---------- DARPA ----------

39 Phase I Selections from the 01.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Enchao Yu
DARPA 01-001      Awarded: 03APR01
Title:Flip Chip Hermetic Packaging of RF MEMS
Abstract:RF MEMS technology, MEMS switches in particular, hold great promise for wireless communication and sensor systems. Military systems, such as RF seekers and ground-based radars, are the most likely first platforms for advanced RF MEMS. Excellent MEMS switching devices have recently been developed, but because of packaging problems, no commercial integrated product exists. The objective of this proposal is to develop novel packaging concepts, design tools, demonstrated products for RF MEMS switches for Ka and W band applications. CFDRC and Morgan Research will conduct conceptual and detailed design of hermetic, hybrid packaging concepts for RF MEMS microsystems. Advanced multiphysics CAD will be used to evaluate and optimize packaging design concepts and fabrication processes. A prototype ceramic package will be fabricated with a MEMS switch on a CPW. The package will be experimentally tested at existing laboratories. In phase II the existing modeling and design tools will be integrated into an automated RF MEMS Packaging CAD and used for rapid design concept evaluation, optimization and analysis. Several new and optimized packaging concepts will be fabricated and tested in environmental chambers at existing laboratories. Joint packaging patents, standard testing procedures, RF MEMS packaging CAD, and commercial prototypes are just a few of project deliverables. The proposed project will result in comprehensive RF MEMS packaging CAD and new packaging concepts. New concepts of RF MEMS packaging will be commercialized. To US defense and communication markets. US military and defense industry will also benefit from standard test procedures for reliability, EMF/EMI, durability, and corrosion.

XCOM WIRELESS, INC.
1718 E. Ocean Blvd #4
Long Beach, CA 90802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 495-6090
Dr. Daniel J. Hyman
DARPA 01-001      Awarded: 06APR01
Title:Advanced Packaging Technology for RF MEMS
Abstract:XCom Wireless is developing a novel packaged RF MEMS relay that can be incorporated into a wide variety of RF systems. The primary goal of this program is to develop these relays such that the relay actuator is encapsulated between an RF circuit and a protective package; the circuit and package are integral parts of the relay itself. The relay structure combines an RF circuit, actuator, control ASIC, and package coverplate in a way that promises the superior RF performance typically found only in fully integrated devices while retaining the manufacturing and design flexibility inherent to discrete components. The package provides electromagnetic interference shielding and a hermetic seal for complete environmental protection against humid or corrosive conditions. This novel XCom Wireless design promises military ruggedness combined with RF design flexibility for high performance integrated systems.Commercialization of the technology to be developed in the present SBIR proposal represents a fundamental component of the XCom Wireless business strategy. RF MEMS relays with environmentally secure packaging and low insertion loss are enabling elements for each XCom Wireless product, and sales revenue for all subsequent products may be attributed to the present initiative research. The estimated time to first product release is 18 months, with profitability possible in three years with sales estimates of 200,000 units at $10-30 each from defense industry customers. Production facilities require expansion by the end of the fifth year of operation to deliver high-volume products for consumer applications; this expansion is likely to require an initial public offering at that time. A strategy of continuous patent development is instrumental to XCom Wireless growth and strength in the RF community, with two or three patents expected to result from the Phase II effort of this proposal.

DACCO SCI, INC.
10260 Old Columbia Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 381-9475
Dr. Guy D. Davis
DARPA 01-002      Awarded: 06MAR01
Title:Use of an In-Situ Electrochemical Sensor for Predictive Assessment of Bonded Repairs
Abstract:DACCO SCI, INC., (DSI), together with DynCorp, proposes a Phase I SBIR program to use an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based corrosion sensor to monitor the integrity of an adhesive bondline between a repair patch and the damaged structure of an aircraft. Using this sensor approach to detect moisture intrusion into a repair bondline will give advance warning of potential environmentally induced bondline deterioration and enable predictive assessment. Corrective action can then be taken prior to permanent disruption of the bondline. This monitoring technology could eventually be used as a standard tool in the suite of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for evaluating the integrity of bonded repairs. Increased confidence and reliability of repair patches will facilitate repair of aircraft, rotorcraft, and other systems. The sensored patch will allow larger cracks (closer to the critical crack length) to be repaired with reasonable inspection intervals. The cost avoidance achieved by both reactive and proactive patching and the resulting extension of service lifetimes will make system life-cycle costs more affordable.Reliability of bonded repairs will increase as a result of this health monitoring. Military and commercial air fleet readiness and safety will correspondingly increase with a potential decrease in costs as service lifetimes are extended. Other applications would include storage tanks, pipelines, weapon systems and components, and vehicles.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
DARPA 01-002      Awarded: 09MAR01
Title:Tools For Predictive Assessment of Structural Integrity of Complex Mechanical Systems
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in cooperation with the Penn State ARL, propose the development and validation of prognostic tools for predicting the remaining useful life of complex mechanical systems through fusion of stochastic physics-based failure mode models, relevant system or component level health monitoring data and inspection results. The proposed life determination and prediction strategies will be implemented within a probabilistic framework to directly identify confidence bounds associated with specific component life consumption. A major thrust for improving the accuracy of structural integrity predictions that is addressed in this proposal is related to minimizing the current level of uncertainty that exists in the critical parameters that drive specific component failure modes. The link between advanced health monitoring, feature extraction, inspection results and model-based prognostics is key to determining and reducing this uncertainty thus enabling effective risk-based maintenance practices, higher system availability and improved safety. The prognostic tools generated under this program will contain many generic elements that can be transitioned to a broad range of applications. These elements include the ability to account for unexpected damage events, fuse diagnostic information with model-based predictions, and statistically calibrate predictions with inspection information. Validation of these tools will be accomplished using transitional run-to-failure data available through Penn State ARL for bearing or gears. Additional sources of validation data available to Impact include seeded fault test results from F100 and F110 engines and CH-46 transmission components. The prognostic tools will be capable of performing probabilistic Remaining Useful Life (RUL) predictions with high fidelity physical models governed by real-time health data and maintenance/inspection results. The improved accuracy of this life determination approach can be used within the framework of military equipment support cost models to reduce the risk of safety or system availability related failures. More accurate time-to-failure predictions can also reduce costly inspection routines and premature component replacements by using a risk-based, maintenance optimization technique. Commercial applications for the component life assessment technologies developed can be realized on gas turbine applications including commercial aviation engines, electric power generators, industrial drive systems, and naval propulsion systems.

