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368 Phase I Selections from the 01.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Steven J. Davis
AF 01-001      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Advanced Concepts for the Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of two enabling technologies to radically improve the chemical efficiency of chemical oxygen iodine lasers (COILs). We propose to examine three potential methods for producing flows of atomic iodine that would reduce or eliminate the amount of singlet delta oxygen required to dissociate the molecular iodine in current COIL devices. PSI proposes to use existing state-of-the-art facilities and techniques to investigate two photolysis methods and one chemical method for dissociating the iodine. One of the photolysis methods has the potential for allowing premixing of the iodine source with the singlet oxygen stream. This has the potential for reducing the complexity or even eliminating mixing nozzles in COIL. PSI also proposes to test the feasibility of a high power microwave driven plasma jet (MIDJet) as a source of excited singlet oxygen. This aspect of our Phase I effort will complement current programs elsewhere that are attempting to develop an electric COIL. A successful program would demonstrate the feasibility of dramatically improving the performance of COIL devices. This could offer new important missions for the Air Force. New commercial applications of COIL devices that would become logistically and financially much more attractive include: laser welding, hole drilling, nuclear power plant dismantling, and gas/oil well drilling.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. John Dering
AF 01-001      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:Advanced Concepts for the Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser
Abstract:System weight and volume are critical aspects that determine the Airborne Laser (ABL) platform operating altitude, total laser run time and aircraft refueling requirements. While COIL technology has made significant strides in system efficiency increases, an overall system weight reduction is needed. SARA, Inc. proposes a highly, innovative RF transmission line plasma technique to pre-dissociate molecular Iodine into free Iodine atoms before interaction with Singlet Delta Oxygen. Singlet Delta Oxygen is the energy storage and pump species that collisionally excites atomic iodine to the upper lasing state for the high energy 1.3mm laser airborne weapon output. Ideally one singlet delta collision results in one excited iodine atom and thus laser photon. In addition, the singlet delta flow must also first perform the requisite prior step of collisional disso-ciation of the molecular iodine (I2) into two iodine atoms (I-atoms). The dissociation process is not efficient with 2 to 3 singlet delta species required to dissociate one iodine molecule. SARA's RF plasma dissociation technique will allow more Singlet Delta Oxygen to be used to collisionaly excite the iodine, increasing the laser power output and reducing the number of laser modules required for the ABL mission. This technique will result in an increase in laser power output over the existing ABL design for the same BHP and reactant consumption rates. The power increase would allow for a decrease in ABL system weight by reducing the total number of laser module building blocks required. All other COIL applications would benefit by the increased utilization of singlet delta oxygen, providing a potential expanding market.

STI OPTRONICS
2755 Northup Way
Bellevue, WA 98004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 827-0460
Dr. William Thayer, III
AF 01-001      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Singlet Oxygen Generator Design For Advanced COIL With Water Vapor Control
Abstract:Chemical oxygen iodine lasers are efficient, scalable, and have proven ability in generating weapons class laser power. To support the future high power COIL programs, technology improvements must be realized to more easily meet the operational requirements, such as for the ABL EDM phase. In particular the SOG performance with mixed base BHP must be augmented to allow operation through a wider molarity range and at higher BHP temperature to reduce magazine size and weight. Innovative methods for improving the COIL efficiency by increasing singlet oxygen output, reducing singlet oxygen losses, removing water vapor, and reducing liquid carryover from the SOG will further improve high power COIL performance. The proposed Phase I program will build on the knowledge gained at STI to evaluate several innovative concepts and design an optimized water vapor trap, spray separator, and sidewall liquid control configuration that will eliminate carryover and maximize the SOG performance. Using the SOG development code developed by STI, we will investigate the design trade between two candidate WVC fluids and the geometry changes required to package the system. Additionally, the Phase II program will be developed with the aim of proof of principal experiments to verify the design concepts. COIL is an attractive option for an industrial laser due to short wavelength and ability to be transmitted by fiber optic. Some potential industrial applications are shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, heavy machinery manufacturing, tasks requiring underwater cutting or welding, and there may be useful applications in the oil and gas industry. It is possible to envision a single high-power COIL feeding many fibers for industrial cutting/welding/processing application. Fiber delivered underwater applications appear very promising; it may be possible to use a high power, fiber delivered COIL beam to perform cutting/welding underwater and thus save the high cost of dry-docking a ship in need of repair. However, the primary market for COIL is defense related. Consequently STI has concentrated its efforts in the development of high performance SOGs primarily for defense applications, advancing the state of the art to the benefit of both military and commercial applications.

TEMPEST TECHNOLOGIES LLC
2916 Stanford Avenue
Marina del Rey, CA 90292
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 574-4993
Dr. Ben Fitzpatrick
AF 01-002      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:Wavefront Sensing for High Scintillation Environments
Abstract:In this proposal we consider the incorporation of image processing techniques into phase reconstruction algorithms to improve performance in systems such as the AirBorne Laser (ABL) tactical missile defense system. Based on a combination of mathematical techniques for nonparametric branch cut identification and adaptive filtering theory, our methods promise to provide greatly enhanced phase estimation. Scintillation, the turbulence-induced fluctuation of image intensities, is widely regarded as a major problem for adaptive optics systems. The methods we propose herein provide the potential to mitigate significantly the effects of scintillation, thus enhancing adaptive optics performance. We also propose innovative control concepts for deformable mirror actuation. Collaborating with scientists and engineers at UCLA, MZA, AFRL, and Boeing-SVS, we will use wave propagation simulations data and data collected in tests at Lincoln Laboratory's ACL facility to score the performance of these algorithms. Continuing our partnership with Boeing-SVS, the leader in systems engineering for optical systems for ABL and other weapon systems, will allow us to leverage the results obtained in this effort into hardware systems in a most efficient and cost-effective manner. Potential commercial applications will be of a military nature, as the effort proposed herein is heavily focused toward advancing ABL system capabilities. Other phase-based imaging systems, such as SAR and MRI, will benefit, however, from improvements derived from this research.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 646-5479
Dr. Mikhail Belen'kii
AF 01-002      Awarded: 12APR01
Title:Wavefront Sensing for High Scintillation Environments
Abstract:Strong scintillation in long horizontal path laser beam projection systems, such as ABL, corrupts the phase difference measurements made with a Hartmann sensor by causing non-uniform illumination of the sub-apertures, hence, non-uniform noise effects across the wave front sensor. Strong scintillation can also cause branch points in the beacon field making the wave front reconstruction and correction processes difficult because they lack the continuous phase map required in most wave front correction schemes. We propose a shearing interferometer wavefront sensor and a new wavefront reconstruction algorithm insensitive to the branch points. Our new approach will provide accurate phase recovery in a high scintillation environment. Phase I develops a simulation code and reconstruction algorithm and evaluates the performance of this innovative technique. We expect a detailed simulation code for the static shearing interferometer and a new phase reconstruction algorithm will be developed and the feasibility of the proposed approach will be evaluated for various ABL propagation scenarios in high scintillation environment. This effort heralds development of a new wavefront sensing capability which will enable expansion of ABL missions for longer range and lower elevation operations and forms a basis for commercial wavefront sensors for laser communication systems. The proposed scintillation resistant wavefront sensor and reconstructor have both military and commercial applications. Besides the ABL, a static shearing interferometer can also be used in Relay Mirror, remote sensing and atmospheric imaging programs. A shearing interferometer wavefront sensor proposed here may also result in significant improvements in the performance of active ground-based satellite imaging systems. The proposed approach can also lead to the development of a commercial wavefront sensor. This sensor would be used in commercial low-order AO systems to mitigate atmospheric effects in high data rate optical communication channels. A shearing interferometer developed under this program can be a key element in this system.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE, Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Mr. Stephen C. Coy
AF 01-003      Awarded: 12APR01
Title:Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics for Distributed Turbulence
Abstract:Conventional aperture plane phase-only adaptive optics (AO) is becoming a mature technology. We have had decades of experience with up-looking applications, where most of the turbulence is close to the aperture, and in recent years there has been substantial progress in AO for near-horizontal paths, with distributed turbulence, largely motivated by the Airborne Laser (ABL) Program. Progress continues, but the practical limits of conventional AO technology for deep turbulence applications are beginning to become apparent. These relate to scintillation, high order anisoplanatism, phase branch points, and the use uncooperative beacons for tracking and higher order correction under conditions where these effects are prevalent. Conventional AO does not address scintillation or high order anisoplanatism at all, and branch points present serious practical difficulties even when perfect sensing is assumed. Multiconjugate (MCAO adaptive optics is a less developed technology involving significant technical challenges, but there are reasons to believe it may be able to ameliorate these problems, yielding improved performance over a wide range of conditions, and, more importantly, yielding acceptable performance in regimes where conventional AO fails. For the ABL this would translate into a longer maximum range, and killing missiles that otherwise would have gotten past.It is anticipated that a multiple deformable mirror adaptive optics system successfully demonstrated under this research, with economical considerations folded in, would have both commercial and military applications. The military applications include the ABL and follow-on systems, Relay Mirror, remote sensing, and any DoD programs utilizing adaptive optics in high scintillation. Other applications include airborne imaging (military and commercial), especially for reconnaissance and surveillance systems that must image through turbulent boundary layers. The commercial market includes such areas as astronomy (retrofitting astronomical sites), laser communication and power beaming. It is expected that the contractor will focus on Phase I designs that would maximize both the commercial potential and the military potential.

OPTICAL PHYSICS CO.
4505 Las Virgenes Road, Suite 217
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 871-1841
Dr. Richard Hutchin
AF 01-003      Awarded: 07MAR01
Title:3D WAVEFRONT CONTROL
Abstract:A new control concept is proposed which can significantly enhance the performance of the Airborne Laser beam control. This control process allows high quality wavefront information to be obtained even using extended sources of many theta-noughts in size. In simulation, a simple version increased high-order strehl 1.67X and on-axis irradiance by 5.7X over a 120 km horizontal path with a 1mx1m extended source. Besides the major benefit to the ABL program, there is another commercial application. The Last-Mile Optical Link involves high bandwidth laser communication over near-ground horizontal paths up to 5 kilometers long. With DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing), the need is to image a first fiber source onto a second fiber receiver several kilometers away. Optical efficiency requires a high strehl to avoid fades and resulting data loss. This sensor will greatly increase reliability.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle, Suite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir Markov
AF 01-004      Awarded: 01MAR01
Title:Laser System for Active Tracking of a Launch Vehicle and Satellite
Abstract:In this Phase I proposal, we outline a plan to develop a novel phase-conjugate laser system capable of locking and tracking remote objects. The proposed system uses a pulsed laser with an intra-cavity four-wave mixing configuration. In this proposal, we outline the operational principles of the system, showing how velocity and position of the target can be accurately measured. During Phase I, we will perform additional theoretical analysis, design a laboratory system, and demonstrate the key aspects of the tracking system. During Phase II we will scale the technology up for field demonstration.Optical systems can provide precise information on an object's location and velocity. The proposed system can significantly enhance the accuracy of existing radar-based tracking stations. Because of the increased measurement accuracy, measurements of satellites can be performed less frequently and with fewer tracking stations, thus saving on operational costs. In addition, the system could find applications in aircraft and missile tracking.

PC PHOTONICS
64 Windward Way
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 443-4356
Dr. George G. King
AF 01-005      Awarded: 06APR01
Title:Key Enabling Components for High-Power Fiber Lasers
Abstract:Three key enabling components are critically needed for advancing high power fiber lasers. They are the double clad, multicore fibers; high brightness diode laser pumps; and optical coupling between the pump and the fiber. This proposal is focused on the most neglected component, the coupling between the pump and fiber laser. Material damage thresholds eliminate end pumping as a viable way to achieve multiple kilowatt outputs from a double clad fiber laser system. Side pumping the entire surface of a double clad system has not shown promise due to excessive losses that are artifacts inherent in the design. The aim of this proposal is to develop a reliable optical coupling technique by distributing the pump power at various strategic locations along the length of the double clad fiber without compromising the fiber integrity. The design of our proposed coupling scheme takes into account the effective absorption of the fiber cores along the propagation length of the fiber. The pump power from a multimode fiber is injected into the inner cladding at an angle exceeding the critical angle. With this approach it may be possible to couple several kilowatts of pump power into the fiber without exceeding the material damage threshold. This proposal describes an approach and presents the necessary steps to demonstrate the practicality of our proposed coupling scheme. If the results of this Phase I prove successful a Phase II will be proposed to develop a prototype which will be delivered to the Air Force for demonstration. High power diode-pumped multicore fiber lasers can be very competitive in the market place as compared to high power diode-pumped solid-state lasers and C02 lasers presently employed by automotive, aerospace and ship-building industries for precision drilling, high-speed cutting and welding of metals and composition materials.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. AnnMarie L. Oien
AF 01-006      Awarded: 02APR01
Title:Tunable, Narrow Linewidth Laser for HF/DF Laser Metrology
Abstract:Development of advanced Hydrogen Fluoride/Deuterium Fluoride (HF/DF) laser technology can be hampered by delayed knowledge of laser component performance. HF mirror optical performance metrology is currently costly and time consuming, requiring laser component delivery to an HF laser site, and operation of another HF laser to reach relevant wavelengths. Coherent Technologies, Inc (CTI) proposes a portable, turn-key solid state laser source providing over 1W narrow linewidth output, tunable to major HF laser lines (2.64 - 2.91 mm). A direct laser source is chosen instead of a nonlinear optical device because of the superior intensity stability and output power available - desirable in a metrology system. The proposed system could be transported to coating vendors for immediate diagnostic testing of mirror absorption and scattering at a range of HF laser lines. This will enhance the efficiency of the manufacturing process. Other possible applications include HF laser alignment and spatially resolved gain probing/imaging for decisive optimization of HF/DF laser performance. Phase I will consist of constructing a tunable, single-frequency laser, characterizing a HF/DF mirror sample, and designing a prototype brassboard HF mirror metrology system. The proposed work builds upon CTI's established background in tunable mid-IR laser sources and ruggedized single-frequency laser systems.A compact solid state tunable narrow linewidth source in the 2-3 mm wavelength region will accelerate HF/DF laser component metrology and alignment. Commercial applications include remote sensing, medical instrumentation, and as a pump source for mid-infrared nonlinear devices.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Steven J. Davis
AF 01-006      Awarded: 04APR01
Title:Advanced Diagnostics and Analytic Tools for HF/DF Laser Technology
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop two sensitive diagnostics for HF chemical laser development:. a) a novel patented, multispectral imager; Adaptive Infrared Imaging Spectroradiometer (AIRIS) and b) Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). In Phase I we will design, assemble, characterize, and field test an AIRIS device to demonstrate its capability to provide a sensitive diagnostic for the spatial and spectral content of HF lasers and profiles of HF(v,J) concentration and gain. We also propose to develop a design for a PLIF instrument that would be delivered in Phase II. This device would be used by HF researchers to design and test advanced mixing nozzles for future HF lasers. These two diagnostic tools would provide developers of high power chemical lasers with valuable data including spatial maps of populations of HF(v,J) levels, stability of HF output lines, and detailed maps of mixing. A successful Phase I and II program will result in two diagnostic devices that will be delivered to the Air Force. These tools will provide valuable design and verification data for development of the next generation of high power HF lasers. Follow on opportunities include diagnostics for ground based spaceborne lasers.

QEI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2715 S. St Paul
Denver, CO 80210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 807-6051
Dr. John A. Bognar
AF 01-007      Awarded: 18APR01
Title:High-Performance Atmospheric Measurement System Using Kites and Blimps
Abstract:The study of atmospheric turbulence and wind structure presents unique demands not currently met by commercially available atmospheric measurement systems. Remote sensors suffer from poor spatial resolution and often imprecise calibrations. In-situ sensors are either mounted on towers, which do not reach altitudes of interest, or on aircraft, which introduce a variety of artifacts into the data. Kites and blimps fill a niche between these existing platforms by providing a quiet platform from which to make measurements from the surface up to the free troposphere. The development of kites and blimps for atmospheric research requires the development of the profiling system itself and sensors suited to making measurements from these unique platforms. QEI Technologies proposes to develop a portable, user-friendly profiling system that will use a combination of high-performance kites and blimps to carry sensors through the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. An associated measurement package will be developed that provides three-dimensional wind data and interfaces to additional sensors. Phase I work will focus on the measurement package. Phase II work will see final refinement of the measurement package, the integration of this package with the profiling system, and extensive field tests of the combined system. The kite/blimp profiling system and associated wind measurement system will be useful to numerous government agencies and universities engaged in studies of fundamental wind and turbulence behavior, flux measurements, and transport and diffusion phenomena.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Timothy Carrig
AF 01-008      Awarded: 23MAR01
Title:High-efficiency, frequency-agile MWIR-LWIR laser source for DIAL
Abstract:The proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons among rogue nations and terrorist organizations necessitates that the US develop the means of detecting the development of these weapons before they can be deployed against US and allied military assets and civilian targets. The US government has demonstrated that Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is one means of stand-off, covert, remote detection of chemical signatures characteristic of the development of these weapons. However, current DIAL transmitters lack the laser power and overall electrical efficiency needed for deployment onboard unmanned aerial vehicles or reconnaissance satellites. This program aims to demonstrate an innovative all solid-state laser transmitter suitable for incorporation into next-generation mobile DIAL sensors. A compact, high-efficiency, diode-pumped laser that pumps a single-stage optical parametric oscillator capable of simultaneous output in both the MWIR and LWIR spectral regions is proposed. The transmitter will be capable of electronically accessing any wavelength of interest and of scanning among wavelengths at a 10-50 kHz rate. In Phase I we will demonstrate that the proposed transmitter can meet DIAL wavelength, tuning and linewidth requirements. A detailed transmitter design will be developed. Additionally, risk reduction experiments will be conducted to demonstrate key elements of the design.Frequency-agile laser transmitters are needed for commercial DIAL sensors suitable for industrial chemical detection, pollution monitoring, and leak detection. These lasers are also useful for scientific applications such as high-resolution optical spectroscopy. High electrical efficiency infrared lasers are needed for variety of applications including wind-sensing, free-space optical communications, search and rescue beacons, infrared countermeasures and surgery.

Q PEAK, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Dr. Yelena Isyanova
AF 01-008      Awarded: 09APR01
Title:Single-frequency, high-energy, tunable solid state IR source
Abstract:Q-Peak, Inc. proposes to develop a single-mode, rapidly tunable, high-energy, high-average-power, all-solid-state IR source suitable for use as a direct-detection or heterodyne DIAL system transmitter. The source is based on the combination of a 1 micron pulsed pump laser and optical parametric oscillators (OPO). The pump source, designed as a oscillator-amplifier (MOPA) system, comprises a compact, diode-pumped, 500 Hz pulse-repetition-rate, single-frequency, Q-switched Nd:YLF laser and diode-pumped multipass Yb:S-FAP power amplifier. The MOPA system will pump a tandem OPO system consisting of a rapidly-angle-tuned, injection-seeded, 1.5-3.6 micron KTA OPO, and a pump-tuned, 3-5 micron and 8-12 micron CdSe OPO pumped by the KTA OPO idler. In the Phase I effort we will demonstrate an IR-source consisting of (1) an efficient, 500-kHz repetition rate, 1-micron source generating 15-mJ nsec pulses; (2) a tunable KTA OPO with a combined signal and idler average power of 2.5 W at 500 Hz repetition rate. Phase II development will emphasize technology that is ultimately field-suitable and efficient in terms of prime-power use, wavelength agility and single-mode operation.The proposed IR Laser Source will enhance selectivity and sensitivity of active, laser-based chemical effluent detection. In the commercial sector, the applications include wide-area pollution monitoring, process control, and general scientific investigations.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
Post Office Drawer 719, 735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
Dr. Errol English
AF 01-009      Awarded: 20APR01
Title:Antenna Back-lobe and Side-lobe Suppression using Tapered Periodic Surfaces
Abstract:Mission Research Corporation will design, fabricate, and test microwave antennas with very low side and back lobes using an innovative technology known as Tapered Periodic Surfaces (TPS). A TPS can be used as an edge treatment to drastically reduce EM field diffraction. A TPS is similar to a tapered R-Card, except that it is reactive rather than resistive. The TPS has many advantages over a tapered R-Card. These include; frequency compensation, ease of fabrication, polarization diversity, and high power robustness. In Phase I, several basic TPS structures (flat panels) will be designed, fabricated, and tested. These basic TPS designs will then be incorporated into a design of a simple demonstration antenna (TBD, but possibly a pyramidal or conical horn). Laboratory tests will be performed on this antenna to demonstrate the low side lobe effectiveness of the TPS treatment. Also in Phase I, a preliminary performance specification, as well as a conceptual design, will be generated for an advanced ultra-low side/back lobe antenna. This antenna will be designed, fabricated, and tested in Phase II.The satellite telecommunications industry is currently expanding at an incredible rate. With vast increases in the number of both satellites and ground terminals, interference between adjacent systems in a crowded envrionment is a serious problem. Ultra low side lobe antennas will be desperately needed. In parallel with this SBIR program, MRC will maintain a relationship with major non-military telecommunications companies in order to address their need for low side lobe antennas.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Dr. Everett G. Farr
AF 01-010      Awarded: 20APR01
Title:An Inflatable Membrane Impulse Radiating Antenna
Abstract:Ultra-Wideband (UWB) antennas with broad bandwidth and large apertures could be of great use in a variety of space-based applications, including radar, communications, and surveillance. The challenge is to deploy a large lightweight UWB antenna that is stowable in a small volume, and that will be resistant to the harsh space environment. To overcome these challenges we propose an inflatable impulse radiating antenna fabricated from a thin membrane such as mylar or kapton. The proposed design is called a Membrane Impulse Radiating Antenna, or Membrane IRA. The antenna is inflated during deployment, and then the membrane may be hardened by epoxy or coated with a thin layer of foam that becomes rigid. In this manner, the antenna will be hardened against puncture by small space-borne particles. The Membrane IRA is a blend of two well-established foundation technologies. The first of these is the Collapsible Impulse Radiating Antenna (CIRA), which has an umbrella-like design and is now a commercial product. The second foundation technology is inflatable large-aperture reflectors fabricated from membranes such as mylar or kapton. The combination of these two technologies will lead to a space-capable deployable large-aperture antenna that is operational over two decades of bandwidth. During Phase I we will build and test a scale model of a Membrane IRA, with diameter of around four feet. Testing will include both a mechanical deployment demonstration and a measurement of the antenna pattern. We will also investigate methods of structurally hardening the membrane after deployment, so puncture becomes less of a problem. Finally, we will investigate replacing cables in the feed design with printed circuit transmission line.This research will lead to a new design for an inflatable Membrane Impulse Radiating Antenna. This device will have very broad bandwidth, will be lightweight, and will fit into a small volume on a satellite before deployment. A scale model approximately four feet in diameter will be built during Phase I.

LGARDE, INC.
15181 Woodlawn Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 259-0771
Dr. Arthur L. Palisoc
AF 01-010      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Space-Based Ultra-Wideband Antennas
Abstract:Past efforts have demonstrated how inflatable parabolic reflectors could be made for space antennas. More recent laboratory studies have shown how a broadband antenna can result by coupling parabolic reflectors to specially designed impedance-matching support arms. We propose to combine the two technologies to create an inflatable space antenna made from the inflatable parabolic reflector and its inflatable support arms. Our goal is a lightweight broadband space-deployable antenna suitable as an impulse radar antenna or a general broadband antenna. Our approach is to draw on design options we have proven in past inflatable-structures programs for decoys, struts, antennas, and membrane supports. We will examine Conical Support and Tubular Support concepts for the arms/feed. Impedance of the various feed components will be matched to that of the antenna to minimize energy loss from the beam, using concepts proven on these past programs to vary the effective surface conductivity and geometry. An analytical model will be produced so that antenna design parameters can be varied and the resultant effects on gain and mass calculated. The best feed concept will be selected for bench tests to validate the model. Our team has unmatched experience in inflatable space structures and antenna design and test.We are developing, in conjunction with Applied EM, a complete antenna. It can therefore be offered as a subsystem to any mission that needs an IRA. However, the antenna is much more than an IRA. It is a broadband device and therefore capable of working at many different frequencies that might be of interest. Thus it is the first antenna that can be offered as a product applicable to most space projects. Therefore it offers the real possiblity of mass producing an inexpensive but effective space antenna.

G A TYLER ASSOC., INC.
1341 S. Sunkist St.
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Dr. Terry Brennan
AF 01-011      Awarded: 16MAR01
Title:Scintillation Resistant Wave-Front Sensors for Strong-Turbulence Adaptive Optics
Abstract:Wavefront sensing in high scintillation environments is degraded in conventional sensors by a coupling, in the measurement, between phase and irradiance variations. An evaluation of this effect, and its impact on performance of systems, such as ABL, is proposed. An innovative wavefront sensor design has been proposed which mitigates this effect by pixel-level processing of the data. The design exhibits other advantageous features such as ease of implementation, elimination of the unobservable waffle mode, potential noise gain reduction, and measurements which permit both linear and non-linear (branch-cut) phase reconstruction. This design will be fully evaluated, analytically and in simulation, and fine-tuned as necessary. This proposed sensor design will improve phase gradient measurement precision in high scintillation, resulting in increased Strehl ratio performance of a conventional least-squares reconstruction. It will also support the use of branch-cut phase reconstruction.

AEROASTRO, INC.
520 Huntmar Park Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(228) 466-9863
Mr. Paul Gloyer
AF 01-012      Awarded: 26APR01
Title:Lightweight Structural Aerobrake for Orbital Positioning and Maneuvering
Abstract:The ability to maneuver, change orbits, and rapidly deploy spacecraft is a key requirement for the space user community. However, large and bulky propulsion systems with a significant mass of fuel on board often limit the maneuverability and capabilities of space vehicles. AeroAstro is developing aerobraking concepts and structures that use the Earth's atmosphere for braking and steering, significantly reducing the amount of propellant and even the type of propulsion systems required on spacecraft. Very lightweight aerobraking structures can enable significant reduction in mass coupled with an increase in capability. Using aerobraking, AeroAstro is developing with commercial funding the Small Payload ORbit Transfer (SPORTT) system to enable small payloads to use low-cost secondary launch opportunities and still reach custom orbits. A lightweight aerobrake structural design is key to the SPORT concept. To fit within constrained volumes, aerobraking structural members must be tightly packaged and lightweight. Structural booms must deploy to approximately ten times their length to produce a seventy-fold increase in profile area. AeroAstro proposes to investigate various applications and structural technologies for the aerobrake design. TThe use of aerobraking provides spacecraft and vehicles like SPORT with a much greater orbit transfer capability than that achievable with direct propulsion. Aerobraking reduces the ?V requirement for a GTO to LEO orbit transfer from a costly 2,340 m/s down to an affordable 378 m/s, an amazing 84% reduction in ?V requirement. While the GTO to LEO case is extreme, other transfer missions, such as GEO to LEO and LEO to Intercept, each reveal a 50% savings in the ?V requirement. This will result in a massive reduction in launch costs for small satellites. The aerobraking technology payoff is significant, with commercial and government utility forseen not only for the SPORT vehicle, but also in a variety of other applications. Potential applications for the aerobraking technology include population of microsatellite constellations, situational pre-positioning, and space asset resupply. There are numerous potential customers, both government and commercial, for the technology that AeroAstro is proposing to develop. The first customer for this aerobraking technology will likely be a customer for AeroAstro's SPORT vehicle. A commercial customer is already funding a feasibility study for the first SPORT, which could be launched in 2003-2004.

MODULAR DEVICES, INC.
1 Roned Road
Shirley, NY 11967
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 345-3100
Mr. Mark B. Graham
AF 01-014      Awarded: 24APR01
Title:Lightweight DC/DC Power System
Abstract:This opportunity relates to the ability to construct a flexible power system that is capable of operating from one power source or power multiple sources. The system would be composed of multiple lower power DC-DC converter units, which can be paralleled to expand power outputs in discrete multiples, sharing power loads relatively uniformly. This flexible power system would be comprised of small modules, each handling a small fraction of the overall power.The availability of a flexible power converter architecture could allow faster power bus development and allow stocking of a small number of common part types for multiple applications. This can result in large cost savings due to amortization of space related lot costs such as element qualification and radiation tests.

NVE CORP.(FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRON)
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 996-1610
Mr. John K. Myers
AF 01-015      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:High Speed Digital Bus Isolator for Space Applications
Abstract:NVE will produce and package IC's that monolithically integrate their existing high speed GMR signal isolator silicon into a prototype 800 Mbits/sec. 8 bit transceiver. Commercial high speed data bus interfaces between subsystems such as IEEE 1284 and IEEE 1194 have not been galvanically isolated due to performance, size and cost constraints. These interfaces would benefit from the inclusion of monolithically integrated high performance galvanic isolation barriers. The proposed device will eliminate noise, cross talk, and ground bounce and allow highly parallel long distance bus architectures. Products will find wide application in aerospace, military and commercial applications which require both high speed transceiver circuitry and galvanic signal isolation. NVE has successfully integrated IsoLoopr galvanic monolithic isolation technology into single and dual channel transceiver silicon and will use this foundation to design/build isolated 8 channel 74245 type transceiver circuits and design 8 channel 74574 type latch solutions. This technology simultaneously meets requirements for high speed, low power, noise immunity and design flexibility required for high performance data busses. The Phase II program develops 3.3 volt radiation tolerant 4 or 8 channel die for production worthy 8 bit latch/transceiver designs. Products decrease component footprint, weight and power for other systems.This project will prove the feasibility of large scale implementation of NVE's Isoloop technology for use in computer bus interface applications. External interfaces to computers often must interface through a multi-channel parallel bus structure that today cannot be practically isolated. These non isolated bus interfaces often cause internal damage to computer systems due to grounding problems. This specific commercial market potential is estimated to exceed $50M. If the project is successful, it could lead to a product that can solve this technological problem and expand and create new markets.

INTEGRATED MAGNETOELECTRONICS
1214 Oxford St.
Berkeley, CA 94709
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 841-3585
Mr. Richard Spitzer, Ph.D
AF 01-016      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Field Programmable System-On-A-Chip
Abstract:The proposer (IME) is developing general-purpose electronics based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR). Underlying IME's all-metal electronics is the transpinnor, a novel device that allows amplification and either logic or linear characteristics. IME has designed and fabricated several transpinnor-based logic gates and simple linear circuits; intial tests have been completed, and a second development cycle is in progress. The phase I project objective is to demonstrate the feasability of an all-metal field programmable SOC. Transpinnors will be used for nonvolatile switches, logic gates, and an FPGA. The functional elements of the FPSOC will be designed, modeled and simulated, as will the FPSOC as a whole. The transpinnor will be made of the same materials as IME's nonvolatile GMR RAM. A successful project will provide the foundation for a variety of all-metal reconfigurable Systems-On-A-Chip.A specific FPSOC will provide a nonvolatile radiation-hardened switching system for routing telecommunications signals over a wide variety of networks, e.g., internet, phone lines, communications satellites, etc.. The individual elements will provide building blocks for other FPSOC's.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7641
Mr. Robert M. Turfler
AF 01-017      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:A Monolithic Advanced Instrument Controller Employing Mixed Technology System-On-A-Chip
Abstract:Mission Research Corporation (MRC) proposes to design and develop a mixed signal system-on-a-chip based on the Advanced Instrument Controller (AIC) multi-chip module, previously developed by MRC. Specifically, we will design a monolithic, radiation hardened version of the AIC for the Peregrine fully depleted CMOS/SOS process. As a minimum, the monolithic AIC will include an 8031 equivalent microcontroller, a digital port expander, a memory controller with EDAC (error detection and correction), a 12 bit analog to digital converter, a 32-to-1 analog multiplexer, a voltage reference, and eight, 10 bit digital to analog converters. Depending on the results of our proposed Phase 1 investigation, it may also include on-chip RAM, ROM, and EEPROM.A radiation hardened, monolithic Advanced Instrument Controller will significantly reduce the size, weight, and power as well as cost for point of use microcontrollers in space and missile systems. It will also have applications in the commercial sectors for autonomous controllers of sensors and other instruments.

PHOTOBIT CORP.
135 N. Los Robles Ave., 7th Fl
Pasadena, CA 91101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626)6832200
Dr. Eric Fossum
AF 01-018      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Radiation Tolerant System-On-A-Chip for Space
Abstract:The purpose of this work is to identify/resolve deterrent factors to implement radiation tolerant image sensor system-on-a-chip (SOC). Thisis done by integrating radiation tolerant image sensor blocks on space system-on-a-chip (SOC) ICs that is expected to total dose up to 1Mrad(Si). Photobit has recently completed an SBIR project that concluded that radiation hard CMOS APS image sensors are feasible. The combination of employing the physical design techniques of enclosed geometry and guard rings, and a deep sub-micron standard CMOS fabrication process provides the path to radiation hard CMOS APS image sensors SOC IC's. Along the way, it is necessary to develop and prove other system level blocks operating as an integral part of an imager SOC such as digital control blocks, data storage and communication blocks, etc.. In Phase I of this SBIR project, these blocks will be developed, simulated, and integrated with already developed CMOS APS image sensor blocks to construct radiation hard CMOS APS image sensor system-on-a-chip (SOC) for space applications. Final design will be made ready for submission for fabrication.Radiation hard CMOS APS image sensor system-on-a-chip (SOC) ICs will pave the way for low cost, radiation hard, low-power, miniature camera solutions for space and earth based applications. CMOS APS image sensors perform as well as CCDs, with the added benefits of lower power (10 to 100 times less) and integration of electronics (enabling miniaturization and SOC solutions). This allows them to not only compete in the same markets as CCDs, but also provide opportunities to expand the existing image sensor market. The proposed radiation hard image sensor and the technical advances associated with its development are extremely important for space applications (DoD, NASA, and commercial satellites) and ground-based based radiation harsh environment systems such as nuclear power plants, particle accelerators, and radiation test facilities.

ADVANCED SOLUTIONS, INC.
6901 S. Pierce St, Suite 301
Littleton, CO 80128
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 218-7584
Mr. Allen W. Bucher
AF 01-019      Awarded: 28MAR01
Title:Low-Cost/Robust Nanosatellite Spacecraft for Distributed, Communication Systems Constellations
Abstract:Both DOD and NASA have future missions that require the launch and deployment of an increasing number of single spacecraft, as well as multi-craft constellations. The desire to minimize cost and ensure the robustness of these high value assets has given rise to the need for on-orbit inter-satellite communications that provides redundancy and fault tolerant satellite-to-satellite communications. The increased use of the Internet and wireless technologies for terrestrial based communications has sparked advancements in the robustness and reliability of hardware and software components. Using these methodologies, ASI is proposing a Satellite Constellation Internet Protocol (SCIP) for Satellite Constellation Management. ASI will develop methodologies that will allow the expansion of the current internet to space based hosts. These hosts will have the capability to communicate, exchange information, and route traffic to other nodes as if they were terrestrial based. The SCIP will leverage current internet technologies and enhance them to handle the space environment and increased node-to-node latency.Robust Satellite to Satellite communications. High Bandwidth communications to areas without high bandwidth infrastructure. Satellite constellation management methodologies. Low cost, low risk, high fault tolerant communications networks in the sky.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Ave, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Dr. Niansheng Qi
AF 01-019      Awarded: 06APR01
Title:Vacuum Arc Nano Thrusters for Nanosatellite Spacecraft Constellations
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation proposes to develop a new type of nano-thruster electric engine for highly parallel, distributed constellations of nano-satellites and other space propulsion applications. A key feature of the proposed Phase-I is the use of an Inductive Energy Store (IES) driver to power the vacuum arc nano-thruster, which has a mass of <60 g while operating at >90% PPU efficiency from 1-10 W. The province of missions for such a thruster includes attitude control of satellite constellations of Class I microspacecraft (~10 kg, ~10 W). This thruster requires <100 V to operate, vs. the ~2 kV for the PPT. The thruster might be scaled to >=100 W, to provide both attitude control and slew maneuvers with the same engine. In Phase I, AASC will fabricate a prototype thruster with a 1-10 W inductive PPU, using NASA and/or Air Force space qualified components where possible. We will measure plasma streaming velocity and mass utilization rates for many elements or alloys. We will conduct direct thrust and efficiency measurements at Edwards AFB. In Phase II, we will develop a flight qualified engineering model by addressing other key issues such as the lifetime of the thruster, environmental factors and mission requirements.The primary application of the specific thruster to be developed in the proposed work will be for Class I micro-spacecraft, ~10 kg. However, beyond this immediate application, the thruster could find use for larger or smaller spacecraft, with further development.

ONTARIO ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL
3333 Harrision Street, Unit #6
Riverside, CA 92503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 283-5971
Mr. Russell Abbott
AF 01-020      Awarded: 20APR01
Title:Opto-Interconnection System
Abstract:A fiber optic device connector will enable the development of a new generation in optical computer technology. By developing an optical interconnect that connects to the transmit and detector elements mounted in the device will improve system performance through increased data transmission rates, lower power consumption, opto-isolation of all I/O and a enabling of the single point ground philosophy. Current fiber optic systems use discrete devices to covert the light pulses from the fiber optic cable into electrical signals. These signals are then conducted to the next device using a printed wiring board to high-count I/O packages. These signals are then demultiplexed down to a lower data rate required by the lower speed, low power technologies. As a consequence the I/O increases to maintain the data rate. I/O power is a significant contributor to the overall power consumption of the IC. By integrating the transmitter, detector and fiber optic cable connection into the device package the device I/O pin count can be reduced. This allows a significant reduction in the device power requirements that are needed to drive the I/O and an increase in the data transfer rates by not having to leave the device package.These efforts will offer major savings on device power consumption, inherent radiation hardness, increased reliability through elimination of solder joints, increased immunity from electrical noise and crosstalk.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7788
Mr. Daniel King
AF 01-021      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Enhanced Hardened By Design (HBD) EDA Environment
Abstract:Mission Research Corporation (MRC) is proposing the enhancement of the Hardened by Design concepts and MRC Libraries to address emerging radiation issues for Single Event Transient, Neutron Induced Upsets, and Dose Rate Hardness through a hierarchical design process. The existing libraries already incorporate design techniques to address Total Ionizing Dose, Single Event Latchup, and Single Event Upsets. Further, MRC proposes the integration of the MRC Hardened by Design, deep submicron cell libraries into the Synopsys (TM) design environment. The approach will address foundry independent fabrication techniques for radiation hardened electronics. Specifically, we will enhance the scalable 0.35 and 0.25 micron, hardened by design (HBD) cell library to support the radiation hardening of ASICs fabricated in commercial silicon foundries, but exhibiting total dose hardness in excess of 300 Krad(Si), single event effects immunity, and dose rate hardness in excess of 1x10^9 rad(Si)/s. The improved performance and radiation hardness will be demonstrated by using Synopsys DesignWare (TM) components.Radiation hardening techniques for foundry independent fabrication design flow for radiation hardened electronics in support of system on a chip development. The enhanced HBD libraries and design flow will enable higher performance, lower power, and lower size and weight designs for space and strategic applications. The approach will lead to more cost effective electronics designs. MRC's proven design experience and expertise will lead toward new capabilities for the space electronics design.

VIBRO-ACOUSTIC SCIENCES, INC.
12555 High Bluff Drive, Suite 310
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 350-0057
Dr. Bryce Gardner
AF 01-022      Awarded: 27MAY01
Title:Advanced Composite Acoustic Blanket Development
Abstract:In Ph.I Vibro-Acoustic Sciences will extend and apply its acoustic modeling technology to investigate an entirely new class of blanket construction - "heterogeneous construction" - as a means to achieve better low- and mid-frequency attenuation of acoustic levels in launch vehicle fairings. Candidate heterogeneous blanket concepts include Prof. C.R.Fuller's distibuted vibration absorber and NAMRL's embedded particle matrix materials. Acoustic tests will be used to validate a Blanket Design Procedure. A best "noise reduction per unit weight" blanket design will be undertaken for a selected launch vehicle fairing. The blanket will be fabricated and ground tested in an acoustics lab to prove its feasibility for full scale fairing application and evaluation in Phase II.Improving the acoustic environment in launch vehicle fairings will allow the use of more low cost COTS equipment on Air Force space flight projects and will reduce the test requirements for new flight hardware. There are also significant opportunities to apply this technology to new noise control solutions for transport vehicles, including the $20 billion automobile interiors market.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Marek Turowski
AF 01-023      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:New Design Technologies for Radiation Hardened Microelectronics
Abstract:Radiation-hardening by design (RHBD) allows to use available commercial fabrication lines of high performance circuits, but the radiation-hardened (rad-hard) devices and cells require larger area, higher-power consumption, and slower performance. CFDRC in collaboration with Mission Research (David Alexander) and Vanderbilt University (Ronald Schrimpf) is proposing to develop novel, radiation-hardened by design concepts, at the transistor and primitive cell level, that are spatially compact in comparison to currently used rad-hard designs. The new, innovative rad-hard circuit design technology will include: 1) An integrated computational environment to provide quantitative assistance in developing new rad-hard designs, utilizing 3D device simulations with advanced semiconductor models enhanced with radiation effects; 2) Numerical, automated optimization of primitive logic and memory cell designs (layouts) for mitigation of Single Event Effects in modern submicron CMOS technologies, including SOI; 3) Calculation of key operational parameters of the designed cells, to indicate that the designs will tolerate radiation exposure to specified levels. Special attention will be given to single event latchup (SEL) vulnerability. In Phase II, the RHBD software will be enhanced with TID phenomena, and the optimized designs of primitive logic and memory cells will be fabricated and electrically characterized to demonstrate their radiation-hardness to TID, SEL, and SEU.All federal and commercial organizations that are involved in putting vehicles into space would benefit greatly by having access to high-performance, radiation-hardened microelectronics that are readily and cost-effectively produced. DoD also has many non-space applications for radiation-hardened microelectronics.

JAYCOR, INC.
3394 Carmel Mountain Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 837-9100
Mr. T. G. Bo Henderson
AF 01-024      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Direct Thermal to Electric Energy Converter
Abstract:A great and pervasive need exists for new, innovative concepts for the generation of electric power in earth orbit. All US spacecraft rely on solar cells for their primary power source. The most advanced solar cells under development are at most 40% efficient. A novel technique with higher efficiency is needed to enhance mission capabilities. That novel concept is thermionic emission from microtip arrays. It is anticipated that efficiencies as high as 60% are achievable with current densities greater than 10 amps per square centimeter. This program will further develop and refine the geometry, and band/field structure of diamond microtip arrays to maximize durability, efficiency, and capacity. The goal of this program is to develop compact efficient energy conversion devices for space and ground based applications. The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of this technology by a combination of lab measurements and analysis.In addition to providing an efficient power source for government and commercial satellites, efficient direct thermoelectric conversion will support many electrical generation systems including nuclear and fossil fuel power plants. The increased efficiency will allow the more economical use of renewable energy sources such as solar and geothermal. The broad temperature operating range of this technology will support many applications.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Todd Grimes
AF 01-025      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Improved Analog-to-Digital Converter Fabrication Techniques
Abstract:An innovative ADC architecture known as Parallel Time Interleaved Multi-bit Feedback (PTIMF) has been invented by Prof. Ray Siferd of Wright State University and Systran Federal Corp. The PTIMF architecture offers several advantages over existing parallel Delta-Sigma ADC architectures, such as, Reduced oversampling ratios (OSR), Less hardware intensive implementation, Reduced filtering requirements, etc. In addition, the PTIMF architecture facilitates the design of ADCs with the following attributes: High Speed, High Resolution, Increased Bandwidth, and Reduced power consumption. The most beneficial feature of the PTIMF architecture is scalability and its applicability to any fabrication process. The number of channels and/or the OSR may be scaled to facilitate the required resolution (12-bit, 16-bit, 18-bit, 20-bit, 24-bit, etc.) and the bandwidth. Dr. Cerny of SN/AFRL and his colleagues have invented a new, patented process from known as "Xs-MET". Devices built using the Xs-MET process are inherently radiation hardened at > 500 Kilorads. This proposal will apply the PTIMF architecture to potentially rad-hard processes (e.g., Xs-MET) and develop ADCs for space applications. In addition, we also plan to investigate the possibility of adding "circuit elements" to the PTIMF architecture that will make the components rad-hard. ADCs designed in this SBIR program will not only have high-performance characteristics, but will also be rad-hard. Hence, they will be extremely useful for space-based applications.

AET, INC.
1900 S. Harbor City Blvd., Suite 115
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 727-0328
Dr. Glenn T. Hess
AF 01-026      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Single Event Transient Soft Error Rate Prediction in Integrated Circuits
Abstract:Single event transient (SET) effects on combinational logic have not been widely studied because they have been deemed less important than logic circuits until the advent of deep sub-micron technologies. These new circuits tend to be more sensitive to SET because of the higher operating speeds and higher clock rates, and the smaller transistors themselves are more sensitive to radiation. AET, Inc. is developing a methodology to analyze the SET induced soft error rate in logic circuits. The approach is to model these SET induced soft error rates as functions of the design and technology of the integrated circuit. The models will be incorporated into a software tool that will be utilized by development engineers. This tool will be complimentary to an AET tool presently in development aimed at calculating critical charge and total dose effects in integrated circuits. As a proof of concept, AET will design test structures to verify the validity of the approach and the AET software tool. Based on the results of this work, AET will predict the primary factors contributing to SET susceptibility of the test structures. Using the AET statistical analysis methodology, AET will develop a preliminary SET mitigation strategy. The primary benefit of the SET software tool will be to US Air Force advanced space systems and commercial companies that supply IC's to these systems. Commercial satellite programs as well as military systems will utilize this technology to improve system performance and lower costs.

MATERIALS & SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
5395 West 700 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 530-4987
Dr. Tad J. Armstrong
AF 01-027      Awarded: 07APR01
Title:Fabrication of Highly Conductive, BASE-Header Assemblies by a Novel Process, and Evaluation in AMTEC
Abstract:This proposal by Materials and Systems Research, Inc. (MSRI) is on the fabrication of Na-beta"-alumina-containing solid electrolytes (BASE) by a novel, patented process, and evaluation of performance in an AMTEC. The process converts sintered alpha-alumina containing bodies directly into BASE. The resulting BASE is resistant to attack by moisture, unlike BASE made by a conventional process. The process is also amenable to integration of an insulating header, required for attachment to other cell components, without the necessity of using a sealing glass. The proposed approach should result in highly conductive, mechanically strong, water-resistant BASE. Minimization of the number of steps in processing, and minimization of number of components is expected to lead to significant cost savings. Higher conductance compared to BASE made by conventional processes also should lead to higher performance. In Phase I, MSRI will fabricate and characterize BASE-header assemblies, and evaluate their performance in an AMTEC.The proposed approach for the fabrication of BASE offers the following benefits over the state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method: (a) Does not require encapsulation for sintering. (b) Higher mechanical strength. (c) Is resistant to attack by moisture. (d) A glass-free alpha-Al2O3-BASE header. (e) Low cost. Potential commercial benefits include applications in AMTEC, sodium-sulfur batteries, and sensors. AMTEC has applications in satellite power, uninterrupted power supplies (UPS), and residential power. Sodium-sulfur batteries have applications in distributed power, load-leveling in the utility industry, and for transportation.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Jordan C. Bonney
AF 01-028      Awarded: 06APR01
Title:Ad Hoc Routing for Nanosatellite Constellation Communications
Abstract:This proposal suggests an approach to providing self-organizing network communications between the nodes comprising a nanosatellite constellation. Using the proposing firm's existing body of work on self-organizing ad hoc networks for 802.11 wireless LANs and miniaturized robotics platforms as a baseline, issues relating to ad hoc networking in a nanosatellite constellations will be identified, a candidate communication architecture will be developed, and OPNET models of a modified ad hoc routing protocol will be developed. The simulation results will be used to assess the feasibility of the approach. By applying the lessons learned from terrestrial ad hoc networks to a spaceborne environment, and by using existing routing algorithms as a baseline, a flexible communications infrastructure that enables the deployment of cooperative software on the various nodes of a nanosatellite constellation can be developed in a relatively short period of time. The commercial application of this research is a routing algorithm that can be licensed to nanosatellite communication-hardware vendors.

