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66 Phase I Selections from the 00.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd.
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Mrs. Tamitha Carpenter
OSD 00-C01
Title:Natural Speech Dialogue Support for Distance Learning
Abstract:We propose an innovative system design that will advance the state-of-the-art in computer application support for natural speech dialogue. This design ties together the best of the current research in speech recognition, natural language understanding, and dialogue modeling, together with an eclectic combination of supporting Artificial Intelligence techniques, into a complete end-to-end design. In our TALK (Training Application Language Kit) architecture, all components in the natural speech dialogue system will provide disambiguation and validation for the output of the others. In additon, all components will operate using a shared set of resources, including a representation of the current dialogue context, generic and domain-specific dictionaries, and dialogue models. Sharing these resources between the components of the TALK model not only ensures consistency in the interpretation and generation of natural speech dialogue, but also provides an unprecedented capability for training the system for new domains and integrating dialogue capability into a wide range of applications, such as instructional systems and automated customer support. Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of the TALK architecture, and will result in a detailed design, laying the groundwork for the implementation of a fully functional natural speech dialogue prototype in Phase II. The proposed natural speech dialogue system would be applicable to all training systems, both in the military and commercial sector. In addition, the same technology is equally applicable for the domain of customer support, which is a multi-billion dollar industry.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
1810 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 352-9300
Dr. Michelle Sams
OSD 00-C01
Title:Automated Dialogue Modeling Using Natural Language Understanding in ADL, by the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAWCTSD)
Abstract:The goal of the Dialog Agent Instructional System (DAIS) is to emulate one-on-one human tutorial interaction by providing individualized instruction and enabling more natural spoken dialog interactions. What we are talking about here is more than simple recognition of voice commands -- we will develop a simulated tutor to understand spoken input, reason and engage in realistic discourse. The technologies used in the system will include natural language understanding, intelligent tutoring, continuous speech recognition and speech synthesis. One of the ADL goals is to reach a two-sigma level of improvement in instructional effectiveness, as is found in one-on-one human tutorial interactions. DAIS hopes to achieve similar levels of instructional effectiveness. Anticipated benefits include reduced time to train and increased quality of performance due to the individualized tutorial dialog interactions provided by DAIS. The technologies in DAIS can also be used for on-the-job performance support systems and could enable dialog for simulated entities in virtual training environments.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. Wayne W. Zachary
OSD 00-C02
Title:Training Users' Cognitive Readiness for Combat Command Using an Intelligent Tutor to Model Expert Mentor Interactions by the US Army Research Institut
Abstract:The Army Research Institute has developed a curriculum for command thinking skills, called Think Like a Commander (TLAC). Although it allows new commanders to learn expert-level principles of command thinking more rapidly than traditional training, TLAC is still instructor-centric and labor intensive. CHI Systems proposes to automate the delivery of the TLAC curriculum by building an Automated Tutoring Environment for Command, or ATEC. ATEC will consist of three main components: 1) CHI Systems innovative instructional agent technology with which to build an instructional agent that replicates the knowledge and role of the human TLAC tutor, 2) a desktop Army C2 simulation also under development at CHI Systems, which provides the interactive practice environment, and 3) a web-based personalized interface, which manages the interaction between agent and trainee. The Phase I seeks to define the architecture for ATEC, build and demonstrate a proof-of-concept prototype, and define a detailed development plan for a full-scale Phase II system. The commercial value of ATEC is derived from re-application of its technology, architecture and underlying directed practice model to other problems in the commercial sector, such as network management, call center operations, and (business) management. The ATEC development team includes a leading provider of commercial simulation-based training systems in these areas (Provant Corp), who will focus the commercial transition and distribution of ATEC through its existing client base and marketing channels.

KNOWLEDGE ANALYSIS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
4001 Discovery Drive Suite 390
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 545-9092
Dr. Darrell Laham
OSD 00-C02
Title:Carnegie Hall: An Intelligent Interactive Tutor for command-reasoning practice based on Latent Semantic Analysis
Abstract:The Army Research Institute (ARI) is testing a concept for teaching cognitive readiness skills of combat command reasoning. The basis is research showing that expert thinking skills are acquired only by very long and deliberate practice. ARI's computer application "Think Like a Commander", presents tactical scenarios to learners and requires them to reason, and make decisions. A live mentor asks questions and provides feedback. The utility of Think Like a Commander will be greatly expanded by a computationally based tutor that takes the place of the human mentor for some or all of the tutorial interactions. The proposer has developed a new form of intelligent tutoring agent that, like a human mentor, interacts with a student in unconstrained free-form prose about facts, concepts, ideas, arguments, plans and narratives. The tutor is automatically constructed from textbooks, training manuals, and the content of expert-student dialogue itself. It will be used both in an individual learner-tutor mode, and as an assistant mentor in a distributed group problem solving environment. This innovative technology is based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LSA is a well-validated machine-learning technique that simulates human understanding of language through mathematical analysis of a large body of domain relevant electronic sources. When perfected and operational, this intelligent agent will contribute to military cognitive readiness by providing greatly increased opportunities for deliberate practice of combat command reasoning skills. It could also act as group decision support in operational environments. In its first uses, it will be an interactive tutor/mentor/expert companion to scenario-based, virtual reality, and simulation training environments such as the Army/ARI "Th ink Like a Commander" system. In future adaptations, it would be used to give case-based practice and operational thinking support in diverse fields such as law, medicine, constructions, disaster relief, and business management. In educational applications it would offer opportunities for the enormous amounts of practice needed to acquire expert skill in any domain. A largely automatically developed computer based system, its benefits would be synergistic with those of ADL and the Internet.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd.
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Mr. Richard Stottler
OSD 00-C02
Title:An Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Battlefield Command Reasoning Skills
Abstract:High performance tactical decision-making requires the commander to apply detailed and situation-specific knowledge, as well as high-level thinking habits and skills that are applicable across diverse tactical situations. These skills include modeling a thinking enemy, using all available assets, and considering how the commander's fight fits into the bigger picture from friendly and enemy perspectives. These reasoning skills cannot be taught simply as methods and procedures to be followed. Although guidelines can help commanders achieve baseline levels of performance, achieving an expert level of proficiency requires extensive practice, coaching, and feedback. SHAI proposes to develop the Battlefield Command Reasoning Intelligent Tutoring System (BCR ITS) to provide automated instruction that emulates the student-mentor interactions provided by courses such as Think Like a Commander offered at Ft. Leavenworth. SHAI plans to employ a case-based approach where subject matter experts enter good and bad solutions to each tactical scenario which are then matched against each learner's solutions to assess the student's reasoning skills. We have assembled an outstanding team to pursue this research, and we offer significant relevant experience developing scenario-based intelligent tuoring systems, principle-based instruction, rationale-capture systems, rationale capture and reasoning systems, and intelligent agents embedded within tutoring and simulation systems. Intelligent tutoring systems that enhance student's reasoning skills constitute a major advancement beyond simple computer-based training and web-based training that focus on teaching facts and procedures. Potential markets for products and services that employ this technology include the rapidly growing number of educational software and e-Learning web content providers, large end-user company, and consulting companies that offer e-Learning solutions to these companies.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
1810 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 352-9300
Dr. Michelle Sams
OSD 00-C02
Title:Training Users' Cognitive Readiness for Combat Command Using an Intelligent Tutor to Model Expert Mentor Interactions by the US Army Research Institut
Abstract:This project will apply intelligent tutoring technology to teach battlefield command reasoning through deliberate practice in key scenarios. The tutor will select appropriate exercises and scenarios and provide guidance and feedback tailored to the individual learner. The system will include a domain model, instructional strategies, case library, and tools to interpret the reasoning processes of the learner. The goal of this project is to improve military decision making and make the training cost-effective and available to a larger number of officers. The proposed tutoring system will provide repeatable, scenario based skill practice that should transfer well to physical training sites and real world operations. In addition, the individualized instruction provided by an intelligent tutoring system can reduce the time it takes to learn and increase the knowledge gained within that time frame.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1160 Pepsi Place
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 973-1215
Dr. B. Eugene Parker, Jr.
OSD 00-C03
Title:A Personal Health and Fitness Wizard
Abstract:The health and fitness of U.S. service members is of considerable importance to the Department of Defense. The Internet affords an excellent opportunity to provide globally-dispersed service members with tailored guidance concerning their personal fitness for duty and deployment. Proposed herein is a Personal Health and Fitness Wizard (PHFW) website that will contain all of the functionality needed by U.S. service members and their families to evaluate and maintain optimum health and fitness. The Phase I effort will leverage the expertise of Barron Associates, Inc. and Testengine.com in the areas of decision theory and website design, coupled with the extensive health and fitness knowledge of the Atlantic Coast Athletic Club, to design an interactive health and fitness package. The PHFW will be a complex, adaptive expert system, fusing an individual's health status, performance parameters, and fitness goals with a database of educational and personal training information utilizing state-of-the-art decision analysis techniques to motivate and encourage users. As part of the Phase I effort, a research plan for validation of the educational and personal training value of the system will established. Problems with individual weight control and general physical fitness cost the DoD millions of dollars each year from the operations and health care O&M accounts. This cost should be significantly reduced if there is generally available a system that enables each individual service member the opportunity to manage their physical fitness for duty and/or to alter their personal habits to maintain optimum fitness. The proposed application will be designed and tailored for military use and will be readily extensible to the general public. The concept has enormous commercial potential, which the proposing Team is well-positioned to exploit.

INTERACTIVE TRAINING TECHNOLOGIES
401 E. 8th Street
Sioux Falls, SD 57103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(605) 335-7791
Dr. Scott Meyer
OSD 00-C03
Title:Virtual Interactive Personal Health and Fitness Program
Abstract:In Phase I, we will develop a computerized, interactive personal health and fitness training assistance program for military personnel. This program will be easily accessible for service members of all ranks at any military installation. It will be developed with creative, state-of-the-art software based on current health and fitness research and databases. The upgradable architecture of the software will conform with DoD ADL/SCORM specifications in content and linkages. Personal instruction and interaction will include the areas of exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility), health risk factors (heart, lung, stroke, cancer, diabetes), weight control (body mass index, diet, nutrition), stress management, smoking cessation, safety, and wellness. The program will be motivational and require continual input from the user for guidance in the development of long-term health and fitness benefits. The results of Phase I will include the development and demonstration of the feasibility and technical merit of the personal interactive health and fitness assistant program for DoD use. The obvious benefit to the military user of this program is improved fitness for duty and deployment. The program will be motivational and educational, and due to its state-of-the-art virtual interactive nature, will be easy and enjoyable to use while providing a challenge to the user at any level of fitness. We anticipate an increased awareness of personal health and fitness among military members that can carry over to civilian life following separation or retirement. The commercial applications of the program are unlimited in governemnt and private sectors.