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 930-2220
Dr. David Schaafsma
DARPA 01-002      Awarded: 19MAR01
Title:Structural Prognosis Using Intelligent Distributed Systems
Abstract:Detection of the onset of microstructural damage (e.g. cracks, corrosion, and delamination or debonding) and the correlation of this damage with predicted failure is not currently available in any kind of on-board system. A system of structural prognostics using neural nets based on dynamic data could result in sizeable cost savings as well as greatly enhanced operating safety of aging aircraft, but to our knowledge has not been attempted before. We propose to develop novel artificial neural networks to process and learn the structural mechanics of aging aircraft, and from this training to be able to predict needs for maintenance based on the progression of detected damage.Aging military fleets are now being asked to serve for much longer than their original life expectancy, and this technology could enable safe and cost-effective service life extension. In addition, this technology can be applied to commercial and advanced military aircraft, as well as to a host of complex mechanical systems from bridges to ships.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle, Suite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir Markov
DARPA 01-002      Awarded: 14MAR01
Title:Optical Instrument for the Assessment of the Structural Integrity of Complex Systems
Abstract:In Phase I we propose to develop an opto-acoustical sensor which will detect defects in materials and be used for structural integrity assessment and prognostics. Its operational principle is predicated on the observation that structural changes are accompanied by changes of the vibrational pattern on the surface of the test object. A unique pulsed acoustic excitation source induces vibrational modes that are simultaneously measured at multiple locations, yielding a surface velocity map that reveals structural phenomena occurring well within the bulk of the material. The system is applicable for detecting corrosion, metal thinning, cracks, disbonding, and delamination. Using advanced mathematical algorithms, the currently measured vibrational modes can be correlated with previous ones to assess the structural integrity of large-scale components of complex mechanical systems. Historical data obtained from established baseline conditions can then yield information on structural integrity at a later date. Careful attention will be paid to developing a robust instrument, insensitive to external impact and harsh environments. During Phase I we will develop an analytical model of this diagnostic tool, complete a performance analysis, verify its experimental operation and design the prototype. The prototype system will be built during Phase II.The proposed technique will benefit the military and commercial aerospace industry as well as other industries by enabling real-time inspection of critical parts in complex systems, such as aircraft, missiles, ships and land vehicles, and subsequently predicting imminent failures. Owing to its efficient operation and large area coverage the proposed device will significantly reduce the financial resources that are required for inspection, offering also the possibility of robotic inspection. The proposed device can find commercial applications in other fields that require vibrational mode analysis, such as the heavy machinery and power generation industries, and chemical plants. The method can be used in virtually any application where it is necessary to record whole-field vibration information.

VEXTEC CORP.
116 Wilson Pike, Suite 230
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Dr. Robert G. Tryon
DARPA 01-002      Awarded: 06MAR01
Title:On-board, Prognostic Micro-Structural Reliability Tool for Mechanical Systems
Abstract:Technology for extending the life of fielded systems offers the potential for signification savings in total ownership costs. Through on-board monitoring and analysis, our technology will instill increased confidence in prediction of fatigue or remaining useful life. This, in turn, offers the potential to reduce premature part retirement and thus shifting part replacement costs to the out-years. Advancement in prognostics and health management is a significant thrust within the JSF engine development program. This proposal exactly corresponds with the JSF key technology maturation program for prognostics & health management whose stated goal is on reducing maintenance manpower. However, the current state-of-the-art does not take advantage of the developed or newly developing microstructural material modeling capabilities that allow for prediction of crack initiation and growth resulting in pending component failure. The Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility for using sensed data to generate, on-board, mechanical systems reliability prediction based on analysis of microstructural based probabilistic modeling techniques. Upon demonstrating feasibility, Phase II will further develop the technology and apply this on-board prognostics technology on an actual engine component. This technology will serve to provide real-time or near real-time insight into how material microstructure level changes effect the overall reliability of a mechanical system. Using our product, aerospace or maintenance engineers will know what systems must be identified for upgrade and/or replacement. On the other hand, DoD will benefit from the fact that some replacements or repairs may be delayed, thus effectively extending the lives of some mechanical systems. The technology proposed herein offers the potential to reduce the total ownership cost for the emerging JSF family of aircraft. Eventually this prognostic technology will be installed on aircraft systems and allow for on-board reliability prediction.

ENGINEERED COATINGS, INC.
P.O. Box 4702
Parker, CO 80134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 977-9503
Dr. Frank M. Kustas
DARPA 01-003      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Fabrication Processing of High TransitionTemperature Shape Memory Alloys
Abstract:Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators are finding application within defense and commercial markets, with SMA mechanisms being used on NASA's EO1 and Mighty Sat I spacecraft. Other applications include control surfaces that improve the lift-to-drag ratio for aircraft or modify engine inlet flow characteristics. The Navy has an interest in smart structures to modify wake signature or enhance control surface performance. Commercial interests include machine tool clamps and modification of the aerodynamic properties of Formula-type racecars. Although work output, hysteresis, and cyclic stability are acceptable for conventional NiTi alloys, materials with similar capability at higher transition temperature are desired. The objective of this Phase I effort is to identify shape memory alloy compositions, such as binary NiTi alloy with additions of Pd or Pt, that have transition temperatures of 150C or higher. The ability to form these alloys into actuator shapes from wire, rod and sheet shall be demonstrated. Data obtained during forming operations will be applied to deformation models that will enable scaling into a high volume production facility during Phase II. Actuator capabilities such as work output, hysteresis and creep will be evaluated for each alloy composition to ensure that defense application requirements are satisfied.Data obtained during forming operations in this program will be applied to deformation models to assist in fabrication scaling. Applications of high transition temperature SMA actuators include control surfaces for aircraft, engine inlet ducting, shape control of fin structures, antenna reflectors, vehicle aerosurfaces, and machine tool clamps.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
673G, Alpha Drive
Cleveland, OH 44143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 449-5785
Mr. Joseph Snyder
DARPA 01-003      Awarded: 21MAR01
Title:Optimization of Turbine Engine Performance Using Shape Memory Alloy Pressure Transducers
Abstract:With the ever-increasing demands on engine performance, emissions reduction and better fuel economy, reliable pressure transducers are needed for in situ aircraft turbine engines. To meet these needs, Orbital Research Inc. proposes an in-situ pressure transducer enabled via a thin film ternary shape memory alloy sensing element. The proposed sensing element theoretically outperforms the most promising SiC transducers by at least 800% at high temperatures (400-600°C). The goal of this program is to produce a dynamic pressure transducer to monitor the flow through the compressor of a turbine engines. No such transducer exists in the aircraft industry primarily due to the inability of the transducers to withstand the harsh turbine environment. Orbital Research will work closely with the Glennan Microsystems Initiative to assure a successful microsystem integration strategy is implemented. Thus, this program will evaluate the feasibility of tailoring the innovative sensing element so that it can operate within a turbine engine at high temperatures and high frequencies (10-50 KHz) near the compressor inlet. Ultimately, a more responsive, durable, low cost, pressure transducer will be produced using microelectromechanical fabrication processes. This final flush mounted harsh environment transducer will make a dramatic impact on health monitoring and performance of turbine engines. The technologies developed in this program have an established pathway to commercialization. The proposed transducers are an enabling technology for many diverse applications because of their ability to measure pressure in high temperatures. This technology has relevance to a wide variety of civilian and military applications such as diesel engines for trucks and buses, geothermal and oil drilling applications, and industrial applications.

