---------- DTRA ----------

24 Phase I Selections from the 01.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7734
Mr. John R. Bailey
DTRA 01-001      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:A Very Deep Submicron Cell Library and Design System for RH ASICs
Abstract:Mission Research Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate a very deep submicron cell library and design system for radiation hardened ASICs and standard products. Specifically, we will develop a scalable 0.18 śm, hardened by design (HBD) cell library to support the radiation hardening of ASICs fabricated in commercial silicon foundries, but exhibiting total dose hardness in excess of 300 Krad(Si), single event effects immunity, and dose rate hardness in excess of 1x10^9 rad(Si)/s. The fundamental technology underlying this effort will be a key enabler for future System on a Chip designs for space. A prototype digital signal processor will be designed and fabricated to demonstrate the performance and radiation hardness of the libraries.Radiation hardened by design (HBD) cell libraries targeting commercial silicon foundries will provide electronics with higher performance, better radiation hardness, and significantly lower cost compared to solutions for radiation hardened processes. The application of hardened by design (HBD) will have the beneficial effect of increasing competition and enhancing the availability of innovative solutions to space system requirements.

SIGMA TECHNOLOGIES INTL, INC.
10960 N. Stallard Place
Tucson, AZ 85737
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 575-8013
Dr. Ali Boufelfel
DTRA 01-002      Awarded: 17MAY01
Title:New, Innovative Technologies for EMP/HPM Hardening of Military and Commercial Systems and Equipment
Abstract:High level protection of DOD high power systems against electromagnetic threats that include high intensity radiated fields (HIRF), electromagnetic interference (EMI), electromagnetic pulse (EMP), electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), and electrostatic discharges (ESD) is highly desired to improve equipment reliability and personnel safety. The option of using conventional shielding materials for electromagnetic radiation hardening tends to exhibit several limitations such as limited frequency range of application, excessive weight, high cost, or low flexibility. Sigma Technologies proposes a novel highly effective approach for improving substantially radiation hardening of DOD aerospace systems. The concept consists in the development of a ceramic/metal nanophase multilayer composite which will be effective over a wide range of frequencies. In Phase I of this program, Sigma will establish proof-of-concept that the proposed composite will provide improved immunity to electromagnetic effects. In the Phase II work, the process will be transferred to larger scale equipment that is already in place at Sigma to produce large quantities for field tests.The proposed material composite is expected to have superior electromagnetic shielding properties which can be readily transferred to the civilian sector. Applications may include shielding from hazardous electromagnetic radiation of sensitive equipment found in commercial aerospace vehicles, government buildings, hospitals, homes, and schools

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Guy Rossi
DTRA 01-002      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:Intrinsic Materials Technology for Flexible Electromagnetic Shields
Abstract:Triton Systems is responding to the DTRA need to ensure the survivability of future military C4I and weapons systems by hardening them against damage from HEMP and HPM weapons, using primarily COTS shielding materials for flexible electromagnetic shields. Triton's unique approach is to integrate our conductive polymer technology into flexible thermoplastic polymer films and foams that will be highly reflective and attenuate HEMP and HPM electromagnetic radiation with improved broadband performance. In Phase I, Triton will show the feasibility by compounding conductive-enhanced polymers and laminating conductive fabrics for EM hardening, and will use reticulated foam with matched properties to fabricate textile laminates which will result in flexible, chemical/biological protective, low Q electromagnetic shields. In Phase II, with the cooperation of a major manufacturer of flexible structures and soft shelters, and with the support of SBCCOM's Fabric Structures Group, Triton will develop compounding to pilot scale level and develop one or more prototype flexible electromagnetic shielding structure(s) for large scale EMI testing. Products for the military and commercial sectors will be developed and sold late on the Phase II program, and on a Phase III program.This Phase I Program, and following programs, will develop new lightweight materials that will provide hardening protection against HEMP and HPM interference for C4I and the U.S. Army Future Combat System. The primary commercial application will be to the Military for use in rapidly deployed soft shelters and individual warfighter systems. The secondary commercial market will be to civilian ground, air and space equipment, for improved operations in strong electromagnetic fields.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Avenue, Suite 2
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Dr. Niansheng Qi
DTRA 01-003      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:Capillary discharge source for high fidelity, plasma radiation source loads
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation proposes to develop and test a capillary discharge source of KCl as an alternative to Ar gas puffs for Decade Quad. The innovative feature of such a capillary source is that the initial z-pinch load is highly ionized and well collimated, as demonstrated earlier with a NaF source on Gamble II and Double-EAGLE (DE). Consequently, the stability and radiation efficiency of the KCl loads might prove to be superior to those of Ar loads. Differences in the quality of gas puff and capillary source implosions may give insight into the importance of the degree and uniformity of preionization in suppressing instabilities that limit the quality of gas-puff implosions. The capillary source will be validated on DE at the 4 MA level, then scaled up to 8 MA levels on Decade Quad. The primary output of Ar z-pinches is from K-shell lines at 3.1 and 3.3 keV. The proposed KCl load consists of K and Cl ions that are nearest neighbors of Ar in Mendeleev's periodic table. The KCl spectrum contains lines ranging from the Cl He-a line at 2.79 keV to the K H-a line near 3.65 keV, producing a broader spectrum favorable to PRS users.Implosion of the KCl capillary plasma on DE should produce as much K-shell radiation as obtained from Ar gas-puff at the same current. Differences in the quality of gas puff and capillary source implosions may give insight into the importance of the degree and uniformity of preionization in suppressing instabilities that limit the quality of gas-puff implosions.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Ave, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Dr. Niansheng Qi
DTRA 01-003      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:Laser Wavefront Analyzer for Time Resolved Current and Density measurements in Z-pinches
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) proposes to adapt a commercially available instrument called a Laser Wavefront Analyzer (LWA) to capture snap-shots of the current and density in the initial coronal region of an imploding z-pinch on the 0.7 MA Hawk accelerator at NRL. These snap-shots will reveal the structure of instabilities in the formation of the pinch and allow us to correlate improved power coupling to the pinch and higher radiation efficiency. The LWA, based on the Shack-Hartmann principle, works by traversing a collimated and P-polarized laser pulse across the z-pinch. The plasma distorts the laser wavefronts and the polarization vector rotates due to the density and magnetic field vectors. After the pinch, the beams are split into orthogonal S and P polarized beams and the distorted wavefronts are focused by a 200x200 micro-lens array. The intensities and positions of these focused micro-beamlets are captured by CCD cameras. From the captured images, it is possible to reconstruct the plasma density (from position shifts) and the magnetic field/implosion current (from intensity variations). In Phase-II, an upgraded LWA may be used to obtain the density profiles around the corona and core pinch plasmas and the implosion current in the core plasma.The LWA can capture images of shock phenomena in combustion flows and also resolve inter-phase vapor-liquid droplet phenomena in rocket nozzles and other fuel mixtures. The LWA is also useful as an optical diagnostic tool in fluid mechanics, with applications in heat flow, turbulence and droplet evaporation. The LWA may also be widely used in defense adaptive optical imaging and transmission applications.