SONETICOM, INC.
Suite 102
West Melbourne, FL 32904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 733-0400
Mr. Andrew Hess
OSD 00-C03
Title:A Personal Health and Fitness Assistant by the US Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (MRMC)
Abstract:The purpose of this proposed system is to develop an internet-based system to provide individual service members with easily accessible, tailored guidance concerning their personal fitness for duty and deployment. The system will contain an attractive, balanced, imaginative package of instruction and interactive aids for maintaining personal fitness. The web site will be interactively based on user-entered information, and provide individual users with personal feedback and guidance. The content of the web site must include diet, weight control and exercise information. Other content areas may include body mass index, immunizations, self-administered diet supplements, cardiovascular risk and warning signs, injury avoidance, unhealthy habits, stress management, and sleep improvement. The web site will be designed to sustain long-term, independent usage by service members of all ranks. Privacy and security will be important design considerations in the development of the site. . Also, the site will conform to the DOD Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative's Sharable Courseware Reference Model (SCORM) specification. The system will be platform independent and fully compatible with DOD Internet and intranet systems. The Department of Defense spends millions of dollars each year as a result of problems resulting from individual weight control and general fitness issues. Creating a generally available Internet system that enables each individual service member to manage their physical fitness and to alter their personal habits to maintain optimum fitness should significantly reduce this cost. Soneticom plans to use the Personal Health and Fitness Assistant web site development to enter the arena of web-enabled enterprise health applications. Soneticom envisions the development of the web site content, technology, and user interfaces as a valuable foundation for the future development of similar systems that would deliver health and medical related services to end users. This vision includes Soneticom developing hardware devices and providing system integration of existing technologies to deliver complete enterprise level systems.

STAYHEALTHY.COM
222.E. Huntington Dr., Ste. 21
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 256-6152
Dr. Colin K. Hill
OSD 00-C03
Title:A Personal Health and Fitness Assistant by the US Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (MRMC)
Abstract:Stayhealthy.com will research design and deliver in Phase I, consumables to address the following specific aims.1. To design the underlying architecture of an internet-based health management system that incorporates physiological monitoring, diet and nutrition, exercise management, weight control, accident prevention, and health education to help military personnel, their families and the general population improve health through awarness and education. 2.To create content for the site that is, entertaining, educational and personalized 3.To ensure the architecture and content is compatible with SCORM and Secure. Stayhealthy is in business to create personal wellness tools. THe specific tool being designed for the Army in this RFA will have direct commercialization potential. We see a personalized fitness tool that is web enabled and capable of educating the user as having utility in several areas of the consumer market. In particlar in our Business to business model such tolls may be used to enhance compliance and monitor preventive health plans to keep health care costs down for large employers.In the fitness industry such a tool can be part of a users/subscribers membership at the personal trainer or fitness club level. In education such a tool can be used to train fitness specialists or could be offered to the public as a fitness educational tool. There are thus many commercial applications for such tools. However each application would need some tailoring of the tool to that specific market.

INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
3419 Ramsgate Terrace
Alexandria, VA 22309
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 597-9204
Dr. Kurt Rowley
OSD 00-C04
Title:Applied Cognitive Research As The Basis For A Courseware Designer Support Tool
Abstract:The proposed ISRI exploratory development project will leverage applied cognitive research into instructional design and teaching the writing process in order to generate and evaluate a design concept for a Courseware Designer Support Tool (CDST). The study will draw on the professional experience of ISRI personnel in instructional design, quantitative and qualitative research, and the design of distance learning environments. Some specific tasks of the study will include protocol-based interviews of the target audience to help identify issues related to supporting courseware authors and enabling them to produce effective instructional designs, a review of relevant research findings, the development of a cognitive model for tasks required of non-designer Subject-matter Experts (SMEs) conducting instructional design activities, a compilation of instructional design advice including examples of effective CBT, the development of a design concept including a mock-up visualization of the CDST, and validation and enhancement of the design concept through evaluation by practicing designers. The major anticipated result of this exploratory development project will be the design of a Courseware Designer Support Tool (CDST). The CDST will help courseware authors improve the quality of instruction through its combined emphasis on providing design advice and facilitating processes used by expert instructional designers. The primary target user audience for the CDST is Subject-matter Experts (SMEs) who design CBT courseware, including distance learning materials. The secondary target user audience is junior-level instructional designers, writers, teachers, professors, and others who design computer-based courseware and distance learning materials. The primary commercial application of the CDST will be to support all designers of instructional treatments. Through a unique performance support strategy pioneered by Dr. Kurt Rowley, the CDST will provide a new capability that supports the use of courseware authoring environments, and exceeds the capabilities of existing automated instructional design tools.

KNOWLEDGE ANALYSIS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
4001 Discovery Drive Suite 390
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 545-9092
Dr. Darrell Laham
OSD 00-C04
Title:Digital Resources for Instructional Design in CBT Authoring Using Latent Semantic Analysis
Abstract:The Advanced Distributed Learning infrastructure will greatly expand the opportunity to use computer based training (CBT). Comparable opportunities are rapidly increasing in corporate training, institutional education, and individual life-long learning. However, the development of a high quality CBT requires both subject matter and instructional design expertise, which are seldom found in the same person. Current authoring tools for CBT do not offer help in instructional design. Doing so would allow more people to author high quality CBT more quickly and at less expense. The proposed research will use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) as the basis of a digital resource for instructional design in CBT authoring. LSA is a well-validated machine-learning technique that simulates human understanding of the meaning of text passages through mathematical analysis of a large body of electronic source material. LSA provides a search-engine capability that accepts queries in natural language and returns relevant target material even if expressed in different words. In the CBT application, LSA will allow subject matter experts to enter queries in their own words and retrieve relevant text written in the unfamiliar terminology of professional instructional designers. Another of LSA's advantages is the unusual rapidity with which such a system can be implemented. Computer Based Training (CBT) is a well developed and highly effective and economical way to increase the skill and knowledge level of work forces in military, government, and private sector businesses. The Internet opens up almost unlimited opportunities to deploy CBT in new environments, and for new skills and subjects. However, CBT courses and units are currently very expensive and time consuming to produce. A tool to help in authoring CBT would be of wide interest to commercial providers of military, government and corporate training. In collaboration with one or more publishers of commercial authoring tools for CBT, or of providers of web-based instruction, we would develop, generalize, and harden the proposed prototype into a marketable commercial product. KAT already has working relationships with major distance education providers with a need for such a system, and is aggressively pursuing teaming arrangements with providers of corporate training and corporate training systems.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4900 Pearl East Circle
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 482-6404
Mr. Tim Bowden
OSD 00-C04
Title:Digital Resource for Instructional Design in CBT Authoring Environments by the Office of Naval Research (ONR)
Abstract:With the advent of new technology for implementing distance learning and distributed training the demand for quality computer based instruction is quickly on the rise. As demand increases for computer based training the need to design and implement effective computer based lessons will become a chief concern of many organizations worldwide. Despite advances that are making computer based training more widely available little is being done to ensure that those responsible for designing computer based instruction are adequately equipped to author new lessons. The Computer assisted Lesson Authoring Support System (CLASS) will be the much needed aid for novice instructional designers. The system will allow those unfamiliar with the principles of instructional design to create effective computer based training modules that fully take advantage of the wealth of research available on effective instructional design. The foundational research necessary to build such an innovative tool, along with a conceptual description of what the tool will be is the subject of this proposal. This product will assist novice instructional designers with producing effective computer based training applications authored in a wide variety of commercial authoring suites. The tool will be interoperable with a number of platforms and data structures allowing its use in military, educational and private sector organizations.

PSYCHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS & RESEARCH
1975 Willow Ridge Circle
Kent, OH 44240
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(330) 678-8958
Mr. David DuBois
OSD 00-C04
Title:Digital Resource for Instructional Design in CBT Authoring Environments by the Office of Naval Research (ONR)
Abstract:The overall goal of this project is to develop an electronic performance support system (EPSS) to provide instructional design assistance to users of computer based training (CBT) authoring environments. It emphasizes providing support to course developers who are naive about instructional design methods. To achieve this goal, the following objectives will be addressed: (1) develop a matrix of instructional design methods by authoring decisions/situations; (2) identify the functions, resources, and constraints on the performance of the instructional design/authoring tasks, when conducted by individuals naive to instructional design principles; and (3) develop requirements, specifications, and a prototype of the user interface for the proposed software tools. The proposed software tools will provide instructors with a ready resource for implementing state of the art methods for designing CBT and ADL to maximize trainees depth and speed of comprehension.

GMA INDUSTRIES, INC.
20 Ridgely Avenue
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 267-6600
Mr. R. Glenn Wright
OSD 00-C05
Title:Dismounted C4ISR Data Presentation and Dissemination by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)
Abstract:An approach for the development of methods for the dissemination and presentation of 2D/3D C4ISR information to an infantry soldier is proposed using next generation 128bit hardware engines available in low cost gaming platforms. A distributed, collaborative environment is envisioned to facilitate data mining of human and other resources located at higher echelons to formulate responses to operators tailored to the specific requirements of their queries. These responses will be capable of being displayed to the operator in several forms, ranging from simple text to dynamic objects representative of physical and complex concepts within the tactical environment. Communication bandwidth is conserved using innovative architectures combined with data compression techniques. The proposed architecture is modular in nature to ensure rapid configuration changes can be made to reflect changes in geographic location, and that new training requirements may be fulfilled with minimal product cycle times. Numerous private organizations, government agencies, and even individuals will gain the ability to create training, survey, and other applications specific to their mission using low cost game platforms, greatly expanding the potential user base of this technology.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 380-5212
Dr. John J. Burns
OSD 00-C05
Title:Dismounted C4ISR Data Presentation and Dissemination by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)
Abstract:The Phase I technical objective is to develop a detailed description of our proposed decision-centered visualization (DCV) architecture to support the dismounted land warrior. DCV will collaborate with human users and reduce their workload, by automatically presenting the information that is needed for the current task and decision. This will leave the maximally tasked dismounted soldier better informed and with more time to engage in mission rehearsal, planning, and execution. In particular, we propose to investigate emerging technologies in the console market to identify a platform that will support graphic and computational requirements of a user-configurable C4ISR interface. Our investigation will be informed by a parallel thrust that seeks to apply and extend the DCV architecture to the unique information requirements that will arise from the development of the FCS. The Phase I efforts will be critical in defining the software requirements for successfully visualizing and interacting with C4ISR products in the field. Our team will use the research conducted in Phase I to plan Phase II technology concepts. The completion of the proposed work plan will permit the start of Phase II with the optimal visualization and interaction concepts, as well as selected component hardware and software technologies. In many applications, workers in the field must make time-critical, high-risk decisions, under conditions of high workload. The proposed work will contribute to a solution for decision-centered visualization for dismounted personnel. This applies not only in military operations but in the civilian domain as well. Examples include disaster relief and forest fire response. Advances in understanding cognitive and human factors aspects of situation awareness and information visualization, coupled with recent developments in hardware and software for gaming technology, present the opportunity to develop a new systems approach for providing the right information at the right time for workers in the field. Moreover, we believe it will be possible to leverage COTS hardware and software to provide a cost-effective solution. In addition to disaster relief and forest fire response are other commercial applications: police and fire departments, hospital medical staffs, and manufacturing and industry.

