base of information needed to proceed to field testing. This same information will be extremely useful in optimizing and improving on-site treatment of munitions effluents such as pinkwater. This same approach of reductive transformation in-situ will have further application for the treatment of other recalcitrant compounds such as pesticides.

MAGNUM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
16 West Spanish Main St.
Tampa, FL 33609
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 831-8949
Mr. David Byron
ARMY 00-092
Title:Lightweight Gun Barrel
Abstract:Because of their desirable physical properties, technical ceramics have been investigated for use in gun barrels. When compared to steel, ceramics offer significantly less weight, longer barrel life and the ability to survive higher rates of fire and the use of hotter propellants. Previous attempts by government and industry to use technical ceramics in gun barrels typically have focused on use of ceramic liners or coating in some manner. Typically, these efforts have produced only marginal results due to ceramic failure. Our approach builds actual ceramic barrels that are reinforced to enable their satisfactory use as gun barrels. The basis of our technology is the reinforcement of materials that are extremely hard and brittle so that they may be used for purposes not previously feasible, such as gun barrels. Referred to as Composite Reinforced Ceramic Technology (CRCT), this technology has been privately researched and funded. A proof of principle has been successfully demonstrated with thousands of satisfactory firings in small caliber. The technology is ready for further research and development for military calibers. Lighter weight, longer life and lower cost gun barrels for use in law enforcement and shooting sports. Advanced internal combustion engines with high power to weight ratio. Industrial tubing for transporting corrosive chemicals and super heated steam.

TDJ, INC.
192 East 100 North
Fayette, UT 84630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 528-7999
Mr. Richard R. Lyman
ARMY 00-092
Title:Lightweight Gun Barrel
Abstract:Christensen Arms proposes to research and apply existing high temperature materials to expand current lightweight gun barrel technology. Christensen Arms to date, has designed, structurally analyzed and fabricated for the civilian and military market over 1,000 lightweight graphite-epoxy gun barrels (.17 caliber through .50 Caliber). Test specimens have strongly demonstrated significant temperature reductions over standard metal barrels per MIL-S-46047E. The barrel design will take advantage of years of past advanced composite experience by Christensen Arms design and production team. This includes research experience on many DoD composite weapon system designs, including analysis, pre-production fabrication, tooling, first article testing and production-run manufacturing of land, water and aerospace components and assemblies. Current company funded research on high temperature materials for semi and fully automatic weapons will be incorporated. Christensen Arms standard barrels have a thin match grade stainless steel liner and are over-wound with a graphite/epoxy casing in accordance with four patents and two patents pending. The design for this proposal will be based on this proven technology. Existing ultra high temperature resistant metals and/or barrier/wear coatings will be used for the barrel liner. An existing or an in-house high temperature composite matrix will be used for the barrel casing. Christensen Arms is committed to succeeding during the Phase I effort of the lightweight gun barrel program. We sincerely feel that we are closing in on the solution or combination of solutions to this now long standing need. If the program is a success, then it will be a great advancement in gun technology. Our findings show that there are a significant number of small to medium sized commercial entities that are also in various stages of solving this problem. We have aligned ourselves with some of them and intend to achieve further alignments in the near future. The benefits of these many efforts will result in superiority in some extremely critical weapon systems throughout the DoD. Potential Commercial Applications other than weapons include: Pistons and piston housings(combustion engines), High pressure or hot ignition chambers(rocket motors, jet engines, aerospace), Hot gas insulation chambers(Automobile mufflers/catalytic converters), Grating(Blast Furnace), Chimneys/Flues(Coal/Nuclear powered plants), Personal high pressure tanks(Underwater, underground, hazardous conditions, fire fighting), Combustible Transport Tanks(Fuel tanker trucks, trains, aircraft), Explosion proof chambers(Grain silos), High temperature friction surfaces(Aircraft brakes, spacecraft brakes/surfaces, pulleys, bearings, gears)

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Mr. William Weiland
ARMY 00-093
Title:Innovative Hands-Free Point-and-Click Computer Control Device Within a Moving Vehicle
Abstract:A concept for a Gaze-based Point-And-Click (G-PAC) interface component is proposed as an ideal human-computer interaction technology for operations within moving vehicles. In recent years there has been considerable interest in combat vehicle crew reduction through the incorporation of increased automation. As currently envisioned, these automation systems require the use of mouse or trackball. The need to simultaneously manipulate other manual control devices makes the use of these standard manual computer interface mechanisms impracticable. Beginning with an analysis of hands-free HCI component requirements, in both real-world vehicle contexts and software reference architecture contexts, we propose to develop a multimodal interface based on eye-tracking and speech recognition technologies. G-PAC will allow crewmembers to perform point-and-click operations on graphical interface objects in a manner similar to mouse-based systems, while simultaneously performing manual control operations. G-PAC builds on earlier research performed by the proposed research team which demonstrated the feasibility of building versatile control mechanisms by combining eye-control and voice-control techniques. The G-PAC interface addresses the extension of previous eye-voice interface research into the context of combat vehicle systems and plug-and-play architectures. The proposed Phase I effort will culminate in a proof-of-concept demonstration that will show multimodal interaction in a simulated vehicle context. Where human operators are required to continuously manipulate manual controls while interacting with computer-based systems, the need for hands-free interface technology is clear. G-PAC is an ideal interface technology in these situations. In addition to a wide range of military contexts, potential applications are envisioned for, among others, firefighting and police operations domains. G-PAC also offers the opportunity of opening the computer market up to a large disabled population which cannot function with mouse-based systems.

LC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9455 Silver King Court
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 385-7133
Mr. Dixon Cleveland
ARMY 00-093
Title:Hands-Free Point-and-Click Computer Control Device Within a Moving Vehicle
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to develop an eye and voice-operated system to perform computer point-and-click operations in a moving vehicle. The eye and voice- driven protocols will replace operations currently performed by hand via mouse or trackball, which are unwieldy in a moving vehicle environment where it is difficult to maintain steady hand movements. To point and click an icon, the operator simply looks at the icon and speaks a key command word such as "click." Different command words are used to designate alternative click types, such as left click, right click, double click, and drag-and-drop. Ultimately more advanced speech recognition systems will also replace the keyboard for data and text entry. The combined eyetracker and speech recognition system will permit full and efficient control of a computer console without typing or manually manipulating a mouse or trackball. Human Computer Interaction: Command and Control, Situation Awareness, Office Automation, Usability Analysis, Aid for People with Disabilities. Psychological Research: Fatigue Monitoring, Task/Scan Analysis, Advertisement Analysis. Physiological Analysis: Visual Response Testing, Reading Diagnostics.

TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH, INC.
16 Wildhedge Lane
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 219-0020
Mr. Benjamin Tirabassi
ARMY 00-093
Title:Innovative Hands-Free Point-and-Click Computer Control Device Within a Moving Vehicle
Abstract:Most computer programs require both keyboard data entry and Point-and-Click (PAC) operations with a mouse or trackball device to operate efficiently. In a moving environment such as an airplane, car, bus, or armored vehicle, PAC operations become more difficult. Speech recognition can replace tedious data entry, and with domain specific grammar corrections it can ensure spoken data and dictation are recognized and entered properly. Adding a secondary device to complement speech input, which could perform all the PAC operations efficiently and require no steady hand movements, would permit full use of a computer in moving vehicles. The use of a multiple-controller approach enables the interaction to be tailored to the task and environmental constraints, as well as user preferences. A natural language software-based speech recognizer in combination with eye-tracking, facial gesture, brain wave and neuromuscular sensor technologies are to be configured in a variety of ways to provide the required functionality. Unique to this proposal is the development of an integrated set of human-computer control suite technologies using standard Application Program Interfaces (APIs) in the commercial Windows and Unix environment that are compatible with the Army Technical Architecture for efficient hands-free operation of computer systems. Some PAC needs could be met by using a combination of eye movement, facial muscle, and brain wave bio-potential combined technologies detected at the forehead, to generate computer inputs. Both the frequency bands and electrical signal content levels derived from these sensors have shown progress in the selective mind and voluntary neuromuscular control of a computer display pointer and clicking on a displayed selection. Projective task analysis, driven by a decision support activity scenario, will be conducted for various combinations of interface technologies to derive an effective and feasible PAC conceptual design integrated with natural language. Quantitative performance and qualitative human interaction analysis will be documented and provided with the conceptual design. This research would be helpful for the military in controlling combat simulations and interacting with command and control consoles, it would also make a useful commercial gaming device and afford many handicapped individuals, who cannot efficiently use a mouse, trackball, or keyboard; the opportunity to access the next generation internet.

ROBOTICS RESEARCH CORP.
101 Landy Lane
Cincinnati, OH 45215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(606) 525-4064
Mr. Paul H. Eismann
ARMY 00-094
Title:Adaptable and Reusable Hardware/ Software (HW/SW ) Architectures And Components for Automated Materiel Handling
Abstract:The US Army has an immediate need to minimize the manpower required to perform field material handling applications in forward supply operations. Replacing the existing manual equipment is not cost effective. This program aims to provide the Army with a generic, open-architecture, component based control system that can be readily and economically adapted to a broad range of existing field material handling systems. The program builds on technology previously developed for the Army by RRC and others, providing the final components needed for deployment in the field. RRC has demonstrated in a previous program that through the application of robotic control and sensor technology, an existing manual material handling system can be modified to perform many tasks autonomously. However, an operator is still required to teleoperate portions of the tasks and monitor operation to avoid collisions. While the system reduces the manpower required to perform the tasks, several areas of improvement have been identified that will increase an operator's efficiency including; enhancements to the man machine interface and application development environment, implementation of obstacle avoidance and compliance control strategies and knowledge based programming techniques. These advancements complete the technology to enable Army deployment of practical field material handling systems. In addition to the material handling applications within the military complex, the development of a generic open architecture control system with advanced user interface features has significant government and commercial market potential in any application demanding robotic manipulation in unstructured and/or hazardous environments, such as assembly, welding, cutting, stripping, cleaning and coating operations. Target sectors include the environmental remediation industry; civil infrastructure and commercial construction industry; and shipbuilding and aircraft industry.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Nabil A. Elkouh
ARMY 00-095
Title:Large Caliber Gun Tube Erosion Mitigation Coating Technology
Abstract:Creare proposes to develop an innovative thermal-spray coating system to coat the interior of large caliber extended-range gun tubes to extend their service life by ten to twenty times. The coating system is comprised of an innovative thermal spray technique using novel refractory materials. Our combined hardware/materials system holds the promise of forming coatings inside of gun tubes that are capable of withstanding the erosive environment caused by extreme temperatures, chemical release, and charge movement that are the direct result of firing. The hardware is a unique combination of commercially available thermal spray and specialty coating equipment that offers the potential of creating dense, adherent coatings having tight tolerances. The materials systems we propose are unique in character and hold the potential to greatly increase performance. In Phase I, we will prepare sample coupons, which will be subjected to a battery of tests that simulate the erosion and wear in a gun barrel. The results from Phase I will guide the development of an in-bore coating system in Phase II that will be employed to coat the interior of a large caliber gun tube to test coating performance under typical firing conditions. The benefits of the proposed gun tube coating process are expected to be (1) improved erosion performance, (2) reduced life-cycle cost, and (3) excellent coating deposition control. A similar coating system could extend the life of tubes, boilers, turbine blades, and reactors associated with extreme environments encountered in chemical processing industries, power plants, marine environments, aerospace turbines, and foundries.

CONTINENTAL CONTROLS & DEVICES, INC.
1921 N. Gaffey Suite J
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 831-8669
Mr. James P. Hynes Jr.
ARMY 00-096
Title:Electronic Sight Unit (ESU)
Abstract:We propose to integrate the latest commercial, off the shelf technology to build autonomous fire control systems for mortars. While the technologies are familiar individually (GPS attitude, magnetometers, laser rangefinders, MEMS inertial sensors) we will demonstrate full function indirect and direct fire control solutions with a fraction of the weight and cost of today's equipment. Through dynamic simulation we argue that these new technologies can transform the handheld 60 mm M1 mortar into a precision direct fire weapon. We will also field demonstrate an SPS (Standard Positioning Service) kinematic GPS as a replacement for traditional aiming sticks as azimuth reference. In Phase 2 we will partner with Trimble to demonstrate improved accuracy with a Y code (PPS) version. It's time for a change in mortar firing doctrine. The results of this R&D program have a very high probability of being commercialized within the DoD and industry. This technology can transform the 60mm from an area weapon to an accurate and versatile direct fire gun with first shot kill capability.

SCENPRO, INC.
101 W. Renner Rd.
Richardson, TX 75082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 437-5001
Mr. Michael Gately
ARMY 00-097
Title:Assessing Decision-Making Skills in Virtual Environments
Abstract:ScenPro, Inc. proposes to develop the Virtual Soldier Skills Assessor (ViSSA), a set of three components that work together to allow an Urban Soldier trainer to effectively assess soldier and small unit leader decision-making skills. The first component allows the trainer to annotate a virtual urban environment (associated with a specific scenario) with features relevant to decision-making such as optimal routes, decision points, engagement rules, and sub-team formation. The second component is a DIS/HLA compatible software system that monitors the actions of a soldier and assesses their decision-making skills based upon the features previously specified by the trainer. This second component will report this assessment to the trainer. The third component will be a Trainer's Tool that can be used by the trainer to observe the soldier's progress during a training simulation. A viable Virtual Soldier Skills Assessor will be useful to a wide range of government and private sector organizations. There is a clear need for such a tool within the military and civilian training communities that have embraced Dismounted Infantryman technology. In military applications, it is likely that the technology can be transferred to work with other virtual objects such as tanks and aircraft. With minimum modifications, products could be developed to aid in the assessment of tank commanders, tank drivers, tank platoon commanders, pilots, and section leaders. We have held discussions with Raytheon's Systems Analysis and Simulation Center regarding a potential Phase II/III partnership, and Raytheon has expressed interest in participating in the commercialization of this work. In civilian applications, this technology may be of significant benefit in the training of Police/Fire/EMS personnel. There is a clear need for such a tool within this sector which will allow for identification, tracking, and documentation of critical decision points made during the course of training. By identifying decision strengths/weaknesses of the individual during a high-risk training scenario, the trainer will be able to focus in on these issues, which will allow for corrective actions resulting in a more ideal training outcome. This may, in turn, reduce poor decisions made in the field, thereby reducing the frequency of critical errors in rapid decision-making during high-risk urban situations.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
1810 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 352-9300
Dr. Michelle Sams
ARMY 00-098
Title:Training Media to Support Night Operations in Urban Settings
Abstract:This project proposes to leverage a variety of computer-based technologies to improve the training and skill transfer of soldiers in the effective use of night vision devices in urban settings. The intelligent training system will include a database of night imagery, scenarios for skill practice, and instruction adapted to the individual learner. Realistic urban training sites have been built to further the Army's goal to "train as we fight". However, these sites are expensive to build and high demand for time at these sites limits availability to troops. The proposed computer-based training system will provide repeatable, scenario based skill practice that should transfer well to physical training sites and real world operations. In addition, an intelligent training system can reduce the time it takes to learn and increase the knowledge gained within that time frame.

AGILE MATERIALS & TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
536 Mills Way
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 895-2056
Mr. Chris Elsass
ARMY 00-099
Title:True Time Delay and Constant Phase Shift Circuit Elements
Abstract:This program is aimed at the development of low loss (less than 1dB), wide band, true-time-delay phase shifter circuits using thin-film BST (Barium Strontium Titanate, a tunable dielectric). Recent advances in BST deposition technology have led to dramatic improvements in material quality, making BST suitable for millimeter-wave circuit components. First, we will develop physics-based equivalent-circuit models for passive structures on a variety of substrates, and optimize BST varactors for low loss in the Ka-band. In addition, we will model distributed-circuit delay-lines using physics-based equivalent-circuit models for BST and MMIC varactors. This will quantify frequency and temperature-dependence of insertion loss and phase delay in a 50-Ohm environment in terms of device and embedding circuit parameters. Modeling of IMD in distributed-circuit phase shifters to quantify IP3 in terms of fundamental parameters such as tunability, breakdown field, and loss will be performed. Additionally, proposed constant-phase shifting devices will be investigated. The drastic cost reduction of phased array antennas requires a paradigm shift in design strategy. Phase shifters are a critical component of a phased array that enables the antenna to actively steer a beam and is also the cost driver of the array. Phase shifters have significant RF loss and therefore amplification must be provided in front of the phase shifter to compensate for this loss. Theoretically if a phase shifter could be designed with little or no loss up to 80% of the amplifiers could be deleted from a phased array system. This proposed SBIR program is therefore targeting a critical problem and technology barrier that will enable new paradigm shifts in phased-array development, opening up a potentially vast market.

M2MEMS
2108 Brockman
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 647-1793
Dr. Gabriel Rebeiz
ARMY 00-099
Title:True Time Delay and Constant Phase Shift Circuit Elements
Abstract:We propose the development of very low loss multi-throw MEMS switches for DC to mm-wave applications. The novel switches exhibit a loss of 0.1-0.2 dB from 0.1-50 GHz, and are used in true-time delay and constant-phase 2-bit, 3-bit and N-bit phase shifters. We also plan to partner with consultants at Microassembly, Inc., to develop a hermetic packaging technique for MEMS switches and phase shifters. The hermetic package is compatible with RF MEMS and will allow the integration of input and output lines through the wafer. The combined effort should lead to a novel and packaged phase shifters for X-band to mm-wave operation. We believe that the SBIR proposal effort will help in the commercialization of MEMS-based switches and phase shifters if the packaging aspect is solved. Other than the DOD applications and systems, the largest market will be the mobile telephone suppliers, since such a switch results in excellent performance (0.1 dB insertion loss) and can be used after the power amplifier in the transmit path. It also can be used before and after the switched filter bank in tri-band telephones. This is the reason why it is important to develop a packaging technology which is compatible with RF MEMS, and which can be done at a wafer-scale level.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
5170 N. Sepulveda Blvd.
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9095
Dr. David Chenault
ARMY 00-100
Title:Seeing Through Smoke, Fog, and Obscurants Using Circular Infrared (IR) Polarimetric Imaging
Abstract:SY Technology, Inc. proposes to assess the feasibility for portable instrumentation that will enhance a soldier's ability to see through battlefield aerosols and obscurants. The proposed polarimetric imager will consist of a polarized source and a suitable polarization detection imaging system. The Phase I will primarily consist of a measurements program on appropriate aerosols throughout the spectrum to determine the optimal choice of wavelength, illumination polarization state, and detected polarization state. The combinations of scattering media and spectral range in which polarization can enhance contrast will be identified and suitable system concepts will be developed. In the Phase I Option, a complete system design will be completed including component specifications, schematics, data reduction algorithms, and calibration procedures. The Phase II work will implement the design; calibrate, test, and demonstrate the instrumentation; and explore commercial applications for the techniques developed in this work. The measurements will take advantage of SY Technology's capability and expertise in polarization measurements and instrument design. This effort will also capitalize on recent experiments in this area using instrumentation available at SY Technology, Inc. and other government partners through research and development agreements. It is anticipated that the imaging polarimeter will significantly enhance a soldier's ability to see through conventional and IR obscurants on the battlefield. Potential commercial applications include aiding a firefighter's ability to see in smoke filled areas, imaging through fog for aircraft and automobiles, ice detection, humanitarian de-mining, remote sensing, and medical imaging.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS, INC.
521 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Dr. Richard Gentilman
ARMY 00-101
Title:Low Cost ALON
Abstract:This program will first establish a low-cost aluminum oxynitride (ALON) powder synthesis process, known to yield powder that can readily be densified to optical transparency. This program will then establish a new low-cost source for transparent ALON windows. In Phase I, MSI will demonstrate a proven, low-cost method for synthesizing ALON powder. The process will utilize carbothermal reduction of high purity alumina in a nitrogen atmosphere to form ALON directly, avoiding AlN entirely. Starting constituents (Al2O3 and carbon powders) will be weighed, blended, reacted at elevated temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere, and then milled. Chemical purity, phase purity, lattice parameter, particle size, particle size distribution, and surface area of the resulting powders will be measured. In the Phase I Option, the ability to densify the powder to optical transparency will be verified, and scale up of the powder synthesis will be initiated. In Phase II, MSI will develop a high-volume continuous process for producing ALON powder and establish a complete transparent ALON fabrication capability. In addition, we will investigate ways to streamline the ALON fabrication process that could eliminate one or more major process steps. Transparent ALON armor offers superior protection against small caliber armor piercing projectiles at substantially reduced weight and thickness. Initially, this program will provide a low-cost source of high purity ALON powders. Subsequently, when the Phase II program has been completed, a new low-cost source for transparent ALON components will have been established. A primary defense application for transparent ALON is low-cost, light-weight, large-area transparent armor panels for military land vehicles and aircraft. Commercial personnel security vehicles will also benefit from the technology developed in this program.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. R.O.Loutfy
ARMY 00-102
Title:A Continuous Reactor for the Large Scale Production Of Nanotubes
Abstract:It is proposed to development of a large-scale production apparatus that produces single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and catalytic multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) on a continuous process basis. A novel and flexible reactor design will be investigated. The proposed reactor design will allow the control of production parameters including catalyst type and particle size, the type of carbon source, catalyst/carbon ratio, temperature of reaction and reaction time. The apparatus will be designed for continuous operation and product collection, which promises high production rates and low cost, and assures a successful Phase II scale-up to produce commercial quantities of this novel and versatile material. Large scale production of low cost, high yield, and controlled properties nanotubes can open up the potential commercialization of these novel materials. Nanotubes have the potential applications as cold electron field emitter, gas storage media, and as nanoreinforcement for advanced polymer composites.