FARTECH, INC.
8380 Miramar Mall, Suite 227
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 450-3292
Dr. Ioan N. Bogatu
DTRA 01-003      Awarded: 19MAY01
Title:Unique High Precision Spectrometer for Warm X-ray Development and Model Benchmarking
Abstract:BMDO and the Services have the requirement to certify some of their military assets as being survivable against the effects of prompt X-rays from nuclear weapons. This certification is generally accomplished by a combination of testing the assets directly for their survivability at DTRA's X-ray simulators, and by modeling and simulation. Both the development of X-ray simulators and benchmarking computer models require very accurate X-ray spectra; especially in the warm, 10-200 keV, spectral region where X-ray sources are too weak to provide system level testing requirements. FARTECH, Inc. proposes a unique high precision spectrometer that is simple, compact, flexible, robust, and is applicable for DTRA's X-ray simulators. The diagnostic technique uses carefully matched filter pairs, in conjunction with suitable detectors, to build a spectrometer capable of providing real-time, shot-to-shot spectra in the warm X-ray region. During Phase I, FARTECH will develop a computer model for matching the radiation spectrum with the optimum filter configuration and will perform a proof-of-principle test with a prototype single channel balanced filter spectrometer on an X-ray source facility. In Phase II, we will design, fabricate, calibrate, and test a complete prototype multi-channel spectrometer over the range of 10 to 200 keV. FARTECH's innovative X-ray spectrometers based on the balanced filter method will benefit the diagnostics of high intensity pulsed power X-ray sources, such as Z-pinch plasmas, inertial confinement fusion plasmas and magnetic confinement fusion plasma devices. They can enhance the contrast of medical radiographic and tomographic images to a new level. Their compactness will allow their use in space vehicles or satellites to measure astrophysical X-ray emission sources.

HY-TECH RESEARCH CORP.
104 Centre Ct.
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 639-4019
Dr. Edward J. Yadlowsky
DTRA 01-003      Awarded: 18MAY01
Title:Development of Time Resolved Technique to Infer 1-Dimensional Magnetic Field Distributions from Zeeman Broadened Lines
Abstract:The magnetic field distribution in a Z-pinch, can be used to infer the currents flowing in the pinch and study the stability during the implosion phase. Faraday rotation techniques are too insensitive for measurements during the run-in phase. Similarly, it is difficult to infer the Zeeman splitting from spectrally resolved line profile when the splitting is much less than the absorption line width d. HY-Tech proposes to adapt an astrophysical technique, to infer the Zeeman splitting from the intensity difference of the right and left circularly polarized components observed along the magnetic field lines. Measurements are made with a monochrometer set for a single wavelength, d/2 from line center, and a polarimeter to spatially separate the two circularly polarized components. This system can be used to spatially resolve the magnetic field distribution in one dimension (either radially or axially) as a function of time using a streak camera. The anticipated 20 point spatial resolution combined with optical magnification will be adequate for studying the Rayleigh-Taylor and other instabilities in the imploding sheath, current commutation between the inner and outer arrays in a nested load, and load currents in magnetic pulse compression experiments.Can be used to measure space and time resolved magnetic fields in plasma radiation sources, ion diode and plasma opening switches to study physical processes occurring there. Also a time resolved version can be used as a non-intrusive current monitor.

