DoD SBIR FY01.2 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Army - Navy - DARPA - OSD - SOCOM

---------- ARMY ----------

317 Phase I Selections from the 01.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
MECHANICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
1719 Rt. 10 East, Suite 205
Parsippany, NJ 07054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 326-9920
Mr. William J. Kelly
ARMY 01-001      Selected for Award
Title:Cased Telescoped Ammunition Smart Seal Development
Abstract:Cased Telescoped Ammunition (CTA) has the potential to allow use of lighter ammunition-feed swing chambers, and more efficient ammunition storage, which will move the Army toward the lighter vehicles required by the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program. Technical obstacles have blocked the widespread application of CTA, particularly the sealing of propellant gases at the fore and aft of the cartridge during firing. MSI will extrapolate its experience in bioengineering applications with Nitinol shape memory alloys and other smart materials, and in design of seals for turbomachinery including aircraft gas turbine engines, using advanced computer-aided design analytical tools. In order to provide a tool for designing rings or sleeves which result in enhanced and reliable sealing, the coupled engineering problem will be attacked calculating the turbulent viscous leakage flow, acoustics, transient heat transfer, contact elasticity, and hyper-elastic (in the case of Nitinol) response. Physical properties required for the selected material (e.g. strain rate sensitivity of elastic modulus) will be verified by special testing by the material supplier. Three different conceptual prototypes will be manufactured to confirm their ability to take on conforming shapes, under elastic and/ or thermal loading, to enforce forward and aft sealing in a prototype 105 mm cartridge. Smart materials, particularly shape memory alloys, are applicable in many military and civilian applications involving sealing, gripping, deployment of large volume/ weight devices from initially compact storage containers, and actuation. Few applications have been attempted involving the sudden temperature changes or sonic rates of strain experienced by gun cartridges. The knowledge base accumulated to succeed in the CTA application will allow MSI to offer designs for other applications in aerospace, automotive, and industrial actuation and sealing in situations where temperature, pressure, or loading are extreme or may rapidly change, such as in plastic injection molding, and in gas turbines.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
673G, Alpha Drive
Cleveland, OH 44143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 449-5785
Mr. Troy Prince
ARMY 01-002      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Range Using Adaptive Flow Control Structures For FCS Multi-Role Armament Munitions
Abstract:To meet the goals of the Objective Force, the Army has initiated the development of Multi-Role Armament Munitions for Future Combat System (FCS). Current smart cargo projectiles and hit-to-kill munitions use conventional control surfaces like fins and canards for stability and control, which limit their range and maneuverability. Also, the volume required by the current control actuation system (CAS) limits the munitions payload capacity and the overall mission performance. Orbital Research proposes to develop an Aerodynamic Flight Control System (AFCS) based on two adaptive flow control structures: (1) Deployable Conformable Wings (DCWs) and (2) MEMS based Deployable Flow Effectors (DFEs). The control structures will be used in conjunction with an intelligent controller to provide a cost, power, and volume efficient flight control and lift enhancement system which can be readily integrated into any Army's FCS multi-role armament munitions. The AFCS will be able to maximize body parameters like lift for enhanced range, withstand harsh launch and environmental conditions (high pressure and temperatures, shocks, acoustic noise, etc.), and provide high maneuverability and control for least amount of power consumed from the vehicle. Additionally, the overall costs of flight control system per round will be kept to a minimum level. The proposed Aerodynamic Flight Control System (AFCS) will provide extended range and enhanced control and maneuverability to increase the lethality and accuracy of hit-to-kill and/or shoot-to-kill munitions. Military benefits will include providing Future Combat System (FCS) with a cost, power, and volume efficient control system that will enable rapid lethal response capability against a wide spectrum of threats.

OMNITEK PARTNERS, LLC
585 Farmdale Road
Franklin Lakes, NJ 07417
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 310-7666
Mr. Ernest A. Elgin
ARMY 01-003      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Conformal Power Sources for Advanced Smart Munitions
Abstract:The objective of this project is to study the feasibility of a number of novel methods and concepts for conformable power sources that can be integrated into the structure of the projectile with minimal or no loss of the intended functionality of the structure. The structurally integrated power sources are load bearing. As the result, all or a significant portion of the space required to house the power source and the aforementioned components can be saved. In addition, the power sources and their related components are better protected against high acceleration loads, vibration, impact loading, repeated loading and acceleration and deceleration cycles that can be experienced during transportation and loading operations, i.e., are highly survivable. Such power sources are also safer, have longer shelf life, and are more reliable. The conformal and structurally integrated power sources have numerous other military and commercial applications. Such power sources are ideal for use in different types of missiles and rockets, in satellites and in all different types of commercial disposable electronic devices such as flash lights, cameras, and the like.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Ajay Verma
ARMY 01-004      Selected for Award
Title:Active Projectile Course Correction System (APCC)
Abstract:The main goal of this Phase I project is to demonstrate the feasibility of an Active Projectile Course Correction System (APCC) for a Light Fighter Lethality (LFL) Seeker High Explosive Projectile. An APCC system consists of a control and guidance algorithm for a projectile seeking an identified target through an infrared seeker. For the success of this project, there are three major areas where focus is required. First, there is a need for development of a reliable trajectory estimation algorithm based on sensed data. Second, there is a need to develop an on-board reliable feedback mechanism for course correction of the projectile. Third, there is need for development of a real time discrete control system for trajectory course correction. In this proposal, the key innovation is the control and guidance of a projectile trajectory for tracking a moving target using an on-board seeker. Some of the expected outcome of this project would be as follows. Real time ballistic projectile trajectory estimation using Data Fusion and Kalman Filtering. Synchronization of the image seeking activity using a flagging system with proper projectile orientation. Optimal desired trajectory computation using inverse dynamics. Target tracking using discrete controls for navigation and guidance. PACC will result in the development of some generic algorithms such as data fusion and Kalman filtering for enhancing the reliability of sensor data., discrete control algorithm for navigation and guidance of dynamic systems, trajectory estimation and optimization of dynamic systems. Some of these algorithms will be reusable in various other engineering applications. The technology developed under this project can utilized for other weapon systems of different sizes. For example, the results of this effort can be applied to the Medium Cannon Caliber Guided Projectile Program, the Objective Crew Served Weapon and the Objective Individual Combat Weapon. Immediate beneficiaries of PACC technology will be DOD. This technology can be applied to bomblets and sub-munitions for other services weapon systems. In the commercial area some of the technology developed for PACC can be used to build safety device for mid-air collision prevention of small aircraft.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Raman K. Mehra/Ravi K. Prasanth
ARMY 01-004      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturizable INS/GPS/IR Sensor-based Navigation System for Small Caliber Projectiles
Abstract:The Light Fighter Lethality (LFL) seeker projectile is a small caliber weapon with INS and imaging sensor. Its size, weight and short flight time places restrictions on guidance and control of a different dimension than normally seen in guided weapons. This project aims at developing navigation filter architectures, guidance laws and integration concepts that would enable LFL seeker projectile hardware development. Loosely coupled INS, GPS and IR sensor-based systems are proposed to maximize use of existing miniaturization technology. The main Phase I tasks are to (1) obtain LFL projectile simulation models, (2) develop INS/GPS/IR-sensor based navigation and control systems, and (3) evaluate system performance. Several control laws including classical proportional navigation and modern robust control will be investigated. Phase I option period will be used to identify hardware issues and promising technologies that may permit a prototype demonstration in Phase II. Scientific Systems Company, Inc will be supported by Draper Laboratory in all phases of the project. Integration of GPS, INS, and passive imaging sensors is essential for intelligent autonomy. The proposed work has direct applications in formation flying, distributed spacecraft, telerobotics, intelligent automobiles, rendezvous and docking operations, cinematography.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Iain T. McKinnie
ARMY 01-005      Selected for Award
Title:High Brightness Beam-Coupler for High Power Diode Lasers
Abstract:High brightness lasers have been identified as a means of producing acceptably short and reliable munition ignition times in large caliber guns. For practical purposes, these lasers must be compact, low-cost, efficient and robust to withstand the harsh shock environment. High power multiple emitter diode bars can meet these criteria, but poor beam quality (typical M2>1000 from a single 50W bar) and low spatial coherence are incompatible with the high brightness requirement for ignition. CTI proposes a novel, compact and efficient active beam-combining architecture, capable of dramatically enhancing the combined brightness of multiple diode bars to generate near diffraction-limited output. The beam-coupler has excellent heat dissipation, and a proprietary architecture that virtually eliminates thermo-optic beam distortions. In one possible configuration, up to twelve 50W diode bars are butt-coupled into, and combined in, a single 70mm long lightweight module. Modeling, anchored by our recent proof-of-concept demonstrations indicates a brightness enhancement of more than 300x with respect to the direct diode output. Modules may be stacked to scale power to multi-kW levels, as required, without loss of brightness. CTI's proven ability to design and engineer rugged and compact electro-optic systems for demanding environments will ensure a successful overall development program. Anticipated applications include (1) ignition systems for munitions and explosives, (2) high power laser for aerospace-platform missile defense, (3) low cost, active LADAR sensors for industrial and military markets (4) cost-effective laser sources for materials processing, printing, and medical applications. Waveguide amplifiers have the potential commercial appeal in the high power laser market that fiber lasers have in the low power market.