NANOLAB, INC.
35 Galen Street
Watertown, MA 02172
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-4161
Mr. David Carnahan
ARMY 00-102
Title:High Volume, Low-Cost Production of High-Purity Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:Carbon nanotubes have tremendous potential in many applications, but are limited by their high cost. The cost is driven by two factors, the low process yield and the laborious purification procedures required by current synthesis techniques, DC discharge and laser ablation. However, nanotubes produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition process have both high yield and purity, as well as control over nanotube diameter and length. Further, straight, aligned nanotubes can be grown on a substrate, a key advantage for device fabrication. NanoLab is the exclusive licensee of the CVD nanotube growth process developed by Dr. Zhifeng Ren and patented by the University of Buffalo. Dr. Ren, now at Boston College, has performed the fundamental research on this process, as highlighted in the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Therefore, the program goal is to design and implement a high output pilot facility for carbon nanotube production. The key development will be a CVD belt furnace, where nanotubes can be continuously harvested. In Phase I, we will demonstrate a semi-continuous process for nanotube production, based on an extension of the existing CVD technology. After validating the semicontinuous production, we will design a full scale production unit for large quantity nanotube synthesis. The advent of production quantities of carbon nanotubes will enable new applications that become viable when the cost is lower. Field emission displays, sensors, and other devices can be effectively produced using this process, as well as bulk materials for composites and high volume applications.

ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERTS, INC.
215 First Sreet
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 577-0700
Mr. Marco Giovanardi
ARMY 00-103
Title:Embedded Sensor-Electronics System
Abstract:ACX proposes to design, fabricate, and test a sensor with enclosed signal conditioning and amplification electronics for embedding into composite structures. The amplified signal can then be transmitted using either an analog-to-digital converter and a digital fleixble circuitry line, or an RF transmitting device. This method of collecting data maintains the structural integrity, and the materials used for the patented ACX QuickPack packaging and in the flexible circuitry are compatible with the epoxies used in most composites, as has been demonstrated in the past. The most commonly used techniques for non-invasive structural health monitoring include ultrasound devices, but embedded piezoceramic sensors are a very attractive alternative of the future. One of the main reasons of concern when using piezoceramic sensors, though, is the fact that wires are needed to transport the signal from the sensors to an acquiring device. The proposed concept solves this problem in one of two ways. If it is found feasible, then RF transmitting devices will be integrated into the structure, and the sensors are therefore going to be stand-alone. If this solution does not yield the expected results, then a digital line of flexible circuitry can be laid between the sensor and the edge of the structure. ACX's manufacturing technique allows for the inclusion of electroncis within the sensor package, as well as extending flexible, thin cirucit lines from the sensor to the edge of the structure. In this Phase I effort, the main focus will be on determining the best design for this kind of solution, in terms of materials to use, electronics to choose, and sensor placement and size for each structure, and on building test samples. Embedded sensor systems for structural health monitoring are an expanding sector, and ACX can grow into the market by fabricating non-destructive sensor systems. ACX also specializes in structural control and vibration reduction systems, and is therefore qualified to design the algorithms necessary for complete structural health monitoring systems.

ADVANCED ELECTROMAGNETICS
4516 Stockbridge Ave NW
Albuquerque, NM 87120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 897-4741
Dr. Edgar L. Coffey
ARMY 00-104
Title:Electromagnetic Modeling of Complex Structures
Abstract:A System-Level Modeling Framework for electromagnetic modeling is proposed. The heart of the Framework is a rule-based, whole-object conversion process that takes Computer Aided Design (CAD) geometry and material data and transforms it into valid, electromagnetic geometry and material modeling elements. The CAD Converter creates an "intermediate," parametric model of the structure to be analyzed. The user manipulates the "shadow surfaces" of the intermediate model by varying embedded parameters. These parameters represent physical characteristics of the structure, such as tank turret rotation angle or main gun elevation angle. When the intermediate model is correct, the rule-based gridding approach proposed herein is applied, and a valid electromagnetic model is created for the desired computer code. It is anticipated that several EM codes (GEMACS, NEC, BSC, CARLOS-3D, XPATCH, and APATCH) will be supported by the products this effort produces, merely be changing the rule set driving the gridding. The overall Framework provides elements for database/library, modeling rules, an electromagnetic modeler's workbench, visualization and code interface, in addition to the CAD-to-EM conversion process. The EM System Level Electromagnetic Framework represents a new and innovative way for government agencies, their contractors, universities, and commercial firms to approach electromagnetic modeling. The goal is to produce a product to leverage scarce electromagnetic expertise by applying it only where it is essential and letting less experienced engineers perform most of the tasks. The cost savings of this approach is potentially enormous for both government and commercial areas, such as antenna analysis and design, radar, in-situ antenna coupling, radiation and scattering, EMC/EMI, EMP, high-power microwave, and similar areas.

SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 679-2281
Mr. R. Wade Allen
ARMY 00-105
Title:An Integrated Anthropometrics, Vehicle and Biodynamics Software Tool
Abstract:The objective is to simulate and predict the performance of Army personnel riding in a ground vehicle subject to vibrations. Established software tools are available for parts of this problem: anthropometrics for reach and vision analysis, vehicle dynamics for vibration and ride quality analysis, and biodynamics for human motion in response to force inputs. In Phase I we propose to write a software specification to integrate selected software components that will efficiently and accurately set up and analyze this class of problems. The team members own the source code that will be integrated (JACK, VDANL and BIODYNE). The innovation is to use manual control as a means to define and measure task performance. Representative closed loop tasks such as driver avoidance maneuvers or target tracking will be defined, and the vehicle will be considered "good" if these tasks can be adequately performed, by different sized drivers and passengers, traveling over different types of roads and terrains. A sample problem will be selected and analyzed in Phase I using the non-integrated software tools and a rapid prototype visual interface will be developed. The Phase II objective is to develop and validate a prototype of the integrated software package. An integrated tool for predicting human task performance on moving platforms does not currently exist and has many potential military and commercial applications. These include ambulances, fire engines, off-road vehicles, agricultural equipment, rotorcraft and aircraft. The use of manual control provides a natural way to define and more importantly validate task performance. Existing customers of the software components (such as TACOM) will have increased capabilities.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes Circle
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 279-3054
Mr. Ronald A. Borrell
ARMY 00-106
Title:Platform Noise Reduction
Abstract:The Army wishes to mount acoustic sensors on operational vehicles and use them to detect and localize other operational vehicles in the vicinity. The effectiveness of such a system can be limited by the noise created by the platform on which the sensors are mounted. DSR proposes a system that combines noise cancellation techniques with adaptive beamforming techniques in order to simultaneously reject own-platform noise while still detecting and localizing far-field target signatures. Our proposed solution provides innovative approaches to address processing issues such as stability, convergence time, training needs and decoupling of the algorithms that have to process both near-field and far-field returns. DSR's effort will result in definition of MOE's, specification of processing algorithms, characterization of near-field and far-field acoustic returns, system performance estimates, identification of system issues and plans for development of a prototype for future field testing. Completion of this effort (Phase I and Phase II) will lead directly to an acoustic sensor and processing system design ready for integration in support of Army battlefield operations. Capability could also be applied to Navy ASW programs and commercial robotic applications where in both cases own-platform noise must be rejected in order to acoustically detect targets.

SIGNAL SYSTEMS CORP.
P.O. Box 787
Severna Park, MD 21146
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 431-7148
Dr. Laurence R. Riddle
ARMY 00-106
Title:Platform Noise Reduction
Abstract:For acoustic sensors to have sufficient detection ranges on future combat systems, a platform noise reduction system that achieves near ambient noise levels is needed. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of platform noise reduction using noise cancellation sensors and algorithms. During Phase I Signal Systems Corporation will collect data on either a HMMWV or an unmanned vehicle. We will determine noise sources, and the spatial coherence of the noise field under different platform operating conditions. We will investigate new acoustic array designs with improved platform noise suppression; examine noise reduction techniques applicable to moving conditions; and demonstrate (off-line) broadband noise reduction. We will develop a preliminary design for a high frequency noise reduction system applicable to acoustic shock wave processing. Technical results included in the Phase I effort are noise reduction versus vehicle speed; noise reduction versus algorithm approach; noise reduction versus number of array and reference sensors, and self-noise classification features that discriminate between near and far-field acoustic signatures. The results of our Phase I effort will have addressed the critical risk areas of this project and provide a solid foundation for a real-time prototype effort in Phase II. Our approach will enable maximum platform noise reduction onboard future combat vehicles, such as reconnaissance unmanned vehicles. By making acoustic sensors effective, we can provide an all-weather, all-time surveillance capability that helps to queue infrared and visual sensors without the cost, power and weight associated with radar processors. This technology will also improve speech recognition performance in the wireless and handheld information appliance products.

EPITAXIAL LABORATORY, INC.
25 East Loop Road
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 909-9209
Dr. Jie Piao
ARMY 00-107
Title:Development of TlGaAs/GaAs materials for High Speed Electronic Devices
Abstract:High-performance, low cost monolithic radio-frequency integrated circuits (RFIC) have many applications for ARMY, other DOD components, and commercial site. The need for RFIC operating in the high mm-wave range stresses the current GaAs based PHEMT technology to its limits, and has spurred development effort of InP based HEMT/PHEMT. The cost of InP based HEMT/PHEMT is very high due to expensive, much smaller and less robust substrate, and the InP-specific fabrication steps. Calculations predict that TlGaAs based PHEMT on GaAs has better device performance figures over current GaAs based PHEMT and is comparable to InP based HEMT. When considering the mature GaAs MESFET and PHEMT technology with 4 inch and 6 inch fab lines, retaining GaAs substrate in manufacturing operation, as opposed to switching to InP substrates, is highly desirable. ELI proposes to develop a TlGaAs based PHEMT on GaAs substrate. TlGaAs on GaAs PHEMT will offer many advantages over present technologies. These include improved performance with reduced cost, better reliability, and lower leakage currents. In phase I, TlGaAs/GaAs 2DEG growth and characterizations will be carried out, and high performance PHEMT device will be realized in phase II. TlGaAs based high speed, low cost PHEMT has many applications in both military and commercial sectors. These applications include but are not limited to hand-held personnel communication systems, automotive collision warning radars, digital radios, satellite communication system, phased-array radar, and wireless local area network(WLAN)

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4900 Pearl East Circle
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-6947
Ms. Susan Archer
ARMY 00-108
Title:Crew Station Design Tool
Abstract:Modeling and simulation have become an integral part of the engineering process and, through DoD initiatives like Simulation-Based Acquisition, are likely to assume an even greater role in the years ahead. The increasing complexity of weapons systems, coupled with budget pressure and manpower limitations, has fostered a deep and sincere appreciation for ensuring that the soldiers will be able to effectively and efficiently operate, maintain and support new systems when they are fielded. This has fueled the hunger for Design Visualization techniques and tools. This proposal describes a specific process that capitalizes on previous work performed in the human factors industry and combines this work to provide an innovative and uniquely powerful design visualization tool. This design visualization tool would provide a method through which controls and displays would be positioned in a work station in a manner that optimizes the crewmember's ability to perform their work. This technique involves function and task analysis, integration of human factors standards and guidelines, as well as workload analysis modeling and human figure modeling. This product will assist designers in developing layout of the controls and displays in any system that includes human components, so long as constructive representations of the system and environment exist or can be developed. Examples include: nuclear power plants, air traffic control, air- and space-craft, space mission control, metropolitan emergency management, and police command and control units.

AURORA ASSOC.
3350 Scott Boulevard
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 748-2960
Dr. I. C. Chang
ARMY 00-109
Title:High Speed Solid State Mid-Infrared Spectral Tuner for Laser Radar Applications
Abstract:The Army has a need for a compact high-speed solid state hyperspectral tuner for rapildy tuning mid-infrared lasers and optical parametric oscillatorrs operating in the 3-5 micron range. Such electronic tunable source is needed in laser radar and Lidar systems for various applications such as countermeasures and standoff detection of chemical and biological weapons. Present techniques are bulky and suffer from critical alignment, poor reliabiltiy from moving parts, and slow tuning rates. The objective is to construct and demonstrate a high-speed spectral tuner in the 3-5 micron range based on acousto-optic techniques. Based on experimental results, the oprojected performance of two types of AO tuners are: 1cm^-1 resolution and 95% efficiency at 1 watt drive power. Using a transverse configuration, the tuning speed is estimated about 1MHz. The proposed approach is to use the above design as a low-risk baseline. Performance enhancement techniques are proposed to significantly improve the performance. The onbjective is to overcome the limitations including spectral resolution (2.2cm^-1), transmission efficicency (97%) and beam quality. All these factors will greatly affect the performance of the tunable OPOs. A rugged, field-deployable non-mechanical acousto-optic tuner for OPOs will have many military applications. The near-term applications with the largest potential markets are chemical detection systems for environmental monitoring systems and manufacturing process monitoring.

MATERIALS PROCESSING, INC.
6401 Elm Crest Court
Fort Worth, TX 76132
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 294-0135
Dr. Animesh Bose
ARMY 00-110
Title:Powder Injection Molding for Large Military Components
Abstract:Powder injection molding (PIM) is a new technology that uses the shaping advantages of plastic injection molding but expands its applications to advanced materials such as metals, alloys, and ceramics. These advanced materials have potential applications both in the military and commercial sector. The applications of PIM in the military area have been limited due to the inability of the process to produce in an environmentally friendly manner, large components using inexpensive tooling materials. The current project will explore a novel medium pressure injection molding (MPIM) machine in conjunction with either a water based binder extraction system or a supercritical gas phase binder extraction process, that will be able to produce large and complex shaped parts in an environmentally friendly manner. The concept of MPIM, which uses significantly lower injection pressures compared to conventional machines, will also allow the use of low cost tooling material for producing large and complex shaped parts. The process will be developed using a 17-4 PH stainless steel alloy that has dual use. Later the concept will be expanded to submicron or nano-sized powders. Success in this project will open up new horizons for the PIM industry that has numerous applications for large components. The success in this project will provide DoD with a novel technology for fabricating large complex shaped military components in an environmentally friendly manner. The process developed will have tremendous impact in the commercial PIM arena as it will expand the ability of the PIM process to produce large components in a cost effective manner by using low cost tooling materials. This advantage will be extensively utilized by both the defense (projectile fins, shape charges, EFP's, warhead liners, gun parts, grenade shells, etc.) sector and the commercial (automotive, medical, business machines, hand tools, textile machines, aerospace, etc.) sector.

NEW JERSEY MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
240 King Blvd.
Newark, NJ 07102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 297-1449
Dr. Dadi Setiadi
ARMY 00-111
Title:Magnetic Microsensor Module
Abstract:We propose a magnetometer using a MEMS sensor and CMOS signal conditioning circuitry to detect magnetic anomalies generated by the presence and movement of vehicles and troops. The minimum detectable signal is 1 nT and the signal output sampling periods are 1, 2, or 10 seconds with a serial formatted output. The device has a field life of up to 12 months depending upon the energy of batteries. This magnetometer is autonomous and operates with nanopower CMOS internal circuits detecting threshold magnetic fields preset in the range generally below 100 nTesla Rejection is provided to discriminate out the earth field as high as 100 microTesla. Higher frequency acoustics and vibrations filtered. This magnetometer is highly complimentary to the NJM Sense-it TM line of remote readout microsensors. The dual use technology will permit retrofitting of the magnetic sensor module directly into many of the existing military and non-military magnetometer products. The NJM magnetometer module will greatly reduce the price for 1nT sensors and should therefore open up markets that previously were not cost effective. These markets include further penetration into the consumer magnetometer and industrial material sensor /surveillance/security markets.

QUANTUM MAGNETICS, INC.
7740 Kenamar Ct.
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 566-9200
Dr. Yacine Dalichaouch
ARMY 00-111
Title:Development of a Magnetic Microsensor Module for Battlefield Applications
Abstract:The goal of the proposed work is to develop a technology for small, low power, low cost magnetic microsensor modules that can detect magnetic anomalies in the battlefield generated by the presence and movement of armed troops and military vehicles. The focus will be on Anisotropic MagnetoResistive (AMR) sensors that can be fabricated by microelectronics techniques. These sensors represent a mature technology and are widely available commercially. They operate at room temperature with high sensitivity and have a broad bandwidth. During the course of the project, Quantum Magnetics will design, develop, and test a small, low-cost magnetic microsensor module including on-board electronics, power supply, and data communications capabilities. The long-term vision is to integrate these modules into a network of battlefield microsensors that include a variety of other sensing technologies (acoustic, seismic, IR, etc.) A highly sensitive magnetic microsensor module would also find numerous applications in security operations and surveillance of perimeters and borders, detection of unexploded ordnance UXO, detection of concealed weapons, and monitoring of urban and highway traffic.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0821
Mr. James H. Goldie
ARMY 00-112
Title:Magnetorheological Fluid-Based Continuously Variable Transmission
Abstract:A continuously variable transmission (CVT) is proposed that utilizes magnetorheological (MR) fluids. Using a typical MR fluid with a saturation yield stress of 70 kPa at 1600 Oe, it appears feasible to design a 60 hp CVT within the desired volumetric footprint: 3-inch axial length and 10-inch diameter. Initially, the Phase I will investigate the tradeoffs between the various possible approaches for the MR fluid-based CVT, in order to select the most promising concept. The effort will then proceed to development of an optimum design for the selected concept. The design effort will address issues such as production and shaping of the activating magnetic field, viscous losses in non-activated regions of the MR fluid, overall efficiency, stresses in critical elements, and sealing of the MR fluid. We will conclude the program with testing on a representative small-scale prototype that incorporates the critical features and addresses the risks of the proposed MR fluid CVT. A compact, efficient continuously variable transmission (CVT) with high rpm capability offers improved fuel economy, reduced vehicle weight, reduced engine torque/speed demands, and reduced vehicle emissions. Such a CVT will also benefit products and equipment where there is variable-speed mechanical power transmission.

BROOKHAVEN TECHNOLOGY GROUP, INC.
25 East Loop Road
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 751-7415
Dr. J. Paul Farrell
ARMY 00-113
Title:Nuclear Isomer Energy Storage System
Abstract:This proposal concerns the use of nuclear isomers as an energy storage system for defense and space applications. Nuclear isomers offer the potential to store energy at densities that are 10^4 times higher per pound ( ~ 10^9 J/g) than chemical systems. Nuclear isomers are long lived ( > 1 ns) excited states of nuclei that release their excess energy by electromagnetic decay. The importance of isomers for energy storage depends both on their availability and on the ability to stimulate the release of their stored energy. (Stimulated release of energy from nuclear isomers is also an important condition for the implementation of concepts related to gamma ray lasers. ) One of the most interesting isomers in terms of half-life (T1/2 = 31 y) and energy storage per nucleus ( ~ 2.446 MeV) is 178m2Hf. This proposal examines important aspects of a nuclear isomer energy storage system based on this isomer with particular emphasis on optimization of beam based methods of isomer production, concentration of isomer, and examination of methods for optimizing the stimulated release of its energy. These and various other aspects related to the application of isomer energy storage systems are the subject of this proposal. If successful, this research project would provide a lightweight energy storage system that has important benefits for increrasing mobility and providing future advanced battle systems that are smaller, lighter and more lethal than existing chemical systems.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
500 Discovery Drive NW
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-7836
Mr. Hill Roberts
ARMY 00-113
Title:Nuclear Isomer High Energy Density Storage System for Army Applications
Abstract:Nuclear isomers store energy in metastable nuclear states at up to a million-fold greater density than high-energy chemical systems. A particular isomer of Hafnium, Hf-178m2, stores 1.3 gigajoules of energy per gram of isomer. It has an unusually long half-life of 31 years. It releases its 2.45 MeV of stored energy per nuclei as a cascade of gamma photons. The truly unique aspect of this isomer, first shown in 1998, is that it can be triggered to release the stored energy at an accelerated rate using low energy photons. A quantum energy gain of at least 60 is achieved, raising the possibility of using a portion of the released energy to self-sustain a continuing chain reaction at either a controlled or unlimited rate of release. The controlled accelerated release of this stored energy with the application of high energy density storage systems for future Army systems is the subject of this research. The concept design parameters will be defined through a combination of calculations, existing empirical data, and specific experiments on the Hf-178m2 isomer for verification. A break-even experiment will be defined, and a master program plan will be developed to accomplish the technology development in a phased demonstration approach. Nuclear isomer technology will allow the development of energy storage devices with far greater energy densities than conventional devices while also being far safer than other nuclear devices. Nuclear isomers also have potential applications in the areas of lethality against biological weapon threats, advanced space propulsion, oncology treatments, and gamma ray lasers.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. C. Allen Butler
ARMY 00-114
Title:Software Agent Technology for Large Scale, Real-time Logistics Decision Support
Abstract:Daniel H. Wagner Associates proposes to develop a tool called the Logistics Agent Wizard (LAW) for the creation and control of logistics goal-based software agents. The LAW will consist of three major parts: the Requirements Wizard, the Agent Builder, and the Agent Monitor. The Requirements Wizard will provide an interface for the user to enter the information required to perform a specified task (e.g. consumption trend analysis, predictive failure, etc.). The Agent Builder will provide an interface for modifying agent behavior based on the algorithmic components of the specified task. The Agent Monitor will provide an interface for the user to view agent progress and control agent behavior. The agents dispatched by the LAW in Phase I will be preprogrammed software components with limited capabilities designed toward specific goals. We will extend this work in Phase II to develop a full prototype LAW capable of creating and controlling fully configurable agents to perform advanced logistics functions. The immediate benefit to the Army logistics community will be more automated decision making based on automatic retrieval and display of information. This will lead to more efficient operations in the logistics community. Similar benefits will also be demonstrated in other knowledge domains (METOC, weaponeering, etc.) and in the other military services during Phase II development and Phase III transition. This transition will also support an existing Wagner Associates software product called METPLAN to provide METOC data and visualization products to the Navy and Joint mission planning community. Commercial extensions of the Logistics Agent Wizard will be pursued in areas such as manufacturing, food service, travel planning, financial planning, etc., as well as to create agents similar to an existing Wagner Associates software product called WeatherDog, which provides automated context-sensitive weather information through a web browser.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 797-0613
Mr. Mark Cammarere
ARMY 00-114
Title:Software Agent Technology for Large Scale, Real-time Logistics Decision Support
Abstract:The ability to rapidly adapt mission plans is key to modern operational success. Although this is particularly true for combat forces, it is equally critical for the logistics structure that supports them. Although the availability of logistic decision support systems is increasing, an information overloaded digital battlefield hampers their effective use. This information overload includes both data quantity (large amounts of information of varying type) and quality (information of varying relevance and usefulness). In addition, the dynamic nature of much of this data further compounds the problem. Software agent technologies may offer some hope of mitigating logistics information overload. Technology Service Corporation (TSC) believes that an end-to-end agent design approach that integrates reasoning models, ontology requirements and communication mechanisms will produce the best results. To this end, TSC proposes to identify, define and demonstrate software agent applicability to logistics using its Logistic Site Planning and Operation Tool (LOGSPOT; currently being developed under another Army SBIR) as the baseline system. Since LOGSPOT development will occur in parallel with the proposed effort, the synergy between the efforts should help ensure the straightforward insertion of identified agent technologies during Phase 2. Anticipated benefits of the research include the identification of agent technologies to mitigate much of the up-front data management, collection and synthesis operator activities currently part of the LOGSPOT. Because TSC plans to commercialize the LOGSPOT technology, any identified and inserted agent technologies will also be commercialized.