KTECH CORP.
2201 Buena Vista SE, Suite 400
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 998-5830
Mr. Frank W. Davies
DTRA 01-003      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Development of a Soft X-Ray Driven Flyer Plate System for Low Pressure Equation of State Studies
Abstract:Science based assessments of the response of systems and material to hostile nuclear environments require detailed verified material response and failure criteria for confident results. Consequently there is a need for the development of experimental techniques to measure low pressure equation of state parameters accurately and economically using radiation simulators. The development of a soft x-ray driven flyer plate (XFP) technique is proposed as the solution to this problem. Thin flyer plates can be accelerated by the blow off impulse generated by the total soft x-ray radiation emitted by a plasma radiating source (PRS). Hugoniot, relief adiabat, loading and unloading paths, response paths and failure criteria (yield, spall) can be accurately determined by measuring the propagation of the short duration, flat topped stress waves generated by the planer impact of thin flyer plates. Existing simulators and PRS can accelerate thin flyer plates to the required velocities. The flyer plate assembly is a mulit-layer configuration that uses a layer of boron carbide to absorb the UV part of the spectrum and tamp the next layer, a K shell absorber. The impulse generated by these two layers is coupled to the flyer plate using rigid foam so that the impulse driven shock waves do not damage the flyer plate. Development of the XFP techniques provides an economic means of characterizing a material for hardness assessments (typically a single PRS will generate 8 material data sets) and satisfies a critical requirement. It also provides another major use for radiation simulators. Since XFP techniques utilize the total yield of a simulator existing simulators are adequate for XFP experiments.

KTECH CORP.
2201 Buena Vista SE, Suite 400
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 998-5830
Mr. Frank W. Davies
DTRA 01-003      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Reflex Triode Design Optimization
Abstract:Present reflex triode (RT) design performance is limited by debris shield response. The shield designs were derived empirically to satisfy specific experiment requirements. Optimizing the RT design will double target dose. Debris shield deformation defines the closest permissible location of the test object and therefore determines the maximum dose achievable. The deformation of the debris shield can be reduced without sacrificing transmitted fluence by (a) minimizing the debris shield stimulus and (b) by designing a low Z debris shield that minimizes the transient deformation. Ktech proposes to reduce converter and cathode foils impulse by optimizing the material selection, configuration and thickness. Hydrocode analysis will be used to model converter blow off and define the debris shield dynamic loads. Ktech has pioneered the development of thin, large area, high Z foils. Advanced low atomic number, composite honeycomb shield designs achieve a high effective bending modulus and therefore minimize deformation. This reflex triode optimization approach increases the useful output of existing pulsers without changing the pulsed power systems to provide a needed high fidelity simulator for the examination of thermomechanical response of weapon and delivery system components.Optimizing the reflex triode and debris shield design will achieve factors of 2 increase in dose allowing simulators to meet customer requirements. Debris shield technology has a myriad of applications including armor systems, blast resistant structures, automobile crash protection systems and personal safety devices.

KTECH CORP.
2201 Buena Vista SE, Suite 400
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 998-5830
Mr. Frank W. Davies
DTRA 01-003      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Large Area Survivable Shield Design
Abstract:Survivable shields are a necessary part of many soft x-ray debris mitigation systems that provide ultra clean test environments for nuclear weapons effects testing. Existing test requirements demand ultra large area survivable shields (12 inch diameter). Existing designs are limited to relatively small areas at low fluences and/or impose severe x-ray attenuation penalties. A methodology for the design of ultra large survivable shields is proposed. The Ktech technical approach to optimizing the design of an ultra survivable shield is to optimally minimize and accommodate the shield response to each of the loads imposed on the shield by the PRS radiation and debris environments through geometric configuration and material selection with the constraint of low soft x-ray (K line) attenuation. The loads on a survivable shield are a combination of UV induced blow off, pressure loads exerted by expanding plasmas from the PRS source region and from UV filters, particulate debris impacts and radiation induced line loads and moments. Techniques to eliminate or minimize to the extent possible each of these loads are presented.Survivable shield/window technology is required for nearly all of the test facilities examining the response and survivability of stock pile components/systems to hostile (man made or natural) environments. Large area survivable shields are required for all PRS simulations, for many electron and ion beam tests and for NIF. Survivable window technology is also a critical element in the design of ion or electron beam pulsers for surface hardening of materials, waste remediation, semi-conductor fabrication and for medical applications.