PC PHOTONICS
64 Windward Way
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 443-4356
Dr. Peter K. Cheo
ARMY 01-005      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative High Energy Laser
Abstract:Very high power can be obtained by combining a large number of diode laser bars, but unfortunately the combined output consists of a very low-brightness beam with very large beam divergence, therefore, it is unsuitable for igniting large caliber guns. PC Photonics is proposing a diode-pumped multicore fiber laser array, which is capable of delivering very high power in a high-brightness beam emitting from an aperture of ~30 microns, in which the power density is sufficient to ignite large caliber guns. By phase-locking 7 Yb-doped single-mode fiber lasers in a common cladding, PC Photonics has obtained a high-brightness laser beam by clad-pumping this fiber laser array with a multimode diode laser. The optical to optical conversion efficiency is 87 %. Under Phase I, PC Photonics will use the highest professional standard to design a high energy laser, which will meet Army Crusader's requirements with a great deal of confidence. Under Phase I-Option, preliminary experiments will be performed to demonstrate a unique technique for efficient pumping of the double-clad fiber at very high power level. High power diode-pumped multicore fiber lasers can be very competitive in the market place as compared to high power diode-pumped solid-state lasers and CO2 lasers presently employed by automobile, aerospace and heavy manufacturing industries for precision welding, cutting and drilling of metallic and composite materials. Other applications include laser printing, bar coding, inspection, dental and medical surgery.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Mr. Micheal Fulcher
ARMY 01-006      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Composite Peizoelectric Spring for Acoustic Applications
Abstract:This program proposes to develop a power source capable of producing a high-output directional transmission of acoustic energy, using piezoelectric spring-shaped drivers produced using ACR's Fibrous Monolith (FM) technology. These "springs" will consist of a piezo-electric core surrounded by a conductive metal outer layer, and will be configured to provide the desired acoustic output signal while giving consideration to device size, weight and cost. The use of FM processing technology will make it possible to rapidly provide any one of a virtually infinite number of final spring configurations. This design will also provide a method to "pole" the piezoelectric using the outer metal shell to provide both the necessary heat and electric field. The springs can be fabricated from a variety of materials, including those that provide significant high temperature resistance (i.e. >1000 C). In addition to the above-mentioned acoustic application, these springs also have potential application as load sensors and piezoelectric actuators, especially where resistance to harsh environments is critical. This has a verity of commercial applications including load sensors, actuators and acoustic sources for stereo speakers.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-4516
Mr. Robert Harman
ARMY 01-007      Selected for Award
Title:Power Generation/Recovery Systems
Abstract:Modern soldiers are increasingly burdened with state-of-the-art electronic components that require batteries for operation. The added weight of these systems can exceed 80 pounds, excluding provisions required for prolonged equipment operation. Currently, sustained field operations require personnel to carry additional batteries or for logistic planners to ensure remote drops. Without this replenishment, even the most technologically advanced gadget becomes worthless and a mere nuisance for the soldier in the field. Replenishment becomes a non-issue for scenarios where motorized vehicles are accessible but for remote and /or small teams, guaranteeing a steady supply of batteries for these devices becomes a serious logistics problem. Luna Innovations proposes to ease this logistics problem with the development of a power generation device that captures the excess energy from small caliber gunfire. This device will utilize a very small portion of the excess kinetic energy generated during the firing of the weapon, will have no significant impact on the mechanical reliability or performance and will integrate easily into host platforms. The proposed device to be developed and integrated is a miniature linear alternator. The linear alternator approach provides the highest possible energy producing capability for a given size and can be integrated into existing sub-assemblies. The technologies and methods developed in this program can be applied to numerous military weapon platforms. In addition, research and development from this program will aid in the finding new ways of satisfying the increasing power demands for today's electronic world. Luna's previous success has resulted in two spin-off companies dedicated to the production of state-of-the-art sensing systems.

TOXSOR, INC.
PO Box 1174
St. Charles, MO 63302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(636) 949-2664
Mr. Stanley Wilson
ARMY 01-008      Selected for Award
Title:Reconfigurable RF/Wireless Full-Duplex Syntonic Data Communication System
Abstract:Next generation of advanced weapon systems and platforms, such as the Future Combat System Multi-role Cannon and Munitions Suite require low-cost embedded wireless sensors and actuators with data communication / command capabilities. With the growing need of sensors the powering and communication with them becomes a critical factor. Applications often require such devices to be completely embedded with no physical connection to the outside world. It is proposed that a wireless sensor system be developed that is a highly integrated data communication system design that combines embedded MEMS sensor technology with low power signal processing microwave RF MEMS techniques. The undertaking is focused on the development of the required system components. The expected result is an affordable flexible and complete power-aware data communications design that may be embedded within wireless munitions sensors. The DoD requirement for small form factor embedded wireless sensors for long term diagonostic testing and data loggging is highly supplemented by comparable applications in the commercial marketplace.

FBS, INC.
141 West Beaver Avenue, Suite 13
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 863-8026
Dr. Joseph L. Rose
ARMY 01-009      Selected for Award
Title:Real-Time Gun Barrel Condition Monitoring for the Future Combat System
Abstract:FBS, Inc. proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of a real time gun barrel condition monitoring system using ultrasonic guided wave technology. Guided wave technology is especially suited to the cylindrical and plated (layered) geometry of a gun barrel. Under user control, guided waves can be channeled to specific portions of a gun barrel's volume and used to detect defects in those volume portions. This capability is key as crack arrays, occurring in gun barrels cause serious decreases in barrel fatigue and/or erosion life. Barrel impacts with external objects such as trees, rocks, and etc. can also manifest their damage in these volumes. FBS, Inc. will use its guided wave modeling capability and field experience knowledge base to isolate those aspects of guided wave technology most appropriate to gun barrel condition monitoring. FBS, Inc. will design a gun barrel condition monitoring system, build a prototype system, and demonstrate it to the U.S. Army. The research conducted here will advance inspection technology in many areas including tubes, plates, composite and multi-layered structures, etc. This project's use of modeling concepts, transducer design, signal processing, system construction, and control software will move the technology forward. Utilization of real time monitoring for tubular structures is highly desired throughout many industries (e.g., gas and oil, chemical, electric power generation, etc.). The steps taken here will advance the state of the art in guided wave inspection significantly.

NASCENT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, LLC
P. O. Box 1470
Yorktown, VA 23692
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-0687
Dr. Joseph S. Heyman
ARMY 01-009      Selected for Award
Title:Real-Time Gun Barrel Condition Monitoring for the Future Combat System
Abstract:Recent advances in ultrasonic array technology and the analysis of the associated waves for plate-wave propagation have enabled novel practical applications. In this Phase I SBIR proposal, we will demonstrate that helical ultrasound tomography (HUT) can be applied to assess gun barrel health for large weapons systems. Two transducer array belts wrapped around the gun barrel will launch and receive the complex wave modes that propagate in the gun barrel. Since ultrasonic waves are sensitive to cracks, thinning and distortion, it is anticipated that the information in the waves will enable a health assessment of the gun barrel itself. The measurement can be done in near real-time, and a portable device for field use is feasible. The Phase I effort will investigate the wave propagation and model the array design needed to extract diagnostic information associated with gun barrel damage. Tests will be conducted on representative samples and waveform analysis will be explored to correctly model the propagation parameters. Increasingly realistic samples will be tested to advance the model development and array design. The Phase I effort will provide sufficient information to achieve a preliminary design for an array system for real gun barrels. The application of this technology to gun barrels will also further the potential commercialization of the technique to monitor high-pressure manufacturing process pipes, power plant pipes and other valued advances in the commercial sector.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
ARMY 01-010      Selected for Award
Title:MEMS INS for Pointing and Aiming Control of Large Caliber Indirect Fire Artillery
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I project is to design a MEMS based Inertial Navigation System (INS) for pointing and aiming control of large caliber indirect fire artillery using the AGNC-developed microelectromechanical system (MEMS) IMU. In Phase I, first, the hardware and software design of the MEMS based Inertial Navigation System is proposed and investigated. Then, the multiple IMU placement and processing algorithms are designed and investigated. Next, an AGNC-developed MEMS testing and calibration system is used for design evaluation. Through system modeling and simulation, we investigate the feasibility and performance of the MEMS based Inertial Navigation System. Finally, an accuracy evaluation of the MEMS based Inertial Navigation System is performed by way of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The proposed navigation system can provide attitude and heading (azimuth), angular rate of attitude and heading of the artillery barrel for the control and aiming system. Integrated with the data from a GPS receiver it provides an accurate position of the artillery. DSP and ASIC based system hardware design makes it easy to provide military standard electrical interfaces (such as MIL-STD-1553B) to the command and control system. Because of its small size, low cost, and light weight, the MEMS based Inertial Navigation System has wide applications in navigation, control, and guidance. Examples of application areas include: land vehicle navigators, airborne vehicles, microrovers, micro tracking mechanisms, space robots, , micro UAVs, and miniature underwater vehicles.