TINI ALLOY CO.
1621 Neptune Drive
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-9676
Dr. A. David Johnson
DARPA 01-003      Awarded: 07MAR01
Title:High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys for Useful Devices
Abstract:Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are used increasingly in aerospace, medicine, instrumentation, and consumer products. The most common SMA, based on titanium-nickel, has an upper transition temperature limit of about 100°C. Many potential applications require a higher transition temperature. Higher actuation temperatures have been demonstrated in ternary alloys containing small percentages of palladium or hafnium. These alloys have not been commercialized because of inferior mechanical properties, a deficiency that can be ameliorated by improved knowledge of the variation of thermo-mechanical properties with composition. This proposal outlines a strategy for finding compositions of ternary alloys that are optimized for temperature, stress-strain, and fatigue properties. Ternary alloys, TiNiHf and TiNiPd, will be deposited as thin film on silicon substrates, with graded compositions across the surface. Resistivity measurement will be used to determine transition temperature of samples taken from local areas on the surface of the substrate, and stress-strain-temperature isotherms will be used to measure ductility. Compositions within local areas will be measured. Ingots will be formulated and cast using selected compositions. Material sputtered from these ingots will be examined for improved thermo-mechanical characteristics. These steps may be iterated to optimize shape-memory characteristics at transition temperatures higher than 100°C. Applications of high-temperature film from this research will be in microactuated valves, microrelays, and fiber optic switches. The same compositions that are used for thin film will be useful for making macroscopic devices for industrial and military applications.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Dr. John Campbell
DARPA 01-004      Awarded: 05MAR01
Title:Self-Cleaning Dynamic Adhesive Materials
Abstract:The proposed research mimics the adhesive strategy of geckos to produce a novel, dry, self-cleaning dynamically modulated adhesive. A soft mat of artificial hairs allows the adhesive force of the sticky spatulae to be modulated. This facilitates easy engagement and disengagement with the surface, as well as, promoting self-cleaning.The proposed effort would lead to a novel self-cleaning dry adhesive that can rapidly modulate force over a large surface area. The potential commercial applications include any application currently using hook-and-loop fasteners, such as clothing.

AGILTRON CORP.
20 Arbor Lane
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-0513
Dr. Jing Zhao
DARPA 01-005      Awarded: 07MAR01
Title:Network Application of Piezo-Crystals
Abstract:High performance fiberoptic switches are in critical demand for use in the ever-growing communication networks and modern defense systems. Fiberoptic switch is the key component to enable much simplified and higher performance Active Optical Networks, where optical signals/channels are dynamically switched, routed, reconfigured, multiplexed, protected and restored all in the optical layer, eliminating the current very expensive optical-to-electronic-to-optical conversions. Current fiberoptic switches do not simultaneously meet the requirements of high speed, low loss, high extinction ratio, and high reliability. The recent progress in single crystals of relaxor that exhibit extraordinary properties opened an unprecedented opportunity to realize state-of-the-art optical switch. Our unique design overcomes all the major drawbacks of competitive technologies. Such a device will drastically reduces network complexity leading to lower cost and high reliability. For defense applications, this switch is also a key enabling element for ultra-wideband optical signal processing applications, including programmable single mode fiber-optic switched delay lines, optical transversal filters for wideband true-time-delay elements, and optical filters for microwave electronic surveillance and radar phased-array antenna beam forming. The development of this advanced state-of-the-art switch will greatly increase the feasibility of these systems applications. A prototype switch will be demonstrated in the Phase I.Telecommunication is currently the fastest growing industry. The anticipated commercial communication switching market is very large with forecasted reaching billion dollars by year 2006

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
56 Rogers Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 252-0660
Dr. Brett Masters
DARPA 01-005      Awarded: 06MAR01
Title:Piezoelectric Single Crystal Applications - WISEUP
Abstract:Midé Technology Corporation proposes a Wireless Ignition System Utilizing Piezoelectrics (WISEUP) for internal combustion engines. A similar system has already been patented by Midé Technology: the Piezoelectric Ignition and Sensing Device (PISD) was successfully integrated into an engine, proving feasibility of the concept. (Video footage is available on request). Piezoelectric ignition and sensing has been demonstrated on a Honda ES6500 generator engine using conventional, polycrystalline piezoceramics. While these common piezos produce high voltages, the energy they supply is very small (1 mJ). Single-crystal piezos offer a significant energy density improvement over their polycrystalline counterparts. A piezoelectric ignition system utilizing single crystal piezos would not require an external energy source, such as the high current capacitors in the present PISD configuration. Eliminating the electrical leads for this current leaves a Wireless Ignition System Utilizing Piezoelectrics (WISEUP) with the capability of generating, timing, and delivering a spark in all feasible operating conditions. This wireless technology can only be enabled by the implementation of single crystal elements into a piezoelectric ignition system.Spark plug wires are being made obsolete for the same reasons that distributors were eliminated: vehicle manufacturers want to increase ignition reliability and performance and want to reduce manufacturing costs. Spark plug wires have the numerous deficiencies. Some of those include the heavy insulation is required to insulate the 10 - 40 kV of electric potential, resistance in the wires reduces the energy that is delivered to the spark plug and is the weak link in the ignition system (often the reason for misfires), and more insulation is needed to suppress the EMI resulting from the high voltage in the long wires (antennas). Common applications may be both military and commercial, such as wireless ignition systems for UAV's (reduced EMI improves payload performance), spark-assisted diesel engines, power generators and standard automotive systems.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
56 Rogers Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 252-0660
Dr. Eric F. Prechtl
DARPA 01-005      Awarded: 06MAR01
Title:Piezoelectric Single Crystal Applications
Abstract:Piezoelectric single crystals have the potential to revolutionize the field of active structures. Midé proposed to capitalize on the large stroke character of these materials by implementing them onto a helicopter rotor blade for the primary purpose of solving the blade tracking problem. Once implemented, however, because of the improvements made to the X-Frame actuator design, much greater output energies will be evident. Work will focus both on demonstrating the predicted performance levels for this actuation system in the lab and in verifying that this level of performance is adequate for primary flight control of the helicopter. If experimental results fall short of the performance levels needed for primary flight control, recommendations will be made to improve system response. The results from these studies and laboratory experiments will serve as a springboard to Phase II efforts at implementing the proposed system in a hover and/or wind-tunnel test.The blade tracking problem is a costly expense amounting to between $200- $400M a year in operational costs. By combining single crystal piezoelectrics with a proven rotor blade trailing edge servo-flap actuation system, a viable solution to this problem is well within reach. Furthermore, because of the high bandwidth properties of the single crystal, along with the improvements in X-Frame technology, the problems of higher harmonic, cyclic, and possibly even collective rotor control are also within reach. By developing a rotor control system independent of the swashplate, a tremendous savings in rotorcraft maintenance and operational costs is achieved. Successfully breaking into either of these markets is the main goal of this proposed effort. Other markets that will also benefit from developing a highly energetic actuation system are: ˙ Control of fast acting valves, such as in automotive engines ˙ Quieting of plant vibrations and noise, in, for example, heavy industries such as paper milling. ˙ Machine tools (Midé has already product prototypes in the area) ˙ Control of computer printer heads to provide faster printer speeds ˙ Control of photolithography components in the semi-conductor industry and components in the optical industry.