NVE CORP.(FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRON)
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 918-1151
Dr. Zhenghong Qian
AF 01-029      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:High Speed Linear Spin-Valve Sensors for Analog Isolator Applications
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will demonstrate two types of linear spin-valve sensors with excellent linearity and sensitivity as well as optimized bias points, and will also demonstrate the feasibility of their application in analog isolator devices. The first type of linear spin-valve sensor will be designed similarly to a spin-valve recording head. The second type of linear spin-valve sensor will be designed and fabricated using a novel approach with a free ferromagnetic (FM) layer exchange-biased with an antiferromagnetic (AF) layer. The sensor performance will be optimized by materials selection and process control as well as magnetic design. The ultimate goal in this program is to fabricate and demonstrate analog isolator devices using linear spin-valve sensors developed in Phase I. The current NVE digital isolator process will be modified into an analog isolator process for this purpose. The success of this Phase I project will provide a solid framework for the Phase II to build high speed, linear radiation-hard analog isolator devices.The linear spin-valve sensors developed in this research has immediate application in NVE's isolator technology, which will lead to the addition of the analog isolator devices into its isolator product catalog. In addition, the linear spin-valve materials can also be used in field sensors and read head devices.

MICROCIRC ASSOC.
102 Scholtz Plaza, No.238
Newport Beach, CA 92663
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 548-5214
Dr. T.P. Haraszti
AF 01-030      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:Radiation-Hardened Synchronous SRAM
Abstract:Novel radiation-hardened synchronous pipelined multibank fault-tolerant static-random- access-memory (SRAM) will be developed. The SRAM will combine high speed performance and radiation-hardness with high packing density, low power consumption and manufacturability at reasonable costs. Unique circuits and circuit organization, i.e. self- compensating current-sense, voltage limiters, parameter-tracking references, self-adjusting logic, shuffle, error corrector and fault-masking circuits, will contribute to narrow or close the speed-gap between radiation hardened SRAMs and the digital-signal-processors DSPs. Fault- tolerance will be used only to the level that satisfies the requirements. In Phase I, the architecture and the key circuits and a test-chip concept will be developed, in Phase II a complete SRAM will be designed, fabricated and evaluated, and in Phase III modified SRAM designs will be commercialized. The outcome of this effort will be key elements in future defense systems, commercial satellites, cosmic missions, nuclear weapons, power sources, propulsion devices and in other radiation hardened ambiences.The anticipated results of this research and development program can lead to a breakthrough in the implementation of an advanced national defense-system. Namely, the proposed SRAM is a key element that can satisfy the elevated requirements in operational speed and radiation hardness. The private industry would progress in obtaining high-reliability fast SRAMs for applications in extreme environments.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
56 Rogers Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 252-0660
Dr. Leo Casey
AF 01-031      Awarded: 02APR01
Title:Smart Adaptive Power Converter
Abstract:Mide is proposing to investigate the use of adaptive control algorithms to enhance total system performance of switching power amplifiers and converters, with intended implementation in a radiation hard dc-dc converter. Mide is also proposing to investigate the area of component adaptation in these systems, with the focus on the use of variable power reactances, and adaptive rectifiers (variable V-I characteristic for semiconductor switching devices). The innovative concepts include: 1) digital implementation of feedback and feed-forward power controllers for high frequency switching amplifiers, permitting load dependent tuning of controller operation 2) extension of synchronous rectifier concepts to allow power MOSFETs to achieve wider range of terminal characteristics to assist in converter adaptation 3) investigation of variable power reactances for converter adaptation. In Phase II Mid‚ will develop/design and "qualification" test a prototype adaptive power converter to demonstrate the technology and to ease its transition to application by commercial and military spacecraft. Current economic pressures arising from higher fuel prices are an important reason why this technology is timely and important. A significant number of commercial converters are driving variable reactances and improved efficiency will directly translate into fuel/energy savings. The primary application will be converters for the telecommunications industry. The non-captive high-density power converter market is approximately $10B.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Dr. V. Hruby
AF 01-032      Awarded: 12APR01
Title:Field Emission Cooler Development
Abstract:The on-going miniaturization of satellites requires concurrent development of miniaturized cooling/heat rejection devices. Cooling by field emission of electrons offers an attractive approach that until recently could not be considered. To test it, we have conducted preliminary experiments and measured significant emitter cooling/temperture drop using an unoptimized carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission (FE) cathode originally constructed for low power electric propulsion applications. Approximate analytical model was developed to explain the observed behavior. The model indicates that heat transport approaching a mW was accomplished and that a theoretical limit is of the order of 100 W/cm^2. Thus cooling by electron field emission is feasible and its development is herein proposed. In Phase I we will construct an improved FE device for the purpose of accurate calorimetric measurement of heat rejection from the emitter/cathode and heat gain on the anode. Emission experiments will be conducted in temperature range from 400 to 77 K to determine the feasibility of cryogenic FE coolers. The experiments will be supported by concurrent modeling to develop performance prediction capability. A search for early FE cooler application will be conducted and the identified application will be the focus of the Phase II device development. Cost effective, high efficiency, compact FE coolers would find application in many space and terrestrial devices in both military and commercial markets. These devices include IR sensors and imagers, cryogenic storage, magnetic resonance imaging and refrigeration in medical applications, high density digital processors and power electronic components. The market is in the $M annually.

STAR CRYOCOOLERS, LLC
505 Oppenheimer Dr. Suite #804
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 662-1585
Dr. Bradley C. Edwards
AF 01-032      Selected for Award
Title:The Solid-State Optical Cryocooler
Abstract:Cryogenic systems are becoming more important to the Air Force and commercial interests. Such systems are utilized both in space and on the ground. An ever growing number of applications require cooling; from high performance sensor systems to superconducting electronics. However, cryogenic systems often create as many problems as they solve. When mechanical cryocoolers are used vibrations, power consumption, survivability and complexity become real issues. When cryogens are used maintenance, complexity and lifetime become issues. In our proposed Phase I effort we will study an emerging technology, optical cryocoolers, that will provide a revolutionary way to achieve cryogenic temperatures. The optical cryocooler is a solid state device that offers a number of distinct advantages over its mechanical counterparts. It is non-mechanical, vibration-free, temperature selectable, scalable to small size, rugged, likely to be long-lived, reliable, and lightweight. Given this technical promise, it may uniquely address future Air Force and commercial needs. The proposed research to develop an optical cryocooler would reduce or eliminate many of the problems currently experienced in cryogenic applications. With its unique characteristics the optical crycooler would be ideal for use in Air Force and DoD space and ground-based applications as well cooling commercial computer chips and high-temperature superconducting systems. These markets range from tens of millions of dollars per year for specific space applications to possibly over a billion dollars per year in future telecommunications applications.

IOWA THIN FILM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2337 230th St
Boone, IA 50036
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 292-7606
Frank Jeffrey
AF 01-033      Awarded: 27MAR01
Title:High-Efficiency Amorphous Solar Cells on Polyimide Web
Abstract:Thin film photovoltaic modules fabricated on polymer substrates have a number of very attractive features for space use. Flexible a-Si modules: 1) have shown minimum degradation due to radiation; 2) can have low fabrication costs; 3) have demonstrated very high power to weight ratios; 4) have high tolerance to vibration and shock; 5) can be monolithically integrated to give very flexible design options. Iowa Thin Film presently manufactures ultra lightweight amorphous silicon solar cells using a polyimide web substrate for the terrestrial market. Typical efficiency for the terrestrial product is approximately 5%. Finished solar cells of this type are presently capable of a specific power of 750 W/Kg. With a full focus on developing maximum efficiency for space use, laboratory results indicate that efficiency could approach 10% Under this effort, ITFT proposes a systematic program to transition our existing production-based terrestrial flexible monolithic integrated a-Si to a low cost space-rated PV. Since ITFT has already developed the core manufacturing processes of depositing on a flexible polymeric substrate and monolithic integration, we are in the unique position of being able to concentrate solely on the issues associated with converting a low-cost terrestrial PV into a space PV. The primary goal of Phase I is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a new deposition process for a back surface reflection enhancing layer on our roll to roll fabricated, polymer based devices.In addition to lightweight power for space use, polymer based flexible photovoltaics have significant other DOD uses. These include lightweight portable fold-up or roll-up modules for field communications and modules integrated into tents or other temporary structures to power communications, lighting and filtering systems. Commercial uses include photovoltaics integrated into building structures for grid and non grid power as well as power for portable electronic devices. Power integrated into emergency shelters is another use.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Kristie Cooper
AF 01-033      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Ink Jet Print Self-Assembly of Polymer Thin Film Solar Cells on Polyimide Substrates
Abstract:This Air Force Phase I SBIR program would demonstrate the feasibility of ink jet print electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) processes for the low-cost fabrication of flexible photovoltaic arrays directly on polyimide substrates. ESA processing involves the coating of substrate materials by the alternate adsorption of anionic and cationic complexes of polymers, metallic nanoclusters and other molecules from water-based solutions at room temperature and pressure. By controlling the molecules deposited in each monolayer of the resulting multilayer thin film, optoelectronic devices with high efficiency may be formed. Specifically, photon-to-electron conversion with high quantum efficiency can be achieved in layer-by-layer polymer dye/nanocrystalline semiconductor films, due to the high effective inter-particle surface contact area at the molecular level, and by using metal nanocluster/poly-dye multilayers to enhance optical absorbance. NanoSonic's recent work in this area, in cooperation with a large U.S. aerospace contractor, has demonstrated such high quantum efficiencies in ESA-fabricated devices, and the ability to form such functional thin films as coatings on mechanically flexible substrates. During Phase I, NanoSonic would work with that company to demonstrate the ability to reproducibly form deployable photovoltaic arrays on polyimide substrate materials, and investigate methods to improve quantum efficiency, fabricate electrode interconnections and implement effective device packaging.Photovoltaic arrays that may be integrated directly with space qualified materials offer unique opportunities for electrical power generation for both military and commercial applications. Easily-deployed power generating materials would reduce the need for batteries and for separate mechanically rigid solar cell arrays in space-based and terrestrial portable and mobile platforms. Low-cost processing methods such as ink jet print self-assembly at room temperature would allow cost-effective power generation.

NVE CORP.(FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRON)
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 996-1616
Mr. Robert A. Sinclair
AF 01-034      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Radiation-Hardened Non-Volatile RAM
Abstract:Nonvolatile memories, including Magneto Resistive Random Access Memory (MRAM), have limitations in speed, density, power, and manufacturability which limits their use in commercial and space applications. A unique nonvolatile memory architecture has been invented by NVE using a patent pending Spin Dependent Tunneling (SDT) cell that will eliminate these limitations. The newly invented SDT nonvolatile memory technology, of which NVE is among the leading researchers, allows a high density and also the lowest energy per bit write or read of any nonvolatile memory technology. Magnetic memory has been demonstrated to be immune to radiation effects and is compatible with silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) process which is available to NVE both through AMI, Honeywell, and others. Problems of disturbs and non-uniform switching thresholds have been eliminated with this new development. This innovation will allow speeds of 10 nanoseconds as well as power levels as low as 0.1 microwatts. Its scalability will allow densities of 16 megabits per square centimeter using 0.15 micron lithography. The new cell architecture developed with SDT technology will have broad application in DoD military, space systems, MILSATCOM, and commercial space systems.The durability and low power of the MRAM developed will fill a need for this type of nonvolatile memory both in military and commercial satellite systems as well as missile systems. With no wear out mechanism, this memory will be used for both high speed main memory and nonvolatile buffer applications in artificial intelligence, image processing, radar, sonar signal processing, virtual reality, robotics, control systems, etc.

INFRAMAT CORP.
74 Batterson Park Road
Farmington, CT 06032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 678-7561
Dr. Yide Zhang
AF 01-035      Awarded: 06APR01
Title:Nanostructured Ferrite for High Frequency Low Loss Power Converters
Abstract:The Air Force seeks innovative processes for fabricating new ferrite materials exhibiting soft magnetic properties superior to conventional ferrites in high frequency DC-to-DC power converter applications. Ferrites have been used extensively as soft magnetic materials for five decades without major innovation despite significant power loss at elevated frequencies - the key factor limiting the miniaturization of electronic devices. Inframat Corporation proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of exploiting novel ferrite/Fe nanocomposite materials for significantly improved performance in power converter applications. High electric-resistive ferrite and Fe nanoparticles will be chemically synthesized using Inframat's economically viable aqueous solution method. The synthesized ferrite/Fe nanocomposite will be consolidated into desired magnetic components, tested, and compared with conventional ferrites. The design of the ferrite/Fe nanocomposite is based on exchange coupling, a quantum effect taking place between neighboring nanoparticles. The ferrite/Fe nanocomposite is expected to possess higher saturation magnetization, higher permeability, higher electrical resistivity, higher Curie temperature, and lower power loss at elevated frequencies than conventional ferrite materials. This advancement will be very important for the design of high power density DC converters. The proposed program is highly useful for developing a series of magnetic nanomaterials, which are expected to have a major impact on the electronics industry.Commercial applications of the proposed technology include: Power converters, microwave antenna or rectennas, high frequency electronic parts made by ferrites, such as inductors, chokes, sensors, core-shape transformers, ultra high radio frequency telecommunications, planar transformers, and hybrid circuits. Other applications include telecommunications, industrial electronics, computers, Entertainment, automotive, and multimedia equipment.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Ms. Kristie Cooper
AF 01-035      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Molecular Self-Assembly of Multilayer Low-Loss Ferrite Thin Films and Devices
Abstract:This Air Force SBIR program would develop multilayered low-loss ferrite thin film materials for use in high frequency power electronic DC-DC voltage converters for next-generation small and lightweight electronic systems. The emphasis of the Phase I program is on the development of ferrite material synthesis methods capable of yielding ultrasoft superparamagnetic ferrite films with controlled high resistivities and low defect concentrations in order to avoid excess loss at high switching frequencies. NanoSonic proposes to use modified electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) methods that allow the incorporation of magnetic, nonmagnetic and other molecular precursors into precisely-dimensioned multilayered thin films. Recent research suggests the feasibility of such methods for the synthesis of ultrasoft, low-loss ferrite films several millimeters in thickness, and the ability to adjust magnetic properties through control over precursor chemistries and intermolecular arrangement within the film. Thin film growth, molecular orientation and morphology will be determined using spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and both force and electron microscopy. The resulting lumped electronic properties of a fabricated prototype thin film inductor will be measured using vibrating sample magnetometry, four-point resistance probe, and high frequency network analyzer instrumentation. NanoSonic would work with both Virginia Tech and a major U.S. aerospace electronic systems company to analyze material performance.Low-loss high-frequency thin film ferrite materials and devices have immediate and widespread military and commercial applications in power electronic DC-DC voltage converters for future small and lightweight electronic systems. At even higher frequencies, such ferrites have uses in aircraft and space-based antenna systems and microwave engineering devices, including isolators, rotators, circulators, phase shifters, mixers and parametric amplifiers.

ENGINEERED PLASTIC DESIGNS, INC.
19750 Weld County Road 7
Berthoud, CO 80513
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 532-2268
Mr. John Dinsmoor
AF 01-036      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Modular, Protective Container for Payload
Abstract:Engineered Plastic Designs, Inc., supported by CSA Engineering, Inc. proposes to develop clean-room containerization concepts for minimizing exposure of both the secondary spacecraft and the full-up payload module to damaging shock, vibration, and temperature extremes resulting during ground transportation, while providing an efficient, safe means for integrating each secondary spacecraft with the adapter. Currently, spacecraft are packed into crates for shipping. These crates do not provide adequate protection from shock and vibration, nor are they reusable. Further, these containers do not provision for handling during the integration process. An innovative new approach, EPD's container design will incorporate a multifunctional support frame that, when used in conjunction with the external container shell will provide exceptional support and isolation to the spacecraft. Every spacecraft will have different mass and moment of inertia properties. The new container design will provide a platform that mitigates the shock and vibration exposure over a broad range of spacecraft size and weights. The resultant container system design will be economically manufactured to meet the future needs of the satellite launch community.The primary commercial application for this SBIR project will be to produce and sell a modular container system for ESPA. The potential market for handling and transportation of multi-functional spacecraft containers, with or without secondary payloads, is significant in terms of reduced cost, convenience and safety for spacecraft manufacturers and users. The benefits of such modular payload containers would apply to both civilian and military satellite launches, since they are launched from the same vehicles. Both are subject to the same high cost of failure, and therefore to the same requirements for high standards of safety and reliability.

RH LYON CORP.
691 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 864-7260
Dr. Richard H. Lyon
AF 01-037      Awarded: 15MAR01
Title:A CSEA Approach to Active Noise and Vibration Control
Abstract:Active noise and vibration control (ANVC) has not lived up to its promise. Attempts in the 1930's had little success because of inability to control the phase in electronics and transducers. Digital processing appeared to offer a solution for dealing with phase and arriving at algorithms of a complexity that could not be realized by analog systems. There are applications where ANVC has achieved success; exhaust and inlet silencers, noise canceling headsets and active engine mounts, for example. But the promises of ANVC and investments made to develop products have been disappointing. One reason is technical. ANVC has been successful when the transfer functions between disturbance and receiver are simple. The systems through which the signals travel in most situations are complicated, and in detail, unknowable. Individual systems are complicated, and multiple realizations are variable. The estimation methods that ANVC has employed have not been able to deal with them. But, techniques developed for structural response estimation, machine diagnostics, and dereverberation offer new ways to achieve ANVC. We term this approach "Complex SEA/ANVC". This document proposes the first phase of a program to develop this method and to express it in software of commercial value.The research proposed here will allow the control of disturbances of particular types in complex structural and acoustical systems, such as large aerospace structures. The advances are made possible by signal processing means that have been developed for machine diagnostics and teleconferencing. These technologies rely on de-reverberation procedures that allow one to use a received signal and estimate the disturbance that produced it with good accuracy. That capability is also needed in feed-back ANVC systems. The algorithms to be developed in this research will find direct commercial application, either as a supplement to software packages in related areas such as SEA, or as integral components that extend the capabilities of existing ANVC products.

VIBRO-ACOUSTIC SCIENCES, INC.
12555 High Bluff Drive, Suite 310
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 350-0057
Mr. Paul Bremner
AF 01-037      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Optimal Design of Active Noise Control Systems
Abstract:In Phase I, Vibro-Acoustic Sciences will extend its proprietary Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) code to estimate the statistics of phase for single input - single output transfer functions between launch vehicle fairing and payload acoustic volume. This is an extension of the preliminary research for AFRL on the same topic, conducted in 2000 by Vibro-Acoustic Science's collaborator and subcontratcor Prof. C.R Fuller of Virginia Tech. The statistcal phase prediction method will be experimentally validated with a simple laboratory experiment. The method will then be incorporated in Vibro-Acoustic Sciences' fairing active noise control model (developed in part under Air Force SBIR AF00-041) to theroretically predict how much active noise noise reduction is possible inside a fairing when the external acoustic excitation is partially space-correlated (ie. multiple statistcally independent sources) and when the internal payload acoustic field is reverberant.The method and experimental results developed in the first two phases of the SBIR program will be applicable to DoD and commercial launch vehicles and can be intergrated into the commercial software products already provided to these markets by Vibro-Acoustic Sciences. The successful application of the design method will reduce launch vehicle fairing acoustic levels and allow the use of more low cost COTS equipment on space vehicles.

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH TECHNOLOGIES
3291 Cripple Creek Trail
Boulder, CO 80305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 554-9764
Dr. Boris Khattatov
AF 01-038      Awarded: 30MAY01
Title:Advanced Modeling of the Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere
Abstract:Forecast skills of ionospheric operational models are negatively affected by the complexity of the underlying physical system and the necessity to specify a number of poorly known parameters. Hence these forecast models, including the PRISM used by the Air Force, are usually empirical, rather than the first-principles models. In addition, until recently ionospheric research suffered from lack and sparsity of observational data. This situation is changing dramatically owing mostly to advances in remote sensing of the ionosphere from space. Availability of vast amounts of observational data together with advances in computing power make it possible for the first time to apply data assimilation techniques to first-principles ionospheric models for improved forecasting and modeling of the ionosphere and the upper atmosphere. The primary goal of this Phase I research proposal is to identify data assimilation methods most suitable for use with ionospheric models and to implement the prototype data assimilation and forecast system for spatial distribution and time evolution of the ionospheric electron density. In Phase I we plan to design and test the algorithms using the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Model (CTIM). The developed data assimilation algorithms and codes would be applicable to any physics-based global ionospheric model. In Phase II of this effort we will interface the developed system with the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Plasmasphere Model (CTIPM) and the coupled thermosphere and ionosphere model CITFM used by the Air Force and create the practical real-time forecast system. Anticipated improvements in model's forecasts of ionospheric electron density profiles will be of immediate use for a number of military and civilian practical applications, particularly in communications and navigation. The proposed Phase I work will determine the fundamental data assimilation techniques needed to develop a practical operational electron density forecast system during the Phase II effort. In the private sector potential clients include companies operating cellular phone and pager networks, navigation infrastructure, in particular GPS receivers, other satellite-based communications, such as satellite-based wireless Internet service providers, and power grid companies. Development of practically feasible ionospheric forecast system will address these needs and open up radically new commercial and military applications in the field of wireless communications.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 891-0070
Jackie Schoendorf
AF 01-038      Awarded: 23MAR20
Title:Rapid Regional Ionospheric Modeling System (R-RIPS)
Abstract:A key requirement for Air Force theater battle management is the ability to rapidly and accurately determine regional profiles of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. To meet this requirement, we propose to develop the Rapid Regional Ionospheric Profiling System (R-RIPS). Current models are limited in their ability to meet global requirements for remote and rapid generation of upper atmospheric and ionospheric properties to aid the theater command. They are also limited in their ability to assimilate disparate data to yield real-time updates for regional applications. We propose an innovative application of current models and both existing and evolving data sources combined with learning algorithms (neural nets) to develop a Fully Equivalent Operational Model (FEOM). The proposed methodology for R-RIPS is built on innovative application of proven techniques. We will use data from existing ionosonde/digisonde stations, satellite sounding data from SSUSI & SSULI, DMSP particle detectors and two-frequency GPS signals combined with current ionospheric modeling capabilities to establish sub-global scale ionospheric characterization. Sub-gridding rules will then be established for mesoscale modeling. Learning algorithms will be used to develop critical correlation rules for data assimilation. The combination of real-world data and first-principles models will, in turn, be used to generate a FEOM, which is a model input-output response surface generating a rapidly converging series of low-dimensional correlation functions linking critical input parameters (e.g. F10.7, Ap, Lat/Lon, time, date, particle fluxes) with output density profiles. The FEOM can be initialized using a local two-frequency GPS receiver which generates line-of-sight total electron content. Updated data sets and first-principles modeling will be used to "nudge" the FEOM to increasing levels of accuracy as more information is made available. The FEOM approach has been applied to complex disturbed atmospheric chemistry and fluid dynamics problems and has proven model speed improvements exceeding 10^4 while retaining the fidelity of the original first-principles model. We propose to implement this innovative technique to solve the problem of rapid regional ionospheric profiling.The results of this proposed activity will allow rapid and more accurate regional assessments of upper atmospheric and ionospheric profiling for battle management requiring minimal computer resources. Commercial applications of this work include a broad range of space weather applications for satellite environments, orbital degradation, communications, advanced exploitation of GPS technology, radar ranging and design of advanced measurements and testing in space.

BECK ENGINEERING
3319 21st Ave NW
Gig Harbor, WA 98335
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 853-1703
Dr. Douglas S. Beck
AF 01-039      Awarded: 29MAR01
Title:Cooler for Space-Based Storage of Low-Temperature Cryogens
Abstract:The Air Force needs systems capable of storing cryogens in space for longer than 20 years. We propose to develop enabling technology for long-term space-based storage of low-temperature (<35 K) cryogens. We propose to develop a compact and lightweight cooler that operates efficiently at cold temperatures. Our cooler will efficiently liquefy vapor boil-off from heat leakage to the cryogen, so the required power input to our cooler will be small, and the entire system (including solar panels) will be compact and lightweight. In Phase I, we will demonstrate operation of a breadboard cooler. In Phase II, we will optimize the design of our cooler for a particular space-based cooling application, and we will build and test an engineering design model cooler. In Phase III, we will license our cooler technology to other companies, and we will design, build, and sell our cooler for many applications in the Federal Government and the private sector.The commercial potential of our cooler technology is great because it can be applied to make current coolers efficient for cold load temperatures. We believe every company that is currently making coolers for spacecraft and terrestrial applications will want to license our technology, once we have demonstrated operation of a breadboard cooler in Phase I. Commercial applications of our cooler include cooling for: space-based stored cryogens for space-based lasers, orbit transfer vehicles, and propellant storage depots; space-based detectors; NASA propellant manufacturing on Mars; CMOS circuits; multi-chip modules; filterbanks; high-speed switches; stable oscillators for radar applications; filters for cellular phones; instrumentation for medical monitoring; and primary voltage standards.

WILSON COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGIES
1004 River Rock Drive, Suite 240
Folsom, CA 95630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 989-4812
Dr. Raymond Adsit
AF 01-039      Awarded: 25MAY01
Title:Long Term Cryogenic Fluid Storage
Abstract:Advanced space system technologies require the development of lightweight, reliable and cost effective components. The liquid propulsion systems of these systems use cryogenic storage tanks. This proposed WCT program will research, design and develop a novel, light-weight, load bearing, possibly double walled but highly insulated composite tank that serves as propellant storage and also can be part of the overall support structure. After the insulative design concepts have been developed, the requisite analytical tools will be outlined to determine future design verification requirements. The proposed WCT cryogenic storage concept will be applicable to 20 year storage requirements and the design will be evaluated using computer life prediction techniques for thermal/ mechanical load environments, and then proven in the Phase I program by demonstration of basic concepts in the laboratory using cylindrical test hardware and in the Phase II program by the testing of a subscale demonstration model. The work plan will evaluate all of the potential storage tank and pressure vessel designs and insulation concepts which can be proved either singularly or in combination to assure meeting the technical objectives for this program of 20 year storage with 2% boil-off for liquid hydrogen over the 20 year period.The overall program will have developed the long term storage technology, both in materials and manufacturing processes, that can be readily applied to future advanced aerospace and satellite systems and commercial cryogenic ventures. The technology developed under this program will be immediately applicable to a wide range of launch vehicle, missile, satellite and other space programs. The future expendable, reusable and commercial launch vehicle programs will utilize liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as part of their propulsion systems. The performance requirements for these programs and the limited weight budget preclude the heavier, single function metallic structures for the propulsion tanks and inter-stage structure. The composite technology resulting from this effort can be used to provide a new generation of cryogenic resistant structure and materials fabrication concepts to the Air Force Space Program, Space Based Laser, BMDO and NASA launch vehicles, and applications in commercial industry. Cryogenic containment and handling structures could be readily fabricated using these designs and materials in the future. Insulation concepts can also be a key requirement of these designs. NASA X-33/ 34 projects and Air Force space projects are potential space related, missile intercept and launch vehicle applications and all of the U.S. prime contractors for commercial launch vehicles will also be candidates for this technology.

HYPERTECH SYSTEMS LLC
4 Dickens Court
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 477-1019
Dr. David Slater
AF 01-040      Awarded: 30APR01
Title:Invariant Spectral/Spatial Techniques for Target Detection and Material Identification in Cluttered Backgrounds
Abstract:In this project we will develop innovative algorithms for target detection and tracking, material identification, and atmospheric quantification. The algorithms will combine spectral and spatial information in hyperspectral images and will be applicable to the visible through short-wave infrared and thermal infrared spectral ranges. Targets will be represented using invariant physics-based spectral subspaces that describe target signatures over spatial and temporal variability in the illumination, atmospheric, and thermal environments. Background clutter will be represented using adaptive spectral subspaces that can represent arbitrary mixtures of several materials. Optimized algorithms will be derived that use the representations to detect, identify, and track low-contrast targets in unknown changing environments with substantial clutter. Since the algorithms are based on physical models, they can also be used to estimate parameters that describe the atmospheric conditions. The proposed algorithms are based on compact subspace representations and can be implemented efficiently. The algorithms will be evaluated using data from material and atmospheric databases and imagery from hyperspectral data collections. The new algorithms will significantly improve the capability of systems that process space-based electro-optical imagery. The new algorithms can be used in systems for surveillance, reconnaissance, and targeting applications. Related algorithms have important commercial applications in areas such as biomedicine, mining, and agricultural and environmental monitoring.

ONTARIO ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL
3333 Harrision Street, Unit #6
Riverside, CA 92503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 283-5971
Mr. Russell Abbott
AF 01-041      Awarded: 20APR01
Title:Adaptive Computer System
Abstract:In Phase 1, a scaleable Plug and Play interface will be developed and demonstrated in a multibus architecture with 4-8 modules. These modules can be added and removed at will without any reprogramming. Any failure or latch of any module will not stop bus communication with the remaining modules. A demonstration will be conducted simulating the addition, removal, and failure of various nodes In Phase 2, a Plug and Play interface will be developed capable of supporting an adaptive network architecture that can be implemented into a future Air Program spacecraft. This effort will include the fabrication of a simulated shaped micro-spacecraft with eight Plug and Play panels to demonstrate the capability of this interface. The micro-spacecraft structure will include adaptive cabling capable of reconfiguring itself to allow different subsystems to be added to the spacecraft. OEI has already developed the structure, panels and cabling interfaces for this cube shaped micro-spacecraft through previous research and development efforts. In Phase 3, this system will be promoted as a means to lower barriers of entry to providers of spacecraft components and subsystems by providing a common interface that eliminates the problem of proprietary bus architectures.The benefits of a Plug and Play interface will enable faster spacecraft integration thus reducing time and cost. Heritage subsystems can be equipped with front end Plug and Play modules to interface with any spacecraft reducing development costs. Dynamic reconfiguration will enable on-orbit assets to be updated by the addition of Plug and Play orbital replacement units.

RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS
4325-B Forbes Blvd
Lanham, MD 20706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 903-3404
Dr. Jon R. Fox
AF 01-042      Awarded: 17MAY01
Title: A micro-machined energy-mass spectrograph for microsatellite applications
Abstract:Research Support Instruments, Inc., with the aid of the Princeton University Photonics and Optoelectronic Materials (POEM) group, proposes the development of a micro-chip energy-mass spectrograph for space environment sensing aboard microsatellites. The micro-machined energy-mass spectrograph (M^2-EMS) is envisioned as a micro-miniaturized replacement for conventional particle energy and mass detection systems employed as space environment sensors. The M^2-EMS would employ pseudo-parallel electric and magnetic fields to separate particles by their energy:charge and mass:charge ratios. Micro-machined from Si wafers by anisotropic etching and outfitted with charged particle optic electrodes by standard lithographic techniques, the M^2-EMS energy-mass filter separator would be small and robust. Detection could be achieved by existing charge coupled-device technology. Because of the small scale, arrays of M^2-EMS could be constructed on a single wafer, and further parallel detection becomes possible. Funding is requested to design and construct such a device and perform an elementary proof-of-concept study.The micro-machined energy-mass spectrograph is envisioned as a micro-miniaturized replacement for conventional particle and energy mass detection systems in use in space applications and in industrial and laboratory plasma and vacuum systems. These miniature particle mass and energy detectors would be small enough to be integrated into micro-satellites, robust enough to be used in demanding hazard detection work, and inexpensive enough to be utilized in less demanding applications. The M^2-EMS would be versatile enough to be applied to the particle detection needs of satellite and terrestrial users.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
439 A Second Street
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mr. Mark A. Massie
AF 01-043      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Space-Hardening and Hyperspectral Application of Microdewar-Based Surveillance Sensors
Abstract:Through a concurrent Phase II SBIR program at Nova Research, Inc., investigators have developed an innovative modular cryogenic dewar/cooler/electronics package specifically designed for use with infrared focal plane arrays (FPA). The "Modular InfraRed Imaging Applications Development System" (MIRIADS) integrates the evacuated coldstage with FPA drive electronics by using the circuit board as part of the mechanical assembly for the vacuum enclosure. Internal layers of this "motherboard" are used as signal feedthrus, thus eliminating the reliability and microphonic issues associated with conventional vacuum feedthrus. This truly new concept permits signal digitization to occur within a few centimeters of the FPA itself, leading the way to further miniaturization and integration of the sensor/seeker package. Downstream processing is accomplished through the use of daughterboards which plug into the motherboard. Virtually any existing FPA device may be operated in this miniature system that permits detector cooling using either LN2 or a cryocooler. This Phase I program will produce revisions to the proven existing design to make it space flight qualifiable. In addition, Nova will work with SSG, Inc. to plan for the development of a miniature space-based grating imaging spectrometer system using the revised MIRIADS design. The high degree of sensor system programmability and integration afforded by this technique will permit the design and assembly of low cost, high performance instruments for use in space.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Mr. Jay Schwartz
AF 01-043      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Integration Concepts for Space IR Sensing Component Technologies
Abstract:SSG proposes the development of a dual-octave, hyperspectral sensor, comprising a dual-band focal plane array and an innovative instrument concept for dual-band dispersive optics. The instrument concept proposed combines an innovative Grating Imaging Spectrometer (GIS) instrument concept with ultralightweight Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials to provide a novel optical system payload which addresses some of the critical requirements associated with next generation surveillance missions. SSG's innovative payload solution can be combined with other AFRL technology developments, specifically with high temperature, dual-band FPAs (DRS Technology) and compact, low-power drive electronics (Nova Research), to provide an instrument concept with several benefits: reduced mass from the application of SiC materials, an innovative, multifunction sensor design, and the benefits associated with the dual-band FPA and drive electronics developments; improved thermal stability from the material property advantages associated with SiC and from the elimination of dichroics or beamsplitters which is allowed by the dual-band IR FPA; and reduced costs associated with a reduced payload mass. In the work proposed here SSG will further develop the instrument concept, providing a conceptual opto-mechanical design, a detailed optical design, and a manufacturing plan which can be used to produce a prototype in Phase II. Interaction with AFRL, DRS, and Nova Research personnel will be critical to a successful effort.The hyperspectral imaging sensor concept proposed has a number of government and commercial applications in the area of remote sensing. Hyperspectral imaging for agri-business applications is a good example. In addition the silicon carbide materials used in our sensor can be applied directly to a number of commercial industrial needs, including lightweight, thermally stable components for semiconductor capital equipment applications.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Mr. Eric M. Flint
AF 01-044      Awarded: 29MAR01
Title:Affordable On-Orbit Demonstration of Very Flexible Large Space Structures Control and Pointing
Abstract:CSA Engineering proposes the design, development, qualification, and on-orbit use of a demonstrator of control and pointing for a scaled very flexible large space structure system architecture intended to simulate the PowerSail. On-orbit testing is the only way to properly capture the dynamic and related attitude control behavior of tension dependent structures such as tethers and membranes that dominate the structure of the PowerSail and many other future space mission concepts. The major proposed development will achieve this in an affordable manner. This will be done by using a launch vehicles upper stage to simulate the PowerSail's tethered host structure as well as providing additional support like telemetry and power. In addition to developing and flying the on-orbit demonstrator and supporting avionics, CSA Engineering intends to demonstrate practical attitude control algorithms, structural vibration mitigation and damping approaches, and alternative/supplementary attitude control hardware all intended to reduce on-orbit station keeping fuel requirements. Activities in Phase I will concentrate on establishing the feasibility of the proposed effort with regard to technical compatibility and cost and demonstrating the functionality of several key components. Phase II effort will concentrate on taking the proposed concept to flight.The proposed effort is directly targeted at supporting the needs of the PowerSail project to find an innovative and affordable way to reduce programmatic risk through the demonstration of on-orbit attitude control and pointing of large very flexible structures. The lessons learned from this experiment are expected to be extremely beneficial to the PowerSail as well as other similar mission concepts based on gossamer or membrane structures which CSA Engineering would be well positioned to support. We also expect an additional market for facilitating affordable on-orbit testing of larger structures and deployment methods for major aerospace companies and a market to develop for systems for actuating solar sail vanes and trim tabs.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
7923 Jones Branch Drive
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 768-6500
Mr. Lawrence D. Davis
AF 01-044      Awarded: 16APR01
Title:Control and Pointing of Very Flexible Large Space Structures
Abstract:The extreme flexibility of proposed ultra-lightweight spacecraft, such as the Air Force's PowerSail, will require a new generation of attitude control systems (ACS) that can accommodate low-frequency flexible dynamics within the pointing control bandwidth. In addition, as spacecraft designs continue to reduce mass density, it will become increasingly difficult to construct and validate dynamic models on the ground that are of sufficient fidelity to use for traditional fixed-gain control design. To meet these challenges, we will show the feasibility of an adaptive, attitude control design approach that works during flight to autonomously identify the system dynamics affecting the control bandwidth, then design feedback control laws to achieve predefined performance and stability criteria. This approach is an extension of our Frequency Domain Expert (FDE) control algorithm, which is currently being demonstrated on the Space Station Freedom as part of the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE-II).We intend to partner with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to inject this technology into future Air Force programs, beginning with the PowerSail technology demonstration program. Once the technology has been demonstrated successfully on a flight experiment, operational uses both for the integrated, deployable PowerSail technology and for the adaptive attitude control system technology will be exploited. In parallel with this DOD-related effort, a smaller effort will be launched in the area of industrial servo-controllers in Phase II. The unique capabilities of the proposed technologies will enable the implementation of an automatic, coordinated, multi-axis servo control system embodied in a stand-alone control computer.

AEROASTRO, INC.
520 Huntmar Park Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617)451-8630
Mr. Joel Pedlikin
AF 01-045      Awarded: 30MAR01
Title:A Modular Satellite Bus Architecture to Enable Rapid Configuration and On-Orbit Servicing
Abstract:Future satellite architectures must readily support the on-orbit maintenance and servicing that is vital for maintaining and dynamically reconfiguring both commercial and military satellites during orbital operation. A well-founded architectural design must also address the need to reduce costs associated with satellite development, fabrication, and operation; improve flexibility in response to mission needs; improve modularity; and enhance survivability. The advent of satellite clusters and constellations for communications and reconnaissance purposes places a premium on microsatellites that are small (multiple vehicles per launch), low cost, easily (and dynamically) reconfigurable, on-orbit serviceable, and simple to manufacture in quantity. To solve the problems related to on-orbit servicing, dynamic reconfiguration, and manufacturing, AeroAstro proposes to investigate during Phase I a satellite bus architecture that features modular mechanical and electrical elements coupled with standardized, non-proprietary interfaces and protocols. When applied to microsatellites, this design will result in a highly capable, reconfigurable, and serviceable spacecraft that is built around a set of extruded metal "building blocks" (a frame) and a core module of extensible plug-and-play electronics. Phase I will focus on a plug-and-play mechanical and system architecture that reduces design complexity, increases vehicle modularity, and improves the capacity for on-orbit servicing. Three important factors driving the design of microsatellites today are (1) the drive to enable routine on-orbit maintenance or repair on space vehicles, (2) the need for on-orbit satellite reconfiguration in response to changing mission dynamics, and (3) the need to reduce the cost of assembling microsatellites that are intended to function in clusters or constellations. A solution to these problems requires a design for a microsatellite architecture that is flexible, modular, based on commercially available standards and interfaces, and that takes advantage of plug-and-play concepts now widely used throughout the personal computer industry. AeroAstro proposes to address these problems by designing and developing (Phase I) and then demonstrating (Phase II) a prototype microsatellite architecture built around modular mechanical (metallic) frames and modular electronic elements that function in conjunction with standardized, non-proprietary interfaces. Both the military and commercial satellite communities will benefit from (1) a simple, standardized design for satellite structural and electrical architectures, interfaces, and protocols; (2) increased vehicle modularity; (3) the capability for dynamic reconfiguration of on-board systems to meet shifting mission requirements; (4) improved on-orbit maintenance and repair capability; and (5) reduced costs for manufacturing and assembling microsatellites intended for use in clusters or constellations.

MICROCOSM, INC.
401 Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 726-4100
Dr. James R. Wertz
AF 01-046      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Modular, Miniature, Reconfigurable Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem with Standard Interfaces
Abstract:The lack of interface standards for information exchange among spacecraft subsystems/avionics together with non-standardized, mission-unique GN&C architectures have resulted in high cost spacecraft systems with long integration and test times and increased flight operational complexity. Industry is in need of a solution to minimize cost, shorten development schedule and simplify design. Microcosm and Swales Aerospace propose to develop an innovative spacecraft GN&C architecture and integration technology that enable the spacecraft community to architect a common or universal framework allowing plug and play (interchangeability) of GN&C components to be accomplished in a unified manner. The universal framework facilitates software commonality and flight code reusability, thereby allowing effective cost minimization. Component interchangeability in a unified manner facilitates universal integration and interoperability between GN&C components at both software and hardware levels, thereby providing a more robust integration environment subject to future system evolution. The Phase I effort will focus on the following items: 1) development of interface standards between the flight data bus and GN&C peripherals; 2) definition of common software modules and/or architectures that support the plug-and-play capability; and 3) identification of relevant commercial off-the-shelf technologies that support the implementation of the proposed concept in Phases II and III. The commercial application of the proposed system is for spacecraft that could make use of a low-cost, modular ACS system with standardized interfaces and easily interchangeable components, to reduce the non-recurring costs involved with a brand new ACS system development effort. The GN&C interface standards may also be extendable to other vehicles such as missiles, aircraft, or automobiles. Reuse of GN&C flight code is another potential commercial application for this system.

SPACE PHOTONICS, INC.
700 Research Center Blvd.
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(501) 575-5316
Mr. Charles H. Chalfant
AF 01-046      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:A Modular Miniature Satellite Laser Communications Transceiver
Abstract:For this Phase I SBIR proposal, Space Photonics puts forth highly innovative solutions for multi-access satellite clusters using our proposed miniature modular free-space laser communications transceiver subsystem. By virtue of our unique device and application specific designs, our laser cross-link transceivers provide wide field-of-view access without the need for the power hungry gimbaling that is typically required for accurate acquisition and tracking. Additionally, the transceiver provides for enhanced utility for open architecture implementations, optimized link power budget efficiency, and a straightforward modular interface designed for satellite power and data bus interfaces. Our proposed techniques and device designs were not possible just a few years ago, but with the most recent advances in device fabrication technology, our idea can be implemented and provide enormous value to laser cross-link systems.Our planned laser communications product line has enormous market potential, since to our knowledge, no such product has ever been conceptualized. The devices, firmware, software, and subsystems that will make up this product line will provide us with a large market opportunity in both the Government and commercial sectors. We anticipate broad use of these products in the last mile metro-area network markets and the rapidly growing multi-satellite applications market.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
5170 N. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 240
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9095
Dr. Larry Pezzaniti
AF 01-047      Selected for Award
Title:Small Integration IR Imaging Polarimeter for Optical Stand-off Detection
Abstract:Applications of IR imaging polarimetry include detection of military targets in clutter, de-mining missions, ice detection on aircraft, roads and bridges, crop monitoring and remote sensing. Key technologies are now sufficiently mature to consider a robust, integrated optical imaging polarimeter, which operates at video rates. SY Technology, Inc proposes during the Phase I effort to design an IR (8-12 um) polarization imager. The proposed imaging polarimeter design involves pixilated polarization optics overlaid onto a commercially available IR focal plane array. The device would generate a set of four interlaced images, each measuring a different property of the scene's polarization state. The images would be manipulated to yield complete polarization information about each field point across the image. SY Technology would fabricate single pixel versions of the polarization optics in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design approach. The proven design will be extended to an array during the Phase II. It is believed that the imaging polarimeter proposed here will lead to lightweight autonomous imaging polarimeter that can be used for remote applications such as surveillance and reconnaissance from space based measurement platforms. It is anticipated that an IR imaging polarimeter will significantly enhance target detection on a wide variety of military seekers. Ice detection, humanitarian de-mining, remote sensing, and medical imaging applications are all potential commercial applications of an IR chip based imaging polarimeter.

MICROCOSM, INC.
401 Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 726-4100
Dr. James R. Wertz
AF 01-048      Awarded: 30MAR01
Title:In-Space Testing of Satellite Servicing and Inspection Elements
Abstract:By building on technology elements funded elsewhere, Microcosm proposes to develop an inspection and servicing architecture and test key components of that architecture in space by the end of Phase II, all within Phases I and II budgets. Phase I is primarily a systems study concentrating on three principal issues: (1) system engineering trades leading to the development of an efficient, flexible architecture, (2) the benefits of on-orbit inspection and servicing to reduce cost and enable new missions, and (3) definition of the in-space test in sufficient detail to ensure that it can be completed within the scope of a Phase II SBIR. This substantial step is made possible by leveraging recently awarded and related NASA and DARPA SBIRs, Microcosm's current autonomous GN&C and expert control systems, and Michigan Aerospace's autonomous docking system, and making use of a free test flight of Microcosm's Scorpius low-cost launch system currently undergoing development and flight tests. The system level technologies developed here are critical to the Air Force Space Control mission and could be of substantial benefit to both NASA and commercial users. The in-space system testing represents a major, near-term step in making this technology available to the space community.There is great potential for this technology to substantially lower the cost and extend the life of LEO science and defense related missions as well as GEO communications satellites. The lifetime of a LEO satellite is limited primarily by atmospheric drag. A virtually unlimited supply of fuel could be transferred to LEO satellites, indefinitely, for stationkeeping purposes. High priced defense programs (e.g. SBIRS Low and SBL) and science missions (e.g. HST and TOPEX) would no longer be consumables limited if they could support satellite docking, refueling, and component replacement. GEO satellites pay a high premium for stationkeeping fuel. If GEO satellites where able to refuel, their payload mass fraction could be increased substantially at launch. This option is particularly attractive due to the relatively large number of launches per year into GTO. Re-fueling missions could be made small enough to fit as a secondary payload aboard the ASAP ring of the Ariane 5, for example, further increasing the cost efficacy of on-orbit servicing.

PRINCETON SATELLITE SYSTEMS
33 Witherspoon Street
Princeton, NJ 08542
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 846-4287
Ms. Margarita Brito
AF 01-048      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Autonomous Satellite Servicing to Increase Effective Mission Life
Abstract:There is a growing interest in autonomous on-orbit servicing of satellites among military and commercial segments. Autonomous on-orbit servicing can increase mission flexibility and mission life. Additionaly, there is a potential for reductions in life cycle cost. This proposal is for a novel robotics vision based autonomous rendezvous and docking system for military and commercial satellites. The Satellite Servicing Vehicle (SSV) is capable of docking with both cooperative and uncooperative targets. When the target is cooperative, the system uses an intersatellite link (ISL) to facilitate coordination between the two vehicles. Additionally, the SSV is capable of inspecting the target satellite by using the vision system used for docking. The software architecture is based on the PSS ObjectAgent agent-based distributed control software architecture.Increase mission flexibility, increased mission life and reduced life cycle costs.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Pablo O. Arambel
AF 01-048      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Autonomous Fault-Tolerant Guidance, Navigation and Control System for Automated Rendezvous and Docking
Abstract:An essential element of autonomous satellite servicing is a fully Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) system. Precision ARD capability is required for the DARPA-ASTRO, NASA-MSR, and International Space Station missions, among others. We propose to develop a hierarchical ARD system with a top-level supervisory controller and two low-level interconnected subsystems: (i) failure detection, identification, and state estimation (FDISE) subsystem, and (ii) guidance, navigation and control (GNC) subsystem. An Interacting Multiple-Model Kalman filter is used for failure detection, identification, and navigational filtering of video guidance system, laser radar sensor, and other sensor data. The GNC subsystem consists of a suite of controllers designed to meet safety and performance requirements. The top-level supervisor coordinates sensor management, GNC mode switching, fault-tolerant reconfiguration and other event-driven functionalities. Phase I work will demonstrate feasibility through a detailed simulation. A hardware-in-the-loop testbed for supervised autonomy will be developed in Phase II. NASA-JPL GNC group under the guidance of Dr. Fred Hadaegh will provide technical support during all Phases of the project based on their previous and ongoing work for the Mars Sample Return mission.Autonomous rendezvous and docking system is directly applicable to satellite servicing and re-supply. Vision-based GNC are applicable to underwater exploration and mining, autonomous automobiles, manufacturing, telerobotics, electronic toys, and cinematography. These applications represent a vast untapped market for the technologies developed.

