---------- BMDO ----------

166 Phase I Selections from the 01.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
602 Explorer
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Dr. Jon R Mayes
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:A Compact, Battery-Powered RF Generator for UAV Payloads
Abstract:Applied Physical Electronics, L. C. (APELC) offers a portable, battery-powered RF generator well suited for UAV payloads, laboratory or field use. This proposed system would build on the current success of APELC's current Phase II efforts, in which larger impulse generators are being developed. This proposed system will incorporate those successes to generate an impulse of microwave energy, at very high peak power (10's - 100's MW), while maintaining a compact, battery-powered design suitable for UAV applications. As a UAV payload, it could be flown autonomously into a region such as to disrupt electronic systems aboard incoming missiles. A group of UAV systems could essentially setup a dynamic electromagnetic minefield. The device will be continuously variable in peak voltage output (to the antenna) in the range of 34 - 212 kV. Furthermore, the system will offer the flexibility of operating with a continuously variable repetition rate from single shot to 50 Hz, thus, allowing control over the energy delivered to the device under test (DUT).The development of the compact, portable Marx generator will result in an extremely flexible high powered microwave device suitable for both military and commercial applications. For the military market, this system is well suited as a UAV payload for missile defense, as well as for electronic warfare. The system also bodes well for RF mitigation testing. Likewise, in the commercial realm, with the threat of terrorist activities, the system may be used for RF mitigation of common electronic systems.

CORCORAN DESIGN
8 Millfield St.
Woods Hole, MA 02543
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-8355
Dr. Christopher J. Corcoran
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Compact Phase-Locked Fiber-Laser Array
Abstract:For the Airborne Laser (ABL) and other laser-based missile defense systems to become an effective deterrent, there still needs to be significant improvements in laser power, efficiency, and stability. The proposed research will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a coherent array of fiber lasers using an extremely compact and novel external-cavity design. The resulting laser system will provide a dramatic increase in laser output capability and thus, the ability to deliver this power into a single, diffraction limited output beam. As a result of the proposed design, the system readily promises to increase in power, efficiency, and stability as the number of elements in the array increases. The proposed system will utilize a compact external cavity to coherently couple multiple laser devices together. Due to the proprietary and novel design of the compact external cavity, the system size is drastically reduced and will achieve a corresponding increase in stability. In the proposed effort, the optical design of the fiber laser array will be detailed, key components will be identified, polarization control and phase control techniques of the lasers will be specified, and a preliminary design for the full-scale laser array generated. Coherent combination of multiple fiber lasers will enable the possibility of generating extremely high power laser outputs in a diffraction limited beam. High power lasers find numerous commercial applications in the industry with applications in the medical field, environmental monitoring, and metal cutting, welding, and engraving.

ECOPULSE
PO Box 528, zip 22150, 7844 Vervain Ct
Springfield, VA 22152
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 644-8419
Dr. Nino R. Pereira
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:lithium metal x-ray refractive lens
Abstract:Ecopulse has successfully applied lithium metal to x-ray windows thanks in part to methods to delay its corrosion in air. This project is to use lithium's high x-ray transparency to refractive lenses. To date these are made from aluminum, plastics and beryllium. Lithium promises a refractive x-ray lens with larger aperture, smaller focal spot, and higher peak intensity than these traditional materials, and allows the useful photon range to be extended to softer x-rays than the optimum 10 keV.Lithium lenses should enhance the various capabilites of synchrotron (and other) x-ray sources. For example, the smaller, more intense x-ray spot created by the lens can examine advanced electronic or structural materials over smaller areas and in a shorter time. The lens can similarly improve standard laboratory x-ray sources. such as the Advanced Photon Source

EWING TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., INC.
5416 143rd Ave SE
Bellevue, WA 98006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 746-1216
Dr. J. J. Ewing
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Transversely Excited Micro-UV Laser
Abstract:In this effort we will develop a novel fabrication technique for UV micro-lasers and, in Phase II, develop the lasers and expand the power potential of these micro-lasers. We will fabricate this new class of UV excimer laser using semi-conductor based micro-processing and micro-fabrication techniques. The effort will focus on a novel excitation scheme that we term a micro-transverse discharge. Unlike micro-hollow cathode discharges, which we are examining in other efforts, the dimensions of these laser devices are somewhat larger than the 100 microns for our micro-hollow discharge research, but smaller than conventional excimer lasers. The larger scale size requires pre-ionization to establish a stable fast pulse discharge. For this we will use arrays of micro-hollow discharges which we are developing in parallel also. The Phase I effort will focus on micro-fabrication methods for the key surfaces. These methods are analogous to silicon processing methods, but are used with halogen compatible materials. The Phase I effort will result in a prototype laser head and simple electrical characterization of this structure under fast pulse excitation. The path for Phase II development into efficient, very high pulse rate UV lasers in the 1W to 10W power range will be defined in Phase I.This research will provide a unique UV light source with the potential for manufactured cost being a factor of five or more lower than that pertaining to conventional UV lasers, either gas phase or solid state. We see applications in ~1km scale length remote sensing, in photo-processing and photo-lithography and other applications requiring excellent UV beam quality.

EXTREME DEVICES INCOPORATED
101 West 6th Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7740
Dr. Richard L. Woodin
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:15 kV High Power Silicon Carbide Diodes
Abstract:Diode rectifiers are one of the basic building blocks of any power system, ranging from common household appliances to motor controllers to power distribution systems to advanced military weapons and vehicles. Silicon technology for high voltage diodes is limited to ~9 kV. For higher voltage applications, multiple diodes must be used in series, raising the problems of uniform voltage distribution and current balancing. Increasing the blocking voltage of individual devices can alleviate these problems, increase efficiency, reduce cooling requirements and reduce system volume. Silicon carbide (SiC), a wide band-gap semiconductor, offers the potential for electronic devices that operate at higher voltage, higher temperature and higher frequency than silicon, thereby enabling compact, more efficient power distribution and control. In this SBIR program Extreme Devices, in collaboration with Voltage Multipliers, Inc., proposes to design and fabricate high voltage SiC p-n diodes based upon Extreme Devices' patented supersonic beam process for producing high quality doped epilayers This process will enable fabrication of the thick, doped high quality epilayers required for high-voltage single-junction diodes. In Phase I, demonstration 15 kV, 1A SiC diodes will be designed, fabricated and characterized. Phase II will design, fabricate and package larger, higher power devices.High power SiC diodes have enabling advantages over Si diodes, including higher thermal conductivity, higher breakdown voltage, higher temperature operation, lower losses and higher switching frequency. These properties open the door to production of smaller, more powerful and efficient circuitry for both military and commercial power control and distribution.

KESTREL CORP.
3815 Osuna Road NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
Dr. Leonard John Otten III
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 21APR01
Title:Large Space Optics Alignment Sensor
Abstract:Under this Phase I SBIR Kestrel Corporation proposes to demonstrate the advantages of a novel optical technique for measuring wavefront aberrations as a means for aligning large, segmented, space telescopes such as those that might be employed in a Space Based Laser (SBL) Weapon system. The same technology has applications as a wavefront sensor for determining aberrations in the transmitted beam. The proposed technique has been conceptually demonstrated during laboratory experiments for a medical application where the sensor reconstructed phase maps under highly aberrated conditions that could not accurately be measured using conventional wavefront sensors. The technique could potentially overcome existing shortfalls in wavefront sensing by providing increased accuracy, improved optical efficiency, relaxed sensor alignment requirements, measurement over surface discontinuities, and greatly extended dynamic range. The most direct military application of the proposed work is with the DoD Space Based Laser Program as a wavefront sensor that is better suited to the highly aberrated and large amplitude misalignments expected by this weapon system.The basis for our commercialization is an adaptation of the technology to a medical problem in ophthalmic imaging. The focus of these interests is adapting the novel wavefront sensing research to cornea wavefront measurements and in using the sensor as a replacement for existing wavefront measurement techniques in an adaptive optics enhancement to fundus imaging. There exist two marketing targets for the instrument and the operating and data analysis software provided with it. The first is with the eye banks. There are upwards of 150 eye banks in the US. While this is not a large market, owing to the cornea screening system's unique measurement capability, we will capture the entire market. There also exists a well-defined market involving the application of the basic technology to in-vivo measurements. This market area is the more lucrative of the two, and is expected to emerge from the research and marketing activities of the original effort.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 East Evelyn Ave., Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7841
Dr. James J. Scherer
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 07MAY01
Title:Infrared Diagnostic System for ABL/SBL Optical Components
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop an inexpensive, highly sensitive infrared diagnostic instrument that is capable of accurately determining the performance of High-Energy Laser (HEL) optical components. The new instrumentation will be capable of rapidly determining the quality of uncooled, infrared high reflectors. The Phase I research will demonstrate the ability to employ a new, novel infrared light source with a proven spectrophotometric technique, yielding an instrument that is capable of determining mirror performance with unparalleled precision that is commercially viable. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the technical feasibility of concepts employed as well as test the hardware to be used in the instrument. The ability to measure and quantify critical optical parameters in high-energy infrared optics will be directly demonstrated.The proposed instrument will assist in the development and optimization of high-energy laser (HEL) optical components and infrared optical devices. The technology will impact government, military, and commercial sectors, providing a valuable diagnostic of thin film coating systems.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. W. Kowbel
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:Ultra Lightweight SiC Based Mirrors for High Energy Lasers
Abstract:SiC materials offer excellent characteristics for high energy lasers applications. However, both monolithic and RBSI materials suffer from brittleness. This proposal builds on the concept of ultra lightweight C-C (SiC) composite structure, which yield very high thermal conductivity and modulus. Subsequently, chemical vapor reaction (CVR) process will be employed to render optical quality SiC surface. In addition, BaF2/ ZnSe optical coating capability will be studied.It is anticipated that under 2 Kg/m2 aerial density SiC based mirrors will be fabricated. In addition, surface rms of 2Ao is expected. Commercial applications include high energy lasers, at lidars and FTS instruments.

SCHAFER CORP.
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 558-7900
Mr. John McMahon
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:High Power 1.6mum Solid-State Laser Transmitter
Abstract:The Department of Defense interest in lasers at wavelengths with dependable and good atmospheric propagation in all significant littoral regions favors the 1.62 mm spectral region. However, there have been no previously identified attractive candidates for electrically-excited diode pumped laser sources. This goal of this effort is to validate a particular ion-host combination that may allow such a source. The remaining critical issues are identified and a program proposed to resolve them. If the outcome is favorable, this approach could leverage prior diode-pumped solid state laser efforts and be implemented rapidly for demonstration of weapons-level laser operation. The low altitude capability would complement existing BMDO and Air Force developments for missile defense, which are limited in application to altitudes higher than 30,000 feet. Additionally, the most favorable laser candidate for this application would be a laser that could produce collinear output beams at 2.7mm and 1.6mm with powers in the ratio of approximately 2/3, respectively. A moderate power version of this diode-pumped laser could be of direct use to the BMDO Space-Based Laser Program (SBL). The long-wave output would be at the same wavelength as the HF chemical laser and could be used as a convenient on-orbit alignment source that would not consume any chemical reactants, while the shorter wavelength could be used for external alignment/boresight testing.The particular technology proposed here would have considerable commercial potential in the low- to mid-power range, broadly speaking 10's of watts to 10's of kilowatts for a variety of industrial laser applications, in addition to DOD applications. In fact, its characteristics make it an ideal industrial laser source: (1) The wavelength is compatible with delivery via conventional germanium silicate fiber optic wave guides; (2) The wavelength is also in a region that is characterized as "eye-safe", which means that the hazardous level for personnel working around the source is much higher than in the one-micron region where concern with retinal damage leads to a low maximum permissible exposure (MPE) value; (3) This wavelength is still short enough that excellent materials coupling for cutting and welding are expected; and, (4) While the laser weapons temporal format is typically continuous lasing, the upper level lifetime is anticipated to be quite long, such that considerable pulse shape tailoring to particular applications would be possible with minimal impact on overall efficiency. The likely implementation for commercial use would also involve relatively simple, moderate density stacks of InGaAsP laser diode pump arrays without special coupling optics, such that diode array costs would be minimized and the diodes could be powered from ordinary electrical supplies. The synergy with past efforts means that this technology could rapidly developed to a full-scale industrial demonstration unit. The particular proprietary approach identified here could also have applicability to other lasers, in particular fiber lasers used for telecommunications, to allow performance enhancement and/or cost reduction.

SCIENTIFIC MATERIALS CORP.
310 Icepond Road
Bozeman, MT 59715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 585-3772
Dr. Gregory A. Peterson
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 01JUN01
Title:Huntite Crystals for UV Nonlinear Optics and Self-Doubled Lasers
Abstract:Nonlinear optical (NLO) materials play a critical role in current solid-state laser systems enabling broad tunability and operation at wavelengths not accessible by available laser gain media. At the same time, NLO materials limit the longevity and efficiency of these laser systems due to low damage thresholds, poor optical quality and small nonlinearities. As a result, new NLO materials are required to improve the performance of existing systems and to provide new combinations of optical and mechanical properties that yield new wavelengths. Specifically, there is a need for new/better NLO materials for use in high efficiency all solid-state lasers operating in the UV. Borate crystals, including BBO and LBO, are currently two of the industry standards for this application. A new family of Sc-containing huntite borate materials, has the potential to replace these materials with increased transmission in the UV combined with larger nonlinearities. Based on preliminary characterization results, crystalline structure, and composition, congruent melting huntite crystals have the potential to enable new devices that require operation deeper in the UV. This Phase I SBIR project is aimed at developing two new congruent melting huntite NLO materials, and a new Nd-doped self-frequency doubling material capable of being diode pumped.The successful development of new congruent melting NLO huntite borate materials would have immediate widespread commercial application. Huntite crystals would compete directly with both BBO and LBO primarily for frequency conversion into the UV, and rare-earth and transition metal doped huntites would provide new sources of compact solid-state diode pumped self-frequency doubled lasers.

V CORP. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7042 Nighthawk Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 931-1011
Dr. Scott R. Velazquez
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 01AUG01
Title:Wideband Advanced Filter Bank Universal Software Receiver (AFB Comm-Universal)
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project demonstrates the Wideband Advanced Filter Bank Universal Software Receiver (AFB Comm-Universal), which offers lower power, smaller size, and lower cost by processing wideband data in software instead of dedicated hardware. The architecture leverages the wideband, high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion capabilities of the V-Corp proprietary Advanced Filter Bank Analog-to-Digital Converter (AFB ADC) together with the real-time computational power of the Pentium III processor as the backbone. The real-time digital processing (including down-conversion, demodulation, channel selection, etc.) is performed in software on the universally-supported, familiar Windows NT/2000 platform. Software can easily be changed to accommodate different signalling protocols or updated to integrate new standards as they arise. The design is modular to be continuously upgradeable as new analog-to-digital conversion technology and processing power becomes available. Note that V-Corp has built hardware successfully implementing the AFB analog-to-digital converter with 12-bit resolution and 260 MHz sample rate. The objective of the SBIR Phase I project is to demonstrate the high-performance backbone of the AFB Comm-Universal receiver by designing and testing the key components of the high-speed data acquisition link on the host computer with real-time data from the Advanced Filter Bank Analog-to-Digital converter. This architecture will provide real-time data acquisition of wideband analog data digitized with 12-bit resolution and 260 MHz sample rate. The Phase I option will inlcude testing of key RF front-end electronics to demonstrate the performance and flexibility of the architecture. Phase II will be dedicated to realizing the full prototype system including the RF front-end electronics and real-time software digital signal processing (which will be performed on the host computer) and shrinking the receiver hardware to a compact PCMCIA card.The AFB Comm-Universal receiver is a powerful, generic software radio architecture that can be outfitted with a wide variety of RF front-end electronics to support a wide range of frequencies for different applications, such as airborne military radios, anti-jam GPS receivers, cellular basestation receivers, adaptive antenna array receivers, and radar.

V CORP. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7042 Nighthawk Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 931-1011
Dr. Scott R. Velazquez
BMDO 01-001      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Filter Bank Analog and Digital Converter for All Digital Multiple Beam-Forming Array System
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project demonstrates a breakthrough approach to very high-speed, high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion which improves the speed of conversion by up to six times the state-of-the-art by using a parallel array of individual converters. The V-Corp Advanced Filter Bank Analog and Digital Converter (AFB ADC) technology will be integrated into a Harris Corporation advanced all-digital multiple beam array system for theater ballistic missile defense. The AFB ADC architecture works because the filter bank signal processing significantly reduces the sensitivity to analog mismatches (e.g., phase distortion, clock skew, temperature drift) which prohibit existing parallel conversion methods (e.g., Time-Interleaving) from achieving high resolution. V-Corp has proven the technical efficacy of the concept by successfully building prototype hardware with 12-bit resolution and 260 MHz sample rate (over twice as fast as state-of-the-art). Very importantly, the AFB ADC architecture will never become obsolete and will always exceed the state-of-the-art because it can easily be upgraded as new, more powerful ADC products become available. The architecture is amenable to single-chip integration for compact, low-power applications. The AFB ADC technology enables an advanced all-digital shipboard array with multiple beams and a single aperture, steerable nulls to mitigate co-site interference and jammers, fast beam pointing and target acquisition, software reconfigurability, and affordability due to high levels of circuit integration. During Phase I, V-Corp will work on the development of requirements, alternatives, technology projections, and a conceptual approach to the digital beam-forming application using the V-Corp AFB ADC approach. Key components in the system will be tested to demonstrate the validity of the system. A hardware implementation of the V-Corp AFB ADC will be tested in conjunction with the key components of the digital beam-former in the Phase I Option. During Phase II, V-Corp will work on the design, development, and test of a functional model of a segment (e.g., sub-array) of the Harris Corporation digital beam-former using the LinComp technology.The AFB ADC approach overcomes the critical A/D conversion bottleneck which limits performance of state-of-the-art radio frequency transceiver systems. Virtually any high-performance modern electronic system will benefit from the AFB ADC. Significant applications include enhancement of radar systems, wideband universal RF transceivers, specialized test equipment, and medical imaging systems.

ZAUBERTEK, INC.
12565 Research Parkway,, Suite 300
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 230-5704
Ms. Elena Flitsiyan
BMDO 01-001      Awarded: 20APR01
Title:Gain, Power, and Duty Enhancement for the Far-Infrared p-Ge Laser by Neturon Transmutation Doping
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Program will realize substantial improvements in the p-Ge laser gain medium. Far-infrared lasers based on inter-sub-band transitions of holes in p-type Ge span the broad spectral range of 1-4 THz and are the only solid state lasers in that region. They hold promise for molecular spectroscopy, chemical sensing, secure free-space local-area communications in visually obscured environments, and inter-satellite telemetry. At present, p-Ge lasers are limited by low gain, cryogenic operation, and low duty caused by overheating. Since the laser mechanism requires extremely uniform excitation current throughout the active crystal, gain in traditional melt-grown p-Ge crystals is far from optimum because of acceptor-concentration inhomogeneity. To overcome this feature, neutron transmutation doping of pure Ge crystals is proposed. The products generated by neutron irradiation decay rapidly into stable isotopes, primarily 71 Ga, which is a usual acceptor for p-Ge laser crystals. The highly homogeneous thermal neutron flux in nuclear reactors and low neutron-absorption cross section for natural Ge isotopes provide the highest possible uniformity for the resulting acceptor distribution. Small-signal gain will increase up to 10 times, allowing higher operating temperatures, reduced dimensions, and potentially continuous-wave operation. A far-infrared p-Ge laser, with gain enhanced by transmutation doping, has commercial potential for applications in molecular spectroscopy, chemical sensing, secure free-space local-area communications in visually obscured environments, and inter-satellite telemetry.

AERO THERMO TECHNOLOGY, INC.
620 Discovery Drive, Bldg I, Ste 100
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-1141
Mrs. Cynthia A. Harris
BMDO 01-002      Awarded: 02MAY01
Title:Discrete/Continuous Control Approach for Advanced Mirror Actuator
Abstract:This proposal addresses full digital control of the Line of Sight (LOS) Stabilization system required for advanced infra-red (IR) seekers employing strap down sensors and inertially stabilized optics, while maintaining the LOS degrees of freedom to support missile interceptor requirements. The effort proposed is an extension of a proof of concept demonstration conducted by Aero Thermo Technology, Inc. for the AIT Program Office. The proof of concept demonstration showed that a conceptually simple discrete-time control system algorithm can be hosted in a Programmable Logic Device (PLD), and that execution can be performed with a time delay of significantly less than one microsecond. The proposed effort is to investigate and demonstrate several innovative approaches to resolve issues of attaining the full performance potential of the digital control algorithm. While risk exists, the results are expected to increase the flat amplitude/phase response by 20% to 30%. By employing innovative approaches such as Discrete/Continuous Control and Bumpless Discrete-Time Control to this application, it is possible to reach both the requirements and goals of the AIT LOS Stabilization system in a commercially available digital implementation using either a Programmable Logic Device or a Field Programmable Gate Array.Upon completion of the Phase I demonstrations and the design of the proposed Phase II hardware, Aero Thermo Technology, Inc. plans to fabricate the totally integrated digital controller for the steering mirrors and to participate in the integrated demonstration of the AIT Advanced Processor architecture with the AIT processor of choice. Upon completion of the Phase II efforts and integrated demonstrations, the advantages of a PLD and FPGA based architecture will be as follows: (1)Enables an all-digital LOS Stabilization control system that is capable of being packaged for on-board missile implementation of LOS Stabilization and LOS Reconstruction at the data rates and accuracies required by advanced interceptors such as the AIT baseline concept. (2)Demonstrates un-burdening the I/O bound processors by performing all I/O interfacing through FPGAs that interface to the processor through a switch fabric (cross bar switch). (3)Functions in an architecture independent configuration that is expandable and scalable. (4)Demonstrates closed loop control that is processor independent. (5)Demonstrates drift independence of temperature. (6)Demonstrates extremely low data latency (time delay) meeting AIT LOS Stabilization requirements. (7)Demonstrates control loop optimization without necessity to modify analog board circuits. (8)Demonstrates independence from Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). (9)Demonstrates major reduction of components (parts counts) leading to lower cost and increased reliability. (10)Establishes architecture for hardware re-use for other closed-loop control system applications. (11)Demonstrates performance meeting requirements of the AIT LOS Stabilization system.

CERAMIC COMPOSITES, INC.
1110 Benfield Blvd.
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Dr. Mark Patterson
BMDO 01-002      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Light Weight Integrated Injector/Thruster for Divert Propulsion
Abstract:The next generation of rocket propulsion thrusters will be required to be lighter, and provide higher thrusts with no increase in the cost of manufacturing. The fabrication of a very light weight propulsion systems is proposed through the integration of a light weight ceramic injector with a ceramic matrix composite nozzle. This approach will reduce the mass of the system by over 50%. The injector will be fabricated by low cost stereolithography and intimately attached to the nozzle during densification via a rapid, low-cost CVI technique. The performance of the light weight system will be demonstrated with H2 and O2 propellants.The proposed fabrication approach will reduce the mass of the propulsion system by 50% leading to a greater Isp, faster response times and range, and a lower access to space cost. In the future, reduced thermal transfer through the injector will lead to the ability to use PMC fuel lines further reducing the overall propulsion system weight. CCI will work closely with Primex Aerospace Corporation to design and develop a commercial unit for future propulsion systems.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURE & MATERIALS, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Mr. Marc N. Samuelson
BMDO 01-002      Selected for Award
Title:High Power Rotary Actuator for Kinetic Energy Weapons
Abstract:Proposed is the design and development of a high power rotary piezoelectric driven inchworm actuator. The design is essentially an inchworm motor, but it takes advantage of a novel clamping mechanism to provide very high levels of output force. The clamping mechanism designed by DSM allows the actuator to capitalize on the very high power to weight ratio available in piezoelectric actuators. The simplicity of the design allows for very high actuation frequencies without excitation of undesirable modes, producing smooth macro-motion through an arc. The motor also allows micro-motion between steps, for very precise positioning. The proposed motor will have a power to weight ratio far exceeding current electro-magnetic devices, without the hoses, compressors, and other complicated hardware associated with hydraulic and pneumatic devices. Due to the nature of the inchworm concept, the actuator will have very high startup torque, and eliminate the need for gear trains and clutch devices. The proposed actuator will have the torque and velocity to replace current hydraulic and pneumatic systems in aerospace vehicles with fly-by- wire configurations.The proposed piezoelectric rotary actuator will have the force and speed capabilities to directly compete with current hydraulic and pneumatic systems for aero-surface and thrust vector controls. In addition to replacing heavily geared electromagnetic motors, the actuator will be useful in robotics, and other environments requiring high power rotary motion in a small package. Its micro-stepping capabilities allow it to replace conventional electromagnetic actuators in high precision environments as well.

EXOTHERMICS, INC.
44 Pine St. Extension
Nashua, NH 03060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 578-9801
Mr. Evan Ludeman
BMDO 01-002      Awarded: 03MAY01
Title:Monolithic Titanium Nitride for KKV Rocket Nozzle Throats
Abstract:The quest for lower cost components and higher performance propulsion systems in Kinetic Kill Vehicles motivates the investigation of low cost, highly oxidation/erosion resistant materials for nozzle throats and other hot gas path applications. Exothermics has recently conducted tests of HfN components with encouraging results. These results indicate that oxide melting point may not be a critical factor in throat material performance. Building upon these successful developments, Exothermics proposes to investigate a similar manufacturing route to a lower cost, lower density material: monolithic Titanium Nitride. TiN, with a melting point of 2950 C and density of 5.4g/cm3, offers the possibility of a 60% reduction in mass and a greater than 10x reduction in raw materials cost (volume basis).This manufacturing technology, if successfully developed, would lead to lower cost components for rocket propulsion systems as well as higher performance and lower system inert mass. This materials technology will also be commercially useful for the manufacture of molten metal handling components including melting crucibles, pump components and immersion tubes.

EXOTHERMICS, INC.
44 Pine St. Extension
Nashua, NH 03060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 578-9800
Mr. Stephen DiPietro
BMDO 01-002      Awarded: 21MAY01
Title:Thin-Walled HfN Components for KKV Divert and Attitude Control Systems
Abstract:This proposal addresses BMDOOs requirement for enhancing the affordability and performance characteristics of kinetic kill vehicles (KKVs) by recommending a program to investigate the use of hafnium nitride-based divert and attitude control system (DACS) components. In this program, thin-walled HfN liners will be fabricated in net-shape fashion via gas phase nitridation of hafnium articles. Systematic variation of nitridation processing parameters will allow for controllable variation of nitride phase content, stoichiometry and morphology, thereby allowing the tailoring of constituent materials properties for specific mission requirements. Recent test results generated during simulated DACS propellant exposure at Thiokol indicates that HfN-based materials fabricated by Exothermics may represent a cost-effective and viable alternative to rhenium, which is a very dense and costly metal. The fabrication of thin-walled liners is being carried out to support a new design concept for DACS and nozzle liner components which entails the use of thin refractory liners in conjunction with carbon foams and a structural outer shell. Exothermics team member Materials Research and design will augment empirical efforts in this program by analytically predicting the thermomechanical response of various materials (HfN liner + foam thickness) combinations under simulated DACS exposure conditions. Commercial and DoD markets which could benefit from products made in support of the proposed work include: (1) aerospace/defense propulsion components (rocket nozzles, nozzle liners); (2) molten metals processing hardware (thin liners for minting and casting operations); (3) specialty semiconductor components requiring thermal stability and excellent corrosion resistance.

OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS, INC.
4966 El Camino Real, Suite 108
Los Altos, CA 94022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-8282
Dr. P. K. Menon
BMDO 01-002      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Integrated Guidance and Control of Moving Mass Actuated Kinetic Energy Kill Vehicles
Abstract:The concept of moving internal masses to control kinetic energy kill vehicles has been proposed in the recent literature. These actuators effect changes in the location of the vehicle center of mass to create aerodynamic control moments while the vehicle is in the atmosphere, and the main motor thrust to create control moments when the vehicle is outside the atmosphere. This proposal advances the development of an integrated guidance-control system for kinetic energy kill vehicles using moving-mass control concept. A detailed simulation of the moving-mass actuator kinetic energy kill vehicle will be used to assess the performance of the integrated guidance-control system in a variety of endo-atmospheric and exo-atmospheric interception scenarios. Actuation methodologies for the moving-mass system will also be explored during the Phase I research. Phase II research will generate the design of the moving-mass actuator systems for kinetic energy kill vehicle, together with detailed hardware specifications and simulation results. The control code for the implementation of flight control systems will also be synthesized during the Phase II research. The design generated during the Phase II research can form the basis for the development of a prototype moving-mass kinetic energy kill vehicle during Phase III work. Moving-mass control technology can be applied in a wide variety of flight vehicles and underwater vehicles. Integrated flight control system design methods developed under the present work have extensive applications in high performance aircraft and missile control.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
5170 N. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 240
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9095
Dr. Larry Pezzaniti
BMDO 01-002      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:LWIR Imaging Polarimeter for Kinetic Energy Seekers
Abstract:Applications of IR imaging polarimetry include detection of military targets in clutter, de-mining missions, ice detection on aircraft, roads and bridges, crop monitoring and remote sensing. Key technologies are now sufficiently mature to consider a robust, integrated optical imaging polarimeter, which operates at video rates. SY Technology, Inc proposes during the Phase I effort to design an IR (8-12 um) polarization imager. The proposed imaging polarimeter design involves pixilated polarization optics overlaid onto to a commercially available IR focal plane array. The device would generate a set of four interlaced images, each measuring a different property of the images polarization state. The images would be manipulated to yield complete polarization information about each field point across the image. SY Technology would fabricate single pixel versions of the polarization optics in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design approach. The proven design will be extended to an array during the Phase II. It is believed that the imaging polarimeter proposed here will lead to a light weight autonomous imaging polarimeter that can be used for space- or KV-based measurement platforms for NMD and TMD applications.It is anticipated that an IR imaging polarimeter will significantly enhance target detection on a wide variety of military seekers. Ice detection, humanitarian de-mining, remote sensing, and medical imaging applications are all potential commercial applications of an IR chip based imaging polarimeter.