ARTECH ASSOC.
1341 Hamburg Turnpike
Wayne, NJ 07470
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 628-7888
Mr. Edward G. Luxford
ARMY 01-010      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Inertial Navigation System for Large Caliber Indirect Fire Artillery
Abstract:The proposed research effort is to complete a (concept) design for a durable, lightweight, compact, MEMS inertial measurement unit (IMU) for use with mortars and lightweight artillery. The systems in use at this time are too heavy and too large, which makes them very difficult to adapt to this (extremely high) shock environment (potentially > 15000 G's). The proposed design will not only use this breakthgrough in component technology (i.e. MEMS gyros/accelerometers), but through an innovative redundancy management approach, will provide unequalled performance with this type of hardware. The proposed system will provide pointing accuracy better than 1 mil-radian in bearing, and better than 0.25 mil-radian in elevation, over the full military environment, and the full range of requirements for latitude initialization (i.e. <5 minutes up to 65 degrees). The system design will use MEMS gyros that are expected to be in production in less than a year, and therefore this systems approach requires MEMS gyros with bias stability no better than 1 degree/hour. In order to insure that the concept is sound and that a successful prototype fabrication can be completed in Phase 2, the design concept will be proven through computer simulations in Phase 1. The benefit of the design/development of this system is the increased durability/reliability of the aiming and pointing systems for mortar/light artillery. Another benefit is that through the use of MEMS sensors, an extremely lightweight/compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) will be developed. This IMU will also provide unequalled accuracy, and because of its size has potential for application as a navigator for the dismounted soldier The commercial applications for compact, low-cost inertial systems are quite extensive and include supplementing GPS data for General Aviation, railroads, and cars and trucks. In all cases, providing more releable position information will improve transportation safety.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Div., 20600 Gramercy Plac
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Stephen Kupiec
ARMY 01-010      Selected for Award
Title:Artillery Orientation via Distributed MEMS Inertial Sensing
Abstract:Determining the precise position, bearing and inclination of field artillery is essential for accurate fire. The rapid pace of modern warfare and the increasing efficiency of modern counterbattery methods dictates regular movement of artillery, obviating conventional survey techniques and placing increasing emphasis on the use of internal inertial navigation systems (INS) and of GPS. Present INS systems are vulnerable to shock, and are bulky and limited in accuracy. Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a novel distributed reference inertial artillery direction (DRIAD) system consisting of a distributed redundant network of MEMS inertial sensors coupled with carrier differential GPS receivers, which sense the movement and rotation of the artillery. This information is processed with data from existing sources to optimally estimate the position, bearing, and orientation of the artillery. A combination of Kalman and spatial operator algebra methods are employed for optimal fusion and tracking of the artillery. An optional detached inertial sensor will enable the system to recover rapidly from recoil transients. In Phase I, MEMS components will be selected and integrated into a preliminary sensor node design with COTS Carrier Differential GPS modules, and evaluated with preliminary data fusion algorithms. DRIADs in Army vehicles and UGVs will provide extremely precise information on the position and more importantly the orientation of vehicles and pointing devices, a particular boon to forward observers. The combination of rugged construction, precision, and greatly improved GPS reception in marginal areas will prove equally desirable to the automobile industry.

NOVA R&D, INC.
1525 Third Street, Suite C
Riverside, CA 92507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 781-7332
Dr. Martin Clajus
ARMY 01-011      Selected for Award
Title:Two-dimensional detector arrays for hyperspectral x-ray imaging
Abstract:Direct-conversion, position-sensitive x-ray detectors are needed in many important technologies such as medical and industrial imaging, nondestructive inspection (NDI) and evaluation (NDE), munitions monitoring, and baggage scanning. Advanced x-ray imaging techniques can register both shape and spectral information by measuring the attenuation of multi-energetic x-rays through the imaged specimen. The density and composition data thus acquired can enable machine recognition of materials, a capability that would be useful for several military and industrial applications. Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) has emerged as the detector material of choice for hyperspectral imaging because it works at room temperature with excellent energy resolution and has a large atomic number (Z), which is essential for high-sensitivity detection of x-rays. High count rate uniformity and maxima of two million or more counts per pixel per second have recently been achieved in CZT using a new linear array design and a custom readout system for ultra-fast hyperspectral line scanning. Further innovation building upon these developments would be desirable, in particular by designing and fabricating a high-throughput hyperspectral imaging system operating in the alternative staring-array imaging mode which would be useful in static as well as conveyor-belt type inspection applications. A very concrete need presently exists for such a system in the manufacture of munitions, specifically in inspection and process control operations which cannot be adequately monitored using current technologies. In response to this, we propose to develop a new x-ray radiographic system consisting of a monolithic two-dimensional, submillimeter resolution pixilated array CZT detector and the corresponding custom readout ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) and support electronics, which would have multiple x-ray energy imaging and high counting rate capability. The result of the proposed work will be a large, pixilated high-throughput, high-accuracy room-temperature and polarization free hyperspectral 2D x-ray imaging detector system with a custom made monolithic readout electronics chip to handle large amounts of data in real time. It will be able to perform hyperspectral, staring-array imaging in milliseconds using high flux output x-ray generators. This detector has many application capabilities for both the military and commercial sectors, such as immediate discernment of material composition for defects and anomalies at production rates in all kinds of products including propellants and explosives, as well as identifying material in security screening applications and medical imaging such as fast response bone densitometry. DoD applications include all standard x-ray and gamma ray inspection techniques at high speeds with hyperspectral imaging capability which is just evolving. For example, some of the applications are: NDI of munitions, Compton detectors for detection and monitoring of radioactive material, inspection of containers, and contraband detection. CdZnTe detector can be especially useful in battlefields due to their compact nature and room temperature operation especially for radioactivity detection and imaging. Non-DoD applications are even more extensive given the wider variety of objects requiring inspection in many different types of industrial situations. Our work will give special attention to the munitions inspection application which has specific and critical process control needs.

MORGAN RESEARCH CORP.
4811A Bradford Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 533-3233
Mr. Michael Kranz
ARMY 01-012      Selected for Award
Title:Single Chip RRAPDS Compatible Sensor Suite
Abstract:Morgan Research proposes a Phase I SBIR effort to develop an integrated MEMS sensor suite suitable for munition and missile health monitoring systems. This suite will include a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis no-power shock sensor, a humidity sensor, and a temperature sensor. These sensors will be fabricated in a robust silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based fabrication technology, and be modifications of devices already in existence. The Phase I effort is designed to perform all of the analysis and design required to being fabrication. A successful Phase I will lead to a Phase II in which prototype devices are fabricated and characterized in harsh environments. The proposed integrated sensor suite has application to a wide variety of military systems, including THAAD, Patriot, TOW, and rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft. There are also applications in the commercial sector health monitoring and general environmental sensing in automobiles, boats, and other expensive assets that require periodic maintenance. Furthermore, the device, if small enough, could find potential markets in the transport of food and other items sensitive to environmental conditions.

SPORIAN MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
4699 Nautilus Court, Suite 201
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 516-9075
Dr. Kevin Harsh
ARMY 01-012      Selected for Award
Title:Single Chip Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Environmental Sensor Suite
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR proposal is to design and develop a low cost, micro- electromechanical systems (MEMS), multi-sensor "suite" consisting of 3-axis shock, temperature and humidity sensors, all operating on a single microchip. The desired performance characteristics being: temperature: -50 to 165 degrees F, humidity: 10-95% RH (+/- 6%), 3-axis shock: +/- 500 g's (+/-5%). Work will concentrate on trying to answer the questions of: what are the optimum designs for each sensor type with an emphasis on device integration, and what packaging solutions/configuration will best allow for integration and sensor function while minimizing final unit power and cost. Specifically, one system configuration has been proposed that uses combined optical and mechanical MEMS sensing techniques, which allows for the associated packaging to satisfy each sensor type's unique packaging requirements. Work tasks will include studying design, packaging, power minimization, relative merits of various fabrication processes, and analytical and numerical modeling. The work will be performed through a partnership between Sporian Microsystems and LMTS-Eagan that will take advantage of the two companies combined considerable knowledge base in MEMS design, fabrication, integration, subsystem design, and packaging. To date, the Army has not had a low cost device that could track the complete environmental exposure history of the munitions. Therefore one of the drivers for developing this technology is the need to know the environmental conditions associated with storage, transportation, and field deployment. This is a critical precursor to determining overall munition "health" status. But in addition to this application a low cost, low power environmental sensing/monitoring device would be highly useful in a wider range of commercial applications involving long and short term storage of sensitive equipment, manufacturing process control, status monitoring in automotive applications, food/perishables health monitoring, or HVAC systems.