CERADYNE, INC.
3169 Redhill Avenue
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 549-0421
Dr. James Shih
ARMY 00-115
Title:Synthesis and Process of Boron-Rich Boron Carbide
Abstract:A low cost, high purity powder synthesis process is proposed for the boron-rich boron carbide for light weight armor applications. Rapid Carbothermal Reduction (RCR) will be used to synthesize the submicron boron carbide powder without the needs of acid washing or powder comminution processes. Boron carbide powder with different boron to carbon ratio will be synthesized, and the lot-to-lot consistency will be evaluated. Hot pressing will be use to demonstrate the fabrication of boron-rich boron carbide. A partnership with a commercial powder manufacturer will be established. A preliminary database will be established for use in designing a Phase II program to scale-up and optimize the manufacturing process in synthesis and processing of boron-rich boron carbide. The noval powder synthesis process will produce low cost, high purity, submicron boron carbide powder. The resulting boron-rich boron carbide material can be used for various applications, including light weight armor systems, nuclear reactors, and industrial wear products.

CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9036 Winnetka Ave.
Northridge, CA 91324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 727-9786
Dr. Gengwei Jiang
ARMY 00-116
Title:Highly Proton-Conducting Inorganic Membrane From Functionalized POMs
Abstract:The proposed research is to develop highly proton conductive and thermally stable inorganic electrolyte for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) based on functionalized POM membrane. POM has been proven to have high room temperature proton conductivity (0.17S/cm) and much lower cost than Nafion. Main drawback of POM is poor film forming capability and high solubility in water. Its conductivity is also sensitive to humidity and temperature. Functionalized POM inorganic polymeric network (1) will provide POM with membrane forming capability. (2) the ionic conductivity will be further improved, because anions are integrated into network backbone and thus immobilized; protons are the only movable ions in the polymeric system. The conductivity will be competitive with state-of-art PEMs. (3) hydrates form hydrogen bond with bridge ligand and polymeric network, therefore hydrates can be stabilized and protected to higher temperature. No water management system is needed to achieve high proton conductivity. Developments in fuel cell power sources will have immediate impact on a wide range of commercial power sources from computer power to emergency medical power supplies to recreational power uses. Potential fuel savings by higher efficiency power production via subject technology. Successful research would reduce significantly the cost due to battery consumption in the field.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
Dr. Zhonglin Wu
ARMY 00-116
Title:Water Maintenance-Free Inorganic Proton Conductors for PEM Fuel Cells
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will identify and characterize novel inorganic proton conducting materials which do not require water maintenance for protonic transport. These materials could be used as membranes in proton exchange membrane fuel cells as well as in a wide variety of hydrogen separation applications. The composite materials of interest will be based on hydrogen sulphates and selenates of large monovalent cations heterogeneously doped with nanoscale secondary phases of oxyacid salts. Dense composite membranes of different compositions will be fabricated using various preparation techniques, and will subsequently be tested for their structural, electrochemical, and transport properties, as well as their stabilities. The composite materials showing the most promise will then be incorporated into laboratory scale membrane reactor configurations where their ability to mediate hydrogen without the need of water will be experimentally determined. Prototype proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on these composites will also be built and evaluated. Successful completion of this program will result in identifying a new generation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electricity generation. Full implementation of this technology would be of significant economic and technical benefit to the Army and other government components as well as industries by providing low cost, high reliability, high efficiency fuel cells through the elimination of water-management systems. In addition, these membranes can be applied to a variety of hydrogen separation process and can act as novel reactors for carrying out different chemistries such as hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions at potentially lower costs and higher yields compared to other conventional processes.

CHARGED INJECTION CORP.
11 Deer Park Drive
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 274-1470
Dr. Arnold J. Kelly
ARMY 00-117
Title:Ultra-lightweight Field Unit for Production and Repair of Chemical Biological Warfare (CBW) Protective Materials and Instant Bandages
Abstract:Compact, energy efficient charge injection electrostatic atomizers are capable of operating at arbitrarily high throughput levels. One version of this class of devices, the paper clip sized, cold-cathode, field-emitter, submerged electron gun SPRAY TRIODE atomizer is capable of electrospinning fibers at a gram per second and higher throughput levels. Micron sized fiber battings of molten polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and methylene chloride/Lexan and tetrahydrofuran (THF)/Pellethane solutions have been electrospun from solution to form nanofiber webs using milliwatts of input electrical power. Applicability for field use has been demonstrated by the approximately ten hour operation of a handheld SPRAY TRIODE based applicator using two (2) 9V transistor batteries for power. Building on this science/technology base, the Phase I effort will investigate the influence of charge density, operating and fluid parameters on fiber development for polymeric materials to be specified. Work will be undertaken to use the S'tron electron gun charging process for electrospinning polar solutions. Phase II will focus on S'tron development for field and large scale industrial applications requiring liter per minute throughputs. Charge injection permits the energy efficient electrospinning at the throughput levels required for high volume production of non-woven sieve materials. In addition to being applicable to battery operated hand-held field repair applicators, charge injection electrospinning can be used for the large scale production of charged (electret) and uncharged nanofiber polymeric films. Such sieve materials can be used for film barriers, surgical dressings, vascular grafts, catheters, surgical pads, scaffolding for tissue engineering, reinforcing meshes for surgical usage, sanitary barrier products, sieve non-woven fabrics for clothing including chemical and biological warfare suits, surgical gloves, face masks, and tentage. This technology is an energy efficient replacement for melt blown fiber generation. In addition, it is an inexpensive means to manufacture ultra-suede, and enables the direct spray formation of clothing either on mandrels or directly on the body. The same technology is applicable to the in-situ generation of high efficiency, electret ultra-filters for air and liquid purification.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-1167
Dr. Vivek Nagarkar
ARMY 00-118
Title:Advanced Detector Design for Large Area, Ultra-Fast X-ray Imaging
Abstract:High speed x-ray imaging is extremely important for several military and civilian applications such as imaging exploding land mines, high speed computed tomography for medical imaging, time resolved x-ray diffraction of biological systems, and drug development research. The advent of high flux, micro-focused, flash x-ray sources have now facilitated high-speed x-ray imaging in laboratory environments. However, these x-ray sources have not yet realized their full potential due to the lack of a suitable fast x-ray imaging system. Specifically, a lack of high-resolution detection systems with large active imaging areas and a microsecond time resolution is the major limiting factor in these important applications. To address these limitations we propose to develop a novel x-ray imaging system based on a high resolution, high efficiency, fast decay time structured CsI scintillator, optically coupled to an advanced ultra-fast CCD. The proposed digital system will operate at 105 frames per second or greater, with the effective dynamic range of 12 bits. The Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of the core technology and will provide a detailed plan for the Phase II system development. In addition to the army applications, the proposed detector would find widespread use in instrumentation wherever high resolution and fast readout x-ray detectors are used. These include structural biology, microtomography of teeth and bones, polymer processing, x-ray astronomy, nondestructive testing, and basic physics research. High-resolution x-ray imaging detectors currently have a large commercial market, and as such, the proposed development holds a very high potential for commercialization.

MESOSYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3200 George Washington Way
Richland, WA 99352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 375-1111
Dr. Yin-Fong Su
ARMY 00-121
Title:High Output of Near-Monodisperse Bioaerosols with an Ink Jet Aerosol Generator
Abstract:Existing aerosol generators cannot meet the Army's need for sufficiently high output, monodisperse aerosols for use in room-size test chambers. MesoSystems Technology, Inc. (MesoSystems) will utilize the design principles produced from a smaller ink jet aerosol generator (IJAG) recently patented by DoD. (MesoSystems is negotiating for a license for this technology that produces a low particulate output). MesoSystems proposes to scale-up this invention to produce an IJAG design capable of being used for chamber tests. Viability of vegetative cells such as Erwinia herbicola (Eh) has been demonstrated with the small IJAG unit. The proposed high output design uses recently produced ink jet nozzle assemblies composed of greater than 150 nozzles that could produce in excess of 1.5 million particles per minute. In Phase I, we will assemble and test a proof-of-principle aerosol generator to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. This full-scale prototype will be commercialized in Phase II by packaging IJAG units with our micromachined aerosol collector sales. The resulting high output IJAG will be simple to operate, compact, and provide highly monodisperse aerosols at very high concentrations. The proposed aerosol generator will meet or exceed the Army's requirements. The design is scalable and could be used in a variety of applications, including testing of ventilation systems, dispersion of agents for agriculture, materials processing, and biomedical research.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. Richard L. Mitchell
ARMY 00-122
Title:Low Cost High-Resolution Radar System
Abstract:There is a critical need at several test ranges for a remote sensing capability to image targets and perform such measurements as vector miss distance, target attitude, deployment and event timing, and damage assessment. Radar is the only sensor capable of making these measurements on high-altitude targets, but suitable radars, with the necessary bandwidth and coverage, are not available. MARK Resources proposes to develop a new affordable wideband radar to meet this need. In fact, the radar should be so affordable that multiple units could also be used simultaneously to obtain true vector (three-dimensional) solutions. There are many test ranges in the world, and all are potential customers for the wideband radar systems. There is no other affordable product in existence with such advanced capabilities.

CLEVELAND MEDICAL DEVICES, INC.
11000 Cedar Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 254-4155
Mr. Farron L. Dacus
ARMY 00-123
Title:Smart Cellular/GPS Rugged Tracking System
Abstract:The Smart Cellular/GPS Rugged Tracking System Phase I program will provide a rigorous feasibility study and demonstration of system design and technology implementation methods for a software controlled radio and GPS asset tracking system. Low cost highly compact "wearable" Trackers shall integrate GPS and data radios under a custom cellular network to read asset position and velocity, and report it to the system many times per second. Trackers may be worn by people or attached to equipment. Attachment methods will include an eletrocleavable adhesive that is solidly mounted without modification to equipment, and quickly removed by passing an electric current through the metal case. Databasing of time, space, and position information of a large number (>1000) of tracked assets (staff,vehicles, aircraft, equipment) will be provided on PC based Monitoring Stations. A modern spread spectrum Time Division Multiple Access cellular system design emphasizes flexibility, reliability, and future growth. System range can extend hundreds of miles via adding cells as desired. The custom cellular network provides complete user control and freedom from airtime charges. The system will be designed with a modular architecture using commercial off the shelf technology to limit cost. This capability in an integrated, wide ranging, high asset count, software controlled system does not currently exist elsewhere. Its development is in keeping with the Army's concept of superiority in field operations through superior information technology,i.e., the Digital Battlefield. Other U.S. services also have a significant interest in similar capability and future expanded versions of it. Civilian applications include vehicle fleet management, theft prevention, tracking of at risk staff such as police officers and forest rangers, and tracking of domestic and wild animals. The frequencies of operation chosen allow for both military and civilian application, and thus for minimum cost to the government through high volume commercial reuse.

FLOW ANALYSIS, INC.
256 93rd Street
Brooklyn, NY 11209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 604-3770
Mr. John Bridgeman
ARMY 00-124
Title:Scalable Aerodynamics and Coupled Comprehensive Methods for the Prediction of Rotorcraft Maneuver Loads
Abstract:Modern rotorcraft, when operating near performance boundaries typical of high-speed or maneuvering flight, can experience complex and highly non-linear aerodynamics phenomena which induce exceptionally high loads on the rotor system. The strong interaction between the aerodynamics and the structural dynamics can lead to violent vibrations, reduced handling qualities, and a reduction in fatigue life. The principle mechanism of this behavior is dynamic stall, which involves a cyclic event of massive flow separation, vortex shedding and convection over the blade surface. The multidisciplinary nature of the problem necessitates a tightly coupled predictive capability. Conventional Navier-Stokes approaches have shown promise but their computational cost is prohibitive. Flow Analysis, Inc. (FAI) has developed a technique for predicting dynamic stall using the Vorticity Confinement method incorporated into a compressible flow solver. This approach requires far fewer computational resources when compared to conventional methods. The proposed effort involves the integration of the Vorticity Confinement method and a structural dynamics code in a tightly coupled fashion. Through the judicious use of parallel processing resources, scalable performance can be achieved, making this approach computationally practical. The method will be demonstrated on a scale suitable for a Phase I level of effort and sufficient for proof of concept. The successful completion of the research will result in the development of a code that uses a state-of-the-art comprehensive method tightly coupled to a high-fidelity aerodynamics method, with a unique and efficient dynamic stall predictive capability. The code will demonstrate excellent performance and scalability on parallel computers, and with the proper hardware and operating system environment, on workstation or PC clusters. This will provide the Army and U.S. Aviation industry a tool for improved predictions of high speed and maneuvering flight, immediately at the conclusion of the Phase II effort. Further extensions, in Phase II and Phase III, will provide computational tools that will have many commercialization benefits, including aircraft aeroelastic applications.

INTELLIGENT INVESTMENTS, INC.
620 S. Elm ST
Greensboro, NC 27406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(336) 274-3316
Dr. David G. Goldstein
ARMY 00-125
Title:Knowledge Acquisition and System Engineering Toolset (KASET)
Abstract:Developing Cognitive Decision Aiding (CDA) systems (e.g., Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate) costly knowledge acquisition and engineering. Many emerging technologies combined with pure research would provide dramatic improvements for tools and processes to build CDA systems. We believe that order of magnitude improvements would be realized through a prototype incorporating the followingtechnologies:
  • Integrating Software Engineering (SE), knowledge engineering and project management concerns.
  • Natural language understanding of requirements.
  • "Sugared" formal analysis of requirements.
  • Mechanisms to resolve differences among expert opinions.
  • Intelligent decision aids to offer plans for interviewing.
  • Extensibility mechanisms to various commercial and research KA, SE, and project management products.
  • Network-based operation.
  • Automated support for common ontologies.
  • Automated scheduling and communication among team members.
  • Automated, personalized tools for acquiring and documenting knowledge.
KASET will incorporate substantial amounts of software in order facilitate CDA systems, such as versions of the RPA for new platforms. KASET will employ a standards-based architecture (e.g., CORBA, SQL, Java, DII/COE, HPKB) to facilitate integrating diverse components. Network-based operation will support distributed team members. Fundamental concepts in KASET are collaboration, personalization, and formality. KASET will comprise a software environment that expedites creation of Cognitive Decision Aiding. Its strongest competitive advantagaes will apply to high-risk applications developers (government, telecommunications, etc.), which use formal specification methods since they cannot risk downtime. Annual Commercial sales could reach $10 million to $100 million.

SMA INFORMATION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES
2119 Oliver Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 578-7438
Mr. Harry B. Funk
ARMY 00-125
Title:Knowledge Acquisition Tools for Cognitive Design Aid and Development
Abstract:Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate (RPA) flight test and other previous and ongoing system evaluations [Dorn99] have demonstrated the military utility of Cognitive Decision Aiding Systems (CDASs). There is, however, an increasing awareness that the knowledge which must be acquired, captured, represented, implemented and tuned offers a tremendous cost and process hurdle to the development, evolution and fielding of CDA Systems. What is needed is a means of tracing the lifecycle of every bit of knowledge in the system, and of every design decision that involves that knowledge-and of doing so in a manner that does not impose undue additional workload on the engineers building the system. In this effort we will examine the benefits realizable from implementing a number of alternative proposed extensions to the Unified Modeling Language (UML) use case formalism. We anticipate melding attributes from a number of available extension proposals into a synthesized methodology enhancement that effectively integrates acquired knowledge in support of CDASs into the standard software development process. We will apply this methodology to a representative set of problem cases experienced on RPA and other similar efforts, analyze the contributions and refine the design. Other supporting advances in knowledge acquisition and tagging are described. Reduced cost of knowledge acquisition activities. More effective use of acquired knowledge. Better insight into influence effects of knowledge on standard software development environments. Capability to build critics analogous to existing software inspection tools through enhanced traceability.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir Markov
ARMY 00-126
Title:Portable Optical Module for Fatigue Damage Precursor Detection
Abstract:We have outlined a concept for a laser-based sensor for the aerospace components inspection for creep or fatigue damage. The sensor detects precursors to crack formation occurring as early as the first 10% of fatigue life and therefore can be used to identify accumulated fatigue damage prior to crack initiation. In addition, the same method can easily detect the presence of micro-cracks that occur late in fatigue life and alert the user of imminent failure. In this proposal, we show experimental data that supports our precursor detection concept, and present preliminary designs for a compact, hand-held instrument. During Phase I we will demonstrate feasibility of the technique by constructing an optical measurement breadboard, measuring production aerospace components under fatigue loading, and correlate the results with measurements from electron microscopy techniques. In addition, we will investigate the use of infrared wavelengths to interrogate painted surfaces. The results of the Phase I study will permit detailed design of a prototype instrument and estimates of its performance envelope. In Phase II, the prototype system will be built and field-tested. Since over 90% of mechanical failures are due to fatigue damage, the proposed sensor will be useful in many industries employing dynamically loaded mechanical systems. Of particular significance are the commercial and military aircraft industries, where the instrument could be employed to quickly verify the safety condition of most critical components, such as turbine blades, fuselage panels, and landing gear. In addition, many other industries can benefit from this diagnostic tool including automotive, power generation, railroad, etc.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Div.
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Yunlu Zou
ARMY 00-126
Title:Digital Integrated Shearographic Camera for On-Wing Defect Inspection of Aircraft Components
Abstract:High-performance high-strength aircraft components can suffer catastrophic failure as a result of fatigue at very small cracks. Detecting fatigue or creep at an early stage can eliminate loss or fatal damage to a multimillion dollar machine and save lives. Current maintenance techniques for inspecting components for creep or fatigue damage require disassembly of aircraft systems/subsystems contributing to operation and support (O&S) costs and maintenance downtime. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a digital integrated shearographic camera (DISC) for real-time inspection of aircraft components, including turbine/compressor blades inside turbine engines, to detect both superficial and buried defects. DISC integrates several system functions in an innovative single element. Digital processing of the shearograms extracts detailed quantitative measures of microstrain at each flaw location. The borescope-based handheld device will give the DISC access to perform measurements in difficult-to-reach areas. The system will be designed to address U.S. Army Operating and Support Cost Reduction (OSCR) initiatives. In Phase I, POC will procure and develop the essential hardware and software, and will demonstrate the capability to detect microstrains in aircraft components in situ. Transition from Phase I design to Phase II prototype development will be initiated in the option period. The proposed digital shearographic camera has wide potential in both military and civilian applications, including in aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) of the Army, Air Force, Navy, and NASA, and in commercial engine and aircraft manufacturing. The instrument can also be used for defect measurement on automobile bodies and wheels, other machines, buildings, and infrastructure.

QUALTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
100 Great Meadow Rd.
Wethersfield, CT 06109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 257-8014
Dr. Amit Mathur
ARMY 00-127
Title:Data Mining within an Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic System for Rotorcraft Maintenance
Abstract:Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI), as a provider of model-based diagnostic and maintenance aiding tools, possesses key components required to implement many of the data analysis and decision-making functions required for on-line health management of large complex systems. Leveraging these capabilities, the proposed effort seeks to develop data mining capabilities required by reasoning systems to sustain seamless, distributed, multi-level health management and maintenance functions. Major innovations of this effort are the use of maintenance data mining results in flight-line maintenance activity to optimize troubleshooting strategies based on a combined analysis of onboard sensor data and fleet-wide history data, and customization to site-specific profile (available time, parts and maintenance resources, etc.). The data mining results will be made available via the Internet to the appropriate ground facility, contributing to significant benefits to current fleet operations and operational cost savings. The Phase I effort will focus on enhancing QSI's knowledge base with a prototype capabilities for harvesting fleet-wide maintenance history and configuration data and analyzing it with a set of novel data mining techniques to update key parameters aiding future flight-line maintenance. The Phase I prototype capabilities will be developed in Phase II and interfaced with the Army's maintenance and logistics management systems. Aircraft maintenance and logistics management, health and usage monitoring of aircraft, spacecraft, manufacturing processes and machinery, patient health monitoring

DIVERSIFIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
35 Wiggins Ave.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 275-9444
Dr. David Fink
ARMY 00-128
Title:Variable Geometry High-Lift Airfoil for Rotorcraft
Abstract:In this proposal, DTI will leverage its expertise in electromechanics and aerodyamics to explore the concept of a continuously deformable Leading Edge ElectroMagnetic Airfoil(LEEMA).The airfoil, embedded in the rotor blade, will be deformed by coils and magnets embedded in flexible and fixed structures of the airfoil. Key elements of the research will include determining optimum size, weight, power, structural configuration, and reliability of this innovative airfoil system. In the Phase I option, DTI will evaluate candidate actual mainline helicopter airfoil shapes exhibiting high peak lift coefficients for advancing and receding blade shape that can be mimicked by a single deformable leading edge airfoil. In addition to the rotorcraft performance improvements described above, a leading edge variable airfoil improves aerodynamic efficiency and has significant potential economic and human factors benefits including: _o Reduced fuel consumption _o Higher cruise speed _o Reduced vibration resulting in improved component lifetime and reduction in maintenance _o Improved passenger and crew comfortLong term, successful development of this technology has significant application throughout military and civilian rotorcraft aviation because it addresses one of the key technical barriers to rotorcraft technology - the inherent limitations in rotor aerodynamic performance.

TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS GROUP, INC.
4957 10th Avenue South
Grand Forks, ND 58201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(701) 746-1818
Dr. William C. Gorman, Jr.
ARMY 00-129
Title:Advanced Corrosion Protection Scheme for Magnesium Helicopter Components
Abstract:Technology Applications Group, Inc. (TAG) proposes to construct a "mobile" Tagnite unit that will apply non-chromate anodized coatings to bare magnesium surfaces. The "mobile" unit would consist of a small rectifier, cooling unit, electrolyte storage, collection reservoirs as well as application heads or brushes mounted on a mobile cart with a large work surface. The magnesium component would be placed on the work surface and anodized coating would be applied to the bare magnesium surfaces using a high alkaline, silicate based electrolyte. This process would be able to coat areas up to 1 ft^2 in a short time period. Primary areas of investigation are the impact of application process on organic finishes and ferrous inserts. Salt spray corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance and paint adhesion testing would be done on WE43 and ZE41 magnesium test panels and compared to DOW 19. TAG wishes to investigate the feasibility of low current anodized coatings as a means to repair small surface areas (<1in^2) on magnesium components. Successful development of low current anodized coatings would lead to the development of battery operated anodizing units that would be capable of repairing scratches on magnesium components while still on the rotorcraft. Anticipated Benefits 1. Mobile Tagnite The mobile Tagnite unit would be a small, mobile anodizing cart capable of depositing an anodized coating on magnesium surfaces after final machining by the OEM and during the overhaul phase of the component at the depot level. The coating would be non-chromate and provide superior corrosion protection, abrasion resistance and paint adhesion compared to the DOW 19 chromate conversion coating. Application cost would be comparable to DOW 19 with minimal environmental impact. 2. Portable Tagnite Successful formulation of low current anodized coatings will lead to the development of a handheld, battery operated Tagnite anodization unit. This unit would be ideal for the repair of small scratches or dings to magnesium components. The portable nature of the unit will allow the scratch to be repaired while the magnesium component is still on the rotorcraft. Potential Commercial Applications This technology could be readily transferred to the commercial aircraft market. The "mobile" and "portable" Tagnite units could be used to selectively anodize magnesium components on civilian fixed wing aircraft and rotorcraft. The automotive manufacturers are rapidly increasing their usage of magnesium on cars. Initial magnesium applications were in the interior of the car but use of magnesium is spreading to exterior parts such as transmission and transfer cases, master brake cylinders, support brackets and wheels. These parts will need to be serviced or repaired and this will lead to scratches that will need touchup. The use of magnesium components is rapidly escalating in the marine, power tool, consumer electronics and sporting goods areas. These areas would all benefit from a durable, easily applied, environment friendly anodized coating.

PLRA
485 Summit Springs Road
Woodside, CA 94062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 851-0917
Dr. Carol Simpson
ARMY 00-130
Title:Integrated Warning Caution and Advisory System (IWCA)
Abstract:Current audio generation technology, in combination with recent advances in human factors design principles for auditory alerting systems, offers the potential for a new design, an Integrated Warning Caution and Advisory (IWCA) system which will enhance crew situational awareness during responses to abnormal and emergency situations. The objective of this Phase I effort is to determine the feasibility of designing and building a prototype IWCA which could function within the systems architectures of current and future Army helicopters. An IWCA would provide improved crew alerting functions for the Army's several different helicopters. There is also a potential benefit for Department of Defense aircraft in general. Likewise, in the commercial aviation sector, an IWCA could provide the alerting functions that are now performed by a federated system of individual alerting systems.

THOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7600 Jefferson NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 296-3615
Dr. Stuart T. Schwab
ARMY 00-131
Title:Advanced Materials and Processing Methods for CMC Ducts
Abstract:Continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites (CFCCs) are inherently wear and oxidation resistant, retain strength at higher temperatures and have lower specific densities than competing metal systems. The hot sections of gas turbine engines and related devices are exposed to aggressive gaseous species at high temperature. Because of their thermochemical stability and oxidation resistance, continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites have been identified as leading material candidates for high temperature applications; however, new processing methods are needed to lower the cost of producing these materials, and to produce them in forms that can be attached readily to supporting metal structures. Thor Technologies, Inc. will team with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Materials Research & Design (MR&D), and Allison Advanced Development Company (AADC) to integrate two novel technologies into an innovative, low cost method of producing hybrid CFCCs for turbine engine applications, such as inter-turbine ducts. The novel polymer infiltration/microwave pyrolysis (PIMP) process enables the production of hybrid CFCCs, in which new features enable the use of conventional attachments (i.e., bolts). The PI has over fifteen years experience in processing CFCCs, and the team has the design, manufacturing, and testing expertise to produce inter-turbine engine ducts at low cost. The reduction in cooling air requirements will lower the overall weight and increase the operating efficiency of turbine engines ranging from aerospace engines to stationary power plants. The availability of low cost CFCCs will enable new industrial applications, such as corrosion-proof piping for chemical processing.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3155
Dr. Chiman Kwan
ARMY 00-132
Title:A New Traffic Prediction Based Bandwidth Management Tool for Wireless Networks
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Incorporated (IAI) specializes in signal processing and communications. We have applied this technology to a wide range of systems including factory production control, automatic target recognition, prediction of network traffic, prediction of power system load, fast flow control of high-speed communication networks, and equalization of nonlinear channels. The Advanced Engineering and Sciences division of ITT Industries (ITT-AES), the subcontractor of this Phase 1 project, has extensive experience in developing tools for Quality of Service (QoS) based network communications, including satellite communications and wireless land mobile communications. This proposal details how we synergistically merge expertise of IAI and ITT-AES to yield an efficient bandwidth management tool over wireless network. The key idea of this proposal is to manage bandwidth based on predicted future traffics in the system. Conventional approaches to network management are reactionary in nature. That is, the decision on bandwidth allocation is based on past measurement of traffic and hence is slow and inefficient in response. In contrast, our traffic prediction based bandwidth management tool is a look-ahead approach and will be more efficient and quick in bandwidth management. Moreover, much less collisions will occur among users and less bandwidth will be wasted. The new QoS based bandwidth management tool will provide help to new commercial applications such as video distribution as well as military applications such as distributed control, commands, and communications. We expect this tool will find many applications in wireless and ATM networks, which will be a multibillion-dollar industry in the 21st century.

SCALABLE SIMULATION SOLUTIONS LLC
11022 Santa Monica Blvd #260
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 966-9947
Scott S. Lee
ARMY 00-132
Title:Adaptive Bandwidth Management in Heterogeneous, Mobile, Wireless Networks
Abstract:In this project we address the management of wireless bandwidth in heterogeneous networks typified by the Warfighter Information Network (WIN) for military applications and mixed wired, wireless, and satellite networks that are being commonly deployed for a multiplicity of commercial applications. The main goal is to strike a balance between efficient use of scarce and unstable bandwidth resources and the QoS guarantees made to real-time users and for low latency/ high priority applications. Specifically, we will develop solutions that will allow such a network to provide: (a) differentiated services to real time and best effort traffic following the Diff Serv model proposed for the wired Internet (b) bandwidth allocation and, more generally, performance guarantees to accepted real time connections (c) resource aware and precedence compliant Call Admission Control to enforce guarantees (d) efficient and fair bandwidth sharing among applications in the same class; (e) enforcement of priorities across traffic classes; (f) renegotiation of bandwidth and other resource when path characteristics change after connection setup; Phase I of the effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed techniques in achieving the preceding objectives via simulation of large scale heterogeneous networks that are subjected to realistic traffic and mobility patterns. The commercial marketplace for wireless applications is exploding. According to a survey from the Wireless Data and Computing Service, a division of Strategy Analytics, the mobile e-commerce industry may earn $200 billion by 2004. At the same time ISPs are proposing networking integrated wired/wireless architectures with dramatic differences in the available bandwidth. As illustrations of this trend, we mention Metricom type wireless metropolitan networks, which are soon expected to also include HALO (UAV type) and satellite connections will. Also, wireless extensions to the wired IP network are growing, that include cellular (UMTS); indoor wireless LANs (WaveLAN and Bluetooth); and LEO/GEO satellite links.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Michael Perloff
ARMY 00-132
Title:Bandwidth Estimation and Management for Mobile, Wireless Networks
Abstract:Bandwidth management in mobile, wireless networks is different and more difficult than in landline networks due to lower data rates, mobility, interference, and channel variability, which makes bandwidth dynamic instead of fixed over time. Furthermore, bandwidth allocations affect more users through increased noise levels or collision interference at neighboring nodes and inefficient bandwidth allocations lower network performance through unnecessary pre-emption blocking. To solve these problems we propose innovative machine learning and analysis methods to obtain bandwidth estimates that account for mobility and variable channel conditions. We use these estimates to determine information and protocol steps for a full suite of robust, effective bandwidth management protocols supporting allocation, channel sharing, reservation, and Quality of Service. We build on our work in designing a WIreless NEtwork Simulation (WINES) that provides simple mobility and channel models along with flexible, parameterizable models of many proposed mobile, wireless routing methods. We will be assisted in this effort by Sonia Fahmy of Purdue University, an expert in IP and ATM approaches to bandwidth reservation, allocation, and Quality of Service. We will also be assisted by BBN Technologies, who developed the Internet and have an extensive track record in development of innovative mobile wireless technologies. This effort will provide effective means for bandwidth allocation for mobile, wireless networks (and other IP networks for which the problem are simpler) operating in harsh conditions where users contend for scarce bandwidth. Immediate applications include military networks and civilian emergency communications networks. Bluetooth, a new standard for low power wireless communications will result in new applications for mobile, self organizing, wireless networks that must adapt to and carry out prescribed functions in widely variable conditions. The methods developed here will prove applicable to those networks and help propel their widespread acceptance for industrial, home, and personal applications.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
Post Office Drawer 719
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 797-4660
Dr. Jiri Fridrich
ARMY 00-133
Title:Secure and Reliable Image Management using Watermarking
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR research, MRC proposes to develop new information protection and assurance technology based on robust and fragile digital watermarking. In particular, we will develop secure image authentication and integrity verification techniques capable of localizing changes in images and estimating the extent of the modifications. The techniques will be compatible with the public key encryption infrastructure and will enable convenient secure distribution of imagry between all military subjects including mobile battlefield agents. Also, a new class of self-embedding techniques will be developed that will enable images to repair themselves after intentional or unintentional damage. Such smart images will significantly increase the security and reliability of data transmission from and to agents in the battlefield. We further propose a class of robust watermarking techniques that can be combined with the fragile authentication watermarks to build hybrid watermarking schemes capable of distinguishing innocent (or allowed) changes including lossy compression or image enhancement, from malicious changes, such as feature removal or adding. Finally, all proposed watermarking techniques will be flexible, expandable, applicable to all image formats, and compatible with all existing and future battlefield agents. The watermarking algorithms will be implemented in a software product running on Windows 95/98/2000/NT platforms. Cryptographically secure fragile authentication techniques, hybrid watermarking schemes, and self-embedding techniques have important applications in a variety of commercial areas, including trusted imagery in court, secure hardware/image links, intelligent imagery, and secure image author/image links. Companies that deal with encryption, intellectual property protection, multimedia, internet commerce, steganography, and general imagery could all benefit from development of the proposed technologies. The authentication algorithms developed from this research could also be implemented directly in the hardware of secure surveillance digital cameras and video-cameras.

CAROLINA UNMANNED VEHICLES, INC.
4105 Graham-Newton Road
Raleigh, NC 27606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 851-9898
Mr. Michael E. Rogers
ARMY 00-134
Title:Helikite Elevated Platform
Abstract:Frontline units need a system to provide continuous reliable GPS support. The Army requires a method of deploying a Pseudolite at several hundred or thousand feet to provide augmented GPS signals. To meet this need Carolina Unmanned Vehicles, Inc. will develop the HELIKITE Elevated Platform (HEP), consisting of a small tethered blimp mounted in a special Carrier that allows operation by a single person. It can be towed by a HMMWV or other small vehicle. HEP may also be used for Differential GPS support to enhance areas such as helicopter all weather navigation. Other payloads can include video cameras or communication equipment. The project will provide an improved capability for the military and civilian agencies for continuous low cost augmented GPS coverage of large areas with minimum manpower, training and investment. This Phase I project will conduct the requirements analysis, systems engineering and design, culminating in a recommended design for Phase II. The contract would have an period of performance of six (6) months for Phase I and three (3) months for the Option.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Dan L. Grecu
ARMY 00-135
Title:SIMKAP: Situation and Mission-responsive Knowledge Access Portal
Abstract:The modern organizational and operational structures emerging within the US Army will require revolutionary transformations of the informational tools supporting the tasks of the new units. Knowledge access portals will become instrumental in gaining rapid situational understanding, and in making decisions leading to success in a wide range of operations. Unlike general-purpose portals, knowledge access portals designed for use in operational contexts need to respond to specific situation and mission characteristics. To support this need for context-sensitive knowledge access we propose the development of a Situation and Mission-responsive Knowledge Access Portal (SIMKAP) for the Brigade Combat Team. The portal encodes access-knowledge that captures the type of information and domain-knowledge needs specific to given situations and missions, as well as the specific knowledge access, navigation, and visualization modes that best support the associated cognitive processes of the decision-maker. The SIMKAP platform will select and customize knowledge sources, knowledge navigation and access capabilities, and services matching the decision-maker's tasks in specific operational modes, and will take into account the constraints and major requirements imposed by the associated contexts. The development effort will comply with DII-COE standards, and will integrate with existing US Army knowledge and information repositories. The proposed effort has significant potential aplications, both as a technology and as an end-product. As a technology the approach will provide tools for context-based knowledge access, in response to a decision-maker's task characteristics and task context. Candidate domains range from command and control centers, to corporate knowledge access, engineering design projects, and educational tool development. As an end-product, the associated knowledge engineering tools will support on-going DoD efforts to develop powerful command and control tools that will enable the warfighter to take rapid, and informed decisions in complex, real-time situations.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
ARMY 00-135
Title:Knowport: Knowledge-Access Portal for Brigade Combat Team and other Knowledge Warriors
Abstract:Brigade Combat Team (BCT) units are expected to accomplish complex, multidimensional tasks in a confusing, often unpredictable environment. To this end, the knowledge warriors within the BCT need to build a knowledge base whose contents can be accessed and exploited as necessary to achieve the requisite situation understanding. Situation understanding, in this context, is a measure of the degree to which a knowledge warrior is aware of and understands the significance of all factors (i.e., METT-T, local events, regional non-military factors) that typically influence the outcome of operations within an asymmetric environment. The goal of this overall effort is to develop, demonstrate, and transition an innovative knowledge access portal for improved Cognitive Readiness and Knowledge-based decisionmaking on the part of BCTs. Phase I of the effort will study and develop an early prototype of a knowledge portal capable of: a) integrating, personalizing, and optimally displaying both structured and unstructured content from diverse sources such as personal knowledge bases, battlefield information, web, digital libraries, and military archives; and b) interacting with knowledge warriors while providing decision support wherever possible. The information sources will cover CONUS, non-military regional factors, and local variables that all contribute to enhanced situation understanding and decisionmaking. Informed decisionmaking and operating and support cost reduction through just-in-time knowledge delivery and distance learning. Potential commercial applications of the R&D include distributed supply management, distributed web-based learning, airline contingency management, mid-office operations management, front-end to ERP/CRM systems.

INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC MACHINES
60 Fourth Avenue
Albany, NY 12202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 449-5504
Mr. Zack Mian
ARMY 00-135
Title:Knowledge Vortal Tools
Abstract:Aimed at knowledge management, IEM's innovative knowledge Vortal accomplishes all of the essential elements central to knowledge management. Our design connects to relevant sources of knowledge such as subject matter experts (SMEs), allows a uniform and easy method to enter knowledge, and extracts/grabs pieces of useful knowledge from diversely located SMEs. Furthermore, our system indexes, categorizes, sorts, labels, abstracts the knowledge, makes knowledge(information) available to the users in easy, learnable manner; and updates, improves, maintains the knowledge base. The proposed design include over a dozen innovations including: artificial intelligence based expert system, innovative knowledge search, and powerful information delivery methods. In the Phase I effort, IEM will prototype all of the innovative features and create a prototype knowledge management site to study its operation and usefulness. The prototype site will serve as the basis of the Phase II design and implementation. This project will be done with the help of our partner, Smart Force, the largest e-Learning company in the world (IDC). Some of the applications for DOD as well as commercial markets include: a revolutionary e-learning model suitable for many other e-learning sites, creation of help desk type online facilities, knowledge repository sites for just about any topic, and improved knowledge search mechanism

ASTRON ANTENNA CO.
22560 Glenn Drive
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Mr. Joseph R. Jahoda
ARMY 00-136
Title:Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Antennas
Abstract:Develop and test antennas suitable for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with signals intelligence and communications payloads and the potential to be used with other systems. New ideas are stressed to achieve antenna miniaturization and wide bandwidths. The development of a miniaturized broadband antenna covering VHF/UHF frequencies for potential DF systems holds the potential for applications in wireless 911 emergency location of cell phones, as well as for military ship and battlefield systems. The miniaturized boradband VHF/UHF communications system antenna holds promise for law enforcement, wireless, and military applications in aircraft as well as ship and vehicular applications.

HVS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
309 Science Park Road
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 234-3833
Mr. Richard Hollinger
ARMY 00-136
Title:Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Antennas
Abstract:HVS proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of a new generation of antenna, conformal to a UAVs that exploits Printed Fractal Antennas. This will be a compact and lightweight solution to the Army's requirement of wideband antennas for UAVs. This work is an extension of the research being carried out at the Center for the Engineering of Electronic & Acoustic Materials (CEEAM) at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) on printed fractal antennas (patent pending). HVS developed the automated antenna characterization system in this regard. CEEAM/PSU is identified as a subcontractor in this proposal. HVS now proposes to improve the performance of such antennas in order to satisfy the requirements of this solicitation with respect to output power and frequency band of operation. The advantage of the fractal antenna technology is that it is very wideband, VSWRs of better than 2.5, and high gain. The size of such antennas will be reduced down to 3"x3" by using high dielectric constant substrates. A common hardware kit will be used for accommodate the antenna suite to cover the entire frequency range of 2 MHz to 40 GHz. HVS will develop and test an array of antennas for the Phase I effort and establish guidelines for their efficient production and quality control during Phase II. These fractal patch antennas have a lot of military as well as commercial applications. They can be used in collision avoidance systems for use in automobiles. They would be a valuable technology for the communication industry. They will also be useful for integration with wearable and other mobile computers and communication devices.