AGILTRON CORP.
20 Arbor Lane
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-0513
Dr. Jing Zhao
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Novel Fiber Optic Field Sensor
Abstract:This proposal addresses the fabrication of a novel fiber optic field sensor, having significant performance and cost advantages over the competing technologies. Fiber optic based sensors offer attractive features of immunity to electromagnetic interference, excellent electrical isolation, compatible with modern networks, high reliability, and compactness, which enable such sensors to monitor and control remotely and securely. However, current fiber optic sensors are hampered in practical application due to their low sensitivity and high cost. In this program, Agiltron Corporation proposes a new type of fiber optic field sensor, based on recent progress in ferroelectric crystal materials having extraordinary field-response properties. The design is simple in construction and easy to operate. This technology holds a promise to fabricate fiberoptic sensors with drastically simplified manufacturing steps. In phase I, we propose to demonstrate a prototype integrated fiberoptic sensor which has both performance and cost advantage.Success in the Phase I effort will identify a viable manufacturing route for high-performance fiber optic sensor. These low cost devices have a wide range of "dual use" applications, for both military and commercial sensing and monitoring applications.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Dr. Igor Levitsky
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 13APR01
Title:Infrared photon detectors based on conjugated polymers
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop an innovative highly sensitive infrared photon detectors operating at room temperature in the 3-12 mm range. This new concept is based on the effect of infrared stimulated fluorescence or photoconductivity in thin films of conjugated polymers. Our preliminary study of specially designed polymers demonstrated the presence of traps with the energy of excited state of 0.1-0.2 eV (5-10 mm range) below the lowest polymer excited state. The nature of these traps is associated with formation of the charge transfer complex or polymer aggregation. The trap sites should be initially populated by selective UV-Vis excitation. Then the incident infrared radiation supplies additional energy for excitation of highly emissive/conductive polymer states inducing fluorescence or photocurrent. Thus the infrared signal can be directly converted into a visible emission or photocurrent. In Phase I we will demonstrate this new effect and identify the best material exhibiting highest sensitivity and resolution to infrared radiation. In Phase II, this material will be optimized and implemented into the design of a prototype uncooled mid-infrared photon detector that will be delivered to DOD by the end of the project.The simple, flexible and cost-efficient polymer technology allows fabrication of the MIR detectors of large size and direct visualization of IR images with molecular spatial resolution. In addition to immediate DOD applications in laser radar and lidar systems, range finding, tracking and surveying, the proposed system will be applicable to many civilian areas, including: telecommunications, free-space wireless communication, environmental monitoring, metrology and medicine.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Dr. Alexei Vitukhnovsky
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:X-ray sensors based on wide bandgap materials
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop new type of fast X-ray sensors based on wide bandgap materials, such as sapphire (single crystal Al2O3) and single crystal ZrO2, for several potential military and civilian applications. We will use a specially designed process of formation of contacts on large variety of wide bandgap semiconductors and dielectrics via their laser ablation in order to control the spectral selectivity of the sensors. In Phase I of the Project we will demonstrate the new technology for fabrication of the sensors for both soft (photon energy less then 1 keV, wavelength ranging from 1to100 nm) and deep X-ray region using sapphire (Al2O3) and ZrO2. In Phase II of the project the technology will be completely developed, optimized and applied to fabrication of a prototype sensor system with final product delivered to DoD.In additional to immediate military application the novel X-ray sensors will find many scientific, commercial and medical applications including time-resolved characterization of dense plasma, either laser- or discharge generated, medical imaging, etc.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Dr. Petr Nikitin
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 01JUN01
Title:Resonantly Driven Fabry-Perot Filter for Long-Wave Infrared Spectrometry
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop an innovative Fabry-Perot filter (FPF) for Long-Wave Infrared Spectrometry with high tuning rate using an original approach. Key point of the proposed concept is developing a resonantly vibrating mechanical system that comprises FPF mirrors but contains no elements exciting the vibrations. The vibrations at the resonant frequency are initiated from an external low-power piezoelectric driver. Owing to the resonance, small amplitude of vibrations of the driver results in large amplitude of vibrations of a FPF mirror, which can easily approach the required value of 10 mm and more. As this takes place, the vibration frequency can substantially exceed the current limit of 100 Hz, reaching several kHz and tens of kHz, depending on diameter of the mirror. An original scheme of controlled mirror deformations, relevant to the operation at very high frequencies, maintains high degree of parallelism of the mirrors. Besides, fabrication of the resonant system from a thermally stable material enables excellent stability of initial operating point of the FPF.In addition to applications for spectral imaging of airborne chemicals, the proposed tunable FPF can be used as research instrumentation for spectral analyses in the mid- and long-wave infrared ranges, for example, of analysis of radiation generated by gas and solid-state lasers, Raman lasers, and parametric amplifiers. It is anticipated that after development of the technology for fabrication of inexpensive FPF based on the proposed approach, these FPF will be quite competitive with liquid-crystal tunable FPF even in the visible and near-infrared ranges, in which there is a very large demand for such spectral devices.

AMAIN ELECTRONICS CO., INC.
1875 Angus Ave., Unit C
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 577-0583
Mr. William Mandl
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 10APR01
Title:Near Infrared Monolithic Focal Plane with Per pixel A/D
Abstract:MOSAD, Multiplexed Oversample Analog to Digital conversion, is a patented improvement of the well known delta sigma A/D technology. It was specifically developed for large staring sensor applications to provide low power on focal plane A/D conversion. New commercial silicon germanium biCMOS technology is now available that produces germanium bipolar transistors on substrate with silicon CMOS devices. Depending on the density ratio of germanium to silicon, the IR sensitivity of the material will be extended beyond the 1.1 micron limit of silicon to the 1.8 micron limit of germanium. This technology can be used in the design of the MOSAD photo diode focal plane in a monlithic format to build a near infrared, NIR, camera. The advantage of MOSAD is that a high fill factor can be achieved for the germanium photo diode providing optimum quantum efficiency. Compared to the expensive uncooled InGaAs and HgCdTe alternatives, this new camera will dramatically reduce cost, opening up greater applications and providing major cost savings to the Government. The proposed study will provide a design approach for integrating commercial silicon germanium into a monolithic near infrared focal plane array.General requirements exist in the automotive industry for improved safety relating to impaired vision driving and to occupancy sensing. The use of low cost near infrared cameras represent a method to deliver eye safe illumination and improved vision for night driving and inclement weather driving. High contrast ratio displays are also required, the demand for which can be satisfied with the MOSAD and stream vision imaging capability. The potential use of this type of camera system in this cost sensitive market alone can reach 60 million units annually.

ASI TECHNOLOGY CORP.
980 American Pacific Drive, Su
Henderson, NV 89014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 734-1888
Dr. Theodore R. Anderson
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Ballistic Missile Tracking and Detection with Plasma Antenna Arrays
Abstract:Through theoretical analysis and experimental testing ASI will ascertain the suitability of using gas plasma to develop a high-powered, reconfigurable antenna operating in the S and X-bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This design concept would be used to detect and track ballistic missiles. We will use a "windowing effect" that will enhance directivity, suppress back and side lobes, mitigate EMI and increase radiation efficiency. We believe this unique and innovative design will allow development of multi-functional, multi-spectral plasma array antennas capable of operation in two disparate areas of the electromagnetic spectrum from a single aperture. We intend to show that by controlling plasma density and pressure a highly reconfigurable plasma array antenna can be developed.Gas plasma antennas with their features of reconfigurability, stealth, efficiency, multifunctionality, flexibility and anti-radiation features could be designed for a multitude of communication applications. Waveguides could be made from plasma tubes thereby reducing weight, installation costs and transmission complexities in antenna systems designs. In addition cellular phones could be enhanced by the insertion of a plasma shield to protect the brain from electromagnetic radiation. In the RF world plasma parabolic antennas could be designed to operate much the same as metal ones.

CERAMARE CORP.
12-D Jules Lane
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 937-8261
Mr. Robert Uhrin
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 01JUN01
Title:A Unique Faraday Rotator Crystal for the UV and Visible Spectral Region
Abstract:A new paramagnetic crystal, TbPO4, is proposed as an efficient substitute for materials used currently as Faraday rotators in optical isolators in visible and near-IR lasers. It's figure-of-merit is an order of magnitude higher than that of TGG. An effective solvent for growing TbPO4 by the high temperature solution (HTS) method is proposed. This solvent is environmentally benign and can universally replace the lead-based flux currently used to grow rare earth orthophosphate crystals. These crystals have application as ultraviolet, visible, and infrared lasers and as elements in other optical devices. Thus, the successful completion of this program should ultimately benefit both commercial and defense related applications. More compact isolator; High transmission throughout the visible and UV; Higher rotation than current materials in the visible;

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Timothy Carrig
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title: High Efficiency Infrared Fiber Lasers
Abstract:CTI proposes a high efficiency, conveniently pumped, infrared fiber laser source suitable for use in a variety of active electro-optic systems. The laser can be used directly as a transmitter or as a pump source for other continuous-wave or pulsed laser or nonlinear optical devices. A key feature of this source is that it is based on commercical-off-the-shelf telecommunication components which can enable the future production of minimal cost, turn-key, military hardware. Additionally, the source utilizes high electrical efficiency diode lasers that can be operated at elevated temperatures and do not require temperature stabilization. This feature, combined with the inherent distributed nature of fiber devices, permits the development of very high wall plug efficiency transmitters with minimal cooling requirements. The proposed device is based on demonstrated CTI achievements in the area of solid-state lasers resulting in a low-risk Phase I/II program. This work will provide an enabling technology that can impact a variety of fields including remote sensing, science and medicine. High electrical efficiency eyesafe laser sources are needed for a variety of applications including: detection and imaging, designation, infrared countermeasures, wind sensing, chemical detection, altimetry and ranging, terrain mapping, free-space optical communications, search and rescue beacons, spectroscopy and surgery.

DRS SCIENTIFIC
300 Oak Lake Road
New Kensington, PA 15068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 337-6070
Dr. Dennis Suhre
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 19APR01
Title:Electronically Tunable Etalons for Hyperspectral Imaging
Abstract:We propose to develop high-speed, electronically tunable Fabry-Perot etalon technology for hyperspectral imaging applications. Lightweight reflectors would be piezoelectrically driven fast enough to allow for wavelength selection at camera framing rates. The entire scene would be imaged at a single color with this technology, eliminating the need to process a scene from image cube data, as with grating based imagers. These etalons have unsurpassed throughput, are rugged, and can be made as small as a typical interference filter. We believe they can be retrofitted into existing imagers, possibly in a filter wheel slot. Although they can be applied to any wavelength region, they are probably best suited, at least initially, to the infrared, where tolerances are less demanding, and materials do not have to be developed, as with AOTF and liquid crystal etalon technologies. It should be possible to randomly and accurately select any wavelength in the infrared to an accuracy of about 1%. This research could lead to tunable etalons that could be retrofitted into imagers to add real-time hyperspectral imaging capability. This would be cost effective, and instantaneous imagery is of value in military situations where rapid decisions are required. Since no data analysis is needed to reconstruct the images from this technology, it would also add simplicity and and cost reduction to commercial hyperspectral applications.

ESSEX CORP.
9150 Guilford Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 953-7985
Dr. Louis C. Phillips
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Holographic 3D ISAR Imaging for Improved Discrimination of Ballistic Targets
Abstract:The goal of this project is to define and pursue novel ISAR-based coherent processing techniques to advance discrimination techniques and improve the performance of NMD radars against the emerging C2 and C3 threats. Essex plans to augment traditional ISAR processing capabilities by extending the resolution and bandwidth via coherent combination of ISAR multi-band, multi-platform, and multi-static phase history data. The coherent combination of multiple radar transmitters and receivers is ideally suited to a cooperative use of radar assets within the NMD system. These techniques have the potential to improve image resolution, image quality, enable three-dimensional (3-D) target rendering and significantly mitigate undesirable clutter such as chaff, decoys, and penetration aids. At the same time, the algorithms presented here could have profound impact for reducing the size of phase array antenna, reducing the instantaneous radar bandwidth without sacrificing resolution, offering improved anti-jamming immunity, and ultimately reducing cost without sacrificing capability. It potentially reduces ambiguities and provides greater sensitivity and it directly leads to a formulation for 3-D ISAR rendering. All of these benefits are enabled by leveraging the geometry of the radar assets to extend the spatial resolution by collecting data as a unified sensor array.The algorithms extended and validated under this program directly advances ISAR image quality, image resolution, and provide new ISAR image products. The techniques developed also propose to reduce costs for current air traffic control systems and future systems by enabling ISAR imagery improvements without additional of complex RF hardware to extend bandwidth, resolution, clutter mitigation, and image fidelity.

FEPET, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd., Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-5020
Dr. Richard Fink
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Fully Integrated Millimeter RF Array Using a Carbon Nanotube Cathode
Abstract:The innovation proposed here is the use of carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission cathodes incorporated into a fully integrated array of RF sources. The goal is to design, fabricate and demonstrate an integrated array of sources for RF generation in the region of 10 GHz. By integrating the sources together in one device, we can achieve higher levels of redundancy and durability, lower the manufacturing cost, and achieve higher power levels at improved efficiency and bandwidth. Use of carbon nanotube cathodes assists the integration of the devices as demonstrated at FEPET, Inc., in a display device called the HyFEDT (Hybrid Field Emission Display). Phase I of this program will focus on the Electron Bombardment of Semiconductors (EBS) configuration as the best approach for fabricating the individual sources in the array. This program will argue and defend the feasibility of this approach. The final report will also include a device design. Fabrication and validation of this array device will be accomplished in Phase II of this program. Commercialization of this concept is expected in Phase III.The technology developed under this program for developing BMDO sensing and surveillance capability will have many commercial uses. For example, onboard radar is one technology being explored for automotive navigation and collision avoidance, improving the safety of our highways. Similar technology is now required in the next few years on the commercial air fleet. Development of applications of carbon nanotube cathodes for this program will lead to developments in other applications as well, such as display, x-ray devices and e-beam lithography.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, #500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Jason Geng
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 18APR01
Title:A Novel Panoramic Optical Sensor for Missile Seeker
Abstract:The primary objective of this SBIR is to investigate a novel panoramic image sensor design, dubbed as the "OmniSeeker" that is able to acquire omnidirectional 360-degree hemispherical optical images using no moving parts. Instead of engaging complex optical lenses system, we propose in this SBIR effort to investigate the use of a simple optical design on the OmniSeeker to achieve ultra-wide viewing angles. A novel mechanism is proposed to effectively increase the spatial resolution of the OmniSeeker sensor. The resulting system would be structurally simple, compact, lightweight, and low-cost. Furthermore, unlike some other panoramic optical designs, the proposed OmniSeeker could offer high quality images due to its unique imaging formation capability.The Omni-directional Infrared Imaging is a fundamentally new concept and has broad applications, ranging from government, military systems to consumer products, such as periscopoes for tanks, helicopters, submarines and unmanned aerial ground vehicles, fire fighting, agriculture, home security systems, medical endoscopy, intrusion detection in sensitive facilities, bank security, industrial pipe inspection and automatic vehicle navigation for intelligent transportation systems.

LASERGENICS CORP.
6830 Via Del Oro, Suite 103
San Jose, CA 95119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 363-9791
Dr. Richard Schlecht
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 15MAY01
Title:Compact, Double-Clad Single Crystal Fiber IR Laser
Abstract:There is an important need for high power, compact laser sources. Recently over 100 Watts has been demonstrated from a glass fiber laser. Two advances that have made this possible are the availability of high power diode lasers used as pumps and double-claddingof the fibers. For several reasons significant improvements on these results are possible using single crystal fibers rather than glass fibers. Using the LHPG technique to grow single crystal fibers of YAG, we are proposing to develop diode-pumped, double-clad fiber lasers of Er:YAG for sensor applications.The key benefits of double-clad single crystal fiber lasers are that much higher powers and efficiencies are possible in a compact, lightweight design. These lasers could then be used not only for military systems but also for medical surgical systems and telecommunication systems.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. August W. Rihaczek
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:Sensors & Surveillance
Abstract:MARK Resources has developed a sophisticated signal processing technology that is capable of extracting detailed information from radar imagery about the target and its motion. The distinguishing feature of this technology is the use of the phase that is inherent in a high-resolution image, but which is routinely discarded. This information has proven to be critical for reliable discrimination and identification in many applications. We are proposing to demonstrate how this new technology can be applied to the problems associated with ballistic missile defense, and to what degree radar performance can be improved in this application.Although target discrimination by radar is primarily a military application, the basic signal processing technology is applicable in all situations where details about man-made objects are to be obtained remotely by a sensor, and for discriminating one type of scatterer from another.

MAXION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6525 Belcrest Road, Suite 615
Hyattsville, MD 20782
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 683-2170
Dr. Rui Q. Yang
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Distributed Feedback Interband Cascade Lasers
Abstract:In this program, we propose to develop single-mode distributed feedback (DFB) interband cascade lasers based on type-II InAs/Ga(In)Sb/AlSb quantum wells. These semiconductor diode lasers will emit in the 3-5 micron mid-IR wavelength region and operate in quasi-CW mode. The DFB interband cascade lasers retain the advantages of cascade injection and emission wavelength tailoring, while circumventing the phonon scattering losses that are present in intersubband lasers. These features make them excellent candidates for compact, reliable, efficient, mid-infrared light sources for a wide range of commercial and military applications, such as chemical sensing, communications, land-mine detection, and industrial process control. The recent demonstration of interband cascade lasers with record-high power efficiencies (>18% in pulsed mode and >14% in cw mode at 80 K) clearly shows their potential to fulfill the necessary requirements for practical mid-IR applications. The phase I effort will be directed towards the design, MBE growth, characterization, and optimization of type-II InAs/GaInSb/AlSb DFB interband cascade lasers to demonstrate their feasibility for chemical sensing applications. High performance mid-IR DFB IC lasers will be developed in Phase II. If successful, the proposed effort will lead to the first DFB single-mode interband cascade laser that can operate under cw conditions at ambient temperatures. This would enable several commercially viable products in several fields including the broad field of chemical sensing. This research should considerably accelerate the realization and commercialization of efficient semiconductor mid-infrared lasers to meet the demand for defense and commercial applications.

OPTELLIUM, INC.
200 Innovation Blvd., Ste 236
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 234-9850
Dr. John A. Yeazell
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 03MAY01
Title:Wavelength-agile, compact, polarization imaging
Abstract:Optical target acquisition and identification meets with some severe problems under difficult lighting conditions. For example, the target object may be obscured by smoke or fog. In addition, the ability to distinguish the appropriate target may depend upon its material composition. Spectral-polarization imaging provides means of removing the effects of obscuring aerosols and means of distinguishing the material composition of the target object. This ability will be in high demand in the military sector. Its utility in aiding the scope of machine vision for industrial applications should lead to an even greater demand in the private sector. Conventional methods for detecting and identifying objects revolve around the sensing of reflected and emitted light intensity. Conventional imaging records intensity, which is the square of the electric field associated with the electromagnetic radiation field. This works well when an object to be detected has high contrast relative to its background or foreground. However, when the object exhibits low contrast against the background or foreground, identification is often blurred by the 'noise' light, which is produced by surrounding non-vital objects. The spectral and polarization signatures of the target can enhance the contrast of the target with respect to the background. Wavelength agile polarization imaging technology is expected to play a dominant role in the market place in the very near future, not only for the military market but also more significantly for the consumer market. For example, it will impact significantly on machine vision (process and quality control), agriculture (e.g., vegetation mapping), medicine (e.g., skin cancer detection), geology (e.g., mineral surveys), robotics and astronomy. It will also enhance the detection of targets in difficult lighting conditions (e.g. low light, smoke) by aerial and ground based surveillance systems and provide material identification for the targets by their characteristic spectral-polarization signatures. Many of the previous approaches have not succeeded in producing commercial systems, in part because of immature technology, which has led others to use moving mechanical parts, leading to systems which are bulky, expensive and plagued with reliability issues. Our approach to spectral-polarization imaging uses non-moving parts in a compact geometry, which is expected to produce a reliable system needed for critical missions in the military.

PHOTERA TECHNOLOGIES
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 755-8855
Mr. Eric Takeuchi
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 04JUN01
Title:Frequency Agile Laser for Configurable Optical Networks (FALCON)
Abstract:Increasingly robust and sophisticated sensors developed for military applications are pushing the envelope in terms of the requirements placed upon individual components and sub-systems. Rapid integration of laser transmitters emitting in the 1.5 m regime into these systems has applied pressure to provide ever-increasing functionality. Photera proposes the development of a laser that is tunable over a wide range of wavelengths with a random access time in the tens-of-nanoseconds regime. By employing our proprietary use of optical components, the FALCON laser promises rapid tunability combined with output power in excess of 100 mW, narrow spectral linewidth (< 20 kHz) and low noise (both amplitude and phase). This laser will introduce advanced system capabilities for both military and commercial applications that are not achievable with current technologies. The FALCON laser will find use in numerous commercial applications, most heavily weighted towards those in the optical communications areas. The ability to rapidly tune amongst a large number of wavelengths in the 1.5 m regime will enable advanced optical networks to emerge. Using the FALCON device as a single inventory replacement for several individual fixed-wavelength sources, as well as real-time backup for a bank of transmitters in a typical DWDM system, are near-term application areas. As the FALCON laser product matures, it could find use in applications such as optical communications traffic management and wavelength packet switching; both enabled by the rapid tunability of the FALCON laser.

PROPAGATION RESEARCH ASSOC.
2243 Chimney Swift Circle
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 579-9545
Dr. E. Jeff Holder
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 17APR01
Title:Enhanced Tropospheric Effects Compensation System
Abstract:Propagation Research Associates (PRA) introduces an innovative system that will correct angle of arrival error for radars tracking long range, low elevation targets. The correction improvement will be an order of magnitude improvement over existing model based measurements and will extend time-lines for Ballistic Missile Defense radars. The Enhanced Tropospheric Error Compensation (ETEC) System is proposed that uses GPS Data Correction and a 3-D Refractivity Field to estimate angle-of-arrival error for low elevation radar signals due to tropospheric bending error. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the GPS Data Correction technique to estimate bending error and establish a system error budget. The technique uses Doppler measurements from GPS signals compared with estimated true Doppler measurements based on a priori knowledge of the position of occulting GPS satellites. A simulation will be developed that will demonstrate the performance of the GPS Data Correction technique in the presence of various error sources including errors due to tropospheric inhomogeneities and GPS signal multipath. Antenna concepts will be developed that mitigate multipath for low elevation GPS signals. PRA personnel have been working with the National Missile Defense (NMD) Project Office and Raytheon Electronic Systems to design the ETEC System to enhance the performance of the NMD radar for low elevation targets.A Phase I Option is proposed that will develop a prototype ETEC design that can be integrated into either GBR-P or NMD XBR for real-time operation. The ETEC system will allow BMD radars to track long range, low elevation targets to extend operational timelines and coverage. PRA will pursue FasTrack support from Raytheon Electronic Systems in Phase II to develop and test a prototype system that can be integrated into GBR-P. In addition, PRA will pursue commercial opportunities with GPS vendors to apply the ETEC technology to extend GPS coverage and improve GPS location accuracy. A primary source of GPS error is due to refraction, and the ETEC technology will improve GPS performance by increasing the number of available satellites for a GPS solution and by compensating for troposheric refraction to improve signal synchronization. PRA will also commercialize the antenna concept, designed in Phase I, that will mitigate signal multipath for occulting GPS satellites. The multipath mitigation technology will have application in radar and communication systems.

PROSENSING
150 Fearing street, Suite 26
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-6920
Dr. Andrew Pazmany
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Three-dimensional Vector Velocity Measurement System Using Novel Overlapping Antenna Radar Technique
Abstract:Traditionally, radar measurements of the three-dimensional velocity vector of a target required observations from three different aspect angles using widely separated radars. We describe a novel radar concept, termed 3DVS (Three-Dimensional Velocity Sensor) that uses a modification of the spaced antenna technique to measure all three components of the velocity vector of a distributed target in each radar range gate without the used of widely spaced antennas. By overlapping three antennas in a single aperture, the full three-dimensional velocity field can be measured in the same time required by conventional Doppler processing to extract the target's radial velocity. During Phase I we plan to explore the capabilities of the 3DVS using analytical methods and computer simulations. Based on these results we plan to design a prototype system designed to address the problem of rapidly measuring the particle size and concentration of biological or chemical weapons released over a battlefield. During Phase I we also plan to design two microstrip antennas, a simple dual aperture design that will allow measurement of a single component of the tangential velocity and a triple aperture design providing the capability to measure both components of tangential velocity.Commercial applications of the proposed 3DVS include wind shear detection for aircraft safety and ice/water discrimination for aircraft icing avoidance.

SENTEL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1610 NE Eastgate Blvd
Pullman, WA 99163
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 334-5190
David Welker
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 03MAY01
Title:Tunable Polymer Rod Laser for the 1-1.1 micron region
Abstract:The goal of this project is for the development of an economical compact tunable CW laser for the 1-1.1 micron wavelength region based on ytterbium (Yb3+) doped polymers. Through its novel polymer monolith and fiber technologies, Sentel Technologies is capable of producing both CW and pulsed tunable lasers with high output powers and substantial cost savings relative to current systems. The proposed Phase I work will emphasize the commercial realization of inexpensive access to the 1-1.1 micron region. Many of the techniques used with Yag laser systems can be used with our laser systems, i.e. through the use of KDP crystals the output frequency can be doubled. This will allow for tunability from 500nm to 550nm. We will concentrate on demonstrating lasing in a Yb doped polymer and will build on promising preliminary results already obtained for selected Yb systems. Preliminary extension of the work to other lasing centers that operate in different wavelength regions will also be performed. It is anticipated that the knowledge gained during the Phase I research will facilitate the construction of lasers that will offer inexpensive tunability over wavelength ranges throughout the visible and infrared.Communications Industry Researchers (CIR), an optical industry consulting firm predicts the US tunable laser market will grow from 5 million this year to 1.2 Billion by 2004. They further state that this is an area that is already being exploited by Nortel and Lucent, but is also an area where innovative start-ups such as Iolon appear. CIR says that it expects to see more such start-ups appear over the next 12 months. The market for tunable lasers in the 1.0-1.1 micron range is initially estimated to be between 500 and 5000 devices annually, based on supplier and user demand to construct prototype serial and parallel optical links and examine the technology. In time, the technology could become ubiquitous and provide a share equivalent to 100,000s of devices per year. Obviously, access to the harmonics of 1-1.1micron and other laser wavelengths through the use of other laser centers will only increase the number of device sold per year. Some of the potential uses for the laser include remote sensing, trace gas measurement, Ramen and UV fluorescence, spectroscopy, laser cooling, chemical analysis, particle image velocimetry, photodynamic therapy and other medical applications. Many more applications will appear given inexpensive access to this spectrum.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORP.
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 465-5686
Dr. Darlene Schwall
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 23JUN01
Title:Solid State Imaging LADAR Photoreceiver with Internal Detector Gain
Abstract:A lightweight, low-cost, internal detector gain, solid state imaging LADAR receiver is proposed. This photodetector has the advantage of increased optical gain with decreased incident power. This detector characteristic is attractive for LADAR applications with weak target signals. In phase I, the LADAR specific detector will be modeled and tested. In Phase II, the semiconductor-based internal gain photodetector will be combined to an imaging LADAR processing circuit using an innovative hybrid integration technique, in order to demonstrate a solid state imaging LADAR receiver with internal detector gain.Imaging LADAR systems have many commercial applications including the product and facility inspections in the forestry, automotive, and steel industries. In addition, the area of robotic vision could use imaging LADAR to determine depth perception to allow a machine to accurately recognize and identify any object within its field-of-view. The above industries would benefit from a low-cost imaging LADAR receiver.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORP.
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 465-5686
Dr. James E. Murguia
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 25APR01
Title:LWIR Spectral Sensor for Hard Body and Decoy Identification
Abstract:Spectral sensing is emerging as an enabling missile defense technology for hard body tracking and identification. Multiple samples of the spectra from hard body targets assist in determining the target temperature and become inputs to discrimination and identification algorithms. These targets are not burning and are potentially at or near room temperature; hence, the ideal hard body sensor operates in the Long Wavelength InfraRed (LWIR) 8-12 micron band. The objective of this program is to build a new revolutionary LWIR spectral sensor to detect, identify, and track missile hard bodies and decoys. The LWIR sensor has nearly 100% optical efficiency, wide field of view, and the ability to resolve the temporal evolution of target spectra. In Phase I, the hard body target characteristics will be used to design a prototype sensor system. In Phase II, a prototype spectral sensor will be constructed to support airborne measurements of hard body targets. The sensor will be characterized in the laboratory and deployed in field tests to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach. The instrument described in this proposal is a modified version of a hyperspectral imager that SSSC has been developing since 1995. There are a number of technical areas that would benefit from the existence of an affordable hyperspectral imaging system. Medical research is investigating in-situ/non-invasive techniques for diagnosis of tissue and automated sample analysis. Spectral analysis plays an important role in many techniques currently being researched. Space and airborne geological survey sensors could obtain more detailed knowledge of the mineral content of exposed surfaces from hyperspectral signatures. Remote spectral images could also be employed to assess the chemical make up and potential hazards of environmental disturbances such as smoke plumes and oil (or other) slicks. The current cost, size and weight of hyperspectral sensors prohibits such applications.