WILCOXON RESEARCH, INC.
21 Firstfield Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 216-3017
Mr. Kan Deng
ARMY 01-012      Selected for Award
Title:Single Chip, Three Parameter MEMS Sensor Suite
Abstract:An innovative silicon-based MEMS multi-parameter sensing device is proposed for detection of environmental conditions encountered during weapons storage. The device has the capability to monitor up to 500 g shock in each of three axes, temperature -50 to +165 F (-46C to +74C), and humidity from 10% to 95%. The entire device could be contained in a standard surface mount package, cost less than $6.00 in quantity, and consume approximately 10 microWatt of power in typical applications. The entire suite of sensor structures can be fabricated with conventional MEMS processing technology now available at foundries. Device characteristics are entirely dependent on the thickness and geometries of thin films. This makes the sensor suite easily tailored to a wide variety of applications other than DoD's needs. Wilcoxon Research, as one of the nation's leading accelerometer manufacturers, has the capability to design and test the finished device and commercialize prototypes to provide volume production and thus minimize the cost to the government. Wilcoxon Research intends to explore applications for the sensor suite in a wide variety of uses. We envision such low-cost sensors being used for the protection of foodstuffs and medical supplies during the handling and transportation (especially, moisture and temperature), the monitoring of moving high-value and/or delicate shipments, as a way to determine if environmental limits of warranty has been exceeded, and in automotive and building control sensors.

ASTRON ANTENNA CO.
22560 Glenn Drive, Suite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Mr. Joseph R.Jahoda
ARMY 01-013      Selected for Award
Title:Reduce Diameter Hi-Power RF-Antenna
Abstract:The program objective is the development of a high powered (over 200 megawatt) three dimensional, minimum aperture sized antenna that is protable and can be deployed in urban environments. It will be capable of delivering very high RF power over wide fields of view. This technology is directly applicable to radars and communications systems. The results of Phase II will provide more efficient, higher powered, and smaller antennas for radar and communications systems than presently available.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8716 North Mopac Expressway, Suite 310
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Sherry Marcus
ARMY 01-014      Selected for Award
Title:Enhancements to SAAS-MOD for Increased ASP Productivity
Abstract:We propose two key enhancements to the SAAS-MOD system that encompasses the major Phase I objectives. The first enhancement to SAAS-MOD proposed is the optimization of the UCL for maximally efficient collection of those items at the ASP. The added value of this optimization will be a physical" route" in which ASP personnel can physically collect items of a UCL. Once these supplies have been gathered, the second enhancement proposed is to provide software and visualization capabilities that can optimize the packing of these supplies onto a pallet or flattrack to ensure a maximum payload. ASP's will be streamlined in operational capability. Personnel will be able to more efficiently traverse the ASP and to pack materials into vehicles for movement.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Gabriel Udomkesmalee
ARMY 01-015      Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Battlespace Management Systems
Abstract:The military battlespace is a complex, dynamic, and open multiagent system requiring timely and distributed information fusion and decision making. The objective of this project is to develop a distributed battlspace management system using the advanced multiple target tracking, the recursive modeling method, the dynamic programming, and Bayesian learning techniques. The innovations of this project include: 1) application of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo data association approach for solving complicated multitarget-multisensor tracking problems using inexact inputs received from diverse sensors; 2) development of a fuzzy Bayesian network to create a situation modeling structure and computational architecture for uncertain inference; 3) development of a recursive modeling method for enabling an agent to select its action and to coordinate with other agents by modeling their decision making in a multiagent domains; 4) application of a dynamic programming technique for solving the optimization problem for autonomous agents; 5) application of Bayesian learning for updating the agent's belief about the other agents by revising the probability concerned with the other agent's model based on their observed behavior; and 6) testing, demonstration and evaluation of the performance of the multiagent battlespace decision making system using a standard battlespace scenario in an intelligent virtual simulation environment. The research results of this SBIR program will lead to the following commercialized product: Distributed Battlespace Management Systems. The applications of this technology arise in all areas of the intelligent digital battlefield, manufacturing systems, intelligent vehicle highway systems, industrial processes, and command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) systems.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. John R. Budenske
ARMY 01-015      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Multi-Agent Hybrid Systems Control Technology
Abstract:Superior information over one's adversary allows control of the battlespace, and ultimately provides opportunities to take advantage of the adversary's vulnerability. C2 planning is critical to shape and control the pace and phasing of battlespace engagements, and requires direct access to battlespace information in order to utilize it effectively. Effective C2 requires the ability to seek out relevant information sources; connect them where their information flow contributes; monitor the information flow to determine changes to the battlespace; and reacting to those changes. Because the battlespace is dynamic, attempting to utilize standard scheduling techniques will fail. In Phase I, an Intelligent Multi-Agent Architecture will be designed that provides dynamic, distributed, and adaptive decision-making, planning and execution across C2 systems. In our approach intelligent agents are assigned to represent all available weapon-platforms in the battlespace. Other agents are used to set up data-flow paths of intelligence and targeting information through the C2 battlespace systems. When targets are identified within the C2 systems, an agent is assigned to them and that agent negotiates with the weapon-platform agents for assignment. Such market-based negotiation strategies have shown to be superior over standard scheduling approaches when the domain is as tremendously dynamic as military battlespaces. This research will support critical DOD C2 and C4I applications as well as other distributed decision making applications in autonomous unmanned vehicles and battlefield robotics. Commercial applications include: intelligent highway and air traffic control; work-cell manufacturing; industrial inspection; job-shop scheduling; intelligent robotics; personal assistants (softbots); and mobility aids for the handicapped.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 30
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 618-1064
Mr. Ken Graves
ARMY 01-015      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Multi-Agent Hybrid Systems Control Technology
Abstract:As Objective Force weapon systems such as Future Combat System (FCS), Multi-Role Armament System (MRAAS), and robotic missile, gun, sensor and reconnaissance systems approach fielding, humans who must control these systems are faced with an extremely difficult span of control and cognitive awareness problem in controlling these systems. This was amply demonstrated in a recent Future Combat Command and Control (FCC2) experiment at the Mounted Maneuver Battlespace Lab (MMBL). To establish effective human control over robotic systems, we must consider the development of one or more layers of autonomous agent control of the robotic systems. This could be considered as development of robotic squad and section leaders. These agents would control between 5 and 10 subordinate systems, such as sensors or guns, with minimal guidance from human controllers. CHI Systems will develop the technology required to perform robotic command and control for the FCS UOA. This technology will be derived from ongoing research for computer generated forces, which is aimed at developing autonomous commanders for simulation purposes. The technology will be embodied within a decision aiding component designed for use with the MRAAS Fires application architecture, and will be scaleable from the individual vehicle to Unit of Action echelons. Full implementation of FCS UOA Robotic Control with other systems in the netted fires and FCS environment will provide a seamless simulation and experimentation environment for development of robotic system command and control doctrine. The technology to be developed is a critical technology which has immediate commercial applications in the hazardous waste management, firefighting, and bomb disposal domains, all of which require command and control of robotic systems.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
673G, Alpha Drive
Cleveland, OH 44143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 449-5785
Dr. Ravi Vaidyanathan
ARMY 01-015      Selected for Award
Title:Decentralized Hybrid Control Strategies for Autonomous Multi-Agent Swarms
Abstract:The effective coordination of large groups, or "swarms" of autonomous vehicles working collaboratively demands the development of control architectures that emerge collective intelligence among groups of individuals. Nature, through evolution and natural selection, has optimized this behavior. Insect societies, in particular, demonstrate an organized "swarm intelligence" beyond the capacity of any individual within their troupe to understand. Although possession of similar capabilities is vital to synergize the performance of multi-agent teams for military missions, swarm behaviors cannot be predicted, only observed; resources are needed to evaluate interactions between the entities found in such force structures. In past work, our research group has generated swarm intelligence algorithms mirroring the capacity of societal insects to emerge collective intelligence. Furthermore, they have been successfully interfaced to fabricate a flexible, software system, and a globally optimal multi-agent task assignment algorithm. Orbital Research proposes extending this work to develop sets of control algorithms that may be configured to direct any swarm of autonomous agents. Phase I work will: 1) create a multi-agent simulation environment, 2) develop dynamic (recursive) control structures for on-line reconfiguration, 3) develop control structures to enable optimal prioritization for agents within swarms, 4) simulate the developed strategies for a candidate military mission(s), and 5) implement multi-agent hardware demonstrations of military relevance using the developed control strategies. In addition to filling an available niche in autonomous vehicle control, this system is anticipated to have very lucrative markets in both military and civilian arenas. Potential commercial opportunities encompass virtually any situation where multi-unit coordination is necessary such as control and simulation of microsatellite swarms, conventional and micro-robots, intelligent highway systems (ITS), and manufacturing lines where automated units must interact without human supervision.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Glenn Beach
ARMY 01-016      Selected for Award
Title:Moir Interferometry Measurement Device
Abstract:The Army is continually assessing materiel condition in the field through a process that involves manual gaging of components. This process tends to be slow and prone to operator error. Cybernet proposes to implement a reliable rapid non-contact 3D surface shape data acquisition system to facilitate this gage measurement. Cybernet proposes the use of a Moir interferometry optical ranging sensor and supporting software for the described application. The Moir interferometry technique suggested for this effort uses simple visible light illumination, a fixed field-of-view with no moving parts (save for simple focusing adjustments which are performed once during setup), and has a very fine depth resolution. Cybernet Systems has developed a Moir interferometry sensor that has performance capabilities exceeding 1/1000 of an inch. Cybernet's Moir interferometry sensor also has a large field of view for rapid scans of large objects. Furthermore, we will leverage our extensive networking experience to create a complete system capable of retrieving data from specification databases and remotely updating inventories. The technology developed will be used to inspect manufactured parts for problems as they come off the assembly line. This should allow manufacturers to improve quality and decrease cost.