KTECH CORP.
2201 Buena Vista SE, Suite 400
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 998-5830
Mr. Frank W. Davies
DTRA 01-003      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Polar Angle Fluence Distribution Measurements Using Fast Total Stopping Calorimeters
Abstract:The measurement of the variation of fluence from a Plasma Radiating Source (PRS) with polar angle is critical to the definition of the stimuli acting on an effects experiment using PRS diagnostics because in general experiments and diagnostics view the source from different angles. The polar angle fluence distribution is controlled by the opacity of the pinch, which is a sensitive function of pinch conditions. The frequently assumed Lambertian (cosine) radiator conditions results in significant error. Polar angle fluence distribution of a source must be measured for each PRS design. No capability to make these measurements presently exists. It is proposed to develop a fast total stopping intrinsic (FTSI) calorimeter array to measure the polar angle fluence distribution of NWE PRS. FTSI calorimeters are potentially the most accurate and least expensive diagnostic option that can be fielded within the test chamber. The velocity of existing calorimeter designs is questionable at best because of their configuration, slow response and ill defined thermal loss corrections. Accurate estimation of the fluence incident on a calorimeter can be obtained if the calorimeter is designed to provide fast response and the configuration allows proven dynamic error compensation. These design techniques were successful in UGT calorimeter design. Polar angle PRS fluence distribution measurements for each PRS are critical to accurate NEW experiments. Development of a FTSI calorimeter will significantly improve the available suite of PRS diagnostics. The FTSI calorimeter design has wide application to electron and ion beam, laser and thermal radiation diagnostics. The required thermal analysis techniques can be used to evaluate high rate thermal industrial processes.

OPTISWITCH TECHNOLOGY CORP.
6355 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 452-8787
Dr. David Giorgi
DTRA 01-003      Awarded: 18MAY01
Title:Compact Solid-State Switch for Fast Marx Generators
Abstract:OptiSwitch Technology Corporation proposes the development of a high-power, optically activated solid-state switch for the replacement of the rail gap switches on DTRA's Fast Marx Generator (FMG). The switch is packaged into 200kV/250kA modules that directly connect to the output plates of the fast capacitor. The switch is based on direct connection of thyristor elements, a technique that would offer the opportunity of both a high degree of compactness as well as of manufacturability for switch applications. The optical switching results in ultra-low jitter (ps) between switch modules and enables parallel configurations of the FMG for mega-ampere and mega-voltage applications. The switches do not require replacement or refurbishment, drastically reducing the cost of ownership and downtime. This advanced switch technology also makes feasible a new type of pulse power machine, one based on low impedance transmission lines fabricated from capacitor grade, thin film dielectrics. Such a system will be more efficient, less costly to build and maintain and more compact than current pulse power machines. This pulse power technology, enabled by the switch, is flexible such that one machine would deliver the required currents and voltages for both BRS and PRS load with pulsewidths of less than 100ns.The development of this advanced solid-state switch will enable simulators to be less costly to build and maintain, more compact, and higher performance. Commercial applications are numerous; some include protecting electric utility and telecommunication systems from high current surges caused by lightning strikes and switching transients.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 633-2344
Dr. J. Todd Reinking
DTRA 01-004      Awarded: 17MAY01
Title:Mitigation of Atmospheric Nuclear Effects on RF and Optical Communication and Sensor Systems
Abstract:Many NMD and TMD radar algorithms are designed with inherent assumptions about the amplitude statistics of the radar returns from objects under observation. These algorithms include mission critical bulk filtering and classification algorithms. In a wartime environment, the observed amplitude fluctuations will be due not only to fluctuations in the target radar cross section (RCS), which the radar hopes to measure, but will also be caused by angular scattering of the propagating EM wave. For the natural ionosphere at UHF through L-band and for nuclear-burst produced environments at S-band through X-band, fluctuations in signal amplitude can degrade the performance of amplitude sensitive radar algorithms. The proposed work will enable NMD and TMD radar to measure the S4 scintillation index. Knowledge of the channel amplitude statistics allows some radar algorithms to be adapted to mitigate the effects of the ionospheric multipath. Additionally, measurement of the S4 scintillation index on propagation paths to satellites on trajectories that pass near the trajectories of the objects of interest can provide information about the extent of the disturbed region that is of use in radar energy management.Both the NMD UEWR IPT and the NMB XBR IPT have a need (as expressed at various Technical Interchange Meetings) for channel measurements to quantify the degree of signal degradation caused by multipath propagation through the disturbed ionosphere. With knowledge of the severity of the degradation, mitigation algorithms can be turned on (and off) at the appropriate time to help optimize the expenditure of radar resources. Radar algorithms can also be designed to adapt based on knowledge of channel multipath fluctuation statistics. Such information is vital to the allocation of radar resources during TMD and NMD engagements, is vital to the development of algorithms to provide successful object classification during wartime and is thus vital to the future defense of the United States. This work will help to build a successful National Missile Defense system that will operate under conditions when the propagation environment is disturbed by nuclear events or by naturally produced ionospheric irregularities in the equatorial or polar regions. The development of mitigation techniques is a key technology area in the deployment of a viable National Missile Defense system. There are two major corporations that are building the NMD and TMD radars, namely Raytheon (UEWR, XBR and THAAD), and Lockheed-Martin (Aegis, (SPY 1)) radar. The techniques addressed under the proposed work have the potential to be incorporated by these companies into the design of these DOD assets. The recognition of the severity of multipath propagation conditions is a long-term issue for RF sensors, particularly in the frequency range above 30 GHz. At such frequencies the multipath propagation channel is often the limiting factor that controls sensor performance. The results from this project on measurement of the severity of propagation channels will potentially be useful in the development of systems in the millimeter wave regime. Such systems include earth environment sensing, airport ground traffic control, and automatic automobile control. All these systems are affected by atmospheric multipath caused by ambient low-altitude atmosphere turbulence.