STI TECHNOLOGIES
1800 Brighton-Henrietta Townli
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-3324
Dr. Razvan Rusovici
DARPA 01-005      Awarded: 09MAR01
Title:Piezoelectric Single Crystal Applications, Frequency Agile Vibration Absorber Utilizing Single Crystal Piezoceramic
Abstract:By exploiting the unique properties of single-crystal peizoceramic, STI will develop a new class of device for suppression of structural vibration. The proposed device, a frequency agile vibration absorber (FAVA), will be compact, robust, and demand minimal power for operation. Unlike today's adaptive absorbers the FAVA will tune over a wide range of frequencies and respond rapidly to controller command. A Phase I technical objective is to demonstrate that an extremely wide FAVA tuning range can be achieved by exploiting the single-crystal's large electromechanical coupling. This will be accomplished through the design, fabrication, and testing of a prototype FAVA using commercially available single-crystal piezoceramic material. A secondary objective is to demonstrate the usefulness of the FAVA's wide tuning range. This will be accomplished by testing the prototype device in a machine tool application with the objective of using the FAVA to eliminate unwanted tool chatter. A particularly important dual-use application is the control of chatter in machine tools. This problem affects the affordability and quality of military and industrial components and has not been adequately solved using today's active or passive technology. Other identified applications include control of flexible space structures, jitter control in optical systems and gun barrels, suppression of structure-borne noise in aircraft, and vibration isolation in machinery mounts.Based upon the machine tool application, the anticipated potential market size for the FAVA is approximately $1 billion in sales annually. Other applications listed here could generate comparable sales.

TETRAD CORP.
357 Inverness Dr. South, Suite A
Englewood, CO 80112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 754-2309
Dr. Michael J. Zipparo
DARPA 01-005      Awarded: 27MAR01
Title:Application of Bonded Multilayer Technology to Relaxor-Based Single Crystals for Imaging Transducer Applications
Abstract:Bonded multilayer crystal technology will be developed for ultrasound transducer applications. Single crystal materials have demonstrated enormously high coupling constants, over 94% in some modes. Bonded multilayers have already been demonstrated to maintain the coupling inherent in the base material, and to result in an effective increase in the dielectric constant of the structure equal to the square of the number of layers. The application of multilayers to single crystals will result in what should be considered the ultimate trasnducer material. Multilayer crystal composites will have a low acoustic impedance, and a very high effective dielectric constant and coupling coefficient. Modeling shows that the bandwidth that will be obtainable with these devices will exceed 120%, even for arrays which normally are severely limited because of the much lower dielectric associated with traditional materials and configurations.The benefits of applying these materials to ultrasonic arrays will be much higher bandwidth and sensitivity of devices, particularly those which are usually limited by element area, such as phased arrays and 1.5-D and 2-D arrays. Even single crystals are limited in their performance without the capacitance increase associated with a multtilayer.

XINETICS, INC.
2 Buena Vista
Devens, MA 01432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 772-0352
Dr. Maureen L. Mulvihill
DARPA 01-005      Awarded: 19MAR01
Title:Piezoelectric Single Crystal High Density Actuator Deformable Mirror
Abstract:Conventional adaptive optics systems employed to compensate wavefront errors introduced by atmospheric index of refraction variations are limited to correcting relatively small turbulence errors due to the physical limitations of the corrective devices available. A high density deformable mirror actuator array using piezoelectric single crystal MPB PMN-PT would provide far greater stroke to correct large turbulence errors at high spatial frequencies. In addition, it would be applicable to error correction in a host of optical communities who have a direct and current need for such a device. The objective of this Phase I program is the development of MPB PMN-PT single crystal high density deformable mirror actuator array prototype to demonstrate higher authority actuation response, dimensional stability, and wavefront control.Higher Amplitude Error Correction in Satellite Surveillance Systems Enhanced Laser Focusing over Longer Distances Additional Agility in Telecommunications Higher Sensitivity Sonar Transducers Improved Ultrasonic Imaging

RELIABLE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
21351 Ridgetop Circle, Suite 400
Dulles, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 404-9293
Mr. Tim Hollebeek
DARPA 01-006      Awarded: 16MAR01
Title:Automated Malicious Code Detection
Abstract:Reliable Software Technologies proposes to investigate the feasibility of integrating its successful intrusion detection technology with its technology for wrapping the Microsoft Windows components that execute JavaScript, VBScript, and other scripting languages. We also propose to investigate the feasibility of generating virtual execution traces using unique features of the Microsoft scripting architecture. These capabilities are crucial for building a framework which, without human intervention, not only learns to recognize new malicious scripts based on previously identified malicious scripts, but also blocks their actions before they can do damage. Such a framework would significantly reduce the threat posed by malicious scripts, as scripts become an increasingly more common component in Windows-based information infrastructures. The dependence of modern operating systems on scripting languages will not decrease with time; Microsoft is heavily committed tightly integrating web and scripting support into every aspect of its applications and operating system. The explosive growth of these technologies, combined with the lack of any adequate security model, have led to serious security vulnerabilities appearing on a regular basis. Existing anti-virus products, intrusion detection systems, and firewalls are often unsuccessful at preventing the exploitation of these vulnerabilities. Our approach will help these systems detect and block novel malicious scripts before they can do damage.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
1810 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 448-9177
Dr. Robert Balzer
DARPA 01-006      Awarded: 18APR01
Title:Automated Malicious Code Detection
Abstract:We will develop a system that employs a wide set of behavior-monitoring wrappers to provide broad protection against malicious code contained in email attachments, downloaded by a web browser, or distributed in software releases. These wrappers will share a tailorable set of safety rules that prescribe the rights of each process. If any of these safety rules are violated, the wrapper will determine the severity of the violation and autonomically choose an appropriate response to minimize disruption of the ongoing processing while preserving protection. Those autonomic responses will include hiding the existence of protected resources, stealthily redirecting the offending operation to an isolated and non-critical resource, dynamically disabling active content in the offending document or web page, returning an error code indicating that the protected resource is not accessible, and aborting the process. It will verify the identity and integrity of executable being loaded to ensure they haven't been corrupted or switched, and repair any that have. It will download updated software, monitor its installation, and autonomically register it so that its identity and integrity can be subsequently verified. This will enable system administrators to remotely, and securely, administer the installation of all software across a set of machines. This system will provide broad protection against malicious code, including novel attacks, without the need for updates. It will employ a graduated set of responses that allow the execution of potentially malicious code to safely continue, thus eliminating the need to prematurely determine whether suspicious behavior is actually malicious. The potential commercial market for such protection against malicious code is immense, surpassing the install base for virus-scanning products.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Paul Anderson
DARPA 01-007      Awarded: 15MAR01
Title:Verification of Hierarchical Graph Structures
Abstract:Embedded systems software is being used for increasingly complex and safety-critical applications. In order to ensure the safe and successful operation of these applications we must verify their safety and mission critical properties, and reduce reliance on a testing process that can only detect the presence of faults. Model checking is a verification technique that allows users to verify cross-cutting properties of systems. Model checking has been successfully applied to hardware designs, but has only yielded limited success in the software verification realm due to scalability issues. Exploitation of modularity has been recognized as a means of increasing the scalability of model checking. We propose a new context-free language reachability based model checking technique that allows us to exploit the inherent modularity in procedural abstraction. We also propose using our dependence graph and program slicing technology to construct models of a reduced size. We believe our technology will significantly increase the scalability of model checking, allowing it to be applied to complex safety-critical embedded systems.The proposed system will be of use in improving the quality of safety and mission-critical software in embedded systems. This system will allow companies to develop highly reliable embedded real-time systems.