DCS CORP.
1330 Braddock Place
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 683-8430
Mr. Edwin S. Gaynor
ARMY 01-016      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Purpose Portable Measurement Device
Abstract:We propose to develop a simple and accurate field-portable optical device for obtaining critical dimensions for ammunition of size 5.5 mm - 8". Laser-triangulation-based inspections will be performed by passing the munition by-hand through a doughnut-shaped aperture, or in some cases, by passing a probe by-hand near the shell. Inspection results, to consist of dimensional quantities or dimension differences relative to a reference, will be delivered to a local or remote gage database. The 3DGage will be a new application of existing nascent surface profiling technology at DCS Corporation. The existing technology has been shown to be feasible but not commercially viable for anatomical surface profiling. However, armament inspection, where the surface is relatively smooth and predictable, represents a perfect fit for the DCS technology, which can obtain up to 50,000 point measurements simultaneously over a surface patch. DCS will design the 3DGage hardware and software and a database in Depot Surveillance Record (DSR) format. Experiments to demonstrate feasibility of the core concepts will be performed using existing hardware. System design testing will be performed using simulations of the surfaces and the algorithms. The Phase I Option will prepare for Phase II by obtaining a key component of the prototype 3DGage. The proposed device will be useful in many military surface profiling applications where the object is rigid and smooth. Other markets are industrial manufacturing, medical, toy manufacturing and automotive (e.g. tire inspection), where a 3D representation or dimensions of smooth, rigid objects are required. The research will also be useful to improved design of arbitrary-surface measurement devices, and could re-energize DCS' pursuit of the oncology patient positioning market.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 30
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 618-1064
Mr. Ken Graves
ARMY 01-017      Selected for Award
Title:Reusable, Adaptable and Scalable Decision Aids Components for Future Combat Weapon System Applications
Abstract:A key technology hurdle for advanced weapon technology is that of Battle Damage Assessment and Retargeting (BDAR). In a recent experiment involving precision guided missiles, missiles could not distinguish between destroyed targets, and targets still presenting a threat. Typically, 6 missiles launched at 5 vehicles all hit the same target, leaving 4 undamaged vehicles. This led to shortages of missiles, and blue force casualties. BDAR will prevent this scenario. BDAR performs real time sensor fusion, battle damage assessment, and retargeting of in-flight precision munitions. In the BDAR concept, sensors provide initial targeting data. This feeds an effects control network, which targets precision weapons to defeat a target array. Initial targeting will distribute precision munitions appropriately by assigning the right number of munitions to the array. After launch, the munitions will begin to impact the target array, and sensors begin determining battle damage assessment. As the sensors determine that a target is destroyed, they will communicate this data to the effects control network to cause retargeting of in-flight munitions, or directly communicate with, and retarget, in-flight munitions. The decision aid will be a component of the MRAAS Fires architecture, and will be compliant with Appendix F, to the JTAA. The BDAR decision aid will be an answer to the current problem of expending scarce munitions on unprofitable targets. Complete implementation of the decision aid during Phase I and II of the proposed effort is intended to take place within the context of the MRAAS Fires program. The concepts and implementations will serve as a technical base for technology insertion into a number of Army Science and Technology Objective (STO) programs under consideration for Initial Brigade Combat Team and Objective Force operations. The decision aid component can also be applied to civilian domains such as stock quoting, logistics management, and police operations.

NANOPOWDER ENTERPRISES, INC.
Suite 106, 120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-1088
Dr. Ganesh Skandan
ARMY 01-018      Selected for Award
Title:A New High Rate Process for Nanoparticle Separation
Abstract:We propose to develop a new high rate process for sorting nanoparticles in the gas phase. The process also overcomes the fundamental limitation of the existing differential mobility analyzer, thereby allowing an output that is conducive to industrial use. The nanoparticle separator can be used either as a stand-alone system, or in conjunction with a nanoparticle generating reactor, such as a plasma system. The nanoparticle separator is conceptually novel since it involves strategic utilization of electrostatic forces in synergistic aerodynamic configurations, which exploits the inertia-based and/or size-mobility of nanoparticles, thereby allowing for effective size-based sorting. In Phase I, the nanoparticle separator will be experimentally demonstrated, combined with computer simulation to refine the process and scale-up to deliver an output in excess of 1 kg/hour. A scaled system will be constructed in Phase II, and integrated with a nanoparticle generating reactor in Phase II, either in-house or at the Army facility. There are several nanopowder synthesis processes, the plasma process being one of them, which yield nanoparticles with a wide size distribution. While the process is intrinsically inexpensive and scalable, the particles need to be separated based on the size in order to be effectively used in any application. Our program addresses this critical need.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Gabriel Udomkesmalee
ARMY 01-019      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Cargo Handling Systems Using MEMS IMU/GPS and EO Sensor
Abstract:This project is aimed at developing a novel motion planning and control system to increase the autonomy and dexterity of cargo handling systems. In Phase I, system architecture, processing/control methodology, component specifications, and performance analysis will be carried out. AGNC's miniaturized MEMS IMU/GPS navigation and a selected EO sensor will be employed to accurately provide both inertial and target-relative guidance signals needed to perform automated tele-operation maneuvers such as the cargo handling system's real-time motion planning/control with collision avoidance. A fuzzy logic approach will be explored and incorporated into the guidance algorithm and controller design of the cargo handling system to accommodate parameter and payload uncertainties. In addition, development of integrated software environment design and simulation package is planned, which provides user-friendly evaluation and demonstration tools for the proposed design approach. The deliverable product is a final report documenting design approaches, requirements, and modeling/simulation results. This project will lead to a generic guidance/navigation/control system with great commercial potential. Possible applications include automobiles, spacecraft, aircraft, and autonomous vehicles.

REAL-TIME INNOVATIONS
155A Moffet Park Drive, Suite
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 734-4200
Mr. Gordon Hunt
ARMY 01-019      Selected for Award
Title:Adaptable/ Reusable Hardware/Software Architectures and Components for Future Combat System (FCS) Automated Resupply
Abstract:Progress in the area of intelligent automation is impeded by the lack of standardized architectures that promote software reuse. Conventional design methodologies require tailored software solutions that are expensive to implement and difficult to modify. This proposal addresses the need for flexibility and reusability with a scalable architecture that supports a component-based programming paradigm. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the offered approach - in the context of demanding real-time intelligent automation applications - with a suite of interchangeable hardware/software components. The robustness of components and supporting architecture will be tested in simulations. Metrics that quantify costs savings and percentage of software reuse will be used to assess potential impact of the component-based methodology. Phase II will culminate in a prototype demonstration of two different material handling platforms sharing common components. The proposed solution will provide a component-based approach for software design and implementation for a wide variety of automated material handling machines. This will enable the Army to lower development time and cost of these machines while leveraging previous work. These software components can provide equal benefit to the commercial sector by providing a software development standard for machine automation.