VISIDYNE, INC.
10 Corporate Place, South Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 683-4277
Dr. John DeVore
DTRA 01-004      Awarded: 18MAY01
Title:Digital Image Generator for Real-Time Display of Nuclear Backgrounds for Optical/Infrared Sensors
Abstract:Visidyne proposes to develop a high-fidelity, real-time Nuclear Optical Dynamic Digital Image Generator (NODDIG) to support the development and testing of algorithms for the mitigation of optical clutter in nuclear environments. The NODDIG concept is a software/hardware digital scene generator. It would complement and support display systems employed in hardware-in-the-loop sensor testing, such as the analogue infrared simulator in DTRA's Nuclear Optical Dynamic Display System (NODDS). Presently available image generators are either too slow or afford incomplete models of the burst-disturbed backgrounds from high-altitude nuclear events (HANEs). The IRSim code, developed and maintained by Visidyne, is the DTRA standard for producing high-fidelity structured scenes and scene sequences. However, IRSim is several orders of magnitude too slow to be used in "real time" for hardware-in-the-loop sensor testing, and must be used before the fact to generate scenes for pre-scripted engagements. Other, faster stochastic methods have been used to generate background clutter images, but they lack the fidelity and traceability inherent in IRSim. In Phase I Visidyne proposes to develop and demonstrate a prototype for a novel, real-time nuclear digital image generator. The innovation consists in adapting the key algorithms from IRSim to be evaluated as instructions on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) 3-D graphics accelerators, such as those found in SGI workstations and increasingly in PCs. In Phase I Visidyne will also develop the hardware specifications for a real-time system to be assembled in a Phase II follow-on.The prototype nuclear image generator developed in Phase I will determine the feasibility of developing a high-fidelity, real-time scene generator to complement NODDS. The lessons learned from the development of the NODDIG prototype will contribute to the technology base for visualizing translucent objects, e.g., dust and smoke, in virtual reality simulations.

GLOBAL SEISNET, LLC
13846 Acoro Street
Cerritos, CA 90703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 994-5952
Dr. L. Zhu, C. Saikia and D. Hel
DTRA 01-007      Awarded: 25MAY01
Title:Improved Seismic Event Location Estimates
Abstract:Locating and discriminating explosions from earthquakes become progressively more difficult as magnitude decreases. We can no longer rely on teleseismic identification for events at about Mw<4.3 and we can expect only a few, perhaps one, digital stations reporting usable data in regional distance. We need to obtain more information from these regional seismograms than just arrival times and amplitude ratios. Here we introduce a new method of estimating source parameters using as few as one broadband station in conjunction with other available data. We will refer to these solutions as regional event parameters (REP) to distinguish them from other source estimates, such as Ground Truth (GT) location and Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) location. The method employs an adaptive grid-search of matching three-component waveform records against synthetics to establish source location and depth. The basic matching procedure contains a trade-off of source mechanism with location. The better the constraint on mechanism and depth, the better the location. The locations of GT10 and GT25 events can also be improved if CMT's and other independent depth estimates are available. We propose a concentrated effort to develop an interactive semi-automated code that can take a variety of data and determine source parameters. To establish proof-of-concept, we will conduct a validation test on the PASSCAL data sets collected in Pakistan and Tibet. We will test our method against the locations of the GT5 and GT10 events. The effective accuracy in locations produced from the analysis of one broadband station plus first arrivals at other stations can be checked against the whole network locations. This code could be used systematically to refine existing locations. Researchers in the various SSSC calibration projects could use such a code to help establish the ground truth events in their regions. Moreover, independent locations by different methodologies could be used to more fully address the true uncertainties in location. This study will result in a methodology to yield ground truth information for small magnitude events using a number of short-period stations for polarity and onset times of P waves in conjuction with a broadband station. The proposed method is applicable in any tectonic environment provided that the regional structure is calibrated. Thus, following the Phase-I of this study, it will be possible to apply this method to reduce ambiguity in the epicentral locations of small magnitude events, which is needed by the OSI requirements. Also, we will be able to extend this method to smaller events with added confindence thus will yield a larger populations of GT events producing a better coverage of the geographic regions of the monitoring interests.