DELTA VELOCITY CORP.
932 Edwards Ferry Road, Suite 14
Leesburg, VA 20176
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 927-9196
Mr. Joseph Padavano
AF 01-049      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Launch Vehicle Fairing with Integral Vibroacoustic Attenuation
Abstract:The proposed effort will demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating a launch vehicle payload fairing using a novel method for attenuating structural response to vibroacoustic loads. The proposed effort incorporates an innovative method of fabricating composite structures and increasing the surface density of the skin panels without degrading launch vehicle performance. The attenuation method equals or betters the performance of conventional acoustic blankets in all frequency ranges, and is particularly effective at frequencies below 500 Hz.Traditional payload fairing acoustic blankets are not effective at reducing acoustic levels under about 500 Hz. A new method of attenuation is proposed which will reduce these low-frequency launch loads with minimal or no launch vehicle performance impact. The low mass impact of the attenuation method will improve launch vehicle performance and the more benign environments will allow a reduction in the cost to develop and qualify spacecraft. This attenuation concept is enabled by an innovative, low cost method for fabricating graphite composite payload fairing structures. The concept is applicable to all launch vehicle structures and large panels on spacecraft in addition to payload fairings.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5504
Mr. Thomas Campbell
AF 01-049      Awarded: 17MAY01
Title:Multifunctional Composite Grid Stiffened Launch Vehicle Fairings
Abstract:Payload fairings are a critical cost and performance driver for launch vehicles. Grid stiffened construction is an efficient alternative to current composite core designs. Foster-Miller has assembled an expert team, including The Boeing Company and Alliant TechSystems, to evaluate options, develop, analyze and design a multifunctional, grid stiffened structure Key advantages to the Foster-Miller team approach include the following:  Out of autoclave processing using Ultrasonic Tape Lamination (UTL), which enables consideration of both standard oven cure resins and the most advanced toughened epoxies which usually require an autoclave.  Integral damping with novel material and configuration options  Low shock separation - with multiple system and adhesive options  Embedded wiring to deliver power for separation device activation Foster-Miller is an innovative leader in the development of new composites designs and technologies. Alliant is the original developer of fiber placement and continues to be the leading innovator of its use in many applications, specifically including composite isogrids. The Boeing Company is one of the largest launch vehicle producers and the ideal partner to facilitate consideration and integration of the developed technology. (P-01426) The proposed program will yield development of a new, cost effective grid stiffened launch vehicle shroud system. There is high potential for significant cost and weight reduction on existing composite systems with options for reduced acoustic and separation loads. All these factors are highly desirable to serve a spacecraft launch market that includes military missions and a much larger commercial business sector.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
427 South 166th Street
Omaha, NE 68118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 346-9402
Mr. Stuart L. Aldridge
AF 01-053      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Satellite Operator Decision Aid And Training System (SODATS)
Abstract:In response to Small Business Innovative Research solicitation AF01-053, 21CSI is pleased to propose the development of a proof-of-concept software decision aid for satellite command composition. Our decision aid, the Satellite Operator Decision Aid and Training System (SODATS), will be built from the bottom up to support both operator training and operational usage. It will employ intelligent agent technology to generate both command package recommendations and their underlying rationale. We propose to focus our development activity on the needs of the Space Based InfraRed Systems Low component (SBIRS Low), starting with the use of existing SBIRS Low Flight Demonstration System command structures.This SBIR will culminate in an integrated SODATS software package, which will assist satellite operator teams to deal with command composition. This will be a unique product. Many commercial applications, which require their own command composition, would benefit strongly from the SODATS concept: power plants, automated, flexible manufacturing factories, intelligent transportation and communications, air traffic control, space exploration, financial trading (traditional and online) and others. The SODATS product will be delivered through 21CSI's open EMDA architecture. Beyond the SODATS core product, transition of the decision support system (DSS) technology itself too will be of a very significant potential. DSS agents have wide potential applicability to just about every industry, which involves humans in the loop. Our first commercial, non-military product incorporating this technology (namely, a SODATS agent-based decision support package, for command composition) will likely be part of a decision support tool for risk assessment of financial, credit and insurance transactions (an industry which has its own rich command language). The tool will plug into the existing online resources, including trading systems, credit bureau databases, stock monitoring systems and others. The tool will be used both for support of decisionmaking and for distributed training.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Cohen
AF 01-053      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Training Environment for Satellite Command Composition
Abstract:The vast amount of knowledge on human information processing and performance has not been completely utilized for solving real world problems. A typical satellite control system uses 500 to 1000 commandlets (fragmentary commands), which must be optimally put together efficient and effective satellite control. Also, since a satellite can be controlled from many different places, with learning and training also spread across the country (if not world), working in multiple task environments leads to increased workload, and demands superior performance skills both in stressful and non-stressful situations. With a systematic and logical approach, existing cognitive theories can be unified with advances in computer technology to develop scenario-based assessment and optimization programs for satellite control. To accomplish this task, Cybernet will build upon our past success in individual training performance to create a new system that will allow the measurement and the `Why?' of team performance. This system will provide not only for the capability of advanced team training in complicated and stressful environments, but also the optimization of this training and creation of composite commands from commandlets.Cybernet has developed a massive multi-player simulation technology for air, sea and land game and simulation play. While this technology was originally developed for low cost government simulation for training, Cybernet plans to adapt the technology to revolutionize the consumer network gaming and flight simulator industry.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 30
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 249-1656
Dr. Kelly Neville
AF 01-054      Awarded: 12APR01
Title:A Decision Aid for a Surveillance Satellite Crew Shift Supervisor
Abstract:To be effective in today's threat environment, the Air Force's Global Engagement doctrine asserts that personnel be responsive, innovative, adaptable, and agile. This will be particularly important for the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) Low Crew Chief. The SBIRS Low Crew Chief will have to manage a team with frequently changing personnel, groups of personnel with different specializations, and a new mission - time critical target tracking. To assist the Crew Chief, we propose to develop a decision and training support system called Adaptive Decision Enabling and Performance Tracking (ADEPT). This system will be designed to support the Crew Chief in day-to-day operations and training exercises. It will utilize intelligent agent technology to monitor and assess individual crewmember performance and team processes, and, based on its assessments, will provide guidance to help the Crew Chief manage the SBIRS Low team. For example, ADEPT will provide advice in real-time about how to allocate attention across different SBIRS Low subteams, how to manage their team-level activities and responses to various situations, and what feedback and guidance to provide.ADEPT will be developed as a decision and training aid for the SBIRS Low operations center, which includes Satellite Operations, Missile Warning, Ground Systems, and Intelligence cells. ADEPT may be of value to the training and operations of any organization in which any of these functions is performed. In particular, it could be used by Navy, Army, and National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) satellite control organizations. Further, it may be adapted to support the training of personnel as they prepare to join an SBIRS operations crew. In addition, ADEPT may be valuable to the civil satellite control agencies National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In particular, NASA and NOAA satellite control personnel have many responsibilities that mirror the responsibilities of satellite operations personnel in the SBIRS Low crew and may therefore benefit from ADEPT's capabilities. Finally, the task performance and instructional content to be contained within the ADEPT agents could be used to help various defense, intelligence, and civil satellite control agencies develop more standardized procedures and move toward the goal of cost reduction through improved consolidation (Government Accounting Office, 2 May 1996). It is likely that the emphasis of this effort on team performance and team processes will result in an extension of existing decision and performance support technologies that is especially important in light of the modern trend, made possible by advances in information and communication technologies, toward increasingly large and complex teams. The resulting extension to decision and performance support technologies, coupled with consulting services, could be used to provide solutions to a wide range of corporate teams. In addition, ADEPT will contain much about how satellite system operators of varying levels of expertise perform their jobs and will identify difficulties they have in performing those jobs. Because this information will be represented by the iGEN model building interface in an easy-to-follow and structured way, CHI Systems and others will be able to use it to derive training documentation enhancements and to identify ways to improve SBIRS Low systems and processes.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North, P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 442-4355
Dr. James E. McCarthy
AF 01-054      Awarded: 02MAY01
Title:A Decision Aid for a Surveillance Satellite Crew Shift Supervisor
Abstract:The Phase I effort will focus on development methodologies for relating Surveillance Satellite Crew individual, team, and inter-team tasks, performance criteria, learning objectives, learning objective mastery, measures of effectiveness (MOEs), and measures of performance (MOPs)to overall Unit mission essential task lists (METLs) and satellite operations core competencies. Phase I efforts also will result in a proof-of-concept Satellite Crew Shift Supervisor decision aid demonstration. Sonalysts' proposed approach will leverage several years of Navy team training research and a substantial infrastructure of existing software developed for the Training Management Module (TMM) and Afloat Training Exercise and Management System (ATEAMS) as a starting point. Recognizing that differences between Surveillance Satellites and Navy Combat Systems are significant, there are substantial similarities in task organization and decision aid objectives that can be explored cost-effectively under this SBIR Phase I effort. Phase II efforts will produce a full demonstration of a prototype decision aid to support a shift supervisor with a minimum of 15 subordinate crewmembers. Methods for assessing the decision aid features and interfaces to an existing satellite system or prototype will be developed. Sonalysts approach to Phase II efforts will be coordinated with Satellite Operations Training System (SOTS) common architecture and Distributed Mission Training-Space (DMT-S), Crew Trainer Emulator (CTE), or other Space Training, Education and Exercise (STEDE) concepts.Development of a Surveillance Satellite Crew Shift Supervisor decision aid fits directly into the SOTS common architecture concept's Space Exercise and Training Management component and is also common with the DMT-S structure. The framework and decision aid technology will support training management from the AETC school structure to legacy satellite systems. This research has a clear and direct impact for cost, schedule, and performance risk reduction for future systems such as the Space-Based Infrared Reconnaissance System (SBIRS). In addition, this effort has wider military, government, commercial, and educational application through consistency with the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Dr. John L. Mohammed
AF 01-055      Awarded: 26APR01
Title:SatConPlan: A Satellite Pre-Pass Contact Planning Aid for Operations Support and Training.
Abstract:Future plans in both the military and commercial sectors call for increased use of satellite constellations in low earth orbit. These systems significantly increase the burden for ground-based system management because more satellites must be managed, and each satellite is in view for only brief periods of time. It will be essential to ensure that ground station hardware and personnel are fully prepared to exploit every contact opportunity. SHAI, with our contractor Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc., proposes to develop SatConPlan, a pre-pass planning aid that will improve the efficacy and accuracy of preparations for satellite contacts, and that will enable improved training for satellite operators. SatConPlan will combine techniques from Intelligent Agent Technology, Model-Based Reasoning, Planning and Scheduling, and Intelligent Tutoring Systems to support distributed teams of operators during both operations and training. Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc., as a highly successful provider of satellite operations software and services, will contribute expertise regarding satellite pre-pass planning and operations. The goals of the Phase I research are to thoroughly analyse the satellite pre-pass planning domain, develop knowledge representations and reasoning techniques to codify contact preparation processes and procedures, and prove the feasibility of our approach by building a proof-of-concept prototype. The proposed technology will directly benefit both military (e.g., SBIRS-Low) and commercial LEO constellations, reducing operations risk as well as operations and training costs.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road, Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6121
Mr. John Friskie
AF 01-055      Awarded: 02MAY01
Title:A Satellite Pre-Pass Contact Support Aid
Abstract:SYTRONICS proposes a Satellite Pre-pass Organization Tool (SPOT) which applies state-of-the-art agenting technology upon a solid technical/operational foundation--the High-Level Integrated Team Training Environment (HILITE), developed for AFRL/HE under a previous SYTRONICS Program. SPOT provides the control, visualization, and agent capability for decision-aid functionality; the ability to simulate and test operational options for training and for pre-pass decision-making; and a HLA (High-level architecture) interface to all assets necessary for operations or training--a Distributed Mission Training (DMT) capability. The Phase I objectives are: (1) define requirements to specify initial performance and assessment measures to support the satellite pre-pass contact effectiveness; (2) develop a top-level architecture design to the extent necessary to develop an early prototype, perform experimental and analytical feasibility assessments, and form a sound design basis for Phase II; (3) assess feasibility through simulation and analysis to establish performance, implementation, and cost; and (4) assess commercial product potential to determine markets, competitors, and collaborators for SPOT. The Phase I results will be the requirements, architecture design, simulation and analysis results, and a preliminary commercialization plan, as well as a demonstration of the simulation-proven feasibility. These results will provide a solid foundation for Phase II.SPOT will generally support all kinds of satellite pre-pass planning and decision tradeoff analyses. It will find use in myriad military satellite planning operations. Its compatibility with, and interface to the DMT and HLA infrastructures, will make it a practical and useful training system as well. In commercial enterprises, as more commerce migrates into space, it will become a highly-desired commercial satellite pre-pass organizer and trainer as well.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Dr. John L. Mohammed
AF 01-056      Awarded: 26APR01
Title:SatConReport: A Satellite Post-Pass Debriefing Aid for Operations Support and Training
Abstract:To minimize operations costs, mission analysts and planners are not usually present during satellite contacts. Nonetheless, analysts must be apprised of all key information gained, especially regarding anomalous events. SHAI, with our contractor Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc., proposes to develop SatConReport, a post-pass debriefing aid that will assist satellite operators to efficiently prepare comprehensive and accurate satellite contact reports. SatConReport will also enable improved simulation-based training for satellite operators. SatConReport will combine techniques from Intelligent Agent Technology, Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), Model-Based Reasoning (MBR), and Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to support distributed teams of operators during both operations and training. Agent technology will enable fusion of information from distributed sources, and realistic simulation-based training. CBR and MBR will enable report generation to be goal-directed and hypothesis driven. ITS technology will tailor training to each operator's skill level. Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc., as a highly successful provider of satellite operations software and services, will contribute expertise regarding satellite post-pass debrief procedures. The goals of the Phase I research are to thoroughly analyse the satellite post-pass debriefing task, develop knowledge representations and reasoning techniques to codify contact debrief procedures, and prove the feasibility of our approach by building a proof-of-concept prototype. The proposed technology will directly benefit both military (e.g., SBIRS-Low) and commercial LEO constellations, reducing operations risk as well as operations and training costs.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road, Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6121
Mr. John Friskie
AF 01-056      Awarded: 07MAY01
Title:A Satellite Operations Debrief Aid
Abstract:SYTRONICS proposes a Satellite Operations Review Tool (SORT) system which applies state-of-the-art agenting technology upon a solid technical/operational foundation--the High-Level Integrated Team Training Environment (HILITE), developed for AFRL/HE under a previous SYTRONICS Program. SPOT provides a post-pass analysis decision aid with control, visualization, and agent capability for post-pass analysis and reporting; the ability to simulate and test operational impacts of the pass and explore alternatives; and a HLA or local interface to all assets necessary for operations or training--a Distributed Mission Training (DMT) capability. The Phase I objectives are: (1) define requirements to specify performance and assessment measures for satellite post-pass review operations; (2) develop a top-level architecture design to the extent necessary to implement an early prototype, perform feasibility assessments, and form a design basis for Phase II; (3) assess feasibility through simulation and analysis to establish performance, implementation, and cost feasibility through simulation and analysis; and (4) assess commercial product potential to determine markets, competitors, and collaborators for SPOT. The Phase I results will be the requirements, architecture design, simulation and analysis results, and a preliminary commercialization plan, as well as a demonstration of the simulation-proven feasibility. These results will provide a solid foundation for Phase II.SORT will serve all the needs of the military for satellite post-pass analysis decision support and has the ability to generally support all types of satellite post-pass analysis and decision tradeoff analyses. Its inherent compatibility with, and interface to the DMT and HLA infrastructures will make it a practical and useful training system as well. In commercial applications, as more commerce migrates into space, it will become a highly-desired commercial satellite post-pass analyzer and trainer.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Ave, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Dr. Jochen Schein
AF 01-058      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Improved Coatings for Helmet Mounted Display Visors using Filtered Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) proposes to develop and commercialize stable, more durable and less expensive optical multi-layer coatings that can turn a visor into a display screen for helmet mounted display devices, with minimal impact on the pilot's overall visual acuity. The innovation proposed is to use filtered cathodic arc plasmas to deposit high density optical coatings that are superior to other coating methods, such as Electron Beam Evaporation, R.F. and D.C. Magnetron Sputtering, Ion Beam Assisted Deposition and Reactive Sputtering. All of these produce deposition energies <1eV, whereas cathodic arc plasmas are characterized by relatively high ion energies (20-150 eV), which lead to excellent adhesion and to denser films and therefore better optical characteristics due to the lack of voids in the coating. In addition, our innovative coating technique produces a very low average heat transfer that does not damage even sensitive substrates during the coating process. The Phase I effort will theoretically determine the structure of the required coatings and produce sample coatings of eight stacks of metal oxides by filtered cathodic arc plasma deposition on several substrates. During Phase II, full-scale, large area prototype coatings will be fabricated and tested to ensure reliability and functionality.The proposed new coatings will find commercial applications in diverse arenas, such as space based sensors, automotive and aircraft windows, Wavelength Division Multiplexers (WDM), energy efficient residential and commercial windows and solar cell array surfaces for space applications.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Kristie L. Cooper
AF 01-058      Awarded: 02MAY01
Title:Self-Assembled Molecular Coatings for Helmet Mounted Display Visors
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will investigate the feasibility of using molecular self-assembly processes for the formation of spectral coatings on helmet mounted display visors. Electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) involves the simple and low-cost coating of solid substrates by the alternate adsorption of anionic and cationic complexes of polymers, metallic nanoclusters and other molecules from water-based solutions at room temperature and pressure. Each adsorption step adds a single uniform molecular monolayer to the thickness of the total coating. By selecting the molecules incorporated into each of many successive monolayers, the index of refraction may be varied as a function of thickness through the coating, and spectral filter stacks may be formed. Advantages over conventional deposition processes include ability to form uniformly-thick coatings on arbitrarily-shaped substrates of virtually any size, and avoidance of high temperature processing which often either limits substrate choice or leads to unacceptable long-term mechanical performance for polymer-based substrates. During Phase I, NanoSonic will design and fabricate narrowband spectral filters on curved polycarbonate substrates, and evaluate spectral and mechanical properties of the coated test articles. During Phase II, the filter fabrication process will be optimized to allow the low-cost batch coating of visors by an automated robotic coating system.Improved methods for the fabrication of spectral control coatings have defense applications in laser weapon protection, canopy and window coatings and stealth systems, and commercial applications for bulk optical components, microphotonic and optoelectronic device endfaces, and AR coatings for spectacle lenses and windows.

NTI, INC.
4130 Linden Ave., Suite 235
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-1333
Mr. Robert Shaw
AF 01-059      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) Interface Design for Head-Up Display (HUD) Replacement: Exploratory Development
Abstract:Increasingly, helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are replacing "head-down" and Head-Up Displays (HUDs) in advanced cockpit interface designs. HMDs offer potential advantages by providing pilots with more direct access to critical visual information, while offering greater flexibility of head movements, less weight, and less consumption of cockpit space. Much of the symbology, functionality and mechanization used in current HMDs can be traced directly to HUDs. But, because HMDs are decoupled from the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, different kinds of information can be presented on HMDs. Thus, questions arise concerning the best manner in which to present the additional information, and its interaction with the traditional HUD information. The purposes of this effort are to define the human performance requirements for both HUD and HMD interfaces as utilized in military missions, and to produce a preliminary HMD design for a no-HUD aircraft. To establish the functional specifications for the interface design, a user-centered design approach employing cognitive work analysis will be used. The results of the analysis will be verified through a simple simulation in which subjects will be presented with the symbology and mechanization concepts envisioned for the preliminary design. Based on these results, a final preliminary design will be generated. The potential applications of the technology that will be designed in this effort are enormous. There is a growing need to provide information to pilots through head-up display technology in both commercial and general aviation cockpits. HMDs could satisfy this need with less expense and less use of valuable cockpit real estate than traditional HUDs. This effort will provide the human performance requirements and design specifications for replacing cockpit HUDs with HMDs. Upon completion of Phase II, an actual design prototype that has been tested and evaluated will exist for demonstrating HMD interface concepts. These products are marketable to airframe manufacturers and airlines as either specifications for hardware design or as a benchmark for evaluating competing HMD technology.

SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
One Crystal Park, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 282-4432
Dr. Dutch Guckenberger
AF 01-059      Awarded: 22JUN01
Title:Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) Interface Design for Head-Up Display (HUD) Replacement
Abstract:The ArchAngel HMD-HUD Assessment and Testbed is focused on exploring the feasibility of different concept-designs and symbology for HMD Interface Design for HUD Replacements by combining Subjective & Quantitative Analysis and Modeling & Simulation with Realistic, Distributed Mission Training-Type Test Scenarios & Evaluation models and processes. It's this comprehensive approach to nominating, assessing, selecting, and actually performing simulation-based testing of potential HMD-HUD candidates that sets the ArchAngel Assessment and Testbed Approach apart from other, less comprehensive, approaches. As such, the ArchAngel approach will result in product-sets that include: actual HMD-HUD end-technologies, and a Testbed capable of supporting simulation-based acquisition-processes for HMD-HUD candidates including integration with other aviation-related weapons and weapons systems. SDS will be apply its extensive work to date developing PC-based simulation-Testbeds to assist in selecting high-potential HMD-HUD candidates and performing simulation-based testing of those candidates early in Phase I. The ArchAngel HMD-HUD Testbed will leverage-off SDS Testbed components built for UAVs/UCAVs/Space Maneuver Vehicles/Manned Aircraft to investigate HMD-HUD symbology and techniques for transmitting information from the battlespace to the pilot. The Testbed also includes sophisticated GOTS Computer-Generated-Forces providing a realistic, simulated-combat environment, and selective component-fidelity needed to record parameters associated with determining HMD-HUD effectiveness verses current and projected HUDs. The ArchAngel HMD-HUD Assessment and Testbed Phase I is envisioned to result in multiple HMD-HUD feasibility concepts that will evolve into one or more prototype demonstrations during both Phase I & Phase II, and a Testbed capable of supporting simulation-based acquisition-processes for HMD-HUD candidates including integration with other aviation-related information systems, weapons and weapons systems. Anticipated Benefits of replacing the aircraft's fixed HUD hardware with an ArchAngel HMD-based virtual HUD capability include, but are not limited to: . 360 Augmented Reality Viewer---Enhanced Situational Awareness for Safety and Combat by providing a 360 degree virtual symbology (for example, designator boxes can even show the position of aircraft underneath ownship; and horizon line, overlay terrain, and altitude cues can aid the pilot in orientation). From a pilot performance standpoint, the use of the HMD as the sole transparent display media has the potential to provide a pilot/vehicle interface that is flexible, intuitive, and more capable compared to current technology. These benefits go toward the enhancement of Air Force (and other services) mission effectiveness and aircrew survivability. . BatteSpace InfoSphere Enhancement--AWACS / JSTARS and other friendly sensor and information sources can be displayed with common symbology. For example, an AWACS controller can designate a bandit as bandit #9 and the ArchAngel HMD-HUD would place a #9 next to the designator box displayed, this would allow US warfighters to communicate sorting of targets more efficiently. Lead could tell his wingman to shoot #9 without any confusion. Other examples are "HighWay in the Sky" and Threat-Domes . Weapon Employment Enhancements---New Off-Bore Sight Weapons like Aim9-X can be incorporated into HMD-HUD symbology and operation. . Increased Efficiency and Safety for existing HUD aircraft---HMD-HUD will save significant aircraft weight while simultaneously freeing up valuable display real estate in the cockpit; Removal or the reduction in size of the current HUD combiner may afford the installation of a windscreen that is both stealthy and bird strike safe. . Eye-Protection from Nuclear Flash and Laser Weapons---All forms of obscured OTW vision may benefit with the ArchAngel Safety features of being able to draw the entire virtual world superimposed over the real-world for adverse weather and night. . Increased Efficiency and Safety for existing no-HUD aircraft---An ArchAngel HMD-HUD Kit will allow both military and private sector pilots to benefit. . Increased Efficiency and Safety for existing no-HUD vehicles---Ships, Subs and Armored Vehicles may also benefit from ArchAngel HMD-HUDs.

CHROMALUX, INC.
4665 Albany Street
Cocoa, FL 32927
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 637-3780
Mr. Roger J. Molitor
AF 01-060      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:High-Resolution Visual System Development
Abstract:Chromalux is developing a video projection system that will display 5000 elements of resolution per picture width and 18 million elements of resolution per frame. The purpose of this proposal is to test and evaluate the innovative use of offset electron beams to write and erase images on a liquid crystal light-modulating device, in a ultra high resolution video projection system. Because we have NO PIXELS, the image will not have distracting digital artifacts. Since we do not utilize a fixed matrix array to produce the image, we can very easily geometrically shape the image without lose of light or resolution, and we can produce the geometrically shaped image with little or no distortion. We have an engineering proof of concept system operating today. If the results of our study and test effort are successful, we will be able to provide the Air Force and other simulation dependent entities with an ultra high resolution video projector that can project full color, full motion video images with no smear. This projection system will be the first projection system to fully utilize the capabilities of today's ultra high resolution image generation capabilities.We can take the "FILM" out of movie films. The movie industry is looking for a projector that can produce a full color full motion digital image that is equivalent to or better than film. By our calculations, it will take 3300 lines of resolution to equal the resolution of film based on the fact that film has 80 line pairs per millimeter. This projection technology is capable of producing in excess of 3300 lines of digital video resolution. We anticipate capturing at least 30% of the $10 Billion emerging digital cinema market.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optic & Holography Div, 20600 Gramercy Pla
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Tin M. Aye
AF 01-060      Awarded: 26APR01
Title:Laser-Illuminated Sub-Image Scanning High Resolution Light Engine
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to address the poor resolution and limited field-of-view of current head-mounted-display (HMD) light engines, which are based on miniature CRTs, LCDs, microdisplays, and laser scanned displays. POC proposes a full color high resolution HMD light engine based on laser illumination, a high speed CMOS-LCD spatial light modulator (SLM), with either line image scanning or frame scanning. The proposed approach offers superior resolution (5k x 4k pixels) from a relatively low resolution CMOS-LCD SLM, taking advantage of its high refresh speed and relatively slow line image or subframe scanning. The proposed technology is made commercially attractive by its unique integration of currently available commercial components and low cost fabrication techniques. The proposed effort will focus on developing a compact Laser-Illuminated Sub-Image Scanning (LASIS) light engine demonstration unit in which COTS components such as RGB laser diodes and CMOS-LCD microdisplays will be integrated with POC's liquid crystal digital scanners to generate color sequential full resolution images for current U.S. Air Force simulator HMDs. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach through design, analysis, and an experimental proof-of-concept demonstration, so that in Phase II we can build a preproduction prototype light engine.The proposed compact, lightweight, high resolution HMD light engine will advance head mounted display technology. Applications include virtual environment training, avionics, medicine, education, CAD/CAM, video conferencing, entertainment, and video games.

PROTOBOX LLC
1464 North Broad St.
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 879-2588
Mr. Ronald Ewart
AF 01-061      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Real-time Embedded Simulation Performance Monitoring and Analysis for Distributed Mission Training (DMT)
Abstract:Protobox LLC proposes to develop an innovative network simulation performance monitoring system that will enable researchers to understand and quantify the performance of the simulation while it is being conducted. The system is called the "Embedded Simulator Test Evaluation Monitor" (ESTEEM). ESTEEM will measure simulation latencies and accuracies, identify and pinpoint sources of problems, provide status and entity information, and immediately display information to the researcher. ESTEEM is based upon a modular multi-level concept. Simple low-cost agents will be developed to gather basic information about the simulation at each network node. Critical simulation nodes can be augmented with additional ESTEEM modules including a GPS capability, hardware simulator performance measurement capability, and a researcher control and display. The multi-level concept is not a "shell" that would incur additional layers of overhead as the capability expands. Rather, it is modular building block approach that adds additional processing capability with each additional module. As the system is expanded, its accuracy and capability is increased. Two innovative techniques allow data to be gathered and returned to the researcher without impacting the simulation or network performance. ESTEEM will enable researchers to conduct experiments evaluating the interactive performance of network simulations, human pilots, and simulation participants. ESTEEM will be powerful tool supporting the improvement of network simulation and of Distributed Mission Training (DMT). The proposed system will be the first system to ever provide researchers with quantitative information about the performance of a network simulation while the simulation is being conducted. Engineers can use ESTEEM during the development of a simulation to optimize the interactive performance of the simulators located at various network nodes. ESTEEM can quantify the simulation latencies from stick input at one site until a pilot perceives the result of that input in a simulated aircraft at another site. Latency contributions can be broken down into components so that problem areas can be identified and minimized. The researcher can use ESTEEM to study the interaction between the network simulation and human participants. Installation of ESTEEM systems, located throughout a DMT environment, will permit researchers to certify the quality of the simulation when it is initially developed, and verify proper operation on a day-to-day basis. It is critical to use the embedded simulator performance measurement tool to measure the simulator performance while a simulation is being conducted. Results obtained from a network simulation experiment or distributed training exercise can only be trusted if the simulator performance has been verified.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Su
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. George J. Valentino
AF 01-061      Awarded: 07MAY01
Title:SNAPpy 2001 - DMT Performance Modeling and Analysis System
Abstract:Systran Federal Corporation (SFC) and Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC) propose to design, develop, demonstrate, and commercialize the SNAPpy 2001T DMT (Distributed Mission Training) Performance Monitoring and Analysis System. In Phase I, we will use our past experience and residual hardware and software from the 1998 "SNAPpy low-latency network interface and real-time data collection system" and the 1998 "AgentsTools intelligent software agents toolkit to support distributed simulations" programs to formulate a refined concept for a real-time performance monitoring and analysis "system." Our focus will be on utilizing open-systems and standards-based software to develop SNAPpy 2001 as a software product that would operate on heterogeneous distributed simulation platforms. SNAPpy 2001 will include the functions and features of both a real-time data logger (SNAPLoggerT) and a quasi-real-time data monitor and analysis system (SNAPViewerT). Both SNAPLogger and SNAPViewer will be flexible, allowing the simulation developer to tailor the specific data collection, viewing and analysis functions required for his requirements. The SNAPLogger will log entity state data from both computer-generated entities and from real people-or hardware-in-the-loop. The overall SNAPpy 2001 "system" will have application to developers and users of distributed simulations, whether they are HLA-based or non-HLA (legacy) simulations. Demonstrations will be provided.Our solution provides for (1) the unobtrusive, real-time, time-tagged collection of data from both real people-and hardware-in-the-loop systems and of data from purely computer-generated entities, (via the SNAPLogger) and (2) the movement of this data in near-real-time to a monitoring and performance analysis node for the presentation and analysis of the data (the SNAPViewer). Our solution is primarily software-based, with the main platform being a COTS Windows 2000 platform and standards-based data acquisition modules. Time stamps can be via GPS, IRIG-B, or other methods. We employ proven SFC and SAIC developed methods to minimize the latency between when data is sensed and the time-tag associated with this data, thus providing accurate insights into the simulation by the user. Intelligent software agent technology is used for efficiency, fault-tolerance, convenience, and customization.

AEGIS RESEARCH CORP.
7799 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1100 North
Falls Church, VA 22043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 471-3456
Bill Elm
AF 01-062      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Distributed Crew Interface for Autonomous Satellite Operations
Abstract:A shift in the concept of operations of military satellite operations centers toward "lights out" autonomous intelligent agents for normal operations and dynamically configured `on-call' crews with a variety of physical interface devices during emergencies requires a breakthrough in decision-centered distributed information systems. In these types of domains, the critical needs focus on understanding and providing for the information needs of the operators, supporting the collaboration needs of the environment, and providing effective decision support in order to transform the environment from an inefficient, data-intense, high cognitive demand situation to an efficient, information-rich, high-performance human-machine system. The key innovation here will be the design of support tools for a variety of user interface technologies and thus a variety of physical sizes, visual characteristics, and interaction mechanisms. This will be accomplished by an explicit and variable mapping of the decision and information requirements using a Function Based Cognitive Work Analysis (adapted from Woods, Rasmussen, Vicente, et al) to the `coverage' of particular user interface components. Our proposed effort will both develop the innovative decision support features for the next generation SOC as well as extend the CSE methodology in two key areas: to address "dynamic workspace variety" and "dynamic crew composition".The results of this work will be an extremely effective approach to capture the essential elements of this dynamic crew structure concept. First of all, the underlying functional analysis is extremely useful for identifying critical demands of the work domain (and thus critical functional areas for multiple operator support). This is essential for defining needed decision support. Second, regions of responsibility within the functional framework and decision map - for a variety of contingency operations - can be defined. This will be valuable for defining adaptive roles and responsibilities for the varying tempos of operation toward generating a clearly defined `transition plan' as a cognitive hypothesis in terms of collaboration and design requirements for the shift from normal to contingency operations. As "on demand expertise" becomes more commonplace in an internetworked enterprise, the marketplace need for these types of Decision Support Systems will continue to skyrocket. The associated services industry is expected to grow at a commensurate rate, focusing more and more on Decision Centered solutions as a greater share of that service area (e.g. the rapid success of companies like The Nielsen Norman Group).

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Dr. Elliot E. Entin
AF 01-062      Awarded: 26APR01
Title:Distributed Crew Interface for Autonomous Satellite Operations
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR, the Aptima team will draw upon its experience and expertise in studying, designing, and supporting effective distributed teams, and its long-term expertise in the design of human-centered interfaces for military command and control teams to design the interface for a remote distributed satellite maintenance crew. The Phase I work will result in the requirements for a human-centered interface that allows distributed crew members to communicate, maintain situation awareness, and collaborate in a wireless environment using advanced information technology tools to detect, diagnose, and issue commands to resolve satellite anomalies and emergencies. The Phase I effort will also produce the design for a simulation environment and experiment plan to empirically evaluate the interface. In Phase II an advanced prototype interface will be developed, along with the simulation environment that will be used to test the interface. The prototype will be evaluated using the experiment design developed in the Phase I effort. The methodology and approaches that are developed in Phase II can be adapted and applied in other domains in which distributed teams are involved in diagnosis and resolution of unanticipated disruptions that occur in complex automated systems.The concepts, designs, and findings that emerge from this SBIR effort will have direct application in DoD agencies, non-DoD government agencies, and corporate firms in which distributed and possibly ad hoc teams of experts are called upon to collaborate in a distributed environment to detect, diagnose, and stabilize anomalous or emergency conditions that occur in a remotely located automated systems. Potential application domains include law enforcement, remote medical interventions, and communications systems.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Jacobus
AF 01-062      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Distributed Crew Interface
Abstract:The US Air Force requires the capability to control, upload and download management information in order to coordinate crew interactions, even when the crew is remotely located. Because of limitations in communication infrastructure and shared databases, it is difficult for collaborating engineers, planners, analysts, and military commanders to allocate these assets in a timely manner. This process also requires the use of systems like the MILSATCOM ACMS that does not provide sufficient coordination support for large commercial satellite operators. A system more aligned with commercial practices such as WWW, CGI, and JAVA usage will offer the DoD further leverage as it upgrades its systems. A new generation of collaboration tools must be developed that, while implemented in CGI and JAVA and distributing data as HTML, must mimic the useful attributes of existing tools. Cybernet intends to provide this system by developing a capability that will allow Air Force personnel to make simple requests for information using the World Wide Web, e-mail, FTP and other data via a JTA compliant interface. This design will also provide an ISA the capability for the remote administration of collaboration and database upload and download into Air Force installed common support stations.The system proposed in this effort would be used to enhance Cybernet's current network products. This market is composed of sophisticated individuals and small to medium sized business or workgroups in larger business or the U.S. Government. This group requires the flexibility that larger organizations achieve through extensive support teams, but do not have the resources to get it at the present time.

MOBILEFOUNDATIONS, LLC
6607 Mayfair Drive, #302
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 862-9343
Mr. Jeffrey Fox
AF 01-062      Awarded: 14MAY01
Title:An Automated Tool to Enable the Distributed Operations of Air Force Satellites
Abstract:Air Force satellite program officers are being driven to explore greater levels of computerization due to budgetary reductions, evolving ground system and range architectures, and the increased number and complexity of missions. mobileFOUNDATIONS will demonstrate that advanced automation can meet these challenges. Today, mobileFOUNDATIONS's innovative Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) enables autonomous and distributed operations at NASA, saving millions of dollars/year. Upon detecting anomalies, SERS dynamically builds response teams based on the problem's type and severity and on the crew's skills, availability, and communications devices. SERS then enables distributed team collaboration via wireless devices. However, the Air Force needs an even more capable system, so mobileFOUNDATIONS proposes a user-centered Phase I program to: (1) understand Air Force user (human effectiveness) and architectural requirements; (2) study the impacts of current high-risk technology issues, like security; (3) demonstrate a proof-of-concept functional prototype; and (4) identify essential capabilities needed for Phase II operational prototyping.The successful conclusion of this SBIR program will result in more efficient and effective Air Force satellite program ready to better handle future challenges. mobileFOUNDATIONS will utilize this SBIR's technology in the development of a generic automated response system that will improve the efficiency of enterprises that depend on team-based distributed activities.

CONCEPTUAL MINDWORKS, INC.
4318 Woodcock Drive Suite 210
San Antonio, TX 78228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 536-1388
Dr. Mark Sloan
AF 01-063      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Surface Decontamination Using Electromagnetic Field/Laser Emitters
Abstract:The proposed project will develop the scientific basis for a sensing and decontamination system capable of detecting and destroying chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWAs). The system would incorporate sensors that could be contained in units which would passively interact with the environment. Alternatively, the sensors could be sprayed on surfaces of sensitive equipment, clothing and even skin without damaging the surfaces. The sprayed version of these sensors would be colorless or subdued in color until examined with an activator light source. After the photo-activation of the sensor redox reaction, either an electromagnetic field (EMF) and/or a laser would be used to destroy the CBWA. The proposed concept uses DNA aptamers for CBWA recognition, diazoluminomelanin (DALM) as the free radical label and DNA substrate, electron spin resonance (ESR) for signal detection, advanced signal processing for optimal pattern recognition and rejection, and either microwave or laser irradiation for destruction. The DNA grid is based on the SELEX process that allows binding of known and unknown CBWAs (e.g., genetic recombinant), the latter by binding to components that are common to known CBWAs. A spin-off project is that the tightly bound DNA aptamer sequences could be eluted, amplified, and purified for the production of neutralizing agents. Phases I - III would be conducted within a partnership including Conceptual MindWorks, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, McKesson HBOC Clinical and Biological Services, Litton TASC, and Honeywell Corporation. Fast detection and destruction of CBWAs would save lives by providing time to adopt protective measures. Commercially, medical personnel would use biosensors to rapidly detect and destroy viral, fungal, and bacterial organisms infecting open wounds, such as severe burns, without producing further trauma. Immediate decontamination of wounds would reduce complications from surgery resulting from secondary infection. Industrial hygienists would use biosensors to limit exposure to harmful organisms, such as biological toxins in food preparation areas (e.g., E. coli O157:H7).

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Michael D. Jaeger
AF 01-063      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:Low Temperature Plasma Source for Chemical and Biological Decontamination
Abstract:The excited or dissociated gaseous species created in non-thermal glow discharge plasmas are effective agents for killing or neutralizing certain biological or chemical warfare agents. For decontaminating sensitive equipment or personnel, the effluent from such plasmas must be near room temperature to prevent unintentional dispersal of the hazardous warfare agents and to avoid harming the equipment or persons being cleaned. We propose a unique method for generating room temperature decontaminating/sterilizing plasma effluent without the use of bottled gases. The technique can be embodied in an easily fieldable system that employs a handheld or fixed-position Cool Air-Plasma Gun. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the fundamental concepts necessary for generating cool decontaminating plasma effluent without using bottled gases. In Phase II, we will build a prototype Cool Air-Plasma Gun system and demonstrate its efficacy for decontaminating or sterilizing simulants of chemical warfare agents.Creare's cool plasma effluent technology is expected to provide a deployable system for decontaminating sensitive equipment or even personnel. Such a system will provide significant benefits to defense against chemical or biological warfare or terrorist acts, clean-up of toxic industrial chemicals, and sterilization of medical equipment and devices.

FEPET, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd., Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-5020
Mr. Leif Thuesen
AF 01-063      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:CBWA Decontamination Unit Based on Carbon Nanotube Cathodes
Abstract:It is proposed to use a carbon cold cathode as a source for an electron spray Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent (CBWA) decontamination unit. The goal is to design a device using the cold cathode source and model all of the necessary parameters of its operation. Electron beam technology has been shown to be an excellent tool in medical treatment and environmental decontamination systems. Phase I of this program will be a study of the parameters needed for an electron spray device to destroy CBWAs, limits so that materials and people are not injured through its use, modeling of the device to obtain specifications for operation and the applicability of a cold cathode to such a device. Construction and testing of a prototype device will be the objective of Phase II. In Phase III, the device will be advanced to commercialization. The applications of such a device will not be limited to military use in CBWA decontamination. Controlled destruction of CBWAs would also be possible. It could be used in industry to assist in cases of chemical spill clean up or factory emission control.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Gregory Zeltser
AF 01-063      Awarded: 26APR01
Title:Photocatalytic Plasma Jet
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to design and develop a novel photocatalytic plasma jet to address the needs of the Air Force (and the other services) to destroy chemical and biological warfare agents on surfaces ranging from human skin to concrete and soil using electromagnetic field emitters. The proposed Photocatalytic Plasma Jet (PPJ) will generate a non-thermal, ambient-pressure plasma discharge of a high velocity water-borne effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The novel key concept is preionization of the water by semiconductor-aided photocatalysis to decrease dielectric barriers to the ignition of the corona discharge. The PPJ design is grounded on patented POC technologies developed for fabrication of plasma diagnostics, light guiding systems, and sol-gel coating, and will be more power- and cost-efficient than current experimental devices. In Phase I, POC will develop a PPJ benchtop prototype for laboratory proof-of-concept demonstration and analysis of its performance at a DOD facility. In Phase II POC will produce a portable prototype device to demonstrate destruction of the CBWAs in in vitro experiments. These will be followed by additional evaluations of exposure parameters to prevent damage to skin and mucous membranes.The successful completion of this project will result in a reliable, mobile, and cost-efficient device and novel technology for non-thermal plasma decontamination of biological and chemical warfare agents on surfaces, including skin, also suitable for a wide range of commercial applications, notably hospital infection control, sterilization, and decontamination of instruments and clothes.

SOLUS BIODEFENSE
700 New Hampshire Ave NW, # 1008
Washington, DC 20037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 333-3175
Dr. Roger von Hanwehr
AF 01-063      Awarded: 17MAY01
Title:Surface Decontamination Using Electromagnetic Field/Laser Emitters
Abstract:SOLUS BIODEFENSE proposes a novel rf-excitable, molecularly-targeted BWA defeat technology, consisting of a microwave (MW)-excitable, UV-fluorophore modified, bioluminescent polymer and a series virabiocides designed to provide multimechanism synergistic agent kill and avid agent targeting directed at biomolecular surface matrices of spores, enveloped viruses, live microbial agents, and biotoxins. The virabiocides will consist of energy-activatable chromophores modified with charge specific agent targeting moieties, and with moieties likely to undergoe exothermic decomposition within bioagent macromolecular matrices. Mechanisms of kill integral to this design include: 1) sonoluminescent plasma effects induced by pulse microwave excitation of the polymer, 2) UV flash emission, 3) energy transduction-activated chromophore biolethality, and 4) focal exothermic energy release from decomposition events in proximity to molecular target sites within spore walls and viral envelopes. Both free and polymer-coupled virabiocides (the latter for the purpose of attaching CW nerve agent hydrolyzing enzymes to the system in Phase II) will be developed as integral molecular technology components. The agent defeat effectiveness of this technology will be extensively tested in experimental settings of high peak energy/rapid rise-time pulsed MW irradiation at multiple frequency bandwidths. Effectiveness of surface decontamination will be evaluated using anthrax spores, gram negative bacilli, enveloped influenza virus simulants, and biotoxins.The proposed microwave-excitable molecular-enhancement agent defeat technology is expected to address a broad range of markets in the biomedical, agriculture, veterinary, food science, materials industry, and environmental decontamination areas. Furthermore, advances in the technology of using charge groups to design new agent targeting molecules with fluorescent tagging properties opens huge commercial market potential internationally in the biotechnology and clinical domains. Furthermore, the development of molecular directed energy targeting and defeat enhancement technologies has significant future potential for the treatment of infectious disease as regards open contaminated wounds, and for the non-invasive molecular illumination-guided treatment of cancer.

BTMD, INC.
11401 Mountain View Rd., Suite 201
Damascus, MD 20872
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 253-0540
Mr. Frank S. Wodoslawsky
AF 01-064      Awarded: 07MAY01
Title:Simulated Panoramic Night Vision Goggle Helmet-Mounted Display for Simulated NVG Imagery
Abstract:The Simulated PNVG project will develop a proof of concept helmet mounted display system that will simulate the current Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) system. The prototype system will preserve the form, fit and function associated with the current PNVG using available display technology. The selected display technology for the simulated PNVG will integrate into the PNVG so as to preserve the form and fit as much as feasible. The display system will also need to support a variety of programmable video formats for the computer generated imagery in an effort to support research objectives associated with the physics based visual simulation of night vision goggle imagery.With the ever demanding mission requirements placed on our pilots for effective and safe night time operations, the significance of an accurate night vision goggle training platform can not be over stated. Mission preparation and the ability to rehearse various mission profiles provides a valuable tactical edge for our US military forces. The proposed Simulated PNVG system will provide an accurate and cost effective training aid. In addition, the technical advances produced from this development effort will be integrated into our current commercial set of high performance HMD systems.

INSIGHT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3 Technology Drive
Londonderry, NH 03053
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 626-4800
Mr. Eric Littleton
AF 01-064      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:Simulated Panoramic Night Vision Goggle Helmet-Mounted Display for Simulated NVG Imagery
Abstract:Insight Technology, Inc proposes to design and deliver a proof-of-concept demonstrator of a helmet-mounted display system to support ground-based training for the Integrated Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (I-PNVG). The demonstrator will integrate with the physics-based visual simulation system (Night Vision Training System) of Image Intensification (I2) based night vision goggle imagery currently in development. The principle problem to be addressed is how to configure a head-mounted display that provides the increased field of view and approximate image characteristics (resolution, color, decay rates, etc.) of I-PNVG while at the same time providing the weight, center of gravity, and form, fit, and function characteristics of I-PNVG. Existing miniature CRT and flat-panel displays will be analyzed to determine which technology offers the best balance between image quality characteristics (resolution being top priority) and minimizing weight and center of gravity deviations from the actual goggle. The I-PNVG monocular will be modified to accept the selected display. Eyepiece optics will be designed to accommodate the display while providing a panoramic image consistent with that of I-PNVG. The modified monocular assemblies will be mounted to the actual I-PNVG pilot adjustment shelf to maintain commonality with form, fit, and function of the actual system.The development of a simulation-based helmet-mounted display that closely matches the form, fit, and function characteristics of the Integrated Panoramic Night Vision Goggle system will provide for realistic training in the safe and relatively low-cost simulation environment. The simulation system also will permit development of modified tactics, techniques, and procedures for a wide field of view night vision goggle in the ground-based simulation environment. Additional benefits will include the capability to develop and evaluate future I-PNVG enhancements in a simulation environment prior to in-flight use and evaluation of pilot performance improvements brought about by the wide field of view goggle.

SPEECH TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
2414 NE Java Way
Hillsboro, OR 97124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 648-9822
Dr. Brian Womack
AF 01-065      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Advanced Speech Production Models
Abstract:Current speech processing systems address the effects of channel noise and assume that all speakers are always in the same stress state. Neutral speech occurs when the speaker has no task obligation other than to speak. Perceptually or physiologically induced speaker stress occurs in non-neutral conditions such as G-force, vibration, environmental noise, or emotion. Depending upon the type and degree of perceptual or physiological stress, the glottal source, vocal tract frequency structure, fundamental frequency, and intensity or duration are all affected in different ways. In addition, for a given speech utterance, a speaker's production can shift from one type of stress state to another dynamically. There are two main approaches to addressing the problem of speaker induced stress: (i) stress robust speech production models and (ii) stress robust speech processing algorithms. This study will focus on the first approach. By understanding the effects of speaker induced stress, it is possible to create models that are less sensitive to stress induced variability. These new features will then be applied as an example to the stressed speech recognition problem to determine if they result in improved performance.Current speech processing algorithms work best with neutral speech produced in quiet environments. In many settings, speech can be produced in environments that cause perceptual speaker stress such as emotion, task workload, or perceived background noise. During perceptual stress, the speaker will modify their production of speech to assist the listener's ability to receive the intent of the speech or to simply express emotion. Alternately, the human body can be exposed to physiological stress induced by vibration, acceleration, deceleration, or changes in the makeup of the air supply. Both of these types of stress create a significant change on the speech signal before it leaves the vocal tract. With better speech production models that seek to minimize the variability introduced by stress and noise, a wide range of speech processing applications will benefit. This is a foundational piece of technology that is required to take speech processing to the next stage in performance and reliability. Commercial applications will benefit from more robust speech recognition, for example, because speakers will be able to express emotion naturally in the real world environments that are part of their every day experience. This is an often quoted complaint with current speech recognition systems currently available commercially.