ROBOTICS RESEARCH CORP.
101 Landy Lane
Cincinnati, OH 45215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 733-5500
Mr. James D. Farrell
ARMY 01-019      Selected for Award
Title:Adaptable/ Reusable Hardware/Software Architectures and Components for Future Combat System (FCS) Automated Resupply
Abstract:The goal of this research program is to demonstrate that a distributed component software architecture (DCSA) affords an exceptionally reusable, adaptable, modular, maintainable, extensible and scalable (RAMMES) platform for the implementation of the upper layers of robotic controllers for quasi real-time control of demanding field materiel handling, re-supply and logistics automation for Future Combat System (FCS) applications. This program will accomplish the following tasks: 1- Evaluate, select and implement an established distributed component protocol that complies with the Joint Technical Architecture(JTA)specifications. 2- Convert Robotics Research's R2 Controller legacy materiel handling control software into distributed components. 3- Specify an R2 enterprise controller network based on network-centric computing technologies for the sub-domain framework of material handling vehicles. 4- Evaluate emerging distributed computing technologies such as interface agents, transaction servers, Java Jini, ActiveX, DNA, XML, SOAP, etc. for employment in the next generation of network-centric controllers to support FCS tasks. The DCSA will facilitate rapid deployment via "plug and play" of advanced sensor control techniques, operator interfaces, etc. It will enable the system integrator to optimize system performance and resources by adjusting component residencies and network topologies, and provide the infrastructure to support a network centric control platform. Portable DCSA technology is vital to the global effort to "industrialize" software development, in which standard components can be assembled to build complex distributed systems. A repository of proven, distributed, and portable software components will reduce development, maintenance and over all life cycle costs. Presently, commercial DCSA software packages are now offered on the Internet as high-level distributed and scalable components that address the areas of database transactions, system load monitoring, security safeguards, etc. This Internet paradigm will prove to be equally applicable to large-scale controller networks. DCSA technology encourages RAMMES software development and will be instrumental in the next evolutionary step of Internet "plug and play" devices. Moreover, DCSA serves as the foundation for Distributed Component Object Modeling (DCOM) wrapping techniques, which allow legacy code to be integrated into present and future computing environments.

COPRIME
P.O. Box 2010
Pawtucket, RI 02861
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 229-3390
Dr. Jose E. Lopez
ARMY 01-020      Selected for Award
Title:Learning-Based Source Separation Methodologies Applicable to the Multiple Target Problem
Abstract:Coprime proposes to investigate the applicability of learning-based source separation methodologies to the problem of multiple targets in a complex acoustic environment. The Phase I effort will focus on identifying viable learning-based source separation algorithms specifically tuned to the multiple combat vehicle scenario. A prototype architecture will be developed and numerical software rapidly developed in order to test the performance of the learning-based algorithms developed on multiple combat vehicle data sets. Coprime proprietary Vehicle Signal Analysis Environment and Vehicle Monitor Simulation Environment will be employed to assist in evaluating the performance of the learning-based source separation algorithms developed under this Phase I. Anticipated benefits include robust, low cost, software-based, modular algorithms that can be rapidly integrated into a wide variety of passive, acoustic monitors used in sophisticated surveillance systems.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5412 Hilldale Court
Fort Collins, CO 80526
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 226-6706
Dr. M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi
ARMY 01-020      Selected for Award
Title:Detection, Tracking and Classification of Multiple Targets using Advanced Beamforming and Classification Methods
Abstract:The problem of detection, classification and tracking of multiple vehicles in battlefield situations is the focus of this Phase I research. Typically, multiple unattended sparse passive acoustic arrays are exploited to monitor, track and identify the potential targets. Although, the present technology is capable of successfully detecting, tracking and classifying single targets, extension to multiple targets especially when they are closely spaced pose many technical difficulties. As a result, new schemes are needed to provide fast and accurate detection and identification of different types of targets from passive arrays of acoustic sensors. To address this problem, we propose to study and develop dedicated methods for multiple target detection/classification and tracking. One primary criterion is to develop fast algorithms that don't make any a priori assumption about the number of targets, target's dynamical information and initial conditions, and background interference and clutter. We will develop a subband-based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method for better differentiation of different tonal features of the signatures and a sequential Bayes method for target (vehicle) classification. The algorithms will be tested on several multiple target cases that involve various target scenarios, high density of clutter and correlated interference, and collected in different environmental conditions. In battlefield situations the ability to make rapid and yet very reliable decisions becomes of utmost importance in order to identify, localize and destroy the targets. This is critical to the survival of lives and material. The potential of this study for broad-based technology transfer is immense. There are several Government agencies and companies in the U.S. that involve with the development of various automatic target detection, classification and tracking systems for different active and passive sensor platforms. The algorithms developed in this research are general and can be applicable to a multitude of similar problems. Thus, the results of this research could lead to the development of many other acoustic signature analysis systems in a wide market encompassing military, environmental, and commercial areas.

TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH, INC.
16 Wildhedge Lane
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 946-7231
Mr. Benjamin Tirabassi
ARMY 01-020      Selected for Award
Title:Battlefield Acoustic Signature Analysis
Abstract:The use of advanced signal processing techniques such as signal recovery, adaptive beamforming and beam optimization solutions are explored to realize the potential for networked acoustic sensors to detect, track and classify target vehicles. The ability to determine the number and types of vehicles, when closely spaced, is a particularly challenging motivation. A reasonable cost effective solution is sought using acoustic arrays less than four (4) feet across and containing less then eight (8) microphones. Our approach addresses the development of algorithm enhancements, which are additive to the total solution. Unique to this approach is the application of Technology Engineering Research Inc (TERI) previously conducted research in the use of beamforming methods to detect and track human speakers in a crowded environment for the purpose of speech recognition and speaker identification. These novel techniques use blind source separation, deconvolution, and maximization algorithms that can determine and extract the multiple target signatures within the beam to enhance existing classification algorithms and diminish background environmental effects. Phase I will be used to review presently employed classification and beamforming techniques and how the proposed new algorithms will build and enhance these existing solutions. Improvements in blind separation of targets and advanced adaptive algorithms are being developed by TERI for use in speech recognition applications. The outcome of this effort will be to provide a combination of improved beamforming methods with blind separation technologies, leading to applications, which will enable improvements in the ability to provide detailed surveillance of individual targets in a cluttered multi-target environment. The algorithmic approach will ultimately become a module as part of a top level algorithm with the purpose of identifying the location of a tactically significant target formation, through the use of various counting, tracking, and classification sub-algorithms. TERI will submit MatLab algorithm and simulation of multiple target classification improvements to the Government. Improved blind separation algorithms will be integrated as part of the Government acoustic data acquisition and algorithm development environment, then tested in the field for enhanced multiple target identification and tracking during Phase II. Applications for this technology exist for extended range and enhanced detection accuracy and effectiveness wherever intelligent acoustic sensors are employed under variable environmental conditions. Use for tracking acoustic signatures can be applied to speaking participants during a tele-conference to detect and "focus" on comments, for mobile phones, for use in tele-medicine under noisy conditions and for unmanned aerial surveillance vehicles.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Glenn Beach
ARMY 01-021      Selected for Award
Title:Optical Projectile Identification and Inventory System
Abstract:As armaments are loaded into a magazine, a pair of cameras sits silently by, allowing a computer to dutifully record what type of round-including fuze type and charge setting-goes into each location. An automated armament system now has enough information to call upon the magazine, index to the required projectile, extract it, and load it into the gun to complete a fire mission. In this Phase I project, we propose to leverage our existing technology and experience in machine vision to design a system capable of identifying and tracking rounds based on physical characteristics such as size, shape, color, and standard markings and recording their position in a magazine during loading. Given CAD files of the types of rounds that could be loaded, the computer would compare the images from the cameras to the three-dimensional representations and markings database and return the type and position of the round found. The system will be able to quickly and accurately assemble the exact location and type of each round available. In addition to the military benefits of an optical recognition and inventory system, commercial interests include picker robots, assembly line robots, and warehousing systems.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4431
Dr. Randal A. Johnson
ARMY 01-022      Selected for Award
Title:Ultrasonic Fragmentation of Cast Energetic Materials
Abstract: Abstract not available...