THE COLLIDE, INC.
104 Orchard Lane
Carrboro, NC 27510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 942-0356
Dr. Dinesh Manocha
OSD 00-C05
Title:Interactive Visualization, Simulation and Navigation of Complex Datasets on 128-bit Consoles
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to evaluate 128-bit game consoles like Sony PS2 and Microsoft Xbox for applications involving visualization, simulation and navigation of complex datasets. It will include evaluating the programming environments, memory capabilities in terms of dynamic paging and out-of-core datasets, developing multi-pass visibility algorithms and geometric algorithms like collision detection and robot motion planning. If successful, the resulting system will be used for interactive display of complex datasets as well as navigation through complex environments and using them as robot controllers for mobile platforms. During the intermediate stages and at the end of Phase I, we will submit reports that evaluate the capabilities of Sony PS2 and Microsoft X-box as well as demonstrate the performance of our rendering system on relatively complex datasets. There are a number of applications of the research goals highlighted in this proposal . Many applications including battlefield visualization, computer-aided design, virtual prototyping, simulators and games involve dealing with complex dataset. It is a major challenge to display, navigate or perform dynamic simulations at interactive rates. Given the low cost and very high graphics processing power of these consoles, it makes them very attractive platforms for these applications. Furthermore, in the future it may be possible to take tens (or even hundreds) of these consoles to handle some extremely large datasets. The recent demonstration of GSCube with 16 PS2 has shown the potential of these consoles for high-speed digital graphics creation and transmission over high-end broadband servers.

ISX CORP.
4353 Park Terrace Drive
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 735-6804
Mr. Scott Fouse
OSD 00-C06
Title:Enhancing Situation Awareness in Military Operations by the Army Research Institute (ARI), Ft. Benning
Abstract:There is an obvious and urgent incentive to improve the abilities of military leaders. The problem we address in this proposal is how to provide useful training in a simulated decision environment, in order to improve the situation awareness skills of leaders. There also appears to be a move towards more distributed command and control, thus, the need is to provide training that will help commanders build situation awareness skills for working with distributed teams. The opportunity is to apply Decision Net technology to the requirement for training situation awareness in leaders and distributed decision teams. Decision Net is a human facilitated decision game that is delivered over the net. Thus you get very effective training at a low cost and delivered frequently. In addition, it can be used to experiment with new processes and new decision support tools while they are still in concept stage Decision Net will deliver two major benefits: (1) Improved decision making in stressed situations for individuals and distributed teams. (2) A new level of instrumentation associated with situation awareness / decision making. Since Decision Net is web-based, we will be able to insert instrumentation to collect extensive data, which will enable us to develop new metrics in this area.

SA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4731 East Forest Peak
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 565-9859
Dr. Mica R. Endsley
OSD 00-C06
Title:Infantry Situation Awareness Training (ISAT)
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR effort is to develop and validate the Infantry Situation Awareness Training (ISAT) program. Situation awareness forms the critical foundation underlying all military decision making and task execution. Success in current and future battlefields will depend on warfighters and leaders who are able to rapidly assess key information in a complex and changing environment to create high levels of SA, placing them inside the enemy's decision loop. This program will investigate the key features underlying situation awareness in Infantry operations to ensure that all training is oriented towards the highest payoff training factors. Building on this analysis and a theoretical model of situation awareness in Infantry operations, ISAT will enhance SA by providing training on the critical cognitive skills underlying SA. Four major training approaches are identified. These techniques will be developed and objectively validated for application to Infantry operations under this SBIR. ISAT's most immediate commercialization potential would be with emergency response and public safety organizations, including police forces, fire departments, emergency medical response units, and disaster response organizations. For these organizations the safety of their personnel in many highly varied and critical situations is dependent on a rapid assessment of and understanding of the situation. Products developed out of this SBIR should be applicable to these organizations, following some modifications for domain differences. A second commercialization potential may be found within the business community. ISAT could also be modified to train company managers on SA as it applies to the business world and the management of marketing, sales and operations in a global business climate.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-3500
Dr. Suzanne Mahoney
OSD 00-C07
Title:Personal Education and Training Assistant for Distance Learning (PETA) by the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAWCTSD)
Abstract:A Personal Education and Training Assistant (PETA) automatically tailored to the requirements of the course and learner can meet the need of trainees for personal support through the distance learning chaos. IET's overall technical goal for Phase I is to identify a candidate approach and architecture for building a PETA software agents for DoD's distance learning community. PETA is the applications, knowledge base, engine and elicitation tools required to construct and continuously maintain each active agent. In particular, PETA will automatically generate customized models of the task, learner and pedagogical strategies to reason about how to best meet the distant learning objectives. In tailoring its models, PETA will take advantage of course, content and raw metadata from the Learning Management System. PETA's models will support a variety of interaction options in the Learner's Environment and meet the requirements of the DoD's plans for the networks and architectures required to support distance learning. Through the use of collaborative, multidisciplinary teams comprised of knowledge engineers, system architects, software developers, and applied mathematicians IET will analyze learner and system requirements, identify and evaluate alternative approaches for PETA, identify an appropriate training task and construct a detailed implementation plan. The market for learning solutions in general and intelligent interface agents in particular spans both the DoD and the commercial market sectors. Within the DoD: The DoD is currently making a very large investment in distance learning infrastructures and technologies and will do so for the next five to eight years. Beginning in 1999, the U.S. Army plans to spend over $700M (approximately $500M for infrastructure) with approximately another $100M for training content development. The U.S. Navy has set aside $500M for a five year program. U.S. Marine Corps has set aside approximately $118M over 5 years as well as the Navy/Marine Corps Intranet that will probably provide the on-shore delivery infrastructure. The Air Force will be making similar funding commitments. The size of the expenditures along with the number of service personnel that these new distance learning facilities will support provides a strong incentive for the DoD to make investments in PETA-like capabilities. Commercial Sector: There is ample evidence of the growing market for web-based training and distance learning in the commercial sector. The U.S. Department of Commerce reports that annual demand for workers to fill high-skilled information technology jobs is likely to grow from 874,00 in 1996 to 1.8 million in 2006. The International Data Corporation (IDC) reports: 1) The U.S. market for web-based or online training will exceed $5.5 billion by 2002, representing a compound annual growth rate of nearly 95% from $197 million in 1997. 2) By 2002, technology-based training will have market share of 54.9%, versus instructor-led methods, which will only have an estimated market share of 42.4% (see Figure 10). 3) By the end of 1998, more than 142 million people were using the Internet to communicate, participate in discussion forums and obtain information about goods and services. IDC estimates that the user base will grow to 502 million people by the end of 2003.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd.
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Ms. Sowmya Ramachandran
OSD 00-C07
Title:A Domain-Independent Personal Education and Training Assistant for Distance Learning
Abstract:It has been shown that students receiving one-on-one instruction perform two standard deviations better than students receiving conventional instruction. Unfortunatey, the financial and human resources are simply not available to provide this kind of one-on-one instruction for many complex domains. Intelligent agents are needed for automatically assessing a student's learning needs, directing him to appropriate courses, monitoring his progress, and providing individualized instruction. We propose to develop a Personalized Education and Training Assistant (PETA) that will use intelligent pedagogical agents to provide individualized Web-based training that is dynamically tailored to a student's background, current expertise level and learning styles. We will also provide a library of agent personas and behaviors, along with tools to modify the library. Other learning management systems can then use this library via clearly defined APIs. Our approach will result in distance learning environments that can automatically provide individualized training to military personnel. It will also reduce the load on human instructors by automating many of their tasks. It will provide the benefit of including personified agents in learning environments. Phase I will result in the design of the system, and the development of a proof-of-concept prototype to illustrate our approach. The proposed research presents enormous commercialization potential. Training is a ubiquitous problem, and organizations are very eager for solutions that allow them to stretch their training budget. By providing training that is customized both in terms of content and instructional style, the proposed approach will make highly effective use of both the trainer's and trainee's time. Most organizations have recognized the benefits of distance learning and are eager to embrace the technology. The proposed system makes distance learning an even more feasible and desirable option. The presence of personified agents increases the motivational value of the technology. At the end of the Phase II effort, we will have a library of agent behaviors. We could market just this library to creators of educational software and provide non-programmers with a way to include agents exhibiting intelligent behavior in their systems.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
1810 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 352-9300
Dr. Michelle Sams
OSD 00-C07
Title:Personal Education and Training Assistant for Distance Learning (PETA) by the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAWCTSD)
Abstract:Phase I will investigate alternative approaches, architectures, and feasibility concepts for the use of intelligent agents as personal learning assistants in Distributed Learning environments. We will propose advantages that agents can provide for individualized instruction and performance support and with tailored assistance for various learning management services (e.g., counseling). We will also evaluate the technologies that enable voice interaction, physical embodiment, and user selectable interfaces for agents. PETA will be designed with an open architecture and will be compatible with DoD networks and ADL specifications. Technologies may include intelligent tutoring and performance support, natural language understanding, continuous speech recognition and speech synthesis, and animated agent features. Selection and design of the PETA prototype will be based on DoD need, the selected application and the scope of a Phase II development effort. Anticipated benefits of a personal learning assistant for individual trainees who utilize the military distance learning networks may include: increased performance due to on-site and on-demand performance support and reduced time to learn and increased quality of performance support due to tailored assistance.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Greg L. Zacharias
OSD 00-C08
Title:Advanced Decision-aiding and Visualization Architecture for Stability and Support Operations
Abstract:Battlefield management is increasingly becoming an information management task. While efforts are now underway to develop decision aids capable of flexible information visualization, the primary focus has been on supporting conventional warfare. However, there is a clear consensus that Stability and Support Operations (SASO) will dominate the future mission spectrum, and that information management, visualization, and decision-aiding will become increasingly critical in these doctrinally-unconstrained and hence less predictable environments. What is not so clear is how to provide the future commander and staff with a "cognitively matched" view into the battlespace, in a fashion that supports naturalistic decision-aiding and effective visualization. To explore a range of options, we propose to develop a cognitively-based software environment founded on Rasmussen's Cognitive Hierarchy, and supporting hierarchal levels of data fusion, situation assessment, and course of action response recommendation. The modular architecture will incorporate a number of tested AI technologies and supports the implementation of different visualization techniques and technologies. We propose to: 1) conduct a cognitive task analysis of selected SASO scenarios; 2) generate decision-aiding and visualization requirements; 3) develop the architecture and prototype selected aiding functions; and 4) develop a plan for evaluation of the full-scope prototype. Commercial potential for enhanced data visualization exists in nuclear power-plants and health care environments, characterized by high-tempo, high-value situations, and financial market activities, characterized by high-volume time-critical transactions. These latter include the commodities futures market, local and national stock exchanges, and international currency markets. Even a marginal improvement in the message "signal-to-noise" ratio and systematically-reasoned recommendations could translate to significant increases in profit margin for active traders in these markets.

MEDSCHOOL.COM
2034 Broadway
Santa Monica, CA 90404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 899-9000
Dr. William Sequeira
OSD 00-C09
Title:Development of
Abstract:Medschool.com, an e-learning medical/health knowledge company, is upgrading its platform for learner-centered Advanced Distributed Learning. Phase I proposes to (1) develop the Knowledge Management Layer for its e-learning platform, (2) evaluate the design display of the presentation, and (3) select 2 Emergency Medic Training components that demonstrate advanced knowledge achievement. A small-scale pilot module developed in Phase I will demonstrate the pedagogical transformation of an existing Medschool.com learning module for individual advanced learning. Technical objectives to develop the learning platform's Knowledge Management Layer are construction of a dynamic feedback loop consisting of (1) "smart data" collection, (2) deployment of optimum pedagogical method, and (3) selection of presentation formats that parallel user registration context to increase the effectiveness of the learning process. Technical objectives of curriculum selection are selection of training curriculum demonstrating advanced learning (i.e., having complex subjects with ill-structured domains) yet confirming to practical considerations that will assure successful testing of the platform with a Medic training module in Phase II. Anticipated benefits of Phase I/II studies are independently verified efficiency and effectiveness measurement of the Company's learning platform as well as completion of a net-deployable, Advanced Learning module for military and civilian (fire fighter) Medic training.