MULTIMAX, INC.
1441 McCormick Drive
Largo, MD 20774
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 925-8222
Mr. Wilmer Rivers
DTRA 01-007      Awarded: 29MAY01
Title:Improved Estimates of Seismic Event Location Uncertainty Using 3-D Ray Tracing of Initial and Secondary Regional Phase Arrivals
Abstract:We propose to improve the calculation of seismic event locations at regional distances in areas without calibrated station corrections by replacing the conventional travel-time table with those travel times that are generated (during the location computation) from an existing program that uses 3-D ray-tracing through an inhomogeneous earth model. Regional location accuracy will be improved by calculating the effects of the 3-D variations in crust and upper mantle structure and by extending the calculations to include later-arriving regional phases. The confidence region surrounding the location will not be calculated using the conventional linear approximation but instead by forward modeling of rays cast from trial locations surrounding the computed one. This directly determined confidence region will likely not be elliptical, and a suite of such confidence regions will be generated by perturbations of the assumed inhomogeneous earth model to define more accurately the true uncertainty in the location by explicitly incorporating primary and secondary phase travel-time uncertainty. This suite of confidence regions can be used to generate a single confidence region by stacking them, using weights assigned as Bayesian probabilities.In addition to its immediate applicability for verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the proposed methodology will allow the confidence regions of earthquake locations (especially regionally and locally monitored aftershocks) to be determined more accurately. This will allow the location of faults and the extent of seismic hazard areas to be mapped more precisely for purposes of civic planning, industrial development, and insurance risk calculation.

QUANTUM MAGNETICS, INC.
7740 Kenamar Ct.
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 566-9200
Dr. Yacine Dalichaouch
DTRA 01-009      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:Magnetic/Electromagnetic Sensor Array for Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities
Abstract:Remote detection and characterization of underground facilities (UGF) is of great importance in environmental, geologic, mining, law enforcement, and strategic arms treaty applications. This is particularly true for the detection and imaging of subterranean features such as tunnels, bunkers, and other potential military targets. Various detection techniques currently used in geophysical imaging include seismic reflection and refraction, ground penetrating radar, infrared thermal imaging, gravity, electrical resistivity, magnetic, and electromagnetic (EM) methods. The goal of this proposed work is to develop and demonstrate a sensor system for detecting and characterizing UGFs using small, lightweight, low-cost, magnetoresistive (MR) sensors. These sensors can be configured to measure all three components of the field with a sensitivity of a few tens of pT/Hz1/2 over a frequency band extending from DC to several MHz. The sensitivity and versatility of MR sensors enable both passive magnetometry and active EM detection to be performed with a single sensor and, therefore, represents a fusion of magnetometer and EM induction (EMI) capabilities. The complimentary magnetic and EM data can be combined in a sensor fusion scheme to minimize sensor clutter and discriminate against false targets. The technology to be developed under this program will find civilian and military applications. Many applications exist in the commercial sector of the government, which include urban and highway traffic, building security, and border surveillance. Systems using related technology will also find applications in land-mine alternative applications, detection of armed troops and military vehicles, detection of concealed weapons, and perimeter surveillance.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Dr. Michael Zintl
DTRA 01-009      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:Self-Networking Passive Sensor Array for the Detection of Underground Facilities
Abstract:The U.S. military is being called upon increasingly to address the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by third-world countries, particularly as applied to facilities which have been located in hardened and deeply buried installations, thereby making their identification difficult. Recognizing that passive detection of combined acoustic, seismic, and electromagnetic signatures from these facilities is a promising resolution to the challenge, SARA proposes to develop a passive sensor unit combining the three technologies into one; an array of these sensors would then be scattered around a suspected area for monitoring. Unlike fielded-sensor arrays in which individual units report to a common location (base station), our approach is a unique self-networking concept in which the units inter-communicate and corroborate suspected activity. This approach reduces base-station communication and sensor power consumption. SARA's Phase I effort addresses each of the three preeminent challenges confronting a self-networking multi-sensor array: 1) Determining the number needed to scope reasonable field range; 2) Right-sizing sensor for hand-emplacement or air drop; 3) Demonstrating a functional self-networking methodology. Phase I will show confidently an attractive tactical sensor-array concept and the design and integration skills that promise a successful Phase II demonstration. This technology will be of interest to organizations requiring underground-facility information from remote locations for the performance of their responsibilities. This would include US Army and US Marine special ops, infantry, artillery forward observers, and intelligence, and an assortment of government/private agencies responsible for law enforcement, such as border surveillance of suspected underground tunnels (alien and drug interdiction), prison-escape monitoring, and underground intrusion detection.