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY OPTIMIZATION, INC.
4246 Ridge Lea Road, Suite 42
Amherst, NY 14226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 836-7233
Dr. Paul J. Orosz
ARMY 01-023      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Catalytic Reactor to Eliminate Red Water Pollution
Abstract:A laboratory scale, batch process has recently been developed that selectively nitrates toluene to the para-nitrotoluene isomer while eliminating the meta-nitrotoluene isomer. The meta isomer is the source of "red water" pollution in TNT production. This proposal describes a plan to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology in a laboratory scale, continuous reactor. Although a source for the preferred catalyst has been identified, additional catalyst studies have been incorporated in the program to insure availability and to address potential particle issues associated with a continuous reactor. A commercial nitrator has been identified and has expressed a keen desire to be part of the commercialization effort. The anticipated benefits of this technology would be the elimination of the "red water" pollution associated with TNT production. Although the potential market for mononitrotoluene could reach 800 MM lbs/yr, a more realistic target would be to focus on 15-25 MM lb/yr of mononitrotoluene, with sales of $5-10 MM/yr.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2321
Dr. Girish Srinivas
ARMY 01-023      Selected for Award
Title:Reactor System for Toluene Nitration
Abstract:The nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons is used to generate a wide variety of chemical intermediates. The nitration of toluene produces the three isomers, ortho-, meta-, and para- mononitrotoluene. The meta-mononitrotoluene is the source of Red Water pollution during TNT production. Research into the production of mononitrotoluene (MNT) is focused on the production of the para and the ortho isomers, without the formation of the meta-isomer. The Army has developed a solid-acid catalyzed method for the nitration of toluene that produces high yields of para-mononitrotoluene. In Phase I, TDA will design, operate and obtain data on a continuous flow reactor that will help us design a complete toluene nitration process based on the Army's new solid acid catalyst. TDA will design and operate a continuous flow reactor in our laboratory and will perform experiments to determine the rate of reaction and the mass transfer coefficients. In the Phase I option, we will begin the scale up for Phase II using the kinetic and mass transfer data obtained in Phase I. Our commercial partner is one of the leading producers of dinitrotoluene, producing 1.5 billion pounds of the chemical per year totaling over $0.5 billion/year, mainly for use in the polyurethane industry. The successful development of a reactor and a process for shape selective nitration has a significant commercial impact on the chemical industry as evidenced by the revenue streams for toluene nitration compounds.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court, Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Dr. Scott Wood
ARMY 01-024      Selected for Award
Title:Command and Control Training in Future Combat Systems (FCS) Units with Manned and Robotic Elements
Abstract:The FCS vision of future armored and mechanized military structure includes use of mixed teams of human and robotic forces on a dynamic, rapidly changing battlefield. This will require an overall force reduction with multiple entities controlled by individual team leaders and multiple teams to be lead by higher-echelon commanders. To accomplish this, systems will have to be designed to require less human interaction and greater robotic autonomy. Successful implementation of this shift will require autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic forces and a command and control infrastructure that will allow both human and robotic-teams to be controlled quickly and easily. Key to this will be the degree to which teams and individual robots are autonomous, and whether the commander's human-machine interface is designed so the commander has superior control & awareness of the situation. The initial phase of this effort will determine whether an agent framework built around the three specified agent types (Tasking, Coordinating, Monitoring) can be constructed to add an intelligent abstraction layer between human military commanders and robotic battlefield entities. The focus will be to identify the human-interface issues, design potential solutions and create software that supports the commander's tasks and mitigates human performance limitations. The technical and theoretical accomplishments produced by this project will be crucial for successfully implementing the FCS force transformation vision because it will provide the multiplier effects necessary for optimal control of robotic teams. Other FCS command and control programs will thus be the primary commercial opportunity. In addition, the interface agent system developed for this project has applications in other domains with similar command and control requirements. Crisis management, for situations such as natural disasters, riot control, event or personal security, and terrorist attacks, where tight coordination of multiple cooperating teams is crucial, is a key domain in which Cooperative Interface Agents for Networked Command, Control and Communication (CIANC3) technology can provide enhanced performance. Other domains include factory control and automation, mass transit management, and emergency room management.

KNOWLEDGE ANALYSIS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC.
4940 Pearl East Circle, Suite 200
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 545-9092
Lynn Streeter, Ph.D.
ARMY 01-025      Selected for Award
Title:A Critical Incident Network for Computer Supported Collaborative Leadership Learning
Abstract:Increasingly frequent and diverse coalition contingency missions demand broader strategic leadership skills in senior officers. The knowledge to deal with such critical incidents is largely tacit, based on voluminous experience, and demands up-to-date understanding of the myriad political, cultural, economic, and operational factors involved. An emerging technology for improving such leadership skills can be provided by discussion and sharing of knowledge and experiences in a computer-supported cooperative learning environment that embeds an intelligent text-understanding software agent based on Latent Semantic Analysis. In Phase I a prototype web-based system will be built that (a) helps to identify critical incidents and vignettes, (b) presents vignettes in a distributed cooperative learning environment, (c) monitors and enhances their discussion by connecting relevant comments to each other and to archival information, and (d) continually assesses and tutors the strategic thinking of individual participants and the group as a whole. Phase 1 will establish online data sources and collection paths needed for the project, automatically poll these sources for relevant material, and download it to a database accessible to the intelligent software agent. Friendly user testing by the target senior officer population will address the prototype's usefulness and usability. When perfected and operational, an electronic distributed cooperative learning environment will increase opportunities for practicing strategic leadership skills on relevant critical incidents. The envisioned tools provide instant access to timely information and situational updates forming the basis of decisions. They also increase the representation of the team to any legitimate member with internet access, making it possible to form ad-hoc discussion groups on a need-to-know basis. In addition to supporting synchronous or asynchronous team problem solving discussions, such a system could be a powerful teaching tool in a distance learning environment. While the initial environment targets relatively high level officers, such an environment is useful for lower ranking officers as well. In the private sector, such an electronic distributed cooperative learning environment could be used to in supporting strategic thinking skills in diverse fields, such as law, medicine, and business management. All such fields have critical incidents and conflicts which tax relevant experience and leadership skills. In educational applications it would offer opportunities for the enormous amounts of practice needed to acquire leadership skills in any domain. The benefits of a largely automatically developed computer based system would be synergistic with those of ADL and the Internet.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2419
Dr. Kathleen Hess
ARMY 01-026      Selected for Award
Title:Revolutionary Selection Procedures for High Technology, Communication-intensive Environments
Abstract:The Army is in the process of transforming itself from the Legacy Force of today to the Objective Force of the future. The Objective Force will have a new organization, new training techniques, new combat systems, and new ways of conducting warfare. Therefore new selection criteria and procedures will be required to identify recruits who can succeed in the Army of the future. In Phase I we will identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that will be critical for success in the Army of the future, develop an understanding of how cutting-edge scenario-based simulation can be used as an integral part of a selection battery, and develop a proof-of-concept selection test battery that incorporates cutting-edge, scenario-based computer-simulations to measure some of the KSAs needed for successful performance in the Objective Force. In Phase II we will develop a fully functional, innovative selection battery for selecting entry-level Army recruits that is tested and validated. The Aptima-Visual Purple project team is especially well suited to perform the proposed work because of its unique inter-disciplinary combination of expertise in cognitive and organizational psychology, advanced simulation development, and simulation-based performance measurement, as well as its extensive experience in military command and control. The proposed work will allow the Army to more effectively select recruits for the Army of the Future. The innovative, simulation-based selection procedures that are developed for this program can be applied to selection of recruits for other military services and to other civilian and commercial domains that are revolutionizing their ways of doing business and therefore require different and innovative procedures for selecting new employees. Simulation-based environments are advantageous for measuring potential job performance because they are flexible and can test different aspects of job performance using differing combinations of task demands. A simulation-based selection testbed will provide personnel managers with a strategic method for both selection and job placement. Accurate selection methodologies will be beneficial to any organization because they allow the organization to expend its training resources on individuals who have the qualities necessary to succeed in the organization.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 30
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Mr. William Weiland
ARMY 01-027      Selected for Award
Title:Virtual Simulation Tools for Cultural Familiarization
Abstract:In the coming decade, the U.S. military will become increasingly engaged in a variety of activities unlike the conventional military engagements of the past. Such "Operations Other Than War" (OOTW) depend on the ability of U.S. troops to understand and negotiate a complex of societal and cultural structures that may be entirely different from their own. The limited, textbook-form cultural familiarization that currently exists is not made available to the majority of armed forces members who may potentially engage in OOTW. New training technologies, including virtual environments and synthetic actors based on agents, offer the potential to provide experiential, scenario-based training that is effective, rapid, and widely available. The proposed research effort, VECTOR (Virtual Environment Cultural Training for Operational Readiness), will pursue development of agent, interaction, and virtual environment technologies for developing training systems across a range of deployable and training-center-based configurations. In addition to broad cultural familiarization (place, language, and customs), mission-specific training (procedures, tactics, techniques, and rules of engagement) can be supported. The Phase I effort will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration, an architecture and plan for Phase II implementation of a working, single-scenario prototype system, as well as a plan for commercialization and transition. VECTOR will provide cultural familiarization through immersion, which we believe will result in more rapid and effective training. In addition to imparting information about cultural background and specific mission characteristics, the approach may serve to reduce cross-cultural friction that prevents cooperation and increases risk. Such a training capability has extraordinary potential for improving the outcomes of non-conventional military engagements. Apart from use across the range of U.S. Armed Forces, such training is also applicable to foreign military organizations for preparation in joint operations. The technologies could be adapted for use by the State Department, and has widespread utility for multinational corporations with far-flung operations and a requirement to maintain good communications. At a reduced scale (i.e., in a desktop configuration, or distributed via the Web), such training systems are also useful to foreign-language students and travelers. The underlying technologies for simulating and portraying human affect and behavior have significant spin-off potential to the entertainment industry (for games and movies). Finally, these technologies could also be used to construct interactive customer service and help systems for the Web and telephone.