SUPER-RES IMAGING LLC
Center for Innovation, 4300 Dartmouth Drive
Grand Forks, ND 58202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(701) 777-6543
Dr. Richard R. Schultz
BMDO 01-003      Selected for Award
Title:High Resolution Flash Ladar Processing
Abstract:The proposed approach has the potential to improve the spatial and range resolution of flash ladar systems regardless of the resolution provided by future detectors and readout electronics. The novelty of the proposed approach is the modification of video enhancement algorithms to construct 3D imagery with enhanced spatial and range resolution over standard single lens ladar systems. Once the approach is shown to be feasible, it will enable flash ladar systems to finally deliver the range and spatial resolution of scanning ladar with improved reliability and performance. The proposed innovation has the promise of enabling flash LADAR to overcome its range and spatial resolution limitations as well as the limitations of scanning ladar. Flash LADAR's higher frame rates and its elimination of mechanical components will contribute to reduced system cost, improved battlefield readiness and more accurate target detection in poor visibility conditions. These benefits extend to the commercial surveillance and maritime navigation equipment markets as well.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Peter Chow
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Optimized InGaAsSb/GaAs photodiode for high speed detection
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project proposes a new detector material for single mode optical fiber communication over the information highway. High performance detectors are an enabling technology for the moderate to long distance optical transmissions at 1300 and 1550 nm wavelengths. However, due to material related problems, detector devices are not yet practical for such optical network applications. Solving these problems would satisfy the ever-increasing bandwidth and computing-power demands. A new semiconductor of nitrogen-incorporated quaternary III-V semiconductor, InGaAsSbN, can lead to efficient optical detection at the 1300 nm wavelength. Thin film InGaAsSbN will be studied using molecular beam epitaxy technique, where the presence of antimony would result in significant material improvement. Thin film layers Multiple quantum well structures will then be grown on GaAs substrate to demonstrate superior optical characteristics of the material system. Detectors will then be fabricated for performance characterization.High performance detectors would be an important component of systems used in data transmission over optical network, and other optical products such as compact disk read heads, copier print heads, optical scanners, and displays

TOWNSEND SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
1 Oak Hill Road
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 345-9090
Mr. Harry Clark
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Ultraviolet Solar Blind Imaging
Abstract:Silicon based charged couple devices (CCD) have been the workhorse of solid state imaging technology for use in the visible spectrum (400-700nm). Unfortunately silicon systems have limited response in the ultraviolet (190-400nm). We propose an entirely new approach to imaging in the ultraviolet range, utilizing high surface area materials, that represents a paradigm shift in imaging technology. We expect quantum efficiencies of greater than 10% from 190-400nm. Inherent in our approach is the ability to produce imaging systems that are not constrained by the size of a single crystal silicon wafer but instead are scaleable to dimensions that can be measured in square feet. In addition our device architecture will allow for the exposure of each individual pixel to be user defined. This will allow discriminating targets that have high contrast such as glare or rocket plumes.We propose an entirely new approach to detection in the ultraviolet solar blind spectral range. This program will produce a product capable of detecting UVA and UVB radiation. The consumer product produced will be lightweight, portable and low cost such that an individual can monitor exposure to cancer causing UV radiation. Townsend Science and Engineering (TS&E) will possess the two critical elements for successful commercialization. The first is our unique technical solution to UV detection. The second is TS&E has already established direct market channels to consumers. The principal investigator for this program is a board member of a new ecommerce company that has already raised several million dollars of private capital and will enable TS&E to sell its products directly to millions of on-line consumers. Another key strategic partner brings its 100 retail outlets that will serve as another enviable point of entry for the consumer products produced by this program.

UHV TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
113B West Park Drive
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 608-0311
Dr. Vipul Patel
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Solar Bind AlGaN Field Emission UV Sensors
Abstract:In this phase I project, The feasibility of an innovative solar blind UV sensor technology based on electron emission from AlGaN thin films will be demonstrated. These sensors use the recently demonstrated field emission from wide band-gap AlGaN films. In principle, the AlGaN field emission UV sensor consists of two electrodes, one of which is coated with thin film AlGaN field emitter, while a metallic plate forms the other electrode (anode). When any UV radiation is impinged on the thin film, the electron-hole pairs are created in the film increasing the free carrier concentration in the conduction band; thus, modulating the field emission current of the AlGaN field emission device. In addition, the proposed sensor is expected to have very fast response time and can easily be integrated into a large area array format. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the core technology by fabricating several small prototypes and evaluating their opto-electronic properties. In Phase II, we will extend this technology to produce large format detector arrays.Potential commercial applications of the solar blind ultraviolet detectors include plasma and combustion monitoring, low light level imaging, missile launch recognition sensing, spectrospheric ozone analysis, global space weather systems and semiconductor process monitoring.

URI
5930 W. Greenway Road,, Ste. 10-165
Glendale, AZ 85306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 978-8222
Dr. Graham Walker
BMDO 01-003      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Ultra Long-Life Vibration Free Cryocooler
Abstract:Research and development is proposed of a miniature low capacity cooler capable of reliable achieving and sustaining cryogenic temperatures for very long periods without maintenance and providing low capacity refrigeration to cryogenic sensors and cold electronic systems. The cooler has no moving parts of any kind and very long life (10 - 20 years) is anticipated. The unit operates without noise and because there are no moving parts, mechanical vibration is eliminated. There are no lubricants or other contaminants in the working fluids. Further the cryocooler is simple in form and may be made at low cost. The proposed cooler combines a thermoacoustic Stirling engine driving a pulse tube refrigerator. There are virtually no limits to the refrigerating capacity or to the temperature at which it may be designed to operate. Single stage pulse tube refrigerators have achieved cryogenic temperatures of 40 K and multiple stage machines have achieved temperatures less than 4 K. The engineering design of a prototype unit will be competed in Phase I. The prototype will be made and evaluated experimentally in Phase II. The engineering design of a second generation prototype unit will be completed in Phase II.The refrigerator is intended to offer a long life cryocooler for great reliability of use on defense, and space exploration related satellites to cool infrared sensors and other imaging equipment as well as cold electronic systems both semiconducting and superconducting. Extensive terrestrial application of the refrigerator in a variety of capacities and at different tempeature levels is anticipated wherever low cost, reliable, refrigeration is required at all temperature levels, including the near-ambient temperature systems used for air conditioning and domestic refrigeration. The field of application is virtually unlimited a variety of military, civil, commercial, medical, scientific, educational and domestic use.

ADVANCED OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2702 Triana Boulevard, SW, Suite A
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 536-5960
Mr. Kenneth S. Merwin
BMDO 01-004      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Fabrication of Affordable Aspheric Mirrors by Electroforming (FAAME)
Abstract:Until recently, the cost of high performance electro-optical systems such as missile seekers have been dominated by the cost of the focal plane array. Recent developments are improving the affordability of arrays, with the result that the optical and opto-mechanical subsystems are emerging as the cost drivers. We have addressed this problem through the development of opto-mechanical systems built by precision electroforming. This approach is very promising, but affordability is endangered by immature process technology. Precision electroforming in theory allows a complicated, expensive, optical master mandrel to produce low cost replicas. Experience in a manufacturing plant using current processes taught that mandrel lifetime is going to be an affordability barrier, partially because semi-skilled workers can damage the mandrel. This program will address affordability of electroformed precision aspheric mirrors through two thrusts: process technology, and the use of multi-generation mandrels. We expect to reduce the cost of precision replication by at least of factor of 100, and for the new process to reduce the cost of components delivered to systems by at least a factor of 2, compared to conventional manufacturing.This program will result in lower cost precision aspheric mirrors for DoD systems, as well as providing the benefits of flexible and dual use manufacturing. There is a large commercial market for these optical components if the cost/performance can be reduced beyond that of the current manufacturing techniques.

APPLITECH
7052 E. 2nd Street
Tucson, AZ 85710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 298-1599
Mr. Troy M Watson
BMDO 01-004      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Versatile Interconnect Prototyping
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a new means to interconnect high-density electronic circuits and systems using discrete insulated wire. This insulated wire can interconnect high-density electronic devices with impedance-controlled connections. These methods form the component receptacle from part of the interconnect wiring, where the signal and signal complement (or return) are homogenous and can be serially-linked (daisy-chained) with direct connections. Circuit boards, assemblies, systems, or cable assemblies can be interconnected with connections that are mechanically rugged and electrically balanced. Each connection can be tuned to have a specific characteristic impedance. Prior to assembly, the amount of capacitance and inductance (within a range) for each connection is calculated and downloaded to subsequently control the necessary actions to achieve the targeted characteristic impedance. Signals can be applied with a return wire that is twisted with, formed with, or applied in a strip line fashion with, a return or complementary signal in order to achieve a specific characteristic impedance. This environmentally safe process can rapidly fabricate high-density, high-speed and low noise circuit boards using the latest design configuration in an agile fashion. Phase I will perform research to electrically characterize different discrete-wire receptacles and the different means to interconnect the receptacles with impedance-controlled connections. Phase II accomplishments will build the automated machinery and robotics to apply the receptacles and interconnect that were characterized in Phase I to provide to the electronics industry a new means to quickly fabricate rugged high-speed, high-density circuit boards using an environmentally-safe process.. Phase III will fine-tune the automated methods to fabricate circuit board assemblies and will commercialize and market the advanced capabilities provided, to prototype rugged, high-speed and high-density electronic cable assemblies, circuit boards, and systems using an environmentally-safe process.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Stephen A. Michaud
BMDO 01-004      Awarded: 15MAY01
Title:Low Cost Fabrication of THAAD Heatshields Using Placed Fiber Manufacturing
Abstract:A program is proposed to investigate and demonstrate an innovative, low cost approach to the production of quartz/phenolic (Q/P) heatshields such as those presently used on the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) System. These heatshields are currently fabricated with a tape wrap process using a woven quartz fabric impregnated with phenolic resin. Through the novel use of placed fiber techniques, one or more steps in the production process could be eliminated. Phase I efforts will verify the feasibility of using quartz fibers and phenolic resins with placed fiber fabrication equipment. Placed fiber composite panels will be fabricated and then physical, mechanical and thermal property screening tests will be performed to verify that the composite is acceptable for heatshield applications. The significant cost benefits of the novel process will also be demonstrated. In Phase II follow on, tape wrap articles would be fabricated and the low cost composites would be fully characterized to show that the Q/P composite can meet the physical, mechanical and thermal properties required by specific heatshield requirements. The direct benefit will be lower cost quartz/phenolic composites for DoD applications such as heatshields and thermal protection systems. Significant cost reductions should also lead to commercial aerospace applications where high temperatures are present. In addition, the composite can be used in fire protection applications.

LASSON TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6059 Bristol Parkway
Culver City, CA 90230
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 216-4046
Dr. Marvin Klein
BMDO 01-004      Awarded: 18MAY01
Title:Advanced Laser Ultrasonic Receiver For Low-Cost Manufacturing Inspection And Process Control
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of using a new type of adaptive receiver as part of a low-cost laser ultrasonic inspection system for manufacturing inspection and process control. Our goal is to produce a very high detection sensitivity, while maintaining the capability to compensate for mechanical vibrations and atmospheric turbulence that are present in the factory environment. Higher sensitivity results in a reduction in power/energy requirements for the lasers used in an inspection system, and thus a reduction in hardware cost. The cost of the receiver itself can also be reduced as a result of the simplicity of our new receiver. We will develop analytical models to describe the performance of our receiver. We will characterize and optimize receiver experimental performance. We will develop and evaluate a laboratory prototype receiver. We will test this receiver under simulated in-process conditions.There is a broad need for low cost sensors for many manufacturing applications. Laser ultrasonic inspection can be used to inspect hot and/or rapidly-moving parts and to scan large structural panels. System cost reduction will allow economic justification of laser ultrasonic inspection over a wider range of manufacturing applications.

NANOMAT, INC.
1061 Main Street, Building #1 - Drawer #18
North Huntingdon, PA 15642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 861-6127
Dr. Weifang Miao
BMDO 01-004      Selected for Award
Title:Cost-Effective Processing of High-Purity Gamma Aluminum Oxynitride
Abstract:As an excellent candidate material for transparent armor systems, missile domes, high temperature windows and other engineering applications, gamma-aluminum oxynitride (AlON) has attracted much attention due to its many interesting mechanical, optical and chemical properties. However, there are many inherent difficulties and limitations in processing and manufacturing of AlON powders, and the high cost of AlON powders and components is a hindrance to the widespread applications. In this Phase I research, Nanomat, Inc. will demonstrate that high-purity AlON powders can be synthesized in an efficient and cost-effective manner by using a proprietary and scalable process. The synthesis, structure, chemistry, particle size and particle size distribution of AlON powder will be characterized and optimized. Nanomat, Inc. will also consolidate the AlON powders and preliminarily evaluate the mechanical and optical properties of the compacts.AlON materials have a wide variety of commercial and defense applications, including IR windows, missile domes, metal vapor lamp envelopes, high temperature window, transparent armor systems (e.g., vision blocks for tanks and face shields for individual soldier). Due to its chemical stability at high temperatures, AlON can also be used as refractories in metallurgical and materials industries.

PLASMA TECH LLC
10624 Rochester Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 390-1297
Dr. Steve Babayan
BMDO 01-004      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Low-Cost GaN Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition System
Abstract:Wide bandgap III/V nitrides, including GaN, InGaN and AlGaN, are emerging as important materials for solid-state lasers, high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) and millimeter wave integrated circuits. These components serve critical functions in radar, sensors and communication systems used in ballistic missile defense. Nitride devices are grown epitaxially on sapphire or silicon carbide substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Unfortunately, this process is expensive, requiring copious amounts of ammonia to drive nitrogen into the semiconductor lattice. Moreover, ammonia decomposes at extremely high temperatures, where it is more difficult to control the film composition and dopant profiles. This proposal seeks funds to demonstrate that high-quality gallium nitride may be deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with N2 feed gas. A novel Plasma Flow Source(TM) has been invented which produces a large flux of N atoms at low-temperature and pressures between 10 and 1000 Torr. The N atoms should efficiently incorporate into the III/V nitride lattice and reduce gas costs by more than a hundredfold. In addition, lower growth temperatures will permit the fabrication of more advanced device structures with improved process control and reliability. The project proposed herein will lead to a commercially viable plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process for the fabrication of nitride semiconductor devices. This technology will lower growth temperatures, reduce gas consumption, and enhance process yield and reliability. The nitride industry will benefit from having a low-cost method for manufacturing GaN devices. This will in turn benefit DoD's ballistic missile defense by making GaN electronic components for radar and communications systems more affordable and more readily available. A second benefit of this project is to aid the development of a new, high-pressure plasma source for materials processing. This plasma has many advantages over competing technologies. It generates a uniform, high concentration of radical species over large areas (0.5 to 3.0 ft. in diameter), without ion bombardment, at temperatures below 120 C, and at pressures between 10 and 1000 Torr. This is the first commercially viable system for low-temperature processing of materials at ambient pressure. The plasma source is low-cost and has many applications in semiconductor manufacturing, including photoresist stripping, PECVD of oxides and nitrides, copper etching and passivation, and wafer thinning. The potential benefit to the DoD Materials/Processes Technology Area is substantial.

WELD STAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
610 Jennifer Drive, Auburn, AL 36830
Orlando, FL 32809
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 887-0984
Dr. Clyde Wikle
BMDO 01-004      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Innovative Processing of HfC Coating using Hf-Containing Polymers
Abstract:Refractory metal carbide coatings are important in high temperature applications by offering corrosion protection of the high temperature components. Traditional methods of producing such coatings are expensive and complex. A low temperature polymeric based process to fabricate HfC with low oxygen impurity and high yield is now ready for assessment for coating applications. The attributes of this approach are low cost, ease of control and low temperature. The emphasis of the proposed SBIR research (Phase I) is to extend the basic understanding of this polymer based approach to determine the feasibility of applying this technique to fabricate high purity HfC coatings on high temperature components, while maintaining the attributes of low cost and ease of fabrication. Poco graphite was selected for the Phase I study due to its well characterized structure and commercial importance. We will demonstrate the feasibility of producing a uniform 25-micron thick HfC coating infiltrated onto porous graphite using the processing schemes developed. The proposed Phase I will include one level of iteration for process optimization based on a correlation of microstructure with processing parameter. The resulting specimens will be assessed quantitatively using appropriate microstructure characterization techniques. One of the intended applications is for rocket nozzle and hot-gas valve components.Dual use applications include coatings on high temperature components for energy production systems such as turbines and compressors, aerospace systems such as thermal and oxygen barriers for reentry protection, automobile industry such as turbochargers and high temperature valves.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Dr. Igor Levitsky
BMDO 01-005      Selected for Award
Title:Photovoltaic Cells Based on Nanotubes and Conjugated Polymers
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop novel photovoltaic (PV) cells based on composite material made from nanotubes and conjugated polymers. The proposed approach offers a number of advantages with respect to known organic/inorganic photovoltaic devices. Interpenetrating network between nanotubes and polymers provides efficient charge separation under light excitation. Micro phase segregation within a bulk material should considerably increase the contact interface and rise generation of the charge species. Nanotubes dispersed in polymer matrix act as nanometric heat sinks preventing large thermal effects, which induce optical bleaching and degradation of the conjugated system. Thus, such composite material should significantly improve the device performance increasing its quantum efficiency and dynamic range that is extremely important for pvotovoltaic devices and energy conversion applications. In Phase I of the project we will fabricate and study a novel PV cell based on nanotube-polymer composite. In Phase II the developed technology will be optimized and applied to fabricating a Prototype photovoltaic system for conversion of light energy or imaging applications. By the end of the project the prototype system will be delivered to DoD for immediate implementation. In addition to immediate military applications the developed nanotube-polymer composites and photovoltaic cells will find many civilian and medical applications including large area solar cells, flexible photodetectors arrays, imaging systems, computer and TV displays, electronic devices, emergency lighting systems, entertainment industry, etc.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Dr. Sergei Krivoshlykov
BMDO 01-005      Selected for Award
Title:Nunostructured semiconductors for high-efficiency thin film photovoltaic devices
Abstract:Altair Center proposes to develop a revolutionary new technology for simple and low cost fabrication of high-efficiency thin-film photovoltaic cells employing nunostructured semiconductor materials. New technique for modification of the semiconductor materials is used to create metal nanoclusters in the near surface region of semiconductor dramatically improving efficiency of the photovoltaic cells. The nanoclusters improve the photovoltaic conversion efficiency at different wavelengths, enhance effective light trapping and simultaneously dramatically decrease refractive index of the semiconductor material in its near-surface region minimizing the light reflection. The process of modification of semiconductors is performed at room temperature without using any expensive clean room facilities and harmful chemicals. This makes the proposed technology very cost efficient and simple for commercial realization. Phase I of the program will address to demonstrating key issues of the proposed technology, via mathematical modeling, laboratory experiments, fabrication and characterization of CdTe and CIS thin-film photovoltaic materials with improved performance. This will lead to technology optimization, fabrication and testing of the prototype photovoltaic cells during Phase II of the project, with the final product delivered to DoD.The proposed technology is critical for improving performance of many different photovoltaic devices having important industrial, scientific and military applications including spaceborne applications, radio electronic and communication equipment, photodetectors, street lights and highway warning signs, security systems, offshore platforms, emergency power systems, etc.

APPLIED THIN FILMS, INC.
1801 Maple Avenue, Suite 5316
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 467-6877
Dr. Ilwon Kim
BMDO 01-005      Awarded: 15MAY01
Title:Nano-dimensional patterning of YBCO for AC Loss Conductors
Abstract:The main objective of the proposed Phase I project is to demonstrate a simple, scalable process to produce multiple, highly oriented, and longitudinally aligned 50-1000 nm wide YBCO filaments on Ni based tapes for efficient power generation application. The proposed process will take advantage of the well-known property that even a single monolayer of contamination is often sufficient to prevent epitaxial growth. A simple nano-stamp approach will be used to transfer contaminant onto the surface in a filament pattern prior to YBCO growth. We will produce nano-stamps with a range of dimensions from 100 to 1000 nm, and develop a device for reproducibly pressing the nano-stamp against a tape surface. Using this device and the nano-stamp, a very thin layer of chemical contaminant will be transferred onto either a Ni-based tape or onto a buffer-layer-coated tape. Epitaxial buffer layers will be deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering. We will then show that epitaxial growth is prevented by the contamination, under conditions where good-quality epitaxial growth is achieved on uncontaminated surfaces.The proposed HTS coated conductor structure will allow fabrication of low loss AC conductor which can be incorporated into various power generation devices for military use such as 1 megawatt superconducting generator. The development of proposed nanotechnology will enable new fabrication concepts for variety of microelectronic, optoelectronic and biotechnological nano-devices in the commercial sector.

BOUNDLESS CORP.
P.O. Box 20510
Boulder, CO 80308
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 509-2593
Philip C. Lyman
BMDO 01-005      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Lithium Batteries with High Capacity Current Collectors for High Specific Power
Abstract:Electrochemical systems for pulsed power and high continuous power levels face a critical optimization problem. One must spread reagents in extremely thin layers to provide maximum surface area for reaction sites that release energy. This increases power per unit mass of reagent (specific power). One must also provide low-resistance current paths from every reaction site to the end load, so that electrical energy released in the reaction will travel out of the electrochemical system without inordinate resistive losses. However, adding current collection increases mass and decreases specific power. Boundless' PowerCoreTM multi-functional battery panel offers a unique solution to the problem. The aluminum honeycomb core of this sandwich panel/battery serves as a bulk current collector with a very large surface and very low resistance. Since the mass of the honeycomb core is already necessary for structural support of an aerospace system, there is a large improvement in power per kilogram for the electrochemical fraction of the system. In addition to higher power levels, mass-critical vehicles will benefit from high specific energies, and distributing the active battery elements over a large volume improves heat dissipation, improving battery lifetime and reliability in the process.All mass-critical vehicles with high pulse-power or continuous power requirements, such as spacecraft for communications and directed-energy devices, as well as Hybrid Electric Vehicles, will benefit from PowerCore's high specific power, high specific energies, and increased reliability and product life.

EXTREME DEVICES INCOPORATED
101 West 6th Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7740
Dr. Richard L. Woodin
BMDO 01-005      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transistor for Power Switching and Conditioning
Abstract:Silicon carbide (SiC) bipolar junction transistors (BJT's) promise compact, high power density, rugged, low loss power switching for motor control and electric power conversion compared to silicon (Si) devices. High power density is achieved with the wide band gap, high thermal conductivity, high breakdown voltage and high switching frequency capability of SiC. The higher switching frequency enabled by SiC allows smaller power supply components, resulting in development of more compact power systems. SiC BJT's have received increasing attention due to difficulties with gate channel mobilities for SiC MOSFET-type devices. However, as SiC bipolar devices are scaled to higher power, breakdown voltage decreases. This decrease in breakdown voltage is ascribed to poor material properties, particularly in epitaxial layers. In this SBIR program Extreme Devices, in collaboration with Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, proposes to design and fabricate high power SiC BJT's using state-of-the-art high power device design rules and Extreme Devices' novel supersonic molecular beam epitaxy process. The combination of device design and the improved epitaxial SiC provided by supersonic beams will deliver increased device performance. In Phase I, demonstration 300V, 5A SiC BJT's will be designed, fabricated and characterized. Phase II will design, fabricate and package larger, higher power devices.High power SiC BJT's have advantages over both Si BJT's (higher thermal conductivity, higher breakdown voltage, higher temperature operation, lower losses and higher switching frequency) and SiC MOSFET's. These properties open the door to production of smaller, more powerful circuitry for both military and commercial power control and distribution.

FRACTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
14200 Carlson Circle
Tampa, FL 33626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 854-4332
Dr. Matt Aldissi
BMDO 01-005      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Nanoporous Ordered Conducting Polymer Ultracapacitors
Abstract:Conductivity of environmentally stable conducting polymers has been limited due to their synthesis and processing procedures. Due to the nature of their redox reactions, the polymers are not conductive at all times during charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, the voltage window of their capacitors is small and efforts to increase it have failed due to the poor choice of electrode couples. Our aim is to address the above issues. In Phase I, we will synthesize and characterize nanoporous, high metallic conductivity polymers which can be oxidized (p-type doping) or reduced (n-type doping) at will. We will combine electrode couples where the oxidation potential of one and the reduction potential of the other are separated by the widest voltage window possible through band gap tuning and electrochemistry. The polymers will be synthesized/processed in a way such that metallic conductivity (> 3 orders of magnitude than that yielded by conventional synthesis) is obtained. With nanoporosity and metallic conductivity, capacitors using organic electrolytes with high capacitance and minimal ESR respectively will be obtained and characterized. These efforts, combined with those of Evans Capacitor Co. for packaging and commercialization, with the latter being emphasized during the Phase II program, will result in highly competitive technology.In addition to military and commercial burst power, radar and automotive applications, our proposed capacitors will provide a convenient source of power and energy in a variety of medical and portable consumer electronics.

HY TECH RESEARCH
110 E. Canal St.
Troy, OH 45373
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 332-0348
Mr. Michael Tomsic
BMDO 01-005      Awarded: 15MAY01
Title:Low AC Loss YBCO Coated Conductor
Abstract:The development of long length YBCO coated conductors for military and commercial utility applications will require conductors with low AC losses and high engineering current densities. This proposal will investigate textured substrate approaches that will result in HTS conductors with significantly lower AC losses and higher engineering current densities than a patterned strip (ribbon) approach currently being considered for YBCO coated conductors development. This approach to a low AC loss conductor using textured metal substrates will be a lower cost approach than the patterning of tape or ribbon to make a multifilamentary YBCO conductor. During this Phase I we will make these substrates and evaluate texture in the metal substrates, sol-gel buffer layers, and sol-gel YBCO layers after deposition.By accelerating the development of low AC loss YBCO coated conductors, commercial applications for generators , motors, fault current limiters, and transformers will be implemented sooner.

INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY
8635 Aviation Blvd.
Inglewood, CA 90301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 216-1423
Dr. V. K. Kapur
BMDO 01-005      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Novel Low Cost Substrates for Thin film Solar Cells
Abstract:We propose to investigate a novel low cost, lightweight substrate for the fabrication of thin film CIGS solar cells. The substrate has the potential to meet the specific power density and low cost goals set by various space power projects. The success of this project will have a positive impact on terrestrial markets also.The substrate has the potential to meet the specific power density and low cost goals set by various space power projects. The success of this project will have a positive impact on terrestrial markets also.

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20955 Morris Avenue, P.O. Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 489-4889
Dr. M. Zafar A. Munshi
BMDO 01-005      Selected for Award
Title:Structurally Embedded Power Source for Space Applications
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I program is to design and develop extremely versatile power source technologies for future satellites for missile defense applications that is modular, flexible, energy dense, powerful and lightweight, has a high cycle life and cost-effective. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of a structurally embedded intelligent power unit consisting of a photovoltaic charging system laminated with a series of high energy density thin film power sources, flexible electronics and thermal management devices to form a flexible structural panel that may be adaptable to form the actual structural panels of the satellite, cutting major construction costs, maximizing space power and allowing more useable space for additional firepower. The satellite's entire structural housing would be its own self-generating power source. The program will determine processing and lamination of thin film photovoltaic and power source components, performance limits with respect to temperature cycling, designing simple circuitries for charging and selecting the most efficient and reliable components. Such material could also do the same for mobile terrestrial solar power in military and civil equipment. Phase II will address scale-up and design and fabrication of a larger working prototype.Successful demonstration of such a module and eventual use in satellites would positively impact defense applications and spur the commercial development for use in automobiles, homes, office buildings, remote locations and commercial satellites. The technology may also find use in the battlefield for powering the military equipment either on the ground or carried by the soldier or for general reconnaissance aircrafts and stealth bombers. Rolled-up modular sheets of the power source could be made available for a number of applications requiring power either for civilian use or military use in remote areas of the world where sunlight is readily available.