MALIBU RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
26670 Agoura Road
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-5494
Daniel G. Gonzalez, Ph.D.
ARMY 00-136
Title:Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Antennas
Abstract:The problem outlined in the description section of the SBIR A00-136, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle {UAV} Antennas, points out the necessity of detecting signals for Signal Intelligence and Communications while conforming to available space and weight capacity of the UAV. The requirement applies to both fixed and rotary wing aircraft, each with its own aerodynamic limitations to carry appropriate sensor systems. Suggestions are presented for interchangeable (easy-on easy-off) B kit antennas which cover a limited band of frequencies and which may be installed for a particular intelligence gathering mission or several UAVs may be launched with each one configured to cover a different frequency band. Typically, antenna solutions for aircraft are designed as an afterthought after the airframe has been completed. While this approach will always impact the performance of larger aircraft to some extent, in the case of smaller airframe UAV's, the addition of discrete "add-on" antennas can add significant flight performance risk due to deleterious alterations to its aerodynamic properties. It is the purpose of this proposal to introduce a new approach to antenna/sensor design; namely, the utilization of the existing aircraft surfaces, wings and blades, as antenna structures. This concept is made possible through the utilization of microstrip patch elements [1], and microstrip reflectarrays [2]. The microstrip patch antenna is utilized for low frequency applications (i.e. < 5 GHz), while the microstrip reflectarray is optimum for frequencies greater than 5 GHz. The principal benefits of the proposed program are the proof of concept of simple applique type antenna systems which can be installed on a wide variety of military and commercial aircraft. This technology provides opportunities for the inclusion of advanced antenna technology on a much less invasive basis than conventional discrete antenna techniques. Such appliques may be integrated as portions of the fundamental airframe design, or they may be added to existing airframes with minimal aerodynamic performance impact.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Iain T. McKinnie
ARMY 00-137
Title:Miniature Monolithic Transmitter for Laser Rangefinding
Abstract:Laser rangefinders and target illuminators provide critical range and target identification information. However, they must be eyesafe, robust and meet stringent cost, mass, size, and performance requirements. Currently fielded laser rangefinders are undesirably bulky, heavy and costly, while incorporating misalignment-prone discrete laser components. Moreover, they do not easily scale to higher average powers required for illumination (active imaging). Army CECOM has addressed many of the deficiencies of current laser rangefinders through the development of a robust and compact monoblock laser-OPO transmitter. This proposal offers a transmitter that retains the ruggedness, size, and power scalability of a monoblock architecture, while extending it to: (a) lower cost, (b) increased manufacturing alignment tolerance, (c) reduced sensitivity to temperature swings and thermal loading for power-scaling, and (d) near diffraction limited beam quality via beam clean up. The extensions are achieved through innovative component technologies which are demonstrated in Phase I to ensure low Phase II risk. Phase II delivers two prototype transmitters that can be either diode laser or flashlamp pumped while maintaining compatibility with illuminator and rangefinder requirements. The program leverages CTI's expertise in developing eyesafe wavelength lasers for battlefields and severe operational environments. There is an anxious military and law-enforcement market for low cost, compact and rugged laser rangefinders. Commercial applications exist in surveying, recreation (hunting, boating, orienteering) and in medicine.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Wayne S. Pelouch
ARMY 00-137
Title:Monolithic Waveguide Laser Range Finder
Abstract:The goal for the next generation transmitter in laser range finders is to reduce size, cost, weight, and complexity while increasing the robustness and operational lifetime. Current laser transmitters contain numerous free-space optical components which require a skilled technician to assemble and maintain. Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) proposes to develop a new miniature, monolithic Er-doped direct 1.5-micron laser that can be assembled with permanent optical alignment. The design is based on a new waveguide laser concept that has not been previously demonstrated and has significant advantages over planar waveguide and bulk laser designs. The transmitter will (1) use a high efficiency, single diode laser pump that has an operating lifetime of hundreds of billions of shots, (2) produce a significantly lower heat load than flashlamp-pumped lasers, and (3) have a high efficiency for longer battery lifetime. The transmitter is capable of 10 mJ output energy in a TEM00 beam and sub-10 ns pulse width with a final cost estimate (in quantity) of less than $1000/transmitter. CTI's proven ability to design and engineer rugged and compact laser ranging systems for demanding environments will ensure a successful overall development program. Anticipated applications include (1) Laser range finder transmitters for multiple platforms, (2) Low cost transmitters for other eye-safe laser remote sensing applications, (3) Laser sources for commercial markets such as materials processing, medical, and instrumentation.

JRM ENTERPRISES, INC.
1 Hemlock Court, Suite 1A
Fredericksburg, VA 22407
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 785-4885
Mr. Joseph Russell Moulton, Jr.
ARMY 00-138
Title:Rigorous Real-Time Image Intensifier (NVG) Simulation Design
Abstract:This Phase I effort will establish rigorous technical requirements necessary to simulate image intensifiers (NVGs) credibly and realistically in US Army NVG simulators. The associated analysis and requirements definition will cover such areas as intra-scene and intensifier dynamic range and spatial resolution, photo-cathode spectral response versus scene spectral input, micro-channel plate (MCP) "haloing" phenomenology, tube MTF and noise source characterization, automatic brightness control (ABC) and bright source protection (BSP) circuit behavior, fixed depth-of-focus optics, and dual-band visible/near-IR signature synthesis. These requirements will be translated into appropriate specifications for simulation and optical projection hardware and software components in a simulator. A realizable prototype NVG simulator design that best meets these specifications will be developed around state-of-the-art commercial simulation technology components. A near-IR spectral scene signature and atmospheric degradation model design are proposed as an option in the prototype design. The simulation specifications developed in this Phase I effort around fundamental NVG physical phenomenology will set a standard for DoD NVG effects simulation and be a catalyst to improve the quality of DoD NVG simulators. More credible, robust NVG simulators will afford aviators and soldiers a much more realistic training experience that will result in improved navigation and search and target acquisition skills. A phase II development of the prototype design could easily be commercialized as an NVG trainer for law enforcement agencies that use NV devices. In addition, this SBIR will result in improved commercial sensor simulation development tools for our 3rd-party vendors. JRM anticipates releasing upgrades to our SigSim and SenSim offerings based on our Phase I findings with sales almost immediately from our current customer base.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Todd Grimes
ARMY 00-139
Title:Image Processing Card for PC Based Simulators
Abstract:The recent trend in the Department of Defense Agencies is to reduce costs associated with simulation systems, while maintaining quality. Such simulation systems as the Paint the Night simulator require the use of an expensive high-end processing system to apply sensor effects to real-time simulated sensor data. This study will focus on some of the latest technologies to determine which architecture presents the best chance of meeting the following ambitious specifications. The PC card should be able to manipulate each pixel of an over-sampled 1280 x 1024 image by means of two 10 x 10 convolutions for blurring effects and a frame add for additive noise. All operators are desired to be floating-point. A frame rate of 30 Hz is required, but a rate of 60 Hz is desired. Incoming image data will be at 3 times the output resolution to ensure that no aliasing effects are introduced into the signal. The system will be capable of overlaying symbols over the graphics as desired. The processed image should be converted into a RS-170 format (Black & White TV) for output to a monitor. Our envisioned PCI-based sensor effects card would provide the capability of high resolution, high speed, and a sensor simulation device in less expensive package then the existing configuration.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Raymond Durand
ARMY 00-139
Title:Sensor Effects Card for PC Based Simulators
Abstract:The simulation of sensor effects (image degradation by MTF and noise) is an important feature of high-end IR and NVG sensor simulation. Sensor effects simulation for these high-end systems is performed on postprocessor units or VME boards at a cost of $30K or more. The increasing use of low-cost image PC-based image generators is creating a demand for a low-cost sensor effects card that can be inserted into a PC bus and interfaced with analog or digital image generator output. We propose to design a PCI-based sensor effects board that will perform two convolutions, noise addition, and video I/O with subframe latency at real-time frame rates. The board will be programmable, with processing parameters determined by the sensor system. We discuss several processing architectures and processor technologies, including pipeline processing, DSP, FPGA, COTS ASIC, and FFT. We examine the tradeoffs of these technologies, and define the strategy for the Phase I design. Based on our 20 years of experience in sensor simulation and designing custom signal and image processing boards, we believe that a low-cost ( around $5K) board is feasible and will meet the performance requirements A low cost sensor effects card is of interest to both Government and commercial markets. A low cost sensor effects card will increase the use of image generators for sensor testing, simulation exercises and training functions. The device has commercial interest in industrial and entertainment industries.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite B
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Freddie Lin
ARMY 00-140
Title:An Integrated Services Architecture with End-to-End Quality of Service
Abstract:To develop an integrated services architecture to handle the integration of multimedia (voice, video, data) over the Army tactical network with predictable quality of service (QoS), Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes to develop a time coupled packetized streaming (TCPS) protocol to work under the multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) network architecture. The TCPS allows the time characteristics of multimedia information embedded in the data packets, thus providing guaranteed real time end-to-end multimedia data delivery services. To provide the feasibility of the proposed TCPS protocol in Phase I, the foundation of the TCPS protocol will be developed. Based on the developed TCPS protocol, a computer simulation will be created to analyze the performance of the TCPS for end-to-end real time multimedia data services. The goal of this project is to develop a practical implementation plan of the TCPS technology. In addition to the Army tactical network applications, the TCPS approach can be also used for many real time multimedia applications in commercial audio/video streaming over the Internet.

TRANSTECH NETWORKS USA
100 Wood Avenue South
Iselin, NJ 08830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 452-9828
Dr. Tsong-Ho Wu
ARMY 00-140
Title:Optical Web QoS Switch
Abstract:The goal of this proposal is to design and develop a scalable, high performance, high reliability optical web QoS switch to provide intelligent application layer QoS switching in a seamless manner across the boundary of LAN and WAN to support existing mission critical web-centric data services, voice and data integration, as well as emerging Voice-over-IP and multimedia services. The Phase I work will focus on system architecture designs and a feasibility study for the optical web QoS switch in an IP-enabled operations center to support Army's mission critical applications with pre-defined end-to-end QoS assurance. The output of the Phase I work will be a system design specification, design performance and risk analysis for the proposed optical web QoS switch. Criteria used for performance and feasibility study include complexity (costs), QoS, reliability and scalability. The system design specification will help accelerate development of a scalable optical web QoS switch that would provide dynamic bandwidth, delay, and delay variation management to support end-to-end QoS for Army's mission critical applications. With the described web-centric IP-enabled operation center solution architecture with the proposed optical web QoS switch system, Army would be able to support integrated voice and data services in a seamless manner accross the boundary of LAN and WAN with pre-defined end-to-end QoS assurance through an evolutionary process of the integrated web-centric operations infrastructure. The same IP-enabled operations infrastructure may be extended to support mobility management and location services critical to Army's telemedicine and telemaintenance applications.

SCALABLE SIMULATION SOLUTIONS LLC
11022 Santa Monica Blvd #260
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 966 9947
Julian Hsu
ARMY 00-141
Title:MANET-SIM: Scalable Simulator for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:The exploding demand for computing and communication on the move has led to a significant need for ad hoc networks. However, there is relatively little understanding of the behavior of such networks, as they are scaled up, particularly for traffic with strict Quality of Service requirements. The eventual goal of this SBIR is to develop MANET-Sim, a simulator for Mobile Ad hoc NETworks, with the ability to simulate wireless networks with tens of thousands of nodes, in real time, on common desktop platforms that are likely to become available within the next three years. In Phase I, we will identify the primary bottlenecks to achieving real time simulation capability for such networks, and explore curative mechanisms including parallel execution, use of abstractions, and use of appropriate propagation layer models to facilitate accurate and fast simulation of mobile networks with tens of thousands of heterogeneous devices. We will quantitatively compare both execution times and accuracy of detailed packet level simulation models with abstract models including analytical, fluid flow, and multi-resolution models. A prototype methodology will be developed to demonstrate the feasibility of real time simulation of large scale wireless networks using selected unicast and multicast protocols to route QoS sensitive traffic. The phenomenal growth rate of the Internet is a clich‚. It is also widely accepted that the most dramatic future growth, in commercial and military contexts, will be in wireless connectivity. The demand for tools to evaluate and manage these networks is growing together with the complexity and size of the heterogeneous networks. A South China Morning Post Online, 10 Jan 2000 report predicts that deals conducted through wireless devices will generate about $14 billion a year and identifies mobile ticket sales, vending machine payments, and Internet shopping as the most promising wireless commerce areas. The Gartner Group estimates the market for software for network management & analysis to go from $3.6B in 1999 to $7.1B in 2003. The research and development activity proposed by this effort will directly lead to products in this large and growing market.

PHYSICAL ACOUSTICS CORP.
195 Clarksville Road
Princeton Jct., NJ 08550
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 716-4000
Dr. Valery Godinez
ARMY 00-142
Title:Field-Portable Infrastructure Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite Inspection & Evaluation System using Ultrasound Technologies
Abstract:Recently, significant attention has been paid to the country's dilapidated infrastructure; buildings, bridges, and concrete water and sewer pipes need to be retrofitted to sustain the increasing loads. A common solution is increase the capacity of these structures to carry loads by the introduction of additional tension-carrying materials as Fiber Reinforced Plastic composites. Efficient use of FRP composite to increase the strength of concrete components depends on the proper bonding between the FRP plate and the rehabilitated structure. Hence delamination defects present at the interface or within the composite, should be detected in order to maintain the structural integrity of the reinforced concrete component. However, composites are sophisticated materials with a complex structure and, anisotropic material properties, which are very difficult to inspect using conventional Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods. Thus there is great need for the development of new NDE technologies which can address these complicated inspection problem. Physical Acoustics Corporation (PAC) has developed a unique Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) technology, which has potential as a tool for inspection of FRP composites. This Phase I study will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a field-portable, battery operated system for the inspection of fiber-reinforce polymer composites based in Acousto-Ultrasonics. It is anticipated that the results of this program will lead to the development a portable fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite inspection and evaluation system that can be used to assess infrastructure composites and other composite in other applications as discussed below. The developed system will have applications for many industries beyond the government and could be applied to a broad range of industrial and commercial applications. As for the commercial industry, there are many uses for a system to inspect FRP composites, especially in civil infrastructure. Many of these uses and applications carry over into the military application. The inspection of FRP wrapping, bridge retrofitting etc. are most certainly applicable in the military. In other areas, as the military continues the push to make lighter stronger structures, the use of composites is increasing and inspection for damage is necessary. Throughout the DoD, composite materials are used in such areas as FRP wound pressure vessels, thick hybrid armor panels, composite stealth materials, ship hulls, etc. The list is large and there are presently no reliable systems available to inspect these materials. The system we will develop can be adapted to test in these applications.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4114
Dr. Robert Kovar
ARMY 00-143
Title:Robust, Low-Cost, Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials
Abstract:The use of novel Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in solid form within heating and cooling systems offers the potential for reducing initial system construction costs and increasing efficiency. Current PCMs cause problems such as fouling, segregation and high slurry viscosity within the heat exchanger system. Foster-Miller proposes to extend our successful microencapsulation technology to produce robust polymer microcapsules that contain high loadings of PCM selected for a specific temperature range. The robust, microencapsulated PCMs (RMPCMs) will contain hydrophilic surfaces that exhibit low sliding friction and drag, producing RMPCM slurries with high fluidity. RMPCMs will exhibit near neutral buoyancy, high toughness to avoid fracture during long-term cycling and stability at operating temperature. Our economical microencapsulation process can be scaled-up to large quantities in conventional equipment. In Phase I, we will select one PCM with the appropriate transition temperature range and produce a series of RMPCM test samples of varying size, shell thickness and PCM loading. RMPCM slurry fluidity, stability, thermal energy transfer efficiency and resistance to fracture during repeated cycling will be demonstrated within a test system. Our team includes experts in polymers, microencapsulation, thermal energy systems and slurry flow and a heat exchanger fluid manufacturer. (P-00885) The proposed robust, microencapsulated phase change materials will enable the design and construction of simpler, more efficient, lower-cost and more compact thermal energy systems than are now available. Commercial applications include central heating and cooling systems, chilled water systems for large buildings, and secondary loop refrigeration systems.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2620 Trade Center Avenue
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 702-1672
Dr. Tapesh Yadav
ARMY 00-145
Title:Non-toxic Nanomaterials for Obscurant Applications
Abstract:Obscurant cloud or "smoke screen" are aerosols of fine powders, flakes, or fibers that protect warfighters from weapon systems based on electromagnetic sensors. Current obscurant materials suffer from high cost, inhalation toxicity, environmental impact and non-optimal performance. A breakthrough is desired that can provide novel non-toxic materials with high extinction coefficient for electromagnetic radiations. This effort seeks to develop and demonstrate such materials using recent developments in nanotechnology. Nanomaterials have numerous dual use applications. Some illustrative applications include CMP slurries for microelectronics, coatings, additives and fillers for polymer and biomedical applications, novel catalysts, and miniaturization of electroceramic components.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Susan T. Pasco
ARMY 00-145
Title:Nontoxic Biodegradable Nanomaterials and Biomaterials Signature Reduction
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop biodegradable obscurants operating over a wide wavelength range (infrared to millimeter wave) using variants of an electroactive polymer. High aspect ratio fibers of the polymer in the size range necessary to provide broad spectrum coverage will be produced through a technique called electrospinning. The degradation of the polymer will be enhanced through blending with a chemically biodegradable polymer. Calculations show that the conductivity needed to achieve the needed extinction coefficient is within the range of the polymeric blend we propose. In this proposal we demonstrate the theoretical basis by which we believe we can achieve the desired extinction cross section of 4 m2/g, illustrate the synthetic methods that will be used to produce these materials and electrospin them into the desired forms, and describe the methods that will be used to characterize the material properties in terms of the extinction requirement. The proposed nontoxic biodegradable obscurant material will provide a safe alternative to conventional aluminum obscurant materials. This novel polymeric material will be completely washed away upon exposure to a large amount of water, such as in a rainfall, thereby eliminating the chance of ingestion or inhalation by humans or animals.

EIKOS, INC.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Dr. Jeffrey Conroy
ARMY 00-146
Title:Stabilization of Enzymes for the Destruction of Toxic Materials and Chemical Agents
Abstract:Eikos will exploit the power of microarray technology to rapidly identify and isolate a wide variety of ultra-stable organophosphorous anhydrolases (OPA's) to formulate an enzyme cocktail capable of decontaminating OP nerve and blistering agents across a spectrum of temperatures and pH's without loss of activity or denaturation. Extremozymes (enzymes isolated from extremophiles) are infinitely more active and less susceptible to denaturation in traditionally inhospitable environments such as non-neutral pH, oxidizing conditions, and high and low temperatures. Therefore, these enzymes are ideally suited for enzymatic catalysis in the field. The arduous task of isolating such enzymes has precluded their widespread use in industrial catalysis. The emergence of microarray technology has made it possible to quickly and efficiently screen an enormous number of organisms for any activity of interest. Eikos will fabricate an OPA specific microarray and screen multiple extremophilic organisms for the presence of detoxifying enzymes. Genetic information determined with the microarray will then be used to swiftly isolate each enzyme. A collection of enzymes collected in this manner will possess the catalytic ability to detoxify OP nerve and blistering agents in almost any environment. The combination of microarray technology and extraordinary extremozyme stability will revolutionize industrial enzymatic catalysis. An extremophile array will be capable of screening for not only OPAs, but also polymerases, proteases, restriction enzymes, etc. and will find utility in commercial and industrial markets. Industrial enzymes represent a $2 billion annual market. Most notable markets include detergents manufacturing with a vested interest in high temperature proteases, environmental chemistry interested in bioremediation, the pharmaceutical industry interested in novel natural product synthesis, and energy related fields interested in the natural gas production of many extremophilic bacteria.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4046
Dr. Suneet Chadha
ARMY 00-147
Title:Hand-Held Chemical Threat Monitor for the Soldier System
Abstract:Service infantry and reconnaissance elements have long-standing operational requirements for a field capability to rapidly assess chemical threats, monitor air quality, inspect, examine and in some cases, test systems and materials in forward deployed areas without extensive logistic support. Compact hand-held devices tailored to rapid response are needed to facilitate service infantry and reconnaissance deployment to areas of the world not normally supportable with a complicated logistics trail. Recent breakthroughs make such a device a reality. During Phase I, Foster-Miller will design and demonstrate a radically novel Chemical Threat Monitor (CTM) and assess overall feasibility and determine sensitivity limits for typical chemical agents. At the heart of the device would be a miniature mid-infrared spectrometer coupled to tiny fiber optic sensor probes that readily identify and qualitatively characterize a broad range of chemical threats and materials. The entire device including the battery power pack would be about the size of a small pocket calculator, making it readily transportable and concealable. In Phase II, Foster-Miller will optimize miniature IR probes and the high throughput spectrometer for targeted applications, including automated spectral recognition and necessary electronics for a field deployable prototype and testing at a DoD facility. (P-01207) The ability to successfully perform in-the-field sophisticated autonomous chemical threat or material analysis with a hand-held device will create major new markets for this unique analytical instrument in both military and commercial applications. Chemical process control and environmental monitoring will be major benefactors and present vast market potential.