SIMQUEST INTERNATIONAL, INC.
8003 Boulder Lane
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 280-2240
Dr. Howard Champion
OSD 00-C09
Title:Advanced Distributed Learning for Medical Skills Training and Sustainment
Abstract:This project will develop an interactive, web-based application for training the medical skills of Special Operations combat medics (SOCMs). Special emphasis will be placed on the training of cognitive, decision-making skills for life-saving procedures such as intravenous insertion, tube thoracotomy and airway management. Specialists in trauma training will review current JSOMTC and civilian paramedic training packages and select appropriate training material for cognitive skills training. Task analysis will be used to identify critical cognitive skills, and an instructional framework will be developed to provide an effective training instrument. Alternative software strategies will be designed to provide game-like trauma case scenario training, immersive virtual environments emphasizing spatial learning, and/or traditional training. Performance assessment will be built into the application using metrics derived from studies of trauma procedures. It is anticipated that an effective Advanced Distributed Learning software package will provide geographically-dispersed Special Operations combat medics with the ability to upgrade and maintain the complex skills required for combat trauma procedures. The development of cognitive learning strategies for distance training in medical and trauma skills offers tremendous potential in both military and civilian markets. An internet-based application for medical skills training will provide medics, paramedics, nurses and other healthcare personnel with initial and sustainment training in an anytime, anywhere environment.

SOUTH DAKOTA HEALTH TECHNOLOGY INNO
1400 West 22nd Street
Sioux Falls, SD 57105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(605) 256-5313
Dr. Melvin Ustad
OSD 00-C09
Title:Cognitive Learning Strategies for Medical Skills Training and Sustainment via Distance Learning Means by the Special Operations Command (USSOCOM)
Abstract:The more than 800,000 emergency medical technicians and thousands of other certified and non-certified health care workers need effective educational programs. In many cases the people in need of medical training are distributed throughout the nation and world so traditional classroom instruction is not practical. Computer based training and the Internet offer great opportunities to more effectively meet the military and private sector needs for emergency medical and other health related education. The proposed Phase I research project will design, develop and test a module of an Internet based intelligent tutoring system/simulation for emergency medical technician training and re-certification. In Phase I a single module will be developed and tested in an EMT training program. During Phase II the entire training program will be developed and tested by military and private sector personnel. With more than 800,000 certified EMTs in the United States and thousands of other health care professionals needing training the proposed product has a large market potential. The commercial product will be developed and marketed in conjunction with Sioux Valley Hospitals and Health Systems.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd.
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Mr. Richard Stottler
OSD 00-C09
Title:An Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) for Military Medical Training.
Abstract:The overall project objective is to improve SOF medic training quality and reduce its cost and length. This will be accomplished by the development of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) which can provide tailored instruction to individual students. This requires the development of the appropriate instructional approaches for several different types of tasks and several different types of students. In Phase I, we will determine the cognitive processes and knowledge structures required to perform various SOF medical tasks. We will design appropriate instructional approaches based on these cognitive findings and prove their feasibility by implementation of a proof-of-concept prototype. We will design the Phase II prototype for web-based training. SHAI has worked on several ITS projects, in several domains including Army medics, and studied several instructional approaches applicable to several different types of tasks and their associated knowledge structures. Furthermore, we are developing a general ITS architecture which allows the use of several simultaneous instructional approaches, in combination. What remains is to implement several instructional approaches based on sound pedagogical principles and appropriate for tasks required of SOF medics. In addition to SOF medics, the system is applicable to military field medicine and also to commercial paramedic training. Because the ITS will have several different instructional techniques, it will be applicable to several domains with little development time. Esteem Software Incorporated (ESI) has agreed to market the General ITS Architecture, of which this work will be a part. Thus, it already has a commercial avenue.

VIATEC RESEARCH, LLC
514 Daniels St. PMB 274
Raleigh, NC 27605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 349-4448
Dr. Anthony T. Rivers
OSD 00-C09
Title:"Web-based Auto-Adaptive Cognitive Learning System for Medical Training"
Abstract:The innovation of this SBIR Phase I is the development of an Auto-adaptive cognitive Learning Engine (ALE) that can assess a learner's level of knowledge comprehension and retention, and then appropriately change assistance in concept areas where the learner is having difficulties. Thus, ALE enhanced Web-based Distance Learning Systems (WDSs) provide organizations like the Military with a cost-effective tool for maximizing knowledge comprehension and retention, while simultaneously reducing time and cost spent on medical (and other skilled) staff training. The cognitive strategies and algorithms developed as part of Viatec Research's Auto-adaptive Learning (AL) solution are based on an extension of the rule-base theory and traditional concept-mapping. However, the solution's quantitative nature, and ability to measure the degree of learner understanding are novel and represent a leading-edge approach to the issue of automated knowledge assessment for WDSs. A proof-of-concept prototype of the ALE will be incorporated into a WDS to demonstrate technical feasibility, user benefits, and commercial marketability and to make recommendations Phase II. Also in Phase I, Viatec will review JSOMTC, etc medical training packages and SOF medical personnel training requirements and cognitive abilities to identify candidate areas and means for adaptation to cognitive learning strategies in a net-based product. Autonomous market research indicates that the market for web-based learning technologies is relatively new and has the potential for tremendous growth. The Annual Industry Report of 1996 by Lakewood Research assessed corporate training and estimated the technology portion of this market at $ 7.6 billion in 1995-96 and projected a real growth rate of 9% per annum. A Dataquest study looked directly at multimedia technology in educational settings (both corporate and institutional) assessed the market for educational technologies as $16.6 billion in 1996 with a growth rate approaching 14%. Finally, a forecasting model of the Adaptive Learning Systems markets developed by Nathan Associates predicted sales of instructional software and systems would range between $25.8 and 42.2 billion by conservative estimates. More optimistic projections indicate that educational technologies may grow to as much as $142.9 billion by 2005.

NTI, INC.
4130 Linden Ave., Suite 235
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 254-3171
Dr. Robert O'Donnell
OSD 00-C10
Title:Comprehensive Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery
Abstract:The ultimate SBIR goal is to develop a theory-based, comprehensive cognitive test battery applicable to a wide range of military and civilian assessment requirements (e.g., fatigue, combat injury, medications, age-related decrement, and other conditions causing cognitive deficits.) Although there have recently been notable successes toward the development of "unified theories of cognition", and progress in other areas of cognitive science and neuroscience, cognitive test batteries have not capitalized on these breakthroughs. Most are either poorly grounded in theory, or are unbalanced toward specific areas of cognitive function. We propose to carry out extensive surveys of: 1) existing cognitive test batteries and, 2) current theoretical models of human cognition. Based on these, a recommended set of candidate computer-based probes or tests will be developed that will attempt to assess all aspects of cognitive function, as defined by the most current and extensive theoretical approaches. In addition, a detailed experimental design will be generated that will use the Cognitive Assessment Sleep Laboratory (CASL) at Brooks AFB to expose subjects to "gold standard" stressors such as alcohol, fatigue, or drugs. These experiments will provide initial psychometric data allowing selection of tests for the comprehensive battery. Phase II will implement these plans. In addition to the obvious scientific benefits of this development, it will enhance the military physician's ability to suspend a warfighter from -- or return him/her to -- duty, thus affecting operational force status. Commercially, a scientifically and legally defensible test battery will find use in evaluating aging, toxic exposure, head trauma, and infections having potential neurological impact.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. James J. Barry
OSD 00-H01
Title:Modeling Thermoregulation in Three Dimensions
Abstract:The thermal environment strongly affects the physical and mental performance of military personnel. To predict the response of the body to various thermal environments and loads, an advanced three-dimensional model of human thermoregulation is proposed. The resulting software package will include a voxel-based model of a human, an efficient computational solver, a visualization tool, and a graphical user interface. In Phase I, models for an animal model or phantom will be developed. An initial solver and proof-of-concept visualization tool will be built, and calculations will be performed and compared with available data. During Phase II the complete software package will be developed and validated. The proposed model will provide a powerful tool for predicting the effects of climate, clothing design, exposure to microwaves and directed energy sources, and heating/cooling systems on human thermal equilibrium. The technology has direct application in the military for equipment design and electromagnetic dosimetry, and broad application in medical research and industrial design of protective gear, garments, and climate control systems.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
6370 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 255-2273
Dr. Daniel A. Prelewicz
OSD 00-H01
Title:Three-Dimensional Model of Thermoregulation by the Naval Health Research Center (NHRC) Detachment at Brooks Air Force Base, TX
Abstract:A prototype system will be developed to demonstrate the feasibility of simulating the passive thermoregulation system in three-dimensions using realistic anatomical models developed from MRI data. The analysis system will consist of a set of computer codes coupled together using message passing interfaces to efficiently simulate transient events. Published tissue classified voxel representations of laboratory animals and phantoms will be used to define the geometric models. Transient temperature data obtained from experiments conducted by the Navy to validate predictions of specific absorption rates due to RF exposure in a phantom model will be used to assess performance of the system. Solution of the very large set of coupled governing equations will require that the model be segmented for parallel processing. Several approaches will be investigated, including an approach which gives the analyst some control over the segmentation process. The capability to include blood and lymph flows will be designed into the complete system model to be developed from the prototype. In addition to application for the design and development of future protective garments with active heating and cooling mechanisms, the thermoregulation analysis system is expected to fill a need for anatomically realistic analyses of therapeutic procedures such as diathermy, and therapeutic hypothermia and hyperthermia. The ability to simulate the thermoregulation process in humans is necessary for the advancement of many practical areas including design of protective garments with active heating and cooling mechanisms, development of protocols for therapeutic applications of hyperthermia and hypothermia and analysis of thermal stress in work and combat environments. Simulation using anatomically realistic models will be a very cost-effective alternative to constructing prototypes and conducting tests with human subjects. It is expected that the thermoregulation analysis system will find widespread acceptance among military contractors, biomedical firms and research laboratories, and that a robust market for services related to the analysis system will develop.