MTEK
9 Patroon Place
Ballston Lake, NY 12019
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 399-6516
Dr. Otward Mueller
BMDO 01-005      Selected for Award
Title:High-Voltage Cryo-Power Inverter
Abstract:The new concept of Cryogenic Power Conversion (CPC) using low temperature operated semiconductor devices and components promises higher efficiencies, drastic size, weight and cost reductions for certain suitable military and commercial applications. This SBIR proposes to expand the CPC-concept to the high-voltage (3-9 kV) and megawatt domain with the design and demonstration of a high-voltage cryo-cooled inverter for incorporation into DE weapon systems on missiles and tactical aircraft. It will be implemented using new commercially available high-power devices (HV-IGBTs, IGCTs, MTOs, or IEGTs). As part of this project new circuits as well as other necessary components (inductors, transformers, capacitors) will be developed and evaluated at cryogenic temperatures (77K-200K). In Phase I a multi-kilovolt prototype inverter will be designed, assembled and tested. It is expected that higher output levels, reduced switching losses, higher power density, better thermal management, longer lifetimes, and improved reliability can be demonstrated through operation at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77 K) or higher. Based on the Phase I prototypes and results higher voltage inverters will be developed in Phase II to address specific needs of BMDO. Cryo-cooled coaxial or transmission line transformers using ferrite toroids provide the required higher voltages (>10 kV). Possible commercial applications of the Cryo-Inverters employing IGBTs, MTOs and/or IGCTs include solid-state transformers, motor drives, up/down converters, adjustable speed drives (ASD), multi-phase inverters, etc., in the multi-megawatt range, especially for use in vehicles (ships, missiles, airplanes, buses, locomotives,etc.) where small size and weight are important.

OMNISITE BIODIAGNOSTICS, INC.
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. Sydney J. Ulvick
BMDO 01-005      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Nanotube MEMS Miniature Fuel Cell Power Source
Abstract:OmniSite BioDiagnostics, Inc. (OmniSite), with Dr. Richard Lagow of the University of Texas at Austin, plan to develop a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Micromachining of silicon will be used to prepare microelectrode array structures that utilize improved catalytic properties of metallic nanoparticles grown directly on nitrogen-enriched multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). In the Phase I program, OmniSite will fabricate several operational MEMS-PEM breadboard devices. Additionally, new catalyst phases will be developed that contain very small dimension metallic particles with high surface to volume ratios, uniformly dispersed in a multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) matrix. The MEMS platform offers a number of significant advantages over traditional PEM fuel cells including the capacity to greatly reduce the manufacturing cost and weight through batch fabrication, and the capacity to scale the size of the cells for uses ranging from on-chip power sources for MEMS applications to very large scale wafer bonded stacks as stationary power sources. The OmniSite team has significant prior experience with the fabrication of structures required for a nanotube MEMS fuel cell; this experience will be leveraged to produce an operational fuel cell by the end of the Phase I program.Fuel cells are attractive alternatives to traditional energy sources, but are not yet routinely utilized due to cost. The device developed in this program promises to solve many of these cost issues. Additional advantages include zero environmentally harmful emissions, noise free operation, vastly increased mean time between failure, and operating costs that are 25% to 40% lower than conventional energy sources. Accordingly, the commercial applications of this new technology are virtually limitless.

POWDERMET, INC.
9960 Glenoaks Blvd, Unit A
Sun Valley, CA 91352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 768-6420
Dr. Stephen C. Glade
BMDO 01-005      Awarded: 12MAY01
Title:New fabrication methods for electrodes in lithium-ion batteries
Abstract:In the proposed program, Powdermet, Inc./Eagle-Picher Technologies, LLC, will demonstrate fabricating a novel anode for use in rechargeable lithium-ion battery systems. This technology could possible replace existing silver oxide/zinc battery technology used in launch vehicle applications due to lower weight, volume, and cost. Specifically, Powdermet, Inc. will coat carbon microballoons with a layer of silver and carbon. These coated microballoons will then be added to a polymer matrix slurry and fabricated into anodes by Eagle-Picher Technologies, LLC. After anode fabrication, small capacity cells will be assembled and tested at Eagle-Picher Technologies' facilities. This proposed anode material should lead to an increased rate capability of the anode due to the inherent conductivity of silver matrixes with the carbon particulates, making lithium-ion batteries a more attractive option for launch vehicles, electric vehicles, and commercial satellite applications.The proposed lithium-ion battery anodes will be applicable to other battery powered systems. This includes further aerospace (satellite power), commercial (geophysical exploration, underwater vehicles, underwater lighting, electric vehicle), and medical (neural stimulators, portable equipment power) applications.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Mr. K. Hohman
BMDO 01-006      Awarded: 30APR01
Title:Water Electrolysis GH2/GO2 Stochiometric Rocket Development
Abstract:Water is one of the most important commodities in space. It is a life sustaining fluid, a propellant and an energy storage media in regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems. Because of these attributes, water based power generation and propulsion concepts are receiving increased attention. However, despite a substantial effort, the technology of long life, efficient, stoichiometric GH2/GO2, low thrust engines (LTE) continues to present significant challenge. The principle reason is that the state-of-the-art material for LTE's - rhenium (Re) coated with iridium (or Ir oxide), is inadequate for the stochiometric, highly oxidizing, H2/O2 flame. Another challenge is the method and reliability of ignition. To answer these challenges Busek proposes a low thrust, high performance stochiometric H2/O2 rocket development. In Phase I our focus will be synthesis and testing of novel chamber materials that have their heritage in ballistic missile reentry heat shields and have been successfully tested under relevant conditions. We will construct a small, GH2/GO2 combustion chamber and use it as test bed for our materials, with Re/Ir coupon as a reference sample. To ensure relevance to the electrolyzer or RFC based systems, Giner Inc., a well know fuel cell company with advanced electrolyzer technology, will be our consultant.The next milestone in the development of space is the establishment of space-based infrastructure, which includes on-orbit maintenance and refueling. Water, because of its broad applicability, is expected to be stored in large on-orbit fueling stations where commercial and military spacecraft will periodically dock and refuel. Should this visionary scenario, promoted by DARPA materialize, the commercial market, for water-based propulsion is enormous. Aside of this market commercial satellites may adopt water just for the reduction in spacecraft fueling cost and reduction in health and environmental threat posed by the highly toxic propellants used today.

MACH I, INC.
340 East Church Road
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 279-2340
Dr. John Leonard
BMDO 01-006      Awarded: 23APR01
Title:Propulsion and Logistics Systems
Abstract:Solid propellants with significantly higher density impulse vs conventional aluminum based propellants can be prepared utilizing zirconium metal fuel. This has been independently demonstrated by several investigators including Atlantic Research Corp- oration, a commercial propellant manufacturer. The extreme electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitivity of zirconium metal has prevented its use in high density impulse propellants. In a previous SBIR from NSWC, MACH I demonstrated and developed surface passivation technologies to dramatically improve the ESD sensitivity of hafnium metal for use in energetics. In preliminary internal R&D, MACH I has shown this technology to be feasible for zirconium metal, dramatically improving its ESD sensitivity from 0.00025 to a safe level of 0.036 joules. Since this technology involves forming a surface intermetal- lic with aluminum, there should not be a significant impact on reactivity or density impulse. We are proposing a program to optimize the ESD sensitivity improvement, reactivity, and impulse of the zirconium propellants. Atlantic Research Inc. would be a subcontractor to MACH I testing reactivity and other propellant properties. One pound of the optimum material would be produced in Phase I. In phase II, this would be further developed and propellants commercialized. Zr Energy, a domestic producer of zirconium has committed to supply materials to this program and could quickly com- mercially produce the passivated zirconium should the technology be successfully developed. The proposed program has the potential to greatly improve the safety and handling characteristics of zirconium metal thus making high density impulse zirconium propel- lants a reality. The 15% higher density impulse of these propellants vs conventional aluminum based propellants gives the system designer the flexibility of either smaller lighter rocket motors for a given impulse and pay-load requirement or larger impulse and payload capabilities for a given motor size. Dual use benefits to the civilian automotive and light truck industries would be realized by improving the safety and handling characteristics of zirconium metal. Zirconium potassium chlorate accidents cause two fatalities in 1998/9 due to ESD related problems.

MICROENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
47 Eagle Crest Dr., #18
Lake Oswego, OR 97035
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 635-5023
Dr. Reza Shekarriz
BMDO 01-006      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:DEP-Enhanced Micro-Injector Array for Liquid Fuel Atomizer
Abstract:MicroEnergy Technologies, Inc. (mET), collaboratively with Technology Assessment and Transfer, Inc. (TA&T) proposes to develop an injector array for liquid fuel atomization. This development effort hinges upon the application of a novel system of parallel ensemble of dielectrophoretically (DEP) enhanced micro-injectors. Using an electric field, the spray process is controlled precisely to match the high response time demand of pulsed detonation propulsion systems and other liquid fuel air-breathing engines. Using micro-injectors of smaller than 100 micron provides the fine mist desirable for optimal mixing and combustion. The proposed atomizer offers a number of advantages over the current and state-of-the-art technologies that exist for liquid atomization: (1) It requires low driving pressure (~10 psi) and significant weight savings (smaller pump and less bulky construction to sustain high hydraulic pressures), (2) System design requires simple "linear" engineering in that total mass flow rate is only a function of the number of active injectors in operation, (3) It provides uniform and fine droplets (~10 mm) for more controllable combustion, (4) It will provide muti-mode droplets size distributions for specific applications, (5) It provides rapid control since there are no moving parts for flow control (i.e., no inertia), and (6) It offers flexibility for control strategy (i.e., real-time change in timing to respond to the engine operating conditions). During Phase I, we will further develop the concept presented in this proposal, perform analytical and computational modeling for system design and analysis, experimentally demonstrate the significant advantages and improvements in atomizer performance, and evaluate the fabrication feasibility of the atomizer using a ceramic micro-fabrication technique known as stereo-photolithography (SPL) and developed at TA&T. The challenge in this project is in integration of the electrodes for implementing the DEP force for control of the atomization process and droplet formation. Efforts during Phase I option will be focused on development and testing of an atomizer fabricated using SPL, which will be adopted for prototype and final product development. The final product, DEP-Enhanced Micro-Injector Array Fuel Atomizer, in addition to application in defense-related technologies, will have a significant commercial value to a broader industry, including the aerospace and automotive manufacturers. Efficient atomization will reduce exhaust emission, increase system throughput, and reduce system downtime caused by equipment failure due to fouling and deposit formation. Fuel atomizers are utilized in almost all combustion systems used for energy production and heat recovery.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
1811 Quail Street
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-7813
Mr. Charles P. DePlachett
BMDO 01-006      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Visual Modeling Tool for Kill Vehicle Propulsion System Evaluation
Abstract:To better defend against the threat of incoming missiles, the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) solicits interesting technologies including lighter, smaller, more powerful, and more efficient propulsion systems and components to augment the performance of Theater Missile Defense (TMD) and National Missile Defense (NMD) systems. With numerous propulsion system concepts being submitted, BMDO has a serious need for a Graphical User Interface (GUI)-configured, Visual Modeling Tool for evaluation and modeling of BMDO propulsion systems. Missile defense also warrants a broad variety of axial, divert, and attitude control propulsion systems including: interceptors, launch to low earth orbit, orbit transfer, orbit maneuvering, and station keeping. Since liquid, solid, and electric propulsion systems are being considered, depending on the BMDO application, a flexible and scalable GUI software tool is needed to expedite system evaluations. SRS Technologies proposes to both validate the feasibility and demonstrate the utility of an Innovative Visual Modeling Tool for Kill Vehicle Propulsion System Evaluation. The development of a Rocket Modeling GUI meets the requirements of BMDO 01-006, Propulsion and Logistics Systems, of the DoD SBIR Solicitation due to its future market potential and significant benefit in producing more cost effective kill vehicle propulsion systems.The proposed Rocket Modeling GUI would improve propulsion concept evaluation methods, enable technology validation, and result in substantial cost savings to the Government and industry. The proposed Rocket Modeling GUI will provide a human- factors-engineered, user-friendly, rocket modeling tool. Other DoD agencies, NASA, and academia also need a versatile software tool for evaluating, modeling, and teaching rocket propulsion systems.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-1273
Dr. Scott Liu
BMDO 01-007      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:Advanced Thermal Spreader for High Power Density Microelectronics
Abstract:Cu-Diamond composite is identified as a promising thermal spreader material. Cu-Diamond composite can be produced using conventional powder metallurgy processing technologies. Near-Net-Shape parts can also be produced. Diamond composite offers attractive properties with fewer limitations at more affordable price. With an estimated isotropic 600-1300 W/m.K thermal conductivity and a chip matching 6-10 ppm/K thermal expansion coefficient, Cu-Diamond spreader is perfect for high power density microelectronic applications, e.g. laser diode assembly. Critical material and process related issues are identified and innovative solutions are proposed. Diamond selection criteria, new alloy development, and manufacturing process are examined individually. Special attentions are focused on maintaining diamond integrity during the processing and on near-net-shape fabrication. A product development team, consisting of material developer, material integrator, laser diode manufacturer, and system integrator has been assembled. In this proposed effort, we plan to fabricate up to 12 different prototype materials for evaluation and characterization. Thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient will be measured before and after thermal cycling. At the conclusion of the program, each member of the development team will offer an independent assessment on the overall technology and its market potential. An affordable high performance Cu-Diamond thermal spreader will be very beneficial for the next-generation high-power-density microelectronic packaging applications, e.g. laser diode assembly.

ELO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2443 208th St. Unit E4
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 782-8314
Mr. Bob Orlandi
BMDO 01-007      Awarded: 05MAY01
Title:Advanced Thermal Packaging Technology for High-Frequency GaAs-based Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I effort is to design and develop a process for producing GaAs-based MESFET devices which exhibit superior thermal performance while maintain normal electrical operation. The need for advanced cooling technologies is widely recognized. Many systems are have reached a limit in integration density. This limit is imposed by the inability of current packaging technologies to remove excess heat effectively. The problems related to power dissipation are especially acute in GaAs-based systems, such as transmitters for radio frequency applications. ELO Technologies will use a combination of heterogeneous material integration and substrate removal processing to dramatically improve the thermal extraction of a GaAs-based MESFET device. Ultra-thin processing methods will allow for the placement of a metal heat pipe within a few microns of the heat source, significantly reducing the thermal impedance. A through-via electrical connection between the heat pipe and gate electrode will act to eliminate the parasitic capacitance associated with the heat pipe. The benefits of this technology include increased device density, improved circuit performance, and longer operating life.Ultra-thin film processing and heterogeneous material integration methods applied to metal semiconductor field effect transistors allows for improved thermal performance and increased power dissipation. This technology is directly applicable to high power, high frequency amplifiers for millimeterwave and microwave systems.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P. Scaringe
BMDO 01-007      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Demonstration of Cryogenic Saturated Spray Electronics Cooling
Abstract:One example where new cooling systems are required immediately is high power solid state phased array microwave transmitters. Used in military and commercial applications, including radar, electronic defense systems, and satellite communication data links these electronically scanned antennas are more reliable and efficient than mechanically scanned designs. Prior Mainstream research has already demonstrated that our saturated spray cooling (at room temperature) has reduced the chip junction temperature and increased microwave power output by 30% without any increase in input power! For large EW systems, this has a significant impact on total power requirements and cooling loads. This Phase I effort will experimentally demonstrate the next step in Mainstream's saturated spray cooling, namely a unique cryogenic saturated spray cooling system which will further improve the heat transfer, reliability, and output capacity of high power density electronics. This Phase I effort will demonstrate that the proposed configuration has significant benefits in terms of reduced weight, compact configuration, rapid response, and increased operational flexibility. Fundamental heat transfer experiments as well as demonstrations on an actual Mafet Transmit Module will be performed in Phase I to clearly validate the technology. A commercial partner has been secured, and a Fast-Track Phase II is planned.This Phase I includes an extensive demonstration of the performance, reliability, and simplicity of the Mainstream unique cryogenic saturated spray cooling before proceeding to Phase II. Mainstream is proposing much more that merely simulating a system in Phase I. Mainstream is proposing to demonstrate the benefits of saturated cryogenic spray cooling and the resulting electronic performance improvements which then occur on actual high-power density chips. This Phase I is critical because it has been designed to provide the necessary proof of concept experiments necessary to convince our defense-contractor commercialization partner, and the DoD community of the size, reliability, and performance benefits of the proposed system. A successful Phase I will provide sufficient momentum to allow this technology to proceed. Mainstream has a long-term commercial interest in this technology and the tremendous commercial opportunity is well understood.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Russ Davis
BMDO 01-007      Awarded: 16MAY01
Title:Nanofluid-Based Active Thermal Control System for Small Satellites
Abstract:This proposal addresses topic BMDO 01-007, Thermal Management, of the DoD SBIR Solicitation 01.1. The recent development of nanofluids, or fluids consisting of a conventional heat transfer base with nanometer-sized oxide or metallic particles suspended within, offers the exciting possibility of increased heat transfer rates over conventional systems by more than 20%. In addition, the magnetic affinity of the solid particles in metallic suspensions allows for their manipulation by electromagnets, thereby eliminating the need for conventional pumps and controls and allows for enhanced heat transfer. This proposal is for the demonstration of a novel nanofluid-based actively controlled thermal management system for small satellite applications. The advantages of such a system include improved heat transfer performance, oil-less operation, compact size, reduced weight, and low power consumption, all of which are especially important for space, air, and even naval operations.The impact of this new nanofluid heat transfer and pump technology is tremendous considering that heat exchangers are used in a wide range of industrial applications and that heat transfer performance is vital in numerous multibillion-dollar industries. The envisioned benefits of nanofluids include cost and energy savings because heat exchange systems can be made smaller and lighter and required pumping energy will be reduced. The EM Pump will also be compact, light weight, reliable, and oil-less, as required for space applications.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. W. Kowbel
BMDO 01-007      Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid Foam/Carbon Composite Substrates or High Energy Laser Diodes
Abstract:Currently used Cu-W substrates for the laser diodes greatly limit the thermal management due to and intrinsically low (180 W/mK) thermal conductivity. A novel approach to alleviate this problem is proposed. A high thermal conductivity carbon foam will be used as a spreader, while 1-D C-C composite made with P-30X fibers will provide the heat transfer to the heat sink. Thus novel approach will provide greatly improved thermal performance over Cu-W and will mitigate the high anisotropy of fiber composites. Improved thermal performance will translate into better optical performance.It is anticipated that a new substrate will significantly lower the laser diode operating temperature. Commercial applications include high energy lasers and opto-electronics.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN
1024 E. Lancaster Ave.
Rosemont, PA 19010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 519-4985
Dr. Gerard F. Jones
BMDO 01-007      Awarded: 18APR01
Title:High Performance, Air-Cooled, Carbon Fiber Heat Exchanger For Heat Transfer In High Power Density Systems
Abstract:Miniaturization, and the continued improvements in the speed and performance of electronics and other heat-dissipating systems, places an increasing demand on thermal management systems through the increase in power densities. There is a challenge to provide new thermal management technologies and designs that will be able to handle the very large heat fluxes that arise from these improvements. A promising new heat exchanger for electronics cooling is proposed, referred to as a "Brush Heat Exchanger" (BHX), that uses micro-scale, high-thermal-conductivity carbon fibers in an air-cooled enclosure. The superiority of this concept comes its use of a high thermal-performance pitch-carbon fibers and its use of processes that incorporate the most beneficial features from micro-scale and fluidized bed heat exchangers while simultaneously eliminating many of the undesirable features of the other heat exchanger technologies. Preliminary performance calculations show that the BHX out-performs conventional, finned, air-cooled heat exchangers by a factor of 5 while experiencing a pressure drop of less than 1 psi.The proposed program will result in the fabrication of Brush Heat Exchanger devices for use in electronics cooling. As such, the potential commercial market for these devices is limitless. The anticipated 5 to 10 factor of improved performance compared with state-of-the-art finned air-cooled heat exchangers would open up applications and associated markets in which the finned heat exchangers are not currently participating due to thermal management limitations. Potential commercial users of the BHX are electronics fabricators, chip manufacturers, and heat exchanger companies. These companies include Intel, Motorola, IBM, Honeywell, General Dynamics Information Systems, Sun Microsystems, and numerous others.

MEZZO SYSTEMS
LBTC, Rm d-102, South Stadium Dr.
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(225) 334-6394
Mr. Chad Harris
BMDO 01-007      Selected for Award
Title:THERMAL MANAGEMENT: Fabrication and testing of a high performance metal cross flow hat exchanger
Abstract:The goal of this project is to build an extremely efficient, light weight, low cost metal cross flow heat exchanger. The heat exchanger will be fabricated using a derivative of the LIGA manufacturing process that has been developed at Louisiana State University over the last five years. It is specifically designed for transfer between a gas and a liquid where pumping losses of the two fluids needs to be minimized. The heat exchanger will compete against markets such as automobile radiators, refrigeration condensors and evaporators, and a variety of other applications where cross flow heat exchanger designs are desirable.Light weight, compact heat exchangers that can efficiently transfer heat from a gas to a liquid with minimal pumping losses are valuable, especially in the automotive and aerospace industries where weight, and volume savings are of extreme importance. This heat exchanger will be able to exceed the performance standards of existing technologies and will be used in a number of commercial and/or DoD applications.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21 Cavalier Way
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 783-8936
Dr. Remis Gaska
BMDO 01-007      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Thermal Management of High Power GaN-based Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices Using Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:SET,Inc. is proposing to develop a new approach to thermal management based on using nanotechnology - a new type of a thermal sink with periodic arrays of carbon nanotubes. Our technical approach is based on a unique process of using self-organized aluminum anodic oxide films with deep submicron periodic honeycomb structures with incorporated carbon nanotubes. We have already done preliminary experiments on preparing such periodic structures on top of conducting GaN (but without carbon nanotubes). Carbon nanotubes have a thermal conductivity up to 30 W/cm-K, far above SiC or diamond. Aluminum oxide substrates and layers are compatible with wide band semiconductor technology and with other power semiconductor technologies.Our unique approach will address the thermal management problem in the Phase I and II programs. We expect more than an order of magnitude improvement in the device thermal impedance making aluminum oxide nanotechnology substrates to be the substrates of choice for power electronic and optoelectronic devices. We therefore feel that this technology whose feasibility we will establish in Phase I, can become the key technology for the MMIC modules. These modules will be useful for the T/R modules for the next generation high power mobile radars. Our technology will also have numerous commercial applications in high power and linear amplifiers for wireless communications.

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
1919 State Street, Suite 105
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 898-1060
Dr. John Langan
BMDO 01-008      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Integrated Missile Seeker Signal Processor Development
Abstract:Computational Sensors Corporation (CSC) proposes to apply its previously developed Spatio-temporal filtering technology for dim target detection of cruise missiles at maximum interceptor range to the problem of aiding offensive cruise missile aim point selection and guidance. This extends our point source detection technology in a cluttered environment to an extended source real-time aim point error correction application. Continuous wavelet transforms (CWT) have always been useful for noise suppression, edge detection and condition based maintenance. However these transforms are generally shied away from since computational complexity prevents their widespread use. However, our recently developed processor technology, that uses analog rather than digital signal processing hardware, may be the ideal means to implement and apply these algorithms. It is then appropriate to consider new types of continuous wavelet systems. If the situation requires feature extraction of data over very small, arbitrary regions in the time-frequency plane then this implies that arbitrarily fine information resolution in time (or space) and frequency is needed. This requirement is ideally suited to the use of continuous wavelet transforms (CWT).The implication from this scenario is a need to manage resources (missiles) as engagements evolve. Without management, high priority targets may be missed, and missiles may be wasted through multiple hits on initially destroyed targets. What is needed are sensors with agility, that are capable of quick mission updates and re-targeting as well as the capability to track and kill moving targets. TAIP based technology used for this application possesses these key attributes.

INTERNATIONAL PHOTONICS CONSULTANTS
30 Tierra Monte NE
Albuquerque,, NM 87122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 797-4799
Mr. Edward W Taylor
BMDO 01-008      Awarded: 14MAY01
Title:Radiation Hardening of Monolithically Integrated Quantum Well Intermixed Semiconductor Components
Abstract:Radiation Hardening of Monolithically Integrated Quantum Well Intermixed Semiconductor Components. Photonic devices (diode lasers, modulators, photodetectors, etc.) are undergoing rapid transition into terrestrial and space applications. However, roadblocks still exist for monolithically integrating these components for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs). Since semiconductor growth technology is essential planar, it is very difficult to grow different refractive index materials during a single growth step. The likihood of introducing impurities and causing defect formation during re-growth processes is high, usually resulting in reduced optical and electrical performance. In some instances, these defects and impurities may interact in the presence of radiation, to degrade device performance. A potential solution for addressing the hardening issues arising from the miniaturization of photonic systems while still achieving the desired high degree of integration and miniaturization, is using Quantum Well Intermixing (QWI) technology for achieving impurity free vacancy diffusion (IFVD). QWI alters the material bandgap and refractive indices without requiring re-growth, providing a relatively simple and low cost approach for monolithic integration of semiconductor photonic technologies. In Phase I, QWI processed components will be fabricated and irradiated by gamma-rays, in order to evaluate and demonstrate the potential for developing radiation hardened IFVD-QWI processed OEICs.Fabrication of semiconductor components using quantum well intermixing techniques may result in radiation hardened monolithically integrated OEICs. The innovative survivability technology has great potential for widespread commercial use and for providing miniaturized technology urgently required by aerospace and micro-satellite space systems.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7677
Mr. Anthony Wilson
BMDO 01-008      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Advanced Pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter for Radiation Environments
Abstract:A proposal is made for the design and demonstration of an advanced pipeline analog-to-digital converter (A-ADC) suitable for space and terrestrial applications. Phase I activities include evaluation and modification of standard pipeline architecture and design and evaluation of analog components. The proposal is based on the combining of standard pipeline architecture with advanced design concepts to develop an advanced analog-to-digital converter.The A-ADC provides a high speed analog-to-digital converter that is fabrication process independent. This development would address the needs for communications, sensors, signal conditioning, and data processing. This work would be of great benefit for use in satellite telemetry systems.

SUPER-PULSE
1452 Hanshaw Rd.
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 220-1257
Dr. Czeslaw Golkowski
BMDO 01-008      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Effective Electronics Protection Against Electromagnetic Radiation
Abstract:As circuits have become more densely packed, more energy efficient and able to operate at higher speeds, they have experienced an associated increase in vulnerability and susceptibility to perturbations from electromagnetic radiation. Super Pulse proposes to develop a novel, very fast (order of a sub-nanosecond), rugged, light, passive EM radiation shield that is not limited by the power or frequency of the radiation. The shield is transparent for radiation intensity below a specified threshold. Above the threshold, the shield is activated and works as a reflector for any power of radiation, effectively protecting the circuits behind the shield. The device will be in the form of a protective window which will allow low power electromagnetic signals to go through without distortion or attenuation. As soon as higher power electromagnetic radiation will reach the window, the window will automatically become non-transmittable, i.e. the incident electromagnetic power will be reflected and/or absorbed in the window itself. The window will also be resistant to debris and lasers.The proposed window system to protect electronic circuits can be used widely in military and civilian applications. This is a front-end solution for many sensitive devices and will be used extensively because of the low manufacturing cost, and the no power and no maintenance requirements.