BEAM TECH CORP.
P.O. BOX 680486
San Antonio, TX 78268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 567-2989
Mr. Charles A. Hubbard
AF 01-066      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Electromagnetic Field Overexposure Indicator
Abstract:There is a need for a personal radiofrequency radiation (RF) alarm that has the ability to detect high levels of electromagnetic field exposures, in both near and far-field situations, so that personnel can perform their duties without health hazards in environments mandated by DOD operations. This project will evaluate the feasibility of developing a small, inexpensive portable alarm to detect exosures to RF electric and magnetic fields, up to extremely high intensities; at the latter, electronic devices could be inactivated. The approach is to use a passive device, based on the biosynthesized polymer diazoluminomelanin (DALM) suspended in an agar gel, for detecting, indicating with an alarm, and recording the exposure. The system would have a redundant active electronic component, which would provide alternative audible and visual alarm features. The DALM and the DALM-gel technologies were invented or developed by Air Force Scientists; Beam Tech Corporation (BTC) has exclusive license to the biological and chemical synthesis of DALM. In addition to this DALM-agar bubble and luminescence technology, BTC will identify and consider as alternatives both commercially available and patented technologies that could serve the same purpose, or could serve as components of the technology to be designed.The personal RF Overexposure Indicator to be designed and evaluated for feasibility will be unique in that it will not be at risk for inactivation by the very electro- magnetic exposures for which it is supposed to provide an alarm. It has the additional potential benefit of recording the intensity of the exposure, for determining the extent of exposure over a period of time between examinations. By including a comprehensive of any currently commercially available or otherwise patented technology, Beam Tech Corporation could identify devices or components that will assist in the development of an active electronic component, to be included as a redundancy feature in the Overexposure Indicator. While the market for the device would be extensive within the DOD, it would also be useful to U.S. Government Security Agencies. It might also be useful for persons who work in the private sector in the vicinity of intense RF sources, but who would not knowingly and purposefully allow or expect themselves to be exposed. A complete market evaluation is not possible at this time, with the limited preliminary information available to BTC. This would become possible with the development of prototype information in a Phase II project.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4273
Mr. Thomas Wavering
AF 01-066      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:Nanomaterials for Low-Cost Electromagnetic Field Alarms
Abstract:The development of small, lightweight, and low cost electromagnetic overexposure alarms is needed for numerous military and commercial applications involving high intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF). Exposure to high intensity EMF can cause deleterious effects within humans including: altering cell growth rate; decreasing the rate of cellular respiration; altering metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids; effecting gene expression and genetic regulation of cell functions; and numerous other degenerative consequences. Current devices to monitor EMF exposure are prohibitively expensive and not suited for field measurements on individuals. For the Phase I program, Luna Innovations proposes to utilize conductive nanomaterials for fabrication of low cost EMF alarms for use by the Department of Defense. Initial work will focus on the development of EMF sensing components utilizing different nanoscale and thin film technologies. Ionic self assembled films and carbon nanostructures will be combined to fabricate nanoscale antennas, loop detectors, and storage devices for quantification of electromagnetic fields. Due to the size and structure of the EMF sensing nanomaterials, the sensors can be tailored to optimize sensitivity, operating frequencies, and performance.The proposed sensor technology has immediate use for measurement of high intensity electromagnetic fields in military, power, and medical applications. The nanotechnology components will have additional application in the development of thin film batteries, photovoltaics, flexible displays, and advanced medical imaging technology. The technology demonstrated during the proposed Phase I program will allow Luna to capture a significant share of the initial target market segment through Luna's proven ability to transfer products from research to market.

US MICROBATTERY, INC.
74 Batterson Park Road
Farmington, CT 06032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 225-1974
Dr. Rodney LaFollette
AF 01-066      Awarded: 14MAY01
Title:Credit-Card Sized, Autonomous, Electromagnetic Field Detector
Abstract:The battlefield envronment requires accurate and reliable detecton of electromagnetic field detection for militay personnel. This proposal describes the evaluation of electromagnetic detection devices, memory modules and transmitters and then developing the systems (miniaturize them) down to the level of incorporation onto an integated circuit (IC). This work proposal include the adaptation of microscopic batteries fabricated by cleanroom microfabricaton techniques already successfully demonstrated by the company. Microscopic batteries, together with photovoltaic devices, will be controlled byfuzzy logic and will provide the power required to render this devide completely autonomous. If needed, this power spply can be designed to have a multi-voltge capability, both for discharge and charge. This provides the opportunity to optimize performance in both the charge and discharge regimes.Small, autonomouns electromagnetic field detection will help protect personnel in the battlefield environment and a civilian version would help determine if there a high levels of electromagnetic radiation originating from cellular telephones.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mr. David B. Kynor
AF 01-067      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:Disorientation Analysis and Prediction System
Abstract:Spatial disorientation is a significant problem in military aviation that has resulted in loss of life and aircraft. Creare proposes to develop a Disorientation Analysis and Prediction System that can be used in laboratory research, pilot training, and accident investigation. The system consists of a predictive model, which provides an estimate of the pilot's perceived orientation, and an orientation analyzer, which is an expert system that determines his degree of disorientation. We will also investigate new sensors to provide a quantitative measurement of pilot attentiveness and a new technique for making quantitative assessments of the likelihood of spatial disorientation during flight. This system is intended to serve as the basis for an in-flight monitoring system to be installed in aircraft. In Phase I, we will conduct a review of existing literature, formulate algorithms for quantifying spatial disorientation, investigate the use of additional sensors capable of measuring pilot activity, prepare a system design, and develop a software prototype. The primary private sector application for the technology developed under this program is in civilian aviation. The system developed under this program would be desired by the civilian aviation community to assist with pilot training, provide an in-flight warning of conditions likely to lead to disorientation, and determine whether or not disorientation was a factor in accidents.

NTI, INC.
4130 Linden Ave., Suite 235
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 254-3171
Dr. Robert D. O'Donnell
AF 01-067      Awarded: 26APR01
Title:Human Orientation Model for Spatial Disorientation Countermeasures
Abstract:The goal of this effort is to model human perceptual orientation in a way that it can, as part of the flight control system, alert pilots to various spatial disorientation (SD) conditions. NTI will survey existing models and develop a recommended universal model of how the human perceive motion in the maneuvering environment. The model will then be embedded into an advanced desktop flight simulator (the Flight-Performance Assessment Simulation System -- F-PASS), which simulates the F-16 aircraft with exceptional fidelity. Because F-PASS provides accurate data on the aircraft position and state, it will enable us to generate flight conditions in the simulator, and integrate these with the human model. This will permit simultaneous display of: 1) the position of the aircraft in space, and 2) the human's modeled perception of the aircraft. Pilots will be able to view SD conditions repeatedly, and fly into known SD situations to see the discrepancy between their expected perceptions and actual conditions. PhaseII will propose final development of the system, as well as ultimate installation in the centrifuge, allowing the pilot to actually experience and graphically see the disorientation. Ultimately, the system will provide the basis for installation in actual aircraft.The system to be developed here will serve as a training, research, and operational countermeasure to SD. As such, it has applicability far beyond the obvious fighter aircraft community. SD accounts for nearly 35% of private and commercial aircraft accidents. Therefore, the product will be of considerable interest to the FAA, airlines, light aircraft manufacturers, and to foreign governments.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Dr. Gavan Lintern
AF 01-068      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Work-Centered Interface Technology
Abstract:In complex sociotechnical systems such as military command and control, multiple individuals must work with complex and dynamic information from many diverse sources. Methods are needed to increase worker productivity in such systems by reducing the cognitive complexity of the multi-system interface. We propose a revolutionary approach to interface design for such systems, drawing on the techniques of Cognitive Work Analysis to design a Virtual Information-Action Workspace tailored for a work domain. The workspace will be structured using an abstration hierarchy that captures the terms and relationships natural to workers in the domain. Intelligent agents will support the information location, retrieval, and fusion capabilities needed by the Workspace. Agents will be designed to make the Workspace adaptive, so that users can create the agent capabilities they need to deal with unanticipated situations and new work demands. Intelligent agents will be the means by which workers can "finish the design" of the Workspace to meet their needs. In Phase I we will demonstrate the integration of CWA methods and tools with intelligent-agent-building capabilities to produce a Workspace design for a selected C2 domain. In Phase II we will build the Workspace and evaluate its effectiveness in increasing worker productivity.There is a virtually unlimited market for methods and tools that can increase the productivity of workers interacting with complex systems of systems. Tools for the creation of Virtual Information-Action Workspaces will directly benefit, for example, military C2 centers, air traffic control centers, hospitals, virtual manufacturing environments, managers of corportate databases, and both military and commercial maintenance operations.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 30
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. Wayne W. Zachary
AF 01-068      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Work-Centered Interface Technology
Abstract:The mismatch between worker needs and information systems design and performance has long been noted, and has given rise to a long body of research on ways to factor the user more explicitly into the interface and system design process. Active interfaces that act as infomediaries between underlying systems and their users, offer the most comprehensive solution to this usability problem, but also pose the greatest technological challenge. The proposed research team at CHI Systems has evolved, through a series of recent applications, a novel work-centered active interface reference architecture, called the Work-centered Infomediary Layer (WIL) architecture. This proposal seeks to create a WIL Application Toolkit (WAT) -- a set of software tools to support and streamline the process of creating WIL interfaces. Phase I develops a WAT concept of operation and architecture, and integrates these via a storyboard prototype . Phase I also defines a detailed development plan for a full-scale Phase II system, assesses the benefits and commercial potential of WAT, and identifies specific candidate Air Force C2 domains on which a full-scale Phase II WAT will be tested and applied.The commercial value of WAT is derived from its use to develop Work-centered Infomediary Layer (WIL) applications to various domains in commercial sector, such as aerospace, network management, call center operations, and medicine. WAT can be commercialized as vehicle for consulting/system integration efforts to develop custom WIL applications, as well as sold directly to development and end-user organizations as an active interface construction tool.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Mr. Terrance L. Goan
AF 01-068      Awarded: 18APR01
Title:Facilitating Work-Centered Interface Development through Patterns
Abstract:We propose a novel work-centered interface development environment that will dramatically reduce the complexity of interaction design. To this end, we will support an enhanced Contextual Design process with a set of tools that will enable developers to draw on the aggregate experience of other work-centered interface designers. This will be achieved through the collection and application of proven design/interaction patterns that will, among other things, enable developers to resolve the conflicts between agent autonomy and user control requirements. Further, WorkWell will provide an intuitive incremental process for the ontology development and semantic mapping that will be essential to the creation of homogeneous interfaces to the very heterogeneous JBI resources. We will ground our efforts in a domain that we know very well - Defensive Information Warfare (DIW). There is currently a great need for work-centered interfaces that can help network security professionals cope with the great quantity and diversity of data that must be analyzed, as well as incredibly short decision cycles. Our Phase I investigation will result in a detailed work-centered interface development procedure that will form the foundation for the full-scale implementation of WorkWell, as well as a specification of the target DIW interface.This technology is valuable to any organization where users must operate in information dense and time critical environments. WorkWell will allow the application of work-centered design techniques within today's time-constrained software development.

COGNITECH CORP.
1060 East 100 South, Suite 202
Salt Lake City, UT 84102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 322-0101
Dr. Wendell Duncan
AF 01-069      Awarded: 12APR01
Title:Toxicity Evaluation Module
Abstract:Many chemicals have limited occupational health and toxicological data. A computerized fuzzy logic expert system module could synthesize information from diverse sources and support the assessment of a chemical's toxicity endpoints and associated uncertainty. The interdisciplinary team of toxicologists, chemists, and computer scientists will develop a fuzzy logic methodology and knowledge base for determining toxicity endpoints. The investigators will use this methodology to develop a prototype web-based fuzzy logic expert system, integrated with an interactive user interface and database. The investigators will create the knowledge base rules and facts from QSAR-related variables (i.e., chemical physical properties) and existing toxicological data. This software will be evaluated and demonstrated with the adrenocortical endocrine disruption toxicity endpoint. Phase II will extend Phase I's methodology and technologies to develop a fully functional software prototype that will estimate health hazards over a larger spectrum of toxicity endpoints relevant to the Air Force.The toxicology decision support module will have applications as an initial screening mechanism for industrial chemical manufacturers and their customers. An additional market is as an educational tool for universities, hospitals, and emergency response agencies.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
10299 Scripps Trail, PMB 231
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Dr. Dariusz Wroblewski
AF 01-069      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:Computional Framework for Intelligent Predictive Toxicology
Abstract:The ability to rapidly assess the human health risks posed by a multitude of newly developed chemical compounds is of critical importance. Standard method for predicting toxicity to humans involves in vivo testing in laboratory animals. High cost and time requirements of the animal studies created an interest in the development of predictive toxicology, in which the toxicity inferences are obtained from a limited number of animal studies with the use of additional, more easily obtainable information such as results of in vitro studies, and/or physical and chemical properties of the molecules. Although a substantial progress has been achieved in development of methods of predictive toxicology, there is no definitive method (computational or, biological) that can be relied upon in the prediction of human toxicity. IAC proposes to develop the iPTE (Intelligent Predictive Toxicology System), an open-architecture computational framework for development and integration of predictive methods. In Phase I, the system architecture will be designed and a prototype will be demonstrated for a single toxicity end-point. The Phase I research will include implementation of novel neural network classification techniques and development of reliable quantitative measures of the prediction accuracy. The computational system for toxicity prediction is a significant product that will be used for both civilian and military applications. The main function of the system will be to provide rapid screening of newly developed chemicals with respect to human toxicity. Such screening is required by regulatory requirements for various industries. Additionally, the system may be marketed as an integration and development platform for emerging predictive approaches

RATIONAL DISCOVERY LLC
114 Brenton Ct.
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 691-9753
Dr. Hugh Genin
AF 01-069      Awarded: 26APR01
Title:An Adaptive, Modular Machine Learning System for Toxicity Prediction
Abstract:We propose an innovative approach to the development of toxicity evaluation software. We will adapt a modular machine-learning software system that was originally designed for modeling inorganic and organometallic substances in catalysis and materials science problems to the challenge of predicting toxicity endpoints for a wide range of chemicals. The software's descriptor-based representation of substances allows us to generalize this modeling system and to simultaneously include many different types of chemicals. The modular nature of the software allows us to create multiple models for different toxicity endpoints one by one, and then combine them seamlessly into a final product giving one prediction along with a degree of confidence in that prediction. Due to the nature of the machine-learning approaches being applied, the reliability of the predictions will improve as more data are used to train each module. Phase I of this research will demonstrate the ability of this software to predict acute lethality as represented by oral rat LD50 values and to provide measures of confidence for those predictions. Phase II will involve creating and combining modules for other toxicity endpoints and will also involve training on human toxicological data.The Air Force and other DoD components must perform risk-assessment determinations on all the new (and some existing) chemical entities that they develop and deploy. Current methods of toxicological studies are slow and expensive. The benefits to DoD of an alternative method such as the computational model proposed herein will be to speed the rate at which chemical substances can be evaluated and lower the cost of those evaluations. Other government agencies (e.g., NIST, EPA, FDA) also have a need for toxicological evaluation software to streamline their risk-assessment procedures. In private industry, the need to perform toxicological evaluations is present and growing in the chemical manufacturing, agricultural, and pharmaceutical sectors, to name only a few. New substances are continually being developed, and stricter government regulations require that more of them be tested, at a cost in time, dollars, and animal lives that can reach staggering proportions. Effective toxicity evaluation software will save enormous amounts of time and money. The market for alternative toxicity evaluation techniques is large and is expected to continue to grow.

YAHSGS LLC
8516 Oxford Drive
Knoxville, TN 37922
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 607-2988
Dr. Katherine Yuracko
AF 01-069      Awarded: 02MAY01
Title:Chemical and Material Toxicity Evaluation Module
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force deploys and encounters a highly diverse spectrum of chemicals and materials. The health hazards of these materials must be evaluated to protect personnel and to minimize life cycle costs for weapon systems. To evaluate health risks, chemical toxicity information is needed. However such information is costly and requires several years of testing to obtain. As a result, reliable data are available for only a few percent of the chemicals in use today. The research under this Phase I SBIR project is directed at demonstrating the feasibility of using artificial intelligence approaches to estimate human health risks from exposure to chemical hazards. To accomplish this feasibility demonstration, a chemical toxicity database will be designed and developed to underpin predictions of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and developmental/reproductive toxicity for chemicals of interest to the Air Force. Both a neural network and statistical techniques will be used to predict these three toxicity endpoints, and the performance of the two approaches compared. Technical feasibility will be demonstrated by achieving a 90 percent or better accuracy in predicting toxicity for chemicals of interest to the Air Force. This level of performance represents a significant improvement over currently available systems.If proven feasible during Phase I, YAHSGS' approach to predicting chemical toxicity will provide a rapid and inexpensive means to determine the health risks of new chemicals; the risks of existing chemicals for which inadequate toxicity data exist for conducting health hazard assessments (~80% of chemicals in commercial use); and risks for chemicals encountered in military and industrial situations. The Chemical and Material Toxicity Evaluation Module (CAMTEM) will be sold either as an application for installation on a user's system or as a tool to be used via Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). The OLAP approach will greatly expand the user group and market potential by reducing the user's hardware, software, and, potentially, training requirements. Two specialized modules will be developed to expand the CAMTEM's usage and marketability to government and industrial users. The first will predict environmental effects of subject chemicals including the risks associated with chemical daughter products formed or released to the environment. The second will provide reverse engineering capabilities that will identify ways for chemical designers to eliminate or reduce health risks from chemicals or products being developed. The overall benefit from the CAMTEM approach will be the availability of significantly better health risk information for the 80% or more of the chemicals now in commercial use for which there are currently inadequate toxicity risk related information and for new chemicals being developed. That information will enhance governments' and industries' ability to recognize specific chemical toxicity related risks and take responsible steps to avoid exposing people and the environment to harmful chemicals.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Paul Rudolph
AF 01-075      Selected for Award
Title:Remote Consolidated Data Loader
Abstract:In currently Air Force operations, mission planning data is generated using a ground-based system, and is then hand carried to the aircraft shortly before takeoff. To allow more time for the mission planning operations, the Air Force would like to be able to use wireless data transmission to transfer this data. SFC proposes to develop a Remote Consolidated Data Loader (RCDL) to meet this need. The RCDL will use a COTS wireless technology to transfer data from the Mission Planning System (MPS) to the aircraft. In a previous SBIR, SFC has developed a prototype wireless maintenance tool, called PALM-IT, which has many of the features desired for the RCDL. SFC intended to leverage this experience in developing the RCDL; as part of Phase I, this prototype will be modified to support the functions needed by the RCDL. During Phase I, we will define the hardware and software requirements for the RCDL, select the COTS wireless technology to be used, evaluate the COMSEC requirements and select an NSA-approved encryption standard, and gather requirements from potential users of the RCDL, and develop a top-level design. The RCDL system will be flight-tested during Phase II aboard a Combat Talon I aircraft.By eliminating the time spent hand-carrying the mission planning data to the aircraft, the RCDL system will allow a larger amount of pre-flight time to be devoted to mission planning. This can be a significant benefit, particularly when operating in a high-tempo environment. By utilizing NSA-approved Type I encryption standards, RCDL will provide a high degree of data security, while eliminating the need for the portable media currently in use. By offering future compatibility with GATM systems to be fielded within the next decade, RCDL will eventually be able to support in-flight data transfers, allowing mission planning and other information to be updated even while a mission is in progress.

CYCORP, INC.
3721 Executive Center Drive, Suite 100
Austin, TX 78731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 514-2976
Mr. William Wechtenhiser
AF 01-078      Selected for Award
Title:Using Cyc(R) Technology to Create an Intelligent Network Configuration Tool
Abstract:Investigate how to improve not just the precision and accuracy of network configuration tools but also how to qualitatively expand the scope of what sorts of conditions of interest they report, by incorporating a large commonsense knowledge base to enable reasoning about network functionality. Current tools are limited by their inability to consider all the factors that bear on network configuration analysis, including adherence to policies, network functionality, network design tradeoffs, and real-world factors (e.g., weather, holidays, physical layouts of offices, and so on). To make this happen, the network, the policies, etc. would have to be declaratively represented in a formal language such as CycL (predicate calculus). Then a base of general knowledge similarly represented - e.g. the Cyc KB - could be brought to bear, along with the deductive reasoning engine associated with that KB. Altogether, this could be a power tool for the network administrator, enabling them to detect multi-step conditions of interest (e.g., vulnerabilities) and to perform "what-if" analyses of proposed changes in the network without having to actually make the changes and run diagnostics.Success in this endeavor will greatly simplify the network administrator's job, and thus improve both the stability and security of the network in question. Furthermore, this technology will advance the state of the art in network analysis by adding a layer of intelligence while permitting network administrators to evaluate hypothetical configuration changes without actually reconfiguring the network.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Mr. Richard Stottler
AF 01-078      Selected for Award
Title:Optimizing Network Configuration Toolkit: via an AI Interface to OpNet's Modeler Commercial Simulation Engine
Abstract:We propose to develop an innovative Artificial Intelligence (AI) toolkit interface to OPNET Modeler, a COTS simulation engine, to configure and optimize network configuration and operations in the field. This toolkit will allow rapid design and optimization of communications networks without requiring the user to have programming skills or knowledge of the underlying OPNET Modeler simulation engine. Because developing such a toolkit represents a challenge, we suggest an integrated approach drawing upon a broad range of AI techniques, user interface, and visualization technologies. There is currently a great need for any solution that will dramatically reduce the complexity of network configuration due to the great quantity and diversity of information that must be analyzed, as well as the short decision cycles. The resulting system will provide the capability for less experienced network engineers to perform efficient and effective network engineering and ongoing operations, with the end result being reduced costs, increased operational efficiency, and improved robustness. We will absolutely demonstrate the feasibility of our ideas through the development of a Phase I, proof-of-concept prototype. The enormous opportunities for both commercial and governmental applications include use on all types of communications networks; optimizing based on utilization, cost, and performance.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Jmaes A. Newhouse
AF 01-080      Selected for Award
Title:Common Data Access Models and Services Using Datalets
Abstract:The Air Force needs to access a large variety of databases with varying data schemas and storage architectures from an equally large variety of applications. This presents a rewarding but challenging problem of enabling access to these databases via common data access models and services. This problem, and also its most challenging implementation aspect, is particularly significant in the context of mission planning, where time constraints make it critical to obtain timely access to data required for optimal plan generation. This project will investigate using a novel concept called "datalets" for implementing common data access models and services in the context of the "Theater Battle Management Core Systems (TBMCS)" application domain. The effort will be compatible with the overall approach of the "Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI)" program. The research will leverage state-of-the-art technologies such as various XML protocols and agent-based programming. This research has both military and commercial benefits. The military benefit would be a significant advancement in the architecture for the TBMCS in particular and the JBI in general, potentially providing an approach that would become an integral component of the JBI program. In commercial applications, the datalet paradigm could become a new tool for easy access to disparate data from disparate Web-based applications across a broad spectrum of distributed, enterprise, and business-to-business commercial applications.

SCHWALB CONSULTING, LLC
26 Valley View
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 856-0291
Dr. Edward M. Schwalb
AF 01-080      Selected for Award
Title:Common Data Access Models and Services
Abstract:We propose to develop an intelligent self-reorganizing middleware providing access services that are independent of data sources and that provide a common simultaneous access for various clients running on multiple platforms. Presented below are (1) the technology, (2) the killer application, (3) highlights of a B-Plan and (4) Phase I work plan. This project will utilize the Java-based Nodes API (NAPI) technology, which is a highly efficient object-access technology managing 4-layered caching mechanism. NAPI is unique in that it anticipates which objects that are likely to be requested, and pushes these objects through the cache pipeline; it is asynchronous, thus enable populating the cache pipeline through background processes while delivering instantaneous client response. The proposed killer application presents an opportunity to overhaul of the current casualty reporting system and redefine the acquisition and distribution of medical situations and needs; it will be designed with a focus on ultra-fast response for effective crisis management. NAPI was successfully used to implement diverse application such as a knowledge visualization tool, and a patient record abstraction and visualization tool. In this project, NAPI will be extended to support Office Automation (OA) tools and email client. NAPI has the potential of simultaneously reducing the development costs and improving the performance of applications that require access to persistence object storage through a middleware component. This potential can be realized through the integration with leading application servers, such as WebSphere (IBM) and WebLogic (BEA Systems).

COMCEPT, INC.
209 East IH-30
Rockwall, TX 75087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 772-7501
Mr. Mike Greer
AF 01-082      Selected for Award
Title:Improvement to Geo-Registration
Abstract:Today, Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) assets operate independently and report their information on separate communication systems. Each of these systems uses different host platforms, navigation systems, GMTI sensors, processing algorithms, and communications systems. Each of these sensors has its own inherent set of error sources that affect the accuracy of the derived geolocation. These errors may be inherent in the location of the sensing platform itself, may result from the way that the basic sensor data is collected and measured, and may be introduced by coordinate system and datum transformations that govern the processing of collected data. ComCept has extensive experience in developing geolocation algorithms and simulations for network centric collaboration of assets, as well as GMTI track enhancements. ComCept proposes to leverage from research and algorithm development on their Network Centric Collaborative Targeting Network Simulator (NNS) effort, their Geolocation - ComCept Analysis Tool (GeoCAT) effort, and their subcontract effort for Northrop Grumman on GMTI track enhancement to design and develop a new geo-registration tool, called GeoLock, that will demonstrate the benefits of geo-registration on geolocation performance.The future commander must have the ability to overcome current geolocation disparities to locate and identify potential threats quickly before they can react. New algorithms that increase the speed and accuracy of geolocation performance by removing these disparities have the potential to save lives and avoid casualties. Geo-registration has proven to be a method for significantly improving geolocation performance. The geo-registration tool that ComCept develops through this Phase I effort, called GeoLock, will give USAF program managers, mission planners, and analysts a method for modeling and simulating geolocation performance and the improvements fostered by geo-registration. Because the geo-registration process is standard, GeoLock is not limited to use by GMTI platforms only. It applies equally as well to all military and commercial assets and forces that have a need for geolocation and geo-registration. Other military applications include the Navy Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) effort and the US Coast Guard Deepwater Project. Two commercial examples are law enforcement and emergency services concerned with locating target radios.

DUBBS & SEVERINO, INC.
606 Larkridge
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 262-0535
Ms. Kimberly Dubbs
AF 01-083      Selected for Award
Title:Demonstrate Track Management Concepts for Exchange of GMTI Track Information
Abstract:The sharing of military data on the battlefield is currently an incredibly complex process. The computers, communication devices, weapons systems, and sensors deployed by the various services lack standardized interfaces, require excessive support, and suffer myriad problems that impede the effective flow of information during combat operations. The proposed GeoSystem client/server track manager is an integrated toolkit which will address this problem. Using industry standards for information transport that have evolved with the Internet, the GeoSystem will provide the infrastructure required to ensure secure, real-time data flow on the battlefield. During this Phase I effort, we will build on some of our existing track-manager software to produce a prototype that will include all the functionality required of a system suitable for actual field deployment. The aviation safety community, biological monitors, climate modelers, surveyors, oil-explorers, and certain types of mineral excavators all face track-management problems similar to those faced by the Air Force. The technologies we propose to develop during this Phase I effort could all be adapted to support these endeavors.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 Court St., Suite 210
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 798-1377
Mr. Walt Szczepanski
AF 01-084      Selected for Award
Title:FOPEN SAR Enhancements
Abstract:This proposal addresses two problematic issues with GMTI (Ground Moving Target Indicator) radar surveillance systems. First, when the Doppler velocity of a vehicle drops, a GMTI system cannot detect it (e.g. the "move-stop-move" problem). Second, a vehicle is only detectable at intermittent intervals when moving under dense foliage. Because of its low frequency, FOPEN SAR can detect targets under foliage. GMTI detection techniques developed for a combined monostatic / bistatic FOPEN-SAR (Foliage Penetrating Synthetic Aperture Radar) system will track the vehicle during GMTI blind stages. A GMTI system hands the track to the SAR system when the target slows. When the target resumes speed, the SAR system hands it back. Unless the Doppler velocity is zero, there will be a cross-range bias in the detected target location. Therefore, the Doppler velocity is measured in order to compensate. Although FOPEN SAR lacks the resolution to identify targets at reasonable integration times, the proposed system will merge otherwise disjoint tracks to correctly associate them with the proper target. Such information will facilitate the identification process. This effort will compliment an upcoming GMTI radar Phase II effort, where a combined FOPEN-SAR/GMTI system utilizes a common antenna array. Commercialization potential includes drug enforcement applications, where there is also a need to spot moving vehicles under forested canopies. These techniques are also applicable to high frequency radars when the targets are visible.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Mr. Joseph Salzman
AF 01-084      Selected for Award
Title:FOPEN SAR Enhancements
Abstract:One of the most promising approaches to alleviating the limitations of detecting and targeting time-critical, fixed and mobile ground targets that use CC&D techniques, is the use of FOPEN radars. These radars, which operate in the VHF/UHF bands using UWB techniques, can obtain high-resolution (~ 0.5 m) SAR images of concealed targets. However, using these FOPEN SAR images to detect man-made targets distributed over vast areas in deep forest cover or other camouflage, has long been recognized as important but difficult. The foliage complicates the detection process in a number of ways, but the most challenging is the backscatter from the tree trunks and areas adjacent to the targets - often indistinguishable from the target returns. To enhance target detection - and subsequent tracking and recognition - TSC is proposing a novel approach that exploits the image recovery attributes of auto-regressive (AR) techniques, such as the Burg algorithm. The technique holds great promise in providing a means to discriminate true target returns from discrete tree trunks and other clutter. During Phase I, TSC will investigate the feasibility of exploiting FOPEN SAR image notching and AR recovery techniques to enhance the detection and eventual track and recognition of ground targets moving in forested areas. The technology developed in this project will result in a robust method for the detection - and eventual track and recognition - of true ground target returns amid myriad returns from tree trunks and other clutter, with low false-alarm and missed targets. The technology is expected to substantially improve the military's effectiveness in targeting concealed fixed and mobile ground targets. In addition, it has civilian applications which include forestry monitoring by environmental services for compliance with logging restrictions as well as forest fire fighting, and law enforcement and drug traffic interdiction in heavily forested regions like South America.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #4
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8715
Dr. Volkan H. Ozguz
AF 01-085      Selected for Award
Title:Stacked Adaptive Computing Module
Abstract:ISC proposes to develop an adapative computing module using stacked commercially available, programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), processors and memories to provide a universal hardware commonality which will ease system design and delay obsolescence. It will also alleviate the need for ASIC processors and controllers in many applications, as RISC versions of high-end microprocessors can also be emulated. Using currently available FPGAs, it will be even be possible to reconfigure on-the-fly, such that software for different platforms may be run on the same system, with the transitions being transparent to the user. Projecting a step further, developers may be able to customize the behavior of the processor to optimize for a specific complex task, or mix and match the best of multiple processors, all within software. ISC is in a unique position to develop such a system. Using a novel 3D stacking method, we can turn a prototype system of COTS components into a monolithic device, bypassing the IC design and wafer manufacturing steps. This approach has the added benefit that we can readily upgrade the system as the component COTS technologies are advanced. The complexity and the performance improvement provided by stacking will allow the stacked modules to have performance similar to monolithic ASICs.This module can serve the needs of data mining and data processing applications. Developed technology can be applied as a service to OEM and other industrial or governmental institutions in need of a long term solution to changing processor needs for a large variety of applications.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7788
Mr. Daniel King
AF 01-085      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a Radiation Hardened Wafer Scale Signal Processor
Abstract:The development of a radiation hardened WSSP (Wafer Scale Signal Processor) is proposed. The project will result in a high performance, programmable, floating point dual processor. Radiation hardening will be designed for environments including total ionizing dose (>300 Krad(Si)), dose rate upset (>1011 rad(Si)/s), latchup (immune to both dose rate and single event latchup), and single event effects (<1x10^-10 errors per bit day). The WSSP is specifically designed for fault tolerance and power efficient, sustained floating point performance. It is optimized for efficient memory utilization with each of the dual processing elements capable of accessing either of two independent memory banks over two 72 bit (64 bits plus byte parity) buses. The WSSP can perform 8 single precision floating point operations per clock cycle. The Phase 1 effort will result in a high level partitioning of the rad hard design into synthesizeable macros. A series of analyses will be performed to demonstrate the ability to achieve hardness required for strategic systems. The detailed design and fabrication of the RH-WSSP in a state-of-the-art SOI process will be performed in Phase 2.A radiation hardened WSSP will provide an enabling technology for high performance, digital signal processing in space. The WSSP is optimized for MFLOPS/Watt, which is the critical metric for the floating point intensive applications encountered in next generation space systems.

RADANT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
255 Hudson Road
Stow, MA 01775
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 562-3866
Dr. Fredric Ziolkowski
AF 01-086      Selected for Award
Title:Dome Lens with Hemispherical Scan Coverage for Milstar Airborne Applications
Abstract:Airborne MILSTAR SATCOM Terminals require at least hemispherical coverage. In principle, the Dome Lens can expand the less than hemispherical coverage of a single electronically scanned array or of a limited mechanical scan antenna to a more than hemispherical coverage. This effort aims to evolve practical design concepts for a Dome Lens addressing the unique requirements of EHF frequencies and the airborne environment. This research could lead to a SATCOM terminal designs requiring only one (1) antenna to provide full operationally required coverage. This represents cost savings and a solution to on-aircraft installation problems relative to multiple antenna solutions.

PRINCETON MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
UNIT C-10, 3 NAMI LANE
MERCERVILLE, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 586-8140
Mr. Sarjit S Bharj
AF 01-087      Selected for Award
Title:High Efficiency, Small Volume 44 GHz Transmitters
Abstract:The replacement of millimeter-wave traveling wave tube by solid-state power amplifiers has been recognised as a very important goal for some time. Solid-state power amplifiers provide the substantial benefits of elimination of high voltage supplies, reduction in size and weight, and generally improved reliability, especially for airborne microwave systems. Hoever, the demans of higher power at higher frequencies are stedily increasing in today's molitary and commercial applications such as MILSTAR, SATCOM, GBS and LMDS. The limitation of output power capability of state of art solid state devices can be partially overcome by combining several devices or amplifiers. A difficult aspect of designing a combiner is finding a scheme that offers low loss, good amplitude and phase balance, and high power handling capability.Combining approaches cccan be seperated into two groups: those which combine two devices at a time(binary) and those that combine the output of N devices in one step(n-way combiners).On one hand, the losses of binary structures degrade the combining efficiency and on the other hand, the n-way combining structures are designed to combine the output of N devices in one step. This scheme has the potential for a higher combining efficiency.We propose the development of MILSTAR SSPA using a radial combinerThe development of the SSPA amplifiers for SATCOM, and GBS will find direct insertion into Local Multi-point distribution Systems at 28-30 Ghz in which Princeton Microwave is currently active.

SOPHIA INTERCONNECT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
14225-C Sullyfield Circle
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 961-9573
Mr. Philip J. Koh
AF 01-088      Selected for Award
Title:Development of extremely compact, low cost millimeter wave up and down converters with rapid frequency agility
Abstract:We propose to develop frequency hopping millimeter wave oscillators for integration with our compact up/down converter architecture to develop compact, low cost solutions for MILSTAR and GBS transceivers.Commercial Point-to-point and point-to-multipoint fixed wireless links, LMDS, and satellite communications systems.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Scott May
AF 01-089      Selected for Award
Title:Agent-Based Algorithms to Search Multiple Databases for Spatial and Temporal Information
Abstract:In future military operations, intelligence analysts will have access to unprecedented quantities of surveillance data. Toyon proposes to develop an architecture that employs "intelligent software agents" to reduce information overload for the operator by automating many of the intelligence processes. This architecture will also be robust with respect to changing network conditions. The architecture consists of three categories of intelligent software agents: User-Interface Agents, Task Agents, and Information Agents. The User-Interface Agents translate user commands into requests for the Task and Information Agents. The Task Agents automate many intelligence-analyst tasks by using data synthesis algorithms. The Information Agents respond to requests for data by searching the data sources at their network location. The intelligent agent architecture will be developed using a simulated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance sensor network. Functions that the proposed architecture will enable include tracking with ground-moving-target-indicator (GMTI) radar, track-level fusion between multiple track databases, and multi-sensor data fusion. At the conclusion of Phase I, Toyon will demonstrate the system architecture using a simplified user interface and a small set of rules to govern the behavior of the Task Agents. The successful completion of this research will result in a system that the Air Force and others can use to gather data across a network from multiple data sources. Specific customers within the Air Force include the JSTARS SPO, the AFRL TUT program, and other programs that synthesize data across the network. Many other government agencies as well as private industry could use the technology for related data-synthesis applications.

COMPUTER GRAPHICS SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
2483 Old Middlefield Way #140
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 903-4922
Mr. Roy W. Latham
AF 01-090      Selected for Award
Title:3-D Display of Time Critical Targets on Joint STARS Operator Workstation
Abstract:The complexity of the modern battlespace and the extent of information supplied by modern sensors makes traditional methods of data display ineffective for efficient decision making. For the present effort, alternative approaches will be studied based upon three recent advances in technology, specifically (1) automatic tracking technology, including multiple hypothesis tracking and optimal estimation approaches; (2) real time data visualization techniques, including parametric object building, made possible by advances in graphics hardware; and (3) Network-based information dissemination, including person-to-person and system-to-system collaboration.The targeted military benefit is improved decision making in the ground moving target sensor environment, and more generally in complex battlespaces. Commercial applications include weather prediction from voluminous weather sensor data and financial analysis and prediction in very complex financial data environments.

ANDRO CONSULTING SERVICES
Beeches Technical Campus, Bldg. 3, Ste. 4, Rt. 26N
Rome, NY 13440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 334-1163
Mr. Andrew L. Drozd
AF 01-091      Selected for Award
Title:Situation Awareness Information Fusion: ANDRO's InFuSA System - A 4D Modular Virtual Crew Station Applying Visual/Auditory Display Surround For Rapid
Abstract:New fighter/bomber air defense crews and airborne C4I surveillance operators encounter ever-increasing amounts and types of real time information from on- and off-board sensors and other information sources. The problem is complicated by the increasing number of off-board military platforms providing situation awareness (SA) information on hundreds of different targets and tracks, and the assessment of merged/processed data from multiple sources. For instance, the SA of the complex battlespace for ground moving vehicle time critical targets including detecting tanks under trees involves the assessment of large amounts of real time, near real time, and non real time data. These growing demands place undue information processing requirements on aircrews and operators that can lead to spatial disorientation, loss of situational awareness, cognitive overload, and delayed reactions during emergency or transient conditions. This forces personnel to function as human data integrators rather than as decision makers. These potentially dangerous conditions underscore the need to supply operators or aircrews with manageable amounts of high-quality information. One method for accomplishing this goal is to address the requirement of providing a single SA picture to the crew. This visualization will be customizable to each individual's needs providing different levels of details, but with a single data set. Customization can be achieved with data mining, contact layer drill down, ability to aggregate or dis-aggregate information. The single data set ensures synchronization and a reliable measurement of uncertainty of time. This requires the development of a new capability to effectively fuse information and present an integrated SA picture that exploits modern visualization/display and multi-modal user control technologies to facilitate ease of interaction with on-board information systems and support rapid decision making. Current human-computer interfaces (HCIs) are often the bottleneck in effectively and efficiently utilizing the available information flow for decision making. This is increasingly true with greater demands for processing speed, throughput, and data storage. Recent advances in sensor fusion and display technology can be synergistically exploited to develop novel HCIs and control systems to reduce confusion on the part of aircrews of the future. Information rich environments require a user-centered approach that adapts to heterogeneous changing connections of information sources and devices with multiple modalities such as gesture/speech recognition, eye gaze, lip reading, and even biofeedback mechanisms attached directly to crewmembers. These multi-modal environments must also be interoperable. The integration of multi-modal inputs for human-machine interaction is approached from the viewpoint of multiple information source fusion where different information sources can be related to different interface modalities to establish an interoperable multi-disciplinary SA fusion system. This system would provide aircrews and operators from multiple disciplines (tactical C2, strategic surveillance, EW, etc.) and those interfacing with on-board bomber/fighter platform (B-2, Joint Strikes Fighter, etc.) and off-board surveillance system (AWACS, Joint STARS) sensors, or with supporting DoD acquisition centers (B-2 and JSF SPOs) with a common set of augmented reality display formats and user controls. The new displays and multi-modal control schemes will be readily useable by a sensor to shooter cockpit warfighter, operator, or battlespace commander across various computer display platforms with little or no training. Traditional analog instruments and gauges would be replaced with large, flat-panel multi-function displays that combine the functions of separate instruments into a multifunction workstation. A new digital cockpit would provide pilots and operators with equipment that is more intuitive, easier to use in real time, and less expensive than today's avionics equipment. Much of this new technology would take maximum advantage of existing COTS technologies to lower development costs and increase commercialization potential. The Phase I program objective is to develop and demonstrate interoperable SA using multiple HCI modalities capable of fusing information into a consistent operational picture. This will result in the development of a generalized architecture with appropriate models and techniques for SA information fusion called the Information Fusion for Situation Awareness (InFuSA). This initiative will develop and demonstrate a real-time data fusion architecture with appropriate models and techniques, merging data from multiple sources such as Link-16, intelligence data links, and on-board sensors to form a single common SA picture. It will involve combining knowledge of the application domain with the ability to express application-specific actions, objectives, and qualifiers to improve the ability to conceptualize and visualize information to enhance collaborative decision making as well as continuously monitor and update present and future battlespace awareness states. The focus is on the development of a data fusion architecture within the context of an improved operator machine interface environment. The proposed InFuSA system, which will adapt the Air Force's "Super Cockpit" concept, represents a next-generation visualization/display and operator control capability for future DoD information management systems. It also addresses identifiable MAJCOM and dual use sector deficiencies, and USAF infrastructure needs consistent with the Integrated C2 and Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) frameworks which are connected to, and interoperable with, C2 and combat support information systems. This advanced capability can be used to convert complex multi-discipline and multi-sensor data into SA metrics to support integrated C2, JBI, and C4I goals for "digitally" assessing combat situations.The ability to incorporate large amounts of electronic flight information into control stations that can be managed with great ease and minimal training has the potential of revolutionizing the general aviation sector. Safe and effective control has implications in other control room and control station scenarios including the operating room of a hospital, building management and safety, nuclear power plants, emergency and life support services, and the interactive workplace of the future. The algorithms and visual techniques are also applicable to any commercial industry that evaluates large amounts of data from real-time to historical data in order to determine the current state of the environment and analyze or forecast future trends. Cross discipline applications include 3-D displays for biologists, chemists, and other scientists, the virtual operating room, simulation control, commercial aircraft, air traffic control, and salvage, search and rescue management. Other potential civilian/dual use applications include: financial markets, traffic analysis in major cities, manufacturing and operations research applications, medical diagnostics, meteorology and weather forecasting, airborne and satellite-based imaging; security systems, concealed weapons detection, medical imaging, chemical tomography, computer vision, airborne hyperspectral analysis, environmental monitoring, ordnance detection, 3-D effects software, and geographical information system (GIS) applications.

GALORATH, INC.
100 North Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 1801
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-3222
Mr. Dan Galorath
AF 01-092      Selected for Award
Title:Estimation of Manufacturing Cost and Risks for Satellite Electro-Optical Sensors
Abstract:Earth observation via satellites currently provide valuable data in a wide range of fields such as topography, oceanography, atmospheric conditions, biological distribution, and climate. The United States Air Force, Navy, NASA, and private industry have launched a variety of observation satellites, and the Air Force has always taken a primary role in research for developing these satellites and sensors. Electro-optical sensors perform a key role in accomplishing these missions. As with all cutting edge technology, the production of complex assemblies in relatively small quantities is an expensive learning process. The decision to develop a mission-critical electro-optical sensor requires both technical design information and cost/affordability data, as well as an understanding of the relationship between the two and the inherent technical and cost risk. We propose to explore the use of new and innovative mathematical theories coupled with more traditional product- and process-based parametrics to quickly yet accurately estimate costs for an elector-optical sensor assembly. We will also couple automated design tools (CAD/CAM) to automated cost tools, providing the capability to examine both the technical and cost implications for a wide range of design options. The results of this project may be expected to provide substantial commercial benefits by enhancing Galorath's current line of parametric cost, schedule and risk software tools. This research will enhance the capabilities of the tools to estimate cost and risk for satellite electro-optical sensors, and Galorath expects to be able to extend this range of applicability to other, similar complex assemblies. This capability will prove very interesting to current and potential customers of our hardware development and design-for-manufacturability tools. In addition, Galorath has already identified among both current and potential customers a strong desire for feature-based estimation capabilities which are automatically linked to CAD/CAM design tools.

THE ATHENA GROUP, INC.
3424 N.W. 31 Street
Gainesville, FL 32605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-2567
Dr. Jonathon D. Mellott
AF 01-093      Selected for Award
Title:A Low Power FFT/IFFT for GPS Applications
Abstract:The Athena Group will develop an innovative, low-power, fast Fourier transform (FFT) processor for use in mitigating both intentional and unintentional narrowband jamming and interference in handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers. Athena's advanced digital signal processing (DSP) technology is capable of performance levels well beyond those of conventional DSP technologies. Athena will analyze the processing requirements for the GPS receiver application, select an FFT processor configuration along with pre- and post-FFT processing elements, and analyze the resulting design for speed, power, and hardware requirements. The proposer will optimize a solution that will lead to a commercial system-on-chip (SoC) anti-jam GPS application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) implementation.The commercial value of the developed technology is substantial since it will significantly improve the reliability and quality of GPS service. GPS applications are proliferating, especially in the land-based market segment. Numerous other mass-market FFT ASIC applications, such as asymmetric digital subscriber loop (ADSL) modems and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless communications, also indicate a high market potential for the proposed technology.

GALORATH, INC.
100 North Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 1801
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-3222
Mr. Lee Fischman
AF 01-094      Selected for Award
Title:A Software Cost Model Based on Software Architecture
Abstract:This proposal outlines the development of an automatic sizing tool. The tool will interface with off-the-shelf "CAD" design tools for software, to the extent necessary for design information to be read in and sized. Sizing information will be automatically converted to function points. Underlying development of this tool is considerable Galorath's considerable applied research, and our identification of potentially key enabling technologies, such as genetic and parsing algorithms. Information about software complexity may also be collected, to the extent practical, useful and coincident with the primary objective of this SBIR. The tool will be developed so that it easily interfaces with commercial software estimation models.This research into automatic sizing, and the resulting prototype tool, will be further developed into a robust standalone software product. We will develop a pricing and marketing strategy that lets us sell to the widest possible audience, keeping in mind that object-oriented and other "CAD" design methods are gaining very wide use in general industry.

TRLOKOM
124 Vista Circle Dr.
Sierra Madre, CA 91024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 836-5545
Dr. Jayant Shukla
AF 01-097      Selected for Award
Title:Voice Authenticated Wireless Communication
Abstract:Trlokom proposes to develop a novel and low cost solution for local speech processing and secure voice communication in digital wireless systems. Commercially available wireless communication systems do not have adequate security measures to ensure end-to-end secure communication. Since, wireless communication systems are now becoming very popular in military as well as in commercial world, providing end-to-end secure communication will reduce the danger of eavesdropping, credit-card theft, and industrial espionage. Our solution will be based on low-power and high-speed hardware for local processing of the speech signal. The same hardware will also assist in encryption, voice-authentication, protocol processing, and secure key-management. At the end of Phase I, we will deliver our design for an end-to-end secure wireless communication system with voice-authentication. We will provide detailed information about the component technologies and our integration methodology for the COTS and custom components. Digital cellular phone with internet access are starting to become available and we expect to see a big demand for security systems in digital wireless phones. Adding voice authentication to the security systems can make them much more user friendly and reduce the fraud associated with stolen phone. It could also be used with satellite telephone service (STS) to provide military with the ability to securely communicate where cellular phone service is not available.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Paul Rudolph
AF 01-098      Selected for Award
Title:Reconfigurable Integrated Fault Tolerance for Spaceborne Systems (RIFTSS)
Abstract:Reconfigurable Computing (RC) is a technology in which the behavior of a processing system is changed by altering the hardware, rather than the software. This is achieved though the use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). RC is useful when a high degree of both performance and flexibility is needed, and especially when size, weight, or power constraints preclude use of dedicated components for separate functions. The recent development of high-density, rad-hard FPGAs means that RC now has the potential to be used in spaceborne applications. SFC is currently developing an RC tool suite, called DERC (Development Environment for Reconfigurable Computing), which includes both hardware and software to support development of RC applications. RIFTSS will extend the capabilities of the DERC tools to include extensive support for fault tolerance. The DERC API and logic libraries will be extended to include fault tolerant functions, including configuration scrubbing, redundancy, and voting. The DERC Debug Tool will be modified to allow deliberate fault insertion into a design under test. To address system-level fault tolerance issues, this program will also evaluate several third-party modeling and simulation tools to determine how effectively they can handle the unique situations that will occur in fault tolerant RC.Reconfigurable Computing can provide both increased processing power and increased flexibility to systems that must perform a variety of different functions. This is especially important in systems for which weight, space, or power are at a premium (which make it particularly desirable in spaceborne applications). While RC has great potential, its use to date has been small, partly due to the limited number of development tools available. DERC will help enable greater use of RC technology by providing a comprehensive development system for the RC application developer. DERC includes a highly flexible hardware architecture and a full set of supporting software tools. The DERC hardware architecture is already well suited for fault tolerant designs. RIFTSS will extend the software tools to include support for design and testing of fault tolerant systems. Pre-tested fault tolerant logic functions will allow application developers to concentrate more effort on the functionality of the applications, rather than on fault tolerance. The ability to insert deliberate faults into the design under test will speed the testing process, and support improved reliability of the design.