THERMOANALYTICS, INC.
94X Airport Road
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 482-9650
Dr. Allen R. Curran
OSD 00-H01
Title:3-D Voxel-Based Bio-Heat Transfer Code
Abstract:The potential health effects of exposure to sources of non-ionizing radio frequency (RF) electro-magnetic energy are an area of continuing interest within the military and civilian communities. Common sources of RF exposure include cellular telephones, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, and other civilian and military communications and radar systems. One established biological effect of RF exposure is tissue heating; temperature increases of as little as 4°C above normal body temperature can have potentially devastating effects on living tissue. The development of an anatomically realistic thermal computer code, capable of predicting tissue temperatures, would be an important accomplishment, both scientifically and for the potential economic benefit deriving from the use of the models. Previous attempts represented the human body as simple, largely homogenous, geometrical shapes that lacked needed resolution. Detailed voxel-based anatomical descriptions, such as the Visible Human model, overwhelm general-purpose thermal codes. ThermoAnalytics proposes to modify its existing commercial thermal software to exploit the structure of these voxel-based descriptions. The resulting thermal code will be compact, accurate, and able to accommodate extremely large data sets as input. Its applicability will not be limited to RF heating but will extend to a variety of environmental and therapeutic heating and cooling applications. An accurate and comprehensive human thermoregulatory model will be valuable to designers and researchers in a number of different industries and fields. Potential uses for the human thermoregulatory model include: low cost optimization of garment design for physical comfort; health and safety investigations to study the effects of cell phone use, wireless local area network (WLAN) and MRI exposure studies; cancer treatment studies; hypo- and hyperthermia treatment studies; automotive and aircraft passenger comfort models; analysis of laser surgery methods; setting of laser safety guidelines; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) designs; prediction and analysis of thermal stress effects on human performance and productivity; human dehydration investigations; protective clothing design; adjunct to medical diagnostic techniques based on infrared imaging; whole-body or local hypo- and hyper-thermia for cancers and other diseases or conditions (e.g., benign prostatic hyperplasia, multiple sclerosis). Additionally, military priorities require prolonged soldier activity in hot and cold environments despite the potential degradation of human performance and productivity under such thermal extremes and stress. Therefore, military planners must understand the factors that contribute to thermal stress, the range of human responses to heat and cold, and the possible options for dealing with thermal problems. An accurate human thermoregulatory model would be beneficial to such understanding.

CAMBRIDGE SCIENTIFIC, INC.
180 Fawcett Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 576-2663
Dr. Debra J. Trantolo
OSD 00-H02
Title:Enhancing Malaria Vaccine Development by the Naval Medical Research Center (NMRI)
Abstract:Current estimates of mortality and morbidity due to malaria have given evidence of the decreasing effectiveness of both vector control and chemoprophylaxis and chromotherapy. The present focus is to develop vaccines against one more of the developmental forms of the Plasmodium parasite. One such approach utilizes a plasmid DNA expression, the circumsporozite protein (CSP). We propose to incorporate the pDNA into a low molecular weight, biocompatible-hydrolytically lable (absorbable) poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) by a proprietary protocol, which eliminates both the shear stresses of emulsification and also contact of the pDNA with potentially denaturing solvents. An open-celled polymeric foam, prepared by lyophilization (~ 95% void volume), is impregnated with an aqueous solution of the plasmid. After a second lyophilization to remove the water, the matrix is compressed and cryogenically ground to a particle size suitable for injection. Plasmid content of the matrix and in vitro release profiles will be determined. The microparticulate formulation is anticipated to enhance the immune response. Samples will be submitted to the Naval Medical Research Center for evaluation in mice to determine Phase I feasibility as shown by development of titers suggestive of malarial protection. This work is practical as a means to lay the groundwork for the development of an efficacious, economical, DNA-based vaccine that would be of relatively low cost, stable, and circumvent the need for repeated inoculations. Each year approximately 300-500 million people are infected with malaria and each year 1.5 to 2.7 million people die from this disease. An effective vaccine for malaria would clearly be advantageous to people in the developing world, as well as to the individual U.S. military personnel who must enter malaria-infected areas. Commercialization by Cambridge Scientific, Inc., with our proven and patented technology under DoD sponsorship, will thus provide broad benefits to mankind.

OMNISITE BIODIAGNOSTICS (OLD: ZOEIC TECH
101 West Sixth Street
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. John G. Bruno
OSD 00-H04
Title:Anti-Ice Aptamers for Improved Red Blood Cell Storage
Abstract:The major problem with lyophilization of blood for long-term storage is the formation of extracellular ice crystals that damage erythrocytes. Zoeic Technologies proposes to inhibit the formation of ice crystals by the development of SELEX DNA aptamers to various room temperature ice crystal structural mimics. In Phase I, Zoeic will develop DNA aptamers to structural analogs of microscopic ice crystal structures so that the affinity selection phase of SELEX can be performed at room temperature. Additionally, Zoeic will demonstrate inhibition of ice crystal formation in the presence of specific aptamers and will define the composition of a blood storage solution containing aptamers. In Phase II, Zoeic will clone and sequence the chosen aptamers and define a large-scale freeze drying process, which exhibits reduced hemolysis and methemoglobin formation during storage studies. In addition, Zoeic will participate in clinical testing of the anti-ice aptamers via strategic alliance partners in the clinical arena. Clearly, the need for long-term storage of blood cells is not restricted to the military. If successful, aptamers to ice crystals could be very valuable to blood banks and other clinical or research personnel. In addition, anti-ice aptamers would be useful as cryopreservatives for a variety of tissues to be used in various organ (heart, lung, liver, kidney, bone marrow, etc.) transplantation operations.

DOMINCA
9813 Admiral Dewey Ave., NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 822-0005
Mr. Joseph H. Kang
OSD 00-H05
Title:Blast Mitigation Jacket for Training by the Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (MRMC)
Abstract:Certain weapons produce blast waves capable of trauma to gas filled organs. There is an immediate need for protective gear that prevents lung damage when training with such equipment, and a similar need for combatants. Using layers of media with mismatched impedances, Dominca will develop and test jacket concepts that alter the frequency spectra of waves entering the chest. The layers produce a filter with many stop bands. Careful design places the stop bands across the frequencies thought to be most responsible for lung injury. At minimum, there must be a high-impedance outer and a low-impedance inner layer, with impedance defined relative to the chest. We will explore foams, hollow spheres, and pockets as means of using air for low-impedance layers. We will investigate dissipative mechanisms for enhanced performance of multi-layered filters. Because of the high specific damping capacity of shape memory alloys and magnesium alloys, we will consider them for the high-impedance layers. Hollow spheres with weak adhesive coatings will be tested for low-impedance layers, as they can dissipate energy by movement against the "friction" of the coatings. Dominca's firm grasp of wave mechanics, combined with specialty computational tools and test equipment, will lead to an effective jacket design. The shock mitigation capabilities developed for the blast mitigation jacket can have numerous military and consumer applications. Potential military devices include 1) blast mitigation jacket for training and combat, 2) methods to prevent blunt trauma that soldiers experience behind personal armor vests, and 3) helmets to prevent very loud noises from penetration through the skull of a fighter aircraft pilot. Potential commercial devices include blast mitigation jackets for protection from pyroshock during highway construction, mining, oil drilling, and demolition.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
500 Office Center Drive
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Dr. Chian-Fong Yen
OSD 00-H05
Title:Blast Mitigation Jacket for Training by the Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (MRMC) (MSC P0Y35-046)
Abstract:There is a critical need to develop a lightweight shock mitigation jacket to significantly reduce the risk for a soldier to contract nonauditory injury, in particular injury to the lung due to rapid chest wall motion, resulting from the firing of certain hand held weapons. The purpose of the proposed Phase I SBIR program is to develop high energy absorption liner materials and configurations as an insert to a protection jacket which would alter and reduce the thoracic loading and acceleration to prevent the anticipated nonauditory hazard. This program will also establish an efficient analysis methodology, which can be used to accurately characterize the material shock absorption behaviors under blast overpressure loading conditions. Special attention will be paid to explore analytically and experimentally the potential of utilizing high-energy absorption foam and nonwoven fabric materials. Materials Sciences Corporation will provide the combination of material engineering expertise, dynamic design codes, fabrication expertise, and corporate military knowledge necessary to develop a low weight, low cost, and high-efficiency blast mitigation jacket. This technology has direct applicability in mitigation of shock for soldier protection when exposed to blast shock loading. The developed protection garments can be worn by law enforcement and by bomb disposal personnel. The developed high shock energy absorption liner materials will provide other wide ranges of applications including armor protection gears, crashworthy automobile parts, aircraft in-flight data recorder survivability, etc.

ZERAD, INC.
425 East Greenway Drive
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 456-1010
Mr. Richard E. Zimmermann
OSD 00-H05
Title:Blast Mitigation Jacket for Training by the Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (MRMC)
Abstract:The project will demonstrate the feasability of developing and producing a jacket to protect soldiers from blast overpressure in a weapons training environment. Advanced materials and fabrication technologies will be applied to attenuate pressure waves with a jacket having minimum bulk and weight. Phase I will follow a comprehensive systems apporach to showing feasability. Besides demonstrating protective capability with material sample tests, a complete jacket will be fabricated for a preliminary human factors evaluation. The jacket design will be shown to be functional, producable, and wearable. The key team members are uniquely qualified to perform the proposed research. Their collective experience included development and application of human tolerance criteria for impulse loading. development and qualification of products protecting humands in impact environments, humand factors research and development support, and production of armored vests. The proposed product will allow soldiers to train in a heavy weapons firing environment until they have sustained the necessary level of proficiency. Training will not have to be limited due to the risk of non-auditory blast over pressure injury. Other commercial applications may be found in the medical, mining, and demolation workplaces.