ACTA, INC.
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1008
Dr. Timothy K. Hasselman
DTRA 01-010      Awarded: 18MAY01
Title:Advanced Computational Techniques for Counterproliferation Problems
Abstract:A six-month Phase I project is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of a hierarchical method for more accurately estimating the material parameters of constitutive models in DYNA3D, thereby enhancing the fidelity of nonlinear finite element models. The hierarchical approach combines the distinct advantages of coupon, component and system-level testing with Bayesian statistical parameter estimation. Bayesian sequential estimation retains the information gained from previous estimates in a covariance matrix of the estimates, which is updated with test data from each subsequent test. It is also proposed that a one-stage version of the Bayesian estimator be applied to a fragmentation model developed by General Atomics, SAIC and George Mason University. The material representation in the model will be generalized to include stochastically correlated bond strengths between element clusters in an effort to more accurately represent the fragment weight distributions observed in arena tests.The proposed project will build upon a recently completed SBIR Phase II project also sponsored by DTRA, which developed and implemented methods for nonlinear model validation and verification in a MATLABr Nonlinear Model V&V Toolbox. This toolbox is currently undergoing beta-testing at U.S. National Laboratories. The proposed project will extend the toolbox to include a hierarchical method for material parameter estimation. The resulting toolbox should benefit all users of DYNA3D, including the U.S. transportation industry that uses the code extensively for vehicle crash simulations, and the design of roadside safety barriers.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. William J. Coirier
DTRA 01-010      Awarded: 15MAY01
Title:Urban Area Blast Wave Analysis using a Hierarchical, Solution-based, Adaptive Mesh Refinement Technique
Abstract:The overall objective of the Phase I is to demonstrate and validate the concept of a Hierarchically-based, Solution Adaptive Mesh Refinement (HAMR) gasdynamics solver to predict unsteady blast wave propagation within a dense urban environment. This very unique type of gasdynamics equations solver is based upon Godunovs' scheme, and is particularly well suited for rapid and highly-accurate predictions of the unsteady, strong shock dominated environment immediately after an explosive event in geometrically complex cityscapes. The difficulty of generating an accurate geometric model of the cityscapes is alleviated by using a unique image and voxel-based approach, which generates a computational mesh that is unique to the HAMR approach. By accurately predicting the transient pressure waves within the environment, post-event analysis of collateral damage, such as window breakage and stored weapons material release, may be simulated. Phase II will improve the fidelity and speed of the HAMR approach by such improvements as real gas effects and explosives equations of state, will account for structural deformation via a coupled CFD/CSD approach, and will implement distributed parallel processing upon inexpensive clusters of PC components.The Urban Area Blast Wave Analysis package may be used to accurately predict the transient pressure loadings upon very complex building configurations and landscapes. This has direct application to weapons effect analysis and mission planning by providing the prediction of damage, both primary and collateral, to targets located in a dense urban environment. The developed tool may be used by Government personnel and related contractors, as well as by the Civil Defense, Emergency Management and Builders to determine the blast effects upon buildings located within urban environments.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY
174 North Main Street, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
DTRA 01-010      Awarded: 11MAY01
Title:Advanced Computational Techniques for Counterproliferation Problems
Abstract:The task of computationally simulating the dispersion and/or neutralization of toxic chemical/biological (CB) agents, released from weapons of mass destruction (WMD), puts a very high demand on the capability of current generation computational dynamics (CFD) codes. Current advanced computational tools for WMD threat simulation fail to address all the necessary physics, do not incorporate emerging computational techniques nor do they take full advantage of the latest scalable, computer hardware. Under the proposed effort, a modern finite-element based unstructured,, fully implicit Navier-Stokes code, entitled CRUNCH, which is optimized for operation on scalable parallel platforms, will be utilized as the basis for developing a tool for simulating WMD threat against population centers. CRUNCH embodies multi-phase physics, advanced turbulence modeling, grid adaptation, generalized chemical kinetics and employs Godunov-based robust numerics with low Mach number pre-conditioning. Innovations such as domain decomposition, load balancing, GUI-driven pre-/post-processing utilities and finally, programming in High Performance Fortran (HPF), C++ and JAVA, provide an ideal, next-generation platform to begin assessment of requirements for performing WMD threat simulations. The Phase I effort will proceed directly to the environment of actual interest, and application to representative WMD problems will provide preliminary identification of computational and physics requirements.The next generation CFD, developed for WMD studies, will have superior physics and computational capabilities, which are optimized for modern, scalable architectures. The innovations proposed will provide applicability well beyond WMD threat simulation ranging from high-speed aerodynamics, missile aero-propulsion, blasts and explosives, etc. to low-speed hydrodynamics, pollutant dispersion, chemical reactors, etc.