AERO OPTICS, INC.
655 Deep Valley Drive, Suite 335
Rolling Hills Est, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 541-1933
Dr. G. Newton Freeman
BMDO 01-010      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Target End-to-End Signature Simulation (TESS)
Abstract:A near-term low-cost end-to-end optical signature code is proposed which incorporates advanced physical models and simulation methods within a unified code structure to enable unprecedented levels of computational performance (speed, fidelity) for analysis and simulation of target/background signatures (spectra, imagery) for ground/air/space vehicles. The code is designed to support 1) efficient generation of multiband-imagery and spectral-intensity databases for diagnostic analysis or real-time playback, 2) dynamic simulation of target-sensor engagement scenarios from tracking in clutter to deployed-object discrimination to interceptor end-game, and 3) cooperative technology development for a next-generation multifunctional Battlefield Environment Simulation Toolkit (BEST). The code incorporates a physics-driven architecture with custom modular components developed by AOI for BMDO under the Virtual Distributed Hardware-in-the-loop Test Bed (VDHTB) project to investigate time/fidelity trades in signature computation. The proposed project applies those lessons learned together with new advanced technologies to create a fast accurate unified signature simulation tool.Military benefits include fast accurate optical scene simulations for tracking, discrimination, targeting, and intercept. Commercial applications include high-fidelity spectral-image analysis for remote sensing.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Tasso Politopoulos
BMDO 01-010      Awarded: 15MAY01
Title:Adaptable Cognitive Decision-Making System
Abstract:The proposed adaptable cognitive decision-making system fuses multiple sensors and provides to commanders with relevant and timely information for controlling military operations. The innovations of this project include: 1) development of a fuzzy logic based data association algorithm for solving complicated multitarget-multisensor tracking problems using inexact inputs received from diverse sensors; 2) development of an Object-Oriented Bayesian networks (OOBNs) for providing a high-level generic architecture for situation and threat assessment; 3) development of engagement decision aid algorithm using genetic algorithms; 4) testing, demonstration and evaluation of the performance of the adaptable cognitive decision-making system. The proposed system not only takes advantage of innovative individual methodologies but also, more significantly, emphasizes the synergism among all the subsystems to assure overall performance of the decision-making system. The deliverables of this project include a product entitled Adaptive Cognitive Decision-Making System. The effectiveness of the proposed techniques will be demonstrated on a fully integrated prototype at the end of Phase I.The developed techniques will result in the commercial product: Adaptive Cognitive Decision-Making System. Airline pilots, power station operators, air defense tactical operations center commanders, military commanders, manufacturing plant managers and others will be able to take advantage of the applications resulting from this project.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Dr. Myles A. Walsh
BMDO 01-010      Awarded: 01JUL01
Title:All-optic Switch Actuated by Optical Data
Abstract:The bandwidth increases in telecommunication networks has led to a greater need for optical switching fabrics that can handle not only high data rates, but also large numbers of separate data channels. Due to limitations on die size, I/O count, and the power of monolithic switch devices, the total size of a desired switching fabric often exceeds the capacity of a single IC in a given technology generation. This research explores the feasibility of an all-optic switch actuated at the leading and trailing edges of the optical message. Switching times of less than 0.5 ps are proposed.With the messages containing routing information, the functions of ICs become much simpler. This permits greater throughput and scaleability at lower cost. It also permits increasing the total size of a desired switching fabric without putting undue burdens on the necessary supporing devices.

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
1919 State Street, Suite 105
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 898-1060
Dr. John Langan
BMDO 01-010      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Hardware Compression of Video Data
Abstract:The major Phase 1 objective is to investigate the viability of CSC's innovative spatio-temporal filter energy approach as applied to hardware compression of video data. It is believed that a major advantage of this approach is that STF naturally exploits the spatial and temporal frequency and amplitude differences between a target block and its background surround. Coupled with a dynamic programming algorithm, the process extracts and matches the target using a transition cost function that could be adaptively matched to the reference frame. Computational Sensors Corporation (CSC) proposes a program for Hardware Compression of Video Data predicated upon it's core technology of spatio-temporal energy filtering based on the ideally suited computing power of the Thin Film Analog Image Processor (TAIP) convolution engine. This technology may be enabling in obtaining high quality motion compensated inter-frame coding information in order to overcome the computational complexity and performance limitations of previous approaches. For example, in MPEG2 this is a very computationally heavy task when searching for the best block e.g. in a 15x15-block move, in some cases, the need arises to perform an exhaustive search over the entire image, say 512x512 or larger--this is very computationally intensive.The application of a motion detection approach using Spatial Temporal Filtering based on CSC's unique VLSI chip technology and Dynamic Programming algorithms will enable a new generation of intelligent systems requiring massive real-time computation with small package size and low power consumption. The development described herein can potentially be extended over a number of diverse detection and identification applications with very significant commercial potential. Assuming that TAIP technology could account for an order of magnitude increase in the speed and a corresponding decrease in the power required, the 60% requirement for motion estimation reduces to 6%, with the same computation requirements--a 2.5X improvement in battery life. This will become a major enabling issue in MPEG9 combined video and audio-featured products. The TAIP can address the conventional block move/motion estimation problem with significant savings. It also enables a new approach to cue scenes in order to follow moving objects. This is new and conceptually different from that of conventional block moves algorithms; with the potential for even greater savings.

FOARD SYSTEMS DESIGN, INC.
1906 Hwy. 54E, Suite 200E
Durham, NC 27713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 544-2979
Mr. William W. Foard
BMDO 01-010      Awarded: 06APR01
Title:Programmable Analog Computer
Abstract:The objective is to build and evaluate a novel neural computer architecture for tasks such as the real-time analysis of the output of large numbers of sensors tracking many objects simultaneously. This problem is analogous to the identification of a specific event signature embedded in the vast quantity generated by a typical high-energy particle research facility, which represents one of the frontiers of neural network research. It is generally recognized that the power of neural networks increases as the size of the network increases. Attempts to implement in very large (>103 nodes) practical hardware neural networks capable of very demanding pattern recognition functionality have been limited, and therefore these networks represent a largely unknown opportunity. The scalability of the simplest implementation described therein, nothing more than a complex transistor interconnected by for example a matrix of polysilicon, lends itself to current large-scale integration techniques. Using today's fabrication techniques it would be possible to construct networks upwards of 106 nodes fully interconnected as a single chip, the chip comprising no more than a single layer of the actual junctions and topped by two layers of supply interconnections. As this represents a novel neural computing architecture, it should be emphasized that the ability to implement networks of current mirror elements in a highly interconnected fashion to a density exceeding 106, represents a significant technological breakthrough in networks that rival those found living entities. Some of the projected applications include speech recognition, missile identification and other military applications involving complex pattern recognition, sensor interpretation using electromagnetic sensors arrays directly coupled to extensive, multi-layered networks, and image processing for recognizing potentially cancerous cell from ultrasound images, for example.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 527-0054
Mr. Dennis McKay
BMDO 01-010      Selected for Award
Title:Detection and Location of Ballistic Missile Launchers w/Existing Space Based Sensors
Abstract:We propose to investigate the feasibility of a robust method to detect and destroy transporter erector launchers (TELs) of ballistic missiles using existing space based sensors. The proposed method pertains to scenarios in which a TEL has just launched a theater ballistic missile (TBM) and is being observed by a space based sensor during boost phase. TEL destruction occurs by the space based cueing of an airborne weapons platform to the estimated TBM launch point where target verification and engagement can occur. The intent of this approach is to enhance ballistic missile defense (BMD) in major regional conflicts by limiting the capability of unfriendly forces to launch TBMs. The realities of past conflicts indicate that to target and destroy an enemy TEL, it must be accurately located and identified as hostile before attack operations can commence. Prior to a TBM launch, the detection of an enemy TEL is prevented by effective deception and denial techniques. The best time to detect and identify a hostile TEL is to observe it launching a threat TBM, i.e. a "smoking" TEL. An effective means for observing and assessing the threat of the launch of a TBM is with a space based sensor and associated realtime ground processing system. To achieve robustness for day and night, and all weather operation, advanced algorithms will be evaluated in phase I for detection, tracking, and geolocation of TBM launch points. PRA has extensive experience in the development and use of missile detection and tracking algorithms for the NAIC and National Programs. We propose in phase I, to provide an end to end simulation frame work for evaluating candidate algorithms such as the background estimation and target extraction (BSTE) technique being developed under the SPORT program, fast target recognition and identification code known as PRIMER for the NAIC, passive ranging and 3D tracking of a TBM by the IMPRESS code, and the BOOSTR trajectory estimation program developed for the NAIC. The timing and accuracy requirements of TEL location will be discussed with platform operators, and evaluated under simulation. The phase I of this proposal will conduct a parametric assessment of the performance of a "smoking" TEL detection, location, and engagement system. The proposed simulation will model realistic scenes, missile plume signatures, atmospheric transmission, sensor characteristics, and TEL engagements. Simulated sensor data will be processed by candidate algorithms that perform missile detection and tracking, threat assessment, and launch point estimation. Varying scenarios of missile types, cloud cover, and scene backgrounds will be considered. The simulation system will provide a timeline analysis of detection, threat determination, weapons platform cueing, and an evaluation of sensor techniques for airborne target location and engagement. The results of this analysis will identify viable candidate algorithms for each processing function for development and demonstration in phase II of this proposal.Effective algorithms and software developed in phase II of this proposal are intended to be the basis for realtime software to be incorporated into operational ground processing systems of existing or future space based sensors. The tactical warfighter will benefit by having a viable means for targeting and destroying an enemy TEL that has just launched a threat TBM. TMD and NMD interceptor systems may also benefit from this approach by gaining early knowledge of the launch of a threat TBM for estimating and warning of impact point, and for cueing of their surveillance and fire control systems. Additional military applications include improvements to tactical missile warning systems deployed aboard many types of fixed and rotary wing aircraft. The phase II algorithms can be adapted to reduce false alarms, extend range of operation, and provide a time-to-go (TTG) warning indication. These algorithms will improve the effectiveness of countermeasure systems, and are key benefits to the warfighter.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-0863
Mr. Gordon S. Streeter
BMDO 01-010      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Work-Centered Interface Technology
Abstract:The challenge in developing a Work-Centered Interface (WCI) is to create a system capable of exploiting an array of distributed information resources and channeling these resources to decision-makers in a useful and flexible manner to support a full range of Command and Control operations. Sentar proposes a WCI based on a multi-agent architecture. This approach enables definition and execution of reusable decision-support tasks required by users in performance of their work. The proposed architecture combines centralized agent mediation and oversight with decentralized information retrieval. Information retrieval, synthesis, and presentation are delegated to specialized intelligent agents. This provides a flexible infrastructure capable of supporting distributed data sources as well as a heterogeneous and dynamic work force. In Phase I of this SBIR, Sentar will draw upon its previous experience with intelligent multi-agent systems to develop and document a plan for the creation of WCI application software, explore its feasibility through implementation of a WCI technology demonstration, and assess its impact with respect to benefits and potential payoff. Further, Sentar will develop a commercialization strategy for the technology and a plan for a Phase II prototype. The potential for WCI technology goes beyond military application. By providing users with focused access to distributed systems, the WCI application will provide users with a single point of entry to access and control a full range of distributed information resources. Potential application areas include ERP/MRP systems, logistics, business operations, and supply chain management.

SIGMA SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
9725 Aspen Hollow Way, #210
Fairfax, VA 22032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 582-0638
Dr. Alan Hadjarian
BMDO 01-010      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Data Fusion and Decision Support for Dynamic Battlespace
Abstract:In the traditional DF (data fusion) and DS (decision support) systems, a decision is made upon a complete set of data is provided at a given time. Operating in a 'batch processing' mode, they usually require a transfer of a large amount of data to generate optimal decisions. However, with the ever-increasing growth of available sensors, the use of batch mode will not be technically feasible in the near future. New DF/DS systems capable of synergistic integration with the DDBs are needed. Following the above observations, this project will develop a methodology, architecture, and selected algorithms for a Dynamic Data Fusion / Dynamic Decision Support Systems (DDF/DDSS). The proposed DDF/DDSS approach performs data flow analysis on-line with the decision making process and interacts with a human via an advanced 3-D visual interface. It identifies bottlenecks and problems in the information flow, and based on this analysis, it generates queries/requests for information update to the DDB and information sources. The DDF/DDSS requests selective data items rather than shifting large parts of the DDB to the system input. It handles loosely-coupled data collected asynchronously at different time intervals and operates Methodology, techniques and tools developed will be applicable to problems characterized by dynamic behavior, large dimensionality of the decision space, and the use of asynchronous data sources. Specific applications include: intelligence monitoring; network and distributed computer systems monitoring; portfolio risk monitoring and arbitrage trading; computer-aided corporate management; industrial production control; data mining applied to complex distributed systems. Commercialization effort will prepare/evaluate: product specification, market analysis, competitive analysis, nature of competition, opportunities, strategy, financing options, sales and marketing.

TIMESYS CORP.
4516 Henry Street, Suite 401
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 681-6899
Dr. Manas Saksena
BMDO 01-010      Selected for Award
Title:TimeVault: A Vertically Integrated Environment for High-Assurance Real-Time Applications
Abstract:We propose to investigate, design and prototype capabilities of a vertically integrated environment called TimeVault for the design, analysis, and execution of high assurance real-time systems. Different real-time applications can be mixed and matched within or across processors. High assurance will be provided by an abstraction called "vaults": the misbehavior of an application group (unintentional or otherwise) will be guaranteed not to damage other applications. First, a guaranteed worst-case analysis framework extending classical real-time scheduling theory will be the first critical step in this high-payoff approach. Secondly, these analyses will be incorporated as extensions to a commercial real-time schedulability analysis tool. Thirdly, network support will be added for guaranteeing end-to-end timing requirements within closed but distributed networked systems like avionics systems, missile defense systems, battleship control systems and carrier fleet systems. Fourthly, a commercial real-time operating system will be extended to support and enforce the time- and space-protection properties of the "vault" abstraction. Finally, TimeVault will permit the behavior of each application in the distributed target execution environment to be viewed from a single monitoring location. TimeVault will enable application components from legacy environments, multiple development sources, component libraries, etc. to be combined yet with significant reduction in testing and integration costs.The complexity of U.S. defense systems, fly-by-wire avionics, process control, nuclear power control, telecommuncation systems, automated manufacturing, air traffic control and medical systems keeps increasing. The cost of developing, testing and maintaining these systems must be reduced significantly, while simultaneously improving their assurance. The innovative and vertically integrated TimeVault environment will enable entire product-lines to be developed and maintained at low costs.

ADVANCED OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2702 Triana Boulevard, SW, Suite A
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 536-5960
Dr. Keith B. Farr
BMDO 01-011      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Automatic Target Recognition with Non-Isoplanatic Imaging Systems
Abstract:The military services are currently considering advanced imaging systems with extremely large fields of view (hemispherical or greater) for inclusion in next generation seekers for missile defense. By necessity, these panoramic imaging systems will have large distortions and the resolution will vary across the field of view. In other words, the imaging systems in question are highly non-isoplanatic. These new systems present a serious challenge to discrimination and aim point selection. These tasks must be accomplished rapidly in a missile environment that is computationally starved. Theory and technology exists that address image processing for rectilinear, isoplanatic images. To date, no theoretical underpinning has been developed to understand the problems posed by wide field-of-view imaging systems. Advanced Optical Systems, Inc. proposes to attack the problem with a combination of digital image processing and optical correlation techniques. As is shown in the proposal, this is an extremely powerful combination. We will develop theory and algorithms for recognition of distorted and non-isoplanatic images. We will demonstrate the ATR algorithms in simulation and, if selected for a fast track option, we will demonstrate ATR on a panoramic imaging system. The proposed research is an enabling technology for the panoramic missile seeker. Current missile seekers have very narrow instantaneous fields of view (1-2 degrees), and wide field of regard is achieved by using mechanical gimbals. These gimbals are typically a very large fraction of the cost of the missile. Use of a low cost panoramic seeker would reduce the need for mechanical gimbals and would lower the cost of the missile system. Panoramic imaging/ATR system would find wide use in military systems such as missile seekers, aircraft, ship, and ground vehicle situational awareness sensors. The Navy has a particular interest in this technology. Commercial applications would include security monitoring, commercial aircraft situational awareness, and robotic vision.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 475-4727
Mr. David Kane
BMDO 01-011      Awarded: 30JUN01
Title:Optical Computing with Micro-Fluidic Actuator Switch Technology (uFAST) for Parallel Processor Crossbar Switching
Abstract:Optics hold great potential for the implementation of interconnection networks for large-scale parallel computers. A common the goal is to have a reconfigureable crossbar network where each processor can be connected to any other processor or memory dynamically. Central to this topology is a binary optical switch. Advances in optical switching in the telecommunications industry hold some promise based on the non-blocking switch fabrics that are compatible with the crossbar network goals. One major issue has been the high power consumption and slow switch speeds associated with the technologies used in telecommunications optical switches. Switch speeds are in the milliseconds range and each state change consumes mJ's. Some optical computing architectures propose communications between processors by transitioning from a polymer waveguide to a free-space switch to enable inter-processor communications. Significant signal losses result from this approach. Aret's Micro-Fluidic Actuator Switch Technology (uFAST) overcomes the loss issues and provides orders of magnitude faster switching speed and orders of magnitude lower energy consumption than commercially available telecommunications switches. This waveguide based switch fabric eliminates the need to transition into free space and is compatible with being built directly in to the processor chip.Optical Switches are one of the major elements in the burgeoning multibillion dollar telecommunications industry. The uFAST and provide potentially significant benefits from a performance perspective for optical computing due to the anticipated switch rates of < 1us. It also hods significant advantages when compared to other switch technologies currently being pursued. In general optical switches fall into either the free space, MEMS being the only technology in this field, or substrate waveguide categories including liquid crystal, thermo Optic and Bubble technology. mFAST's primary advantages over all of these approaches are switch speed, power, consumed energy and operational voltage. Switch speeds are 3 to 4 orders of magnitude faster than any of these technologies. Power consumption is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower and the resulting consumed energy consumed is 6 to 8 orders of magnitude less. Given the energy is conservatively stored in capacitive actuator, the option of retrieving this energy also exists. This is not possible with the Bubbles, Thermo-optic or Liquid crystal approach. Operation at low voltage provides two additional advantages. First the ability to retrieve energy from the actuator and generate lower voltage will result in more efficient power supplies. The second advantage is that with such low voltage requirements, the ability to fabricate the power supply electronics as part of the silicon waveguide exists.

EUMI SYSTEMS CORP.
12334 Knightsbridge Drive
Woodbridge, VA 22192
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 583-7972
Dr. Tae K. Oh
BMDO 01-011      Selected for Award
Title:Waveguided, High Resolution, Very Fast Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter
Abstract:The goal of the proposed Phase I work is to demonstrate the feasibility of integrated 1.55 mm acousto-optic tunable filters (IAOTF), and to establish the technical foundation for the fabrication of the tunable filter. This device can be very small, rigid, and stable in the wide range of environment conditions. This proposed innovative approach will permit the development of integrated tunable filters capable of advanced performance for commercial and military applications. This tunable filter could be met to standard grid for channel spacing of 100 GHz, higher spectral resolution, a tuning range covering the entire EDFA, and a very fast response time. This filter also permits simultaneous and independent selection/routing of many wavelength channels, and is designed for multi-channel dense WDM filters, routers, switches, and fast scans optical spectrum analyzers.This integrated acousto-optic tunable filter will permit simultaneous and independent selection/routing of many wavelength channels, and is designed for multi-channel dense WDM filters, routers, switches and fast scans optical spectrum analyzers. The tunable filters can be applied to both circuit-switched networks, and to packet- and cell-switching networks in commercial as well as military applications.

EUMI SYSTEMS CORP.
12334 Knightsbridge Drive
Woodbridge, VA 22192
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 583-7972
Dr. Tae K. Oh
BMDO 01-011      Awarded: 18MAY01
Title:Photonic-Band Crystal WDM Tunable Filter
Abstract:The goal of the proposed Phase I work is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing 1.55 mm WDM tunable filters by using photonic band crystal, and to establish the technical foundation for the fabrication of the tunable filter. This proposed innovative approach will permit the development of integrated microscale tunable filters based on Si technology. It has the following characteristics; i) Device size can be drastically reduced to the 10 m scale, which is at least three orders of magnitude smaller in area, ii) Alignment of the optical fiber at the input and output edges does not need to be precise due to no waveguide structure, iii) There is no zero order and higher order diffraction that creates unwanted ghost beams. That is almost 100% conversion to the out put beam.This new type of WMD tunable filters based on the photonic crystal and Si foundry will reduce the size of device by three order of magnitude and much improved performances. It will be applicable to multi-channel dense WDM filters, routers, and switches in fiber optic communications as well as military applications. This would revolutionize the device technology in fiber optic communication.

OPEL
96 Quail Run
Glastonbury, CT 06033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 486-3466
Mr. Heath Opper
BMDO 01-011      Awarded: 18MAY01
Title:An Optoelectronic Thyristor based High Bandwidth Photoreceiver
Abstract:A novel photoreceiver is proposed based upon the optical sensitivity , gain and impedance transformation properties of an optoelectronic thyristor and HFET integrated circuit. The thyristor is implemented as a vertical cavity device and is compatible with complementary HFET digital/analog electronics or complementary bipolar analog/digital gates in a monolithic technology. The thyristor is designed as a resonant vertical cavity detector/laser with current blocking barriers on either side resulting in very radiation-hard detection. Strained quantum well GaAs epitaxial growth produces natural emission frequencies of 0.98mm, 1.3mm or 1.55mm. The long wavelengths are obtained by the incorporation of N in the range 1-4% With the absence of natural oxides, the HFET/CHFET electronics are radiation tolerant with transistor thresholds of 0.3V providing ideal noise margins. The thyristor performs digital/analog detection in the off state and produces laser emission in the on state. Using CHFET integrated logic, a smart pixel functions as an emitter, modulator or detector depending on the applied voltages. As a dual function transceiver, the thyristor optimally implements a bidirectional link as needed for space-based laser communications with expected BER's of <10-10 for the integrated devices. In this SBIR , a prototype integrated receiver will be developed with bandwidths >10GHz.The thyristor/FET will enable practical very high speed photoreceivers. The smart pixel formats will enable a diverse number of applications ranging from computer buses, AD converters, optical data links and optical memories. The integrated approach is the key to reduced cost and improved reliability.

TESLA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O Box 31378
Knoxville, TN 37930
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865)769 4285
Dr. L.R. Senesac
BMDO 01-011      Awarded: 22MAY01
Title:Optical Processing Employing a Novel Optical Transistor
Abstract:We propose to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of an all optical switch / transistor capable of filling multiple applications roles. As speeds in communications, sensing, and computation increase rapidly, faster and faster switching mechanisms are essential. Since optical signal processing has distinct advantages, optical switching techniques have received much attention for addressing these applications. Because of the complexity of optical switching mechanisms, often one must trade off one or more of the five basic parameters: rejection efficiency, actuation power, cost, speed, and size. We propose a novel approach for optical switching that can optimize all five parameters simultaneously. Even though there are many other optical switch designs, such as electrostatically driven flip-up micro-mirrors, our approach is unique for being an all-optical device. We have observed an opto-mechanical phenomenon that could have tremendous importance in optical processing. This switching mechanism is a micro-mechanical movement induced by the optical absorption by a released single crystal waveguide material. Photons above the bandgap are absorbed in the semiconducting material, which generate electron-hole pairs. If enough electron-hole pairs are created and recombination is slow, the lattice parameter of the material changes, resulting in material strain. If the waveguide material is free to move (such as a severed micro-bridge), then the strain will alter the position of the waveguide material. This micro-mechanical movement can be used to rapidly switch a light beam traveling down the waveguide either as a modulator (on / off), or to redirect light coming from the end of the waveguide onto two or more different receiving channels (switch) through efficient evanescent wave coupling. This switching mechanism coupled with a micro optical amplifier would truly be analogous to an electronic transistor.Commercial employment of optical signal processing / routing has distinct advantages over conventional technology. Optical switches / transistors have received much attention recently for addressing numerous applications in optical computing, fiber optic telecommunications, and sensing. Since this is an optically actuated optical switch / transistor, ultra-high resonant frequency silicon / diamond MEMS waveguides can also be actuated. With this development we may finally realize the full advantages of photons over electrons due to the use of two-way conductors, cross conductors, ultra-high bandwidth and simultaneous multi-wavelength operation.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Dr. Mark Rigali
BMDO 01-012      Awarded: 24APR01
Title:Novel Rapid Prototyping Technique for the Fabrication of Structural Components
Abstract:Advanced ceramics research (ACR), has developed a simple, highly promising thruster fabrication method utilizing novel gel casting and injection molding techniques. These methods will be used for the creation of low-cost thrusters and nozzles. The following proposal details a synergistic combination of the two technologies to create a thermal protection system concept that is low-cost and innovative. In order to create the initial mold, an ACR patented method called Wax Dip Molding (WDM) involving CNC-machining a model of the desired component from a block of special water soluble polymer blend material developed at ACR followed by casting/solidifying molten wax around the machined model. This mold will be filled with ACR's patented fibrous monolith (FM) Zirconium diboride-BN) fibers embedded in a gel-casting slurry of Zirconium Carbide with the water-soluble mandrel material. Subsequently, Zirconium Carbide with water soluble binder will be injection molded around the Fibrous Monolith-gelcasting component. During binder burnout, the water-soluble binder foams, creating a closed cell porosity foam structure thus creating an in-situ thermal protection system that is well-bonded to the underlying ceramic composite liner. The water-soluble mandrel material will be completely burnt out also, thus providing a simple method to make a high-temperature ceramic thruster with foam skin.The anticipated markets for complex-shaped high temperatures ceramic/ceramic foam components with the highest growth potential are: aerospace, defense propulsion technologies, and electrical insulation applications. For the US government, the potential applications are in (a) thruster housings with foam skins for thermal protection, (b) combustors, (c) hot gas ducts, (d) exhaust flaps, (e) rocket nozzle throats, (f) radiant burners, and (g) solar thermal propulsion engines. ACR has already established close supplier and development relationships with a number of relevant manufactures that include Aerojet, Thiokol, Alliant Tech, and Raytheon. During the Phase I program ACR will work closely with these companies for evaluating the performance vs cost requirements to turn this process into a commercial success. The fabrication of components using this material system for other non-thruster components including turbine engine nozzle parts, and aircraft structures exposed to turbine engine reversing thrusters is a possibility. This method of producing thermal protection systems for thruster technology is totally innovative and will advance the technology tremendously.