GEO-CENTERS, INC.
7 Wells Avenue
Newton Centre, MA 02459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 233-4987
Mr. Mark Buller
OSD 00-H06
Title:Analysis and Interpretation of Real-Time Multi-Parameter Biological Data by the Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (MRMC)
Abstract:An innovative method is proposed for Analysis and Implementation of Real-Time Multi-Parameter Biological Data utilizing open file formats, a fuzzy inference system, Web access, and ultimately an information broker capable of incorporating other analysis modules in a "plug and play" fashion. Work currently being performed by GEO-CENTERS for U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) utilizes physiologic data in a universal time-tagged flat file structure being telemetered to a Web server. A data server running archive access software utilizing a Generic Query Language (GQL) allows accessibility to this data over the Web on any computer with a browser. Soldier physiological strain index is webcast and displayed in real-time. For SBIR OSD00-HP06, GEO-CENTERS proposes leveraging this existing work to allow Web-based data access to multi-parameter biological data. Existing GQL-based tools will be adapted to allow mining and viewing of multi-parameter biological data. A Fuzzy Inference System will be developed to detect developing toxic responses in real time with minimal false alarms. Resulting biological status will be calculated in real time and displayed within a web browser. Design will include ability for intelligent information broker capable of incorporating other analysis modules to be implemented in phase II. In this age of electronic media and rapid access to information many DOD research institutes do not have a central electronic means of sharing scientific data. The proposed work would provide for a powerful standardized way of archiving both experimental and real time data. The archiving methodology would be both extensible, easily maintainable and backwardly compatible. A plug and play information broker architecture is proposed which will facilitate the interface and interplay of independent models. This task would enable the production of a complete data management package. This package would provide a comprehensive solution for research institutes and other scientific organizations in the storage and retrieval of experimental data in electronic format.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
10299 Scripps Trail, PMB 231
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Dr. Dariusz Wroblewski
OSD 00-H06
Title:Expert System for Real-Time Assessment of Environmental Toxicity
Abstract:Accurate and timely measurement of the developing environment toxicity is of great importance both for general pollution control and for military operations. Biological sensors (biosensors), which are based on a combination of biological sensing element and an electronic signal transducer, are finding a wide spread use in the environment toxicity measurements. A biosensor-based monitoring system produces a wealth of measurement data that needs to be efficiently processed to detect the toxic condition and to classify the type of toxins that are present. Standard statistical approaches are often not sufficient to detect developing toxicity as the toxicity responses may be obscured by natural changes in the biological behavior, measurement noise and benign changes in the environment. IAC proposes to develop a neural network based expert system for rapid evaluation of the water toxicity. The system will fuse all available measurement data (biosensor and other), and provide data pre-processing and classification for a large number of normal and toxic environmental conditions. Special emphasis will be put on early detection and on reducing the sensitivity of detection/classification system to the natural, non-toxic variations in the environment. The proposed expert system will be applicable to a variety of measurement platforms including the aquatic biomonitoring platform being developed by USACEHR for monitoring of environmental hazards to troops. Other application is for quality assessment and control of the municipal/agricultural water supply, and detection of the environmental effects of non point-source contamination and of storm water.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Paul G. Gonsalves
OSD 00-S01
Title:Mission Planning, Analysis, and Simulation System (MPASS) for an Integrated Information Web Environment
Abstract:The growth in information technology provides a tremendous opportunity for enhancing US warfighting capabilities. Additionally, the employment of distributed unmanned autonomous sensor suites can provide a further enhancement in tactical situation assessment and operations planning. The management and processing of military intelligence information and the requisite mission planning, simulation, rehearsal, and post-action review form a critical element of military battlespace operations. Additionally, the recent advancements available from Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can offer the warfighter enhanced situation awareness and visualization. Here, we propose a Mission Planning, Analysis, and Simulation System (MPASS) within an integrated Information Web environment for enhancing information integration systems. Our novel system integrates a genetic algorithm approach for mission planning and course of action (COA) generation with a software environment for COA and mission visualization, simulation, and wargaming. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing tactical C2 systems and addressing future information dominated battlespace requirements. Our Phase I effort will: 1) identify system requirements and scope of the effort; 2) formulate and design a limited-scope prototype MPASS ; 3) develop a working concept prototype; 4) demonstrate its use and assess overall feasibility in a selected scenario; and 5) develop requirements for follow-on development and commercialization. We see several potential applications of the developed technology. Direct application of the developed MPASS exists to DoD C2 and decision support operations systems. Generalization of the developed operational planning and visualization components to other domains, in particular, mobile e-commerce and utilities mobile field operations centers, are also apparent. Additionally, we see opportunities for enhancement of our Intelligent Agent Toolkit (IAT) product, via the incorporation of the automated plan generation and visualization components of the proposed MPASS.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. W. Reynolds Monach
OSD 00-S01
Title:Sensor Data Collection Management Over a Web by Air Force Wright Lab, Rome, NY (AFRL)
Abstract:The process of placement, monitoring, and control of unattended ground sensors requires the integration of several disciplines: placement optimization, sensor data fusion, visualization, and communications. The amount of data to be processed and the need for multiple-echelon displays of the information gleaned from that data require the development of tools to assist the operator's efforts. Daniel H. Wagner Associates proposes to develop a tool called the Agent Wizard, which will provide the unattended ground sensor operator with the ability to create and control software agents capable of assisting him in his operations in the Information Integration Web. These agents will perform operations on data retrieved from heterogeneous data sources in order to provide useful information in the form of advanced visualizations. Agent behavior will be semi-autonomous, and each agent will be capable of collaboration with other agents on the network. We will extend this work in Phase II to develop a full prototype Agent Wizard capable of creating and controlling fully configurable agents to perform advanced data management and visualization functions. The immediate benefit to the Government will be enhanced decision making based on automatic retrieval, processing, and display of disparate data into useful information. This will lead to more efficient operations in the Information Integration Web. Similar benefits will also be demonstrated in other military applications (METOC, weaponeering, etc.) and in the other military services during Phase II development and Phase III transition. This transition will also support an existing Wagner Associates software product called METPLAN to provide METOC data and visualization products to the Navy and Joint mission planning community. Commercial extensions of the Agent Wizard will be pursued in areas such as manufacturing, food service, travel planning, financial planning, etc., and will support an existing Wagner Associates software product called WeatherDog to provide automated context-sensitive weather information through a web browser.

IPEAKSDATA CORP.
2530 Woodstock Place
Boulder, CO 80305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 494-2053
Dr. Robert L. Welch
OSD 00-S01
Title:Sensor Data Collection Management Over a Web by Air Force Wright Lab, Rome, NY (AFRL)
Abstract:This small business innovation research phase I project investigates the feasibility of using distributed Bayesian graphical modeling as a core component of the Smart Sensor Web. It provides foundation classes of mobile agents each having the analytical and statistical capabilities of a Bayesian network. Communicating through the SSW server, these surveillance and display agents self organize to validate information sources, filter, collect, compress and correlate data using graphical models that are constructed by knowledge engineers or learned from training data. In particular, these agents can integrate multiple sources of information, including imaging and non-imaging sources and provide a GIS visualization of the result. The method builds spatial Bayesian models for constructing complex models of interaction among the layers of a GIS model. One solution method is to organize each cell in the GIS grid as a mobile agent. Bayesian methods are especially suited to environments where there is uncertainty: missing data, lapses in data streams, dynamics, reliability, mixtures of continuous and discrete variables, combination of knowledge and data, and where there is a potential for loss of connectivity among agents. This technology has applications for GIS, image processing, remote sensing, surveillance systems, intruder detection and e-commerce.

MCQ ASSOC., INC.
1551 Forbes St.
Fredericksburg, VA 22405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 373-2374
Mr. Russell Thomas
OSD 00-S01
Title:Sensor Data Collection Management Over a Web by Air Force Wright Lab, Rome, NY (AFRL)
Abstract:McQ proposes to develop under this SBIR a new advanced scalable architecture to tie together mission planning, distributed sensor deployment, sensor fusion processing, situation awareness displays at more than one echelon, and Internet communications technology using a WEB page to provide map based threat alerts, while providing the operator a path to "reach down" to a tactical area and "look around". This new situation awareness and sensor management is based upon an integrated sensor TEMPLATE architecture and an object abased architectural structure to aggregate situation awareness information for multiple echelons. The resulting proposed object oriented architecture manages widely dispersed sensor fields and assembles the information through Internet technology into situation awareness displays that can be disturbed and either local or distant from the tactical and battlefield areas. McQ will develop the architectural structure in Phase I of the proposed SBIR, providing a simulation demonstration followed by a limited field demonstration on the Image WEB Testbed McQ developed for the Smart Sensor WEB Program. The Phase II effort will develop a complete version of the object oriented situation awareness architecture and implement it on the SSW Testbed for demonstration in Year Three of the program. The development of the proposed object oriented situation awareness architecture will integrate distributed sensor information through Internet technology with battlefield situation awareness to provide a major advancement linking target information at the sensor level to the tactical decision level. This will be very important in realizing the potential benefits of distributed micro sensors for providing real time information about threat activities. In the new military direction of light forces and small unit operations, it is important to know the enemy activities and be able to direct fires without resorting to dismounted engagements. The same object oriented architecture features can be implemented on distributed highway information systems, can be used for law enforcement, is directly applicable to border monitoring and corporate asset protection, such as, foreign oil wells, oil storage and oil pipelines.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Ms. Karen A. Harper
OSD 00-S02
Title:Wireless Adaptive Visualization Environment (WAVE)
Abstract:Achieving information dominance in military missions as well as operations other than war (OOTW), requires integration of large of volumes of sensors data, and the ability to deliver this information in a secure and timely manner where conditions may not be suitable for large communication networks. The key problem at hand is that soldiers need to have real-time access to targeted sensor-based information to enhance their situation awareness of the battlefield. Likewise, at the unit-wide level, commanders must be able to monitor the status and location of the fielded soldiers in order to perform high-level mission analysis. Thus, there is a need to enhance the current methodologies and technologies for data management and visualization such that we can effectively use sensor-based data to enhance the warfighter's situation awareness. We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a Wireless Adaptive Visualization Environment (WAVE). Our novel system combines the current wireless protocol with innovative artificial intelligent technologies such as fuzzy logic based event detection, situation assessment capabilities of Bayesian belief networks, and embedded tactical knowledge of expert systems to provide the warfighters with the ability to visualize and manage sensor-based data. The proposed technology will directly support and augment the present and future adaptive visualization environment for wireless data management. The commercial focus would be on the development of an advanced visualization environment for the industries where adaptive visualization and enhanced situation awareness is critical, such as mobile e-commerce or support of mobile field operations for gas and electric utility companies. The core technology also complements and enhances our envisioned Intelligent Agent Toolkit for use in any domain that requires agent-based situation awareness and advance display environments.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9422
Mr. James Thomson
OSD 00-S02
Title:Protocols for Wireless Data Management
Abstract:The battlefield of the future will be a `digital battlefield' - a place dominated by unmanned air, land, and sea combat vehicles, precision guided smart weapons, and real-time networked communications down to the individual soldier. Battlefield commanders will deploy distributed arrays of microsensors containing various sensor elements (e.g., acoustic, seismic, .) for remote sensing, surveillance, and area denial missions. These microsensors will need to be able to communicate with individual soldiers, small units, and higher echelon C4I assets through self-forming wireless networks. In addition, the individual soldiers will need access to the information sources that are traditionally disseminated from tactical HQs (such as Situational Awareness data and imagery) as well as other sources (such as web sites and video/audio conferences) within the CONUS backbone network. Finally, the pace of 21st century warfare will also require peer-to-peer information exchanges between individual soldiers across self-forming, tactical wireless-networks. This overarching vision requires new and novel information coding, transport and visualization techniques beyond those found in either DoD or commercial networks. Of course, the DoD's classic problem with its communications and information systems is "stovepiping" wherein the data coding and visualization tools are specialized and unique for each application. While this approach may optimize the resource utilization (e.g., tactical-wireless bandwidth) for each given application, it creates ongoing logistics and maintenance problems. As such, the Smart Sensor Web (SSW) architecture (and this SBIR effort) must strive for a flexible and extensible information-transfer and visualization model that easily integrates with the information model used in the DoD's tactical Intranets and strategic backbones. SRC will develop techniques for transporting, coding and visualizing "self-descriptive media streams" that will avoid the "stovepipe" problem. For example, an efficient Extensible Markup Language (XML) implementation that can operate over DoD tactical links, and also within the DoD's planned microsensor networks, will provide an enormous ongoing advantage via improved reliability and decreased maintenance costs. Self-descriptive media-streams will also reduce operational costs by allowing users to readily shift from desktop applications to handheld wireless devices with minimal training. In addition, the efficient ongoing integration of a warfighter's handheld visualization device with the DoD's planned software-defined radios, such as the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), will also provide enormous SWAP (Size, Weight and Power) and logistics benefits to the DoD. Finally, this proposed SBIR effort will leverage SRC's existing DoD-funded work on a) routing software for JTRS; and b) wireless networking and information assurance for microsensors and other SSW applications.