MANNING APPLIED TECHNOLOGY
419 S. Main Street
Troy, ID 83843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 835-5402
Dr. Christopher Manning
ARMY 00-147
Title:Compact, Lightweight, Low-Cost, Permanently-Aligned Infrared Spectrometers
Abstract:Military, government and civilian personnel need timely and cost- effective warning of chemical and biological hazards in many arenas. Timely warning allows for effective personnel protection. Manning Applied Technology proposes to construct a novel Fourier transform- infrared spectrometer which is modular, compact, costs less than $5000 in quantity, and is optically tilt-compensated. The proposed design has excellent immunity to both linear and torsional vibrations as well as variable resolution. The electronics incorporate a novel architecture based on a digital signal processor. The power consumption is lower than any Fourier transform spectrometer built to date. The part-per-million internal calibration standard is an inexpensive, highly efficient semiconductor. Dr. Manning is an internationally-recognized FT-IR spectrometer design expert. He holds two recent patents on novel interferometer designs; 3 more are pending. Dr. Griffiths authored the textbook on Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and has 30 years experience in the field. Commercial applications include a wide range of process and quality control, spectral imaging, environmental monitoring, laboratory research, field measurements and remote sensing applications. Conservative estimates indicate a $10 million per year market for the technology. The low cost insures that it will capture a significant market share. The novel interferometer design is expected to have numerous applications in process and control including combustion, commercial remote sensing, spectral imaging.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Mr. Matthew E. Thomas
ARMY 00-148
Title:Modeling and Diagnostics of Gel Propellant Mixing and Combustion
Abstract:The capability to experimentally characterize the flow patterns of gel engine mixing and combustion, as well as validate numerical simulation technology that predicts detailed engine operation, is proposed. The Phase I analysis methodology will be based on 1) advanced gel rheology behavior simulation expertise; 2) existing bipropellant and pintle motor system modeling software; and 3) state-of-the-art liquid bipropellant combustion transient CFD methodology. Numerical simulations will focus on identifing trade-offs between MMH gel carbon loading versus plume signature, matching variable temperature fuel and oxidizer gel rheology to achieve consistent mixture ratios, refining current injection techniques (both vortex and pintle) for improved engine performance, and optimizing nozzle shape to maximize Cf. Existing FMTI test data will be utilized to validate gel motor flow phenomena sub-models. The Phase I modeling effort will be relied upon to select the most appropriate laser diagnostics approach for quantifying the mass concentrations and temperatures within the gel combustion and associated plume expansion processes. During the Phase I option program the methodologies developed here will be applied to ongoing FMTI development activities. In Phase II, a comprehensive laser diagnostics system will be assembled within existing AMCOM gel motor test operations. This system will be utilized to generate benchmark quality gel combustion data suitable for identifying gel combustion refinements and validating high fidelity gel propulsion numerical simulations. The developed analysis techniques, laser diagnostics, and test hardware will have immediate impact on AMCOM sponsored smart propulsion initiatives and propulsion manufacturers in the design, analysis and testing of gelled propulsion systems. Other applications include numerous industrial pneumatic actuation control systems and bipropellant throttling within the marine and space propulsion industries. CFDRC's close working relationships with propulsion system manufacturers (TRW, Atlantic Research, Aerojet, Thiokol, etc.) assures rapid technology/expertise transfer and rapid Phase III commercialization, respectively.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
Space Center
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 827-5000
Dr. Martin J. Chiaverini
ARMY 00-148
Title:Mixing And Combustion Of Gel Propellants
Abstract:ORBITEC proposes to analytically model and empirically develop the mixing and combustion of thixotropic gel propellants in the combustion chamber flow field generated by innovative vortex injection schemes. The new mode of propellant injection uses a combination of approaches. One approach was patented by the U.S. Army. The other approach, patent pending, was evolved by ORBITEC. In both methods the gels are injected circumferentially tangent to the chamber inner wall, inducing a swirling flow. Streaming the propellants on the wall provides required shear to keep the thixotropes liquefied to allow mixing and dispersion on the wall. The thin liquid film of propellants is vaporized and brought to ignition temperature by the adjacent swirling combustion. The ORBITEC method forms co-axial vortexes. The wall vortex spirals upwards, while the core vortex spirals down. One or more commercial codes will be used to model the injection and mixing of the thixotropic fluids. Propellant vaporization and combustion in the flow field will also be modeled. Customized subroutines will be used to treat geometry variations, propellant alternatives, and to link the commercial codes. In Phase II, chamber hot-fire testing will validate the model. The near term goal of this modeling work is to provide for, and optimize, the use of gelled propellants in combustion devices such as rocket engines and air breathing propulsion systems. Gels may also find use in fuels for industrial gas turbines, and in oil-fired central power stations where gels may allow coal powders to be suspended in liquid fuels to lower costs of energy production. A verified model that optimizes gel engine designs will help to minimize the cost and development times required for advanced missile propulsion systems. Systems using gelled propellants have the potential to replace solid rocket motor propulsion systems in many cases. The superior performance and control precision provided by gels greatly increase application flexibility and kill probability. Evolution of a common missile utilizing gelled propellants to replace several current single purpose systems would provide considerable cost savings to the Government. A common propulsion technology may also possibly be horizontally integrated into several existing systems, enhancing their performance and extending their service life while at the same time reducing cost. Gels are inherently more safe than liquid propellants because of reduced spill and leak potential. They also vaporize more slowly because of their inhibited ability to disperse under gravity or surface wetting into thin films. This reduces the potential to release explosive vapor clouds. Gels are also of importance because of their ability to hold solid particulate in suspension. This characteristic allows metal powders to be added to liquid fuels for greatly increased density impulse for volume limited rocket propulsion systems. NASA also has a demonstrated need for gelled propellant propulsion technology for booster and in-space engine systems where reliability, safety and low cost are paramount considerations. An interesting sidelight is that gels enhance space storability of propellants by reducing sensitivity to leakage, and by reducing slosh and migration of propellants in the tank at zero-G.

TALLEY DEFENSE SYSTEMS
4551 E. McKellips Road
Mesa, AZ 85277
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 898-2465
Mr. Dan V. Haun
ARMY 00-148
Title:Mixing and Combustion of Gel Propellants (ref. A00-148)
Abstract:Experimental and modeling capabilities will be developed to characterize the mixing and combustion of gelled propellants in a bipropulsion engine. The goal is to use experimentally determined propellant and engine characteristics to accurately predict engine combustion efficiency. The predictive capability will be based on establishment of a numerical model; which simulates propellant aerosol formation, mixing and combustion. Experimental tools will be designed to measure key characteristics of the aerosol formation and mixing processes so that detailed laboratory measurements can be used to calibrate the predictive model. The goal of the effort is to establish these capabilities from "First Principals" so that the modeling capabilities will not be empirically tied to one engine or propellant technology. The proposed program will provide significant improvements in the performance of bipropuslion engines. The modeling and experiemental studies planned for this effort will provide the framework for evaluation of future propulsion systems.

ADVANCED OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2702 Triana Boulevard, SW
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 536-5960
Mr. Ken S. Merwin
ARMY 00-149
Title:Night Owl Universal Optics for Uncooled LWIR Applications
Abstract:Advanced Optical Systems, Inc. (AOS) offers an innovative approach to the development of universal, inexpensive optics for uncooled IR applications with their Night Owl design. The requirements of small f-number optics and variable focal length to ensure uniform testing of various uncooled IR detectors are investigated. The proposed Cassegrain style optics offers a multi-spectral system in a lightweight, compact package. Coupled with innovative replication techniques, the Night Owl System offers significant cost savings and has direct application to missile seekers. The development of universal optics for use in uncooled IR applications will: Provide a means of testing and characterizing uncooled IR detectors from multiple vendors; lead to a reduction in operation and support costs in missiles and other military systems by proving uncooled detector technology; and lead to a reduction in production cost of low-cost, lightweight seeker elements for missiles.

INSIGHT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3 Technology Drive
Londonderry, NH 03053
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 626-4800
Mr. Vadim Plotsker
ARMY 00-149
Title:Development of Universal, Inexpensive Optics for Uncooled Infrared Commercial and Military Applications
Abstract:The objective of this proposal to develop and demonstrate a universal optical test bed specifically for the uncooled infrared technology for use in aviation and missile platforms, missile systems, and other military and commercial uncooled applications. This proposal will explore various affordable infrared (IR) materials and their use and suitability for reflective, refractive, and hybrid lens designs. This effort will produce a state-of-the-art standardized optical design for uncooled focal planes.

RDAS, INC.
11003 E.Bradford Circle
Cerritos, CA 90703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
256-379-4802
Mr. Augustus H. Green, Jr.
ARMY 00-150
Title:Sensor Data Fusion for Target Classification and Identification
Abstract:The proposed effort addresses the problem of Non-Cooperative Target Recognition/Identification, NCTR, for airborne targets that are beyond visual range. To address the problem, The proposed research is focused on novel artificial intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic, neural nets, and wavelets to make NCTR techniques perform better. Although artificial intelligence techniques have been investigated for single sensors, they have not been explored extensively when there is data available from a variety of sensors. Topics to be investigated also involve the application of such techniques as Pattern Recognition, Decision Theory, and Optimization Theory. Current NCTR techniques work quite well but only under constrained battlefield conditions. The intent is to use a data fused algorithm using some of these techniques as a basis from which to begin the development of an algorithm that is much less susceptible to battlefield conditions. Artificial Intelligence techniques have had success in the control field. The approach is to build upon the application of those techniques and to adapt to the extent possible the manner in which those techniques were applied. Once the criteria and logic flow have been determined, the design of the algorithm will occur. If the proposed research is successful, it can have tremendous impact on numerous weapon systems that have a need for Non-Cooperative Target Recognition/Identification. The ability to achieve NCTR has been sorely need by all DOD services. It has the potential to give the battlefield commander better control over his resources and could reduce logistics considerably. With this technique, the battlefield commander will have a capability to determine which of his resources is the most applicable for any threat engagement scenario. This can reduce operating and support costs significantly. Not only can costs be reduced, but better weapon system performance can be realized.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Adel El-Fallah
ARMY 00-150
Title:Sensor Data Fusion for Target Classification and Identification
Abstract:The effectiveness of Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) against air targets is limited by a lack of robustness in the following respects: insufficient-fidelity signature simulation; statistically uncharacterizable signature variations; excessively large pose-model libraries; excessively large target-type libraries; misclassification of ``novel'' targets; insufficient target-identity resolvability using single sensors; and difficulties in fusing diverse sources/sensors. Many of these difficulties arise from the fact that conventional OPTIMAL techniques (e.g. Bayesian filtering and estimation) expect PERFECT models and, consequently, can behave very non-optimally if the mismatch between model and reality is too great. Consequently, optimal techniques cannot be applied as a ``cookbook'' panacea---they must be augmented by ROBUSTNESS STRATEGIES that compensate for model-mismatch and other problems. Scientific Systems Company, Inc. (SSCI) and its subcontractor Lockheed Martin of Eagan MN (LM-E) propose the application of new ROBUST DATA FUSION AND ROBUST-BAYES FILTERING techniques to NCTR problems. In our approach we (1) use generalized likelihood functions to model the uncertainties as well as the certainties in data; (2) fuse very disparate kinds of data using generalized joint likelihood functions; (3) deal with ``novel'' targets by introducing and modeling an ``unknown target'' type; (4) reduce the size of the pose-search library via fusion of kinematic data with target ID data to estimate pose; (5) ensure accurate, stable NCTR by using a true JOINT state-estimator; and (6) ensure computational efficiency and robustness by using an approximate filtering scheme with efficiency O(n) or O(nlog n) and theoretically guaranteed divergence properties. Target identification is one of the key technologies for global surveillance, precision strike, air superiority and defense which are three of the seven science and technology thrust areas identified by the Director of Defense Research and Engineering. Commercial applications of advanced tracking and identification systems exist in several areas such as: radar, biometric identification, industrial inspection, medical screening and diagnosis, failure detection and identification, and remote sensing.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Kevin J. Sullivan
ARMY 00-150
Title:Sensor Data Fusion for Target Classification and Identification
Abstract:Toyon Research proposes to develop a fusion module that fuses measurements collected by an arbitrary number of sensors over time to provide target recognition of airborne targets. The fusion module will consist of a Bayesian Network and a statistical database. The Bayesian Network will update beliefs about what type of target is being measured by taking into consideration a priori information regarding the types of airborne objects in an area and the capabilities of the sensors providing measurements. Additionally, the network will consider the degree to which a particular measurement matches the expected signal of each type of target of interest. The statistical database will provide information regarding the expected performance characteristics of the sensors and the degree to which a particular measurement matches expectations. One of the important advantages of our approach is that information from sensors which provide data at different levels in a target-class hierarchy can be effectively fused. For instance, data from a sensor which distinguishes a jet aircraft from a prop aircraft can be fused with data from a sensor which distinguishes an F-15 from an F-16. We propose to develop an initial version of the fusion module and provide a demonstration of its capabilities on an example problem during Phase I. The successful completion of this research will result in the development of a fusion module which can fuse measurements collected by an arbitrary number of sensors over time to robustly provide non-cooperative target recognition of airborne objects. Non-military applications of this technology include air traffic control, counter-drug operations, and medical diagnostics.

OPTICAL SCIENCES CORP.
P.O. Box 8291
Huntsville, AL 35808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 772-6721
Mr. David Brett Beasley
ARMY 00-151
Title:Semi-active Laser Simulator for Multi-mode Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations
Abstract:This document presents Optical Sciences Corporations's proposal for the design and production of an innovative laser projection system for testing multi-mode seekers which utilize a semi-acive laser system for acquistion and terminal homing. The OSC SAL projector is designed to be compatible with existing flight motion simulator, IR projection, and MMW anechoic chamber facilities to support testing of multi-mode seekers. The SAL projector technology developed under this effort will be used in government and prime contractor HWIL facilites for the simulation and testing of advanced multi-mode missiles and smart munitions. The technology developed under this effort may also be used for production line and field testing of military weapon systems.

EIKOS, INC.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Mr. Nelson Landrau
ARMY 00-152
Title:Selective Application of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Protection and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Conformal Coatings Onto Circuit Card As
Abstract:Eikos Inc. proposes to use a functionalized version of Nanoshield„ (polymer nanocomposites developed by Eikos Inc.) which when formulated with commercially available conformal coatings will provide EMI shielding to CCA's (circuit card assemblies). The additives in Nanoshield„ are used in such small amounts that coating properties (i.e. viscosity, transparency, etc.) and cost will not be appreciably affected. Formulating Nanoshield„ with commercially available conformal coatings means that there will be no need to develop, change, or modify existing resin systems or application devices (which can be quite costly). Another advantage of developing this additive is that it could potentially reduce shielding requirements by as much as 50% thus reducing the mass, volume, and cost of military and commercial electronic devices. These coatings may also reduce the need for additional shielding that may be required as lower voltage integrated circuits are designed into military and civilian electronic systems. The potential of formulating Nanoshield„ into commercial conformal coatings for producing materials that will provide EMI shielding to circuit card assemblies (CCA's). This method of incorporated EMI shielding to commercial conformal coatings opens the door for the production of lighter and less costly civilian and military CCA's. There is enormous interest in products intended to minimize the effects of EMI in a variety of industries, ranging from satellites to the automotive industry. Catalog vendors list hundreds of types of EMI shielding products, many could be supplanted by this technology. Most of the research and development of these products has been done domestically, and the U.S. remains the largest producer of EMI goods. Furthermore, this country is still the largest single market for ESD products. Estimates of the size of the EMI market well over $100 million.

CONDOR SYSTEMS, INC.
2133 Samaritan Drive
San Jose, CA 95124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 879-2226
Mr. Peter P. Fera
ARMY 00-153
Title:Demonstration of Advanced Detection Techniques Against Low Probability of Intercept Avionics Waveforms
Abstract:The objective of this proposed Phase 1 effort is to develop and simulate a realizeable design for a receiver-signal processor that detects, finds the direction of arrival, and correctly identifies weak signals from radar altimeters. The effort extensively models and predicts the operational system's detection sensitivity, direction finding accuracy and identification accuracy against frequency modulated coninuous wave (FM/CW) signals under realistic conditions. The ultimate goal is a system detection sensitivity of less than -118 dBm, azimuth angle arrival accuracy less than 1 degree, and indentification accuracy greater than 95%. Novel signal feature detection algorithms and efficient digital signal processing implementations show significant promise for achieving these goals in operational systems. High azimuth accuracy is achieved using unique interferometric feature detection techniques for very low SNR signals in wide input bandwidths. The proposed techniques discriminate against interference, parameterize the waveforms, and identify them through their unique parameter sets. Software simulation of signals and detection processing are necessary steps in establishing confidence in these techniques for a variety of FM/CW waveforms and interference conditions. Detection of pulsed altimeter signals will also be investigated. Simulations will be compared with performance predicted by theory. Improved communications system performance by being able to detect low powered signals or weak signals at longer ranges. May apply to CDMA format communication signals such as used in cell phone systems.

LO RF CONSULTING, INC.
39 FRIEDA LANE
WANTAGH, NY 11793
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 783-1264
Mr. LAWRENCE OLIVA
ARMY 00-153
Title:Demonstration of Advanced Detection Techniques Against Low Probability of Intercept Avionics Waveforms
Abstract:This program proposes to study, develop, simulate, fabricate and test a ground based receiver-signal processor system architecture capable of detecting, measuring the angle of arrival and uniquely identifying the emissions of a modern LPI radar altimeter. The basis for the program is the use of high probability of intercept receiver technology to scan wide frequency ranges in msec time periods with sensitivity, when combined with a low gain DF antenna, of at least -118 dBmi. This acquisition receiver will be integrated with digital receiver/processor technology to provide paremeter and direction measurements to identify the signal type and direction. Monitoring and control of modern cellular and satellite LPI type narrow and wide band mobile communications signals.

RESEARCH ASSOC. OF SYRACUSE
6780 Northern Blvd
East Syracuse, NY 13057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 463-2266
Dr. Richard Wiley
ARMY 00-153
Title:Demonstration of Advanced Detection Techniques Against Low Probability of Intercept Avionics Waveforms
Abstract:The proposed Advanced LPI Processor (ALPIP) will enable a single-site, stand-alone ELINT system to be built that detects, DFs and identifies cruise missiles. The system will feed hostile emitter line-of-bearing and SEI data to a multi-sensor tracker for the production of a fused air picture and for air vehicle engagement by hard-kill weapons. The ALPIP will detect the majority of fielded cruise missiles using multiple antennas and advanced processing algorithms tailored to the cruise missile problem. The Phase I design will incorporate modified COTS receiver hardware and will be tailored to fit into an existing ELINT/ESM suite, to simplify Phase II work and to reduce the time to IOC. The algorithms developed for this receiver will be applicable to ESM systems in F-22 variants, the JSF, Aerial Common Sensor and perhaps DD 21 and CVN 77. The US Army ALPIP-enabled cruise missile detection system will be useful to deployed and CONUS Army, Navy and Air Force units, in addition to coalition/allied forces in combat theaters worldwide.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. Mike Marino
ARMY 00-153
Title:Demonstration of Advanced Detection Techniques Against Low Probability of Intercept Avionics Waveforms
Abstract:SARA proposes to develop an innovative, real-time system comprised of a front-end RF receiver and a back-end digital signal processor. The receiver will measure the avionics' emissions and the DSP will apply the required algorithms to classify the airborne platform and determine its angle of arrival. The system will operate in real-time, thereby rapidly computing the results and giving the capability of tracking multiple targets with dynamic flight profiles. Emitter identification will be accomplished using coherence for non-parametric analysis and the Steiglitz-McBride method for parametric analysis. Azimuth angle determination will be accomplished using superresolution beamforming. Superresolution dramatically reduces system cost and complexity compared to standard beamforming techniques. Doppler effects will be compensated and the system will provide the additional information of the platform's velocity and range. Multiple, simultaneous targets will be separated and distinguished using both frequency space and beam space separation techniques. A full simulation environment of the system will be developed, including all algorithms, Doppler effects, target velocity, and range estimates. The simulation will allow for testing of the system and evaluating performance with multiple emitters and independent flight profiles for each platform. This program will provide a "passive cruise missile detection" capability for the Army, Navy and Air Force. Several deployment concepts are envisioned which will extend the protection envelope afforded by previous detection systems.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
101 West Sixth Street
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Joe Priest, P.E.
ARMY 00-154
Title:Development of a Missile Data Acquisition and Recorder Module
Abstract:A small, data acquisition and recorder system is needed to acquire and store missile and submunition acceleration data in non-volatile memory. The device should be autonomous, withstand the harsh environments of a missile launch, and permit data download efficiently after ground impact. Additionally, the data acquisition and recorder system should contain a flexible sensor interface to accommodate the different gain, offset, and filtering requirements of accelerometers and other sensors if desired. Such a system could be used to characterize missile and submunition shock and pyrotechnic shock environments during flight tests and be stored in a database for reference in future design and redesign activities. Such data would eliminate the trial and error associated with designing to an assumed pyrotechnic shock load and thus decrease the cost associated with those activities. Additionally, such a device could be used in a variety of applications requiring autonomous acquisition and storage of sensor data in high-g, short duration events. The MDARM will provide technology immediately applicable to programs requiring non-volatile data acquisition and recording of event data. SPEC will continue to exploit the automotive market place for use of such devices in automotive crash safety testing, crash adaptive air bag deployment, and monitoring of critical bio dynamic parameters during automotive testing and racing. Additionally, this technology could be used to monitor athletes during sporting events and office workers during their normal activities to decrease injuries and fatigue.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4270
Dr. Daniela Marciu Topasna
ARMY 00-155
Title:RF Transparent, Tailored Reflectivity Coatings
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop novel RF transparent but Visible- and IR-reflective coatings for large aperture windows. This will be accomplished by incorporating specific nanoparticles in thin films that can be deposited on any type of window substrate, including transparent plastic sheets such as polystyrene. The ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) technique of fabricating these films allows for precise molecular level control over the assembly of a thin film with exceptional homogeneity and ease of processing. ISAM nonlinear optical films offer additional major advantages of low scattering loss, high thermal and chemical stability, simplicity and low-cost. Luna Innovations and its university collaborators have shown that revolutionary ISAM methods of creating multifunctional thin-films monolayer by monolayer can be used to yield a wide variety of self-assembled, electronically and photonically-active polymeric thin films, including light emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, second order nonlinear optical films, to mention a few of the applications for the ISAM thin films. Besides the military applications of the ISAM RF transparent IR/Vis Reflective coatings, other fields, such as automotive industry, will benefit from these results. The new transparent sheets can reduce the heating in buildings and automobiles due to infrared absorption, thus reducing their cooling costs.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
Dr. James H. White
ARMY 00-156
Title:Catalysts for Low Temperature Decomposition of CINCH Fuels
Abstract:This proposed Phase I addresses the development and testing of catalysts for the low temperature decomposition of competitive impulse noncarcinogenic hypergolic (CINCH) fuels developed by the Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) for use in a liquid-gas generator. The catalysts will consist of solid solutions of metal oxides supporting precious metals. The supports will be prepared by coprecipitation techniques and the metals applied by standard decomposition techniques. It is anticipated that these catalysts will readily decompose liquid CINCH fuels forming expanded gases which will be delivered by a liquid gas generator. Phase I will consist of the coarse screening of 18 - 24 catalysts representing a spectrum of compositions from a general composition anticipated to possess a refractory nature in addition to decomposition activity. Identification of preferred variants will be followed by their optimization. A gas generator will designed for use with CINCH fuels and the preferred catalyst(s). Use in high specific impulse systems or long life thrusters is anticipated. These catalysts are expected to possess high activity not only for these reactions, but also for catalytic combustion. Catalysts to result from completion of this program will find application for decomposition of liquid fuels as well as for ignition of monopropellant mixtures in rockets. Other potential applications include ammonia cracking and the catalytic combustion of effluents originating from incinerators and combustion sources. Use of the catalysts for combustion of propellants in gas turbines and other power generators is another promising application. These materials will also be of potential utility for the removal of VOCs and nitrogen oxides from gaseous effluent streams. The materials would be of interest to the military as well as aerospace and waste disposal industries.