WW TECHNOLOGY GROUP
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-4353
Dr. Chris Walter
AF 01-098      Selected for Award
Title:A Hardware-Software Codesign Framework for Scalable Reconfigurable Computing
Abstract:The project goal is to construct and demonstrate an approach for building reconfigurable computing systems using reprogrammable logic arrays, FPGAs, under coordination of one or more processors leading to standardization of a process for reconfigurable computing applications using heterogeneous components and tools. The constraints on achieving these goals include the current limitations of available tools and the varying types of parallelism found in different applications. Within the scope of the project and identified applications, a software/hardware co-design process that leverages the effectiveness of reconfigurable components will be developed and evaluated, the methods and interfaces developed should support techniques and have universal application to other domains of interest. The approach consists of: (a) describing a hierarchical structure for partitioning of SW modules, (b) composition strategies for creating larger and complex SW modules, (c) quantification of interaction between SW modules, and (d) development of processes of mapping SW modules onto HW and (e) a novel decision procedure for determining the goodness of the mapping. A team has been formed consisting of WWTG's ultra-dependable systems experts, reconfigurable computing expertise from a leading university laboratory, and commercialization support from a Prime Contractor executing major satellite communications and sensor programs.A multi-phased commercialization program is defined for the insertion of robust reconfigurable computing (RC) technology in critical applications. Prior RC efforts focused on performance and failed to address dependability and hard real-time requirements. These attributes will be added in order to make RC technology "industrial strength" and merging the latest research results with design and production processes required to gain acceptance by identified and potential military and commercial contractors. A key element is WWTG's validated fault tolerant approach and newly developed partitioning technology targeted at specific military communications and sensor satellite, aircraft, and terrestrial applications defined by a leading Prime Contractor. Bandwidth performance improvements in satellite systems on the order of two orders of magnitude with reductions in size, weight, power consumption, and cost will greatly benefit military and commercial systems and acquisitions. A key component of the planned commercialization process is the tolerance to Single Event Upsets which enables the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technology an insures the availability of the latest technology and low risk technology rollovers to maintain high performance levels along with low cost of development and ownership.

XCOM WIRELESS, INC.
1718 E. Ocean Blvd #4
Long Beach, CA 90802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 495-6090
Dr. Daniel J. Hyman
AF 01-099      Selected for Award
Title:MEMS for Space Communication Systems
Abstract:XCom Wireless is developing a novel RF MEMS relay that can be incorporated into a wide variety of RF systems. The primary goal of this program is to develop these relays such that the relay actuator is encapsulated between an RF communications circuit and a protective package; the circuit and package are integral parts of the relay itself. Such a design will enable the superior RF performance typically found only in fully integrated devices yet retains the design and manufacturing flexibility inherent to discrete components. This proposal discusses the development strategy for combining the relay elements into a prototype radio as a transmit/receive switch. The ultimate goal is to further the maturity of the integration process such that advanced components such as agile filters, multi-band antennas, and phase shifters can be enabled by RF MEMS relays to achieve a high-performance low-cost space-based communications system.Commercialization of the technology to be developed in the present SBIR proposal represents a fundamental component of the XCom Wireless business strategy. Low-loss RF MEMS relays integrated with circuitry is a core technology of every XCom Wireless product, and sales revenue for all subsequent products may be attributed to the present initiative research. The estimated time to first product release is 18 months, with profitability possible in three years with sales estimates of 200,000 units at $10-30 each from defense industry customers. Production facilities require expansion by the end of the fifth year of operation to deliver high-volume products for consumer applications; this expansion is likely to require an initial public offering. A strategy of continuous patent development is instrumental to the growth and strength of XCom Wireless in the RF community, with two patents expected to result from the Phase II effort of this proposal.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7677
Mr. Anthony Wilson
AF 01-100      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Tolerant Field Programmable Analog Array
Abstract:A proposal is made for the design, demonstration, and productization of a radiation tolerant field programmable analog array (RT-FPAA) suitable for space and terrestrial applications. Phase I activities include evaluation of the RT-FPAA architecture, design and evaluation of analog configurable-analog-block architecture (CAB). The proposal is based on two combining technologies: laser formed metallic connections that provide the basis for high quality programmable interconnects needed for programmable analog arrays; and a high performance fabrication process that provides the semiconductor technology for fabrication of the RT-FPAA.The RT-FPAA provides a low cost, quick turn-around, analog circuit solution to radiation tolerant signal conditioning microcircuits for use in satellite telemetry systems. The device will provide analog designers with capabilities currently employed by digital designers using FPGAs.

BJ INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES LLC
P.O. Box 42
Storrs, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 429-1023
Dr. Bahram Javidi
AF 01-101      Selected for Award
Title:Fast Matching for Sensor Data Exploitation Using FPGA
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need to improve automatic change detection and pattern recognition in surveillance/reconnaissance systems. In those applications, large amounts of data are generated and must be stored and processed for each scene, which makes real-time decision making a growing challenge. In the proposed Phase I project, we will study target matching algorithms which reduce the processing time. Another problem, which would be encountered in an operational imaging system, is the issue of signal processing hardware. The algorithms, to be studied in the proposed project, are insensitive to scale and rotation of the target in the image. The methods used in these algorithms are based on wavelet theory and genetic search paradigms. The hardware is a compact FPGA design with externally linked memory. In the Phase II project, we will fabricate a breadboard imaging system using the algorithms and the hardware design developed and evaluated in Phase I.FPGA based integrated sensor and signal processing for high-speed detection and identification of targets.

MTL SYSTEMS, INC.
3481 Dayton-Xenia Rd.
Beavercreek, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-3111
Mr. Richard K. Hill
AF 01-101      Selected for Award
Title:Associative Retrieval for Sensor Data Exploitation
Abstract:MTL presents an efficient associative retrieval, storage, and dissemination technique for imagery and signal data in Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) and Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) applications. ARTEMIS employs an innovative approach to image and signal characterization, search, and retrieval, satisfying all solicitation requirements. ARTEMIS operates on both signals and imagery using the same, efficient functions - gaining operational efficiency over an approach using separate methods for different data types (images and signals). The Phase I Objectives are (1) Define Requirements, to lay the groundwork for testing feasibility and to produce a preliminary requirements specification, (2) Implement, Test, and Assess ARTEMIS Concepts, to evaluate, and demonstrate an ARTEMIS prototype, and determine functional feasibility, (3) Produce a Preliminary Design, to refine and supplement the prototype to become a preliminary design for Phase II, and (4) Assess Commercialization Potential, to determine ARTEMIS' market potential, and produce a preliminary commercialization (product) plan. The Phase I results will be (a) experimental test and analysis results forming the feasibility assessment, (b) a Phase II preliminary design, (c) an initial product plan, and (d) a prototype demonstration, to explicitly demonstrate ARTEMIS' feasibility to AFRL and users they support, such as ESC/SRG and the Information Exploitation Systems Program Office.ARTEMIS will adaptively select, retrieve, and disseminate only necessary data products. For military Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) operations, it will shorten response times to time-critical targets and rapidly changing battlefield situations. Commercial agricultural, medical, and architectural endeavors produce and utilize large volumes of imagery and signal products, including satellite-provided imagery. These enterprises will benefit from the ARTEMIS capability to rapidly and adaptively search, filter, and control dissemination of their products.

MODASCO, INC.
4303 Vineland Road,, Suite F-7
Orlando, FL 32811
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(904) 276-8296
Dr. John Woodring
AF 01-102      Selected for Award
Title:Architecture Specification and Validation Tools for Designing Command and Control (C2) Systems.
Abstract:Modasco proposes an innovative, rule-based approach to prototyping advanced C2 systems. This technology specifies entities and entity relationships, such as hierarchy and association, in a C4ISR-compliant database and then specify and validate prototype C2 architectures using these entities as system building blocks. It is a significant improvement over the current way Colored Petri Nets (CPNs) are used, since it provides the designer with a palette of validated entities and entity relationships from which a system can be designed. It provides a simple way to build and use custom icons representing the validated entities, thus improving the visual, mnemonic and demonstrative appeal of the graphical system design. Since the entity definitions (icon, attributes, association and hierarchy rules) are declared in a database, the modification and extension of existing architecture palettes, and the development of new project-specific palettes, can be performed without modifying the design tools themselves. The proposed methodology interfaces with LEdit, a graphical editor developed by the Air Force. It extends LEdit's usefulness for prototyping C2 architectures by enforcing pre-declared operational and system constraints. This methodology has broad commercial appeal for systems re-engineering and will improve the way military worth is evaluated in a new generation of war-gaming models.Decrease the development time and cost for prototyping new systems. The proposed software tools are directly applicable to the design and analysis of commercial and military processes including information systems, healthcare, economic forecasting, software and hardware.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Sam Boykin
AF 01-105      Selected for Award
Title:Enabling Affordability in Science and Technology
Abstract:The environment within the Department of Defense for acquiring weapon systems is rapidly changing. The defense procurement budget has fallen more that 50% from its peak, and DoD and the services are demanding more performance for less cost. Gone are the days when new systems could be developed and produced simply for reasons of greater payload, better reliability, more weapons on target, improved technology, etc. Now the benefits of performance improvements must be balanced against cost to arrive at a "best value" solution. In other words, the technology must be affordable. In the past, affordability was not often a priority for AFRL laboratory programs because the emphasis was on new technology, and the focus was strictly on performance. AFRL is attempting to measure and report return on investment (ROI) for S&T programs. Since a cost saving can't always be demonstrated for a new technology that provides previously unattainable military capability, innovative methods of measuring both investment and return, need to be developed. . This multi-phase SBIR develops the methodology and tools to evaluate financial returns on S&T investments. Phase I identifies and tests the ROI utility measures of merit. Phase II develops the prototype affordability tool set. DoD's acquisition community has a problem that is also common to many businesses: determine how to determine and then optimize return on investment (ROI) for science and technology. Decisions to invest in technologies that appear to have large performance potentials but do not deliver the desirable ROI, cost millions in lost opportunities. In their effort to develop and produce systems better, cheaper and faster, many large industries, aerospace and automotive, are moving to virtual digital design environments. The objective of this research project is to provide a computer tool that will enable AFRL, DoD, and industry to evaluate the affordability of an investment in science and technology by means of an ROI utility. An effective methodology/tool for evaluating financial returns on science and technology investments that will benefit the AFRL and can eventually be applied to the commercial environment The resulting tool has great potential for effective use in any industry

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8716 North Mopac Expressway Su
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Sherry Marcus
AF 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:ATO Link: A Link Analysis and Information Dominance Tool for ATO Planning
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I effort is to produce "ATO Link", an operational link analysis prototype, that can predict and identify planning and re-planning conflicts during the ATO (Air Tasking Order) planning process. The analyst will have the capability to perform many "what if" scenarios and ATO Link will determine if there would be any future potential plan conflicts. ATO Link extends our current Phase II SBIR with Rome Labs in the area of link analysis for terrorist detection and complements our machine learning developments as a contractor for the Darpa Ultra*Log program. Such a capability has wide applicability and can be exploited not only by the logistics planner, but can be integrated into simulations for training purposes or be used as a tool in the Joint Battlespace Initiative (JBI). As noted within Joint Vision 2020, there is a great need within the military community for developing information dominant systems. Such systems provide users with "amplified knowledge" of the existing operational environment; link analysis is such an example of a tool. Commercial and military organizations spend billions of dollars in logistics per year. Information dominant tools that can accurately and effectively exploit the supply chain can be successfully inserted and exploited within this market.

CYCORP, INC.
3721 Executive Center Drive, Suite 100
Austin, TX 78731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 514-2985
Dr. Chip Masters
AF 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:Knowledge Based Data Monitoring for a Joint/Coalition Environment
Abstract:Our objective is to determine the feasibility of, and optimal design for, the incorporation of a large body of formalized common sense knowledge into an information integration, filtering, and dissemination tool, in support of a multi-force coalition. With this substrate of knowledge, it is possible to identify relationships between data points, to understand the meaning of information across changing contexts and varied sources, and to recognize the significance of information across multiple contexts and users. Specific knowledge-based technologies to be applied include Cycorp's methods for representation of, and reasoning about, knowledge contexts, diverse data sources and their contents, data anomalies, and activities and plans. The application will support collaborative use of distributed information by integrating information from distributed sources, filtering information by significance, and distributing information to those for whom it is relevant.Intelligent information integration, filtering, and dissemination promises to reduce the need for human data filtering, enable users to benefit from distributed knowledge, and address the critical problem of getting the right information to the right person at the right time. Incorporation of a large body of formalized common sense knowledge enables understanding of, and reasoning about, both the context of information and the information itself. That understanding may well give information integration, filtering, and dissemination the depth and robustness needed to effectively support command decision-making, breaking through the barrier of information overload.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Paul Anderson
AF 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:Detecting Malicious Code in Firmware
Abstract:The problem of detecting malicious code has focused until now on techniques that search a program's surface structure representations to find locations where suspicious constructs occur. Such techniques are fundamentally weaker than methods that operate on representations that capture a program's deep semantics. We propose to study the feasibility and plan the development of tools for detecting malicious code that operate on a program's dependence graph. This representation captures a program's essential semantics and enables sophisticated semantics-based queries to be posed. Our plan is targeted at semi-automatic solutions for finding occurrences of malicious code in firmware. This work will build on our own dependence-graph based COTS product for program understanding named CodeSurfer. We will address the problem of generating dependence graphs from multiple machine languages using generic disassembly and decompilation techniques. We will plan the integration of these tools with CodeSurfer. We will develop queries for tell-tale signs of malicious code in firmware, and design a user-interface to help security analysts make the final determination of maliciousness. We will investigate methods for firmware editing to permit implementation of damage mitigation strategies. Finally we will develop a set of metrics that can be used to measure the success of our techniques.The proposed system will be of use in the semi-automatic detection of malicious code in firmware and other machine-code representations of programs. This system will be of benefit to companies wishing to show that their firmware implementations are secure, and to others wishing to understand machine-code level programs.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Dursun Delen
AF 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:Agent Based Toolkit for Integrated Planning and Execution of Coalition Operations (ATIP)
Abstract:Changes in the political, economical, and technological environment (especially the effect of internet in bringing the world closer) is rapidly affecting the nature of military operations of U.S and NATO countries. These changes have lead to focus on coalition operations. "The process of plan development becomes uncertain when members of the planning staff are from different countries whose assets capabilities are not known, or whose culture does not allow certain missions to be carried out. Such differences can negatively impact the entire planning process. As the nature of engagement for U.S and allied forces change from a war emphasis to peace keeping emphasis, there is a need to develop infrastructure for planning and execution in coalition planning domains". The proposed Agent Based Toolkit for Integrated Planning and Execution of Coalition Operations (ATIP) effort addresses these issues by developing knowledge based assistance to coalition planning. The specific tasks addressed in Phase I are to develop : (1) ontology of coalition planning, (2) coalition plan representation framework and internet based methods to communicate and distribute coalition plans, (3) coalition plan templates, (4) agent based framework for execution monitor and re-planning, and (5) Coalition Plan Assistant (CPA) agents.ATIP will result in the development of innovative solutions to coalition planning. Immediate beneficiaries of ATIP technology will be DOD, NATO, and coalition planning community. In the commercial area, ATIP will be useful for any endeavor requiring collaborative plan development, execution, monitor and re-planning. Domains like virtual enterprises and B-to-B e-business domains will benefit from ATIP.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Mr. Dale Klamer
AF 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:Basic Research for Level 2 Information Fusion
Abstract:The proposed effort will address fundamental issues in the research and development of Level 2 fusion, namely, development of a solid mathematical foundation on which to build algorithms for situation refinement that includes organization and structure. We believe that the fundamental approach to fusion in Level 1 - that is, detection, prediction, association, hypothesis generation, hypothesis management, and update - is applicable to Level 2. Examining the key elements of Level 1 fusion, we can identify the parallel components of Level 2 fusion and evaluate the degree of development in the underlying fundamental theory. The area that provides the greatest hope for innovative research is in the development of metrics for working with discrete sets that represent Level 2 objects. Our research will be performed in the setting of discrete sets (Organization and Structure) and will be aimed at the development of metrics that measure the distance (or "nearness") between two discrete sets, the building of a theoretical foundation that will provide a setting in which to develop and evaluate metrics, and the application of these metrics to the Level 2 problems of detection, prediction, and association. Accomplishing these objectives will provide a basis for rapid development of Level 2 fusion.This work will lay the foundation for most of the future Level 2 fusion work. This includes the basic theory and the design, development, and implementation of algorithms for Level 2 detection and association. Metrics on Level 2 battlespace objects are essential for a foundation to build testing and evaluation testbeds that contain measures of performance and measures of effectiveness. With the advent of the Internet, huge amounts of data are being collected by virtually every business at an ever-increasing rate. We can envision that metrics developed under this work will provide new methods and approaches for both data mining and discovery of new relationships in data.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7892
Dr. Eugene Levin
AF 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:Analytical Manifold Modeling for Dynamic Planning and Execution
Abstract:The Air Force is soliciting innovative information technology for visualization, and manipulation of real-time multimedia data from complex battle field environments In response, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes an innovative software package that relies on image-based, analytical manifold modeling (AMM) and a rendering algorithm that will allow unifying raster and vector image representation. The novel AMM technology is based on POC's proprietary algorithm, based on catastrophe theory which can derive three-dimensional (3-D) object models from two-dimensional (2-D) image projections. However, POC proposes to extend AMM's 3-D representation by adding another physical coordinate that differs from the regular geometrical coordinates in the image plane. This enhancement will permit POC's AMM algorithm to represent visual objects and terrain imagery as an analytic polynomial model. Also, it can create geometrically correct representations of the 3-D model when it is applied to image modeling. In Phase I, POC will: 1) develop the AMM algorithm for image-based modeling and rendering and 2) demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase II, it will demonstrate verifiable prototype software and refine and complete a mathematical model for verification in a close-to-real environment. Commercialization activities initiated in Phase I will be pursued further in Phases II and III.This technology will contribute to computer simulation and visualization, Internet-based virtual reality programs, computer games, and data mining. It can also be used for video conferencing, multimedia applications, and medical imaging.

SCS ENGINEERING, INC.
23430 Hawthorne Blvd., STE 240
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 373-4243
Mr. Jerry F. Shaw
AF 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:System Training and Rehearsal Suite (STRS)
Abstract:SCS proposes to develop a System Training and Rehearsal Suite (STRS ˆˆ) that will support part task trainers through full mission rehearsal systems. The core thrust of STRS will be to develop nodes that will be used for Realtime Sensor-to-Shooter Operations training and rehearsals. The STRS will extend the Collaboration/Simulation/Visualization technologies currently being developed for AFRL under the Realtime Integrated Planner/Player (RIPP) SBIR. The STRS will allow any Microsoft Windows (Win32) based PC or workstation to be used within a building block system. The STRS will support commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) computer systems, input devices and output devices. STRS will allow crews to fly/drive/operate mission system simulations in a standalone configuration or participate in distributed Multiple Engagement Simulation (MES) via DIS/HLA (either in collocated classrooms/facilities or distributed/deployed operating locations). Immediate multiple agency (e.g., USAF, USA, USN, SOF, USMC, USCG) applications for STRS include: mission rehearsal systems, mission execution systems, tactics, crew station/display trainers, UCAV mission trainers, indirect fire trainers, urban warfare trainers, low altitude ingress/egress rehearsal systems, mission system trainers, support and evaluation for dynamic planners, crew station part task trainers, a manned entity within a distributed simulation, an observer within a distributed simulations. The anticipated results of STRS will be a suite of tools for developing turnkey systems that will allow a crewmember to rehearse in realtime and non-realtime most if not all facets of a Sensor-to-Shooter Operations mission. The STRS system will be a highly deployable system based on commercial computer technologies. Core STRS technologies will be demonstrated to be applicable to all DoD user communities (e.g., USAF, USA, USN, SOF, USMC, USCG).

SIGMA SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
9725 Aspen Hollow Way, #210
Fairfax, VA 22032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 582-0638
Dr. Jerzy Bala
AF 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:Exploration of Target Movements Through Evolutionary Computation and 3-D Visualization
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop an integrated system for predicting opponents' strategic target movements in the battlespace and for displaying such predicted movements through an interactive 3-D visualization interface. The proposed prediction approach generates new movements based on past behaviors and application of inheritance mechanisms. Specifically, the approach is based on applications of Genetic Algorithms learning techniques to evolve new individuals in the population of movements. The methodology involved in this project encompasses recent innovations in Evolutionary Computation, as well as state-of-the-art techniques in 3-D Visualization. The implemented system is expected to yield robust performance in terms of higher automation of movement prediction. This system will greatly enhance strategic awareness and qualitative insights into opponents' state of knowledge.The proposed technology has applications to any commercial industry that evaluates data representing movements in a spatial and/or temporal space in order to determine the current state, analyze trends and forecast the future. Specifically, there are two main commercial application areas for this technology - Joint STAR for understanding of the ground moving targets in the battlefield and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for transportation traffic prediction. This technology will also be applicable to all areas where generation of new realistic entities resembling already existing entities is required. These areas can range from the problem of generating new targets to the generation of new business operational scenarios.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-3533
Dr. Tamitha Carpenter
AF 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:Mixed-initiative Defensive Information Warfare - A More Pragmatic Paradigm
Abstract:We propose a new Defensive Information Warfare (DIW) paradigm that will effectively mitigate the risks to our nation's computer networks posed by a critical shortage of security savvy system administrators. We developed this approach in response to our recognition that information assurance tools will always remain a number of steps behind the craftiest information warriors, and therefore success in DIW will continue to depend on the human element. The proposed system, Athena, will enable the aggregation of critical DIW expertise and its exploitation by the less security proficient personnel that dominate the military's IT force. To accomplish this goal we draw on the technologies employed in the latest case-based problem resolution software as well as an extension of our own model-based "active evidential reasoning" system. Athena will offer guidance, founded in historic cases, to the user in collecting and appraising critical information and forming incident responses, while simultaneously accepting a variety of asynchronous inputs from the user. The prototype tool developed in our Phase I effort will prove the feasibility of mixed-initiative DIW and form the basis for a complete implementation of Athena in Phase II and its ultimate commercialization.Our mixed-initiative approach to computer security will be equally applicable to both military and commercial networks given the need to make optimal use of very limited system administrator and security officer resources.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 359-6226
Mr. Scott Thomas
AF 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:Component Active Service INterOperable (CASINO) Framework
Abstract:Distributed computing systems have matured from simple client/server applications towards large complex systems. While computing processing and network bandwidth capabilities have dramatically improved in recent years, the design and implementation of complex systems remains difficult and expensive. Component software has emerged to address this issue. Several competing component technologies have been touted in the industry, including DCOM, CORBA, and JavaBeans. There are still many obstacles that must be overcome before the vision of a truly integrated component framework is realized. An interoperable framework that transcends these competing component standards is needed. Defense initiatives such as the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI), have fundamental requirements of interoperability between diverse component systems. Trident proposes the application of XML-based ontologies, software agent and active network technologies to the problem space of interoperable component frameworks. An active network service, implemented using software agents that parse XML, will be injected into the component communication path. We plan to design a Component Active Service INterOperable (CASINO) Framework, compliant to the DII-COE. The CASINO framework provides a flexible, distributed infrastructure that enables interoperability between multiple component technologies, including DCOM, CORBA, and Java. To illustrate the feasibility of the CASINO framework, sample components will be developed and demonstrated. This work will generate the design of a DII-COE compliant framework, which enables interoperability between multiple component technologies. Products developed under the CASINO framework can provide for seamless, theater-wide interoperation among the various applications that planners and operators utilize. This capability will reduce the time and cost required to evaluate intelligence data and enable COTS technology to leveraged for data fusion applications.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 359-6226
Mr. Scott Thomas
AF 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:DICE Archive System (DAS)
Abstract:Intelligence analysts face increasingly significant challenges in the timely acquisition, correlation and analysis of intelligence information. Recent information technology advances have resulted in explosive growth in the volume and rate of intelligence data pushed to the analyst. Recent military initiatives, including the Consistent Battlespace Picture (CBP) and the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI), highlight the intelligence community's awareness of these issues. Work remains to be done for building the JBI and leveraging current systems, including CBP. There is a great need for secure collaboration between disjoint sets of users. This multimedia data is critical to providing a complete picture of the battlespace so that decision-makers and warriors alike have the right information at the right time. By capturing collaboration data, and applying appropriate metadata, filters may be used to automatically communicate information across security boundaries. Trident proposes the development of a robust, secure multimedia recording architecture based on the Distributed Intelligence Collaboration Environment (DICE). DICE, which is part of CBP, has the capability to record audio, video, and whiteboard data. The DICE Archive System (DAS) will support standard formats and utilize XML technology to identify intelligence products. DAS will significantly improve the Global Awareness capability for the DoD and Intelligence Communities. This work will develop a DII-COE compliant multimedia archive system, compatible with existing AFRL programs, including Broadsword, CBP, and JBI. DAS will enable secure collaboration by capturing multimedia data and applying XML-based tags. Automatic filters may be used to communicate information across security boundaries. Moreover, by associating XML metadata with the intelligence products, new and innovative content-based retrieval mechanisms may be developed. The work proposed will provide the capability to reduce the time and cost required to evaluate intelligence data and improve the Global Awareness capability for the DoD and Intelligence Communities.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata K. Das
AF 01-107      Selected for Award
Title:Situation Assessment Fuselet to Aggregate Retrieved Information (SAFARI)
Abstract:We propose to develop a Situation Assessment Fuselet to Aggregate Retrieved Information (SAFARI) obtained from the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) repositories to support the development of mission relevant knowledge via Bayesian Belief Network (BN) technology. A BN can be thought of as a graphical program script representing causal relationships among various battlefield concepts represented as nodes to which observed evidence can be posted. Depending on the battlefield situation, a BN is constructed from a library of networks to instantiate SAFARI. An if-then type of speculative analysis on the constructed BN identifies relevant information that needs to be retrieved and posted to nodes for assessing the situation. An inferencing process on the same network performs the aggregation of posted evidence to infer high-level battlefield situations. BN technology offers several advantages, including its graphical approach to situation assessment modeling and handling of uncertainty consistent with probability semantics. At Charles River Analytics we have been successfully applying BN technology for situation assessment tasks in a number of domains, including Major Theater of War (MTW) scenarios, Theater Missile Defense (TMD) domains, and air combat engagements. We believe that SAFARI will significantly enhance the JBI's capability of transforming data into mission relevant knowledge.Commercial applications of the proposed situation assessment fuselet concept based on belief network technology exist for a wide variety of contexts characterized by high rates of information flow and decision-making under uncertainty. Such application areas include operation centers for complex process control (e.g., nuclear power plants, water resource distribution), and rail and air traffic management centers. Vertical applications for these markets would significantly enhance fault diagnosis, improving effectiveness and safety in a number of life-critical applications.

ORIELLE, LLC
PO Box 8922
Moscow, ID 83843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 892-0667
Mr. Peter H. Mills
AF 01-107      Selected for Award
Title:An Extensible Framework for Rapid Fuselet Composition
Abstract:We propose to develop scripting language enhancements to enable the rapid synthesis of publish-subscribe fuselets through a unified framework for subscription and resource discovery based on XPath and XQL extensions, to design and prototype its implementation in an extensible manner by mapping onto existing interpreter and runtime infrastructures using a combination of dynamic source-to-source transformation and underlying library extensions, and to design an interactive development environment for semi-automatic fuselet generation and monitored execution. The provision of semantically conservative extensions which realize advanced query and discovery capabilities is, we posit, vital to the effective integration of evolving COTS scripting and XML technologies into the next generation of battlefield information systems, and will have broad applicability in the larger arenas of document retrieval and networked computation.A scripting language for the rapid assembly of data fusion processes whose query and discovery facilities are XML based will prove of great utility to the defense sector which is rapidly adopting XML as a military information standard in many large-scale projects. The program transformation and development environment technologies would have dual use in the commercial sector.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata K. Das
AF 01-108      Selected for Award
Title:Generic User-friendly Integrated Development Environment (GUIDE)
Abstract:The Joint Battlefield Infosphere (JBI) is a combat information management system that provides individual users with the right information at the right time during crisis and conflict. But the information needed by an individual commander or analyst cannot be fully anticipated beforehand based only on functional responsibilities, as it also depends on the dynamically changing state of the mission at hand. What is required is an environment that allows users to specify their time-critical context-dependent informational needs, and then support the rapid configuration of tailored agents to serve those needs. We propose to design and implement such a Generic User-friendly Integrated Development Environment (GUIDE) for creating intelligent software agents "on the fly" to be used in the JBI. The visual interface of GUIDE accepts high-level declarative specifications and then supports the graphic construction of agents from a library of components that cover key battlefield information management tasks, including: retrieval and fusion of data from various sources, filtering to avoid information overloading, high-level situation assessment, and inter-agent communication.The proposed integrated development environment will enable system developers to specify, design, implement, and validate agent-based systems with a broad range of functionality, and with enhanced reusability and significantly reduced development resources as compared with stovepipe code development practices now in use. Commercial applications of agents produced by GUIDE exist for a wide variety of contexts characterized by frequent information retrieval (e.g. Internet shopping), high rates of information flow (e.g. stock market), and decision-making under uncertainty (e.g. complex process control centers).

CAPRARO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
311 Turner Street Suite 410
Utica, NY 13501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 733-0854
Dr. Gerard T. Capraro
AF 01-109      Selected for Award
Title:Multicast Ontology-Based Object Repository Derivation/Dissemination for the Joint Battlespace Infosp
Abstract:A research effort to define a distributed ontology infrastructure for the derivation and dissemination of data, knowledge and information for the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) Publish and Subscribe paradigm is proposed. The design will emphasize the client side of the JBI architecture where the users' computing device can vary substantially in bandwidth, processing capability, screen size, and connection type. Today's Internet user is not limited to a single connection. They can connect with the net at any time using a wide variety of devices. Our emphasis is on designing a JBI infrastructure that will intelligently support the efficient rapid access and dissemination of distributed knowledge base repositories to a client independent of computing device or connection. We will use the appropriate specifications and standards such as those of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and leverage the numerous research efforts funded by the USAF and DARPA. Our goal is to design and develop an infrastructure that will efficiently and rapidly provide data, knowledge and information to a dynamic user.The results of this effort will benefit dynamic decision makers throughout the military by providing them accurate, secure, and timely information. It will present the information in a manner that will be compatible with a dynamic user profile, the type of computing device used, the type of connection available, and their physical relationship to a command center. Commercial applications include those organizations with widely distributed resources and people, such as the airline industry, companies with large sales forces distributed throughout the world, and news agencies.

FETCH TECHNOLOGIES
4676 Admiralty Way, 10th floor
Marina del Rey, CA 90292
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 448-8275
Dr. Steven Minton
AF 01-109      Selected for Award
Title:Information Agents for Knowledge Integration and Dissemination in the JBI
Abstract:A critical part of the vision described in the SAB report on Building the Joint Battlespace Infosphere are the tools that allow users of the JBI to construct their own new information repositories, possibly in the form of "fuselets", re-using existing knowledge and contributing their own. These integrated sources of knowledge will operate in the "publish and subscribe" environment envisioned for the JBI. The work proposed will ultimately provide end-users with the ability to rapidly specify an information integration/management task, picking from an ontology of information sources. A task can then be given to an agent that will efficiently perform it either on demand or repeatedly at some specified interval. The tasks we will support are complex and varied. They include, for example, retrieving information from one or more data sources, fusing information from these sources, filtering and summarizing information, publishing new composite data sources or briefings, and notifying users when prespecified conditions hold.Successful completion of the proposed Phase I effort will conclusively establish the feasibility of extending our Theseus approach-previously proven in the context of Web information sources-to the building of information integration and dissemination plans within the JBI. Furthermore, it will start mapping out an ontology of information sources, which will ultimately serve as a repository of sources that Theseus will be able to utilize to construct new knowledge. All these taken together will contribute to the development of successful commercial tools for rapidly accessing and disseminating information in distributed knowledge-based repositories.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
1810 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 424-0500
Mr. Adam Pease
AF 01-109      Selected for Award
Title:JBI Ontology Services (JBI-OS)
Abstract:We will create a JBI ontology and ontology management, authoring, translation and distribution system that will serve both to make DoD software components more robust and to make integration possible at the semantic level. We will deliver: (1) A large, standards-based, open-source, upper ontology from the IEEE Standard Upper Ontology effort (2) A collaborative ontology authoring system from the DARPA RKF program (3) Knowledge compilation technology from the Army ICCES, CIA ATT, and DARPA EndState jumpstart efforts (4) Inference technology from a CIA ATT program (5) Search technology from the DARPA DAML program (6) Ontology browsing, editing and translation to XML from the DARPA IA&S program. Research and applications in computer science are creating the need for precise definitions of the concepts that make up our world. Web searching is handicapped by the limitations of specifying search criteria in terms of keywords rather than concepts. Automated natural language understanding, both oral and written, is severely limited by the ambiguity of language. Software engineering is limited by the need for engineers to define concepts to model the world. Integrating the meaning (or semantics) of databases and programs is crucial for creating software that is reliable and scalable. The use of ontologies to specify semantics is emerging as a promising technique for software integration. We propose an approach in which we define all the concepts formally in first order logic. In this way, we ensure that there is a truly shared definition. We also will build on a large common sense ontology that already has a huge number of fundamental distinctions. This helps guard against the need to reorganize the representation when assumptions change. Our commercialization strategy is founded on an open-source approach for base technology development and dissemination and development of commercial applications on top of the open-source base. The impact of our technology transition opportunities will be significant. In particular, Teknowledge has two major e-commerce business areas that these tools will support which include our TekPortal(tm) financial information portal and our retail SalesAssociate(tm) product.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-3500
Dr. Suzanne Mahoney
AF 01-111      Selected for Award
Title:Mixed Resolution Modeling Issues for the Battlespace InfoSphere
Abstract:IET proposes to develop a decision theoretic design for Mixed-Resolution Modeling. The key concept is to treat a parameter produced by one model/simulation as evidence for the actual value of a parameter required by a second model/simulation. IET will investigate the feasibility of constructing an influence diagram that suggests an appropriate value for a parameter given information about the models/simulations. To preserve stochastic fidelity and support real-time and abstracted simulations, IET proposes a random variable representation for parameters. To facilitate parameter matching among applications running at different levels of resolution and how much evidential weight to give a parameter, IET proposes to design a knowledge representation for metadata associated with a parameter. The metadata will be incorporated into the constructed influence diagram and will include knowledge about the parameter's validity and the context under which it was derived. To support reuse of parameter transformation knowledge, IET proposes to investigate the utility of a knowledge base of Bayesian network fragments that perform parameter credibility assessments, parameter conversions and parameter selection. From such fragments, one could automatically construct a parameter-specific influence diagram that infers a value/distribution for the parameter. IET will investigate relevant commercial and DoD standards and requirements of the JBI.The market need for mixed-resolution modeling is well documented for the DoD. Just a few examples of where IET envisions our solution to mixed-resolution modeling to be of use include: i) clearly within the community that will be taking advantage of the JBI, ii) in the modeling and simulation functionality provided with the Global Command and Control System (GCCS) and the Global Combat Support System (GCSS), and iii) in supply and logistics entities within the DoD (e.g., US Transportation Command). IET has also identified several non-DoD markets within the civilian and commercial communities, these include: i) Economic Modeling - Complex economic forecasting performed by the government, private industry and universities clearly has a requirement for mixed-resolution modeling, ii) Ecological Modeling - Another area that can clearly benefit from the integration of mixed-resolution modeling techniques is ecological forecasting and analysis, and iii) Earth Science Modeling - Research organizations and universities interested in combining information from multiple data sources and simulations for modeling planetary phenomena will benefit from technology that supports mixed-resolution modeling.

WINDMILL INTERNATIONAL, INC.
2 Robinson Road
Nashua, NH 03060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 888-5502
Mr. David W. Martin
AF 01-115      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Test Program Assessment System
Abstract:This Phase I effort will establish the feasibility of capturing the available knowledge base of test expertise, outlining the logical workflow of the assessment process, and then capturing that knowledge in an automated tool. Windmill International has teamed with Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp to provide the software tools and knowhow to capture the expert process outlined as part of the research.The results of this research effort will be a feasible initial concept for developing a Test Program Assessment tool that is user friendly and will allow lesser experienced test and acquisition professionals to take advantage of an expert assessment of their test program. This approach - of modeling and capturing an expert assessment capability can be applied in many ways to similar situations within the commercial environment. Direct application to commercial test programs is one example, but any commercial work process can be captured, assessed, or optimized as a result of developing such a robust set of tools.

NATURAL SELECTION, INC.
3333 N. Torrey Pines Ct., Suite 200
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-6449
Dr. Lawrence J. Fogel
AF 01-116      Selected for Award
Title:An Intelligent Tool for Dynamic Situation Assessment and Prediction (DSAP)
Abstract:Innovative technology is required to build a tool for dynamic situation assessment and prediction (DSAP). Human behavior in combat is often degraded by the stress of combat and other uncertainties. The decision maker must select the optimum course of action in light of decisions that have already been made as well as projected new factors. Unfortunately, this process is subject to considerable human error. A tool for reliably investigating alternative courses of action on the fly could lead to significant improvements in combat mission planning and replanning. Natural Selection, Inc. proposes an innovative research and development plan that involves multiresolution modeling, optimization, simulation, agent-based evolutionary algorithms, and a Valuated State Space(TM) Approach for quantifying and optimizing courses of action in faster than real time.The benefits of a successful development of a DSAP tool include better command and control, mission planning and replanning. Similar issues arise in commercial activities, including air traffic and freeway control, as well as business strategy.

SYNERGIA LLC
2400 Broadway, Suite 203
Redwood City, CA 94063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 569-4999
Dr. Michael Fehling
AF 01-116      Selected for Award
Title:Dynamic Situation Assessment and Prediction: Risk-Advised Planning
Abstract:The complexity and tempo of modern conflict, and the severity of its possible results, prevent us from having a 'perfect plan' prior to execution. At the same time, information resources are constantly delivering information on adversaries and on execution results. Therefore, real-time, dynamic, in situ planning and replanning are required to exploit changing information and conditions. Our approach synthesizes methods and technology for planning, human (cognitive and social) system modeling, and decision/risk analysis. Simulation experiments (what-if studies) produce predictions of the evolution of situations, and each COA's associated performance. We use (normative) decision modeling to: assess risk, identify COA flaws, diagnose causal sources of flaws, detect alert conditions, and efficiently summarize explanations of risk assessments. Sensitivity and other calculations on the decision model recommend opportunities for COA improvement, both to exploit opportunities and repair unwarranted risks. Predictions and assessments combine in the decision model to focus and bracket analysis. Focusing aids and multi-resolution representation and analysis methods underwrite faster-than-real-time performance. Synergia has produced a concept of operations, and methods and technologies for modeling, simulation, and organizational risk analysis to support planning. We propose to develop and refine them for dynamic situation assessment and prediction. Synergia will create the capability to produce robust plans - plans that evolve and that tend with high probability to capture or preserve most of the value at stake and mitigate potential for major losses. This will markedly improve our ability to fight modern wars, and to produce methods and technologies for planning and critical business decision-making.

ODYSSEY RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. Frank Adelstein
AF 01-119      Selected for Award
Title:Mobile Platforms to Support Network Forensics
Abstract:In a large computer network, a sophisticated, coordinated attack can have a devastating impact. To thwart the effectiveness of such an attack, investigators and administrators must be able to quickly understand what resources were affected and how they were affected. Complicating this task is the fact that few large facilities, either commercial or military, have sufficient expert personnel to physically examine each network segment that was attacked, as often these networks will be hundreds, if not thousands, of miles apart. We propose to create mobile forensic platforms (MFPs) as a tool to aid the investigators with the forensic task. MFPs are computers that can be quickly deployed on any network to perform remote forensic investigation with very high assurance security. The MFPs will contain a number of extensible forensic tools to allow an investigator to quickly and securely examine network resources remotely.The anticipated benefit is the ability to quickly respond to coordinated computer attacks. Because of the limited number of expert personnel that can perform network forensics in any organization, mobile platforms for forensics will provide an edge in defending against such attacks by giving investigators direct, low-level access to many geographically diverse networks. This increases the effectiveness of the experts by allowing them to conduct investigations without requiring them to travel to the sites, which in turn creates a stronger defense against coordinated attacks. The mobile platforms provide remote access without further risk to the security of the installation (and in some cases, allow them to conduct an investigation even when internal network connectivity is unavailable). There is a direct path for commercialization, since commercial organizations must face the same threat of coordinated attacks with limited personnel and will benefit from this technology.

BROWNE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
8395 Greenwood Dr.
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 377-9406
Mr. James Browne
AF 01-121      Awarded: 04APR01
Title:Combined Thermally and Electrically Conductive Adhesives
Abstract:We are proposing the development of adhesives that will be capable of conducting heat and electricity at levels significantly above currently available systems while offering improved processability. A novel thermoplastic/epoxy hybrid paste adhesive will use an advanced formulation approach to achieve unusually high conductive filler and thermoplastic loadings while still maintaining a low viscosity. It will have a thermal conductivity of more than 15 W/mK combined with an electrical resistivity of less than 40 microhm-cm. This is a combined performance better than the separate film adhesives currently used for the F-22 sub-array assembly. Further improvement of the electrical or thermal properties will be possible with additional development. A high thermoplastic content will allow rework and will provide unusual toughness to resist thermal cycling failure. The advanced formulation approach to both high filler and thermoplastic content will still allow a material that flows like current pastes, thus allowing the productivity gains of automatic dispensing. In order to provide a technology backup and process alternative, we will also develop an epoxy film with both a thermal conductivity (>40 W/mK) and an electrical resistivity (<20 microhm-cm) better than solder. This z-axis film is the next generation of technology of our z-axis thermally conductive adhesive that has been developed for the BMDO/USAF. This will eliminate the need for separate adhesives for the F-22 sub-array assembly in areas of very high thermal or electrical transport across an adhesive bond line and will open many applications for solder replacement. The best thermally conductive adhesives are diamond filled and have a thermal conductivity of 10-12 W/mK with very high electrical resistance. The highest electrically conductive adhesives have a resistance of 100 to 500 microhm-cm and a thermal conductivity of 2-5 W/mK. Our proposed automatic dispensable paste adhesive will initially provide up to 20 W/mK thermal conductivity together with less than 40 microhm-cm electrical resistivity. A flowable paste adhesive with these much higher conductivities will open up many high performance electronic assembly applications due to the productivity improvements created by automated processing. The proposed z-axis film adhesive will be able to out perform solder in both thermal and electrical conductivity while requiring a sharply lower processing temperature. Such significant performance enhancement will find application in a variety of electronic packaging products and processes to reduce the yield loss caused by the high processing temperature of solder.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. George P. Hanson
AF 01-121      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Thermally and Electrically Conductive Adhesives for the F-22 Subarray Assembly
Abstract:The issue to be addressed by the proposed effort is adhesive failure in critical components of the Air Force's F-22 radar system. The high density of these subarrays creates very demanding thermal swings, which challenge the integrity of the adhesives being used currently. Failures are occurring at unacceptably high rates. TRI/Austin, working with Auburn University, proposes to correct this problem by developing an adhesive that exhibits very high thermal stability that is filled with a material that exhibits both high thermal and high electrical conductivity. We will use a combination of theoretical and practical modeling to predict and enhance adhesive performance. Systematic experimental designs will be used to cost effectively obtain an optimum composition. This will be based upon iterative tests of adhesive strength and durability after exposure to extreme thermal cycles. At the same time Auburn University will measure thermal conductivity and design and construct a laminated, multi-material model to mimic thermal performance in the subarray. A number of instrumental methods will be used at both facilities including microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry to characterize adhesive failure modes. We believe the proposed approach and assembled research team will to solve the F-22's radar problem quickly and efficiently.The immediate benefit of this development work to the Air Force will be the delivery of a high performance adhesive that eliminates bonding failures in the F-22 radar subarrays. The electronics, telecommunications and aerospace industries all have need for adhesives that exhibit performance beyond the best epoxies, urethanes and acrylics. Demanding swings in temperature in space can cause premature failures in critical or expensive systems. At the very least, they can become a limiting factor in the life of a satellite, transport vehicle or space station. The ability to tailor adhesives for significant improvements in thermal or electrical conductivity, or both, takes the adhesive beyond just a structural material. It now becomes integral to circuit performance and heat dissipation. The state of the art in microprocessor spped and density is limited by the issue of heat removal. If this can be adequately addressed, computing power will continue to improve at reduced cost.

FARADAY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
315 Huls Drive
Clayton, OH 45315
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 836-7749
Dr. Maria Inman
AF 01-122      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Prediction of Corrosion Protection System Aging by Theory Based Data Mining
Abstract:Corrosion damage to aging aircraft is the highest maintenance cost for the U.S. Air Force, and decreases the time that aircraft are available for missions. In order to continue using the aircraft beyond their design life, while staying within the budget constraints of the U.S. Air Force, maintenance costs must be decreased. This requires the capability to predict both degradation of the corrosion protection systems, as well as subsequent corrosion damage to aircraft structures, so that early action can be taken to avoid damage. This Phase I SBIR program address the critical need for prediction of corrosion protection system aging and corrosion damage. The proposed approach is to enhance existing theoretical models for protection system breakdown and corrosion mechanisms, with sophisticated data mining processes to validate, refine or change those models. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the power of data mining to model one aircraft component and its associated corrosion protection system, specifically a coated lap splice joint, and validate the models with limited experimental data. In Phase II, we would extend this approach to a wide range of protection systems and structures on aircraft, and develop broad models based on a combination of theory and data mining.The anticipated results of the Phase I & II efforts are the development and commercialization of a model that predicts the lifetime and performance of a corrosion protection system for aging aircraft components, and the onset and propagation of corrosion resulting from coating degradation, for both military and commercial applications.

S & K TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
53347 US Highway 93 Ste T
Ronan, MT 59864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 229-4717
Dr. Jill S. Ullett
AF 01-122      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Corrosion Prediction: Assessing the Effect of Corrosion Protection System Aging
Abstract:Aircraft coatings are complex systems consisting of metal/conversioncoat-primer interface, primer coat, and topcoat. Degradation is caused by synergistic mechanical and chemical/environmental effects. This phase I proposal focuses on modeling the chemical degradation of the coating system due to UV and water exposure only. Multi-spectral analysis and electrochemical impedance techniques will be used to follow chemical changes in the system with exposure level and time. An experimental plan has been devised whereby the degradation of each component of the coating system can be determined. Based on the experimental findings,S&K Technologies existing corrosion prediction life service model will be enhanced to include degradation of the coating system as a function of time and basing.A test methodology for evaluation of coating systems for aluminum and a coating life prediction tool will result from this Phase I effort.

GENERAL LASERTRONICS
830 Jury Ct, Suite 5
San Jose, CA 95112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 947-1181
Mr. James Thomas
AF 01-123      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Removal Tools and Process for LO Materials
Abstract:General Lasertronics proposes to adapt its Model A600 Laser Coating Remover to improve the efficiency of material removal and repair for Low Observable coatings and finishes. The Model A600 is field deployable and has a portable workhead with waste capture, laser safety sensors, and a explosion safe design. The effort will define laser operating conditions and power/efficiency upgrades for F-117A repair.In addition to removal/repair of LO materials, the technology is applicable to removal of standard paints, to cleaning and decontaminination of various metals, and to removal of sealant compounds.