VIATEC RESEARCH, LLC
Research Bldg. I Cent. Campus
Raleigh, NC 27605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 349-4448
Dr. Anthony T. Rivers
OSD 00-S02
Title:Agent-based Visualization Adaptation Technology for Mobile Wireless Devices
Abstract:Viatec Research will develop our novel agent-based visualization adaptation (AVA) technology for adapting real-time multi-media internet content for visualization on diverse (especially the smallest) mobile wireless devices. In phase I, Viatec will develop detailed (communication) profiles, DataContentRepresentation Classifiers and DataContent Selectors based on the end-user, the data content to be provided, and the device being used to display the data e.g. hardware, software and network characteristics. These devices will include, at least, portable computers, handheld devices and enhanced cell phones. These profiles will then used to develop AVA concepts, that can dynamically generate the data within a few seconds from its original request, are consistent with wireless network bandwidths that exhibit intermittent connectivity, and are logically related to visualization techniques used with desktop system environments so that users can readily shift from desktop systems on a LAN to handheld wireless devices with minimal training. Also in phase I, Viatec will develop and demonstrate an early proof of concept/ feasibility demonstrative prototype. The demonstrative prototype will be built upon the proven success of previous preliminary results obtained using multiple resolutions and modalities of transcoded content and evaluated using usability, timeliness and mission impact metrics and an experimental case study. The drivers for this project stem from the military's mission critical need to quickly access and use sensor data, especially in urban environments. It is anticipated that on the battlefield of the future, handheld wireless devices will be prevalent. This technology will provide the underpinning for wireless information distribution, be used in Command and Control settings and will allow remote access to information in time critical situations. Moreover the technology could be used to provide visualization of situational data to the Land Warrior heads-up helmet display. Increasingly businesses depend upon wireless data networks to reduce costs and increase productivity by widen accessibility to traditional enterprise applications such as corporate intranet inventories. In addition, this technology would enable civilian emergency responders to more effectively handle natural or weapons of mass destruction disasters, and provide the basis for coordination between local, state, and federal forces.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Dan L. Grecu
OSD 00-S03
Title:Agent-based Semantic Data Management and Visualization
Abstract:The US armed forces are currently involved in a constant process of adaptation to the requirements of new types of missions and environments they are likely to confront in future military operations. The Smart Sensor Web is one of the most advanced technologies that will provide rapid situation understanding and efficient decision-making to support the "21st Century Land Warrior" objectives. One of the main challenges raised by the use of this technology is the interpretation, contextualization, integration and visualization of the data provided by smart battlefield sensors. To support the need for semantically translating sensor data into operationally relevant information we propose the development of an Agent-based System for Semantic Data Management and Visualization to be applied in Military Operations in Urban Terrain. The agents use ontological representations and other knowledge forms to transform low-level data into information customized for decision-makers at various operational levels. The agents also reason about the appropriate visualization of the information in relationship to the operational context, the user's tasks, and the interaction with other types of information that are simultaneously presented. The development effort will use COTS software components, and will be compliant with other knowledge engineering efforts and information repositories within the DoD. The proposed effort has significant potential aplications, both as a technology and as an end-product. As a technology the approach will provide tools for semantic data enhancement and fusion based on data source characterization, data types, and the uses associated with the data, as well as visualization techniques that match the user's cognitive processing of the resulting information. As an end-product, the agents for semantic data management and visualization will provide solutions that require situation understanding in sensor-based environments, such as operations in environments that are potentially dangerous for humans, robotic and remote-control applications, and other DoD sensor-based applications, such as intelligence analysis and threat assessment.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. W. Reynolds Monach
OSD 00-S03
Title:Semantic/Context Based Data Collection, Management and Visualization by Air Force Wright Lab, Rome, NY (AFRL)
Abstract:Daniel H. Wagner Associates proposes to develop a tool called the Agent Wizard for the creation and control of software agents capable of performing data intensive, time critical data fusion and visualization in Smart Sensor Web. The Agent Wizard will consist of three major parts: the Requirements Wizard, the Agent Builder, and the Agent Monitor. The Requirements Wizard will provide an interface for the user to enter the information required to perform a specified data fusion and visualization task. The Agent Builder will provide an interface for modifying agent behavior based on the algorithmic components of the specified task. The Agent Monitor will provide an interface for the user to view agent progress and control agent behavior. The agents dispatched by the Agent Wizard in Phase I will be preprogrammed software components with limited capabilities designed toward specific goals. We will extend this work in Phase II to develop a full prototype Agent Wizard capable of creating and controlling fully configurable agents to perform advanced data fusion and visualization functions. The immediate benefit to the Government will be more automated decision making based on automatic retrieval, processing, and display of information. This will lead to more efficient operations in Smart Sensor Web. Similar benefits will also be demonstrated in other knowledge domains (METOC, weaponeering, etc.) and in the other military services during Phase II development and Phase III transition. This transition will also support an existing Wagner Associates software product called METPLAN that provides METOC data and visualization products to the Navy and Joint mission planning community. Commercial extensions of the Agent Wizard will be pursued in areas such as manufacturing, food service, travel planning, financial planning, etc., and will support an existing Wagner Associates software product called WeatherDog that provides automated context-sensitive weather information through a web browser.

SCENPRO, INC.
101 W. Renner Rd.
Richardson, TX 75082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 437-5001
Mr. Michael Gately
OSD 00-S03
Title:Semantic/Context Based Data Collection, Management and Visualization by Air Force Wright Lab, Rome, NY (AFRL)
Abstract:In today's operational environment, a diverse collection of sensors provides the urban warrior with significant situational awareness, planning, and targeting data. Within this complex volume of data is the information soldiers need to make accurate and timely decisions. Applying agent technology to this overwhelming data set, and offering the refined information via tailored visualizations, will increase situational awareness for planners, command personnel, and the individual soldier in the field. We propose to investigate the application of agent technology for use in the Smart Sensor Web by: ˙Identify Agent-based system capabilities best suited for filtering, integrating, and representing data in the SSW environment. ˙Define Agent Implementation Architecture to incorporate Agents and Agent Technology into SSW data visualizations. ˙Define, prototype and evaluate visualization options at different echelons and mission execution levels for Smart Sensor Web data. Our work plan uses the Scenario-based Engineering Process (SEP) to guide the research necessary for the identification of agent technologies, the generation of an agent implementation architecture, and the development of visualization prototypes for the Smart Sensor Web. SEP will ensure that systems are designed to meet user needs, provide accurate and timely situational awareness information, and support future expansions and upgrades. ScenPro anticipates that the results for this Phase I effort will include: ˙Identification and refinement of domain-specific user roles and their associated information display requirements. ˙Identification of agent types and capabilities appropriate to the Smart Sensor Web environment. ˙Identification of an agent implementation architecture and infrastructure for the Smart Sensor Web. We anticipate that these results will facilitate the development of effective information displays for the urban warrior, as well has provide a foundation for the incorporation of agent technology into the Smart Sensor Web program. The domain specific display requirements that are identified in Phase I will serve as a solid foundation for continued prototype visualization efforts. By focusing on the user, we will have defined a comprehensive set of refined user requirements that will drive the continued development of user-centric displays. Effective user displays are key to providing situational awareness to the soldier in the field. We will also utilize the agent-based system capabilities identified to begin the development of agents appropriate to the Smart Sensor Web development environment in Phase II. The recommended agent architecture developed in the Phase I effort will provide the bases of the agent infrastructure implemented in Phase II. Ubiquitous computing is the vision for technology development in the 21st century. There are two technologies that will drive the realization of this vision: MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) and Software Agents. Advancements in MEMS technology will allow the integration of sensors into everyday objects for medical, military, and commercial applications. Software Agents will enhance the utility of the MEMS sensors, through intelligent, embedded and central processing. Software agents will be the primary mechanism for integrating the user into complex systems. In general, the potential market for agent-based, user-centric processing of sensor data appears to be without limits. ScenPro expects to integrate the results of `Agent-Based Visualization for the Smart Sensor Web' into future products within our areas of expertise. These products may include medical management systems, Chemical/Biological incident handling, and Information Exploitation from heterogeneous sources. It is clear that our government and military customers are drowning in data while at the same time starving for information. Through successful completion of development efforts such as Agent-Based Visualization for the Smart Sensor Web, we will be able to offer them easily modifiable system components for integration into their planned C2 systems. ScenPro anticipates expanding our product offerings in this area to our customers.

BRIARTEK, INC.
112 E. Del Ray Ave.
Alexandria, VA 22301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 548-7892
Mr. Joseph Landa
OSD 00-S05
Title:Wireless Surveillance Scalable Sensor Netting by Office of Naval Research (ONR)
Abstract:The Smart Sensor Web (SSW) will provide the Warfighters at lower echelons the decision dominance required to fight and win. To make such a system a reality several obstacles must be overcome. Some of the challenges facing such a system include, but are not limited to, the following: establish reliable and accurate contact reports, work within system bandwidth constraints, operate amongst obstacles but continue to transmit data through these obstacles, fit within system size, weight and power constraints, ensure seamless communication between platforms, decision makers and warfighters, be produced at a reasonable cost. One key to a successful SSW is the integration of a wireless network onto smart sensor platforms in such a way as to minimize bandwidth loading and maximize the ability of the sensors to work in a cooperative environment. This effort will focus on designing a system which utilizes COTS technology, including emerging standards for wireless communications (e.g. Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11 (a) & (b), and homeRf) and leverage ongoing efforts to develop a robust yet cost effective Image Web component of the SSW. This module will form a communications node on the wireless Smart Sensor Web. This node will be capable of communicating with peer sensors and searching for data that can be correlated or used by a requesting Warfighter. The module prototype built under this effort will be useable in a testbed for evaluation and future revisions to the concept. Additionally this module will allow for the exercising of critical technologies associated with the Smart Sensor Web. This communications module can be used as a component of commercial wireless web systems that searches consumer networks such as Bluetooth piconets. Once it is proven that Bluetooth protocol can be used, a networked system of data gathering can be used for security, firefighting and field research applications.

MULTISPECTRAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
202 Perry Parkway, Suite 7
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 590-3978
Dr. Robert J. Fontana
OSD 00-S05
Title:A Novel Ultra Wideband Wireless Surveillance Scalable Sensor Netting
Abstract:Conventional wide bandwidth communications systems are often limited by multipath propagation effects and time dependent fading, particularly in mobile multipath environments. Multispectral Solutions, Inc. has pioneered the development of ultra wideband (UWB) technology and has demonstrated the capability to overcome the deletorious effects multipath signal degradation. MSSI has fielded a wide variety of UWB systems that provide solutions for tactical communications, precision geolocation, RF tagging/identification, high throughput datalinks and collision avoidance. All of these systems are derived and developed from a similar core architecture. Under the proposed Phase I effort, MSSI will address the requirements for a Wireless Surveillance Scalable Sensor Netting and will leverage its extensive experience to provide a common UWB architecture for networked data/voice communications, precision geolocation and targeting. Resultantly, hardware will be field tested at the end of Phase I to determine its suitability for later system integration. UWB communication and geopositioning systems have a wide variety of commercial applications. These include wireless local area networks/personal area networks (LAN/PAN), "smart home" applications, warehouse logistic control, industry machinery control and future 3G wireless applications.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8846
Dr. Suresh Subramanian
OSD 00-S08
Title:Hardware Compression of Video Data by the US Army Night Vision Laboratory (NVESD)
Abstract: Abstract not available...