ODYSSEY RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. C. Douglas Harper
DARPA 01-007      Awarded: 07MAR01
Title:High Assurance for Embedded Systems through Aspect-Oriented Specification and Verification
Abstract:Conventional methods of quality assurance cannot manage the increasing complexity of embedded systems and the demands being placed upon them. Aspect-Oriented Programming is a promising new software technology, well suited to embedded systems. Marrying AOP with formal methods will make possible high assurance at low cost, as will be demonstrated by a prototype environment for software development through Aspect-Oriented Assurance; that is, Aspect-Oriented design, specification, and verification.The proposed prototype development environment for embedded software will provide the means for producing high-assurance software at low cost. The power of formal methods will be at the disposal of developers, without requiring them to learn specialized mathematics. The factorization of the design specification and implementation into aspects will encourage reuse and enable the amortization of development costs over large user bases. The quality and stability of the resulting software will spread the costs over long periods of time. Without such a tool for producing safe and reliable embedded software, we are faced with the choice between accepting large risks and foregoing the promise of technological advances. The DoD will be the first to benefit from Aspect-Oriented assurance, but the entire embedded systems community stands to gain. Development of the prototype into a commercial prototype will make the technology available. The tremendous commercial potential of a high-assurance tool for embedded systems will attract many customers and potential third-party commercial partners.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Jovan D. Boskovic
DARPA 01-007      Awarded: 09MAR01
Title:Development of Assurance Techniques for High-Confidence Flight Software Design for Autonomous Unmanned Air Vehicles
Abstract:Current flight software certification procedures for autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Uninhabited Combat Airial Vehicles (UCAV), such as those employed under the Boeing/DARPA UCAV program, are tedious and cumbersome. Hence there is great interest in developing techniques that reduce the time and effort needed to complete the certification process even while guaranteeing the closed-loop UCAV performance under a variety of situations and events. In this proposal we propose to develop efficient functional and software V&V and assurance techniques for high-confidence software design for UCAVs. Our ultimate objective is to develop corresponding algorithms and software tool, and demonstrate their features by reducing the software certification time and effort encountered in current procedures employed under the Boeing/DARPA UCAV program. In order to achieve these objectives, in Phase I we propose to carry out the following tasks: (i) Problem statement for the functional and software V&V for UCAV, and choice of a simulation testbed; (ii) Development of functional V&V techniques; (iii) Development of verifiable controllers for UCAVs; (iv) Development of software V&V techniques and assurance and certification procedures; and (v) Performance evaluation of the proposed algorithms through simulations. Boeing Phantom Works DARPA/UCAV program (Dr. Kevin Wise) will provide technical and commercialization support throughout the project. Potential applications of the proposed V&V and software assurance techniques and procedures include both military and civilian missions performed using autonomous agents. The applications include autonomous military and commercial UAV and spacecraft missions, autonomous "smart" missiles; Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS); and autonomous underwater and ground vehicles.

SOHAR, INC.
8421 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 201
Beverly Hills, CA 90211
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(323) 653-4717
Dr. Yutao He
DARPA 01-007      Awarded: 16APR01
Title:Assurance Technology for High Confidence Software and Systems
Abstract:This research will develop a feasible and applicable assessment environment, called MOCHA (MOdel-based Certification for High Assurance), that assists in control, composition, management, and documentation of different assurance activities conducted by different groups and evidences collected from multiple sources during the entire life cycle of a real-time, embedded, high-confidence software system. MOCHA uses UMLas a base model of a software system and creates such an open and integrated environment by extending a popular COTS CASE tool, Rational Rose RealTime, with additional evidence organizing and composing features. The MOCHA data repository uses the emerging XML documentation technology as the common repository format for managing and organizing model and evidence data of a software system. MOCHA also provides a unified interface mechanism to support transformation of the base model to other models so that it can be assessed with external tools and that corresponding results can be fed back to the MOCHA data repository. As such, different models and assessment results can be easily shared, exchanged, reused, and manipulated among different tools and during different stages of a software life cycle. AS a proof-of-concept, the technology will be applied into flight control software.The use of software-intensive systems in safety critical applications increasing. The combined complexity poses a significant challenge on building and verifying high confidence software systems. As recognized by President's Information Technology Advisory Committee, "The Nation depends on fragile software". However, such software is extremely difficult and expensive to develop and to verify. If successful, MOCHA will provide a dramatic improvement in the productivity of critical software development, verification, and certification. It will find applications in fields such as nuclear energy, military systems, implantable medical devices, and smart vehicles

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
2161 Blanton Dr
Dayton, OH 45342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Dr. Jeffrey Walrath
DARPA 01-008      Awarded: 03APR01
Title:Micro-Architecture Development Tools for Embedded Processing
Abstract:EDAptive Computing, Inc. (EDAptive) and Dr. Ranga Vemuri of the University of Cincinnati present a unique and commercially viable solution to the problem of design space exploration, tradeoff analysis, and performance evaluation of embedded, system-level malleable micro-architectures. Our Embedded Micro Architecture SWEPT Simulator and Integrated Design Space Exploration and Tradeoff ANalysis Tool (ASSISTANT) program will apply previous research work in performance modeling and evaluation techniques utilizing attributed nodes-only graph grammars to the problem of parameterization, manipulation, and simulation of various design space constraints. Specifically, we propose ASSISTANT with the following capabilities: 1) aid design engineers in the development, debug, verification, and generation of parameterized, executable design models automatically configurable at run-time for various embedded, system-level micro-architectures; 2) provide an easy-to-use shell interface for hardware application engineers to enter parameter data, configure, simulate, and debug the executable models for design space exploration and tradeoff analysis; 3) provide a procedural interface for the invocation of the executable models from third party tools. To accomplish this task, we will utilize Dr. Vemuri's research work in a performance description language suited for such design and modeling scenarios called PDL+.The technology developed under this SBIR applies to both military and commercial sectors and can be used in design and development environments for application and design engineering targeting system-level embedded, heterogeneous, and malleable computing hardware.

MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATIONS & CONTR
2000 North 14th Street, Suite 220
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 522-7177
Mr. Christopher B. Robbins
DARPA 01-008      Awarded: 11APR01
Title:Design Tools for Reconfigurable High Performance Embedded Computing Architectures
Abstract:Management Communications and Control, Inc. (MCCI) proposes development of design tools for development of high-performance embedded computing systems composed of malleable, reconfigurable architectures. The tools will provide a seamless path from import of algorithms from The MathWorks, Inc.'s tools to realization of systems design as compilable source code targeting programmable elements of the architecture and component architectures and component architecture behavior models specifying hardware elements. An iterative design methodology supported by the tools will enable optimization of hardware and software architectures to meet space, weight, energy, performance, and time (SWEPT) design requirements. SWEPT requirements will be allocated to architecture elements in testable form as an integral part of the hardware/software codesign. Unit testing at the architecture element level using allocated SWEPT requirements and validation at every stage of system build processes will ensure construction of systems meeting their SWEPT requirements. Automation of detailed designs and code realizations will provide productivity enhancements that allow thorough examinations of algorithm and design trade space within realistic development budgets and schedules.The design tools will empower expert design engineers. Productivity associated with developing high-performance embedded computing systems will increase by factors ranging from seven to nine. The productivity enhancement the tools provide will enable exhaustive trades of algorithm options, hardware architecture variations and software partitionings to optimize embedded system designs under SWEPT criteria within project budget and schedule constraints. The architecture design tools will be incorporated into our commercially available Autocoding Toolset.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Kenneth M. Dinndorf
DARPA 01-009      Awarded: 06APR01
Title:High Spectral Density Optical Communications
Abstract:CTI proposes the development of a high data rate, multi-channel communications transceiver for use in optical communications. The use of coherent receiver technology will enable the development of systems with high resistance to channel cross-talk issues. The use of remote seeding techniques will be explored to reduce the overall complexity of the system, and the generation of a single frequency comb will allow the use of several closely-spaced spectral data channels. We suggest that a channel spacing on the order of 10 GHz or less can be achieved through proper frequency comb design and the use of a coherent receiver's inherent ability to sense the spectral content of signals. Most of the architecture is based on fiber optics technology, which has a substantial commercial basis. We believe that most of the required components for the system envisioned are already commercially available; CTI has extensive experience in the development of the small number of components which are not readily available.There is a demonstrated and ever-increasing need for high-data capacity telecommunications technology. The immediate commercial application of this device would be as a high-data rate upgrade to existing fiber telecommunications systems. The proposed architecture is compatible with the existing telecommunications infrastructure and could be readily inserted into currently deployed systems as a product improvement. As most of the architecture is fiber-based, it should be relatively straight-forward to transition any products generated by this effort.

OEWAVES, INC.
1230 Glen Oaks Blvd
Pasadena, CA 91105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 304-0587
Mr. Kouros Sariri
DARPA 01-009      Awarded: 02APR01
Title:A high-performance, low-cost multi-wavelength source and other advanced components based on a COEO
Abstract:OEwaves, Inc. proposes to design (Phase I), fabricate, and demonstrate (Phase II) a novel multi-wavelength optical source - called a coupled opto-electronic oscillator (COEO) - for UDWDM communications applications. A single COEO simultaneously generates 100 or more stable optical carriers on a precisely fixed grid that cannot drift (e.g. 25 GHz, 12.5 GHz, 1 GHz, or any other desired spacing) and will replace at significantly lower cost the entire array of semiconductor lasers and associated frequency stabilization circuitry found in conventional DWDM transmitter systems. The COEO is a versatile, multi-functional component that also fulfills other high-performance UDWDM applications, including all-optical clock recovery, digital and analog data recovery, and ultra-high spectral purity master optical clock synchronization and RF clock generation. This SBIR project will leverage and extend technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and licensed exclusively to OEwaves. We will focus on transforming the basic design concept proven at JPL-embodied in shoebox-sized benchtop prototypes built from discrete optics-into an integrated device that consumes less than 500 mW, fits in a conventional microelectronic package, tolerates vibration and shock, requires no input other than power, and lends itself to low-cost automated production.The finished COEO will dramatically improve the performance-cost curve for UDWDM transmitter and receiver architectures and disrupt the projected evolutionary development of fiber optic communications systems. The COEO will enable telecom providers and the military to allocate both analog and digital data channels packed as densely as desired-limited only by the inherent bandwidth of the information each channel carries-and thus extract maximum economic value from existing installed fiber capacity as well as new links. In addition to enabling radically new systems, the COEO will also be compatible with, and have the potential to enhance, conventional UDWDM design concepts that are currently under active development. We will fabricate the COEO from just two fundamental base elements, a glass submillimeter microspherical resonator and a two-electrode MQW buried heterostructure amplifier chip. In various configurations these two elements can perform many additional functions needed in a complete UDWDM system. Other early novel devices include high-Q channel dropping filters and wavelength converters. In Phase III, OEwaves will first market the COEO as a component for DWDM and high-speed RF electronics systems and we anticipate annual revenues of $75M in 2006. Later we will introduce complete UDWDM modules and systems.

WAVEBRIDGE LLC
859 S. Raymond Avenue
Pasadena, CA 91105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 304-7610
Dr. Ronald T. Logan Jr.
DARPA 01-009      Awarded: 26MAR01
Title:Ultra-Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Transceivers
Abstract:An ultra-dense wavelength-division-multiplexed optical communications system is proposed which utilizes a patented technique for optical injection-locking of multiple laser diodes to an optical reference comb generated by a mode-locked laser. The injection-locked laser diodes form an ultra-dense array of transmitters that are individually modulated with independent data streams. Locking of laser diodes to a MLL comb with frequency spacing of 1 GHz was demonstrated under a previous DARPA contract. Novel detection schemes are proposed to be investigated for separating the channels at the receiver, as well as system performance issues.The proposed ultra-dense WDM system will enable very high aggregate data rates, while allowing each channel to run at data rates less than 1 GB/sec. In addition to the benefits of interfacing with low-cost, low-power CMOS circuitry, the proposed technique will permit ultra-long distance transmission at improved data transfer rates on installed legacy fiber/amplifier chains.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 East Evelyn Ave., Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 969-6485
Dr. Stephen Holler
DARPA 01-010      Awarded: 16APR01
Title:Photon Tunneling Optical Interconnect
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Phase I project seeks to develop an innovative card-to-backplane optical interconnect technology based on photon tunneling. The proposed technology will provide a low-cost, high-efficiency means of directing light from a PC card to a backplane without bending the photon waveguide. Furthermore, the proposed technology will provide low insertion-loss and high-spectral quality transmission thus allowing the addition of several photonic circuits operating at different wavelengths without significant cross-talk. The result will be a highly-modular technology that will enable high-quality, high-speed computer networks to be realized.The benefits of the proposed technology fundamentally include high-quality, high-speed optical networks capable of being easily reconfigured. However, the proposed technology also has implications for high-spectral quality filters necessary for wavelength division multiplexing systems as well as, with slight modifications, being adapted as a rapid response chemical and biological sensor. The extent of the proposed technology is quite broad covering applications in telecommunications networks and photonic sensors, environmental and atmospheric monitoring, and medical diagnostics.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
2161 Blanton Dr
Dayton, OH 45342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Dr. Praveen Chawla
DARPA 01-011      Awarded: 27MAR01
Title:Next Generation CAD Tools for Gigascale Integrated Mixed Signal System on a Chip
Abstract:EDAptive Computing, Inc. (EDAptive) and Dr. Ranga Vemuri of the University of Cincinnati present a unique and commercially viable solution to the problem of scalable analog component library for RF system design automation. Much research is necessary before complete automation of RF systems is possible, as evident through DARPA's recent NeoCAD solicitation. Our "Library of Scalable RF Analog Components (LIBRA)" program identifies and aims to commercialize relatively mature aspect of this automation process, namely, that of scalable library development. University of Cincinnati's VASE (VHDL-AMS Synthesis Environment) project, under the leadership of Dr. Ranga Vemuri, has developed a unique and innovative methodology for scalable RF components, which will be enhanced, evaluated and commercialized in this SBIR project. Specifically, we propose to develop a scalable component library for RF system designers. This library will consist of several classes of RF components such as mixers, oscillators and low-noise amplifiers. A variety of topologies will be provided in each class to suite various application needs, constraints and optimization goals. In this proposal, we present a focused approach to establish feasibility in Phase I, and prove the concept and prepare for technology transition in Phase II.This effort will form the groundwork for RF System Synthesis tools. In addition to military applications, this effort will also have direct applications in two of the fastest growing markets today, (1) Wireless Communication Devices (Mixed Digital/Analog Systems), and (2) Global Positioning System Receivers. This effort will enable exploration of novel device concepts and designs, improvements in device performance/reliability and reduction in product time-to-market.