AERO THERMO TECHNOLOGY, INC.
620 Discovery Drive, Bldg I, Ste 100
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-1141
Mr. Bruce Moylan
BMDO 01-012      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:An Innovative Approach to Integrated Thermal Protection Systems and Structures for Advanced Hypervelocity Vehicles
Abstract:Reusable launch vehicles currently being designed by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration require innovative structural components that are both light weight and able to withstand the severe thermal environments of reentry without time consuming and expensive refurbishment prior to the next flight. This project will investigate combining state-of-the-art thermal protection materials and advanced composite manufacturing techniques to produce a viable lightweight candidate airframe that can survive severe reentry environments while enabling rapid turn around of the vehicle with minimal maintenance. While the primary focus of this investigation is on flight environments likely to be encountered by the USAF's Space Maneuver Vehicle, the lessons learned in thermal protection system (TPS) fabrication, structural integration, weight reduction, maintainability, and producibility will be applicable across a wide range of military and commercial applications. An assessment will be made of the potential for application of the integrated TPS technology developed to the needs of ballistic missile interceptor programs. In particular, an evaluation will be made of potential avenues toward supporting the ability of future BMDO systems to address the need for more robust, lightweight ballistic missile interceptor airframes than current methods allow.More robust, lightweight airframes that can be economically manufactured for advanced hypervelocity vehicles. These light weight, low cost airframes will be capable of withstanding severe thermal environments without time consuming and expensive refurbishment prior to the next flight and are applicable to reusable launch vehicles and, potentially, to ballistic missile interceptors that have all or part of their battlespace within the atmosphere.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Dr. Petr Nikitin
BMDO 01-012      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:OPTICAL INTERFEROMETER FOR THRUST MEASUREMENTS
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop an innovative system for accurate measuring thrust performance of different structural components, including propulsion systems for micro-satellites, with micro-Newton resolution. The system designed for operation in a space simulation chamber employs a fiber optical scheme incorporating an interferometric force sensor. A Fabry-Perot white-light interferometer used in the system operates in wide spectral range. The interferometric information delivered by the light through an optical fiber can be conveniently analyzed outside the test chamber. The system exhibits high temperature stability that is achieved by employing elastic elements made of fused silica and assembled using laser welding. Among other important advantages of the proposed system are high stability of readings, high sensitivity and wide dynamic range (up to 100000). The readings are practically independent of radiation losses in optical elements. The technique offers high degree of universality and can be used in many important industrial applications for measuring weak forces, low pressures, small displacements, accelerations, etc. Phase I of the project will address to demonstrating feasibility of a thrust stand based on white-light interferometric measurements with micro-Newton resolution and wide dynamic range. In Phase II, the prototype system will be assembled, tested and optimized with final product delivered to DoD.In addition to immediate military applications for thrust measurements, the proposed system is an excellent candidate as a product in several markets including airspace industry, transportation, power engineering, etc.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Mr. Francis L. Keohan
BMDO 01-012      Awarded: 05MAY01
Title:New Materials for Rapid and Economical Composite Toolmaking
Abstract:Machining metals to the proper dimensions and surface characteristics is a time consuming and expensive part of traditional production toolmaking. A new type of polymer-modified ceramic material is proposed for fabricating high-performance prototype composite tooling. The proposed research explores the feasibility of modifying thermally stable composite matrix resins with UV light-curable components to rapidly produce new tools with ceramic-like facing. The program objective is to develop a process for fabricating high performance composite tools at a fraction of the cost and time required for production tools. The new materials will be compatible with state-of-the-art robotic material placement technology. The cure conditions for the tooling composite matrix resin will be mild enough to allow actual parts to be used as templates. When post-cured, the new tools will allow multiple runs with high temperature-curing matrix resins such as bismaleides. The CTE of the composite tools can be matched to the intended use by variation of the tool's matrix resin composition. In the proposed study, the methodology for preparing these novel composites will be developed and demonstrated. The new resins could potentially be used in a variety of composite fabrication and specialty coating processes to reduce costs and improve composite properties.The benefits of inexpensive, rapid prototype tool fabrication for the short-run production of complex composite parts, include: controllable CTE, easy integration with computer-controlled tool fabrication technology, and durability with high-temperature-curing composite matrix resins. Potential commercial applications lie in the manufacture of aerospace, marine and terrestrial vehicles for both military and civilian markets.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Mr. Eric M. Flint
BMDO 01-012      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Miniaturized Active Vibration Mitigation Technology
Abstract:CSA Engineering proposes the design, development, and qualification of a family of modular miniaturized active vibration mitigation subsystems that would then be combined for use in jitter and vibration mitigation for BMDO supported technologies such as GBI, KKV, AIT, SBL, etc. The subsystems are conceived such that they can be implemented as a drop-in solution late in a project's development or baselined early in a mission's planning stage. Such technology is needed to protect devices sensitive to jitter and line-of-sight deviations such as sensors, optical trains, cameras, and infrared sensors, or to prevent disturbances from noise generating equipment from escaping into the structural bus. In Phase I, effort will concentrate on proving the feasibility of certain key components of the overall concept, mainly miniaturized electronics and a staged actuator. This proposed technology directly addresses the effort needed to make active solutions more acceptable to end customers, i.e, they will be smaller and use less power. In Phase II, the mount subsystems will be miniaturized further, expanded to enable two-axis lateral, and full three-axis active control. The technology will also support a wide range of commercial applications in the fields of aeronautics, semiconductor manufacturing, and life sciences. The proposed technology will enable dramatically improved active vibration mitigation technology in the areas where it matters most to end customers: reduced size, cost and power draw. The technology will support and enable a wide range of advanced BMDO/DOD missions currently being developed and tested. Markets for the developed technology are expected at the system level and for the individual subsystems such as miniaturized electronics and actuators. The proposed technology will also support a wider range of commercial applications in the field of aeronautics, semiconductor manufacturing and inspection, and life sciences.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Dr. Mark Rigali
BMDO 01-013      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Novel Low CTE Composite Materials for Propulsion Applications
Abstract:Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. (ACR) proposes to develop novel composite systems for thermal management in propulsion applications. Traditionally, phenolic-based materials are used as insulators because of their low thermal conductivity and low cost. Unfortunately, insulating nozzle and thruster liners composed of these materials suffer from short lifetimes as a result of pyrolysis at elevated temperatures. This results in the generation of volitiles and concomittant bloating and warping of the insulating liner. In addition, strength and CTE vary considerably as a function of temperature, presence or absence of moisture and the heating rate to which the insulator is subjected. Ceramic based liners as are highly desired because of their low CTE's, thermal conductivities, and high melting points but they suffer from low toughness and poor thermal shock resistance. Advanced Ceramics Research Inc. proposes to fabricate a new generation of tough, high-threshold-strength and thermal shock resistant ceramic composites based on its patented Fibrous Monolith processing technology. The composites will be based on low CTE and low thermal conductivity ceramics such as sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) and aluminum titanate.In the aerospace industry, damage tolerant, thermal shock resistant composites are required for thermal management and thermal protection systems for critical propulsion components. In addition, these composites are expected to have applications in the electronics and computer industries where low cost electrical and thermal insulators are also desired.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Mr. Francis L. Keohan
BMDO 01-013      Awarded: 22MAY01
Title:New Damage-Tolerant, High Temperature Service Composites
Abstract:Polymer matrix composites have become a key material for modern aircraft construction. A new type of resin fiber treatment is proposed for fabricating highly damage tolerant and thermally stable composites by vacuum assisted compression molding (VACM) and resin transfer molding (RTM). The proposed research explores the feasibility of preparing novel ceramic-modified polymers or ceramers for assembling dry broadgood preforms and promoting efficient crack stopping in composite laminates. The Phase I objective is to develop high temperature stable ceramer resins for fabricating composite airframe components with higher impact damage tolerance. These hybrid resins are designed to yield bismaleimide (BMI) matrix, carbon fiber-reinforced composites having high impact resistance and compatibility with more economical manufacturing processes. In Phase I, high temperature-stable, thermoplastic-based resins will be used to treat graphite fiber-based textiles to prepare composites with improved impact resistance over conventional BMI matrix composites. The test plan will include developing advanced synthetic and composite fabrication methods to reduce labor costs and produce better laminates. Methodology will be developed for uniformly incorporating the hybrid resin modifiers for composites with advanced ballistic survivability. Damage tolerance, mechanical and environmental durability characteristics of the resulting composites will be tested for ultimate aerospace applications. The benefits of the new composite resin treatments include improved damage tolerance, high temperature stability, improved processability, cost savings in labor and materials, and applicability with other types of high performance resin systems. Potential commercial applications lie in the manufacture of aerospace and terrestrial vehicles for both military and civilian markets.

CERAMIC COMPOSITES, INC.
1110 Benfield Blvd.
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Dr. Mark Patterson
BMDO 01-013      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Low Cost Fabrication Technology For Novel AlB2 Flake/Aluminum MMCs
Abstract:Substantial improvements in weight reduction, strength, modulus and wear resistance are essential in meeting the design criteria for the next generation of aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles. CCI proposes the development of a one step, low-cost fabrication process for a novel AlB2 in-situ reinforced, Al metal matrix composite MMC. The research outlined in the phase I proposal will demonstrate that a centrifugal casting process can be used to produce MMCs with high volume fractions of the aligned AlB2 flake. This will result in an Al-MMC with low friction, excellent wear resistance, a tensile strength of 600MPa and an elastic modulus in excess of 180 GPa. The proposed objectives of the phase I research demonstrate that in a single step process the volume fraction of the AlB2 reinforcing phase can be increased from the 20vol% presently available, to a volume fraction in excess of 50%. Alignment of the high volume fraction flakes of AlB2 within the Al matrix will produce a MMC with properties that are superior to current discontinuously reinforced Al-MMCs. The proposed in-situ reinforced Al MMC will exhibit significant improvements in elastic modulus, strength and wear resistance over current discontinuously reinforced AL-MMCs, resulting in overall weight reduction in flight components. This will translate into an improvement in performance, fuel economy, safety, payload and flight duration of aircraft, spacecraft and missiles. Potential applications are in erosion resistant skins, bearings, brake rotor compression fittings, seals, sleeves and actuators.

DACCO SCI, INC.
10260 Old Columbia Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 381-9475
Dr. Guy D. Davis
BMDO 01-013      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Inspection of Composite Adhesive Bonds with an Electrochemical Sensor
Abstract:DACCO SCI, INC., (DSI), together with the Composite Materials and Structures Center of Michigan State University, proposes a Phase I SBIR program to use an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based corrosion sensor to monitor the integrity of an adhesive bondline between two composites or one composite and a metal. Using this sensor approach to detect moisture intrusion into a bondline will give advance warning of potential environmentally induced bondline deterioration. Corrective action can then be taken prior to permanent disruption of the bondline. Delaminations and kissing unbonds may also be detectable. This monitoring technology could eventually be used as a standard tool in the suite of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for evaluating the integrity of bonded composites. Because embedded sensors are not required, both existing and future BMDO hardware could be inspected and monitored. Increased confidence and reliability of bonded composite structures would accrue.Reliability of bonded composites will increase as a result of this health monitoring. Readiness and safety are also benefits to improved composite health monitoring. In addition to BMDO systems, military and commercial aircraft, composite-reinforced bridges, storage tanks, pipelines, and weapon systems and components are potential applications.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. W. Kowbel
BMDO 01-013      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Carbon Foam Thermal Protection System
Abstract:Carbon foam offers a new dimension in to an area of structural materials. Control of the starting precursor can yield low thermal conductivity foam. In addition, foam process control can allow a significant increase on the compressive strength. This proposal builds on the use of effective carbon foam skeleton structure with properly optimized polymers/ fillers with respect to ablation resistance. As a result, cost effective alternative to n- dimensional braided C-C composites is envisioned.Careful process control/ optimization is anticipated to yield structural carbon foam for missiles thermal protection. Due to its low cost the foam can find industrial thermal insulator applications.

PROCESS INSTRUMENTS, INC.
825 North, 300 West,, Suite 225
Salt Lake City, UT 84103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 322-1235
Dr. Robert E. Benner
BMDO 01-013      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:Fiber-Optic Raman Analysis for Composites and Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:We propose developing a compact, optical fiber-based Raman scattering instrument for rapid, in-situ analysis of composites, solid rocket motors, and propellants. The instrument will incorporate diode laser-based, full-spectrum Raman scattering for continuous in-situ remote monitoring of the composite and propellant chemistry. Narrow well defined Raman peaks and lack of sample preparation requirement make Raman scattering well suited for in-situ analysis of composites and solid rocket propellants. Raman spectroscopic analysis can be made via small (200 mm core), inert, silica/silica clad optical fibers. One fiber is used for sample excitation via laser diode, and another fiber collects the Raman scattered light and carries the signal to a remote, portable spectrograph. A semiconductor laser diode offers long life, can be very compact, and can operate at near-IR wavelengths where sample fluorescence is minimized while taking advantage of the very sensitive and full-spectrum capabilities of silicon CCD array Raman spectrum detection. Many optical fibers could be multiplexed to allow depth profiling of selected polymer/fiber composites and/or solid propellant regions such as bond line and areas adjacent to casing liner. Optical fibers could be cast directly into a composite structure while the resin and fabric are being laid up. This would allow polymer chemistry monitoring during the curing process to ensure proper curing conditions and reduce excess cure time. Similar optical fibers could be cast into witness panels of propellant mixtures without damaging the surrounding propellant, liners, insulator, or case structure. The Raman spectra will be used to monitor curing, migration of plasticisers and other contaminants, and other aging effects that could alter propellant chemistry. Phase I will determine the feasibility of casting optical fibers into typical resin/fiber composite systems and inert, propellant substitutes to measure propellant chemistry using Raman spectroscopy. Laboratory results have demonstrated the ability of Raman scattering to quickly identify the basic components used in polymer composites, solid rocket propellant, and commercial and military explosives.Rapid, in-situ determination of solid rocket propellant chemistry could greatly reduce the need for destructive testing to determine the chemical state of new and aging rocket motors. Similar technology can be applied to many composite manufacturing systems such as aircraft and vehicle manufacturing where epoxy curing and chemical stability issues are very important for service life.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Dr. Wesley S. Hackenberger
BMDO 01-013      Awarded: 01JUL01
Title:Low Cost, High-Purity Boron-Rich Boron Carbide Powders for Lightweight Aerospace Structures
Abstract:For this SBIR Phase I program, TRS Ceramics and the Georgia Institute of Technology will develop a powder modification process and optimized sintering atmospheres for the fabrication of stoichiometric, high-density B4C ceramics. Use of carborane additives is proposed to 1) increase the boron content in normally carbon-rich commercial powders and 2) improve the dispersion of B4C particles during sintering. In addition, Georgia Tech will study the effect of sintering atmosphere on the densification of B4C and develop an optimized mixture of gases to further aid in B2O3 reduction. The goal of this work is to achieve B4C densities in excess of 97% of theoretical without hot pressing thus allowing near net shape fabrication of a broad variety of B4C structural components.B4C currently has limited commercial potential due to the high cost of producing hot pressed ceramics. The high quality ceramics produced by pressureless sintering as a result of this work will be low enough in cost for the materials to be used in a number of moderate to high volume commercial applications including brake pads for trucks and construction equipment, machine tools, and lightweight structural components for aerospace applications.

ADVANCED CERAMICS MANUFACTURING
3292 East Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 434-6375
Mrs. Marlene Platero-AllRunner
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 27APR01
Title:Fibrous Monolith Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor
Abstract:In response to the technological advancements made by BMDO and the need for efficient interconnecting devices and wiring in the next generation defense missiles, ACM proposes an enabling technology through the use of its Fibrous Monolith ceramic composite technology. ACM proposes to develop Fibrous Monolith composite electronic materials using low dielectric ceramics to conform its technique as a fabrication process for electronic materials. Specifically, ACM will engineer dielectric materials for possibleuse in high power multilayer capacitors. Microfabrication by Coextrusion Melt Spinning (MCMS) will be used to make a multilayer capacitor to test this theory. MCMS is a modified FM coextrusion technique that will be used to create the MLCC architecture.The development of a tailored eletronic material for use in the electronic industry may be applicable to such needs as packaging materials, insulators, or as proposed, for use in MLCC's. ACM's current FM technology is already a low-cost, environmental friendly and robust technique.

ADVANCED THIN FILM, INC.
12110 E Slauson Ave #12
Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 907-4636
Mr. Mazher Malik
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:The High Rate Vacuum Deposition of Highly Conductive Transparent Oxides
Abstract:Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) coatings play a crucial role in both photovoltaic and display technologies. In the latter technology TCO's provide a conductive electrode that is also transparent to the light emitted from the underlying display while, in the former technology, TCO's allow light to pass through the electrode to the underlying semiconductor that converts the light into electron-hole pairs. Despite the commercial need, the process control has been limited by the traditional vacuum deposition method of reactive magnetron sputtering that is pretty much standard for TCO deposition in the industry. Sputtering is simple to implement and, in fact, generally produces higher quality TCO films than can be produced with traditional evaporation methods, but it is a very slow deposition rate process. Plasma injection designs analogous to the HAD process will be tested as a baseline condition. The ability to really drive the rate up is going to depend not just on the reactivity of the metal and oxygen species and available surface energy (i.e. the degree of ionization and radical density). It will also depend critically on the intimacy of the flux mixture as the combined flux strikes the substrate. This will require designing both the plasma and metal sources to direct the flux in very specific ways.Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) coatings play a crucial role in both photovoltaic and display technologies. In the latter technology TCO's provide a conductive electrode that is also transparent to the light emitted from the underlying display while, in the former technology, TCO's allow light to pass through the electrode to the underlying semiconductor that converts the light into electron-hole pairs. TCO's are also very useful materials for fabrication of transparent, anti-static, packaging and "Heat Mirror" type solar control coatings for buildings, vehicles, greenhouses, and certain military applications related to "low observable" surfaces.

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-4359
Dr. Alan Grieve
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 18APR01
Title:Thermally-Conductive Polymer Nanocomposite Adhesives
Abstract:The principal technology for removing heat from a device remains thermal conduction. In direct chip attach applications the primary path for heat is through the gap between the chip and a heat dissipation device. The thermal properties of the adhesives that fill that gap are increasingly dictating the heat dissipation limits of the package. The thermal conductivity of the adhesives used in the gap can limit how cool a miniaturized circuit will operate. There is a need for polymer adhe-sives with thermal conductivity values in the range of 5-10W/ m K that are electrically non-conductive and have low viscosity with good flow properties. For high-volume-fraction filled polymers, when the thermal conductivity of the filler is about 100x that of the polymer, filler morphology is more important than the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the filler. Recent discoveries in nanocomposites at Aguila Technologies suggest substantial increases in the thermal conductivity of filled, lower-viscosity polymer adhesives may be possible through changes in filler mor-phology caused by novel nanosize fillers. The proposal centers on increasing the thermal conductivity of filled electronic adhesives by large factors using recently discovered low-cost nanosize fillers in conjunction with conventional filler materials.There is an immediate need for the proposed high conductivity, low viscosity adhesive in a myriad of high volume consumer and defense products. The market potential for such adhesives exceeds $50 million within 1-2 years. Aguila is working with a major electronics manufacturer that will immediately qualify and apply any improved materials developed.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Dr. Igor Levitsky
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 03MAY01
Title:Fluorescence materials for sensors of heavy metal ions
Abstract:Altair Center proposes to develop a simple and efficient fluorescence optical fiber sensor for monitoring of heavy metal ions (HMI) in storm water, sediments and during various industrial processes. The sensor employs the effect of strong fluorescence quenching/enhancement in the presence of heavy metal ions. The main principle of signal amplification, as distinct from other luminescence indicators, is based on the energy transfer process between two different chromophores immobilized in a polymer film. It has been recently demonstrated that such bi-chromophore sensor provides a nonlinear signal transduction considerably enhancing the sensor sensitivity to the analyte. Moreover, such approach can strongly increase the sensor selectivity to the target metal ions due to higher specificity of the sensor fluorescence spectra. Anticipated sensitivity of the device to the HMI will be in the ppb region or better. In phase I of the project we will synthesize the receptor chromophores specific to most common pollutants and demonstrate the ability of proposed system to the strong luminescence change in the presence of HMI. In Phase II the developed technology will be allied to fabricating a Prototype chemosensor system for detection of HMIs, will be tested, optimized and delivered to DoD. The proposed sensors can be immediate applied to monitoring of the water pollution in places with hazardous waste sites and different industrial sources releasing HMI. Fiber optical sensing will allow monitoring of the remote area without any risk for operating personal. In addition, such system will find many commercial applications in chemical and biotechnology industry. The market analysis indicates to a highly growing interest to such low-cost and effective sensor devices.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Dr. Igor Levitsky
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:LED Based on Composite from Inorganic Quantum Dots and Conjugated Polymers
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop a novel light emitted diode (LED) for military and civilian applications based on composite material made from inorganic quantum dots and conjugated polymers. We will use specially designed highly emissive nanoparticles of CdS or CdSe dispersed in polymer matrix or forming heterojunction with polymer for fabrication of the emissive LED layer. In Phase I of the Project we will develop the novel composite organic/inorganic nanomaterial with unusual electronic properties and demonstrate feasibility of fabrication of multilayer light emitting devices based on this material exhibiting high external efficiency, low turn on voltage, strong robustness and tunable emission (from red to UV) or broad luminescence spectrum providing white light. In Phase II of the project the developed technology will be optimized and applied to fabrication of a Prototype white or tunable LED, which will be delivered to DoD by the end of the project for immediate applications. I addition to immediate military applications the developed technology will find wide variety of civil industrial applications including new composite LEDs, cell phones, PDA's, computer displays, informational displays in vehicles and television monitors, etc.

ANVIK CORP.
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Dr. Robert Sposili
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Flexible ICs and TFTs: A Roll-to-Roll Excimer Laser Crystallization System for Silicon Films on Polymeric Sheets
Abstract:Thin-film transistor (TFT) technology has enabled important applications, such as flat-panel displays (FPDs), that cannot be addressed by conventional silicon-wafer-based electronics. There are several benefits to fabricating TFTs on flexible substrates, including lower cost, increased versatility, and improved durability. In addition, flexible substrates allow for a shift from batch to continuous roll-to-roll processing. One challenge is the inability of plastic substrates to withstand high-temperature processing. Excimer-laser-based processes have been used to replace some of the high-temperature steps in TFT fabrication - for example, excimer laser crystallization (ELC). Previously, conventional ELC techniques have been used to crystallize silicon films on flexible substrates; but films crystallized in this manner cannot be used to produce high-performance TFTs. Sequential lateral solidification (SLS) can produce the low-defect-density microstructures necessary for high-performance TFTs. Anvik Corporation is actively involved in the development of SLS equipment for the manufacturing of TFT-LCD displays. Anvik has also pioneered the development of high-resolution, roll-to-roll lithography systems for fabricating flexible circuits. Herein we propose to develop a roll-to-roll SLS processing system with the capability to conduct SLS on silicon films deposited on flexible substrates. Low-defect-density crystalline silicon films on flexible substrates represents a heretofore unavailable material, and would enable numerous flexible circuits applications.The anticipated benefits include the creation of equipment enabling a new processing method: continuous roll-to-roll SLS crystallization of silicon thin films on flexible substrates; as well as the creation of a new materials category: low-defect-density crystalline silicon thin films on flexible substrates. Such materials would be expected to enable significant performance improvements in flexible circuits applications, such as flexible integrated TFT-based displays (e.g., AMLCDs and AMOLEDs), smart cards, and embedded processors for information appliances.

APPLIED CERAMICS RESEARCH CO.
1420 Owl Ridge Dr.
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 948-2109
Dr. Lee Kammerdiner
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 22MAY01
Title:Non-Volatile Memory based on Silicon-nanocrystals
Abstract:Recently, there has been more emphasis on a system-on-a-chip (SOC) to integrate logic, analog functions, volatile and non-volatile memory onto a single chip. In order to overcome limitations of conventional floating gate non-volatile memory devices, we are proposing the non-volatile memory elements based on silicon nanocrystals. The silicon nanocrystals will be fabricated in the gate oxide of the conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor ( CMOS) field effect transistors by ion implantation. The implanted silicon ions will be recrystallized by furnace and rapid thermal annealing. The resulting memory element expected to program at lower voltages with better endurance and retention. In the Phase II project, we are going to optimize the nanocrystal based non-volatile memory technology and implement it in conventional deep submicron CMOS VLSI and ULSI process.This technology has at least two obvious commercial applications. First because of its performance advantage it can replace convention EEPROM. Second, because of the simplicity of the process it is ideal for system-on-a-chip applications.

APPLIED CERAMICS RESEARCH CO.
1420 Owl Ridge Dr.
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 948-2109
Dr. Lee Kammerdiner
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 22MAY01
Title:Novel Ferroelectric Thin Film Materials for Radiation Hard, Non-Destructive Read Out (NDRO) Non-volatile Memory
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project proposes the development of novel materials to be used in a ferroelectric FET (Field Effect Transistor) memory cell. The proposed memory cell is non-volatile utilizing a non-destructive readout, single transistor design. As a result it has unlimited endurance, very small cell size and fast read and write. The most important properties to be evaluated are dielectric constant, coercive field and memory window. Based on the determination of these characteristics, the best candidate will be chosen for incorporation in a prototype product for a Phase II effortThis cell can potentially replace all existing solid state non-volatile memory such as flash EEPROM and battery backed SRAM. Due to the proliferation of such products as cell phones, digital cameras, smart cards, solid state memory cards and others this market is experiencing tremendous growth. Also, because it is fast to read and write and has a small cell size it can be used in applications currently served by DRAM. The former market is measured in billions of dollars, while the latter is in the tens of billions.

ASTRALUX, INC.
2500 Central Ave.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 413-1440
Dr. Jacques I. Pankove
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Growth of a Boule of GaN
Abstract:A recent workshop on wide bandgap semiconductors concluded there is still an urgent need for a GaN single crystal boule. Such a boule would allow the fabrication of single crystal wafers of high quality GaN for the epitaxial growth of high quality devices and integrated circuits for numerous applications from short wavelength lasers, high performance transistors to UV/XRay detectors. Astralux, with support from AFSOR and DARPA. has done preliminary work on the growth of GaN single crystals, demonstrating the possibility of fast growth of at least 0.4 mm/hr. More importantly the key problems to overcome for a successful boule growth were clearly identified and the solution to these challenges were defined, before the funding ran out. Now, Astralux aims for a successful multistage attack on this vital problem. First, there is a need to demonstrate a controlled growth rate. Second, the choice of a high quality seed is critical. Third, the distribution of reactants over the growth area must be properly controlled. Finally, a more powerful rf generator must be set up. Astralux proposes to do this final stage with the collaboration of a large U.S. corporation. A single crystal boule of high quality GaN will allow production of wafers of high quality GaN for the epitaxial growth of devices and ICs.

BANDGAP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1428 Taylor St.
Columbia, SC 29201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 765-9321
Mr. Yuri Khlebnikov
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 01APR01
Title:A New Approach for the Growth of High Resistivity Silicon Carbide
Abstract:This Phase I program is aimed at demonstrating a novel SiC source material synthesis technique that will be used to grow high resistivity SiC. In this effort, we will demonstrate that the proposed source material synthesis technique will produce SiC starting material that is far superior to presently used material in terms of purity and process time, and that the high purity source material can be synthesized with high yield, and hence, low cost. The synthesized source material is expected to produce high resistivity 4H-SiC boules > 10^5 ohm-cm. In Phase I, we expect to deliver a SiC boule of approximately 50mm diameter. In Phase II, further refinements will be made to the source synthesis process, and we will demonstrate the production of commercially viable high resistivity 4H-SiC wafers, >50mm in diameter, with resistivity >10^5 ohm-cm and of good polytype homogeneity grown using the synthesized source material.With the proposed approach, three specific advantages are anticipated: (a) the high yield of the synthesis process is expected to result in low cost of the pure source material, (b) the high purity source material will produce boules whose characteristics are uniform over its volume (<10% variation in resistivity), (c) high wafer yield and reduced cost of high resistivity SiC wafers, which will stimulate widespread commercialization of the material for microwave and RF system applications.

BANDGAP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1428 Taylor St.
Columbia, SC 29201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 765-9321
Mr. Yuri Khlebnikov
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 01APR01
Title:Off c-Axis Bulk Crystal Growth of Silicon Carbide
Abstract:This Phase I program is aimed at demonstrating the principle of off c-axis boule growth of 4H-SiC. In Phase I, using off-axis SiC seeds, we will demonstrate the growth of 4H-n SiC boules~15 mm long. Also in Phase I, we will slice the off-axis boules into wafers, lap and polish them, and perform structural and electrical characterization of the wafers. Comparisons will be made with on-axis wafers for micropipe and planar defect densities and their distributions. The off-axis grown wafers are expected to offer significant advantages for device processing and fabrication. In Phase II, improvements will be made to the growth process, and we will demonstrate the production of commercially feasible, large diameter off-axis 4H-n SiC wafers with reduced defect density.The proposed off-axis boule growth offers specific advantages: (a) off-axis wafers are directly produced by slicing the boule perpendicular to the axis of the grown cylindrical boule and hence the wafer yield is considerably higher than that produced by on c-axis grown boules, (b) the cost of off c-axis wafers will be significantly lower, (c) the quality of wafers will be superior due to decreased defect density.

BANDGAP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1428 Taylor St.
Columbia, SC 29201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 765-9321
Mr. Yuri Khlebnikov
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 01APR01
Title:Growth of Large Diameter Silicon Carbide Boules
Abstract:Absence of low defect density large diameter (~100mm) silicon carbide (SiC) wafers is a major barrier for the commercial production of SiC based devices. This phase I program is aimed at demonstrating a novel technique that will significantly reduce the mechanical stress in SiC during boule growth. In phase I, we will demonstrate that by the proposed method, a significant reduction in the mechnical stress is achieved in the growth of a 75 mm diameter 4H-SiC boule. Also, in Phase I, we will slice the boule into wafers, lap and polish the wafers, and provide comparison of mechanical stress between wafers produced by the proposed and conventional approaches. In Phase II, the technique will be refined to demonstrate the production of commercially viable 4H-n SiC boules, 100 mm in diameter, with a significant reduction in mechanical stress compared to those achieved by the conventional method.With the proposed approach, three specific advantages are anticipated: (a) substantial improvement in the quality of commercially available wafers due to a significant reduction in the density of defects, (b) improvement in the yield of good quality wafers, and (c) reduction in the cost of good quality wafers, which will stimulate the widespread commercialization of SiC devices for power conditioning and switching and for RF and microwave applications.

BREWER SCIENCE, INC.
2401 Brewer Drive
Rolla, MO 65401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 364-0300
Dr. Douglas J. Guerrero
BMDO 01-014      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Materials for IR Microbolometer Arrays
Abstract:Ion implanted, thin polymer films exhibit a large temperature coefficient of resistance which suggest their application in microbolometer arrays used for infrared (IR) imaging and temperature mapping. Compared to current microbolometer designs which require a series of difficult deposition steps, an ion implanted polymer-based device requires only a single layer which can be applied by spin coating and then, after ion implantation, can be easily patterned by plasma etching. Freestanding microbolometers can be prepared by simple sacrificial layer process to increase thermal isolation and improve device sensitivity. In Phase I, we will fabricate 1x8 linear microbolometer arrays using an ion- implanted polymer film as the active device material. The arrays will be characterized against specific physical and electrical design criteria with a goal of optimizing a test structure that can be use in a prototype IR imaging device. Key electrical parameters, resistivity, TCR, responsivity, and NEP will be determine and correlated to ion implantation process. Ion-implanted polymer microbolometers potentially offer greater sensitivity than current designs because of their low thermal mass and superior heat capacity and thermal conductivity. These features combined with the simple fabrication requirements open the possibility for producing low cost, uncooled IR focal plane arrays for a variety of military and civilian applications. There is a vast market for uncooled IR imaging devices. This program will demonstrate an easy-to-fabricate microbolometer array suitable for high quality thermal imaging in an uncooled mode. The availability of this low cost focal plane array detector technology will expand IR imaging into a host of new commercial and military applications.