UNCOPIERS, INC.
6923 Redbud Drive
Manhattan, KS 66503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 293-4917
Dr. Sameer I. Madanshetty
AF 01-123      Awarded: 02MAY01
Title:Removal Tools and Process for LO Materials
Abstract:This phase-I effort seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a coating removal method based on a novel, environmentally-friendly (chemical-free and energy efficient) technology known as Acoustic Coaxing Induced Microcavitation (ACIM). In ACIM-based technologies silent sound is used to create intense energy points (imploding microbubbles) on wetted surfaces. In this project, the precise point-of-use energetics of ACIM-powered microbubbles are applied to the important problem of removing radar absorbing materials (RAM) from aircraft surfaces.This phase-I project will lead to the development of an ACIM activated handheld sonifier for controlled in situ RAM decoating with no damage to the underlying metal/composite substrates. Beyond the RAM removal task, this ACIM-powered tool will function as a universal decoater of broad applicability. ACIM technology uses only silent sound and clean water. ACIM technology has broad applications to semiconductor processing, thin film metrology, and paper recycling.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4119
Ms. Carolyn Westmark
AF 01-124      Awarded: 02MAY01
Title:Ice Phobic Coatings for Low Observable (LO) Aircraft
Abstract:In this Phase I program, Foster-Miller will develop and evaluate coatings that can prevent ice from forming or reduce the adhesion strength of ice on the surface of low observable (LO) aircraft. Foster-Miller will examine coatings that self-organize on the aircraft surface to provide a hydrophilic moiety to bond to the substrate surface and a hydrophobic moiety to create a high-energy surface that is resistant to ice adhesion. In addition, Foster-Miller will investigate the use of novel "active icephobic" coatings that can absorb and release freezing point depressant compounds. These coatings will melt accreted ice at the coating/ice interface, thus eliminating the adhesion of the ice to the surface. Coatings will be tested for hydrophobicity, adhesion to the substrate, hardness, and low observable properties. A screening test for ice adhesion will also be performed on each coating. (P-01332) Successful implementation of this technology will result in an increase in flight safety and reduction of engine damage risk from ingestion of ice on low observable aircraft.

MICROPHASE COATINGS, INC.
170 Donmoor Ct
Garner, NC 27529
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 662-0401
Dr. William Simendinger
AF 01-124      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Ice Phobic Materials
Abstract:After four years of research, MicroPhase Coatings has invented a breakthrough silicone-silicate technology. Preliminary tests indicate that the coating is ice-phobic and meets requirements for aviation use. During Phase I we prove: (a) feasibility of using the coating to prevent ice buildup in B-2 engine inlets, and (b) compatibility with B-2 systems and Low Observable materials. During Phase I we refine the technology and select the optimum formulation. We conduct LO compatibility assessments; AFM/SEM Morphology studies; Ice Adhesion measurements; GC/FTIR analysis of High Temperature Gases; and Contact Angle Measurements. We conclude with Icing Wind Tunnel tests, Sand Abrasion, and Water Erosion tests at an internationally recognized aviation icing testing facility. This project will be conducted by a technical and management team that is accomplished in the development and introduction of high technology into the aerospace marketplace. Internal capabilities are augmented by internationally recognized expert consultants, companies, and academia.Anticipated benefits and commercial applications are immense. They are listed in increasing order of potential impact: (1) suitable for eliminating engine ice damage in the B-2; (2) suitable in other engine inlets; (3) supplement to active airframe de-icing systems, allowing them to be smaller, lighter weight, and use less power; (4) a stand-alone passive anti-icing system. Commercial applications of this potentially breakthrough technology also extend to non-aircraft surfaces where ice can be a problem, such as antennas and power transmission lines and equipment. Our partners for follow-on phases include aircraft manufacturers, de-icing system vendors, FAA, NASA and DoD. Upon successful Phase I, private and federal funding for follow-on R&D are assured.

ACOUSTIC IDEAS, INC.
84 Barnard Avenue, Suite 2
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 757-5028
Dr. Vincent Lupien
AF 01-125      Awarded: 20APR01
Title:Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Fastener Holes in Thick Multiple-Layer Structures
Abstract:Budgetary constraints on defense spending have highlighted the importance of programs aimed at extending the service life of aging aircraft. Nondestructive inspection is a key component of such programs. One important capability is the detection of cracking and corrosion around fastener holes. Phased array ultrasonics offer a novel and powerful solution. They can steer an ultrasonic beam at various angles around the hole, allowing a range of skin thicknesses and fastener diameters to be inspected without mechanical adjustments. Complete circumferential scans can be performed, in some cases without any physical motion of the probe. The added flexibility of examining flaws at a whole range of angles simultaneously leads to a higher probability of detection. The elimination of some or all physical motion reduces weight, size and complexity. The feasibility of detecting first layer corner cracks on the faying surface using phased arrays has been demonstrated in a prior USAF program. Similar technology could be applied to the detection of cracks in multiple layer structures provided sealant exists between the layers to ensure coupling. This proposal outlines our approach for overcoming the technical hurdles of applying phased arrays to thick, multiple layer structures.It is anticipated that technology developed under this SBIR will have direct benefits for United States Air Force Aging Aircraft Programs by allowing safe, rapid and effective nondestructive inspection of fastener holes in thick, multiple layer structures and that such technology, if proven successul, would be acquired by the DoD. As the cost of the technology decreases, it is believed that commercial carriers may also develop an interest.

ALBANY INSTRUMENTS, INC.
1500 Princeton Avenue
Charlotte, NC 28209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 332-3280
Mr. Teodor Dogaru
AF 01-125      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Eddy current detection of cracks within the bore of installed Taper Lock fastener
Abstract:It is proposed to develop novel eddy current probes based on spin dependent tunneling (SDT) magnetoresistive (MR) sensors to enhance the probability of detection of cracks within the bore of installed Taper Lok fasteners. Preliminary results show that the use of shaped excitation coils, together with extremely sensitive SDT sensors properly positioned above the structure under inspection, provides a significant improvement for deep crack detection around fasteners. By using specific coil geometry, the eddy current density can be focused on the circular edge of the fastener hole, where cracks can initiate. Consequently, the perturbation of the eddy current flow due to the presence of the crack is greatly enhanced. The proposed rotating self-nulling probe does not require either additional ferromagnetic flux focusing lenses, or compensation of the excitation field, as in prior art. Within this phase I project, different coil geometries and location of the sensor relative to this coil will be compared and the performance limitations of each design will be studied. A simple manual scanning system will also be developed for fast inspection of holes.The novel eddy current probes will provide an effective tool for detecting small cracks within thick wing splice joint structures, without the need to remove the Taper Lok fastener. It is envisaged that the proposed approach will outperform current state-of-the-art eddy current techniques used to address this difficult problem, in terms of both size and depth of defects that can be reliably detected around the fastener holes. Both military and commercial aircraft industries will directly benefit from the development of these novel probes.

SYNTERIALS, INC.
318 Victory Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-9310
Mr. Richard E. Engdahl
AF 01-126      Awarded: 04APR01
Title:Improved Interface Coating Facility for Ceramic Composites
Abstract:Synterials has in place a facility that will coat long lengths of ceramic cloth such as CG Nicalon with multilayer coatings based on the BN system. This coating capability is the first step in affordability. The next issue that needs to be addressed is reproducibility. This proposal directs effort at qualifying a sensor system that will determine the composition and the deposition rate of the coating process on-line. One candidate sensor has been evaluated in a preliminary manner and two others are to be included in the study. To qualify the sensor system, it is proposed to capture, on-line, deposits that can be measured in about a minute without interrupting the coating of the cloth. This measurement will be made multiple times during the coating of long lengths of cloth. The precision of the sensor will be evaluated by comparing the results of the sensor values with that measured by Auger and SEM on the same coating samples. Phase 2 will start once the precision of the sensor system has been established. In Phase 2 multiple meter lengths of cloth will be processed with specified on and off design conditions and the cloth used to produce composite evaluation panels. These panels will be tested under various loading and environmental conditions. In parallel with the sensor work will be work to fully automate the existing manual control system. This computer controlled system will include special warning and alarm features designed to assure the coating quality.Reproducible, low cost interface coatings are required to assure that the predicted properties of a given composite will be achieved in every similarly produced composite. This assurance that the properties used in a design will be faithfully produced in production composites is essential for both military and commercial applications. This program represents an important step in moving a composite system from research to production.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Jayakumar Muthusami
AF 01-127      Awarded: 02MAY01
Title:Advanced NDI Techniques using Data Fusion
Abstract:The ultimate goal of this effort is to develop state-of-the-art software that performs Data Fusion on NDT techniques such as eddy current, ultrasonic, edge of light detection, Superconducting Quantum Interface Device (SQUID), X-ray and other leading NDT techniques that is of value to the Airforce corrosion detection program. The Phase I and Phase II research proposed would ultimately lead to usage of NDT data, environmental severity index, age, and corrosion growth rate information to predict structural state at a specific time, pit depth, area out, morphology, hidden corrosion, etc. This research would result in reliably estimate of the remaining life cycle to plan condition based maintenance (CBM) of the aircraft. The proposed research would result in significant manpower and machine time savings. Reliable prediction of corrosion is one of the single most important aspects for the condition-based maintenance (CBM) of the aircraft system.Direct cost of corrosion maintenance for the year 1997 is $800 Million and 50% of this cost is due to aging aircraft's KC-135, C-141, and C-5. The technology developed in this research would reduce the life cycle cost and increase the availability of aircraft's resulting in substantial savings.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7892
Dr. Norbert Fruehauf
AF 01-128      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:Two-Photon Photocuring for Non-Autoclave Fabrication
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force is seeking an innovative flight line repair technology for non-autoclave fabrication of polymers that can be used to repair cracks in Radar absorbing materials, Radar absorbing structures, and gap treatment composite materials. To address this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new two-photon based photopolymerization process and demonstrate the viability of a unique handheld photocuring device based on that process. The device will be based on leading edge two-photon chromophore materials. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the deep-penetration, two-photon photocuring process by screening available high performance chromophores, selecting appropriate resins, and experimentally establishing optimum process parameters for successful deep penetration. The Phase I effort will also include preliminary investigation of a user-friendly, hand-held photocuring device. In Phase II, POC will optimize its new two-photon curing technology and develop a unique photocuring device based on this technology. In Phase I, POC will also initiate activities, such as identification of source of other financial support that will ensure successful commercialization of the developed technology in Phase III.The new two-photon photocuring technology offers unique deep penetration depth photocuring, ease of use in a highly portable system, precise control of curing process parameters, resulting in high reproducibility and yield, and reduced maintenance Man Hours per Flight Hour. It has good potential for fast prototyping and fabrication of micro-optical structures and componets such as waveguides, micro-gratings, or new applications for POC's proprietary light shaping diffusers.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Huaibing Liu
AF 01-128      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Two-photon Induced Photopolymerization and Photocuring with Improved Efficiency
Abstract:Triton Systems responds to the Air Force need to determine the feasibility of developing a unique 2-photon laser-induced process for the effective non-autoclave on-aircraft repair of RAM, RAS, and gap treatment resins and elastomers. We propose to demonstrate a uniquely effective 2-photon polymerization and curing process for urethane-acrylic and epoxy-silicone gap treatment elastomers. Our key innovation is the use of specific photo-initiators and co-initiators that will improve the primary system efficiency, the extent of resin curing at modest fluences, and the depth of curing (beyond the depth obtained using conventional uv-curing processes). The improved 2-photon processing will be performed under Ti:sapphire laser illumination, at field-operable powers, and below the threshold of laser damage gap treatment elastomers. In Phase I we will screen unique Triton initiator systems using Air Force 2-photon chromophores, and will demonstrate at least one elastomer- 2-photon cured system at reasonable depth. In Phase II we will optimize one or more best systems to achieve a repair process to a 1" depth with field portable equipment. Phase III will produce resin systems and will develop dual use applications in industry.Two-photon induced polymer processing and fabrication technique has the advantages of potential portability, spatial control, and short cure times as well as enhanced depth of cure. It will be utilized for flight-line repairs of aircraft structures such as Radar Absorbing Material, Radar Absorbing Structure and gap sealants, significantly reducing Maintenance Man Hours per Flying Hour

ASSEMBLY GUIDANCE
315 Littleton Rd.
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 244-1166
Mr. Scott Blake
AF 01-129      Selected for Award
Title:Application Techniques of Appliques for Aircraft Topcoats
Abstract:Using appliqu‚s to replace paint requires a "total appliqu‚ process solution" in the form of an "Applique Process Cell": an integrated set of technologies and methods which address ALL of the process requirements so as to utilize appliqu‚s efficiently, especially reducing trimming requirements when covering complex curved surfaces. The required enabling technologies for an Appliqu‚ Process Cell currently exist in mature forms in disparate applications and locations. Assembly Guidance.has developed several of these enabling technologies and has established relationships with companies which can provide all of the other hardware and software components. The proposed team includes Lockheed Martin, 3M, a US Air mechanic familiar with appliqu‚s, a metrologist experienced in capturing aircraft surfaces, a CAD engineer specializing in cutting and applying material to aircraft surfaces, a high accuracy material cutting specialist, and a Principal Investigator experienced in quality process development in manual placement of sticky material on complex surfaces, kitting and process-guiding displays (a Tibbetts Award Winner). This team will test, document, and refine the "total applique process" in the area of repeatable application on complex curves with reduced trimming. The result will be descriptions of the methods, technologies, costs and benefits for addressing complex surfaces with Applique Process Cells. Benefits: lower costs in installing appliqu‚s, lower costs/improved performance in aircraft finishing, significant reduction in environmental impact in aircraft finishing stripping. Applications: All Military and Civilian Aircraft, Maritime

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5668
Mr. James Gorman
AF 01-129      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:Novel and Automated Installation Methods for Aircraft Appliqu‚
Abstract:Appliqu‚ has demonstrated the potential to save literally billions of dollars in life cycle cost for DOD aircraft as paint replacement, yet very little work has been done to overcome the largest impediment to its adoption; that is, high installed cost. The majority of this cost arises from installation labor, yet appliqu‚ installation to date has remained almost exclusively a skilled manual operation. Under this program, KaZaK shall develop innovative automated equipment and procedures to address the major installation cost drivers - compound curvature, edge sealing, large area application and protruding head fasteners. Specific concepts to address each of these problems are discussed herein. Furthermore, KaZaK has formed a world-class team to address this challenge comprised of the appliqu‚ producer, two airframe prime users and an experienced appliqu‚ installation firm in the bus market to consult on best commercial practices.We anticipate that at the conclusion Phase I, the technology developed will make substantial progress toward increasing appliqu‚ installation rates from roughly 5 square feet per labor-hour achieved on current aircraft programs to rates of 75 square feet per labor-hour routinely achieved in the commercial "bus wrap" market. Two specific equipment and installation processes will be developed to promote these goals. These will be demonstrated on real airframe sections provided by our partners on this program.

FRACTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
14200 Carlson Circle
Tampa, FL 33626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 854-4332
Dr. Matt Aldissi
AF 01-130      Awarded: 02MAY01
Title:Lightweight Radar Absorbing Materials using Functionalized Binders in Aqueous Media
Abstract:Current radar absorbing materials (RAMs) are heavy and require hazardous materials for processing. Having a lighter weight binder with a suitable morphology, combined with environmentally friendly solvents to produce RAMs would offer significant advantages in manufacturing and in the field. Fractal Systems, Inc., in collaboration with our aerospace partners, proposes to develop RAMs through manipulation of the polymeric binder and the proper choice of the solvent using existing fillers such as ferrites. In Phase I, we will develop several dispersion formulations for fabrication of coatings and sheets whose absorption characteristics will be determined by our partners. Other characterization techniques will be used to ensure that the overall material quality is likely to meet the Air Force and end users' requirements. In Phase II of this program, we will optimize the different characteristics of the material for producing practical formulations geared towards making lighter non-hazardous RAMs that will qualify for specific applications (one is air-born and another is naval-based). With direct input form and active participation by our aerospace partners, this effort is likely to result in commercially viable products.In addition to stealth aircraft, air-born targets and naval-based systems, ground-based electronic equipment in the battlefield, low-cost, efficient and lightweight radar absorbing materials can find use for commercial avionics and filtering applications in electronics susceptible to radar/ microwave frequencies.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Guy Rossi
AF 01-130      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Low Weight, Durable, Radar Absorbing Paints for Aircraft Structures
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes to develop novel, durable, low weight radar absorbing paints that will reduce the Radar signature of aircraft. Our approach will significantly reduce the weight of ferromagnetic particle/pigment-based paints via novel binder additives to create up to 50% fraction porosity within the binder. The net result will be a significant reduction in total weight of the coating. In addition, we will significantly reduce volatile organic compounds (VOC) and Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) due to the reduced solvent levels necessary with the reduced levels of binder material. We will carefully optimize the polymer resin chemistry and use unique clay nano-fillers to improve the mechanical and barrier properties of the polyurethane matrix. This will allow us to maintain adequate abrasion resistance, flexibility, chemical resistance and moisture barrier to protect the underlying aircraft, despite the addition of a significant porosity to the coating. The net result will be a uniform coating, applied with simple low cost methods such as spray coating at reduced VOC levels. These coatings will reduce the weight, cost, and environmental impact associated with RCS reduction.Durable, abrasion- and Chemically resistant RAM coatings will find application on a variety of Military aircraft. It will find application on ship structures and other military vehicles. In addition it will find application for screening and shielding for TV and cellular communications in civilian markets.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. Michael L. Dingus
AF 01-131      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:Ultraviolet Light Curing Materials for Field Level Composite Repair
Abstract:Rapid, high quality, on-aircraft repair techniques for fiberglass composite components are required to support the Air Expeditionary Force concept. Current field level repair methods use thermally accelerated adhesive bonding to restore the original design strength of the composite laminate. Several problems exist with on-aircraft thermally cured repair methods. Airframe structural members act as heat sinks, increasing power demands and making it difficult to obtain a uniform cure temperature profile. Current resin systems require low temperature storage to avoid premature degradation, increasing storage cost and support complexity. UV cure resins avoid these problems, but it is difficult to develop a UV cure resin system that meets military aircraft service temperature requirements. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. (TRI/Austin) proposes the development of new high temperature UV cure resins for composite aircraft repair. To integrate the new resins into the required "turnkey" aircraft repair solution, TRI/Austin will team with Abaris Training Resources, Inc. Abaris's extensive aircraft repair qualifications will be coupled with TRI/Austin's 25 years of experience in developing and testing high performance resins and composites for the DoD. Repairs will be performed on test coupons and actual aircraft components. Their physical performance will be compared with similar standard thermal repairs. Candidate application airframes include the F-22 and the JSF. In addition, fiberglass components are part of virtually every modern military and civilian aircraft platform - including fiberglass radomes, which are commonly damaged during service. Common fiberglass aircraft components include wing and tail surface leading edges, control surface skins, and fairings (including large compound-curved wing-to-fuselage fairings on everything from light aircraft up to 747's). Composite interior panels are used in sidewalls, floorboards, overhead baggage bins on airliners, and cargo compartment liners. The vast majority of structural components that must be electromagnetically transparent contain fiberglass or quartz fiber reinforcement.

COI CERAMICS, INC.
(formerly Engineered Ceramics), 9617 Distribution
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 621-7454
Mr. Steven C. Butner
AF 01-132      Awarded: 10APR01
Title:Development of Improved Aircraft Thermal Protection Materials
Abstract:Systems that have used tile insulations, such as NASA's Alumina Enhanced Thermal Barrier (AETB) and Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (FRCI), have long fought against the high cost, limited damage tolerance, and complicated attachment schemes of these materials. Efforts to improve the tiles with hardness coatings have not provided an adequate solution to the problem. The limitation has been the limited strength and damage tolerance of the tiles themselves. Until a viable solution to this problem can be found, vehicles will continue to bare the extremely high cost of maintenance, repair and replacement of tiles. In this Phase I proposal, COIC proposes to develop a new version of AETB with 2 - 5 times the strength and impact tolerance of current versions of the material at a reduced cost. This objective will be achieved through the development of a new composition and manufacturing process for the material.Benefits of this insulation system over existing insulations will be vastly reduced repair and maintenance costs, and lower material costs. Other potential applications for a strengthened tile would be used as a structural core material. The advantage of composite sandwich panel design is well known in the organic composites industry.

ANVIK CORP.
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Dr. Robert Sposili
AF 01-133      Awarded: 22MAR01
Title:Sequential Lateral Solidification of Ultra-Thin Silicon Films for SOI Applications
Abstract:Compound semiconductors enable numerous important electronics and optoelectronics applications. They are commonly produced via epitaxial deposition methods, but the existing compound semiconductor substrate materials are expensive, highly defective, and not available in large sizes. The use of silicon substrates is attractive because of their low cost, low defect density, and large sizes. However, lattice mismatch poses a serious problem because it leads to defect generation in the epitaxially grown films. So-called compliant substrates, in which the surface atoms can rearrange to accommodate the mismatch, offer a solution; ultra-thin (5 nm) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) films have been identified as an attractive candidate compliant substrate material. Unfortunately, commercially available SOI materials are not sufficiently thin, and cannot be reduced to the desired thickness. Herein we propose to utilize the sequential lateral solidification (SLS) process - an excimer laser crystallization process that can convert as-deposited amorphous or polycrystalline silicon films into large single-crystal regions - to create ultra-thin SOI-quality silicon films on oxidized silicon wafers. SLS was developed to enable the fabrication of high-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) on low-temperature substrates, but given the high quality of the crystalline silicon films that it can produce, it has been identified as a potential competitor to traditional SOI methods.The anticipated benefit of the work is the creation of a method and equipment for producing ultra-thin SOI-quality silicon films on insulators, such as SiO2, with the intended purpose of using them as compliant substrates for compound semiconductor heteroepitaxial deposition. Currently, there are no methods capable of providing this material. The commercial benefits encompass all of the electronics and optoelectronics applications for which compound semiconductors are used. Furthermore, the technology is relevant to other applications, such as TFTs, that are based on SOI materials.

GRATINGS, INC.
2655-A, Pan American Freeway
Albuquerque, NM 87107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-9564
Dr. Saleem H. Zaidi
AF 01-133      Awarded: 12APR01
Title:Heteroepitaxial growth on nanostructured silicon Surfaces
Abstract:This phase I SBIR research effort addresses low-cost, large area development of a universal, compliant silicon substrate technology for heteroepitaxial growth of compound semiconductor thin films. Due to lattice and thermal expansion coefficient mismatches, pseudomorphic growth beyond critical thickness is not possible. Several models predict significant relaxation of these constraints due to various stress relief mechanisms available in thin film and 3D nanoscale features. We propose application of 10-50-nm linewidth 3D Si structures for heteroepitaxial growth applications. By suitable choice of processing parameters, these structures are isolated from the thick substrate to act as highly compliant patterned thin films. The stress relief provided by these nanoscale structures in SOI configuration has helped improve quality of GaN films. We propose application of these techniques for Ge and GaAs growth in collaboration with Emcore to improve space solar cells. By replacing Ge substrates with Si, substantial cost and weight reductions can be achieved. Finally, these structures are also expected to find applications in several related material systems.Space Solar Cells Lasers Light emitting diodes Si-on-insulator

THIRD WAVE SYSTEMS, INC.
7301 Ohms Lane, Suite 580
Minneapolis, MN 55439
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 832-5515
Dr. Troy Marusich
AF 01-134      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Improved Titanium Machining Process
Abstract:While recent advances in high speed machining (HSM) of aluminum materials have successfully achieved significant reductions in cost of aerospace structures, these advances have not been successfully applied to titanium material components. Machining costs are a major cost driver in these components, so a meaningful increase in metal removal rate capability will have a significant economic benefit. Primary barriers to achieve high metal removal rates of titanium include: 1) the lack of validated analytical development tools to reduce the dependency on testing trial and error methods, 2) the high cost and inefficient methods for testing new machining concepts, 3) the inherently different machining characteristics (i.e. material characteristics and behavior during machining) of titanium, 4) the high cost of titanium material itself. The focus of this project will be to develop and demonstrate the application of new and existing modeling technology to cost efficiently reduce the first 3 of 4 barriers identified above. This will be accomplished by: 1) the use of validated software modeling technology specifically developed for modeling metal cutting, (the same baseline technology which was instrumental in HSM of Al), 2) the use of modeling techniques to significantly reduce the need (and cost) for testing while increasing the efficiency and successful implementation of new concepts, 3) the use of validated titanium material modeling technology already developed specifically for machining applications. The benefits to be received are: 1. The immediate commercial availability of a validated software modeling platform for the analysis and development of titanium cutting processes. 2. An easy-to-use modeling environment that can be used for both process modeling and cutting tool development. 3. The development of a new validated analytical tool that will significantly reduce the amount of testing trials (and hence, schedule and cost) for developing new cutting methodologies. 4. A more fundamental scientific understanding of the titanium cutting process. 5. A tool that will provide an affordable research method for analyzing, developing, and evaluating HSM techniques specifically for titanium materials. 6. Reduced risk and higher success rates for actual cutting tests that are conducted. Commercial applications include in the broadest sense all machining of titanium components and could very easily be extended into nickel-alloy materials as well. Specifically for the scope of this project, Ti-6Al-4V will be the material of choice. The primary application is its' use in aerospace structural and engine components, both commercial and military. Specific applications will include: 1. Turning machining processes, including boring, reaming, inside diameter and outside. 2. Milling machining processes, including end milling, pocket milling, etc. 3. Cutting tool development; geometries, substrates, use of coatings, development of operating specifications, etc. As example, a typical aerospace engine component may cost $150,000 - $250,000 by the time all the machining is performed. Relatively small productivity increases of 10% - 20% in parts of this high cost return large economic benefits. Multiplied by several hundred units per year, this easily begins to return millions of dollars in savings for just one component. Likewise the successful application of HSM techniques in titanium may allow HSM to economically replace other less desirable methods such as chemical etching. This could potentially reduce process costs on these same type of components by 50% or more, while also eliminating a hazardous, non-desirable type of process. We believe the applications and potential for economic return is well known by the industry. However, industry lacks the appropriate tools, capability, and fundamental scientific understanding to be able to economically develop and implement the next higher order level of capability. Instead choosing to rely on present techniques that mainly are past experience and trial and error testing methods.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Amarendra K. Rai
AF 01-134      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Development of Ceramic Tool Material and Advanced Multifunctional Coatings for Improved Titanium Machining Process
Abstract:This proposal seeks to develop improved titanium machining process. Titanium alloys widely used in aerospace industry, are one of the most difficult workpieces to machine, which has become a major limitation in manufacturing. Unlike steel and aluminum based alloys, titanium cannot take advantage of the high cutting speeds afforded by the use of current state-of-the-art ceramic cutting tools due to its high reactivity with available ceramic tools at the high temperature generated during machining. Moreover conventional coatings which are successful for high speed machining of steel and aluminum do not provide any improvement in titanium machining. For improved titanium machining we propose to develop a new class of ceramic composite cutting tools based on yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and advanced multifunctional coatings utilizing state-of-the-art large area filtered arc (LAFAD) technology. Attention will be focussed to make the proposed composite and coatings highly chemically compatible with titanium. Also during processing of composite and coatings, efforts will be directed to lower the temperature rise during titanium machining. Such YAG based cutting tools and advanced coatings could provide increased machining rates of titanium and increased tool life.Successful completion of the program will provide demonstrated knowledge about the YAG based ceramic cutting tools and advanced coatings for the improved titanium machining process. The acquired knowledge would have broad commercial applicability due to the large number of commercial airframes and engines that are fabricated from titanium.

OPTICS 1, INC.
3050 E Hillcrest Drive, Suite 100
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 432-2148
Mr. Michael E. Couture
AF 01-135      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Design of New Night Vision Goggle (NVG) Optics
Abstract:New helmet mounted device concepts have demonstrated the need for fast and more photon efficient optical systems operating in the visible from 400 nm to 700 nm. Current NVGs have been designed for the near IR, from 600 nm to 900 nm. This shift in waveband requires a change in the glass selection due to the different dispersion characteristics of most glasses at the shorter wavelengths. Because of the greater dispersion in the visible, specifically in towards the blue spectrum, chromatic aberration becomes more difficult to control. In addition, packaging to meet a specific helmet layout configuration also becomes a challenge. Packaging can be very simple with no folds, but this configuration results in a large shift in the helmet center of gravity away from the user causing significant fatigue for the user. Configurations with multiple folds allow the CG closer to be closer to the user at the cost of added complexity.Development of NVG and NVG style enhanced vision systems in the visible waveband has the benefit of substantially reduced cost from classical NVG systems principally due to the low cost detectors available. The low cost will enable these systems to be widely distributed among military field troops and allow normal operations to continue well into twilight hours. Additionally, the potential low cost may allow introduction of such products into the commercial arena for applications such as hiking and hunting.

METRATEK, INC.
9858 Main Street
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 293-9040
Mr. Raymond L. Harris
AF 01-136      Awarded: 18APR01
Title:Broadband LO NDE Sensor Technology (BLONDE)
Abstract:The proposed R&D will develop a hand-held tool for real-time broadband nondestructive evaluation of low observable materials and structures on the flight-line. The unique principle of operation has already been demonstrated in our IR&D program and is well-suited for this type of measurement. The system is easy to operate. It detects and locates damage, and quantifies electromagnetic materials properties over the 2 - 18 GHz frequency range. A bench-top prototype tool will be developed and demonstrated In Phase I . In Phase II, we will field a system that can be evaluated for its fidelity in measurements, repeatability, and accuracy on real LO aircraft. The proposed approach has high probability of success because of METRATEK's strong history of successful innovation in RCS measurement technology and because we have already laid the groundwork for success by verifying the unique principle of operation of this device.The proposed system fills a major USAF need for a hand-held tool to provide rapid assessment of the stealth qualities of on-aircraft materials. The tool that we will develop provides a major increase in stealth aircraft availability by avoiding unnecessary repairs, and increases survivability by assessing potential detectability problems before mission assignment and/or take-off. The concept associated with this tool can be exploited for commercial applications such as vehicular radar sensors, intrusion alarms, assembly line parts inspection systems, and fuel tank and pipeline internal inspection systems.

OPTOMETRIX, INC.
4134 Lind Avenue SW
Renton, WA 98055
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 251-6363
Dr. R. Aaron Falk
AF 01-136      Awarded: 20APR01
Title:Broadband LO NDE Sensor Technology (BLONDE)
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to combine two developing technologies, near field microwave sensors and short pulse microwave generation/detection, into a compact, real-time tool for test and evaluation of low observable materials and structures. This tool is critical to field maintenance of stealth vehicles, potentially affecting the health and safety of both the vehicle and its occupants. For the last three years, OptoMetrix has been working with the Boeing Company to develop a free-space broadband microwave spectrometer for use on stealth vehicles. The core technology of this instrument is the generation and detection of short (10's of picosecond) microwave pulses, which provides a wide bandwidth in a simple, compact package. At the same time, the Boeing Company was developing near field microwave probes for narrow band interrogation of material properties. The combination of these two technologies for producing a broadband, near field tool promises to meet or exceed the demands of field maintainability and thereby minimize the risks to personnel and equipment.Tool for real-time evaluation of low observable material and structures. Tool for real-time evaluation of metal corrosion under paint or other layered materials. Tool for real-time evaluation of voids and defects in composite materials.

ADTECH SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
1342 N. Fairfield Road
Beavercreek, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-3329
Dr. Som R. Soni
AF 01-137      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Strain Rate Effects in Ballistic Analyses of Bonded & Co-Cured Composite Structures
Abstract:A program is proposed that will extend (and build upon) the work already started by the Survivability Group of the Composites Affordability Initiative, Pervasive Team in developing methods for analyzing the effects of ballistic and hydrodynamic ram (HRAM) loading and damage in bonded/co-cured composite structures. Specifically, the objective will be to remedy a major shortcoming of current HRAM finite element codes, which are unable to accurately model the details that differentiate one joint design from another. The incorporation of stitching, z-pinning, co-curing, and bonding of the joints leads to different failure modes and paths. This is the area in which most work will be performed - in the proper selection of failure criteria within the joints as well as the entire model. Presently, the state-of-the-art is to use an elastic-plastic smeared properties technique in modeling the structure and "fuze elements" to model the joints. This program will greatly improve upon the current practices by developing cohesive elements, whose material properties can be determined by testing and incorporated into the HRAM finite element models. Commercialization of the herein proposed research and development activity is in an area where AdTech has demonstrated successes in the past; however, the technology area is broader in scope. Thus we envision commercialization of a software module that can be added to existing, general purpose, fluid structure codes. These would include such codes as: (1) LS Dyna by LSTC, Inc., (2) MSC Dytran, (3) ALE 3-D, (4) CALE, (5) the Sandia CTH code couled to the old Dyna 3-D code for buildings, and (6) the Allegra Code. Further, the Cohesive Element 2-D code is being developed into a 3-D code, and our module would be adaptable to that code as well. Some of the key people associated with several of these codes have already been contacted and have expressed interest. User companies of these established codes are already comfortable with them, have historical data based upon them, can make comparative assessments, and thus are oftentimes reluctant to change --- even though there may be a known better software product available to them. At the same time, they may be quite receptive to adding an enhancement module to an existing code in order to expand its usefulness.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Dr. Chian-Fong Yen
AF 01-137      Awarded: 04APR01
Title:Strain Rate Effects in Ballistic Analyses of Bonded & Co-Cured Composite Structures (MSC P1G26-106)
Abstract:The objective of the Phase I study is to develop a fully integrated design tool for performance evaluation of bonded/co-cured composite structures subject to ballistic and hydrodynamic loading. This tool will have the applicability in the development of emerging military air vehicles with enhanced hydrodynamic ram/ballistic survivability. Previous research work performed at Materials Sciences Corporation (MSC) has successfully demonstrated the integration of advanced composite progressive failure models into LS-DYNA for accurate prediction of deformation and failure of various composite structures subjected to ballistic and blast impacts. The Phase I program will extend the current MSC failure models to include strain-rate dependent progressive failure for bonded and co-cured composite materials with z-reinforcements. The developed material models will be critically evaluated and calibrated by correlating with existing rate-dependent data of stress-strain response as well as bonded composite joint failure behavior. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company will provide existing test data and engineering consultation in this Phase I program as a subcontractor to MSC.This program will provide a design tool with enhanced analytical capability for modeling of a composite bonded structure on future air vehicles. This technology has excellent potential in survivability design of various composite structures. Application will include both military and civil markets such as aircraft, armored vehicles, surface marine craft and submarines, helmets, and blast resistance structures.

EIKOS, INC.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Mr. Paul Glatkowski
AF 01-138      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Next Generation Polymeric Optical Host Materials
Abstract:Eikos, Inc. will develop thermoplastic optical host materials that have high laser damage threshold (LDT) for next generation optical components. The world class team of researchers brought together at Eikos and Virginia Polytech will develop these materials with high single and multiple pulse laser damage thresholds, and investigate the underlying material structure-property relationships to understand the mechanisms that give rise to increased laser damage thresholds. These polymers offer substantial advantages over current PMMA-based materials including thermoplastic processing, very high refractive indices, higher thermal stability, excellent blending characteristic with both organic and inorganic dyes, and additional benefits including ionization and atomic oxygen resistance. These new polymers are the state-of-the-art in transparent thermoplastic materials and are being developed for several commercial applications including next generation canopies and optical lenses. The mechanical properties and optical quality of these materials are perfectly suited for their development in a variety of applications including optical limiting, optical signal processing, and replacement of current PMMA or polycarbonate products. The range of properties exhibited by these polymers will allow us to develop a detailed structure-proerty relationship for high laser damage threshold. Eikos has already started commercialization of these materials with a major consumer products company.In addition to these laser specific applications, perhaps the most robust markets for these materials lie in the general realm of transparent plastics. The transparent plastic market is a multibillion dollar market, and include industries like packaging, building products, medical products, and electronics. Where these particular materials will have advantages is in the high temperature applications where conventional PET, PMMA, or polycarbonate materials fail to perform. These materials also offer some unique properties such as high dielectric constant and refractive index, which has potential uses in linear optics and electronic devices. Finally, these materials are inherently atomic oxygen resistant, which will make them particularly suitable for transparent polymer applications in space.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Dennis P. Pacheco
AF 01-138      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Development of Optical Host Materials with High Laser Damage Thresholds
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a high-damage-threshold host material for high-power or high-fluence optical applications. The goal is to produce a material which has a damage threshold at least an order of magnitude higher than that for polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and which will permit incorporation of a wide variety of organic dyes up to at least the millimolar concentration level. This effort will be a collaboration between PSI and the world-renowned Polymer Synthesis Laboratories at UMass Amherst, who will be a subcontractor for this work. In Phase I, we will synthesize a number of acrylic-based materials covering a range of chemical structures and material properties. These candidates will be subjected to optical damage testing in order to demonstrate laser-hardened formulations, and to understand the relationship between polymer structure and laser damage threshold. The Phase II work will utilize the candidates identified in Phase I to produce a host material which is optimized for both damage resistance and dye compatibility. Detailed structure-property relationships will be established. Successful progress of the program will be validated in each phase through the testing of selected samples at AFRL/MLPJ using their in-house capabilities.An optical host material with both high damage resistance and excellent dye compatibility will represent a major breakthrough for advanced sensor protection and solid-state dye lasers. In the area of sensor protection, for example, safety eyewear can be developed which is compact, robust, and effective against agile laser sources. In the area of solid-state dye lasers, compact, wavelength-agile devices can be produced for a variety of military and medical applications.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Krishna C. Mandal
AF 01-139      Selected for Award
Title:Flexible, Light-Weight, and Solid-State Nanocrystalline TiO2-Polymer Solar Cells on Plastics
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project proposes to develop flexible, lightweight, highly efficient, and low-cost dye sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells. The proposed all-polymer and flexible versions of Gr„tzel cells made by continuous coating and lamination process will be very attractive for deployable shelters at a projected cost of ~$ 0.40/Wp. Although dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) show promise as low-cost photovoltaic alternatives, considerable problems remain with regard to their use of liquid redox electrolytes that are to difficult to seal and maintain for the lifetime required for large-scale economic power production. EIC Laboratories proposes to investigate and develop both ionically and electrically conducting polymers as potential replacements for liquid electrolytes in the DSSCs. Furthermore, the laminated polymer composite counter electrode and low temperature processing of screen-printed TiO2 layers on flexible plastic substrates proposed here will make DSSCs suitable for direct attachment to tentage and other textiles. The goal of the Phase I research is the first demonstration of a fully flexible, all-polymer dye sensitized solar cell with a conversion efficiency of >5% and its lamination to a tent textile substrate.With growing concerns over the dwindling nature of fossil fuel supplies, global warming and climate change, photovoltaic technology is becoming increasingly viable as an alternative energy source. The proposed all-polymer and flexible version of dye-sensitized integrated solar cells will be very attractive for terrestrial and space power generation applications including Air Force deployable structures, where high specific power and mechanical flexibility are needed at a a very low production cost. Other low power applications include consumer electronics, smart cards, sensors, electrochromic widows, mirrors and eye ware.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Kristie Cooper
AF 01-139      Selected for Award
Title:Ink Jet Print Self-Assembly of Mechanically Flexible Thin Film Photovoltaic Fabrics
Abstract:This Air Force Phase I SBIR program would demonstrate the feasibility of ink jet print electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) processes for the low-cost fabrication of flexible photovoltaic arrays directly on fabric material. ESA processing involves the coating of substrate materials by the alternate adsorption of anionic and cationic complexes of polymers, metallic nanoclusters and other molecules from water-based solutions at room temperature and pressure. By controlling the molecules deposited in each monolayer of the resulting multilayer thin film, optoelectronic devices with high efficiency may be formed. Specifically, photon-to-electron conversion with high quantum efficiency can be achieved in layer-by-layer polymer dye/nanocrystalline semiconductor films, due to the high effective inter-particle surface contact area at the molecular level, and by using metal nanocluster/poly-dye multilayers to enhance optical absorbance. NanoSonic's recent work in this area, in cooperation with a large U.S. aerospace contractor, has demonstrated such high quantum efficiencies in ESA-fabricated devices, and the ability to form such functional thin films as coatings on mechanically flexible substrates. During Phase I, NanoSonic would work with that company to demonstrate the ability to reproducibly form deployable fabric photovoltaic fabric, and investigate methods to improve quantum efficiency, fabricate electrode interconnections and implement effective device packaging.Photovoltaic arrays that may be integrated directly with fabric materials offer unique opportunities for electrical power generation for both military and commercial applications. Power-generating tentage, clothing, and easily-deployed fabric would reduce the need for batteries and for separate mechanically rigid solar cell arrays in portable and mobile platforms. Low-cost processing methods such as ink jet print self-assembly at room temperature would allow cost-effective power generation.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
500 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-7027
Mr. James C. Pearson, Jr.
AF 01-140      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Processing of Tough, Fracture and Puncture Resistant Thin Films for Space Deployable Reflectors
Abstract:SRS has developed a thin film processing technique that will enable a host of polymer solutions to be fabricated into precision large-scale membranes for space applications. The innovation presented for demonstration in the proposal is a polymer casting and curing technique that is based upon a transient heat flow air knife resulting in the curing of films under uniform conditions without the use of large curing ovens and costly high temperature substrates. This process is amenable to thermoplastic and thermosetting thin films or a combination of the two resulting in a laminated film which demonstrates the characteristics of a high strength tear resistant film.SRS will use the casting and curing technology of the transient heat flow air knife developed under this SBIR to enable new SRS business lines in the area of very large aperture concentrators, as well as make existent product lines (i.e., polyimide flat panel solar troughs) more efficient and cost effective. The technology demonstrated here will enable the production of larger size (>10m) without regard to mandrel, oven, and substrate size. SRS is currently involved (via the Dual Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) Electromagnetic Radiation Control Experiment (EMRCE)) with Boeing, Thiokol, the Air Force Research Lab, and NASA in developing a prototype 10m inflatable thin film concentrator with accuracy enough to meet RF and solar power generation requirements. Another promising market for large solar concentrators would be to power Satellite Transfer Vehicles used to rescue satellites boosted into wrong orbits or to collect space debris.

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
2555 NE 205th Avenue
Fairview, OR 97024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
Mr. Eric Udd
AF 01-141      Awarded: 04APR01
Title:Life Cycle Performance Screening Using Fiber Optic Grating Sensor System for Composite Cryogenic Tankage
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR will develop a methodology for monitoring the performance of composite cryogenic tanks through a system consisting of fiber grating strain sensors that will be integrated into the tank. The methodology will be developed through analysis, experimental testing of a demonstration article and subsequent evaluation of the results to check analysis. Blue Road Research will employ technology it has developed for both single and multiple axis fiber grating sensors allowing sensors to be mounted on the surface of the tank as well as at different depths in the demonstration article. The unique capabilities of the multi-axis fiber grating allow measurements of shear strain, transverse strain gradients and simultaneous strain and temperature that are beyond the capabilities of single axis fiber grating strain sensor technology.Developing technology and methodology that will support cradle to grave health monitoring of composite cryogenic tanks will be critical for both military and commercial reusable launch vehicles. Blue Road Research and Thiokol anticipate this technology will also be highly applicable to monitoring natural gas storage tanks.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Stevan Dimitrijevic
AF 01-142      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Fullerene-Dendrimer Optical Limiters
Abstract:General objective of this program is to develop efficient optical limiters based on fullerene-dendrimer supramolecular structures. The scientific basis of the proposed program is nonlinear optical behavior of fullerenes and dependence of that behavior on interaction between fullerene molecules and matrix material. Reactions between fullerene and dendrimer molecules, studied at MER, resulting in formation of chemical bonds and yielding supramolecular structures that contain distinctive fullerene and dendrimer entities open the possibility of using dendrimers as convenient matrix for fullerene molecules. The controllability of the molecular sizes and shapes through precisely defined generations and controllability of molecular rigidity depending on size, shape and nature of dendrimers, make dendrimers a perfect matrix to investigate the validity of the concept that optical limiting properties of fullerenes could be tuned and optimized through interaction with matrix having variable rigidity. It is expected that the proposed concept can lead to the development of passive optical limiter with short reaction time, of the order of mili-second, and with sufficiently low saturation threshold in the interval between 0.6 J/cm2 and 1 J/cm2. The main goal of the Phase 1 is to synthesize fullerene-dendrimer supramolecules of different kinds, and to perform a thorough characterization of optical properties of obtained products in order to prove the defined concept. Optimization and definition of production procedure, and fabricating prototype coatings will be the main goal of the first part of the Phase 2, while the second part will encompass fabrication of prototypes, verification of quality of the products and preparations for commercial production. The main commercial potential of the anticipated fullerene-dendrimer molecular structure is in the market of optical protection at instrumentation/sensor level as well as in the domain of professional personal protection. Another potential field of commercialization may be the application as efficient self-lubricating materials and lubricant additives. Potential applications in electronic industry, electrochemistry and medical applications should not be excluded.

THOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7600 Jefferson NE, Suite 9-115
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 296-3615
Dr. Stuart T. Schwab
AF 01-142      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Novel Processing Methods for Space Optical Coatings
Abstract:The mission of the U.S. Air Force has expanded to include responsibility for global intelligence and force projection-the ability to "reach out and touch someone" anywhere on Earth. To meet these mission requirements, the Air Force has greatly expanded its space technology development efforts. Space-deployable membranes have the potential to yield large gains in systems capabilities through the reduction of structural mass and launch volume. Because of the large distances involved, the shape of the membrane, particularly the reflective surface, must be closely controlled to achieve the desired resolution-even with the use of real-time holography correction methods. Materials and methods to control membrane shape or otherwise maintain optical performance are lacking. Thor Technologies, Inc. will team with Mound Laser & Photonics Center, Inc. (MLPC) and the University of Cincinnati (UC) to integrate three novel technologies into an innovative method of applying mesoscale patterns and devices onto polymer membranes and other substrates, and to characterize their electrical and optical performance. The Principal Investigator has considerable experience in application of synthetic chemistry to materials processing, MLPC has unique processing capabilities, and UC has unique characterization capabilities. The team is well qualified to prepare and characterize mesoscopic patterns and arrays. The proposed technology has the potential to impact a wide range of areas by enabling the facile preparation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and other devices. It will enable the active membrane control required for space-based optical mirrors.

INFOSCRIBE TECHNOLOGIES, LTD.
1257B N. Fairfield Road
Beavercreek, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8870
Dr. David A. Ress
AF 01-143      Awarded: 12APR01
Title:Engine Component Life Management Technology
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal plans to explore the concepts of data management for eddy current inspection of aircraft engine parts and the development of mining techniques utilizing intelligent agents. In addition, through the use of the internet, this proposal will explore the possibilities of sharing and analyzing data from remote locations. The data anayzed from this proposal will be used to assist in the determination of rotary engine parts for continued serviceThis developed technology will have a broad commercial and military appeal in understanding and extending the life of engine parts and thus reducing the cost of maintaining and servicing aircraft.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Dr. Anthony A. Caiazzo
AF 01-145      Awarded: 03APR01
Title:A Linked Engineering Knowledge Base Tool-Set for Textile Composite Material Forms (MSC P11G26-105)
Abstract:It is expected that accelerated insertion of materials (AIM) will be facilitated through development of linked engineered material databases, that are capable of conducting quick virtual testing of new materials, that is supplemented by limited physical testing, rather than proceeding directly to complete experimental characterization. To address this need for reduced insertion time, Materials Sciences Corporation (MSC) proposes to develop and demonstrate computational simulation tools for quickly and reliably predicting the thermo-physical properties of textile fiber reinforced composite materials. The linked engineering knowledge base to be developed under this research program will be based on the Mathematicar style notebook interface, and constructed like the conventional experimental building-block approach. Individual modules that simulate microstructural behavior will provide input to structured material modules whose output are macro- or structural-level properties. Generation of limited data at any of the levels can then be expected to provide (limited) validation at other levels. In this fashion, the total amount of testing required to characterize a new textile fiber reinforced material can be reduced. Data interpretation tools, and a database function will be included. Development, validation and commercialization of this modular tool-set is the ultimate goal of this program.The leading applications for the AIM analysis tool-set to be developed and demonstrated by this research are AFRL, and U.S. Air Force advanced airframe, space systems, and engine component designers. In addition to these direct applications, MSC will pursue application of the products of this research to the commercial shipbuilding and aerospace sectors, the automotive industry and the oil exploration industry.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optic & Holography Div, 20600 Gramercy Pla
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alexander Parfenov
AF 01-146      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Ruggedized Durable Optical Fiber Connector
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes the novel RUggedized Durable OpticaL Fiber Connector (RUDOLF) as a reliable fiber optic connector for use in harsh environments. POC's solution is based on extended beam principles tolerant of lateral misalignments, and leaves no voids in connector construction to be contaminated by fluids. POC' RUDOLF prevents alignment instability and potential failure of the optical connector as a result of contamination by coolant fluids. It is also tolerant to thermal expansion and minimizes optical losses. POC manufactured technology will make RUDOLF uniquely inexpensive, efficient, and durable. In Phase I POC will present a working demonstration of the RUDOLF connector, which in Phase II will be advanced to a preproduction prototype.RUDOLF connectors will be indispensable in harsh military environments and in commercial application requiring submersion in water, in the automotive industry, anywhere moisture, vibration, and thermal expansion make optical connections difficult. Cooling fluid cannot get into the connector and degrade optical performance. Connections by means of RUDOLF are repeatable, and optical losses are diminished.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 475-4727
Mr. David M. Kane
AF 01-152      Awarded: 06APR01
Title:Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR Aimpoint Selection (STILAPS) Missile 3-D Targetting Sensor
Abstract:The objective of this program is to create a sensor system design utilizing Micro Electro-Mechanical Machine Systems (MEMS) Beam Steering Mirror Arrays and leverage the Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR (STIL) demonstrated previously by Aret‚ . Addition of a MEMS beam steering array to the STIL technology will provide a low cost high accuracy 3d Imaging solution that meets the required to 2pi Steradian coverage at 1 kHz for a light-in-flight missile guidance system providing target detection and orientation determination specifically for aim point selection. Major Benefits of the STILAPS system as it applies to fuzing applications by providing exact orientation of the weapon relative to the surface of the target for terminal attitude sensing and aim point selection are as follows: ú Dual Channel imaging for Detection and Characterization ú Camouflage and Canopy Penetration capability ú Haze and aerosol penetration capability ú High resolution, 4m GSD over 2pi sr ú 1m GSD over 0.62 sr within 2pi sr ú Accurate range determination, 0.07m rms @ 4m GSD, 0.018m rms @ 1m GSD ú Range Depth is adjustable in flight, with rDepth of 400m for the Detection Channel and 100m for the Characterization Channel ú High Coverage Rates, 2p sr at 1kHz with laser PRF of 59 kHz The STIL is an integral part of Aret‚'s current business base and implementation of this technology. Adding the ability to scan an area utilizing the MEMS mirror array beam steering approach will allow introduction of the STIL into a host of additional commercial and DoD markets. Aret‚ is actively investigating surface measurement and inspection markets, medical imaging as well as supporting DoD markets in the missile seeker and space based imaging markets. All of these applications will benefit directly from knowledge gained from the STILAPS initiative.