FTL SYSTEMS, INC.
1620 Greenview DR SW
Rochester, MN 55902
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(507) 288-3154
Dr. John Willis
DARPA 01-011      Awarded: 27MAR01
Title:Next Generation CAD Tools for Gigascale Integrated Mixed Signal System on a Chip
Abstract:This proposal demonstrates the feasibility of top-down, VHDL-based verification of gigascale, integrated, mixed-signal system-on-a-chip for military applications. Building on FTL Systems' unique parallel-compile, parallel-execute HDL compiler/simulator, this effort introduces novel analog solver, iterative optimization, parallel processing and hardware acceleration technology. These novel technologies enable the gigascale, mixed-signal designer to optimize design parameters such as integration density, cross-talk, interconnect latency, power/thermal management and fault-tolerance using VHDL, VHDL-AMS, and VHDL-RF/MW with a 100x to 1000x verification time reduction. Since verification accounts for more than half the design cycle time, a 10x to 100x reduction in design cycle time results. The anticipated Phase II design target uses 3-D die stacking technology to shrink an avionics processor and associated I/O processing complex by more than 10x with a first pass correct-functionality objective. Ability to accurately and rapidly verify giga-scale, mixed-signal designs conveys key advantages for integrated avionic processor complexes (such as those developed for the JSF), commercial wireless communication devices (such as those developed by the Bluetooth Consortium) and for integrated electronic and photonic systems (such as medical image processing systems). These advantages include denser packaging, lighter weight, lower-power consumption, higher reliability, lower design cost and lower production costs in the context of gigascale, high-frequency, mixed-signal systems. FTL Systems has the commercial relationships to rapidly impact all three of these application areas with commercial products.

AMAIN ELECTRONICS CO., INC.
1875 Angus Ave., Unit C
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 577-0583
Mr. William Mandl
DARPA 01-012      Awarded: 21MAR01
Title:Extremely Low Power Designs for A/D Conversion
Abstract:The objective of this study is to develop high data rate, 100 MHz, A/D conversion electronics that reduces power compared to present techniques. Amain Electronics proposes an innovative analog to digital conversion approach originally developed for focal planes which work at the pixel reducing noise bandwidth and power consumption. It has been shown to provide greater than 100 dB linear dynamic range, provide an offset free digital response and consume nanowatts of power. This approach eliminates the need for analog sampling and multiplexing electronics and for the high speed A/D converters that contribute to increasing the noise problem. The proposed approach places a nanowatt Multiplexed Oversample A/D (MOSAD) at each sensor input, virtually eliminating all sources of noise and non-linearity. MOSAD is a patented improvement of the well known sigma-delta A/D technology. It was specifically developed for large staring array sensor applications to provide low power on focal plane A/D conversion. MOSAD further refines sigma-delta to allow the least amount of electronics to be placed at the sensor, providing high fill factor, high well capacity and small size. The circuitry is fully contained on the chip and expensive stacked or Z technology is not required.The proposed project will have potential for a wide range of Federal Government, commercial and consumer applications, including control sensors for monitoring, tactical system guidance, remote digital communication, digital building and appliance control products for consumer and commercial use, as well as new applications where estremely low cost, low power and high sensitivity are needed, such as automobile safety systems, manpack health and status sensors and field scattered sensors.

V CORP. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7042 Nighthawk Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 931-1011
Dr. Scott R. Velazquez
DARPA 01-012      Awarded: 01MAY01
Title:Linear Distortion Compensator
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project demonstrates a breakthrough approach to high-resolution linearity error compensation (LinComp) using computationally-efficient digital signal processing to reduce harmonic and intermodulation distortion in analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), digital-to-analog converters (DACs), sampling circuitry, and radio frequency amplifiers (or the combination of these devices in the complete RF chain) by at least 24 dB. This technology improves the dynamic range by at least four bits, enabling very accurate synthesis of data at high intermediate frequencies (IF) with very high sample rates (e.g., 18-bit dynamic range with 300 MHz sample rate or 12-bit dynamic range at GHz sample rates). The LinComp technology reduces the size, power, and cost of radar systems and RF transceivers by eliminating much of the RF electronics and reducing the digital signal processing requirements. The significant performance improvements afforded by this approach over traditional compensation techniques will be demonstrated in Phase I by implementing the digital processing in realtime FPGA hardware, demonstrating efficient auto-calibration routines, an testing the processor on a combination of devices in an RF chain. The auto-calibration routines will be built in FPGA hardware in the Phase I Option. V-Corp has confirmed the technical efficacy of the LinComp processing methodology by testing with state-of-the-art analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. This compensation approach requires less hardware, provides much better dynamic range, and provides compensation over a wider bandwidth than competing linearity compensation methods (such as phase-plane compensation and dither). Very importantly, the LinComp processor will always exceed the state-of-the-art because it can easily be upgraded as new, more powerful ADC, DAC, and amplifier products become available. During Phase II, a compact LinComp ADC prototype will be developed to enable direct sampling of data at high IF.The LinComp approach overcomes the critical A/D conversion bottleneck which limits performance of state-of-the-art radio frequency transceiver systems. Virtually any high-performance modern electronic system will benefit from the LinComp ADC. Significant applications include enhancement of radar systems, wideband universal RF transceivers, specialized test equipment, and medical imaging systems.

VISIDYNE, INC.
10 Corporate Place, South Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-2820
Mr. Geert Wyntjes
DARPA 01-012      Awarded: 10APR01
Title:Low Noise, Large Capacity Photonic Frontend
Abstract:Visidyne proposes to address the design of a wideband, low noise photonic RF frontend to improve on the trade between a channel's signal-to-noise or capacity and its aggregate channel count. The underlying technology to do this is a photonic parametric amplifier, where an optical carrier is linearly deviated over a large phase angle with a modulation index approaching unity, and powered by a laser diode. Key to the success of the effort will be to extend Visidyne's demonstrated capabilities of linear phase recovery of the modulated carrier from the MHz domain into the GHz region. This step is expected to be aided by the recent availability of energy efficient laser diodes and modulators with greatly improved performance in terms of their gain-bandwidth product and from faster electronic signal processors. RF frontends, that have low noise figures and at the same time, because of their linear response and low intermodulation distortion are essential when a jumble of widely varying (in amplitude) signals need to be transmitted as is for example the case in dense spectrum environments for cellular phones and secure military communication links.