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Engineering & Products Div.
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Andrew Kostrzewski
OSD 00-S08
Title:Video/Imagery Super-Parallel and Supercomputer-Path (VISPII) Stand-Alone Hardware Compression
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes an entirely new video processing and compression system, based on Video/Imagery Super-Parallel and Supercomputer-Path (VISPII) stand-alone hardware compression for both live and graphic video/imagery. The basic novelty is the application of wavelet compression in stand-alone hardware real-time operation. The VISPII offers latency of not more than ten microseconds with almost lossless video image quality for moderate compression (no more than 40:1). This unique performance is achieved by implementing POC's proprietary soft computing and soft communication (SC2) software on extremely fast hardware, with 256 processors in parallel for supercomputer-class computing power -- 8BOPS or eight billion operations per second or more -- while preserving low power consumption and compact stand-alone packaging, essential for interactive training, and MPEG-4 integration of natural and synthetic video imagery. In Phase I, all critical system components, including compression software, hardware, packaging, communication, and networking, will be designed and developed; risk factors will be evaluated. In Phase II, a system prototype demonstration will be presented. The VISPII-based video compression system will contribute to integrating TV with the Internet and intranets, the synthesis of MPEG-4 elementary audio-visual-objects, e-commerce, digital TV, digital cinema, telemedicine, teleconferencing, nearly autonomous video processing and surveillance, and interactive distance learning. Specific commercial applications include virtual reality, games, facial animation, terrain animation, clothing design, and flight simulation.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
7923 Jones Branch Drive
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(228) 863-0007
Mr. John Walrod
OSD 00-S08
Title:Hardware Compression of Video Data by the US Army Night Vision Laboratory (NVESD)
Abstract:Planning Systems Inc. proposes an innovative combination of experience, leading-edge sensor network technology, and emerging video compression techniques to provide real-time video networking over ATM-SONET protocols. The proposed solution provides a scalable, fast solution which can be applied to wide range of video and image sensor network applications incuding battlefield wireless networks, robotic vision, law enforcement surveillance, and image simulators. This research and development will provide a fast, high-quality, scalable image/video compression system which can be networked, enabling many new applications which are currently limited by video bandwidth and latency problems. These applications include image sensor networks for microbots and micro air vehicles, portable video displays for soldiers, automatic target recognition, video surveillance networks, real-time image simulations with both real and synthetic sources, video-on-demand, teleconferencing, and Internet video streaming.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Dr. V. ("Nagu") Nagarajan
OSD 00-S08
Title:Video Compression Hardware for ATM
Abstract:Systran Federal Corporation is proposing to develop the required system to compress video in hardware and transmit using ATM protocol. We propose to develop innovative hardware to compress and decompress video data based on wavelet and fractal compression algorithms, MPEG methods, Huffman Coding, LZW, etc. We also propose to develop PCI based ATM Network Interface Cards (NICs) incorporating the compression hardware, ATM chip sets and ancillary circuits that are required. In this card, analog video signals that are provided as input will be converted to either RGB or YCrCb digital streams. The digitized signals are fed to the compression engine, which produces compressed bit streams, which are fed to ATM hardware and routed to remote destinations. A decompression engine decompresses any compressed video channel that is received from the ATM network, and the output of the decompression engine is converted to analog video format to be outputted from the card. Display facilities for input/output video signals on the computer monitor will be incorporated. SFC has already developed an "enhanced" OC-3 ATM NIC incorporating i960 processor, a special voice and telephony processor, and ATM chip sets, and this card will form the basis for further development in this proposed SBIR. This SBIR program will add to the ATM cards that Systran Federal has already developed. Through this SBIR program, Systran Federal will further enhance by adding video capabilities to the "enhanced" ATM card that it has developed. The product developed will be ATM cards having both on-board video and voice capabilities, and such cards will find extensive in the Army, the DOD, and the commercial sector.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 267-2313
Mr. Charles Hsu
OSD 00-S08
Title:Hardware Compression of Video Data by the US Army Night Vision Laboratory (NVESD)
Abstract:In order to improve the decision-making capability of the warfighter in an increasingly information-centric environment, a number of hurdles must be overcome. These include the efficient management of the growing number of smart sensors in the battlefield, along with the development of more efficient compression algorithms, network protocols, and wideband communication mechanisms. Of special note, high-efficiency video compression algorithms with cost-effective hardware implementations would be very significant in reducing the transmission latency and bandwidth requirements of sensor data. The compression algorithm performance must meet minimum requirements for image quality, frame rate, and latency. In addition, real-time video data transmission in a synchronous ATM environment would support current Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) efforts in the Smart Sensor Web program. Trident Systems will leverage our extensive work with wavelet image/video compression, analysis and transmission, as well as systems integration and design to develop an innovative, yet practical, system solution. Our approach will provide a real-time video compression/decompression capability that addresses the limitations of competing approaches to provide a capable and workable system that meets the military's requirements. The successful completion of this project will not only significantly improve actual battle situations, but also training exercises, warfighting experiments, and sensor system development. Also, the utility that is provided by such video compression capabilities has widespread applications.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1120 Delaware Ave.
Longmont, CO 80501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 684-8722
Mr. W.R. Dagle
OSD 00-S09
Title:WeatherWeb Sub-Web Meteorological Sensor Array by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)
Abstract:This Phase I proposal responds to the need for a low-power, expendable, remote sensor array that can be emplaced and positioned to provide battlefield environmental data. Applied Technologies, Inc. proposes to design and conduct testing on a remote sensor array capable of accommodating a multitude of sensors, including wind speed and direction, visibility, precipitation, atmospheric pressure and temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture and temperature, GPS position, and electronic compass. These data will be transmitted by a spread-spectrum wireless modems to a test computer representing the central node. The Phase I effort will also identify components that comprise the central node. The central node, in addition to interrogating a multitude of remote stations, also contributes to the tactical battlefield weather data by providing vertical sounding data with a innovative sodar configuration. Local data would be included in the collected data. The central node would process remote station data along with the local data and transmit resulting information to a remote collection unit that interfaces with military battlefield awareness systems through a secure spread-spectrum link. A remote station configured with a variety of sensors mounted on a common platform can provide necessary data to many users requiring meteorological or environmental data. Some of the uses for a portable remote station are: weather service, agriculture, air quality, monitoring of specific catastophic events; flood, forest fires, droughts, extreme rainfall or snowfall. Airport wind profiling with the sodar.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1120 Delaware Ave.
Longmont, CO 80501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 684-8722
Mr. W.R. Dagle
OSD 00-S09
Title:WeatherWeb Sub-Web Meteorological Sensor Array by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)
Abstract:This Phase I proposal responds to the need for a low-power, expendable, remote sensor array that can be emplaced and positioned to provide battlefield environmental data. Applied Technologies, Inc. proposes to design and conduct testing on a remote sensor array capable of accommodating a multitude of sensors, including wind speed and direction, visibility, precipitation, atmospheric pressure and temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture and temperature, GPS position, and electronic compass. These data will be transmitted by a spread-spectrum wireless modems to a test computer representing the central node. The Phase I effort will also identify components that comprise the central node. The central node, in addition to interrogating a multitude of remote stations, also contributes to the tactical battlefield weather data by providing vertical sounding data with a innovative sodar configuration. Local data would be included in the collected data. The central node would process remote station data along with the local data and transmit resulting information to a remote collection unit that interfaces with military battlefield awareness systems through a secure spread-spectrum link. A remote station configured with a variety of sensors mounted on a common platform can provide necessary data to many users requiring meteorological or environmental data. Some of the uses for a portable remote station are: weather service, agriculture, air quality, monitoring of specific catastophic events; flood, forest fires, droughts, extreme rainfall or snowfall. Airport wind profiling with the sodar.

INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC MACHINES
60 Fourth Avenue
Albany, NY 12202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 449-5504
Mr. Zack Mian
OSD 00-S09
Title:WeatherWeb Sub-Web Meteorological Sensor Array by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)
Abstract:It was once observed that weather and terrain have a greater impact on battles than any other physical factor - including weapons. The DOD goal of "owning the weather" through both large scale and local scale, real-time meteorological (MET) data, is a key part of its overall battlefield dominance priorities. This hold true for both ground and air operations and support as well. Across DOD, several existing systems and initiatives are currently in place to address this need, each from a unique but complementary aspect, and each with its own strengths and limitations. IEM is proposing the initial phase of a development program aimed at making an integrated Weather Subweb Sensor Suite (WS3) system a reality within an accelerated time frame. The system envisioned will be an advanced set of battlefield "eyes and ears" to send back meteorological data and atmospheric/ground conditions from the field to support mission and deployment related needs. The system will be one that can be quickly deployed ahead of the troops via airdrop or perhaps even be eventually placed manually by forward reconnaissance. The web will consist of an array of small, low cost, self powered, sensor nodes and a central node for accessing and logging relevant weather data and re-transmitting to a remote command and control centers via a spread spectrum RF link. The proposed project will determine feasibility of the concept. The main objective of the project is to establish the feasibility and the design of an innovative, yet near-term WS3 System, which comprises a Remote Sensor Array module and Central Node Processor/Sensor module, that will work together to acquire, process, and transmit critical local atmospheric (and selected ground) condition data to a remote command station node, as part of an envisioned overall WeatherWeb network. In addition to the benefits of the WS3 technology in the DOD arena, a large number of dual-use, spin-off market opportunities exist for close-derivative systems. Examples of commercial market sectors include the highway transportation sector, disaster response and management, environmental monitoring, civilian weather monitoring, geophysical research, power industry performance planning, and general MET research applications.

YANKEE ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
101 Industrial Blvd.
Turners Falls, MA 01376
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 863-0200
Mark C. Beaubien
OSD 00-S09
Title:WeatherWeb Sub-Web Meteorological Sensor Array by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)
Abstract:A multi-level web-connected network of meteorological sensors has the potential to gather environmental data in real time while automatically disseminating information to all echelons of military personnel. We discuss the design of a distributed, wireless surface meteorological data collection and dissemination network based on field-proven technology already in widespread use in government environmental weather collection networks. The multi-level sensors nodes described offer different levels of functionality and cost and should meet the performance and goals listed in the solicitation. Precise knowledge of current and near term weather parameters is critical to most military planning activities and represents a key strategic advantage over an enemy. Recent internet-driven increases in networking technology have provided a platform for wide area data collection, analysis and dissemination. While this new paradigm has dramatically increased our ability to leverage meteorological data to our advantage, basic surface meteorological sensor technology has not kept pace. Expendable sub-nodes will make pressure, air/soil temperature, humidity and precipitation, while central nodes will add upper air wind measurements via a NIR Doppler lidar system, while providing data quality control and optimizing bandwidth. Breadboard testing we will address several problems that plague traditional meteorological measurements, for example the aspiration of temperature and humidity sensors. Surface meteorological measurements are made at literally hundreds of thousands of locations throughout the world. A large market exists for automatic weather stations to serve the needs of not only the DOD, but also markets serving agricultural production, pollution compliance, and energy management. The commercial potential from the government market alone would justify this project. The proposed technology addresses typical problems associated with conventional surface weather sensors and therefore should be readily accepted by the meteorological marketplace. As an established commercial manufacturer of meteorological instrumentation, YES would add the technology to our existing product line.