BREWER SCIENCE, INC.
2401 Brewer Drive
Rolla, MO 65401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 364-0300
Ms. Rama Puligadda
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Bilayer 157nm Bottom Anti-Reflective Coatings
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I will develop novel chemistry platforms for 157nm bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARC's). Recent improvements in BARC's, photoresist's, and optical processes at deep ultra-violet have enabled resolution targets approaching 0.12 microns. The semiconductor industry technology roadmap calls for the introduction of 193nm processes to 0.07 microns, and BARC's are essential in achieving this resolution target. Beyond 0.07 microns, stringent BARC product and process performance requirements at 157nm will require improved optical performance, planarization of substrate topography, and etch rate/selectivity versus photoresist. In the proposed Phase I work, bilayer BARC chemistries based upon silicon oxide or organo-titanium polymer top layers, in conjunction with a thick absorbing bottom layer, will be developed and characterized for chemical and process performance. In this system, the top layer will act as a mask for transferring the photoresist pattern through the thick bottom layer and into the substrate by plasma etching. Resolution, control of critical dimensions in photolithography, and the ability to control via-first dual damascene processes will be improved using the bilayer BARC system. The Phase I and II program objectives are to meet the aggressive performance requirements and industry timelines for new commercial 157nm BARC materials into the R&D phase by 2003. The development of novel bilayer anti-reflective coatings at 157nm will enable semiconductor manufacturers to meet aggressive optical lithography targets of < 0.70 microns in integrated circuit devices. This enabling research will result in microprocessor and memory computer chips that: are able to process more information with increased speed, are more robust with improved shelf life, and are more cost effective to both government and commercial sectors.

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
25 Cord Dr.
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-2494
Jan Barani
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 03/27/0
Title:Preparation of High Purity Aluminum Nitride
Abstract:We propose a new approach to produce very high purity (low oxygen content) aluminum nitride (AlN). Our objective is to produce AlN with an oxygen content of less than 100ppm by weight at a cost of less than $10K/kg.High purity AlN ceramic has a thermal conductivity exceeding 300W/m-K at room temperature. This value rivals that of BeO but AlN is a much safer material with which to work. This application is valuable to high power electronics and to such applications as electrically insulating but thermally conducting stand-offs for superconducting wire. In addition, high purity AlN is needed to develop the bulk AlN crystal growth technology. Large, single crystals of AlN are needed to fabricate substrates for III-nitride device technology in optoelectronics and high power electronics. The development of a viable technology for very high purity production of AlN starting material will greatly aid the development of this technology.

DENDRITECH, INC.
3110 Schuette Drive
Midland, MI 48642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 496-1153
Dr. David Hedstrand
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 07MAY01
Title:Nano-Porous Organosilicon Ultra-Low Dielectric Constant Materials for Advanced Microelectronics Applications
Abstract:Successful development of electronics-grade packaging materials with dielectric constant of or below =1.5 will play a decisive role in the realization of the electronics industry road map in coming years. One of the most promising approaches toward this goal is the preparation of porous materials consisting of closed, nano-scaled, air-filled cells uniformly distributed within appropriate low matrix. In this SBIR, we propose to evaluate the feasibility of a recently discovered new family of dendrimers, the composition of which is especially suited for fulfilling the role of pore-generators in organosilicon matrix materials. If successful, this approach could make a decisive difference in the technical ability of future generations of microelectronic and optoelectronic information storage technologies with huge consequences for both civilian and military applications.The opportunities of the proposed approach in the preparation of low dielectric constant materials are numerous. Primarily, they include realistic potential for tailor-making and precise control of shapes, sizes and spatial distribution of the pores within the nano-domain of the resulting porous matrices. In addition to this, they also include opportunities for achieving generational extendability of the dielectric constant while retaining other desired properties of the matrix and pronounced versatility of the synthetic processes providing for a variety of chemical compositions within the proposed family of dendrimer pore-generators. The latter property also suggests that different members of this dendrimer family may be applicable for different matrices.

EPITAXIAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5596
Dr. Ayub Fathimulla
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 18MAY01
Title:Novel Broadband Materials and Components
Abstract:Epitaxial Technologies proposes to develop novel material technologies for the realization of broadband components such as oscillators, mixers and preamplifiers. We will achieve this by performing device designs to determine suitable material structures, epitaxial growth and device fabrication processes. The primary goal of this proposed Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of broadband components with an "all-in-one" material structure by developing techniques for growing heterostructures with high differential negative resistance and gain using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and projecting the performance that can be realised through material and device designs. In Phase II, we will further optimize the material structures and design and fabricate broadband circuits operating at W-band. This project will result in two types of products: broadband circuit chips in the upper millimeterwave frequencies and the wafers for fabricating them. The chips will be applicable in missile seekers and phased array radar. Civilian applications include advanced synthesizers and digital clocks for broadband wireless and wireline telecommunications.

INTEGRAL WAVE TECHNOLOGIES
700 Research Center Blvd., M/S-34
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(501) 575-5614
Dr. David M Nelms
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 10APR01
Title:Barium Titanate Formation for Electronic/Photonic Applications
Abstract:Integral Wave Technologies (formerly known as Arkansas Microelectronic Development Corporation) proposes to develop a process for growing ferroelectric, polycrystalline barium titinate (BaTiO3) thin-films, by anodic oxidation of co-sputtered barium-titanium films (BaTi). Though films of this nature find applications in several electrical devices, Integral Wave will utilize this novel technology, if successful, for integral thin-film capacitors and optical waveguides. By utilizing this novel method of ferroelectric formation, Integral Wave will be able to obtain thin, uniform ferroelectric films that exhibit dielectric constants from approximately 150 to 1500. This will allow the fabrication of integral thin-film capacitors, which exhibit tremendous volume and space saving benefits over traditional discrete capacitors, with very large capacitance densities, from 1F/cm2 up to 13F/cm2. These values are over 2000 times greater than the value exhibited by the leading commercially available integral dielectric. The low loss characteristic of these films will also allow Integral Wave to explore the potential application of this material in optical devices. Crystalline ferroelectrics have also found numerous applications as additional passive and active optical components, such as couplers, taps, attenuators, modulators, switches and wavelength converters.The main applications are thin-film decoupling capacitors that can either be surface mounted or embedded between layers of a printed circuit board, or substrate, and optical waveguides. Additional passive and active optical components, such as couplers, taps, attenuators, modulators, switches and wavelength converters, also exist.

INTEGRATED MICRO SENSORS
10814 Atwell Drive
Houston, TX 77096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 743-3621
Dr. Nacer Badi
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Development of Boron Nitride -Based Capacitors for High-Energy Density High Temperature Applications
Abstract:Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) are used in high-energy density storage and high frequency power switching device applications. High-energy density capacitors operating at excessive temperature are needed in several ballistic missile applications, electric guns, and high power microwave sources. High power capacitors are also critical elements to replace current mechanical and hydraulic actuators with electrically driven actuators and dramatically improve their reliability. The need for compact and lightweight pulsed power capacitor devices is a necessity for airborne applications and particularly crucial for spaceborne. We propose to develop for high power storage and high temperature needs a very low cost and high efficiency multi-capacitor chips based on insulating boron nitride thin layers and conductive aluminum and tantalum nitride as internal electrodes.The use of thin BN/Al stack layers to fabricate boron nitride -based ceramic capacitors will provide higher energy density, high breakdown voltage, low loss, extended temperature range, and high reliability. Beside high power storage MLCC for BMDO applications, the integrated device might benefit IMS as power storage media for its implantable microsensors. IMS is aggressively pursuing the integration of advanced sensor concepts into Si chip manufacturing processes. The BN -based capacitor will be targeted at $3.5 B ceramic capacitor market. The segment of this market is growing at a 14% annual rate.

INTEMATIX CORP.
351 Rheem Blvd.
Moraga, CA 94556
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 631-9005
Mr. Shifan Cheng
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 07MAY01
Title:Comprehensive Development of (FeCo)-RE-O Ferrites for Miniature Magnetic Components Used in High Frequency Electronics
Abstract:The demand for high frequency miniature magnetic components has been increased rapidly in recent years since most of the other electronic components such as IC amplifiers, capacitors, and resistors can be integrated for electronic portable instruments, for example, cell phones. The inductors or transformers of magnetic materials are always found to be the size-dominant components in these devices. In order to increase the efficiency of power devices with higher power density the use of a small planar magnetic inductor/transformer is required to replace those nonmagnetic inductor/transformers. In this phase I program, Intematix Corporation proposes to rapidly develop new high frequency low-loss, high-permeability ferrite materials by an innovative combinatorial synthesis technology. The targeted material is based on (FeCo)-RE-O, RE=Hf, Tb, Dy, Ho, ferrite materials. Four thin film libraries of these materials with cobalt concentration continuously changing from zero to one will be synthesized and figure of merit (Ms/tan) at different operation frequencies will be optimized as a function of Co concentration and different rare-earth elements. Both thin film deposition and bulk ceramic processing will be developed for the identified new ferrite materials. Our goal is delivering ferrites with higher magnetization (Ms>1T) and lower loss (Q>10) at a frequency higher than 5 MHz.The success of this innovative program will be developed into commercial fabrication of high frequency, low loss magnetic materials for various applications, particularly for portable instruments. The goal of this program is to provide DOD and the electronics industry with high frequencey ferrites for a huge potential market of wireless communications and other high frequency electronics.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27613
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Mr. N. Mark Williams
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:4" Single Crystal Aluminum Nitride Substrates
Abstract:Attempts to grow large area low defect density aluminum nitride substrates has had limited success. We propose the use of Kyma Technologies' novel growth process for production of 4" diameter single crystal aluminum nitride (AlN) substrates. The proposed research will demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel physical vapor transport growth process for 4" AlN crystal growth. This growth process possesses high growth rates and scalability up to 4" diameter substrates. Aluminum nitride wafers produced by this growth technique will exhibit low defect densities, high thermal conductivity, and high electrical resistivity. Aluminum nitride wafers produced by this technique will be ideal for the epitaxial growth of GaN thin films. Epitaxial growth of GaN on this type of substrate will result in improved epitaxial growth, low defect density, and good electrical and optical properties. We will initially determine what processing parameters can be optimized to deliver 4" diameter AlN substrates with high thermal conductivity, low defect density, and high strength by the end of phase I. Phase II will focus on post processing issues such as polishing.The ability to produce large area single crystal AlN will have many commercial applications including substrates for high performance electronic devices, optical windows, and thermally conducting packaging. With this new growth system we will be able to grow single crystal bulk AlN in a cost effective manner. We project that this growth process will have numerous applications and will aid in the commercialization of GaN devices.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Dr. B.G.Ravi
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 03/15/0
Title:Flexible Transparent Conductive Substrates For Displays
Abstract:Recent applications of transparent conducting oxides (TCO) include the advent of large flat screen high definition televisions (HDTVs), higher resolution screens on portable computers, low emissivity ("low-e") and electrochromic windows, thin film photo voltaics (PV) and a plethora of new hand held smart devices. Based on the electrical and optical properties, the current TCO industry is dominated by one material, Indium tin Oxide (ITO). However in the last few years, the perception that ITO based materials alone were sufficient for TCO applications has begun to change. Finding an alternative for indium based material, which is not only expensive but can also become scarce in the near future, has been a target of research in recent years. Nanocrystalline ZnO has significant advantages in terms of transport and optical properties, which are important considerations for any TCO material. The availability of zinc is abundant, which makes fluorine doped ZnO as a low cost alternative to expensive ITO. Flexible flat panel display applications require TCO to be coated on polymeric substrates. ZnO is an ideal candidate for such applications as it can be coated on polymeric substrates at much lower temperatures (<100oC). In Phase I, nanocrystalline ZnO:F will be synthesized and coated as a transparent conducting film on polymer substrates.Some of the important applications of ZnO as a TCO (transparent conducting oxide) include: Flat-screen-high definition television (HDTVs), high resolution screens for portable computers, electrochromic mirrors, defrosting mirrors, touch panel controls and electromagnetic shielding.

MAXDEM, INC.
140 East Arrow Highway
San Dimas, CA 91773
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 394-0644
Dr. Matthew Marrocco
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 18JUN01
Title:New Materials for Full Color Electroluminescent Displays
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project explores the nature of photoluminescence and energy transfer in polyphenylene matrices. The polyphenylenes are highly fluorescent and have been shown to function in electroluminescent displays. The proposed work attempts to fill the need for practical blue electroluminescent (EL) materials as well as improve performance of red and green devices. There are currently no blue fluorophores with sufficient lifetime and turn-on voltage meeting the requirements of display manufacturers. The proposed new materials are expected to provide red, blue, and green EL materials, with low turn-on voltage and long life. The total flat panel display market is projected to be over $20 B in 2002 (approximately 100 MM displays), with EL displays representing 1% or $200 MM. The EL market is also expected to grow rapidly thereafter. The projected 1 MM EL displays for 2002 will provide a substantial early market for EL materials. EL displays have obvious applications in both the civilian and government sectors. EL displays offer an opportunity for the U.S. to capture display manufacture, now largely overseas.The proposed new materials will be useful as the light emitting layers in Electroluminescent displays. The proposed materials will have superior operating voltage and efficiency than existing materials.

MAXION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6525 Belcrest Road, Suite 615
Hyattsville, MD 20782
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 683-2170
Dr. Rui Q. Yang
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Mid-Infrared Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Cascade Lasers
Abstract:In this program, we propose to develop vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on cascaded type-II InAs/Ga(In)Sb/AlSb quantum wells, which will operate in the 3-7 microns mid-IR wavelength region in quasi-CW mode with output power exceeding 1 mW. The type-II interband cascade VCSELs retain the advantages of cascade injection and emission wavelength tailoring, while circumventing the phonon scattering losses and polarization selection restrictions that are present in intersubband lasers. These features make them excellent candidates for compact, reliable, high-power, mid-infrared light sources for a wide range of commercial and military applications, such as chemical sensing, communications, land-mine detection, and industrial process control. The recent demonstration of interband cascade lasers with record-high power efficiencies (>18% in pulsed mode and >14% in cw mode at 80 K) clearly shows their potential to fulfill the necessary requirements for practical mid-IR applications. The phase I effort will be directed towards the design, MBE growth, characterization and optimization of type-II InAs/GaInSb/AlSb interband cascade VCSELs to demonstrate their feasibility for chemical sensing applications. High performance mid-IR VCSELs will be developed in Phase II. If successful, the proposed effort will lead to the first mid-IR cascade VCSEL that can operate under cw conditions at ambient temperatures. This would enable several commercially viable products in several fields including the broad field of chemical sensing. One example is provided by the need to detect, at the ppb level, formaldehyde (and related compounds) for medical diagnosis purposes. In this instance (and in other cases), a single mode cw laser source operating in the mid-IR is essential. This effort's success will also provide laser sources needed to meet the needs of many commercial and defense applications.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd
Chamblee, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-2448
Dr. Guang ji Cui
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 23MAY01
Title:Thin-Film Deposition of Advanced DRAM and FRAM Memory Device Structures
Abstract:Herein we propose to apply the proprietary Combustion CVD (CCVD) process to the manufacture of novel structures for dynamic access memory (DRAM) and nonvolatile, ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) devices. The CCVD process is a thin-film deposition technique that operates in the open-atmosphere using low-cost equipment and precursors. It has already demonstrated its ability to epitaxially deposit advanced materials of high permittivity (e.g. barium strontium titanate and lead zirconium titanate). These perovskites have the potenitial to allow for high-performance DRAM and FRAM devices. In addition, the non-silicon, single-crystal substrates used in the proposed work provide an innovative technical approach to demonstrate a new type of silicon-on-insulator integrated circuit device. In Phase I, we will optimize CCVD-deposited perovskite thin-films for the envisioned applications. This encompasses a systematic study of deposition parameters and film properties. Multi-layered, epitaxial films will be fabricated and fully tested. This will provide key design parameters and form the fundation for the next generation of DRAM and FRAM devices for both military and civilian applications.A novel structured Giga-bit DRAM with high dielectrics on non-silicon based substrate will enable fast, high density, smaller, more robust, and reliable IC chips. Those advanced DRAM IC could be installed in control systems for a wide variety of applications in aerospace, naval, industrial and civil applications. These devices may provide a new generation of DRAM, which is a promising candidate to realize 0.10 m DRAMs and beyond. This advanced DRAM could also satisfy the requirement of cell capacitance in ever shrinking cell size.

MICROLINK DEVICES
P.O. Box 161
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 588-3001
Dr. Noren Pan
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 23MAY01
Title:High Speed InP OEIC
Abstract:The feasibility of a high speed InP based OEIC (optoelectronic integrated circuit) will be investigated. The combination of high speed InP based HBT will be integrated with a P-i-n photodetector. The integration of these two devices will simplify the material structure, the processing, and the packaging. A prototype of this OEIC will be built in Phase I. Phase II will focus on the improvement of the OEIC to handle data rates in excess of 40 Gb/s, reliability issues, manufacturability, and packaging issues of this circuit.InP based technology has a clear potential to significantly advance the data rate capability of optical communication circuits. The integration of high speed InP based HBT along with the laser and detector components can greatly simplify the circuit and improve the performance and potentially lower the cost. Commercial application of this technology include high speed internet optical communication networks and high speed local area networks local area networks, and

NANODYNAMICS, INC.
510 East 73rd Street
New York, NY 10021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 249-2232
Mr. John Clay Lofgren
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 14MAY01
Title:Epitaxial SOI for Future Silicon Devices
Abstract:NanoDynamics Inc. has produced an epitaxial barrier of barrier height over 0.5eV using a superlattice formation of silicon/adsorbed oxygen. The subsequent silicon growth beyond this SLB (Superlattice Barrier) is epitaxial of thickness ranging from 10nm to greater than 500nm. This phase I proposal will involve utilizing this SLB constructed of Si/O as a diffusion barrier for creating an improved SOI (Epi-SOI)buried insulating layer for future silicon device applications. This SLB in Si/O and/or Epi-SOI will be applied to the construction of FETs and novel Dual Buried-gate FET device designs beneficial to BMDO as well as dual use for future technology applications . This technology has the potential to improve present CMOS applications.Improvements in present SOI applications, as well as, FET device channel characteristics are anticipated to result from this research and development. Improved interfaces between semiconductor material and Insulating layers could enhance devices such as the FETs utilized in present day CMOS applications.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2620 Trade Center Avenue, Suite C
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 702-1672
Dr. Matthew Hooker
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Multilayer In-Rush Current Limiters
Abstract:This Phase 1 SBIR project seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of producing multilayered in-rush current limiting devices based on materials that exhibit a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (i.e., NTC thermistors). As microelectronic systems continue to proliferate, the need to protect microprocessors from damage due to over-voltage and over-current conditions has created a rapidly growing market for circuit protection devices. At this time, most of the devices used in these applications are leaded ceramic disks. These components are often the largest component on the circuit boards and in many cases require the circuit to be fabricated using a combination of automated (e.g., pick-and-place) and manual operations. The proposed research aims to demonstrate a new chip-style, in-rush limiter with superior characteristics to state-of-the-art devices, transitioning this technology into products that are compatible with modern circuit manufacturing technologies. The proposed work builds on the company's extensive experience in the design and fabrication of novel circuit protection devices using advances in materials science. If successful, these components will complement our portfolio of multilayered circuit protection devices. Circuit protection devices are needed in both military and commercial applications to defend microprocessors and other electronic components from in-rush currents. The proposed work will demonstrate the feasibility of producing a multilayer device with superior performance characteristics as compared to the currently available leaded devices. It is anticipated that this approach to device design will offer (1) improved performance in a multilayer package, (2) reduced component size, (3) tailorable base resistance values through multilayer designs, and (4) compatibility with pick-and-place (e.g., tape-and-reel) manufacturing of electronics. Examples of military and civilian application of the proposed technology include use in communication satellites, antennas, computers, navigation and weapon control systems, and voice encryption systems.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Mr. Jeffrey Mecham
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 05MAY01
Title:New Proton Exchange Membranes with Low Methanol Permeability for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed BMDO Phase I program is to develop and commercialize ion-conducting thermally stable polymers for use as high temperature proton exchange membrane/membrane electrode assembly (PEM/MEA) materials with low methanol permeability as components of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Polymer electrolyte/proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are an environmentally friendly power source for a wide range of applications that include transportation (cars and buses), stationary (home power generation), and consumer electronics (computers and phones).1-6 Sulfonated ion-conducting sites will be introduced via direct polymerization, allowing control of both their location and concentration. Preliminary work has indicated that the PI and his colleagues are capable of synthesizing such materials exceeding the conductivity and methanol permeability performance of perfluorinated sulfonic acid Nafion materials at, or above, room temperature These new sulfonated copolymers generate twice the conductivity of the current state-of-the-art Nafion material (~0.1 S/cm) for a period of 4 days at 120 C, in continuous operation, at 70 psi water pressure. Additionally, cast films of the novel copolymers demonstrated a marked (nearly four-fold) decrease in methanol permeability (fuel cross-over), which could greatly limit flooding, and the decreased efficiency associated with this phenomenon. These new materials also are much less costly than fluoropolymers and they can be synthesized from commercially available starting materials.Power needs for small electronic devices often limit the lifetime of current battery technologies. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have the advantage of a liquid phase fuel source, unlike related pressurized hydrogen fuel cells, which minimizes the size of the overall DMFC system. With power output lifetimes that are several orders of magnitude greater than current battery systems, DMFC technology is an excellent candidate as a next generation of power source for electronics and other items where a portable power source is needed.

NITRONEX CORP.
628Hutton Street - Suite 103
Raleigh, NC 27606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 807-9100
Dr. Kevin Linthicum
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Gallium Nitride on Silicon Materials Assessment for GaN-Based Low Noise Amplifiers using Pendeoepitaxial Growth Techniques
Abstract:Nitronex will develop GaN on silicon substrates for GaN-based LNAs utilizing pendeoepitaxial growth techniques. The properties of these revolutionary low-defect-density GaN on Silicon wafers makes higher performing power devices with a high degree of device integration possible resulting in system level improvements in military (power transmission, radar, wireless communications), industrial, and consumer applications. PENDEOEPITAXY-TM is a radically new method of lateral growth using MOCVD, shown to reduce defect densities by 4 orders of magnitude. In addition, GaN growth on silicon provides an optimal process route for integrating Gallium Nitride with silicon on a fundamental atomic level. This integration allows for the device level combination of CMOS devices on silicon with power FETs on Gallium Nitride. The properties of pendeoepitaxal grown GaN films will be evaluated using non-destructive methods to correlate structural, mechanical, optical and electrical properties with expected electronic device performance. SEM, AFM, Hall, C-V, and x-ray mapping will be correlated to structural and device properties including lateral coalescence, wafer tilt, dislocation density, electron mobility, and carrier concentration across 50 - and 100-mm wafers during phase 1. Additionally, GaN-based HEMTs will be fabricated and tested to analyze the expected benefits of employing lateral growth techniques for low noise device properties.Electronic devices (MODFET, HEMT, etc.) need low-defect density wafers of Gallium Nitride in order to achieve the device application breakthroughs for which these GaN on Silicon has tremendous potential. Through this work, a substrate for GaN-based HEMTs and for the direct integration of GaN electronics with silicon devices will be developed and available for sale.

OSEMI, INC.
300 First St. NE
Rochester, MN 55906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(507) 285-4490
Dr. David Braddock
BMDO 01-014      Selected for Award
Title:Gate Oxide for GaN FET Devices
Abstract:We propose to take the first steps in demonstrating a new class of high frequency FETs by demonstrating a gate oxide for GaN/AlGaN MOSFETs. In this work, Gallium based oxides will be grown by MBE using a specially developed effusion cell that is uniquely capable of high temperature operation in the presence of oxygen. In addition, a new type of atomic oxygen source will be employed that does not damage the semiconductor/Oxide interface. We will use this new MBE technology to (1) optimize the nucleation of oxide on GaN FET Structures, (2) grow bulk oxide films with a bandgap in excess of 4.5eV, (3) and produce oxide films that possess good interface properties and a low residual conductivity. The materials will be characterized using techniques including ellipsometry, Photoluminscence, C-V, and I-V measurements as a function of temperature. The development of a high quality gate oxide for GaN will revolutionize the semiconductor industry by enabling a GaN CMOS IC technology. We anticipate that the resulting FET technology would be radiation hard, able to operate at very high microwave and MM-wave frequencies and find use in DOD relevant missile, satellite, and land based applications. We also anticipate that this new GaN-MOS technology would find numerous applications in the commercial microwave electronics including enhancement mode power amplifiers for wireless base stations.

PACIFIC WAVE INDUSTRIES, INC.
10390 Santa Monica Blvd.,, Suite 100
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 229-0099
Dr. Cheng Zhang
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 22MAY01
Title:Thermally Stable and Highly Active Polymer Electro-Optic Materials
Abstract:Pacific Wave Industries proposes to systematically improve the thermal stability of our previously engineered electro-optic (EO) polymers. The proposed high mb chromophore-incorporated EO polymers are based upon chromophore monomers or dimers modified with multiple bulky side groups that are functionalized with trifluorovinylethers. The bulky groups help increase the molecular weight to such a level that solutions of the resulting monomer or dimer can be directly spin-cast into optical quality films. The trifluorovinylethers (TFVEs) can undergo thermal cyclization reaction and therefore serve to crosslink the films at elevated temperatures. Our recently developed fabrication techniques will allow for rapid device implementations of the new materials in the form of Mach-Zehnder modulators with electrical bandwidths up to 60 GHz, low half-wave voltages, low optical losses, and good power handling capabilities. The utilization of these new materials in complex structures, performing single side band modulation and RF frequency phase shifting, are planned for the future stages of this effort.This Phase I project will increase the temperature stability of our chromophore-incorporated polymers to levels satisfying the requirements of telecommunication industry. This will allow us to develop commercial electro-optic modulators with ultra wide bandwidth exceeding that of any presently available on the market. Furthermore, because of the low cost and lower operating voltages, devices fabricated with the new polymers will offer superior performance to Lithium Niobate technology in the important 40 Gbit application area.