MACH I, INC.
340 East Church Road
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 279-2340
Dr. John Leonard
ARMY 00-156
Title:Low Temperature Nanoscale Catalyst for Reduced Toxicity Monopropellant
Abstract:Toxic hydrazines with iridium catalysts are currently used in monpropellant and gas generator applications. NASA estimated handling carcenogenic hydrazines adds $500,000 cost to each space shuttle mission. The Aviation and Missile Command developed CINCH (Competitive Impulse Non-Carcinogenic Hypergol) fuel as a reduced toxicity alternative. Unfortunately, the iridium catalyst requires high (300-400 degree F) temperatures. There is a need for a new catalyst that decomposes CINCH fuel at temperatures as low as - 40 degrees F and a gas generator using this catalyst and fuel. MACH I is proposing a program to develop this catalyst and generator. In Phase I, the catalytic activity of other materials will be compared to iridium. We have already shown palladium to be more active. The most promising materials would then be synthesized using MACH I's nanoscale synthesis technologies. As the size of the active particle is reduced, activity will increase. Supports would be evaluated to enhance the activity of these nano catalytic materials. A prototype generator design would be developed. In a Phase I Option, the decomposition products would be identified, catalyst and generator design would be optimized. In Phase II, the catalyst would be commercially produced and several generator devices built and evaluated to AMCOM's specifications. There are obvious cost and environmental benefits to the military and aerospace industries from using the CINCH fuel and the proposed catalysts and gas generators to replace carcinogenic hydrazine and methyl hydrazine systems. Palladium and other noble metal catalysts are used in many applications in the chemical industry both to synthesize chemicals and remove impurities. The more active nanoscale materials developed in this program could offer cost and performance benefits to these applications.

METSS CORP.
720-G Lakeview Plaza Blvd.
Columbus, OH 43085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6600
Dr. Richard S. Sapienza
ARMY 00-156
Title:Low Temperature Catalyst for Reduced Toxicity Monopropellant
Abstract:The Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) has developed a series of low toxicity, tertiary amine azides - called CINCH (Competitive Impulse Non-Carcinogenic Hypergol) fuel - that are suitable replacements for hydrazines as hypergolic fuels and liquid gas generator fuels. The catalyst used for the state-of-the-art monopropellant hydrazine facilitates hydrazine decomposition at -40§F. This same catalyst requires excessively high temperatures (300-400§F) to decompose the CINCH fuel, resulting in unnecessary operational costs. It would be desirable to have a catalyst that is specific to the CINCH fuel that would cause it to decompose at -40§F. METSS proposes to conduct a catalytic material study based upon the properties of the amine azides and demonstrate that effective catalysts can be synthesized that will decompose CINCH at -40§F. Specifically, the work performed under the proposed program will emphasize the inorganic salt nature of amine azides and recent developments in nitrogen fixation chemistry to accomplish this task. Based on our expertise in this area, METSS believes that the proposed efforts will result in a high activity, low cost catalyst that will decompose the CINCH fuel in a manner consistent with the current hydrazine-catalyst system. This project will demonstrate a complete and cost effective replacement technology. With the appropriate catalyst, the CINCH fuel could be used domestically in satellites for thrust vector control and in reaction control systems to replace hydrazine thrusters. This chemistry could also lead to the development of an azide-sensitive coatings which could be used for fiber optics or other sensors for in military and commercial applications (e.g., automotive air-bags). Commercially available processing equipment and the existing commercial market make the transition of this methodology into the commercial environment technically and financially feasible.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2325
Dr. Steven Gebhard
ARMY 00-156
Title:Low Temperature Catalyst for Reduced Toxicity Monopropellant
Abstract:Tactical missiles that use gel propellant systems require a chemical gas generator for pressurization. While hydrazine is a proven monopropellant for gas generation, it is poisonous, a cancer suspect agent, and has a high vapor pressure. As a result, full body protection and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) are required during hydrazine loading procedures, non-essential personnel must leave the area, and hazardous material spill control teams have to be readily available. The result is increased hazard expense and difficulty associated with the extensive safety procedures. New reduced-toxicity, non carcinogenic monopropellants are being developed by the Army for use in gas generators for tactical missile applications. Unfortunately, these new monopropellants will not ignite at the same low temperatures as hydrazine over existing catalysts. TDA Research Inc. (TDA), proposes to develop a catalyst that can ignite the new monopropellant at -40øF. We will us our computer controlled, high-throughput, catalyst test apparatus to screen more than 100 promising low temperature catalytic formulations. A preliminary design of a gas generator that uses the new monopropellant and our catalyst will be designed by our commercialization partner. TDA's catalysts will enable the use of the new, reduced-toxicity, non-hydrazine monopropellants for both gas generation and for monopropellant thrusters. Gas generation is used with missiles, spacecraft, and aircraft for pressurization and auxiliary power. Monopropellant thrusters are used on telecommunications and military satellites. In the case of thrusters, it has been estimated that every 1% increase in thruster efficiency made possible by the new generation of monopropellants increases total revenue by $1,000,000 per year per satellite (700+ satellites will be launched over the next decade). For gas generation, the ability to reduce the exposure of personnel to hydrazine provides a strong incentive to incorporate our catalytic technology.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Dr. Arthur J. Fortini
ARMY 00-156
Title:Advanced Monopropellant Catalysts
Abstract:The use of reduced-toxicity monopropellants such as dimethylaminoethyl azide (CINCH) or those based on energetic liquid salts such as hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) promises a number of improvements over conventional hydrazine propellant. Chief among these is improved safety, which will significantly decrease overall use costs. However, both types of reduced-toxicity monopropellants are difficult to ignite. While this is an asset with respect to safety, it is a liability with respect to design. In this project, Ultramet will use its extensive experience with catalysts, catalyst supports, and catalytic ignition to develop a low temperature, long-life catalyst for the decomposition of CINCH fuel. This novel catalytic ignition system will be based on the advanced monolithic catalyst (AMCAT) beds previously developed by Ultramet for HAN-, hydrazine-, oxygen/ethanol, and oxygen/hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. The proposed technology will make the use of advanced, environmentally friendly monopropellants a reality. This will not only eliminate the use of toxic propellants such as hydrazine in spacecraft, but it will also allow for the use of reduced-toxicity propellants in gas generators on military aircraft and fuel pressurization systems for tactical missiles.

AEGIS TECHOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
6703 Odyssey Drive, Suite 200
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Dr. Michael C. Cornell
ARMY 00-157
Title:Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) Simulation Techniques for Multi-mode Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations
Abstract:The capability to optically project virtual LADAR scenes would maximize the effectiveness of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation in the design, development, and testing of LADAR seekers. The goal of this research is to develop a LADAR scene projector to meet the demands of closed-loop weapon testing in a Multi-mode HWIL simulation environment. During the Phase I effort, a preliminary design of the LADAR scene projector will be produced, which can realistically simulate the optical return signals of a LADAR seeker and whose operation is compatible with a flight motion simulator. Presented in this document is the technical approach that will be undertaken. This discussion includes the various tasks to be conducted along with the technologies to be considered to meet the stated goal. The results of the Phase I research will lead directly to the development of a LADAR scene projection system during the Phase II. The conceptual design resulting from this effort will be the basis for the development of a LADAR Scene Projector, which would enhance the use of Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation in the design, development, and testing of LADAR seekers

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Charles Garvin
ARMY 00-157
Title:Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) Simulation Techniques for Multi-mode Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations
Abstract:Passive systems such as forward looking infrared imagers, infrared search & track arrays, missile seekers and missile warning systems require calibration and testing at every level in their fabrication as well as at the depot and the flight line. Hardware-in-the-loop simulators exist for passive IR sensors and seekers, but no such technology exists yet for the validation of active coherent receivers. Common-aperture multi-mode sensors and seekers using combinations of mmW & ŸYW radar, passive IR, and LADAR/active IR and data fusion require in-situ (possibly simultaneous) testing and calibration of multiple modes of sensing in specialized testing facilities such as environmental rooms or anechoic chambers. Simultaneous acquisition of numerous ladar signatures (polarimetric reflectivity, multi-spectral reflectivity, 1D & 3D shape echo, and micro-Doppler signatures) enables their combination to enhance the ability of an active seeker to counteract the effects of camouflage, concealment & deception and clutter that can defeat the separate use of passive, RF and mm-wave seekers. This Phase I Program will design and development a hardware-in-the-loop scene projector for active seeker characterization. The novel coherent ladar scene projector design will be compact, portable, and easy-to-use in the depot or on the flight line. Potential applications include manufacturing/production reliability testing and performance validation for critical hardware and software seeker components for advanced missile systems and multi-mode weapons systems. In addition, the scene generators developed under this program could be used in simulators for autonomous navigation devices. Other applications of the technology includes test-beds for automobile and aircraft collision-avoidance systems.

DE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3620 Horizon Drive
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 270-9700
Mr. Richard Foedinger
ARMY 00-159
Title:Composite Aeroshells with Integral Heat Shield Designs
Abstract:The Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program proposed herein by DE Technologies, Inc. (DET) will identify and evaluate candidate material systems and manufacturing approaches for integral heatshield/airframe designs. Material and process trade studies will be performed to identify the most economical and technically feasible materials, geometries and process parameters. An integrated design for manufacturing methodology will be employed to develop an integral winding/braiding fabrication method. Parametric thermo-mechanical analyses will be conducted to evaluate candidate material systems and fiber reinforcement architectures. Fabrication of prototype heatshield/airframe components and thermostructural characterization testing will be performed as part of the Phase II development program. In addition to the primary application for tactical missile structures, the proposed manufacturing technology would also have application to future high acceleration launch vehicles and high-speed civil transport vehicles. The low-cost performing and co-curing processes to be developed would also lead to lightweight, integrated structures for numerous applications including automotive structures, civil infrastructure, biomedical products and sporting goods, for example.

VALIGEN, US, INC.
300 Pheasant Run
Newtown, PA 18940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 504-4444
Dr. Bryan A. Roecklein
ARMY 00-160
Title:Novel Gene Repair Technology to Generate Serum Carboxylesterase Deficient Mice
Abstract:We propose to use a novel gene repair technology (chimeraplasty) to generate serum carboxylesterase (CaE) deficient mice. Serum CaE acts as an endogenous anti-organophosphate (OPs) bioscavenger that provides mice with inherent protection against OPs. Unlike mice, humans and non-human primates lack serum CaE and are much more susceptible to OP toxicity. The inherent resistance of rodents limits their use as a model system for development of prophylactics that detoxify organophosphate based agents. A transgenic mouse that lacks serum CaE would provide an inexpensive alternative to non-human primates. Creation of serum CaE deficient mice is proposed by treating embryonic stem cells with chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides (Chimeraplasts) directed at disrupting the Es-1 gene that encodes CaE in mice. RNA/DNA oligonucleotides have been used (Chimeraplasty) both in vitro and in vivo to correct, mutate, and disrupt genes in systems as diverse as bacterial cells and rodents. Chimeraplasty uses endogenous DNA repair mechanisms and does not introduce foreign DNA or potentially deleterious reporter genes. Once the animals are established they will function as models for the testing of antidotes and establishing the in vivo safety and efficacy of a number of bioscavenger molecules and to develop prophylactics to eliminate OP toxicity. The availability of a small rodent model will increase the rate of development of antidotes designed to eliminate the toxicity of organophosphate nerve agent exposure. This model will provide a high throughput system for establishing the safety and efficacy of a number of different prophylactics. At the present time only expensive primates serve as a reasonable animal model for human toxicity and development of prophylactics against OP based nerve agents. This inexpensive rodent model will dramatically decrease the costs associated with this much needed development. This model will also be of commercial interest to the pesticide business community to help identify means for detoxification of organophosphorus based pesticide exposure. Of the 25,000 brands of pesticides available in the U.S., most are either organophosphate or carbamate compounds. These compounds are responsible for 80% of the pesticide poisoning in the U.S. The pesticide industry is a $30 billion dollar industry that has been stagnant due to several issues, which include the contemporary awareness to environmental issues. This model system will help to develop less toxic compounds, which will spurn market growth, especially appealing to the residential consumer.

MISSION MEDICAL, INC.
5670 Stewart Avenue
Fremont, CA 94538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 623-3777
Dr. Thomas C. Robinson
ARMY 00-161
Title:Dry System for Thawing Frozen Blood
Abstract:The long-term objectives of this research are to substantially improve the military frozen blood system with a number of specific devices and advances. A Dry Heat system is developed to permit very rapid thawing (under 10 minutes) instead of the 40 to 60 minutes now necessary using an inconvenient, large water bath. This heating system is also used to warm IV fluids in surgery. Rapid thawing is crucial to meeting the military needs for thawed deglycerolized blood in emergencies. A new blood bag with its protective shipping container is developed that will have less than 3% breakage, compared to current 20% to 50% breakage in military use. The current deglycerolization process is modified to decrease the duration of the process (to under 20 minutes) and to reduce processing fluid quantities. The proposed research will evaluate the feasibility of these various approaches by fabricating and testing hardware and disposables and modifying current red cell washing processes. Military frozen blood users and blood experts will aid in this evaluation. These improvements to the military frozen blood system will decrease substantially (at least a factor of 2) the time needed to make red cells available in emergencies. It also reduces blood wastage, increases ease of use, increases user productivity, decreases costs, and improves logistics, making frozen blood far more practical for military and commercial uses.

IOWA THIN FILM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2337 230th St
Boone, IA 50036
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 292-7606
Dr. Frank Jeffrey
ARMY 00-162
Title:Flexible Photovoltaics for Fabric Structures
Abstract:Demand for electrical power in portable and temporary installations continues to increase, which adds significant logistical burden in terms of weight, maintenance, and fuel demand. Power demands include command & control operations, medical operations, lighting, chemical/biological filtering, and communications. Iowa Thin Film Technologies (ITFT) manufactures a unique, flexible, thin film photovoltaic material on plastic which could be incorporated into the skins of military tentage to significantly reduce this logistical burden. ITFT's technology is a monolithically integrated module on plastic film manufactured using a roll-to-roll process. These factors combine to give extreme flexibility, light weight, and durability while maintaining a low manufacturing cost. This proposal addresses the R&D work needed to develop the technology for integrating the photovoltaic into tent skins without seriously compromising current tentage characteristics. In this phase we propose to identify candidate materials and process steps for incorporating our flexible thin film PV modules into tent panels and to demonstrate feasibility by fabricating samples of the top candidates and evaluating these samples for their mechanical properties and processing scalability. This project is expected to result in production of tentage with integrated photovoltaics to supply power for lighting and operations. This technology for incorporating photovoltaics with fabrics could be extended into garments, packs, or lightweight, compact fold-up arrays for powering communications or other personnel carried electronics. Extension of this technology to non-military applications include emergency shelters for disaster relief and portable power for cellular phones and laptop computers.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4368
Dr. Peter Warren
ARMY 00-163
Title:Self-Deploying Tentage Utilizing Integral Folding Hinge
Abstract:The U.S. Army has multiple needs for mobile structures for temporary deployment of forces. This need has become more critical as regional conflicts are now of primary concern to rapid Army deployment. Personnel must often be housed, in substantial numbers, in adverse areas, for long periods covering both conflicts and extended policing actions. Further, the risk of exposure to chemical and biological agents in these types of conflicts is greatly increased. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a low cost, lightweight, self deploying tent frame structure using its integral folding hinge (IFH) technology. The frame will be constructed from pultruded fiberglass tubulars with locally formed hinges to enable packaging and deployment actuation. The initial development is proposed to replace the TEMPER tent frame, thus providing a very near-term opportunity for integration. The technology is ideally suited to meet multiple configurations and the higher loading requirements of Chemical Biological (CB) protection fabrics and systems. Within the Phase I base program, this design will be finalized, materials and configurations tested and a full-scale kinematic model built. This hardware-based program and the substantial leveraging of ongoing Foster-Miller work, will enable fabrication and testing of a complete deployable tent system in Phase II. (P-00891) The Foster-Miller deployable frame technology will immediately provide a rapidly erectable TEMPER tent system. This framing system can be easily adapted to a wide array of shelter configurations. Beyond shelters, Foster-Miller is pursuing multiple business opportunities ranging from deployable spacecraft structures to commercial staging and fencing products.

VIRGINIA MILLIMETER WAVE, INC.
14225 Sullyfield Circle, Suite
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 961-9570
Dr. Philip J. Koh
ARMY 00-164
Title:95GHz MMIC Amplifier
Abstract:The overall goal of this work is to develop a product line of inexpensive, highly integrated mm-wave amplifiers extending well into W-band and beyond. These will deliver output power considerably higher than what is currently available. A PHEMT MMIC based approach will be pursued. broadband wireless communications, commercial radar systems

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata K. Das
ARMY 00-165
Title:Warehouse Infrastructure for Simulating the Environment (WISE)
Abstract:The Army's current and future needs in complex modeling and simulation (M&S) efforts require increasing access to critical environmental information stored in a disparate and distributed set of databases across organizations. These distributed data sources are problematic in terms of flexible access, visualization, and customization of the data required for high-fidelity interoperable simulation systems. To address these issues, we propose to design and demonstrate feasibility of a Warehouse Infrastructure for Simulating the Environment (WISE), which creates and manages an integrated repository from heterogeneous environmental data sources. The motivation behind the proposed warehouse is to provide simulation engineers a uniform logical abstraction or model of the universally available data, leveraging on the Synthetic Environment Data Representation and Interchange Specification (SEDRIS) for object-oriented data modeling and interchange. M&S developers will be able to create their own views of the heterogeneous and distributed data and be relieved from the tedious manual search and data extraction process of currently existing database systems. We believe that our proposed warehouse infrastructure WISE will provide an extensive, efficient, and relevant environmental data support functions that will facilitate efficient M&S development, and thereby contribute to the rapid generation of synthetic battlespaces for future training and mission rehearsal needs. As much as 90% of the world's data is currently residing outside relational database systems. It is also estimated that 80% of corporate legacy data is held on old hierarchical or network types of DBMS. Thus the need for an appropriate data warehouse technology is vital to integrate these data sources into the emerging object-oriented standard. The Meta Group, a technology consulting firm in Westport, Connecticut, recently found that 95% of 250 information technology professionals it surveyed said that their organizations have created or plan to create a data warehouse. Our proposed architecture will serve such a huge object-oriented data warehouse market.

ACUSOFT, INC.
12249 Science Dr.
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 658-9888
Mr. Jesse Liu
ARMY 00-166
Title:Advanced Technology for Real-Time Image Generation
Abstract:In this SBIR, AcuSoft will research and develop advanced, real-time PC Image Generation technology, as well as develop tools and integrate the required capabilities using PC image generators. The resultant products will provide to the DOD M&S community the advanced real-time image generation technology that will enable the use of lower-cost PC graphics in military virtual simulation. In our PHASE I efforts, we will research and document feasible technical solutions for those challenges that we think are paramount to the military R&D community, and will perform a proof-of -principle demonstration. The prototype PC-based image generation system will incorporate AcuSoft-developed PC Image Generation software and will result in a cost effective, multiple channel, PC-based image generation system. In addition, AcuSoft will identify the most feasible development approaches for the Phase II effort. The DoD M&S community will benefit from advanced real-time image generation technology that enable the use of lower cost PC graphics as the real time image generation for military virtual simulation. The application of this technology can include any Government or commercial applications that requires real-time image generator.