C & P TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
294 Harrington Avenue, Suite 9
Closter, NJ 07624
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 768-4448
Dr. S. Radhakrishnan Pillai
DARPA 01-013      Awarded: 15MAR01
Title:Rapidly Adaptive Intelligent Radar (RAIR)
Abstract:The sample support problem in space-time adaptive processing (STAP) applications arises from the requirement to adapt many spatial and temporal degrees-of-freedom (DOF) to a changing interference environment that includes clutter and jammers. Often, in heterogeneous overland strong clutter environments, the available wide sense stationary sample support is severely limited to preclude the direct implementation of the sample matrix inverse (SMI) approach. In this proposal we outline several approaches to address the sample support problem: (i) Generalized forward/backward sub-aperture-subspace smoothing techniques to reduce the number of data samples in estimating the sample covariance matrices (ii) Projection methods using alternating projections or relaxed projection operators onto desired convex sets to retain the a-priori known structure of the covariance matrix. Our initial analysis shows that by combining these approaches with eigenbased techniques, it is possible to reduce significantly the data samples required in non-stationary environment and consequently achieve superior target detection. In fact, multiplicative improvement in data reduction compared to direct eigen-based methods can be obtained at the expense of negligible loss in space-time aperture. Phase I efforts will concentrate on obtaining the improvement in performance by combining these methods and will be supported by analytical study as well as simulation results.The improved adaptive transmit signal design can be critically important for detection of extended targets including non-military applications such as monitoring drug trafficking activities and location identification of cellular systems using limited number of data samples, as well as high resolution SAR technology.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. William Snyder
DARPA 01-014      Awarded: 10APR01
Title:A Comparison of Methods to Detect and Eliminate Secondary Target Returns from Adaptive Radar Training Data
Abstract:For SAR, spatial and temporal adaptive processing (STAP) uses samples local to the cell being processed to estimate local clutter and noise statistics. If these samples are corrupted by returns from other unknown targets, the statistics are invalid and the performance of the algorithms can be degraded. We propose to conduct a range of experiments to evaluate signal detection, statistical, multi-look, and tracking approaches for detecting unknown target returns in the training data. These include the CLEAN algorithm for detecting and eliminating returns by iteration, a statistical jackknifing approach to detect anomalous training data cells, combining scans from different angles to optimize detection, and near-clutter tracking methods such as "track-before-detect." An effective approach will likely be some combination of these methods working from strong returns that are easily detected and eliminated to weaker returns that require a more probabilistic treatment. In addition, once a corrupting target is identified we will examine alternatives to simply deleting the corresponding range cells from the data. This is because it is important in the presence of non-stationary background statistics to apply as much training data as possible as close as possible to the cell being processed. Therefore improvements are expected from techniques that preserve as much of the non-target information in the surrounding cells.The technology developed under this program will contribute directly to the overall military objective of improving the effectiveness of Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP). In particular, identifying and removing moving targets and strong stationary targets from the training portion of the data set enhances recovery of near-clutter moving targets. Adaptive radar processinn is also useful in non-military applications such as drug interdiction and border surveillance. Furthermore, STAP processing has other applications such as in speech recognition, communication systems, and medical image processing. The improvements in detection accuracy we realize in the current work will also improve processing for these other applications.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
8130 Boone Blvd. Suite 500
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
Mr. Paul Techau
DARPA 01-014      Awarded: 19APR01
Title:Elimination of Ground Moving Target Returns from the Training Data Set in Adaptive Radars
Abstract:Space time adaptive processing (STAP) plays a very important role in the effectiveness of GMTI radar. STAP offers the potential to detect slow moving ground vehicles that would otherwise be obscured by strong background clutter for systems employing conventional beamforming. In high target density environments, however, the radar data used to train the STAP algorithm will generally contain returns from ground vehicles causing the adaptive algorithm to cancel targets of interest as well as the ground clutter. The focus of the proposed research is to develop STAP algorithms that are robust to the problems associated with vehicles in the training data. The proposed algorithms will be tested using ISL's site-specific radar simulation capabilities which capture the effects of realistic terrain and ground traffic.Successful completion of this program will result in a suite of STAP algorithms with improved robustness to the problems associated with GMTI radar operation in high target density environments. The ability to detect, track, and engage ground vehicles in these environments will significantly enhance the effectiveness of U.S. forces on the battlefield of the future. It is envisioned that algorithms enabling this capability will have broad application and commercialization potential within the various DoD programs that are attempting to deliver these capabilities to the force. For example, opportunities lie in the existing and planned GMTI radar programs such as JSTARS-RTIP, Global Hawk, and U2-AIP.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7892
Dr. Paul Shnitser
DARPA 01-015      Awarded: 26MAR01
Title:High Range Resolution Flash Imaging Ladar
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes an innovative algorithm for range determination in flash imaging laser radars (ladars). The proposed algorithm can be implemented into existing and envisioned flash ladars. It will accelerate system performance and will offer an opportunity for accuracy improvement. In the course of Phase I research, POC will develop the theoretical foundation for the proposed algorithm, will prepare software for computer simulation, and will assemble the experimental setup for demonstrating the proposed algorithm and for investigating its performance with various parameters of flash ladars. Special attention will be paid to ladar operation in the eye-safe region. When successful, Phase I research will create a solid foundation for algorithm implementation in Phase II, allowing for the development of a compact eye-safe imaging ladar, capable of precise range determination within 100 meters. Performing activities leading to successful commercialization of the technology in Phase III, such as identification of sources of financial and other support, will be initiated in Phase I. The proposed algorithm will add to existing scannerless flash ladars an additional capability of fast, precise range determination. Such ladars can be used for surveillance and accurate measurements from unmanned aerial vehicles or unattended ground sensors, in precise robotic systems, and for numerous civilian applications for close-range metrology.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
3085 Woodman Drive, Suite 200
Dayton, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 299-5999
Dr. Gordon R. Little, Ph.D.
DARPA 01-015      Awarded: 15MAR01
Title:Flash Ladar Advanced Processing
Abstract:A flash ladar sensor concept for obtaining three-dimensional images of target scenes will be designed and demonstrated. The sensor will provide depth resolution at maximum ranges. The low-cost sensor will incorporate minor modifications to existing flash ladar hardware and will provide maps of target reflectance and depth, and a target-integrated range signature. The Phase I effort will include demonstration of the sensor approach and formulation of a design for a prototype system.The flash ladar sensor to be designed on the proposed program will provide a near-term, low-cost method for obtaining target depth profiles. These profiles are expected to enable improved target recognition and identification. The sensor technology will also be suitable for robotics, metrology, and transportation applications.