BAKHTAR ASSOC.
3420 VIA OPORTO, SUITE 201
NEWPORT BEACH, CA 92663
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 675-2800
Dr. KHOSROW BAKHTAR
AF 01-154      Awarded: 26MAR01
Title:Performance Assessment of Penetrator Weapons
Abstract:An innovative and cost-effective technique, based on physical scale-model testing at 1-g, is presented to evaluate the performance of the next generation penetrator missiles designed to take out underground structures. The sub-scale target, an engineered system, can be considered as underground facilities built using tunneling or cut-and-cover construction techniques in a geologic system with variable characteristics. The engineered system can be designed as a complex multi-level facility or simply a system of tunnels excavated at the same depth elevation. The overburden thickness above the potential target can vary from few meters to several tens of meters. The objective of the mission is defined by the launched missile penetrating to a desired depth, detonating or impacting, and producing shock waves impinging on the engineered system (tunnel). The success of the mission is defined by the ability of the penetrator missile to generate ground shocks of large enough magnitude to cause structural damage. Similitude laws are used to determine the relevant characteristics of the scaled-model geologic and engineered systems and those defining size and type of weapons.The proposed study is directed towards the development of an experimental and analytical methods followed by a field test program for performance assessment and design optimization of conventional penetrator weapons used for sure kill. The impingement may occur either side ways or towards the center-line of the underground facility to cause structural damage such as internal spalling of concrete support lining material. Damage assessment is made using the US Air Force EarthRadar.A novel method and cost-effective approach for performance assessment of weapons. Damage assessment for hardened underground structures subjected to penetrator weapons attack. A unique technique for simulating stress wave propagation in anisotropic geologic materials under controlled conditions.

ADVANCED CERAMICS MANUFACTURING
3292 East Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 434-6375
Mrs. Marlene Platero-AllRunner
AF 01-155      Awarded: 15APR01
Title:Innovative Methods for Bonding Large Scale Sections of Tungsten Alloys
Abstract:This program proposes to implement fibrous monolith processing techniques for the manufacturing of large scale tungsten penetrators which incorporate orientation controlled long fiber tungsten filaments bonded with an interface consisting of metal or carbide. It is anticipated that the use of properly controlled orientation of the cellular tungsten material will eliminate impact mushrooming effects and create an adiabatic shearing mechanism for enhanced penetration. High temperature and high pressure Hot Isostatic Processing (HIP) will be used to consolidate actual components. In addition, technology developed and commercialized for fibrous monolith oil and gas drill tool bit inserts used for hard rock drilling will be incorporated into this program.The development of this new fibrous monolith tungsten metal processing technology will allow for low cost production of large and complexed shaped tungsten components with enhanced properties for x-ray shielding and penetrators.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Eugene Dyadko
AF 01-155      Awarded: 18APR01
Title:Ductile Intermetallic Joining for Heavy Alloy
Abstract:Good ballistic performance results when the maximum kinetic energy is delivered to the target. Increasing the weight of the projectile achieves this goal. One reasonable way to enhance the mass behind the nose of the penetrator is to augment its size. The conflict between increased lethality for large projectiles and limited facilities for producing large penetrators leads to a need to join small pieces of heavy alloy into larger projectiles. A copper joint is not strong enough. Nickel bonding would require a high processing temperature, which would cause grain coarsening and lower strength. A better joining method uses an interlayer that reacts to create a ductile intermetallic compound. Good adhesion is achieved during the temperature transient associated with the bonding but the reaction temperature must be held below the eutectic point of the Ni-Fe-W matrix to minimise grain growth. Titanium nickelide, alloyed aluminium nickelide and titanium aluminide have enough tensile strength and ductility to meet the requirements of military projectiles. Corrugating the junction surface area will increase further the strength of the bonding. Using ductile intermetallic compounds as bonding interlayers will lead to strong joints for tungsten heavy alloy parts that will make possible production of full-scale penetrators for military needs, and larger parts for civilian use (radiation shields, gyroscope components etc.)

MILLI SENSOR SYSTEMS & ACTUATORS
93 Border Street
West Newton, MA 02465
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 965-4872
Dr. Donato (Dan) Cardarelli
AF 01-156      Awarded: 18APR01
Title:Integrated MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit for Air-Launched Munitions
Abstract:MEMS integration is proposed as the solution for a miniature Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for air-launched munitions in order to satisfy the requirements for low cost, high performance and launch survival capability. An IMU requiring assembly and alignment does not take full advantage of MEMS technologies. Integration also contributes to the IMU performance as the gyros and accelerometers are from a common fabrication technology and related designs. Modeling to achieve optimum performance would be possible. Integration also causes a paradigm shift in that the instrument designer also becomes the IMU designer. The commercial intent is to develop integrated IMUs that can be included in systems that are intuitive to users outside of the guidance community to bolster applications in new areas.The military, industrial and consumer applications for precision motion measurement and control are broad and valuable. These applications span missile guidance, virtual reality simulation & training, oil drilling, vehicle safety and navigation, and personal navigation. OEMs that supply these applications are constrained by the lack of affordable sensors with adequate performance. A low-cost integrated MEMS IMU with tactical-grade performance would enable OEMs to migrate a host of military and industrial products into much larger consumer markets, and to expand the number of applications that deliver economic value based on low-cost precision motion measurement. The resultant economies of scale in production and application would yield significant benefit for the military programs that spawned the enabling technology.

OBRIEN & ASSOC.
406 S. Lane St.
Blissfield, MI 49228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 486-3905
Dr. James M. O'Brien
AF 01-156      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Microstructure Refinement by Channel Die Pressing
Abstract:Continued interest in the enhancement of warhead liner performance has led to a number of studies focused on liner material ductility and consistency. Specifically, cold upset forging and annealing have been shown to produce significant grain refinement and texture development in liner plates of various materials. However, in tantalum, and possibly other warhead metals, variations in thermo-mechanical processing among different mills can persist as inconsistencies in the final plate, even following the extensive changes in microstructure occurring in cold forging and subsequent annealing. Equal-channel angular pressing (ECA pressing) is a material conditioning process which by intensive shear deformation is able to produce ultrafine grain sizes, without changing the overall shape of the piece. Application of this process to condition bar stock segments prior to the cold forging of plates could potentially erase any material bias from previous processing and provide for complete uniformity of material properties in forged plates, regardless of the material supplier used. It appears that ECA pressing, followed by cold upset forging and annealing, is the optimum process sequence for the manufacture of warhead liners. This project will apply this sequence to three warhead materials and characterize the results.Successful completion of Phases I and II of this effort will result in a manufacturing sequence for warhead liners which offers improved ductility and consistency over methods used currently.

OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS, INC.
4966 El Camino Real, Suite 108
Los Altos, CA 94022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-8282
Dr. P. K. Menon
AF 01-156      Awarded: 03MAY01
Title:New Adaptive Signal Processing Algorithms for Anti-Jam GPS Navigation
Abstract:Weapon systems relying on integrated GPS/INS navigation technology are susceptible to jamming from external sources. Anti-jam GPS navigation system can be realized by using spatially separated GPS antennas together with adaptive signal processing technology. The central element of such an anti-jam GPS navigation system is the adaptation algorithm. This proposal advances the development of fast responding, stable, adaptive filter algorithms based on recently developed nonlinear control technology. Adaptation algorithms proposed here can provide convergence guarantees and efficiencies not available in existing algorithms. Phase I research will demonstrate the use of these new adaptation algorithms in the synthesis of anti-jam GPS navigation system using a six degree-of-freedom simulation. Phase I research will also identify the computational requirements for implementing the anti-jam GPS navigation technology. Phase II work will develop a prototype of the anti-jam GPS navigation system using commercial off-the-shelf components. That work will also demonstrate the benefits of combining the anti-jam GPS technology with previously developed guidance-control techniques to develop robust flight control systems for a precision munition. Adaptation algorithms developed under the present research has extensive applications in next generation signal processing systems. Applications include adaptive beam forming in phase-array radars, cellular telephony and video teleconferencing over Internet. Anti-jam GPS technology can provide reliable navigation sensors for the next generation air traffic automation and UAV systems.

POSITRONICS LLC
127 East Gate Dr., Suite 203
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 661-4949
Dr. Gerald A. Smith
AF 01-156      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Long-term Confinement of Dense Positron Plasmas
Abstract:The objective of this propoosal is to demonstrate the feasibility of storing large numbers of antielectrons, or positrons, for long periods of time. Antimatter has the largest specific energy known to humankind, i.e 180 MJ/microgram. An ordnance package containing micrograms of positrons stored for days would comprise an extremely powerful, lethal and revolutionary weapon. We will investigate several technologies for confining positron plasmas, including Penning traps, linear magnetic mirror traps, and closed magnetic torus traps. Other systems may be considered as work progresses. The deliverable will be a Final Report which includes descriptions of systems, costs and construction details.A low mass system capable of holding hundreds of MJ's of energy for long periods of time has many potential commercial applications. Among these in the aviation sector is a Positron Energy Conversion (PEC) ramjet or turbojmet, with the capability of extended flight (up to 30 days) and range (transcontinental). Applications include weather surveys, population, agriculture and pollution studies, and land and marine assays.

POSITRONICS LLC
127 East Gate Dr., Suite 203
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 661-4949
Dr. Gerald A. Smith
AF 01-156      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Stabilization and Long-term Confinement of Atomic Positronium
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of storing large numbers of antielectrons, or positons, for long periods of time. Antimatter has the largest specific energy known to humankind, i.e. 180 MJ/microgram. An ordnance package containing micrograms of positrons stored for days would comprise an extremely powerful, lethal and revolutionary weapon. We will investigate techniques for forming and stabilizing atomic positronium, a bound quantum state of an electron and positron. This will include passing a beam of atomic positronium through crossed magnetic and electric fields. We will also investigate technologies for confining large collections of stabilized positronium atoms, including laser levitation and cooling of these atoms. Other technologies may be investigated as work progresses. The deliverable will be a Final Report which includes desriptions of systems, costs and construction details.A low mass system capable of holding hundreds of MJ's of energy for long periods of time has many potential commercial advantages. Among these in the aviation sector is a Positron Energy Conversion (PEC) ramjet or turbojet, with the capability of extended flight (up to 30 days) and range (transcontinental). Applications include weather surveys, population, agriculture and pollution studies, and land and marine assays.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Raman Mehra/Ravi Prasanth
AF 01-156      Awarded: 21MAY01
Title:Highly Integrated Control Systems For Smart Munitions
Abstract:Integrated GPS/INS navigation system is a key component of many guided weapons currently under development. Future weapons systems will integrate heterogeneous components such as actuators and sensors with functionalities such as monitoring, diagnostics, and control to a greater extent. The project's long-term objectives are to identify new challenges arising in this integration and to develop analytical and computational tools to meet them. Phase I demonstrates the design of a fault-tolerant integrated GPS/IMU/Passive EO navigation system for terminal guidance and automatic target recognition. Performance of this hybrid system will be verified in the presence of sensor failures and jamming. Phase I work also develops computational techniques to verify hybrid systems. This work can be seen as laying the foundation for a complete investigation of integration issues and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations in Phase II. Scientific Systems Company, Inc will be supported by Boeing Phantom Works and Draper Laboratory in all phases of the project.Sensor fusion, fault tolerance, V&V and software certification become pertinent whenever coordination among physical and information processing components are required to achieve reliability and performance in uncertain and dynamic environments. Therefore, the analytical and computational tools we are proposing to develop have direct applications in many areas - MEMS, formation flying, automotive control systems, rendezvous and docking operations in space, telerobotics - to name a few.

SYSTEM DYNAMICS
5346 SW 91st Terrace
Gainesville, FL 32608
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-8035
Mr. Kevin J. Shortelle
AF 01-156      Awarded: 04APR01
Title:Exploiting Evolutionary Algorithms for Improved Automatic Target Acquistion
Abstract:The focus of this SBIR Phase I program is to develop and test a feature-based automatic target acquisition (ATA) system exploiting evolutionary algorithm (EA) technology. The ATA system will accept phenomenologically-based target and scene features extracted from high resolution LADAR imagery and output a target classification decision with a high probability of correct classification. The use of LADAR data is particularly attractive since it provides 3D imagery while simultaneously achieving the angular resolution of I2R and range resolution of SAR at a lower cost than either of those two sensors. The EA approach represents an innovative structure for both improving ATA performance and streamlining computations associated with model-based techniques. The approach utilizes proven evolutionary algorithm software that has been developed and successfully implemented on other ATA systems. The results of this research will broaden the technology base of advanced ATA algorithms available to the Air Force as it continues to pursue low-cost, autonomous LADAR seekers for conventional weapons guidance. The performance of the EA classifier will be benchmarked against existing model-based approaches with the metrics being run time, memory requirements, and percent correct/incorrect classification. The automatic vehicle recognition and identification capabilities emanating from this SBIR will have a number of dual-use applications. For instance, the results would be pertinent to aircraft tracking and control at commercial airports, intruder tracking, and intelligent highway applications. Automated systems involving manufacturing inspection (including robotic bin picking) would also benefit from innovative recognition and identification algorithms.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard, Mailstop 100
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Dr. Patrick Shoemaker
AF 01-156      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Elementary Motion Detection with Contrast Adaptation
Abstract:Insects display remarkable capabilities for guidance and directed flight based on their visual sense. If duplicated in autonomous flying weapons, these capabilities could greatly enhance their effectiveness. We propose a collaborative effort between an insect neurobiologist and VLSI technologists to develop motion processing theory and technology based on insect vision. This effort will apply new findings from insect neurobiology to the well-established correlational model of the elementary motion detector (EMD), which appears to be the basis for all higher-level visual motion processing in the insect visual system. These new findings suggest that adaptation of contrast sensitivity, mediated by motion, plays a crucial role in extending the dynamic range of motion estimation and conferring response invariance with respect to non-motion-related parameters. Thus, we propose an effort to formalize this theory and further develop an implementation approach for an EMD in analog VLSI to include the capability for contrast adaptation.Estimation of egomotion and tracking of small moving targets are two capabilities of insect visual motion processing that would be directly useful for autonomous flying vehicles and weapons. Expected applications are in guidance for near-ground flight and in seeker technology.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard, Mailstop 100
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Dr. Thomas J. Bartolac
AF 01-156      Awarded: 19APR01
Title:Advanced Algorithms for Point Target Detection
Abstract:New developments in neuromorphic concepts permit massively parallel signal processing co-located with the cryogenic focal plane detector array. The Wave Process is a low-contrast moving point target detection algorithm that is efficiently implemented in a compact analog VLSI circuit. It reduces the data rate to downstream sensor processing, while providing data with a higher density of target information than the scene as a whole, resulting in smaller, lighter sensors with improved mission performance. Tanner Research proposes to dramatically increase the Wave Process signal/noise by adding Elementary Motion Detection as a pre-processing function. We will also make major improvements in Wave Process detection of stealth targets by adding Optical Flow and shape-finding post-processing functions. In Phase I, Tanner Research will develop and demonstrate these extensions to the Wave Process algorithm, using an existing high-fidelity simulation and validated imagery data sets representing scenarios relevant to AFRL. We will quantify the improved target detection capability, and establish goals and approaches for the Phase II effort. Compact, low-cost, high performance sensors for point target detection will provide new space-based surveillance capabilities, reliable cruise missile detection, advanced miniature seekers, and collision avoidance for manned and unmanned aircraft. We will pursue technology insertion opportunities with existing sensor platform and seeker primes.

WINTEC, INC.
220 Eglin Parkway SE, Suite 4
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 664-6203
Mr. Fred Benedick
AF 01-156      Awarded: 26MAR01
Title:Munitions Research
Abstract:The MIL-STD-1760 aircraft /store electrical interface standard significantly reduced the cost of electrically integrating smart stores on aircraft and dramatically enhanced aircraft/store interoperability. An evolving electrical interface standard is expected to achieve similar results for integration of planned miniature stores on advanced carriage dispensers. Though these two standards deal with some lower level software interface issues (primarily related to communications), there is little existing commonality in application level aircraft/store software interfaces. Since some government estimates attribute approximately 40 percent of the non-recurring cost of an aircraft/store integration effort to software development, substantial additional savings could be achieved through enhanced commonality and standardization in these application level interfaces. In fact, better standardization in aircraft/store software including the incorporation of such commercial techniques as plug and play capabilities was specifically pointed out as highly desirable by a 1999 NATO Industrial Advisory Group (NIAG) study of potential improvements in Aircraft, Launcher, and Weapon Interoperability (ALWI). The proposed effort would investigate requirements for aircraft/miniature store software standardization, define an open system software integration framework, develop a concept for a real world example application, and develop a plan for a follow-on prototyping/demonstration program. The technology provided by this program will provide a basis for significantly reducing aircraft/miniature store (and other store) software integration costs and enhancing interoperability. It has significant potential commercial applicability in robotic vehicle and home and office automation applications.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Wayne S. Pelouch
AF 01-157      Awarded: 04JUN01
Title:Compact Monolithic Waveguide LADAR Munitions Seeker
Abstract:The goal for the next-generation laser transmitter for high-energy single-pulse LADAR seekers is to reduce size, cost, weight, and complexity, while increasing robustness and operational lifetime. Current laser transmitters (1) contain numerous free-space optical components that limits the robustness and (2) are limited by thermal problems such as heat removal and temperature control. Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) proposes to develop a novel compact monolithic eyesafe Er-doped 1.6-micron laser that can be assembled with permanent optical alignment. The transmitter architecture is based on a novel waveguide laser design that has significant advantages over bulk laser designs. Key transmitter features are (1) compact high-efficiency laser diode pumping with simple and low cost coupling optics, (2) unique design of the Er-doped laser transmitter results in excellent thermal management for a longer operational lifetime, and (3) intrinsic laser material properties allow operation over wide ambient temperature range. The transmitter is capable of >100 mJ output energy in a <5 ns pulsewidth, with a final cost estimate (in quantity) of less than $2000 per transmitter. CTI's proven ability to design and engineer rugged and compact laser ranging systems for demanding environments will ensure a successful overall development program. Anticipated applications include (1) Laser seeker transmitters for multiple platforms, (2) Low cost transmitters for other eyesafe laser remote sensing applications, (3) Laser sources for commercial markets such as materials processing, medical, and instrumentation.

Q PEAK, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Dr. Kevin F. Wall
AF 01-157      Awarded: 01APR01
Title:High-energy, eyesafe transmitter for LADAR
Abstract:The most widely used solid state laser technology is based on Nd-doped laser materials, providing output in the 1050-1060-nm wavelength region. Alternative laser materials can provide other wavelengths more suited for eyesafe LADAR, but systems using these materials have shown substantial limitations in either or both power output and efficiency. For focal-plane-array (FPA)-based LADAR systems in particular, the need to generate a combination of high energies and short pulses eliminates many solid state lasers from consideration. In the work proposed here, we take advantage of recent developments in solid state laser design, new laser materials and improved high-power semiconductor lasers to develop an efficient, compact, high-power laser system in the 2050-2100-nm wavelength region. The wavelengths generated are eyesafe, fall in an atmospheric window and are readily detectable with existing FPA technology. The proposed laser design uses a minimal number of diodes to generate high-energy pulses, consistent with the desire for a compact and low-cost system, and the use of conduction cooling throughout leads to flexibility in thermal management.The laser to be developed in this proposed effort would have a unique combination of power output and wavelength and could open up new capabilities for materials processing systems, particularly for materials with a high water content. Another application of laser could be in the area of laser medicine, for surgical applications in tissue cutting, coagulation or welding. Finally, the laser can be also used as part of an industrial gas sensing system for detection of minute quantities of water vapor or carbon dioxide.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Jerome Fanucci
AF 01-158      Awarded: 18MAY01
Title:Design, Fabrication and Testing of Low Cost Composite and Metal/Composite Hybrid Lattice Fins
Abstract:KaZaK Composites and our program partner, Raytheon Missile Systems, propose to investigate the design, low cost manufacture and testing of several material and process alternatives for making a less costly replacement for a current baseline EDM-fabricated stainless steel lattice fin. KCI's current leading candidate, an all-graphite/epoxy fin, when combined with our expected low cost production process, should result in a minimum 90% cost reduction compared to the $2,000 baseline fin price. In addition to the all-composite design, we will also consider hybrid systems that combine a composite lattice with a metal base, and improved systems for making all-metal fins. Because the stated application is subsonic rather than supersonic, high temperature issues that may have precluded low cost metal production technology might be applied to reduce the cost of the low speed metal designs. During Phase I KCI will fabricate several prototype lattice fin prototypes and subject them to static load testing. We also will perform full scale dynamic pressure deployment tests using a water tunnel during Phase I. Working with Raytheon, we will project the synergistic weight and cost reduction that a lighter lattice fin might generate in a resized missile control actuation system. RCS reduction considerations are driving aircraft armament toward internal stores requirements. This will necessitate the development of smaller weapons without a reduction in capability. The lattice fin is a technology that helps this evolution by both creating a tighter package size, and by reducing the requirements on the control actuation system, allowing that to become smaller as well. Cost has been one of the impediments to the general acceptance of lattice fin technology in the US. Successful completion of the proposed Phase I and II work should create a cost effective solution for manufacturing the lattice fin structure. Once proven, it is expected that the market for weapons making use of this technology will grow quickly as new, smaller, smarter, more capable weapons are purchased to supply the more stealthy aircraft, designed for internal weapons carriage that will be entering the fleet.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Lev Tuchinskiy
AF 01-158      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Novel Fabrication Technology For Lattice Fins
Abstract:The nature of lattice fins allows them to be folded close to the weapon's structure when not deployed. That opens up the way for internal ordnance carriage, which leads to the reduction of both flow field drag and radar detection. The high cost of lattice fin fabrication remains an issue. The current manufacturing process results in a per fin cost of roughly $2000. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project demonstrates a novel alternative waste-free process for fabrication of lightweight lattice fins, which enables 12-17 times reduction a cost per fin. The proposed approach allows fabrication of net-shape fins of different web geometries (including very thin webs), use of different materials: metals, alloys, reinforced plastics, composites. The process will be developed for stainless steel and composite lattice fins with different web thickness. Various candidate materials, including composites that could be viable fin materials will be evaluated and the cost savings associated with the utilization of the most affordable materials and production process will be established.It is anticipated that this Phase I program will result in the smallest, lightest lattice fin assemblies possible, consistent with the structural demands of the maneuvering weapon airframe. Viable material and manufacturing process advocated in a proposal will be equally applicable to the production of efficient lattice fins for a 250-pound class munition, a 2000-lb munition, or any weight class in between. Commercial application includes lightweight metal sandwich panels for vehicle energy absorbing components, automotive interiors, etc.

MARK FOLSOM, CONSULTING ENGINEER
25747 Carmel Knolls Drive
Carmel, CA 93923
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 626-8252
Mr. Mark Folsom
AF 01-160      Awarded: 13JUN01
Title:Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) Scale Deposited Energetic
Abstract:The description and characterization of a novel, low firing energy, semiconductor based, scaleable monolithic electro-explosive device (EED) is presented. The structure employs laminations of thin layers of metallic and nonmetallic elements or inorganic compounds that react exothermically under suitable excitation. The laminations can be selectively deposited in the shape of a bridge to form a bowtie-shaped igniter. This structure produces a thermal output that can jump an airgap in excess of 100 mils and initiate powder, making it possible to employ mechanical shutters for safing. The laminations can also be used to coat the inside of a micro-machined cavity. The micro-machined cavity with the laminated material can thereby act as a miniature shaped-charge. The focused plasma and particle output of the shaped charge can be used for a variety of purposes such as perforating a thin metal foil. The structures can fabricated with conventional microelectronic techniques which allow for very economical manufacturing. The proposed devices will provide more vigorous output than conventional semiconductor bridge initiators without a penalty in cost or safety. These devices promise to provide safer more reliable initiation for blasting, automotive airbags, tactical weapon systems and aerospace ordnance devices.

FREESTYLE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4152 Aldrich Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55409
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 823-7734
Dr. Kevin S. Schweiker
AF 01-161      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Novel LADAR Signature Exploitation for Obscured Target Environments
Abstract:Laser radars (ladars) have been investigated for the detection, classification and terminal tracking of military targets. One area of concern is the performance of automatic target acquisition (ATA) algorithms on targets that are stochastically obscured by foliage. A program is proposed that will increase the understanding of target obscuration while increasing the set of non-proprietary ATA algorithms available to the weapon systems designer.The techniques developed during this program will benefit the field of computer vision. Specifically, robots that pick parts and perform quality control will be enhanced by the ability to effectively process occluded objects. Medical imaging will also benefit from the algotihms developed during this program.

ENIG ASSOC., INC.
12501 Prosperity Drive, Suite 340
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 680-8600
Dr. D. John Pastine
AF 01-166      Awarded: 29MAR01
Title:Use of RF Emissions from Chemical Explosions for BDI/BDA of Attacks on Underground Hard Targets
Abstract:A method is proposed for distinguishing between explosive detonations in air, underground, and in underground chambers, and for estimating the chamber size by analyzing the electromagnetic signatures at a distance from each of these points of detonation. The method is an extension of a previous theoretical model developed at Enig Associates, Inc., which explains how the electromagnetic signals are related to the electric charge generated by the thermohydrodynamic states of the detonation products "fire ball." These signals have been measured for many years by different observers, but no previous rational theoretical model had been developed to explain how they came about. With our augmented radiation computer code, we expect to carry out a series of computations for the theoretical radiant power output for the types of detonations described above. Further code computations will compare the radiant power output from different explosives for fixed geometrical configurations. Because the radiation is related to the ionization within a fire ball, and the ionization depends sensitively on the temperature, the need for accurate temperature equations of state of the products is imperative, and we intend to use our own specialized, published equations of state for these calculations. In addition to the radiation predicted by our theory, the normal thermal RF output will be calculated. Damage assessment with a passive system at a distance from target explosion; to counter terrorists and hostile forces; to detect sources of weapons fire; increase safety in building demolition and land clearance

OPTISWITCH TECHNOLOGY CORP.
6355 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 452-8787
Dr. David Giorgi
AF 01-168      Awarded: 23MAR01
Title:Optically Activated Switch for Pulsed Power Applications
Abstract:OTC proposes the development of a high power optically activated solid-state switch for the enhancement of current pulse power and power electronic systems. The switch is packaged into 100kV/100kA modules with a rise-time of <10ns. The switch is fabricated by direct contacting (wafer bonding or alloying) of multiple thyristor elements in series, a technique which would offer the opportunity of both a high degree of compactness (low inductance) as well as manufacturability. The optical switching results in ultra-low jitter (ps) between switch modules and enables series and parallel configurations for mega-ampere and mega-voltage applications. This advanced switch technology makes feasible more reliable, compact and less costly, pulsed power systems, based entirely on solid-state switching technology.The development of this advanced solid state switch will enable high peak power systems to utilize semiconductor switching. This will make them more reliable, and less costly to build and maintain. Commercial applications are numerous; some include protecting electric utility and telecommunication systems from high current surges caused by lightning strikes and switching transients.

STERLING SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
22660 Executive Drive, Suite 101
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 834-7535
Dr. Larry B. Rowland
AF 01-169      Awarded: 02APR01
Title:High Efficiency High Voltage 4H-SiC Devices
Abstract:In response to the Air Force SBIR topic AF01-169, Sterling Semiconductor proposes a 6-month, $100K program to establish the feasibility of the materials technology necessary for growth of complex, thick (> 100 mm), highly pure silicon carbide (SiC) device structures in a single growth run. Growth of complex device structures in a single run will greatly reduce the cost of SiC epitaxial growth over existing SiC epitaxial technology by improving yield and throughput. The capability to grow these complex pnpn or npn structures without growth interruption will also have system impact by dramatically improving performance of SiC power devices. These improvements, when combined with Sterling's leadership in SiC wafer technology, will enable the high-yield manufacturing of 5kV switching devices with high switching speed and low on-resistance. Sterling will utilize this technology during Phase I to produce a 5 kV/10A inverter using 4H-SiC rectifiers and Si switching devices Future power systems, as envisioned by the Department of Defense (DoD), will require lighweight, high-density power converters (>1 MW) for operation at high temperature in hostile enviornments. Active devices with high-voltage (25kV-100kV) and high-current (50A-1000A) capability are required for such power converters.

ECLIPSE ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg, FL 33710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 344-7300
Dr. Nicolai Kislov
AF 01-170      Awarded: 21APR01
Title:Stabilization of Phased Focus Array Using Electrochromic Technology
Abstract:Significant modulation of solar reflectance, solar absorption, and IR emissivity can be achieved with electrochromic devices operating at very low voltages. They use very little energy and can maintain their state of reflectance, absorption, and emissivity for some time after the potential has been removed. Devices fabricated as a monolithic stack of solid state inorganic materials can withstand the harsh space environment. These kinds of Variable Electrochromic Devices (VEDs), with no moving parts, are well suited for active thermal control of spacecraft and deployable aerospace membrane structures. The Phase I effort will produce 100cm2 VEDs on thin polyimid films with an areal density of 7g/m2 and modulations of emittance from 0.1 to 0.5 and solar absorptance from 0.2 to 0.8. The optical, thermal, and electrical performance of these devices will be characterized. A detailed calculation will be performed to predict thermal performance of these electrochromic coatings. In Phase II of this effort, samples of the electrochromic devices will be tested to determine their tolerance to high vacuum, UV light, and bombardment with energetic oxygen ions. The design will be optimized to improve performance, reliability, and durability in the space environment. AEROSPACE ú Standardized VEM thermal management devices will be developed for use in a variety of spacecraft. They will be deposited on flexible polyimide substrates suited for application to both flat and curved surfaces. ú Very large area ultra-thin VEM devices will be developed for solar sail applications. ú Special variable solar thrust panels will be developed to dampen vibrations within large gossamer space structures. VEM thermal management systems will be developed for dimensional stabilization of gossamer and rigid aerospace structures. ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING ú VEMs will be integrated into insulated glass units to improve the energy efficiency in architectural applications. ú Vems will be embedded in translucent fiberglass panes to improve the energy efficiency in industrial and commercial applications. 8.3 AUTOMOTIVE GLAZING ú VEMs will be applied to the inside of automotive windows and sun roofs to improve the security and energy efficiency of the vehicles.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
AF 01-171      Awarded: 23MAR01
Title:Prognosis/Diagnostics for improved Gas Turbine Engine reliability and maintainability
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in cooperation with GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney and Spectro Inc., propose the development, implementation and validation of diagnostic and prognostic (D&P) technologies specifically designed for real-time, automated health assessment of oil-wetted components in gas turbine engines. Various corroborating D&P technologies from different engineering disciplines, including oil analysis, vibration analysis and rotordynamic modeling, will be integrated together under this program using automated reasoning and intelligent data fusion algorithms. With a combination of health monitoring data and model-based techniques, a comprehensive component prognostic capability can be achieved throughout a components life, using model-based estimates when no diagnostic indicators are present and monitored features such as oil debris and vibration at later stages when failure indications are detectable. Only through the utilization of all of these sources of engineering information can up-to-date assessments and predictions of component remaining useful life be determined for use in automated maintenance and logistics systems. The oil-wetted component prognostic modules will be calibrated and verified using GE F110-129 component failure data, PTO shaft and bearing data from a GE F404 engine and gearbox seeded fault and accelerated failure data. In addition, in-service data from the GE F110-129 and Rolls Royce F405 engines will be used to develop and verify the data/knowledge fusion strategies under degraded conditions. The gas turbine engine component prognostic modules will be capable of integrating real-time information from multiple sources on the engine so that critical engine component diagnoses and prognoses can be made more confidently and at an earlier stage. Costly inspection routines and premature component replacements can also be avoided using the prognostic technologies developed under this program. Commercial applications for the prognostic and diagnostic strategies developed can be realized on any machinery health monitoring application in the electrical generation industries, chemical processing industries, commercial aviation as well as gas transmission and oil industries.

LONG ELECTROMAGNETICS, INC.
44 Terraceview
Mt. Lebanon, PA 15243
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 462-9877
Mr. Lawrence J. Long
AF 01-172      Awarded: 03APR01
Title:Actively Cooled Power Converter Technology
Abstract:Emerging high power airborne weapon systems will require multi-megawatt electrical power at voltages approaching 100 kV. Although multi-megawatt airborne generators are currently under development, they will not be able to directly generate the very high voltage(s) needed for some weapon systems. Power converter system development, in the past, has typically focused on power electronics but the power converter system in new systems will also require a high power step-up transformer to convert the relatively low generator voltage to higher voltages. The weight and losses of the transformer can easily dominate the design of the power conditioning system. Large commercial transformers are typically oil-filled, air-cooled, relatively heavy and designed for operation groundbased systems operating in one atmosphere of pressure. This program will develop a lightweight, high voltage, multi-megawatt transformer specifically designed for proposed airborne power and cooling systems. Design options will include both cryogenic and non-cryogenic transformers with integral power conditioning and cooling system, specifically designed to operate in airborne systems.This program will develop and test a novel lightweight, high voltage transformer with integral cooling system. Immediate applications will be for high power military systems, but the design principles developed in this program will make their way into commercial applications, such as electric utility facilities in high population areas where minimizing equipment size is important and conventional transformer air cooling systems are difficult.

LONG ELECTROMAGNETICS, INC.
44 Terraceview
Mt. Lebanon, PA 15243
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 462-9877
Mr. Lawrence J. Long
AF 01-173      Awarded: 06APR01
Title:Cryogenic Electrical Machines
Abstract:Lightweight cryogenic generators, made with advanced high temperature conductors will be needed to meet the demands for lightweight multi-megawatt electrical power in emerging high power airborne weapon systems. This program extends the HTS work done in previous programs, and will build and test a one-megawatt HTS generator using novel design concepts that will provide a full size high speed HTS generator suitable for emerging airborne weapon systems. The generator is designed to serve as a fully functional megawatt-class generator for early groundbased power system demonstrators. Additionally, the simplicity and low cost of this design allow it to function as a long term test facility with which new HTS conductors, cryogenic cooing systems and generator components can be easily (and inexpensively) retrofitted and tested under realistic operating conditions. This HTS generator is designed with easily replaceable rotor coil modules and is designed for easy substitution of complete stator windings; allowing the generator to produce a variety of output voltages, required by different airborne systems.This program will develop and test a low cost, high power, superconducting generator has been simplified to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of these machines. Immediate application will be for high power military systems, but the design principles developed in this program will make their way into commercial application, facilitated by the availability of the fully functional generator test facility developed in this program.

EIKOS, INC.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Mr. Paul Glatkowsi
AF 01-174      Awarded: 23MAR01
Title:High Energy Density Dielectrics for Pulse Power Capacitors
Abstract:Eikos Inc. proposes to develop high dielectric constant (K), low loss nanocomposite polymers to meet the design objectives of high energy density (HED) capacitors. In the proposed Phase I program, we will apply rigorous computational techniques to predict the properties of this new class of nanocomposites. We will compound nanocomposite resins, fabricate films for testing, and measure the electrical properties. Initial calculations and testing indicate that these polymers will have better dielectric properties than analogous polymers lacking nanotubes. The development of nanocomposite materials is crucial to overcoming the current plateau in dielectric materials development. This technology lends its self to application and enhancement of existing polymer and ceramic dielectric materials. The development of high dielectric constant, low loss dielectrics will have immediate application in meeting the needs for high energy density capacitors.The compact, high temperature and high-energy density DLC capacitors have myriad uses in both commercial and military applications. These include applications such as domestic utilities and appliances, well drilling equipment, power supplies, aircraft, satellites, trains, automobiles and medical devices. The high temperature capability of the capacitors will enable electronic devices to be mounted close to aircraft engines. This enables more sophisticated engine actuators, sensors and controls to be implemented with a net reduction in weight achieved through the reduction or even elimination of wiring hardware, which is necessary when the electronics have to be remotely located. High-energy density capacitors are also greatly needed for Air Force and Army pulse power applications. Eikos has already started negotiations with venture capital firm for securing financing for commercialization of this promising technology.

THERMAL MANAGEMENT & MATERIALS TECH
4664 Vista de la Tierra
Del Mar, CA 92014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 665-2348
Dr. Daniel L. Vrable
AF 01-175      Awarded: 09MAR01
Title:High Power Microwave Source Cooling to Enable Compact Directed Energy Weapons
Abstract:An innovative lightweight thermal management concept providing high heat flux capability for High Power Microwave (HPM) beam collectors or beam dumps for Directed Energy Weapon Systems is proposed. Major obstacles to the practical application of DE Weapons for aircraft require effective solutions in thermal management and reducing the mass of the components. The beam collector/dump handles the majority of the thermal load and represents a major thermal management challenge. The proposed thermal approach utilizes enhanced cooling mechanisms (subcooled nucleate flow boiling and jet-impingement cooling) coupled with advanced high thermal conductivity materials and optimized cooling channel geometry. The concept provides both improved thermal performance and reduces the beam collector mass by 30-50 per cent over current designs. The enhanced heat transfer and lower temperature gradients through the structure (due to improved thermal conductivity and thinner walls) allows much higher heat flux operation yet maintains the collector's structural temperatures. The overall design concept provides a mass efficient and highly effective thermal control approach that can be fully integrated with the aircraft cooling system.The lightweight and high heat flux structure will have immediate application for HPM and High Energy Laser (HEL) Directed Energy Weapon Systems. High system payoffs include higher heat flux operation, reduced component mass, lower temperatures and improved structural integrity of the components. The technology can be applied to other high heat flux applications including: power devices, advanced avionics, electric vehicles and high performance super computers.

SYNCHRONY, INC.
6410 Commonwealth Dr.
Roanoke, VA 24018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 989-1541
Dr. Victor Iannello
AF 01-176      Awarded: 23MAR01
Title:Oil-Free Bearings for Mid-Size Uninhabited Air Vehicle Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:An innovative magnetic bearing system for UAVs and other gas turbine engine propulsion systems is proposed. The magnetic bearing system features a novel digital controller that reduces the size, weight, vulnerability, and cost while improving performance and reliability. In Phase I, the concept will be built and demonstrated with proof-of-concept tests. In Phase II, a prototype will be built and demonstrated at protoypical engine conditions.industrial engines, marine engines, aircraft propulsion, electric power production

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Stuart F. Cogan
AF 01-177      Awarded: 24MAR01
Title:Autonomous Electrochemical Power Source with Wireless Communication for MEMS Devices
Abstract:The development of a battery-based power source for MEMS devices in nano and microsatellites is proposed. The power source combines a thin-film battery and supercapacitor in a configuration suitable for both continuous low power and pulsed power applications. The power source will be controlled and recharged through a wireless communications link that also controls the MEMS device and allows downloading of data acquired by MEMS-based sensors during autonomous operation. The Phase I program will demonstrate the fabrication of the battery and supercapacitor in a form suitable for interconnection with MEMS devices. An RF-telemetry based interface to the power source will be designed and used to establish thin-film antenna geometries, recharge rates and bandwidth for data transmission. The design will determine the performance envelope of the power source and communications link and identify applications for Phase II development. In Phase II, fully integrated MEMS devices that operate autonomously with the proposed power source will be fabricated and tested. An end-user will be identified to act as a test-bed for the devices in an Air Force application and provide a near-term commercial opportunity.MEMS devices have significant commercial potential for stress and acceleration measurement in the aerospace industry. MEMS applications in chemical sensing, microanalysis, and miniature machinery are emerging. The availability of an equally small power source with wireless communication is essential to the successful implementation of MEMS in many of these applications. As such, there appears to be major commercial potential for the proposed power source in MEMS applications as well as non-MEMS applications in medical devices, wireless testing, and in any application requiring a small autonomous power source.

ELECTRODYNAMICS ASSOC., INC.
409 Eastbridge Drive
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 977-1825
Mr. Jay Vaidya
AF 01-178      Awarded: 21MAR01
Title:High Power Generators for Optimized Integrated DEW Power Systems
Abstract:This proposal addresses issues relating to the application of non-superconducting generators in 1 to 5 MW range to high voltage Directed Energy Weapon (DEW) systems. The main focus is to select the best condidate generator from a variety of electromagnetic and electrostatic generator concepts. The selection of the optimum generator concept must however be based on the parameters relating to the entire generating system including the turbine, the electronic power conditioning, and the DEW load. The selection parameters for optimization are: power density, efficiency, fuel consumption, and reliability. With a view to satisfy the need to review the entire system, we have teamed with Rolls Royce, Hamilton Sundstrand and Lockheed Martin. The work plan includes evaluation of various generator and power electronics approaches and study of the integrated overall system in terms of thermal and cooling issues, fuel consumption. Internal and external technical resource have been pooled to address electrical, electronics, structural, dynamic, and thermal issues. We expect to select an optimized generator/controller configuration that is likely to compare favorably with superconducting generator approach on the basis of the integrated system parameters. A detailed design analysis of the selected configuration will be presented. This will form the basis for fabrication of hardware for demonstration during Phase II.High voltage DEW generators in the 1 to 5 MW range are applicable to air, space ground, and water based systems in Air Force, Army and Navy components of the DoD. In addition to the DEW loads, the generators will also provide power for Electromagnetic guns. In the commercial field, applications in Distributed Power Systems will be met because of the high power density and high fuel efficiency although the high voltage will not be the critical issue.

INNOVATIVE POWER SOLUTIONS, LLC
PO Box 730
Oakhurst, NJ 07755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 493-3680
Mr. Scott Jacobs
AF 01-178      Awarded: 23MAR01
Title:Advanced Electrical Power Generation (High Power Non-Super-Conducting)
Abstract:Weapon systems of the directed energy type require high electric power. A laser based system will require several Megawatts, usually at low duty-cycle. Another technology is using microwave energy, which requires continuous power of several hundreds Kilowatts. The technical challenge is to develop a lightweight, compact power system that will be designed to operate on aircraft operating from sea level to 20,000 feet. Power considerations for this design will be up to 5 Megawatts, and several duty cycles will be evaluated for an array of potential applications. The opportunity in this program is to develop a conventional generator system, which will favorably compete with super-conducting systems both in terms of size and weight, while being less complicated and significantly less expensive. A generator that will have continuous output of 600-700 kW, to support a microwave based directed energy system, could provide power bursts of up to 1.5 MW and support a laser system. This will allow for a single power source for both applications. An application of this technology could be a current Lockheed-Martin program that requires an output of 1.5MW at 270 VDC, and load duty cycle of 5 seconds "ON", followed by 10 seconds "OFF" repeated 7 times. Potential use as in-flight power source for directed energy loads. May pertain to military and commercial ground and ground mobile/transportable power systems for standby and emergency power. Emergency power for hospitals, telephone companies,and other industries

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2706
Mr. Dennis Grosjean
AF 01-179      Awarded: 10APR01
Title:Condition Monitoring of Aircraft and Ground-Support Subsystems
Abstract:An effort to apply condition-monitoring techniques to aircraft and ground-support equipment is proposed. Initially, the Phase I effort will concentrate on demonstrating the use of motor-current analysis to determine mechanical anomalies in motor-driven systems. A practical instrument will then be designed for field- and depot-level use on the Predator tail-servo system. The Phase I effort also will include a study of and recommendations for applications of motor-based, acoustic, chemical, thermal, and optical method--separately or in synergistic combination--for condition monitoring of other systems in the Air Force inventory. A Phase-II effort will involve construction of the condition-monitoring instrument designed in Phase I and application of the results of the Phase-I study. The Phase-III effort will apply condition-monitoring methods to critical industrial systems where downtime is very costly.The overall goal of this program is the development of commercially available, cost-effective instruments capable of determining the fitness of aerospace electrical and mechanical systems under actual operating conditions. The motor-based methods will have applications to a wide variety of aerospace and industrial systems where mechanical energy is provided by electric motors. The synergistic combination of several methods will be cost effective in numerous high-value applications where safety and reliability are critical.

METACOMP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
650 Hampshire Road, Suite 200
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 371-8756
Sampath Palaniswamy
AF 01-179      Awarded: 30MAY01
Title:Aero Propulsion and Power Technology
Abstract:Metacomp Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop an innovative computational design technology aimed at enhancing combustor efficiency. Using the advanced simulation tool CFD++, developed through partial SBIR funding from Wright Labs, the dynamical interaction among acoustics, flow unsteadiness, combustion and turbulence in combustors will be studied. This will lead to the level of understanding of the parameters affecting combustor performance necessary to build the design technology. Key elements in the proposed design tool are based on cutting edge technologies developed by Metacomp such as LNS (Limited Numerical Scales, a hybrid RANS/LES model), SRRR (Sub-scale Resolution using Recursive Reconstruction) and SGR (Scale Generation through Redistribution). LNS enables LES (Large Eddy Simulation) on relatively coarse meshes, SRRR and SGR work in tandem to model turbulence/chemistry interactions. Coupled with high-order accuracy and dual-time stepping, these methodologies enable high fidelity simulation of unsteady, turbulent reacting flows, including acoustic oscillations, typical of combustor flows.This effort will impact the design of high performance combustors, leading to improved efficiency of both military and commercial engines. Critical parameters affecting combustor performance will be isolated, leading to a database necessary for design optimization. The resulting design tool can be utilized in diverse areas from military aircraft engines through commercial jet power plants to power generators and incinerators.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
56 Rogers Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 252-0660
Dr. B.P. Masters
AF 01-179      Awarded: 23MAR01
Title:Aero Propulsion and Power Technology
Abstract:The proposed innovation is a High-bandwidth, Efficient, fuel Flow Actuator (HEFA). The design stems from a systems perspective, including power electronics, mass & volumetrically efficient driving mechanism, preferential failure modes, and thermally tolerant operation. Our solution leverages innovations in flow, mechanical packaging, electromechanical and power transfer efficiency to yield a robust performance device for combustion control. The actuator targets the problem of pressure fluctuations in aircraft engines. Specifically, it focuses on eliminating pressure fluctuations through high bandwidth modulation of the fuel. The results of controlling unwanted fluctuations are reduced high cycle fatigue (improved lifetime and reliability), improved combustion efficiency, and potentially reduced pollutant emissionsThe proposed solution will directly benefit DoD programs to control pressure oscillations in high performance engines such as those slated for future fighter aircraft. Furthermore, as a major manufacturer of aircraft engines and ground based gas turbines, General Electric views the development of systems and techniques for suppressing and/or eliminating the pressure oscillations, which are inherent to all gas turbine combustion systems, as important to the reduction of engine development and operation costs.