SEMISOUTH LABORATORIES
1891 Chapel Hill Road
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 615-4973
Ms. Janna Dufrene
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Vertical Silicon Carbide Transistors for High Power Transmitters (UHF-S-band)
Abstract:Silicon Carbide microwave transistors have yet to realize their full potential with regard to signal fidelity, junction operating temperature, and reasonable manufacturing costs. In this proposal we present new innovative approaches of solving these pressing problems through the use of advanced epitaxy material growth concepts combined with unique device design. Specifically, new approaches with respect to the design and fabrication of SiC Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) and Static Induction Transistors (SITs) for use from UHF to S-band are explored, with emphasis on high junction temperature operation with reliable metallurgical schemes for packaging and device performance. It is anticipated that these devices will have significant impact on the expanding cellular phone base stations, HDTV transmitters, and PCS base stations. These markets range from UHF to S-band, and are experiencing high annual growth rates, with total market value in the hundreds of millions of dollars. These applications all have similar requirements to the military systems for which these products are being developed.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21 Cavalier Way
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 783-8936
Dr. Remis Gaska
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Microwave GaN MESFET on Conducting SiC Substrates
Abstract:We will develop and demonstrate high power GaN HDMESFETs grown over conducting 6H-SiC substrates for effective thermal management. The SiC substrate will be separated from the device channel by insulating GaN buffer layer thick enough to have the capacitance between the substrate and the device contact pads smaller then or comparable to the gate-to-channel capacitance (patent pending). This will allow us to control noise, minimize backgating, sidegating, and current slump. Also, this substrate contact can be used to adjust the device threshold voltage, similar to what is done in silicon MOSFETs.A successful Phase II program will yield transistors to be used in MMIC modules for fabrication of highly efficient X-band power amplifiers. These have direct applications in several commercial and military systems such as radars and wireless communication systems operating in 2-10 GHz frequency range. Primarily due to the significantly lower cost of conducting SiC substrates , transition from insulating 4H-SiC to conducting 6H-SiC substrate material would significantly reduce the cost of the microwave power devices.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21 Cavalier Way
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 783-8936
Dr. Remis Gaska
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Enhanced Electron Mobility GaN Transistor (EEMT)
Abstract:Our technical approach is based on a uniquely large (close to 3 eV for GaN) energy band shift in III-Nitride based p-n junctions. We propose to enhance electron mobility in the n-doped MESFET channel by localizing electrons at the surface using a lightly p-doped GaN buffer layer (patent pending). This Enhanced Electron Mobility Transistor (EEMT) approach has several advantages. First, we have a good localization of carriers in the channel without using highly strained AlGaN/GaN heterointerfaces. This localization introduced by the built-in electric field diminishes short-channel effects, improves transistor linearity, and decreases noise. Second, a large concentration of carriers at the channel interface should lead to filling interface states resulting in better device performance. Third, this localization prevents the 2D-3D transition and should allow us to obtain a higher sheet carrier concentration. Our EEMT device design reduces the source and drain contact resistance, because ohmic contacts will be fabricated on a high quality, highly doped GaN. EEMT design eliminates large built-in strain and, thus, is expected to yield a much better device stability, higher parameter uniformity across large diameter substrates, better manufacturing reproducibility, and substantially lower cost.We expect that the electron mobility enhancement due to a large built-in electric field will be sufficient to compete with conventional AlGaN/GaN HFETs, especially for short channel device designs. We therefore feel that the large periphery EEMT devices of the type whose feasibility we establish in Phase I, can become the key component for the MMIC modules. These modules will be useful for the T/R modules for the next generation high power mobile radars. Our technology will also have numerous commercial applications in high power and linear amplifiers for wireless communications

STERLING SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
22660 Executive Drive, Suite 101
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 834-7535
Dr. Cengiz Balkas
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 02MAY01
Title:An Innovative Approach to Characterizing Semi-insulating SiC Wafers
Abstract:Silicon carbide (SiC) is the most promising substrate material for the next generation high power, high frequency power transistors replacing traveling wave tube for radar power applications. Sterling's results obtained to date clearly indicate the existence of a better method of producing semi-insulating SiC wafers of improved quality. However, accurate and non-destructive measurement of wafer resistivity for such wafers remains a significant challenge. In response to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization SBIR topic BMDO 01-014, Sterling proposes a Phase I effort to demonstrate the feasibility of a unique resistivity mapping technique for high resistivity (semi-insulating) SiC wafers.Future high frequency programs such as TMD and MEADS as well as future commercial applications (satellite communications and cellular base stations) using advanced microwave power amplifiers require advanced materials and devices to realize those systems. Well characterized semi-insulating substrates, of higher quality, improved uniformity and lower cost will enable the faster, cheaper proliferation of wide band-gap microwave power devices (MESFETs, MODFETs) used in missile defense, air defense and fire control radar systems.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-5909
Dr. Gary S. Tompa
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Antimonide-based, High-speed, Low-power, Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor
Abstract:Structured Materials Industries (SMI) proposes the development of antimonide-based, high-speed, low-power, heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). These HBTs will have advantages over other compound semiconductor HBTs including lower power consumption and zero turn on voltage. They are also required for the fabrication of all antimonide-based circuits integrating recent advances on optoelectronic antimonide-based devices. SMI will work closely with Sarnoff Corporation on this project. Sarnoff has extensive experience in the growth and fabrication of antimonide based detectors, lasers, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices. SMI/Sarnoff recently demonstrated a high-efficiency 2.4 micron InGaAsSb TPV cell with internal quantum efficiencies over 90% at a peak wavelength of 2.0 microns. This technology is transferable to the fabrication of antimonide-based HBTs. In the Phase I program, we will explore the most promising structure for a high-efficiency, large bandwidth HBT, building upon our existing InGaAsSb materials experience. The optimum material compositions and device design will be determined and proof-of-principle devices will be fabricated. In the Phase II program the semi-insulating substrate required to accurately measure high-speed operation will be developed. The antimonide-based HBTs will be optimized and demonstration circuits using the devices will be fabricated.These HBTs will have advantages over other compound semiconductor HBTs including lower power consumption and zero turn on voltage. They are also required for the fabrication of all antimonide-based circuits integrating recent advances on optoelectronic antimonide-based devices.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL
8660 Dakota Dr.
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-8342
Dr. Vladimir Dmitriev
BMDO 01-014      Selected for Award
Title:Growth Technology for Semi Insulating GaN Substrate Materials
Abstract:TDI proposes to develop semi insulating GaN substrate materials using novel vapor phase growth approach. Our recent experiments show that GaN epitaxial layers having a specific resistivity of 10e12 Ohm cm at 300 K and 109 Ohm cm at 500 K can be grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The HVPE technique is a well-established, relatively cheap method to grow thick layers of GaN on sapphire and silicon carbide substrates. This epitaxial method provides high growth rate sufficient to obtain quasi-bulk material. The goal of the Phase I is to prove the concept and demonstrate thick semi insulating GaN layers on 2 inch sapphire suitable for substrate applications for GaN-based microwave devices. In the Phase II TDI will focus on the development of manufacturing technology for bulk semi insulating GaN growth and substrate fabrication.Semi insulating GaN substrates will find a host of applications in high-power, high-frequency, and high-temperature electronics for military and industrial needs.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL
8660 Dakota Dr.
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 208-8342
Dr. Alexander Syrkin
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 03MAY01
Title:SiC Epi-Wafers for Large Area High Power Diodes
Abstract:TDI proposes to develop novel epitaxial technique for high-power large area SiC diodes. Recently TDI has reported silicon carbide pn structures grown by sublimation and liquid phase epitaxy and demonstrated building blocks for SiC power devices including low resistivity Ohmic contacts to p-SiC, 4H-SiC pn diode chips with breakdown field > 2MV/cm and low leakage current. 6H-SiC diode chips with stable electric breakdown at 50 kW/cm2 dissipating power were demonstrated. Significant reduction in defect density in SiC epitaxial layers has been achieved. These results open the opportunity to develop epitaxial technology for large are SiC devices. The goal of the Phase I is to prove the concept and demonstrate large area high power SiC diodes. In the Phase II, we will focus on the development of manufacturing technology for low defect SiC epi-wafers for high power devices.High performance SiC power devices for electric power conversion and traction motor control will find a host of applications in military vehicles, air platforms, space platforms, and in commercial components like industrial motor drives, power converters and power supplies.

TESLA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 31378
Knoxville, TN 37930
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 769-4285
Dr. N. V. Lavrik
BMDO 01-014      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Nanomechanical Devices for High-Speed Low-Power Electronics
Abstract:We propose to develop a new class of semiconductor devices and nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS). These new systems are based on the formation of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and multiple quantum barriers (MQB) for electron confinement. Our efforts will significantly impact the important new area of nano technology/electronics. Our unique approach will allow us to study phenomena and interactions at room temperature that currently can only be measured at cryogenic temperatures. We will produce multiple quantum barriers (for example SiO2 and SiNx) on Si microstructures to form a composite quantum barrier. These composite energy barriers, formed by coupling semiconductors through multiple thin oxide layers, allow us to actively manipulate the height of the resulting effective energy barrier. In fact, the effective energy barrier can be modulated (raised as well as lowered) by applying an external electric field or a mechanical stress. Finally, we will use quantum point contacts to form a novel nanomechanical electron transistor in which electron transport can be actuated by simply bending the microstructure. GHz frequencies are possible in such devices under the right circumstances. Feasibility versions of both a nano-mechanical transistor and a tunable IR detector will be attempted.Applications of nanomechanical electronics are numerous, particularly when coupled with the ability to vary the electron energy within a nano/micro device. Devices such as uncooled photon detectors and single electron transistors that utilize photo-induced electronic stress in quantum wells and quantum barriers are also examples of the possible device architectures. This type of technology holds promise for both DOD and commercial applications once the feasibility can be demonstrated.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Dr. Igor Vernik
BMDO 01-015      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:Integrated Millimeter/Submillimeter Wave Receivers
Abstract:Integrated superconducting receivers look very attractive for applications where low weight, power consumption and volume are required. HYPRES proposes to design such a receiver that realizes this improved performance. HYPRES will exploit its ability to produce high quality superconducting (Nb) integrated receivers. This goal will be met by incorporating on one chip such planar components as a SIS mixer detector with quasioptical antenna, a local oscillator, an intermediate frequency (IF) amplifier and the circuits for digitizing of down converted signals and their real time processing. The Phase I work plan calls for calibration of long Josephson junctions operating in flux-flow mode as a local oscillator. These oscillators satisfy the following important requirements: they deliver enough power to pump a mixer and have high frequency tunability. A SIS mixer will be designed together with the impedance matching circuit for better power delivery and, in Phase II, IF amplifier with the circuits for digitizing of down converted signals will be added.HYPRES will become a commercial source of cost-effective, reliable integrated sub-mm receivers. These receivers are ideally suited to space based use because of their small size and extremely high efficiency, and are expected to find important application in satellite communications, advanced communications for military use and sophisticated civilian test equipment. This project will produce an integrated receiver with an enhanced performance/cost ratio.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Dr. Dean Anderson
BMDO 01-015      Awarded: 15JUN01
Title:High-Q, Tunable Microwave Superconducting Strip-Line Filters
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR program is to develop a high Q (>10,000) tunable filter by using a cryogenic piezoelectric actuator to adjust the position of a split-ring stripline resonator made from high temperature superconductor. The critical technology in this work is the recent development of single crystal piezoelectric materials that have much larger field induced strains and piezoelectric properties than conventional PZT ceramics. In addition, single crystal piezoelectric have cryogenic properties equivalent to those of PZT ceramic at room temperature making single crystals, by far, the best cryogenic piezoelectric actuation technology in existence. High-strain, stacked crystal actuators will provide approximately 20% tunability with tuning speeds in the range of 1 to 10 us. Thus, combining single crystal piezoelectrics with superconducting filters will, for the first time, result in a viable high Q tunable filter.As demand for the communications frequency spectrum increases, there is a larger need for high Q filters to achieve greater frequency discrimination. High temperature superconducting filters can fill this need but to minimize the number of filters and therefore reduce systems costs, the filters need to be tunable. Applications for high Q tunable filters would be any commercial or DOD communications system that requires a high degree of frequency discrimination, for example, increased portable phone usage, increased air traffic frequencies for aircraft safety and wireless data network services.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Dr. Mark Rigali
BMDO 01-016      Awarded: 01JUN01
Title:Multifunctional Composite Structures
Abstract:Military and commercial entities desire multifunctional or "smart" structural components, that is a component capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses as well as performing at least one additional non-structural function in service. Such structures can often be fabricated to perform many functions while maintaining a high level of performance and reliability in their primary structural function. Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. (ACR) proposes to evaluate two material systems based on its Fibrous Monolith (FM) technology. These systems are 1) a high temperature structural thermoelectric and radiation hardened tertiary FM (HTEFM) and 2) a toughened and wear resistant smart tertiary FM (TWSFM). The proposed HTEFM system is a zirconium diboride/boron nitride/boron carbide (ZrB2/BN/B4C) tertiary FM composite. This material system will have following functions: strong structural material capable of withstanding high temperatures, higher fracture toughness than monolithic ceramics, superior thermal shock resistance, power generation, and radiation hardening neutron absorber. The second proposed system, TWSFM, will consist of a tertiary ceramic/metal/ceramic FM composite. As a structural material, this FM will exhibit excellent toughness, wear, and abrasion resistance. It will also function as a strain gauge making it a smart structure capable of high temperature environments.In the metal cutting and drill bit manufacturing industries our customers desire cutting surfaces that can measure strain/load, wear, and crack propagation. This could greatly enhance the efficiency of metal cutting operations and oil and gas drilling operations especially in off-shore drilling operations that are extremely expensive. In the aerospace industry, our customers have desire the ability to measure strain and temperature of critical propulsion components for real time feed back to control the propulsion systems.

APPLIED THIN FILMS, INC.
1801 Maple Avenue, Suite 5316
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 491-3373
Ms. Kimberly Steiner
BMDO 01-016      Selected for Award
Title:Cerablak Technology: A New Frontier in Advanced Ceramic Materials
Abstract:This small business innovation research Phase I proposal investigates a newly discovered high temperature amorphous oxide material (Cerablak) for use in a broad range of BMDO applications. Cerablak is thermally stable and remains amorphous up to 1400 C in oxidizing environments. No other oxide material is known to exhibit this metastable behavior. Cerablak is synthesized using a patented sol-gel precursor with relatively inexpensive raw materials and a simple synthetic procedure. Based on our prior work, it is possible to synthesize films and powders with nanocrystalline inclusions embedded in amorphous matrix. While this opens up numerous commercial/military opportunities with varying nanocrystalline chemistries, the objective of this Phase I effort is to demonstrate feasibility for controlling and minimizing thermal stresses at the coating/metal interface. Metal/alloy protection at elevated temperatures from oxidation is a significant concern for propulsion systems, thermal protection systems, gas turbine engines, and other critical components. If feasibility is demonstrated in Phase I, this will allow the use of thicker CerablakOcoatings and enhance the protective ability for many metal and alloy surfaces.Potential Applications include metal/alloy surface protection in gas turbines, propulsion systems, thermal protection systems, optical/waveguide amplifiers, molten metal protective coatings, fibers, coatings, and matrices for ceramic composites, non-stick coatings at elevated temperatures, and thermal barrier coatings.

CHESAPEAKE CROYOGENICS, INC.
301 Bay Dale Dr.
Arnold, MD 21012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 757-6616
Mr. Michael Superczynski, Jr.
BMDO 01-016      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Advanced Regenerators for Cryocoolers Operating at 10-100 Kelvin
Abstract:The performance of high speed cryocoolers is highly dependent on an effective regenerator which has high heat capacity, large surface area, and low pressure drop. These factors can increase refrigeration capacity, lower operating temperatures and improve efficency. Parallel plate regenerators have been shown to be the most effective geometry possessing most of these characteristics. However, implementing a parallel plate configuration in a compact cryocooler is difficult. The proposed work makes use of an embossed metal ribbon which produces a controlled gap between layers when spirally wound and stacked in a cylinder to form the regenerator which approximates the parallel plate geometry. Such an arrangement allows complete control over the ribbon material, the gap width, and the ribbon or plate thickness. These characteristics can be optimized for any temperature, cycle speed, or refrigeration capacity. a regenerator design and model will be developed for a class of cryocoolers and an embossed ribbon will be produced based on this work.The proposed regenerator configuration is applicable to all commerically available cryocoolers using regenerative type heat exchangers. In a retrofit or new product, the efficiency would improve by up to 50% allowing for an equal reduction in input power. The cost of these regenerators is expected to be comparable with presently available regenerators in their respective temperature ranges.

ELECTRO-RADIATION, INC.
39 Plymouth Street
Fairfield, NJ 07004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 808-9033
Mr. Murray W. Rosen
BMDO 01-016      Selected for Award
Title:Protecting GPS in a Tumbling, Rolling Environment
Abstract:The proposed antijam concept for interceptor missiles uses an innovative, low-cost, antenna electronics and GPS antenna configuration to receive GPS, and suppress jamming on high-speed, maneuvering missiles. The effort defines an antenna system, commutator switch and antijam electronics solution using digital signal processing. The concept detects jamming and optimizes jam suppression at all attitudes of a maneuvering interceptor. The GPS jam suppression configuration controls multiple antenna modes for GPS receive and antijam to provide the best GPS constellation for time and navigation data. The system will support direct-Y acquisition and Lm. An innovative nulling approach adapts to tumbling and rolling platforms. Multiplexing between antennas and antijam electronics optimizes performance. The switching architecture and suppression algorithm in the digital network supports these modes on a maneuvering platform. The digital signal processing antijam electronics solution can also support GPS hot acquisition from launcher antijam assets and restore GPS time registration after launch.The advantage of the antijam configuration is that it is in a digital signal processing form that can support multiple modes of antijam operation.

ENSEMBLE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1103 Bouldin Avenue, STE 104
Austin, TX 78704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 653-5163
Dr. Arthur Keen
BMDO 01-016      Awarded: 14MAY01
Title:Missile Systems Data Trustworthiness
Abstract:The objective of Veracitas is to investigate the applicability of hybrid Belief Revision and Truth Maintenance techniques to increasing information trustworthiness in Situation Awareness databases. The specific problem for the DoD is that current Situation Awareness and Data Fusion applications are implemented in systems having no capability for data base veracity. These databases are populated by sources that often provide conflicting and illogical information as well as missing information. Once an operator attempts to fuse and understand data base information with conflicts and missing data, this can easily misdirect Situation Assessment reasoning processes to completely incorrect results within a Situation Awareness system, without the operator ever knowing what is happening. Conventional Truth Maintenance and Belief revision techniques have shown great promise in this area, but have not been widely applied because of computational complexity, the difficulty of developing accurate domain models, and brittleness. Veracitas proposes a novel hybrid approach and architecture for a practical solution to this problem.Veracitas will increase information trustworthiness in Situation Awareness databases by eliminating conflicts and missing data. This will eliminate the misdirection of Situation Assessment reasoning processes to completely incorrect results and possible newsworthy events. This technology can be applied to IT systems management to aid in Ballistic Missile Defense.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Paul Anderson
BMDO 01-016      Awarded: 08MAY01
Title:A New Technique for Efficient Compression of Information
Abstract:We propose the commercial development of a new data structure that will be a plug-compatible replacement for binary-decision diagrams (BDDs). BDDs have proven to be extremely useful across a wide range of software applications. For example, they are essential in many hardware design automation tasks, including analysis, optimization and verification. They are also useful in applications such as data compression, spectral analysis and signal processing, and many others. The improved data structure --- Context-Free Language Ordered binary Decision Diagrams (CFLOBDDs) --- can lead to data structures that are exponentially smaller than BDDs. CFLOBDDs have the potential to permit hardware analysis and verification to be done much faster, and to allow much larger problems to be tackled than has previously been possible. The proposed product will be marketed as a software component to producers of CAD software, where their use will allow their customers to develop higher-quality digital electronic components at lower cost. The proposed software has applications in at least the following areas: digital circuit design, analysis and verification; spectral analysis and digital signal processing; data compression and transmission in compressed form; genetic-programming problems; and many other kinds of software applications.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27613
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Mr. N. Mark Williams
BMDO 01-016      Awarded: 07MAY01
Title:Gallium Nitride Epitaxial Growth on Aluminum Nitride Substrates
Abstract:This program will develop a process for growth of low defect density GaN epitaxial layer on aluminum nitride substrates. Utilizing a novel high rate material transfer process, thick, low defect density, free-standing AlN substrates will be fabricated by Kyma Technologies. The nitride MOVPE growth process will be employed to grow gallium nitride epitaxial layers on this substrate material. The AlN substrate has structural and thermal properties that will improve gallium nitride (GaN) and AlGaN layers in the device structure. This will allow the production of low defect density thin films. This project will utilize parallel efforts of materials development, device fabrication and characterization. The initial focus in this program will be the development of simple p-n optoelectronic devices operating in the important wavelength range of < 450 nm, where the greatest interest for commercial and military based applications exists. The accomplishment of low-dislocation-density GaN material will increase lifetime and brightness in optoelectronic devices. These improvements should improve the commercialization of the devices in many markets.Gallium nitride thin films are the building blocks for many commercial devices. Low defect density gallium nitride films will benefit many microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. This could lead to the commercialization of blue lasers in data storage and solid state white LED lighting. Heteroepitaxial growth of gallium nitride on single crystal aluminum nitride substrates will result in improved device performance such as increased lifetime and brightness in optoelectronics and increase power and frequency in microelectronic devices.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-4505
Dr. Steven Stevenson
BMDO 01-016      Awarded: 07MAY01
Title:Carbon Nanomaterial Based Computers
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase I Project Luna Innovations will develop new applications of carbon-based nanostructured materials for use as chemical sensors and self-assembling molecular computation systems. Due to their unique properties, structured carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and nanotubes have become a large field of research that extends from chemistry, to physics and materials science. In this proposed program, Luna Innovations, Inc. will utilize the interaction between an encapsulated trimetallic nitride template (TNT) molecule and the surrounding carbon cage to develop a new technique for creating self-assembled sensors and molecular computation systems. This approach will result in a totally new class of molecular systems with applications in chemical/molecular computing.The proposed nanomaterial-based molecular systems will find application as programmable chemical sensors and sensor networks, and self-assembling molecular computing systems.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
900 Middlesex Turnpike, Building 8
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 436-9600
Mr. George Dimos
BMDO 01-016      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost GPS Datalink for Telemetry
Abstract:This proposal addresses the needs of telemetry datalink development groups at various DoD bases involved with missile and aircraft testing, for a low-cost, air-to-ground system, accommodating up to 20 airborne units, at data rates up to 50 kbps per participating unit, and a range up to 100 km. Mayflower proposes to use spread-spectrum modulation for the datalink signal, similar to the Global Positioning System (GPS) C/A-Code modulation, to implement an L-band system operating at about 1400 MHz and using code-division-multiple-access to transfer data from custom, multiple-channel, airborne transmitters to a commercial, multiple-channel ground receiver. The cost of the transmitter equipment is expected to be less than $3,000 per unit, and the cost of the receiver equipment is expected to be in the range of $30,000 to $40,000 for a 20-unit system.Development of military datalinks for precision-guided munitions and small missiles. Development of military datalinks for real-time environment monitoring. Development of civilian datalinks for remote environment monitoring for meteorology and water/soil/air pollution.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd
Chamblee, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-2442
Dr. Peter W. Faguy
BMDO 01-016      Selected for Award
Title:A Versatile Nanofabrication Technology for Polymer / Inorganic Composite Proton Exchange Membranes
Abstract:The goal of the proposed research is to demonstrate that MCT's proprietary NanomizerT technology can be used to prepare nanocomposites films that provide a performance advantage over current composites being targeted at the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) market. Nanocomposite membranes are expected to play a major role in overcoming the following technical challenges associated with the proton exchange membranes: (1) the polymer must be fully hydrated during fuel cell operation; (2) membranes can degrade or dehydrate at temperatures exceeding 100C; and (3) for direct methanol fuel cell utilization, methanol transport effectively prevents adequate performance. In addition to fabrication novel, high performance membranes, the versatility and scaleability of MCT's technology will be demonstrated. The ability to make a wide variety of nanoparticle oxides coupled with a spray polymer deposition strategy that utilizes both micron-sized droplet formation and extremely flexible solution composition limits has tremendous promise for composite membrane fabrication. The ability to include silica or platinum or phosphotungstic acid, at the nanoscale mixing level, will be demonstrated. MCT's current efforts in fabricating electrocatalyst layers using a polymeric perfluorosulfonated ionomer, Nafionr, will be naturally extended to fabricating membranes.Fuel cell power systems are expected to have wide spread implementation in the stationary, portable and transportation power markets within the next ten to twenty years. It has been projected that 25% of all automobiles will use PEMFC-based engines by 2020. Success in the proposed research builds a strong foundation towards lowering complexity, size and cost of the fuel cell system, lifting performance limitations due to transport and thermal issues and improving manufacturing capacity with a simple, robust and scaleable membrane production technology.

OPTELLIUM, INC.
200 Innovation Blvd., Ste 236
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 234-9850
Dr. John A. Yeazell
BMDO 01-016      Awarded: 26APR01
Title:Scanning, high resolution, probe of optical anisotropies for materials characterization
Abstract:Advances in measurement devices spawn technological advances. New probes are needed to provide the necessary significant improvements to national and theater missile defense. Substantial improvements to present technology and the generation of new technologies are both needed. Optical components for hyperspectral and/or polarization imaging, parallel optical computing, optical signal processing, dense optical communication channels are a few examples of the advances needed. The scanning birefringence microscope proposed here will provide an analytical and development tool for such optical components. The inevitable need for increased miniaturization of these components will continue to increase the importance of device. We propose an optical measuring technique, which can detect small change in the linear birefringence of an optical material or device. These changes may result from differences in processing such as chemical composition, physical alignment, etc. or from undesired sources such as mechanical stress. The device is capable of both high resolution and high accuracy. It will provide information that complements such standard diagnostic tools as optical microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes. The scanning birefringence microscope will complement and enhance traditional intensity-based microscopy. Its main purpose is to facilitate the development of optical components needed for advanced military and commercial imaging and communications systems. This technology can also have a wider impact. For example, cancerous cells have different birefringence properties that can be detected by this microscope and so provide the medical and biomedical industries with a new screen for abnormal cells. Additionally, it may be used in machine vision for microscopic inspection (process and quality control). Therefore, this advance in microscopic imaging can significantly impact industries such as the semiconductor, the optical, the biomedical and the bioengineering industries. Its most immediate use is in the development of telecommunications components that manipulate the polarization component of an optical signal. The manipulation may be for encoding purposes or for compensation.

PHOENIX INNOVATION, INC.
20 Patterson Brook Road, PO Box 550
Wareham, MA 02576
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 291-4375
Dr. Brian G. Dixon
BMDO 01-016      Selected for Award
Title:New Polymer Electrolyte for High Voltage Lithium Batteries
Abstract:The need for high power batteries is escalating as new products and services emerge in the marketplace. For instance, as hybrid electric vehicles begin to find greater acceptance in the market, high power batteries will be in increasing demand. Load leveling in urban areas is more of an issue in energy policy and will require high power batteries. In addition, high power, high energy density batteries are increasingly sought for personal use by consumers and by the military for a variety of applications. Lithium continues to dominate the development of new batteries, because of the high energy and power densities afforded by this element. Although present battery chemistries have successfully exploited the properties of this material, more powerful systems could be developed if a sufficiently stable electrolyte could be identified. The proposed effort seeks to demonstrate such an electrolyte. The proposed Phase I effort will involve the synthesis and characterization of a new polymer electrolyte that will allow the development of a 5V lithium battery. This electrolyte will be composed of a newly developed polymer and lithium salts both of which have demonstrated electrochemical stability to >5V vs Li/Li+. The proposed effort will include synthesis of polymer electrolytes and complete electrochemical and thermal characterization to establish the limits of their thermodynamic stability. Single cell battery tests will culminate the effort as the demonstration of feasibility. New, high power batteries are needed now to run the myriad of portable electronic devices that continue to pour into the market. As electric vehicles and electric deregulation begin to take hold, a 5V lithium battery will be in even greater demand. In the military market, the US Army is patching together a variety of portable power systems to meet the high-power, high-energy demands of the electronic battlefield so that a 5V electrochemical couple would be very desirable. The aerospace industry is also in need of compact, safe high energy, power systems.

RST SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, INC.
2331 W. Lincoln Ave, Suite 300
Anaheim, CA 92801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-8274
Mr. R. S. Tahim
BMDO 01-016      Awarded: 01JUN01
Title:Surprises and Opportunities
Abstract:This proposal describes an innovative design approach to very wide-band, high efficiency RF antenna elements for wide-band phased array communication systems. The design utilizes wide-band low loss time delay phase shifter, multi-octave band linear tapered slotline antennas (LTSAs), miniaturized high efficiency frequency up-conversion to generate the transmit signals at millimeter-wave frequencies and down-conversion circuits for receive signals. The approach has the advantages of low loss, broadband, high power handling, low DC power consumption. Since this design approach eliminates the losses due to the conventional phase shifters, the resulting RF antenna element design is simple, more efficient, lightweight and compact. These RF antenna elements are integratable into phased array for wide-band communication. Extension of new technology to several frequency ranges through 100 GHz will be investigated.The proposed research will have a far-reaching impact on future high data rate communication systems, cross-link communication between the satellites, surveillance, planar active arrays, sensors.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Adel El-Fallah
BMDO 01-016      Awarded: 16APR01
Title:Unified Bayesian Cluster Target Tracking and Discrimination
Abstract:Cluster tracking and discrimination is a major problem in ballistic missile defense. Here, one must track clusters, determine if they contain Reentry Vehicles (RVs), and locate and track the RVs. This problem presents a major theoretical and practical challenge because the assumptions underlying the currently most promising approach, Multi-Hypothesis Correlation (MHC), limit its effectiveness. Scientific Systems Co., Inc. (SSCI) and its subcontractor Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems (LMTS) believe, nevertheless, that a theoretically rigorous approach to cluster target tracking and discrimination is now feasible. Our approach is a direct generalization of Bayes-optimal recursive nonlinear filtering to the multisource-multitarget realm, made possible by finite-set statistics (FISST). FISST provides a systematic means of dealing with those applications, such as cluster tracking and discrimination, in which the observations and/or the states are randomly varying finite sets. FISST treats clusters as single unitary entities that differ from ordinary point targets only in that they generate far more complex sensor returns. True likelihood functions and true Markov motion-model densities for multitarget problems can be defined and constructed for clusters using a FISST generalization of the differential calculus. This includes, in particular, multitarget motion models in which numbers of targets can change, or in which target motions are correlated. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin, who will provide both technical and commercialization support in the application of Cluster Target Tracking technologies. Multitarget detection, tracking and identification based on diverse evidence types is one of the key technologies for global surveillance, precision strike, air superiority and defense, which are three of the seven science and technology thrust areas identified by the Director of Defense Research and Engineering. The current limitations are due to poor understanding of how to model, fuse, and filter both conventional and unconventional forms of evidence. The proposed R&D addresses all of these problems.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Dr. Wesley S. Hackenberger
BMDO 01-016      Awarded: 09MAY01
Title:Electro-Optic laser Steering Device for High Speed Optical Data Processing
Abstract:This small business innovation research (SBIR) program will address the design and fabrication of a novel optical beam steering device employing relaxor based ferroelectric single crystals. A new family of nonlinear optical materials, namely, Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals (PZN-PT) which exhibit electro-optic coefficients that are 4-5 times higher than commercial lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO3), will be grown by high temperature flux technique. Electro-optical beam steering device configuration for continuous high-speed addressing from 1-to-n data channels will be developed using domain microengineering in PZN-PT crystals. The feasibility of PZN-PT crystals for electro-optic applications will serve as the basis, in phase II, of other electro-optic devices with new relaxor ferroelectrics such as PMN-PT as well as PZN-PT, and new device concepts using horn-shapes and split-horn shaped scanners.Electro-optic devices using relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals will open up new opportunities for high performance electro-optic devices. A new generation of non-linear optical material and device technology will be demonstrated, that clearly represent considerable improvements in the areas of material and device design for high-speed data processing.