COMPUTER GRAPHICS SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
2483 Old Middlefield Way #140
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 903-4922
Mr. Roy Latham
ARMY 00-166
Title:Advanced Technology for Real-Time Image Generation
Abstract:Currently, real-time visual simulation on low cost personal computer platforms is limited by commercially available hardware and software that omits key features needed for simulation. Adding just a few features can greatly increase costs by requiring a substantially more expensive platform. The proposed research critically examines the current deficiencies and proposes solutions for the PC platform that can be added incrementally. In Phase I, innovative solutions to load management and synchronization problems are to be demonstrated, and a survey and analysis of other PC simulation problems is to be conducted. A preliminary analysis reveals a number of areas, including mission functions, scene management, and sensor simulation, where modular solutions can be developed for the PC platform. The goal is to lower the cost of high quality simulation by curing a variety of shortcomings in present technology. This will permit more simulation to be performed on low cost platforms, and with high fidelity than presently possible. Aside from military training, there is a rapidly growing market for PC simulation for commercial driver training, industrial training, and interactive entertainment systems. The developed technology will be commercialized for the general markets.

DIAMOND VISIONICS LLC
400 Plaza Drive, Suite-A
Vestal, NY 13851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 729-8526
Mr. Graham Upton
ARMY 00-166
Title:Advanced Technology for Real-Time Image Generation
Abstract:During the last several years advances in PC and Graphics computational power has been nothing short of phenomenal. Diamond Visionics LLC has been developing software and hardware products to take advantage of the technology advances. In this Phase I proposal DVC has described features and tools that are essential for military visual simulation that can be leveraged from the entertainment industry. The study proposal includes a thorough market survey that will make recommendations based on current and future needs and emerging technology. Features proposed include rigorous scene management to ensure deterministic image update rates, screen fill optimization in dynamic synthetic environments and a video processor that provides essential video control techniques. The Phase I option will provide an advanced technology demonstration incorporating all the features and approaches described in this proposal. This proof of principal demonstration will provide multi-channel real-time simulation illustrating these features and emulation of hardware video control techniques. For Phase II DVC will implement and integrate the approaches from Phase I with the objective of providing a well proven product with capabilities for a complex military simulation application in the military training arena. The primary benefit will be a lower cost per channel image generation product with features not currently available in today's "off the shelf" market. Each of the features proposed will enhance the PC-Based Image Generator both for military and commercial applications. The commercial applications include airline training visual systems and heavy equipment training that previously required "high end" visual computers and large maintenance contracts.

OPNET TECHNOLOGIES
3400 International Drive NW
Washington, DC 20008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 364-4700
Ms. Annukka Piironen
ARMY 00-167
Title:Analysis and Design Tools for Live Instrumentation Infrastructures and Processes
Abstract:The objective of this proposal focuses on the development of an integrated, high speed data network model to simulate targeted Army locations, such as the Aberdeen Test Center or White Sands Missile Range. The project will utilize the standard commercial modeling and simulation technology, OPNET Modeler, which is compliant with Government architecture requirements and Open System Interconnection (OSI) standards including Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). OPNET's proposed solution includes the development of a network model scenario to assess bandwidth utilization, bottlenecks in the current environment and the impact of deploying network technologies by a simulation expert. Ultimately, project results will support simulation based acquisition of future range systems. OPNET is used extensively in military, academic and commercial sectors. In addition to our free academic license program and widespread commercial use, military users include both the Joint Staff (J6) and US Army. Enhancements to the model library benefit the entire user community. Beyond Phase I, model development focused on the Aberdeen Test Center or White Sands Missile Range will provide extensive enhancements to the available Model Library.

MITECH, INC.
8484 Georgia Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 282-8642
Dr. Klaus Schug
ARMY 00-169
Title:Next Generation Distributed Simulation Technology -- Capability to Scale Up Networking of Simulations
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop and provide a proof of principal demonstration of a distributed simulation technology capable of supporting a real-time 100,000 entity simulation between constructive (e.g., wargaming) or virtual (e.g., man-in-the-loop) and live operational systems in the field. MiTech Inc. proposes to apply our Interoperable Network Communications Architecture (INCAPatPend), to the HLA RTI to improve the internal machine simulation application level throughput of network communicated data of simulator host computers by a minimum of 250%. Test results of a software implementation of INCA on actual systems and networks show almost two orders of magnitude increase in application level throughput of network data without sacrificing the significant investment in present and near term technologies. MiTech believes that the application of the tested and implemented INCA architecture and software library to existing DIS, HLA/RTI, etc., simulators, is the new approach that will support increased amounts of network traffic and reduce real time response times to enable brigade and above size simulation exercises. The resulting RTI software product should be interoperable with all existing programs, computers and networks, require virtually no changes to existing systems and be installed in minutes to hours. The anticipated result of a high performance, interoperable, portable software only distributed simulation interface product will be very attractive to current and future MiTech customers, particularly to DoD and FAA program offices. The approach of applying the INCA architecture to network communications for all types of network communications and distributed systems could lead to numerous products and commercial endeavors. If added to applications as opposed to host computers, the architecture can be used to offer high performance versions of existing and future network communicating applications such as Internet World Wide Web (WWW) browsers. If added to existing and future computer systems via linking to or integration with existing and future Operating Systems, all applications on these systems would see a tremendous performance improvement. Server class machines, network routers and network gateways could all make use of the technology for performance improvements. As a result, not only the multi-billion dollar simulation industry but also almost every other telecommunications and information management system and application is a potential market for commercialization of the product.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Dr. V. ("Nagu") Nagarajan
ARMY 00-169
Title:Novel Architecture for Next Generation DIS Technology
Abstract:Systran Federal Corp. (SFC), the spun-off sister-company of Systran Corporation, which is a Products Development Company specializing in real-time networking (i.e., SCRAMNetƒ), proposes a novel architecture for Next Generation Distributed Simulation Technology. This innovation is based on providing "Native Stream ATM Communication" to High Level Architecture (HLA) Run Time Infrastructure (RTI) objects. Such native ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) protocol communication capability to HLA/RTI objects will be easily provided since SFC has developed "state-of-the-art" ATM network interface cards and the required driver software (i.e., SFC has the source code) on an Army funded SBIR (Contract DAA B07-98-C-B305), which is scheduled to be completed by the end of September 2000. This innovation is also based on the "novel" idea of connecting HLA/RTI objects with multiple networks simultaneously so that communicating objects can pick and choose the most suitable network for the data to be communicated. Parallel simultaneous multiple network connectivity between HLA/RTI objects will be provided to ATM networks through "Native ATM" protocol, to shared-memory network SCRAMNet, and to IP networks through SFC-developed "high-performance" CORBA middleware (ORB_IT). "Native ATM protocol" connectivity will be provided either directly between HLA/RTI objects at the application level, or through ORB_IT with ability to manage QoS. The proposed novel architecture would permit HLA/RTI objects to interact and exchange information with minimal latency using multiple networks simultaneously. The objects would be able to exchange voice and video iso-chronously and in real-time. The objects would be able to select the most appropriate network to exchange data and meet QoS criteria, such as, latency, bandwidth utilization, etc.

REALTIME TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
100 N. Crooks Rd.
Clawson, MI 48017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 705-0705
Dr. Richard Romano
ARMY 00-170
Title:User Interaction Tools Supporting Collaborative Applications in Immersive Virtual Environments
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of a hierarchical component based motion driving simulator inside of TACOM's CAVE environment. Realtime Technologies, Inc. real-time vehicle dynamics software will be integrated with a small commercial motion base and TACOM's CAVE visual display system and audio components to create a complete driving simulator. Introducing a motion base into a CAVE environment presents several technical challenges which has not been addressed previously. These include 1) head tracking with the motion base operational 2) latency issues in the visual display due to high rate head motion generated by the motion base 3) motion washout issues with a fixed screen display. The use of Realtime Technologies SimCreator product for development and integration will speed the integration process and maximize real-time performance. Easy to develop, accurate, real-time, simulation systems can increase the world-wide competitiveness of US automotive and aerospace companies. CAVE style visualization environments are used extensively for vehicle design. Extending these systems to support full vehicle simulation with motion will enhance their effectiveness. The integrated vehicle simulator can be marketed for both military and commercial research customers. Since the simulator can be rapidly reconfigured using SimCreator to address a variety of research questions the potential market is very broad. In addition the individual cueing systems such as the control loading and motion systems can be marketed for use is a wide range of commercial simulators. The motion base's small size lends itself to use with systems such as the CAVE.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6128
Mr. Timothy Barry
ARMY 00-170
Title:User Interaction Tools Supporting Collaborative Applications in Immersive Virtual Environments
Abstract:SYTRONICS proposes an innovative dual-mode speech recognition technique, combining both command/control and dictation modes for easy navigation of menus and environments, enabling natural interactions, and capturing auxiliary data in the collaborative session within the CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) virtual environment. The Phase I work will show the feasibility of using two speech recognition engines together on one PC and seamlessly switching between command/control and dictation modes, and show the feasibility of processing speech on a separate PC platform linked to the UNIX-based CAVE systems. The experimental Dual-mode, Advanced Speech Harness (DASH) system will be installed in the CAVE in Phase I, making it immediately available for experimental speech work. The Phase I Objectives will be to define the operational, performance, integration, and testing requirements for DASH; prepare a preliminary design to define the experimental prototype configuration and to prepare for Phase II; develop, test, and evaluate an experimental prototype; and assess commercialization potential, defining markets, and obtaining customers and commercialization partners. The Phase I results will be the requirements, the preliminary design and specifications for Phase II, the DASH demonstrable prototype installed in the CAVE, and a quantified feasibility assessment based on experimental results and analyses. DASH speech control can replace conventional systems or be used as a supplement to standard manual input devices in myriad Government and commercial applications. The combined potential of conventional and evolving speech controls can be exploited to provide a variety of new channels for controlling electronic devices. DASH can support users in space operations, field medicine (military and civilian paramedic), biological and chemical hazards, quality/control inspection, aircraft or automobile maintenance, rehabilitative engineering, and numerous other fields.

ADIABATICS, INC.
3385 Commerce Drive
Columbus, IN 47201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 372-5052
Mr. Lloyd Kamo
ARMY 00-171
Title:Advanced Military Diesel Engine, High Temperature Tribology
Abstract:Adiabatics, Inc. has been involved in the field of ceramic composite coatings and high temperature uncooled Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engine development for the past 15 years. Recent developments in previous high temperature tribology study has shed new light on the possiblity of coming up with a viable solution for the high temperature tribology puzzle. Adiabatics' proposes a 3 "pronge" systematic solution to this problem. In the Phase I effort, we propose to test and optimize new technology Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) films. The first of these DLCs is a low temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process that allows a very hard uniform DLC layer in comparison to preliminary ion beam assisted DLCs we have previously tested. Though our tests are preliminary, we believe this coating is far superior to the DLCs tested by previous reseach and development facilities. In addition, we seek to procure, test and optimize a pulse laser vacuum deposition DLC that again has superior properties to the traditional ion beam assisted DLC. The technology is avialable from the former Soviet Union and both technologies would be a major advancement in applying high temperature capable tribology surfaces to piston ring. From our experience in high temperature tribology and preliminary tests running against an Iron Titanate (Fe2TiO5) cylinder liner coating developed and optimized in a previous TARDEC tribology program we feel the means of achieving success of TARDEC specified targets is at hand. Lubricant is also a primary constituent in the success of meeting the high temperature goals set forth in this proposal. We feel again we are close to a solution using Hatco basestocks and new "minimum additive package" technology to eliminate deposit formation tendency of the lube oil. Demonstration of the technology will be performed in the Phase I Option with multi-cylinder design and operating assessement occurring prior to a hopeful Phase II effort. Potential benefits and commercial applications lie exclusively in improving engine performance and durability. The specifed coating lubricant package is the first cost effective combination that would be available to the commercial public. Beside improving engine performance, the extended time between oil change could dramatically be influenced. This would result in savings and a more environmentally favorable solution.

SURFACES RESEARCH (SURFACES RESEARCH
8330 Melrose Drive
Lenexa, KS 66214
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 541-1221
Paul Sutor, Ph.D.
ARMY 00-171
Title:Extreme-Temperature Multi-Use Engine Oils
Abstract:The objective of this program is to develop an extreme-temperature lubricant for the U.S. Army Future Combat System (FCS) propulsion system. The system will operate at significantly higher temperatures for longer durations than today's prototype low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engines. The lubricant will be used as the engine oil, cooling fluid, and transmission fluid. Surfaces Research has recently developed new base fluids and additives for multigrade lubricants with three times better resistance to oxidative degradation than the best current high-temperature lubricants. Previously, only single-weight oils had sufficient stability for LHR engines. The new lubricants have five times better wear-prevention than current best engine oils and transmission fluids, with ultralow carbon deposits. The proposed Phase I program will combine our recent breakthroughs in high-stability multigrade fluids and innovative diesel engine additive packages. We will synthesize and formulate four demonstration lubricants. We will demonstrate large leaps forward in all aspects of lubricant performance, using laboratory tests that predict performance in LHR engines. We propose to scale up the best lubricant and begin an Army engine test in the Phase I Option period. The engine test will be in a new FCS diesel prototype: a 750 HP, inwardly-opposed two-cycle engine. The improved high-temperature lubricants for advanced diesel engines will achieve large increases in fuel efficiency, power density, and durability, with lower maintenance. Commercial heavy-duty truck diesels, automobile engines, and transmissions will benefit from these advances as much as military vehicles.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. Todd K. Goehring
ARMY 00-172
Title:The Librarian/Integrator Function: The Missing Element of a Product Line Architecture Integrated Development Environment
Abstract:Large, complex, software intensive weapons systems designed to operate on tomorrow's digital battlefields typically suffer from a lack of theoretical and technical infrastructure at the higher levels of abstraction. These systems are partitioned into smaller physical components aligned along organizational and/or functional lines within a corporation or among several corporations. The software in turn is distributed among these organizational entities. Despite these divisions, it is desirable that at the architectural-level pervasive software standards are enforced, and that specific inter-partition communication software design patterns be defined and followed. We propose to develop a preliminary design and key algorithmic components of an architectural-level development environment. The final tool set would integrate existing off-the-shelf products with an innovative Librarian/Integrator function to create a comprehensive development environment capable of supporting a product line architecture development approach. To be able to meet stringent cost, schedule, and performance goals, more and more large system integrators are turning to product line architectures. However, today's integrated design environments are not well suited to integrating designs from multiple vendors, such as would be found in mixed COTS, GOTS, and new development environments. The resulting product of this effort is a tool set to support large, software intensive, product line based development environments such as those required to build future ground system vehicles, e.g., Army's Future Scout. The product is also relevant to other large DoD and commercial development organizations, which have established or are considering product line architectures. Representatives of a major developer of ground systems vehicles have agreed with our assessment that such tools are needed and are excited with our approach.

DYNAMET TECHNOLOGY, INC.
Eight A Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-5967
Ms. Susan M. Abkowitz
ARMY 00-173
Title:Lightweight Durable Titanium Tank Tracks Using Low Cost Powder Metal Titanium Composite Technology
Abstract:In this Phase 1 SBIR program, a lightweight titanium track will be designed for combat vehicles such as the Crusader. Dynamet Technology with expertise in titanium materials and manufacturing technology will team with the Keweenaw Research Center at Michigan's Technological University which has expertise in tank track design, analysis and testing. New particulate reinforced titanium metal matrix composites, which offer enhanced wear-resistance and modulus, will be evaluated and included in track designs. ProEngineer models and weight calculations for an improved shoe body and components will be developed. Advanced powder metal manufacturing technology will be employed to reduce the cost for titanium components and permit unique component designs for improved life cycle costs. Thermal management of the system to increase the life of the elastomeric track components will also be addressed. Test samples will be manufactured from candidate titanium alloy and titanium MMC materials for ASTM G-65 wear testing as a screening test. A down-selection will be made and wear guide test specimens will be manufactured by advanced powder metal technology on the selected material for testing on a KRCs center guide wear machine simulating tank track wear conditions. The preliminary track concept will be finalized and detailed component weight calculations provided. A lightweight tank track that incorporates titanium alloys and titanium MMCs and near-net shape powder metal manufacturing technology will provide benefits in tank maneuverability, facilitation of deployment, and reduction of operation and support (O&S) costs. This track design is expected to find commercial application in armored vehicles including the Crusader. It is also anticipated that the proposed wear-resistant titanium materials could find near-term application as key replacement components (e.g. center guides) in other armored vehicles (using the proven T-158 track). This technology for low-cost lightweight, wear resistant titanium is anticipated to find applications in both military and commercial vehicles and as structural components. Specific benefits include: ú A titanium tank track design demonstrating the feasibility of achieving a significant reduction (target of 20%) in weight versus the conventional steel track. ú Demonstrated feasibility for particle reinforced titanium matrix composites to meet wear requirements for grouser, center guide, etc. ú Demonstrated capability to produce titanium alloys and particle reinforced titanium MMCs by advanced powder metal manufacturing technology (i.e. life cycle cost savings; minimizing the cost impact of use of titanium.

ANALYTICAL ENGINEERING, INC.
2555 Technology Blvd.
Columbus, IN 47202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 376-6472
Mr. Louis A. Krempel
ARMY 00-174
Title:Lifetime Filtration for Military Vehicles
Abstract:This program will eliminate all lubrication oil and oil filter replacement in the HMMWV and FMTV for the entire vehicle service life. This will be accomplished by delivering to the US Army a retrofit lubrication filter, immediately compatible with existing hardware, which will install and operate in the existing envelope, provide superior full flow filtration to existing filters, be factory fit or field retrofitable, provide lifetime filtration and lifetime oil without replacement or periodic maintenance, be robust, provide a visual indicator on the housing when pressure criteria have been exceeded, operate in bypass mode if necessary during mission critical needs, be cost effective and provide excellent reliability. This goal will be accomplished using breakthrough technology to design and build a combination system incorporating a full flow filtration section working in conjunction with an ultracentrifugal element to effectively remove all particulates. Proprietary time-release pellets will maintain TBN balance. Benefits include: 1) No periodic maintenance, reducing breakage and costs, 2) Lifetime of vehicle oil, eliminating replacement oil costs, 3) No used oil or filter elements, eliminating costly disposal, 4) Simplified supply logistic for in-field operations. The proposed filtration system is based on AEI patented technology developed for Class 8 on-highway trucks. Commercialization potential is high, as this system would be instantly applicable for all light and medium duty diesel engine in both civilian and military sectors. The combination of huge ecological benefits from eliminating used filters and used oil, combined with payback on investment cost within 18 months will assure rapid market acceptance and commercialization.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., INC.
411 NW 97th LANE
CORAL SPRINGS, FL 33071
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(954) 346-9576
Dr. Robert Cavalleri
ARMY 00-175
Title:Suppression of Thermal Emission from Exhaust Components
Abstract:Thermal signatures generated by hot components or hot engine exhaust gases can be suppressed by mixing cool ambient air with the hot component gas stream. In the development of signature reduction concepts, it is desirable to obtain a better understanding of the physical flow processes, hardware parameters and potential configurations that can be use for optimization of the signature suppression methodology and thus enhance the suppression. This screening process will be performed using one dimensional mixing equations, ejector performance analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Suppression methods such as film cooling, ambient air mixing and ejector design can be very effectively evaluated with the use of these design techniques. The CFD evaluation will result in guidelines for the design, fabrication and subsequent testing of the most promising concept(s). The methods used are also applicable to evaluating the performance of fullscale hardware. A theoretical and design effort is proposed, where one dimensional mixing analysis, ejector analysis and CFD techniques will be employed for evaluation of potential IR suppression techniques. The proposed effort would reduce IR suppression development costs, development time and permit IR suppression optimization. IR suppression devices have application in reducing the hazard of burns due to hot components that are encountered in every day civilian equipment such as commercial aircraft jet engines, automotive exhaust pipes, electric motors, aircraft ground support machinery, portable power generators and similar equipment. Excess noise and heat also represents a hazard to ground personal that work in close proximity to aircraft. High performance mixing devices will permit optimization and improved efficiency of gas turbine engines burner cans.

TEMEKU TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
PO Box 722
Lutz, FL 33548
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 909-8975
Mr. Jim Means
ARMY 00-175
Title:Suppression of Thermal Emission from Exhaust Components Using an Integrated Approach
Abstract:The majority of the smart weapons that constitute the primary threat to ground combat vehicles incorporate infrared (IR) seekers that use thermal sources as their targeting reference. Therefore, in order to increase the survivability and combat effectiveness of military ground vehicles, it is desirable to reduce the vehicle's thermal emissions. The visual and infrared images in Figure 1 show how the hot engine exhaust outlet on the front right portion of the M-113 creates the most significant input to the overall IR image. Although a variety of combat vehicle exhaust suppressors have already been developed, this program will put together a systematic, integrated approach for the development of a host of exhaust suppressors for present and future vehicles. This program will investigate exhaust suppression virtual design, and exhaust suppression optimization by using and integrating modeling techniques with hot flow testing. Commercial applications could include thermal energy control, heat shielding, exhaust flow analysis, and engine cooling system design. The primary area would be in the automotive field, however, other applications may be found in the fields of transportation, manufacturing and power generation.

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AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Tasso Politopoulos
ARMY 00-176