PYRODYNE, INC.
11280 Panorama Drive
New Market, MD 21774
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 607-6108
Dr. Frederick S. Billig
AF 01-179      Awarded: 22MAR01
Title:Streamline Traced Inlets for High Speed Applications
Abstract:This SBIR will use an innovative technique to develop the designs of a large class of inlets for use in Single-Stage-To-Orbit, SSTO and Two-Stage-To-Orbit, TSTO transatmospheric accelerators, global reach- high-speed aircraft and long-range missiles. The genera of the designs are Busemann inward turning flowfields. Streamline traces are carved from these flowfields to form the compression surfaces of a broad variety of practical inlet geometries. These surfaces are then truncated to provide an optimum balance between component weight and inlet compression efficiency. All of the inlets have highly swept leading edges, which minimizes their drag and the corresponding thermal loads. A major part of the effort will be the development of novel techniques to enable starting. The Phase I effort will include the design of sets of interactactive jets produced by a gas generator that will be used to aerodynamically deflect a portion of the inlet compression fields. Documentation of the inlet performance and demonstration of the starting devices will be a major part of the Phase II effort.The principal tangible product of this SBIR will be the design and development of the starting device for streamlined-traced inward-turning inlets for SSTO and TSTO transatmospheric accelerators, long range high speed cruise aircraft and missiles. Both military and commercial customers are anticipated for the space access vehicle and cruise aircraft. Two major aerospace companies have reviewed and strongly endorsed this SBIR Proposal. Both companies will closely follow the progress of the Phase I effort for consideration of becoming Fast Track sponsors of a Phase II effort. Marketing of the inlet starting device will be initiated during the Phase II Program and the capitalization effort of PYRODYNE for Phase III and beyond with be initiated.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Ave, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Dr. Rahul R. Prasad
AF 01-180      Awarded: 29APR01
Title:High power, high voltage, ultra-fast, UV triggered diamond switch
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) proposes to develop a new type of high voltage, high power diamond switch potentially capable of switching GW power levels at ~100 kV. The basic element of this switch is a thin disk of natural or CVD diamond that supports up to 25 kV, is triggered into conduction by UV radiation, achieves rise/fall times <1 ns (limited mostly by the rise/fall times of the trigger) and conducts ~1 kA/cm2 at repetition rates ~10 MHz. This basic element may be combined in series to hold-off higher voltages and in parallel to carry higher currents. Our Phase I goal is to demonstrate a 25 kV/10 A unit module, followed by series/parallel combinations to achieve 100 kV/10 A or 25 kV/40 A switching. Such UV triggered switches could be the key enabling technology for a variety of pulsed power applications that have had to rely either on bulky and unreliable gas switches or stacks of semiconductor switches in series. Our Phase I project aims to establish well founded limits to the capabilities of the new diamond switch, in the context of competing technologies such as series stacks of Si IGBTs, light triggered GaAs switches and emerging SiC technologies.The research proposed here could lead to a family of new solid-state switches that will find widespread application in aerospace systems, military radar, power transmission in the grid, high speed rail traction, uninterruptible power supplies for semiconductor manufacturing and automobile manufacturing.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
602 Explorer
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Dr. Jon R Mayes
AF 01-180      Awarded: 22MAR01
Title:Compact Pulsed Power Sources
Abstract:Compact pulsed power systems and power sources are rapidly becoming important in aerial-based military systems. With the increase usage of High Power Microwaves (HPM), advanced radar systems, electrical propulsion systems and space based laser systems state-of-the-art pulsed power modules take on increasing importance. Applied Physical Electronics, L.C. proposes two systems that offer compact, high power sources designed to meet the needs for short pulse and long pulse delivery needs. Both systems are presented as driver supplies for high power microwave generation; however, their use extends beyond that scope. Two systems are proposed: First, an Ultra Wideband voltage impulse, designed to deliver several GW pulses with pulse widths of a few nanoseconds and at repetition rates of up to 100 Hz. Second, a long-pulse system that is designed to deliver a 50 ns envelope of high frequency microwave energy (35 - 70 GHz). Each system is based on APELC's specialized development of compact Marx generators for missile defense and covert radar systems. Expertise in power systems is offered by Texas Tech University, completing the system. Portable RF generators may also see equal opportunities in the commercial market as well. UWB sources may be used for impulse radar systems for drug interdiction. These same sources may also be beneficial during drug raids, disengaging the communications of the unfortunate. High powered microwave systems may also be used for food and water treatment.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2706
Dr. Peter Bletzinger
AF 01-180      Awarded: 10APR01
Title:Pulsed Power Technology for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:Many applications exist for high-power, high repetition rate, long-life switches in Air Force missions. While considerable progress has been made in the art of high-power switching over the past few years, the switch rise time, life time and rep rate for portable, small-scale pulse power systems still requires improvement for present and future Air Force applications. For generating high-peak-power (> GW) pulses at high rates, the use of spark gaps with liquid dielectrics as switch media is proposed rather than the commonly used gas switches. Because of the high dielectric strength of polar liquids (on the order of 1 MV/cm), liquid dielectric switches require relatively small electrode gaps. The small switch volume makes it possible to remove the liquid quickly after each shot. By integrating the switch into a flow system, a switch volume with typical dimensions of several hundred microns can be replaced in less than 1 ms (kHz rep rate) for a flow velocity of 1 m/s while retaining rise times of 1 ns or less. It is proposed in Phase I of this project to study the characteristics of water switches in static and flow modes and to use the results to determine the potential of these switches for kHz-rep rate operation. Phase II will be focused on the optimization of the switch at realistic power levels and rates. In addition, we will include the concept of polar liquids as dielectrics in the Pulse Forming Network as a means to reduce the size of the high-power pulse generator. Also addressed will be the problem of low-jitter triggering of liquid dielectric switches; applications in the generation of large-volume, high-pressure plasmas for "plasma stealth"; MHD power generation; and supersonic combustion. The feasibility of using these types of switches for greatly reducing the size of Marx banks will also be investigated.The primary benefits of this program will be the development of compact high-power, high-rep rate, long life switches for a variety of Air Force missions. Applications of these switches include: 1) generation of high-pressure, large volume plasmas for "plasma stealth", 2) MHD power generation, and 3) supersonic combustion.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Sohrab Hossain
AF 01-180      Awarded: 12APR01
Title:Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for High Rate Pulse Power Applications
Abstract:A novel approach for the development of a lithium-ion battery system is proposed for pulse power aerospace applications. The approach involves fabrication of thin-film electrodes with nano-particles cathode and anode materials having high capacity and high rate capability, use of high lithium-ion conductive electrolyte, fabrication of prismatic design pouch cells, and testing of the developed cells to demonstrate the proof-of concept. The thin film electrodes will be characterized using different analytical and electrochemical techniques.The rechargeable battery market is growing rapidly and lithium-ion batteries are taking over the market share from Ni-MH and Ni-Cd even with the higher cost. The successful completion of Phase I work will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a new high specific power rechargeable lithium-ion battery system. The rechargeable lithium-ion batteries developed with the proposed nanoparticles cathode and anode materials will provide superior specific power to the present state-of art rechargeable batteries and will have a broad commercial applications to the growing demand of high power portable electronic devices.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4290
Dr. Wade Pulliam
AF 01-181      Awarded: 23MAR01
Title:High-Temperature, Micromachined, Fiber Optic Sensor Suite for Gas Turbine Applications
Abstract:Acquiring transient point measurements of temperature, pressure and acceleration in gas turbine environments is very difficult using currently available sensor technology. The current state-of-the-art often requires researchers to sacrifice frequency response for increased accuracy, forcing them to make assumptions about the transient nature of the environment being monitored. Clearly, there is a need for a suite of sensors capable of acquiring transient measurements in high-temperature gas turbine environments at discrete points. Luna Innovations proposes to develop a fiber optic temperature, pressure and accelerometer suite capable of acquiring transient point measurements in high-temperature, propulsive environments. The operating principle of the probe will be based on proven extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) techniques. Luna will use its extensive experience developing and commercializing fiber optic sensors technology to design, develop, and construct the proposed advanced temperature probe for combustion environments. The data obtained by these sensors will be invaluable for validation and development of CFD codes for combusting flows. This instrumentation is crucial to the development and operation of affordable and efficient 21st century gas turbine engines.Research in the high temperature instrumentation area will provide transducers with commercial uses that will include 1) aerospace, 2) high-temperature monitoring in power generation facilities, 3) high-temperature industrial process monitoring, and 4) automotive sensing for engine health monitoring and control.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., INC.
411 NW 97th LANE
CORAL SPRINGS, FL 33071
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(954) 346-9576
Dr. Robert Cavalleri
AF 01-182      Awarded: 12JUN01
Title:Energetic Solid Rocket Nozzle / Throat Insulator Concept
Abstract:Throat erosion of rocket nozzles results in lower expansion ratios and reduced specific impulse. The erosion can be minimized or completely eliminated by employing throat cooling to keep the throat material below the throat material critical temperature. Evaluation and fabrication of a cooled non-eroding will be performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and simplified thermal analysis in conjunction with carbon fiber reinforced metal composite materials. This capability has been developed by Applied Technology and Metal Matrix Cast Composites in prior efforts on jet vane thrust vector control and electronic thermal management. The ability to fabricate cooled composite materials offers the possibility of eliminating throat erosion and maintaining rocket motor design values of specific impulse. Further refinement of this fabrication technology can increase the temperature limit of gas turbine components. The objective of the proposed effort is to use CFD and a transient lumped parameter analysis and pressure infiltration casting to evaluate, design and fabricate a high temperature cooled throat.The development of new materials coupled with cost effective CFD and thermal analysis greatly increases the ability to optimize the design of high temperature components. Applications are: internal spark ignition and diesel engines, gas turbine engines, solid and liquid rocket propulsion systems, etc. Increased temperature limits for all types of propulsion (rocket or jet engine) components has a positive impact on developing advanced propulsion systems and increasing the performance of these systems

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 689-0003
Dr. John D. Lennhoff
AF 01-183      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Develop and Demonstrate Inflatable Reflector Technology
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) responds to the Air Forces need to demonstrate the viability of inflatable optics deployed from picosatellites. The PSI PicoSat Inflatable ((PSI)2) will be designed to provide surface metrology data during optic inflation pressure changes, and through eclipse. PSI will set design goals for optical performance and mission lifetime and apply them to the allocation of the available space on two tethered picosatellites. One picosat will contain an inflatable optic with torus and standoff truss, inflation and make-up gas, and imaging systems. The other picosat contains data logging, control and management, communications, and power. PSI has considerable experience successfully developing inflatable optics, and has designed and constructed experiments for the space environment for over a dozen missions. PSI has teamed with Prof. Robert Twiggs, of the Stanford University Space Systems Development Lab, to assist the data logging control and management, communications, and power design and optimization. On a Phase II effort, PSI will build the (PSI)2 dual tethered picosats, that will be launched and tested on a Phase III effort.Low cost SmallSats with sub-kilogram masses that utilize inflatable optics to view regions of the Earth have widespread commercial applications. Aerial viewing of any region of the planet could be achieved with low cost launch fees because of the light-weight of picosat imagers. Law enforcement, weather surveillance, regional high resolution mapping, and agriculture and fisheries monitoring could all be achieved through low cost, light weight imaging picosatellites.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
500 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-7804
Mr. Paul A. Gierow
AF 01-184      Awarded: 12JUN01
Title:Advanced Photovoltaic Arrays for Solar Concentrators and Inflatable Antennas
Abstract:Membrane concentrators have a low specific mass, high packaging efficiency and can be deployed in space to provide large amounts of collected energy. SRS has recently demonstrated all of the key elements of a concentrator for a near term space experiment. Addition of recently invented technologies of polyimide flexible PV cells to elements of the collector system offers to provide power to the spacecraft bus thereby using the collector aperture as power generation sources. The proposed effort will address key issues of flexible PV arrays. The traditional cover glass used to reject thermal loads will be replaced with a transparent polyimide with high emissive thermal property. The developed cell will then be applied to the support torus and of the membrane to provide power to the satellite bus. Innovations in doubly cast PV arrays will also be addressed to research the addition of the cells into the actual reflective membrane surface.Research is currently being done by a number of scientists within DoD and industry to increase the efficiency of flexible thin film PV cells from the 3-8% to the 10+% range. The development of increased efficiency flexible membrane cells could replace the traditionally accepted composite rigid panel mounted cells in the near future. In addition a number of potential commercial applications could benefit from the technology like the PV skins of long duration UAV's.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Mr. B. Pote
AF 01-185      Awarded: 03MAY01
Title:A Hall Thruster Array for Very High Power Propulsion Applications
Abstract:Hall thrusters in the 50 - 100 kW class are an enabling technology for affordable methods of on-board propulsion for a number of orbit transfer and space tug applications. Studies of advanced propulsion options for deployment of payloads from a drop-off altitude to an operating orbit can be best achieved by high power Hall thrusters. These studies show a substantial payload mass increase per launch vehicle compared with all chemical propulsion systems. In the proposed Phase I program, Busek will demonstrate an array of thrusters operating as an integrated high power system. The viability and scalability of the proposed approach will be evaluated using a cluster of 600 W thrusters. The Phase I program is a subscale system demonstration for an array of 10 - 20 kW class engines envisioned as the building blocks for the 50 -100 kW system. Through a combination of direct experimental measurements, analysis and modeling activities, we will develop a definitive understanding and basis for a multi-thruster array as opposed to a single engine system. In Phase II we will continue with system development and testing and deliver to the Air Force a prototype high power cluster for testing in AFRL's propulsion and diagnostic test facilities.A high power Hall thruster propulsion system configured from standardized thruster modules will result in a lower cost, higher reliability propulsion system compared to a single high power engine. Configuring a customized high power system from lower power building blocks provides immediate dual use commercial applications because the standardized individual thruster has a viable market on commercial, military and government satellites. In addition, the multi-thruster array can be used to produce uniform high current, broad area ion beams and find terrestrial applications in etching and film deposition using reactive gas precursors.

ECOTECH
3239 MONIER CIRCLE, #4
RANCHO CORDOVA, CA 95742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 631-6310
Mr. Charles E. Grix
AF 01-186      Selected for Award
Title:Micropropulsion Thruster for Low Power Satellites
Abstract:This study will identify and verify a higher performance and density electrically controlled solid propellant. The propellant under investigation utilizes the energetic oxidizer Hydroxylamine nitrate with other nitrate co-oxidizers that prevent oxidizer crystallization down to 20 degrees centigrade and lower. The oxidizers are combined with the energetic polymer polyvinyl amine nitrate (PVAN) and are processed as a solution solid propellant. While this system is highly conductive, it liquefies at temperatures above 100 degrees centigrade and does not readily extinguish once ignited. This makes it infeasible for use as an electrically controlled extinguishable solid propellant as is. To overcome these drawbacks requires chemically crosslinking the polymer after the propellant has been mixed, cast and solidified through the plastisol cure. This will ensure propellant dimensional stability during combustion. Liquid, electrically conductive additives will also be incorporated into the propellant that will aid in extinguishment when voltage is turned off. This will be verified in small test sample burns using both ac and dc electric current. The voltage, current and thrust will be measured and utilized to identify power requirements associated with propellant ignition, burn rate and extinguishment.The proposed propellant system would provide a more energetic and reliable propulsion system for the precise placement of low power microsatellites. In addition, this is a low-hazard, low-toxicity system that could replace current toxic and problematic liquid and solid propellants utilized in ship based munition systems.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 434-6392
Dr. Ranji Vaidyanathan
AF 01-187      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Low Cost Ceramic-Lined Rocket Motor Case Design
Abstract:In this phase I SBIR program, a team led by Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. (ACR), and its partners propose the development of an innovative integral co-cured rocket motor casing comprised of a graphite/epoxy shell with a novel heat shield and liner fabricated from ACR's patented gelcasting ceramic material. The novel combination of materials will provide a unique synergy where the graphite/epoxy will provide structural rigidity, while the cured ceramic material will provide an ablative skin and moisture protection to the structural graphite/epoxy layer, enabling long-term storage of the casing materials. The graphite-epoxy shell, the ceramic liner and ceramic shell reinforced with carbon fibers will be fabricated using a patented process. In the phase I program, the ACR led team will prove the concept and fabricate composite coupons. Additionally, ACR will develop guidelines and procedures for optimizing the performance of composite motor casings and provide a parametric analysis and preliminary cost/economic analysis for prototype rocket motor casings. In the phase II program, the ACR led team will scale up the manufacturing process for fabricating full-scale components.The material developed in this Phase I program will be evaluated for number of high temperature applications. The ability to fabricate such components from a combination of polymer composites and ceramic composites would be advantageous to a number of customers who are contemplating the use of high temperature composite systems but cannot afford the cost of an all-ceramic component.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2744 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. D. Ernest Havens
AF 01-187      Awarded: 23MAY01
Title:Novel Rotomolding of Advanced Composites for Rocket Motor Cases
Abstract:The future of enhanced tactical missile systems hinges on the development of significant innovative improvements in the manufacture of solid rocket motor casings. Leading engineers in the solid rocket motor industry believe further development with metal cases will not prove adequate. Current manufacturing of composite motors is labor intensive and the end product is simply inadequate overall. The consensus is that the future needs may be satisfied by the use of continuous fiber reinforced three-dimensional (3-D) microstructural composites made with advanced resin systems and materials. In order to mass-produce a more ideal rocket motor a new process must be developed that will turn out highly structured composite parts consistently and in a manner that minimizes skilled labor input. We propose to incorporate the use of advanced materials into our existing composite rotomold tank process and further the development of the rotomold process to manufacture multi-layer composite microstructured solid rocket motor cases to be used for future tactical missile development. The extension of this technology to the manufacturing of solid rocket motors will bring significant unit cost reductions. This proposal discusses Rotomold composite development and advanced composite materials processing for the low-cost manufacturing of composite solid rocket motors. The development of this technology will provide the means for actualizing current enhanced tactical missile system concepts. One of the primary limiting factors of these enhanced systems has been propulsion. By overcoming this limitation a new aerospace market of advanced missile system development and high performance propulsion will be established.

TECHNANOGY SPACE
1601 N. Alton
Irvine, CA 92606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 261-1420
Mr. George Whittinghill
AF 01-188      Selected for Award
Title:Develop and Demonstrate a Hybrid Powered Missile Motor
Abstract:Technanogy Space proposes to study, design, manufacture and test several hybrid rocket motor grains at the 100 to 300 lb thrust level, loaded with 40 nano-meter sized constituents with the express objective to push hybrid fuel regression rate by at least an order of magnitude over the current state of the art. Technanogy Space further intends to couple the data obtained from these motor tests with a missile system model to build a trajectory simulation environment to optimize the propellant choices and burn duty cycle. A short duration, high thrust motor firing will be made to verify the scalability of the results. Such an advance would make nano-propellant enhanced hybrid rocket motors suitable for tactical use and would exceed the performance possible from solid rocket motors in the same application.A successful demonstration of high performance nano-enhanced hybrid rocket motors has sweeping ramifications for the propulsion industry. As hybrid propulsion is recognized to have the lowest installed cost per pound of thrust of any propulsion system, this new technology may be cost effectively introduced into tactical missiles, sounding rockets, booster stages, upper stages and on-orbit maneuvering vehicles for even greater performance gains.

TIES, INC.
8410 Jennie Avenue NE
Bainbridge Island, WA 98110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 909-0943
Mr. Ron Thue
AF 01-189      Selected for Award
Title:Develop Mechanical Aging Criterion for Energetic Materials
Abstract:The standard failure criterion for solid rocket propellant requires the evaluation of current loads (stress or strain) and a comparison of those loads to the material capability for the given loading conditions (time and temperature). However, propellant often fails at lower load levels than predicted using this method. This is a consequence of the failure to consider cumulative damage effects resulting from sometimes-extreme loading histories. A comprehensive method of evaluating cumulative damage for propellant needs to be developed. This is especially true for tactical motors that undergo extreme loading histories through their lifetime. In this proposal we approach cumulative damage model development in three stages: First, a review of existing cumulative damage models paying particular attention to the TTCP KTA 4-29 findings; Second the evaluation of existing cumulative damage models for their strengths, weaknesses and predictive capabilities; Third, the extension of existing model capability to include temperature effects, biaxial and triaxial effects, and high-strain modulus/Poisson's Ratio effects as is reasonable within the Phase 1 SBIR scope. Consideration will also be given to other model needs identified via the TTCP KTA 4-29 work. The Phase I research will include a literature review of existing theories of propellant aging and cumulative damage in conjunction with the TTCP KTA 4-29 project. Using the vast history of propellant failure testing available at Thiokol, the different available theories will be evaluated. Where shortcomings exist with the theories, a new theory (or modifications to exiting theories) will be proposed which better matches test results. At the end of this study, a theory for failure of aging solid propellant will be formulated, derived from the best available published work, extensions to that work, and backed by existing test data.

CERAMIC COMPOSITES, INC.
1110 Benfield Blvd.
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Dr. Mark Patterson
AF 01-190      Selected for Award
Title:Very Light-Weight Divert Propulsion Systems
Abstract:The next generation of rocket propulsion thrusters will be required to be lighter, and provide higher thrusts with no increase in the cost of manufacturing. The fabrication of a very light weight propulsion systems is proposed through the integration of a light weight ceramic injector with a ceramic matrix composite nozzle. This approach will reduce the mass of the system by over 50%. The injector will be fabricated by low cost stereolithography and intimately attached to the nozzle during densification via a rapid, low-cost CVI technique. The performance of the light weight system will be demonstrated with H2 and O2 propellants. The proposed fabrication approach will reduce the mass of the propulsion system by 50% leading to a greater Isp, faster response times and range, and a lower access to space cost. In the future, reduced thermal transfer through the injector will lead to the ability to use PMC fuel lines further reducing the overall propulsion system weight. CCI will work closely with Primex Aerospace Corporation to design and develop a commercial unit for future propulsion systems.

CONTAINERLESS RESEARCH, INC.
906 University Place
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 467-2678
Dr. Paul C. Nordine
AF 01-190      Awarded: 24MAY01
Title:Advanced Rocket Propulsion Technologies
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR research proposal will investigate the feasibility of a continuous high flux source of boron vapor for preparing B/para H2 cryosolids for HEDM research. The boron source apparatus will be designed for the preparation of 5 mol% B/pH2 solids at rates sufficient to form transparent material and for integration with the cryo-solid spectroscopy apparatus at AFRL. The proposed approach involves free evaporation of pure boron atoms from a thin layer of liquid boron in a high vacuum environment. The liquid boron, formed by CO2 laser beam heating and superheated at its surface, will coexist with an underlying layer of solid boron that supports the liquid. Research objectives are to (i) demonstrate the purification of boron using containerless processing of liquid boron, for use in the vapor source, (ii) fabricate a test chamber for vaporization experiments, (iii) perform experiments to determine the operating conditions to obtain a stable, continuous, known and well-controlled intense boron vapor flux, and (iv) develop the design for the apparatus to be developed in Phase II. In Phase II, we would develop and deliver the high flux boron vapor source to AFRL for use in the Air Force's HEDM research program.The R&D will benefit the Air Force HEDM research program by satisfying a key issue of the Cryogenic HEDM Solid Prospectus. It will open markets for CRI in advanced systems to conduct research on cryo-solid HEDM. It will provide the means to supply, for the first time, ultra-pure elemental boron, as a solid element and as a vapor for vapor deposition applications, in Dual-Use R&D markets.

PYRODYNE, INC.
11280 Panorama Drive
New Market, MD 21774
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 607-6108
Dr. Frederick S. Billig
AF 01-190      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Technology for Affordable RBCC Vehicle Development
Abstract:This SBIR initiates a technology program to develop affordable cryogenic and storable fueled Rocket Based Combined Cycle RBCC vehicles for space access missions. The cryogenic fueled RBCC is the 2nd stage of a Two-Stage-To-Orbit TSTO vehicle that has been boosted by a JP fueled turbine based 1st stage to 3,500-4,500 ft/s. The storable-fueled RBCC is a 1st stage that boosts a cryogenic fueled rocket 2nd stage to 8,000ft/s. Conceptual designs of three candidate space access vehicles serve as the basis for defining the engine flow paths, sizing the ejector-injector motors, identifying the key technical challenges, defining the test cell apparatus, and planning for vehicle development. A key element for affordability is the development of low cost ejector-injector motors. A significant portion of the Phase I effort will be directed to this task. The test apparatus will be sized for testing in the USAF Edwards, CA Test cells 2a and in a research facility. The ejector-injector motors will be fabricated and tested in Phase II.The principal tangible products of this SBIR will be the design of three RBCC powered vehicles for space access missions and the associated ejector-injector motors. Low cost cryogenic and storable fueled ejector-injectors will be developed for general use in RBCC engines. Both military and commercial customers are anticipated for these space access vehicles and these key engine components. Two major aerospace companies have reviewed and strongly endorsed this SBIR Proposal. Both companies will closely follow the progress of the Phase I effort for consideration of becoming Fast Track sponsors of a Phase II effort. Marketing of the vehicle concepts and ejector-injector motors will be initiated during the Phase II Program and the capitalization effort of PYRODYNE for Phase III and beyond will be initiated.

ROTORDYNAMICS-SEAL RESEARCH
3628 Madison Ave #20
North Highlands, CA 95660
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 344-9500
Dr. Joseph K. Scharrer
AF 01-190      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Transient Turbopump Simulation
Abstract:Cryogenic turbopumps utilizing fluid film bearings have unique nonlinear transient characteristics. The effort proposed herein will apply proven theoretical models to the simulation of the transient operation of a cryogenic turbopump supported on fluid film bearings. The final analysis tool will enable the designer to predict the transient characteristics of the turbopump for any desired profile representing different environments such as a test stand or engine installation.Low cost development of turbomachinery utilizing fluid film bearings.

CERACON, INC.
PMB 330, 5150 Fairoaks Blvd. # 101
Fairoaks, CA 95608
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 783-4899
Mr. Henry S. Meeks
AF 01-191      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Quasi-isostatic, Solid-State Forging of a Nanophase Aluminum Alloy for Rocket Turbopump Components
Abstract:Research to establish the potential performance benefits of nanocrystalline engineered materials (grain size less than 100 nanometers) gained momentum in the mid-1990­Ýs (1). Significant effort has since been focused on the areas of powder preparation, powder consolidation, microstructure evolution and control, and product fabrication technologies. Powder consolidation has been achieved primarily by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) which is governed by diffusion mechanics and requires exposure of the nano-powders to a temperature of (315,a C) for extended periods of time (3 hours). The process is expensive and can easily result in a loss of nanocrystallinity due to rapid and unpredictable grain growth. Low (15 ksi/104 MPa) isostatic pressures are unable to break-up tenacious powder surface oxides thus requiring extensive secondary deformation processing to obtain usable material. The Ceracon,ú Powder Forging Technology uses a conventional hydraulic forging press, and is a cost effective, near-net-shape alternative to HIP. High uniaxial ram pressure (127 ksi/876 MPa) is transformed into a quasi-isostatic pressure field through the use of a granular ­.pressure transmitting media­" or PTM. The resultant shear stress is directly responsible for mechanical break-up and re-distribution of deleterious powder particle oxides. Consolidation of the nano-powder to full density occurs within seconds via plastic yielding which is virtually instantaneous, thus preserving the nanophase structure. reduced manufacturing costs; shorter delivery lead times; isotropic physical and mechanical properties; reduction/elimination of extrusion steps; automotive connecting rods, rocket engine turbopump components, cryogenic sealing flanges

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-1320
Dr. Oleg N. Senkov
AF 01-191      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Advanced Aluminum Materials for Rocket Turbopump Rotors
Abstract:The objective of the proposed program is to identify and develop aluminum based material that can replace the currently used Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI alloy as a liquid hydrogen pump impeller operating at 20§K. This application requires very high specific strength as well as adequate toughness and resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. Aluminum alloys are of particular interest because in comparison with titanium, their density is much lower, they are less expensive, can be processed and machined much easier, and they have very low susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. However, the currently available aluminum alloys cannot compete with titanium alloys because of low specific strength. During Phase I the mechanical properties of a conventional aluminum alloy (7XXX series) will be considerably improved through microalloying with Sc and Zr followed by special thermomechanical processing. The strength of the modified alloy will be increased to values equal to or exceeding 950 MPa at 20§K, with elongation of about 7%. The fact that a commercial Al alloy is selected will cut down significantly on development cycle costs. Development of this ultra-high strength aluminum alloy will help designers to improve engine performance by decreasing weight of rotor components, increasing impeller tip speed, and reducing complexity and cost.Development of super-high-strength Al-based material with good fatigue resistance will offer designers a real potential to improve the turbopump performance by decreasing the weight of rotor components, increasing impeller tip speed, and significantly reducing complexity and cost. Current titanium impellers such as those used on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) require complex, high-maintenance, polymeric seals because of concerns about metal-to-metal contact and titanium hydriding. The super-high-strength aluminum will eliminate this concern, simplifying seal design and improving seal life and reliability. This alloy will also find widespread use in the commercial aerospace and transportation sectors. Because higher specific strengths translate directly into reduced component mass without redesign, super-high-strength Al-based alloys will be attractive in any application where component mass and/or volume are constrained, e.g. orbital applications including, but not limited to: bus structures, truss nodes, brackets, hinges, radiator panels and PCB heat sinks. The alloy will also have a significant impact in sustainment, since direct component-for-component replacement will give higher performance in existing systems, e.g. extended component life and reduced maintenance for F-16 aircraft ventral fins. Additional impact will also be felt in the area of unitized design and construction, insofar as increased performance can be met at reduced cost through reducing numbers of parts and fasteners.

SOHAR, INC.
8421 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 201
Beverly Hills, CA 90211
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(323) 653-4717
Dr. Herbert Hecht
AF 01-192      Awarded: 25MAY01
Title:Rapid Cost Estimates of Military Aerospace Vehicles (MAV's)
Abstract:Despite the importance of life cycle costing (LCC), it has rarely been integrated into the design activity. One of the reasons has been the lack of easily learned tools that are cost effective and whose results are non-trivial, i.e., would be sufficiently powerful that development engineers would consider using them. In this research, we will develop a tool, which we call the Propulsion Life Cycle Cost (PLCC) Tool to address this need. PLCC will be capable of estimating the development, acquisition, operations, and maintenance cost of propulsion systems in particular and of the a complete Military Aerospace Vehicle (MAV) more generally. PLCC will be based on an enhancement of a successful off-the-shelf decision support tool for lifecycle costing called D-LCC. D-LCC will be enhanced with risk assessment, parts database, and other capabilities to tailor it for MAV applications. A key element in the success of this effort will be the seniority and expertise of the staff involved in cost data compilation, who will be effective in gathering cost data through their own experience and network of contacts. Because of the maturity of the baseline general purpose product being used in this effort, a fully functional software tool, together with documentation will be delivered at the end of the Phase I effortThe technology developed under this research will be useful in any organization with a Design To Cost (DTC) objective or operational environment in which capital and operating & maintenance budgets must be traded off. The PLCC tool will be marketed to the growing number of commercial and Governmental space entities. PLCC will be less expensive and easier to use than other currently available LCC tools. With the additional of application specific data, we anticipate having a competitive edge with which to enter the market.: PLCC, with its easily learned interface and its powerful, domain specific database will be a good match for this community of users.

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
2555 NE 205th Avenue
Fairview, OR 97024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
Mr. Eric Udd
AF 01-193      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Fiber Grating Sensor System to Determine Motor Case Damage
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR will develop a fiber grating sensor system that is capable of locating and assessing damage on a composite rocket motor casing. Blue Road Research will use arrays of single and multi-axis fiber grating strain sensors to perform both localization and detailed assessment of the damage using a series of fiber grating demodulation methods that allow multiplexing of large number of sensors as well as multidimensional strain field analysis. Specific areas that will be investigated will include delamination and breakage of fibers in the composite casing.This technology could be used to support damage assessment and health monitoring on a wide variety of aerospace platforms both military and commercial that employ composite materials. These structures could include wings and flight critical components on aircraft. It is also possible that this technology could be utilized on ships, bridges and other large structures where composite materials are playing an ever more important role.

ALPHA OMEGA ELECTROMAGNETICS, LLC
24 Cascade Road
Arnold, MD 21012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 750-0190
Dr. Eric W. Lucas
AF 01-200      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra Wide Band RF Antenna Element
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR effort is to develop and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved ultra wideband antenna element technology suitable for both receive and transmit functions. The end goal is to significantly extend the current state-of-the-art in ultra wideband phased array and individual antenna technology, both from a performance as well as from a practical implementation standpoint. Efforts under this SBIR will focus on the development of several novel antenna architectures that are derived from the fundamental ultra-wideband electromagnetic mechanisms associated with so-called notch (Vivaldi) radiator. The proposed research program is strategically partitioned to address developments in both the ultra-wideband scanning phased array technologies as well as the ultra-wideband individual and low-to-medium gain antenna technologies. AOE proposes to investigate several novel antenna architectures from both categories, as both areas of technology clearly find important applications. In this heavily electromagnetic-simulation-based investigation, AOE will pursue technological advances not only with respect to ultra-wideband radiation performance, but also with respect to important practical antenna implementation issues, such as aperture cost, weight and physical profile (depth). AOE will use its own proprietary, 3D hybrid finite-element / method-of-moments phased array electromagnetic simulation software in addition to commercially available EM simulation tools to conduct this investigation.The results of this research will have far-reaching commercial and military applications with respect to ultra wideband communication, radar and multifunction systems. The resulting wideband antenna technologies can be used to reduce the required number of antenna apertures on military aircraft, ships and other vehicles that are already overpopulated with antennas. Additionally these technologies can be applied to commercial `smart antenna' applications and wall and ceiling mount PCS antenna applications.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
Post Office Drawer 719, 735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
Dr. William J. Kent
AF 01-200      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra Wide Band RF Antenna Element
Abstract:This proposal will investigate innovative wide bandwidth and multi-band antenna elements for both receive and transmit functions. Antenna elements to be investigated but not limited to, are: sprial, log-periodic, end-loaded dipoles, vertical monopoles, and sinuous spiral antennas. The antenna elements will have the following features: 1) fixed polarization across the bands of interest; 2) target bandwidth (though not limited to): HF through GHz; 3) multifunction capability to minimize the total number of aircraft apertures; 4) compatibility with RF/photonic wide band links. The objectives of this proposed Phase I effort are to study candidate apertures using MRC/MSU developed conformal antenna modeling codes, selecting one or more apertures for further development and prototyping in Phase II, integrating project output with current and projected Air Force aperture requirements, and identifying multifunction apertures that can be transitioned for civilian use (especially for existing and emerging wireless data, voice, and geolocation devices). In Phase II, the apertures will be further simulated and prototype apertures will be designed, built, and tested.1 - Multifunction apertures provide new functionality while reducing aircraft skin penetrations. 2 - Ultra wide band apertures permit higher data rate transmission and more thorough electronic warfare coverage. 3 - Multifunction antennas can be designed to reduce the aircraft's signature.

PACIFIC WAVE INDUSTRIES, INC.
10390 Santa Monica Blvd.,, Suite 100
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 229-0099
Dr. Boris Tsap
AF 01-201      Awarded: 01JUL01
Title:60 GHz Polymer Modulators for Millimeter Wave Analog Photonic Links
Abstract:Pacific Wave Industries proposes the design of a 60 GHz push-pull Mach-Zehnder polymer modulator exhibiting a DC Vp of 5 volts. The proposed device will be fabricated from our PC/CLD material system, which exhibits several advantageous device properties. This proposed structure incorporates Ag electrodes for the novel RF modulator drive circuit, the higher conductivity of Ag allows a 60 GHz bandwidth (3 dB point) with reasonable RF driving voltages. The full potential bandwidth of the device will be exploited by the design and implementation of millimeter wave coplanar waveguide to microstrip line transitions. The proposed device will significantly impact high performance millimeter wave optical links which have stringent demands on modulator performance. Preliminary investigations of the impact of the proposed device on link performance are found in this proposal, with the details outlined as part of the tasks. This Phase I project will produce polymer amplitude modulators with electrical bandwidths of 60 GHz. These cost effective devices, with relatively low half-wave voltage (Vp) and ultra high bandwidth will have an immediate impact on the development of high performance RF links. The ability to reduce the cost of analog optical millimeter wave links and to improve their performance will allow its implementation for huge potential markets.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 284-8444
Dr. William H. Bennett
AF 01-202      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Fusion of GMTI Reports from Multiple Sensors in Clutter
Abstract:Airborne systems for ground surveillance of mobile targets are increasingly providing significant tactical information for military operations. Fusion of ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radar data from multiple airborne platforms with overlapping fields of regard can improve tracking of moving ground targets. OSD is actively working to establish capabilities collaborative surveillance tasking and exploitation of airborne surveillance data. In many operational scenarios GMTI performance is limited due to excessive ground clutter, target motion and airborne platform surveillance geometry. Modern methods in multiple target tracking can be enhanced to provide improved fusion of GMTI radar data by exploiting known properties of airborne GMTI radars. Improved sensor models which can predict detection and measurement precision for specific classes of radars in various clutter levels are needed to enable improved tracking. This effort will produce software tools to enable enhanced fusion of GMTI radar data from multiple platforms.Airborne surveillance radar is rapidly finding commercial applications in traffic monitoring, land use survey, and transportation system monitoring. As GMTI radar becomes available for commercial exploitation tools will be in demand. Track fusion processing is a rapidly maturing military technology that holds potential for commercial applications in perimeter and site internal security, airport ground collision avoidance, transportation monitoring and survey and other applications. Improved tracking algorithms will enable the development of robust software tools that produce reliable information products from radar surveillance data in formats that can be directly interpreted by a wide range of users.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 284-8411
Dr. Andrew J. Newman
AF 01-203      Selected for Award
Title:Dynamic Multi-Asset Management
Abstract:ALPHATECH proposes to develop techniques and tools for near real-time dynamic re-tasking of ISR sensors under realistic operating conditions. Effective ISR resource management must coordinate a diverse set of assets with a wide range of capabilities operating in an uncertain environment satisfying a rapidly evolving set of information needs. This involves ISR resource management over a range of planning levels and time scales. These include mode scheduling for individual sensors at time scales on the order of a beam dwell, as well as platform route planning and sensor-to-task assignment at times scales on the order of the mission time horizon. Recent research efforts conducted by ALPHATECH have demonstrated efficient algorithms for the resource management problem at both of these levels. However, these efforts did not consider the problem of coordinating multiple planning levels and time scales. In this proposed effort, we will leverage these technologies, and address the coordination problem by developing novel algorithms that overcome the explosive combinatorics introduced by the hierarchy of re-tasking problems. We will then implement an integrated, prototype, dynamic resource manager, and apply the tool to a selected example scenario of limited complexity and of particular relevance to Air Force information gathering.Many commercial processes could benefit substantially from dynamic resource management. Examples include power and communication network control, air traffic control, just-in-time manufacturing processes, supply chain distribution, transportation, and logistics planning. These processes all share the need for rapid decision making under uncertain and dynamically evolving conditions. The technologies developed under this SBIR would be broadly applicable to all of these, as well as many other, commercial applications.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street, Suite 246
Northglenn, CO 80260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Dr. W. Kober
AF 01-203      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Dynamic Operational Re-Tasking of ISR Sensors
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC), OptTek Corporation, and the Institute of Medical Cybernetics, Inc. (IMC) propose the development of algorithms and software for re-tasking distributed, multi-platform air-to-ground ISR sensing assets, as well as potentially re-routing these platforms. The approach will be based on the use of Tabu Search (TS) for near real-time combinatorial optimization. A Virtual Associative Network (VAN) for offline reinforcement learning of preferable alternative choices will support the TS process.Phase-III has many dual use possibilities, including multi and single robotic applications with distributed sensors, management of power and communication networks, intelligent vehicle control systems such as air-traffic control and intelligent-vehicle highway systems, and manufacturing operations.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 671-0508
Mr. G. Edward Crowder
AF 01-203      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Dynamic Operational Re-Tasking of ISR Sensors
Abstract:Improved command and control of ISR assets, to include scheduling and re-tasking those assets in a multi-objective operational environment with multiple resource, spatial, temporal, and operational constraints, will be necessary to realize fully the benefits of future ISR capabilities envisioned by Joint Vision 2020. The ISR asset scheduling and re-tasking problem is extremely complex and falls into a notoriously difficult to solve class of mathematical problems. Typically, solutions to this class of problems are either non-optimal or not attainable in reasonable time, or both. This project will develop and thoroughly test an adaptive hybrid intelligent system for real-time optimal scheduling and re-tasking of ISR assets in a realistic operational scenario involving a diverse set of ISR assets fitted with various sensors. The Phase I effort will prove the concept of this hybrid system and culminate in an end-of-phase proof of concept demonstration. Phase II will develop an operating prototype system. An adaptive hybrid intelligent scheduling and re-scheduling technology will be attractive to any organization that has to deal with large complex scheduling problems, such as supply chain and manufacturing firms, and transportation/shipping firms.

PRACTICAL IMAGINEERING, INC.
3055 Prosperity Avenue
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 573-9600
Dr. Daniel F. Lyons III
AF 01-204      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Standard Image Compression for Data Link Transmission
Abstract:The radar imaging community has expanded well beyond the traditional US military customer base. The success of various DoD and NASA projects in mapping the earth and measuring various terrain features has increased overall interest in SAR imagery. Indeed, measurements such as ocean temperature and water flows, as well as polar ice thickness measurements are essentially civilian applications of MASINT. Our approach compresses the complex data that has already been subject to image formation. This processing could occur on airborne SAR platforms, or at space borne SAR ground stations. In either case vast amounts of complex imagery need to be compressed either for dissemination or for archiving. If successful, the techniques developed in Phase I and implemented more fully in Phase II could be use to distribute compressed imagery to both civilian researchers and military users of SAR imagery. Reductions in storage and/or bandwidth for distributing SAR data could be expected on the order of 10 to 50 compared to lossless compression algorithms.This technology could be successfully 'commercialized' if an off-the-shelf compression software suite were made available to entities distributing and/or using SAR imagery. The use of SAR systems and data is increasing steadily within both the civilian USG and the Department of Defense. Indeed MASINT techniques are also finding dual-use in applications such as detecting illegal hazardous waste dumps, tracking forest fires, and monitoring air/water purity. The technology benefit is extremely leveraged since there is a limited number of SAR sensor systems (users of compression), but thousands of consumers of the product (users of decompression). The decompression stage could be made invisible to the user by embedding the decompression software into standard image analysis tools. The ideal commercial application would be to standardize the compression algorithms as part of the National Image Transmission Format (NITF), which would encourage widespread insertion of the technology into other commercial products.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway, Suite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9486
Mr. Erik Kjeldsen
AF 01-204      Awarded: 18APR01
Title:Standard Image Compression for Data Link Transmission
Abstract:Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a high-resolution, wide-area, active imaging technique usable in day-night, all-weather conditions. SAR-equipped airborne platforms, including the U-2 fleet, the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS) E-8 and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and spaceborne platforms (satellites and the Shuttle), are rapidly proliferating the volume of data that must be piped over constrained bandwidth wireless links. The problem is exacerbated by an increasing commercial demand for these scarce spectrum resources and the DoD's desire to maximize the intelligence benefit of the SAR imagery. Tactical needs impose strict time constraints on imagery transmission delays. The push is on to preserve the image phase component allowing processing such as Interferometric SAR and facilitating Measurement and Signal Intelligence (MASINT) exploitation. A solution is to reduce the transmitted data volume using compression techniques. Popular standards-based compression for electro-optical imagery is ill-suited for the high dynamic range, speckled, and complex-valued SAR imagery. SRC therefore proposes to develop an innovative compression technique based on the wavelet packet transform that will dynamically adapt to the SAR data source statistical distribution. Our emphasis will be on researching suitable cost metrics and search algorithms yielding compression results that support automated exploitation and human interpretability.Compression of SAR image data using lossy Block Adaptive Quantization (BAQ) or lossless techniques does not provide the degree of reduction needed to transmit over commonly available wireless link bandwidths (e.g., T-1 = 1.544 Megabits per second). Our compression technology will overcome this wireless bottleneck with suitable compression ratios, providing benefit to a variety of SAR applications including oil spill monitoring, sea ice monitoring, agricultural classification and assessment, natural resource location, oceanography, topographical mapping, search and rescue operations, treaty verification, and non-proliferation monitoring.

VEXCEL CORP.
4909 Nautilus Court
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 444-0094
Mr. Richard E. Carande
AF 01-204      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Standard Image Compression for Data Link Transmission
Abstract:Vexcel Corporation proposes to develop a general-purpose compression algorithm for use with complex SAR data. This algorithm will be general in nature and will not be tuned for any particular end-user application. Compressed data will retain the appropriate information required to perform coherent processing, ATD/R, ACD as well as other exploitation techniques including MASINT techniques. The algorithm will also be able to effectively compress data that is multi-channel. The compression algorithm is data dependent, and is expected to produce compression gains between 2 and 10. Vexcel proposes to perform limited demonstrations that may include independent quantitative exploitation evaluations.Compression of SAR data will allow more coverage and/or resolution to be obtained using existing radar technology, with no sacrifice in performance. This applies to civilian, commercial and DoD applications. Potentially, a general purpose compression scheme such as this may be useful over a broad range of future SAR system.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Mahendra Mallick
AF 01-206      Awarded: 07MAY01
Title:Multi-platform Multi-target GMTI Tracking with Out-of-sequence Measurements
Abstract:Sensor platforms transmit data to a central tracker using communication networks in a multi-platform network-centric tracking system. Measurements can arrive out-of-sequence (OOS) at the central tracker due to varying data preprocessing times at the platforms, delays in transmission initiation, and communication network execution. The central tracker can also receive data out-of-sequence from a single sensor, if the sensor operates in multiple modes such as wide area surveillance and sector search modes. Previous researchers have addressed the OOS measurement (OOSM) filtering problem for a single target with one kinematic model, when the OOSM lies between the last two measurements (one-lag problem). We have developed and tested a new algorithm for the OOSM filtering problem, which handles multiple-lags using a single kinematic model. We propose to develop additional algorithms to handle multiple lags and multiple kinematic models. Previous efforts have used data reprocessing and buffering for multi-target multi-sensor tracking problems. These approaches are undesirable due to the high storage and CPU requirements. No algorithm exists at present that addresses the multi-target multi-sensor OOSM problem. We propose to develop new algorithms for data association and likelihood computations for OOSM multi-target multi-sensor tracking using our multiple-lag and multiple-model OOSM filtering algorithms.This research will benefit surveillance of the battlespace where out-of-sequence measurements can occur due to the use of multiple platforms to obtain a coherent and integrated picture of the battlespace. This effort will directly benefit a number of government funded programs such as MPTE, AMSTE, CAESAR, and DDB where real data collection and research include out-of-sequence GMTI sensor measurements. Commercial applications of the research include air traffic surveillance, border surveillance by the Drug Enforcement Agency and the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

MRLETS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
616 Brookmeade Ct.
Beavercreek, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 657-2620
Dr. Shan Cong
AF 01-206      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Multiple Target Tracking With Out-of-Sequence GMTI/HRR Data
Abstract:MRLets Technologies, Inc. proposes a new multiple target tracking system which has a strong capability to handle out-of-sequence multi-platform GMTI/HRR radar reports. Recognizing that one of the most important concerns about a GMTI/HRR tracking system is the ability to handle a very large number of tracks in the field of view, this proposal suggests a set of techniques for establishing the right trade-off between tracking performance and requirement on resources. An algorithm is proposed to predict the necessity for adding an out-of-sequence report. Clustering of tracks is suggested in order to decompose the correlation between groups of tracks. This new system is based on Wavelet Feature Aid Tracking (WFAT), which is a novel approach for joint tracking and target recognition. Two key system components for handling out-of-sequence data are a filter with (near) optimal back-propagation capability and a data associator with (near) optimal multiscan report assignment capability. The development starts with analysis of optimal designs. The resulting optimal designs shall form a benchmark system for further performance analysis. Constraints are then added to the optimal designs and practical solutions are obtained. Proof-of-concept simulations are proposed on both the optimal designs and practical designs. It is expected that an effective combination of the trade-off study and practical designs shall render the new tracking system with superior performance, and shall benefit many DoD and non-DoD applications. The proposed GMTI/HRR tracking system will primarily benefit military and aerospace applications, including surveillance/reconnaissance systems for battlefield command and control. It also has great potential in commercial applications, such as highway traffic control and safety systems.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Gil Ettinger
AF 01-207      Awarded: 14APR01
Title:Model-Based Fusion of Multiple Look SAR for Automatic Target Recognition
Abstract:We propose to develop and evaluate robust model-based approaches to combat ID by fusing multi-look SAR imagery of ground vehicles. We have already developed a baseline decision-level multi-look fusion approach, based on the MSTAR system, that accumulates evidence over target type. Extensive evaluation of this multi-look system has indicated significant target identification performance benefits. Under this proposed effort we will develop, implement, and analyze several improvements to the decision-level fusion strategy: (1) hypothesis-level fusion, where we accumulate evidence not only over target type but also of target pose, thereby ensuring consistent interpretation across all the images; and (2) feature-level fusion, where we accumulate evidence over parts of the model, thereby correctly accounting for model region visibility across the multiple views. As we increase the fidelity of the multi-look fusion approach, we