EXOTHERM CORP.
1035 Line Street
Camden, NJ 08103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 541-1949
Dr. Emil A. Shtessel
DTRA 01-011      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:High Energy Density Metallic Mechanical Alloys for New Explosives and Incendiary Devices with Controllable Explosion Parameters
Abstract:Experimental quantities of metastable Al-Mg solid solutions (Mg contents 10-50%) have been recently prepared using mechanical alloying. Such solid solutions are predicted to be a new type of metallic high energy density materials in which specific phase changes are pre-programmed to occur at a desired temperature and trigger ignition of accelerate combustion rate of the fuel. Preliminary tests have indeed shown that mechanical alloys have significantly reduced ignition temperatures and higher combustion rates as compared to the pure aluminum. The ignition temperatures and combustion rates were shown to depend on the alloy composition, crystal lattice parameter, and crystallite size. It is proposed that these new materials can be used in a new generation of explosives and incendiary devices with the explosion parameters tailored precisely to defeat specific targets. An experimental program aimed at the feasibility demonstration of this hypothesis is described. Samples of mechanical alloys of the aluminum and boron based compounds will be prepared and tested. A constant volume explosion technique is is chosen to characterize performance of the new materials. Analytical instrumentation, e.g., an electron microscope, an x-ray diffractometer, a bomb calorimeter, etc., will be used to characterize structures and compositions of mechanical alloys and their combustion products.An opportunity identifiied in this proposed research is to explore the feasibility of the new mechanically alloyed metallic powders with varied compositions and nanocrystallite sizes as an additive to explosive formulations that would enable one to control the blast parameters in a wide range. If successful, such materials can be used in a variety of explosive and incendiary devices and enable one to precisely adjust the produced blast parameters to defeat specific targets. In addition, admixtures of trace amounts of the easily detectable elements could be added to mechanical alloys, such elements released in a blast would produce the readily observable signatures required for the damage assessment. During Phase II, special technology will be designed to produce those materials in commercial volumes for weapon systems.

GENERAL SCIENCES, INC.
205 Schoolhouse Road
Souderton, PA 18964
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 723-8588
Mr. Michael C. Matthews
DTRA 01-011      Awarded: 25MAY01
Title:Critical Feature Defeat for Underground Facilities - Thermal Accelerant Payload
Abstract:Upon successful completion of the proposed program, an accelerant payload concept shall be developed and evaluated. The use of an accelerant payload allows the munitions system designer the capability to exploit a thermal target defeat mechanism, in addition to coupling to traditional high explosive/fragmentation defeat mechanisms, to increase the overall target lethality. The use of a thermal accelerant payload allows for the enhanced defeat of combustible materiel within a target volume including that located outside the primary area of weapon effects due to fire start and fire spread. Additionally, the selection of the accelerant payload composition can result in the actual structure of the target (ex., iron and steel girders and beams, concrete) contributing to the degree of target defeat which are not usually thought to be considered a "combustible" material.If this program is carried to its conclusion, GSI will provide the U.S. Government with information and hardware which will improve our war fighting capabilities through a combiuned effects munitions system. Direct input, for example. can be provided to the on-going Eglin Air Force penetrator program in terms of advanced payload options. Other applications may include shoulder fired munitions, anti-submarine munitions and other applications such as a high-temperature cutting torch.

UTD, INC.
10242 Battleview Parkway
Manassas, VA 20109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 393-0800
Mr. John L. Hill III
DTRA 01-011      Awarded: 10MAY01
Title:A Light Autonomous Directional Driling System
Abstract:Drilling has been an integral part of defense community weapons effects testing for over 40 years. Hard target defeat programs have required specialized drilling technology in the creation of test targets and in the monitoring of weapons tests, that can only be accomplished by directional drilling. Unfortunately the cost of conducting directional drilling, the typical use of large volumes of water during drilling and its subsequent impact on the test environment, and the detrimental effects of the movement of large drilling rigs over the test sites has resulted in the abandonment of the benefits that could be derived from accurately placed instrumentation. The proposed Light Autonomous Directional Drilling System is transportable by a pick-up truck, drills dry, is cost effective to use, and other than the air compressor, the hardware is man portable. The system builds on proven off-the-shelf pneumatic drilling technology and existing position location navigation technology. The key innovation necessary to prove the feasibility of this system is a downhole Pneumatic Advancing Rotational Steering System. A prototype design has been developed and described in this proposal. Phase I involves the refinement of the design, manufacture of the prototype and laboratory testing of its capabilities to prove feasibility.The proposed system (the Pneumatic Advancing Rotational Steering System) has direct application to the drilling of far reaching horizontal oil production wells. Horizontal, slim-hole, and coiled tube drilling started to pick up in activity in the late 1980's and have been on a steady increase of use ever since. Difficulties with coiled tubing include limitations on the amount of thrust and torque which can be transmitted from the surface and the size and expense of their rigs. The proposed systems eliminates these constraints. UTD will work with existing Oil and Gas company partners in the commercialization of this new technology.