APPLIED EM, INC.
24 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
Dr. C. J. Reddy
ARMY 01-028      Awarded: 21DEC01
Title:Radar Signature Prediction
Abstract:With the availability of fast and powerful computational facilities, we are now able to characterize full-scale vehicles. However, recent developments in fast methods and the availability of new hybrid methods that combine integral, differential and high frequency methods, have yet to be exploited for full-scale radar signature prediction of modern structures that may incorporate composites and radar absorbing materials at various frequency bands. Applied EM proposes to develop a hybrid approach to include fast integral equation solvers coupled with a variety of hybrid methods. We also propose the application of reduced-order models for frequency and angle sweep extrapolation leading for a fast construction of ISAR images. The developed computational tools will be applicable to both radar signature calculations as well as antenna performance predictions. These tools can also be used in commercial aviation, transportation and for industrial security. Increasingly new applications are also found in the medical imaging area.

COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS, INC.
8001 Braddock Road
Springfield, VA 22151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 764-7501
Mr. Terry L. Krohn
ARMY 01-028      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:Radar Signature Prediction
Abstract:Design of next-generation vehicles for the Army must include an analysis of their detectability over a wide range of electromagnetic (EM) frequencies. Of particular interest is the frequency range of 50 to 200 GHz. At these small wavelengths, ground and air vehicles comprise millions of square wavelengths of surface area. The surrounding foliage, as well as earth surface terrains complicates the analysis. It is simply not possible with even the most sophisticated super computers to model these problems with exact solution techniques (Method of Moments, Finite Element Methods,.). Even most existing high frequency techniques become CPU preclusive for these problems. This work will implement an innovative and proven high frequency technique which will solve this RCS scattering problem in a very CPU efficient manner. The Technique centers around the ability to analyze doubly curved patches directly. A clever foliage model will also be implemented. Terrain modeling will be accomplished in the Phase I option. Thus, this Phase I (and option) will result in a functional next-generation Advanced Army RCS Code (AARC). The Phase II work will include the additions of sophisticated imaging techniques and a state-of-the-art graphical interface. Phase II hybrid development will be driven by the results of Phase I. This work will support the next-generation design of Army air and ground vehicles. This applicability extends to other DoD components. Commercial applications include "smart" car sensing of their environment, efficient placement of cell site amplifiers for the mobile phone industry and imaging in the medical industry.

HYPERCOMP, INC.
31255 Cedar Valley Drive, Suite 327
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 865-3713
Dr. Vijaya Shankar
ARMY 01-028      Selected for Award
Title:High Performance Computing in Hybrid Time-Domain CEM
Abstract:HyPerComp, Inc., a premiere developer of innovative and highly scalable parallel computational environments for time-domain electromagnetics, is teaming with SAIC-DEMACO in proposing to develop and demonstrate under Phase I, a hybrid capability that combines the virtues of TEMPUS, a time-domain CEM environment for low- to mid- frequency full wave solutions with the widely used high frequency code Xpatch, developed by SAIC-DEMACO. Such a hybrid technology will significantly extend the range of cost-effective and accurate simulations of large-scale problems in CEM dealing with complex targets with small features such as cracks, cavities, and microstrip patch antennas on their surfaces, as well as modeling targets in the presence of foliage and ground effects. The time-domain CEM while serving the US defense interests in RCS and ATR applications, has numerous commercial applications. Some of them are 1) patient-specific bioEM studies of hyperthermia treatment of cancer using microwave radiation and study of cellular phone EM effects on humans, 2) EMC/EMI studies of high power electronic circuits, and 3) applications to waveguides and weather radars. Also, many of the pre- and postprocessing technologies developed for CEM, such as CAD modeling, grid generation, and numerical algorithms, apply to a number of other disciplines (e.g., CFD and Computational Manufacturing).

MONOPOLE RESEARCH
739 Calle Sequoia
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 375-0318
Dr. Marek Bleszynski
ARMY 01-028      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:Radar Signature Prediction
Abstract:Our technical objective is to investigate the feasibility of a general framework for solving high-frequency scattering and radiation problems, based on combined rigorous high-frequency and low-frequency methods, and to develop a new electromagnetic simulation code based on that framework. We envisage a computational scheme encompassing three main elements: (1) geometrical optics method based alternatively on ray tracing or wavefront evolution methods, (2) rigorous asymptotic high frequency expansion for the integral equations for surface currents, (3) rigorous low-frequency numerical fast solution methods, also for surface current integral equations. A novel feature of our approach is a mutual coupling of these elements, forming a consistent and rigorous high-frequency asymptotic expansion scheme, without any arbitrary approximations introducing uncontrollable errors. During Phase I, we shall develop a self contained software prototype which will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution scheme. Significant improvement over the capabilities of the existing high frequency algorithms which are of interest to DoD and industry will be achieved. In particular, accurate simulation of electromagnetically large, realistic targets with subwavelength details will be possible at dramatically reduced memory and computational time requirements.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
Dr. Wayne E. Buschmann
ARMY 01-029      Selected for Award
Title:New Polyamide Interfacial Composite Membrane for Reverse Osmosis
Abstract:The proposed program targets the development of a new polyamide interfacial composite membrane for reverse osmosis applications, specifically in the Army's reverse osmosis water purification units. The membranes are to be improved in their resistance to biofouling, chlorine degradation, and delamination as well as increasing water flux. These issues will be addressed by incorporating unique polymer crosslinking agents, additives, and adsorption enhancers during the interfacial polymerization process used to make the membranes. Microporous polysulfone is a standard composite membrane substrate/support in commercial use and will be incorporated as the support layer onto which the polyamide films are deposited. Fabricated model membranes (swatches) will be evaluated according to polymer composition and processing conditions. A planar membrane module will be used to evaluate swatches for their reverse osmosis performance. Membrane selectivity and flux is evaluated by comparing permeate flow and salt concentrations using a standardized feed stream at a fixed hydrostatic pressure. The mechanical integrity is evaluated by the rate of film delamination and failure under reverse-flow pressurization. Resistance to chlorine degradation will be evaluated on preferred membranes exhibiting the best selectivity, flux, and mechanical integrity. Superior membrane candidates will be evaluated for competitiveness compared to existing commercial membranes. Water purification, desalination, nanofiltration, ultra pure water treatment.

SEPARATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4901 Morena Blvd., Suite 809
San Diego, CA 92117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 581-3765
Mr. Robert L. Riley
ARMY 01-029      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a New Chlorine and Biofouling Resistant Polyamide Membrane
Abstract:Mobile reverse osmosis water purification units (ROWPU) have been used by the U.S. military with polyamide spiral-wound membrane elements for over a decade to produce potable water for field applications. Although advances have greatly enhanced performance, improvement of the stability of present membranes to oxidizing agents such as chlorine to reduce fouling, increase membrane life and reduce operating costs is required. Recently, a new polyamide membrane, based on the reaction of the cis,trans,cis,trans isomer of 1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid chloride with m-phenylenediamine has demonstrated the ability to withstand high concentrations of chlorine in immersion tests without detrimental effects. The contact time was 30,000 mg/L-hr, (~6.8 years) of exposure at the 0.5 mg/L level. However, in field testing, the polyamide barrier showed a tendency to detach from the support membrane with plant shutdowns. The acid chloride, with its six sterioisomers, was synthesized and the ctct-isomer isolated at >99.5% purity to develop the membrane; the yield was only ~20%. To make the process commercially viable, the purification process will be improved to increase the yield to >90%. Membrane delamination and increased hydrophobicity of the surface of the membrane by a post-treatment step to reduce membrane fouling are also addressed in this proposed program. The total worldwide market for ROWPU-type RO spiral-wound elements, for both military and the private sector, is in excess of $200 million/year. Approximately 75% of this total is produced by U.S. companies. Since most membrane manufacturers are U.S. based companies, any product improvement will further strengthen their position in both domestic and overseas markets. The potential use of the proposed membrane improvements by the Federal Government should provide considerable cost savings in element replacement as well as provide increased efficiency in system operation due to minimized fouling and less frequent need for cleaning. Since ROWPU membrane elements are purchased in large quantities, detrimental effects of long term storage also will be minimized. U.S. membrane companies will benefit in the same manner as the Federal Government, although possibly to a greater extent since the largest part of their market is in the private sector.

FULFILL AMERICA, INC.
8748 E. Valley Bl., Suite L
Rosemead, CA 91770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 225-0671
Mr. Ben H Wu
ARMY 01-030      Selected for Award
Title:Selectively Permeable Elastomeric Membranes for Protective Clothing
Abstract:This proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of our invented selective permeable elastomeric membranes of 1-4 mil thick for (1) impermeable to chemical and biological agents and (2) breathable to moisture vapor and (3) durable to field usage under flexing, abrasion and POL contamination. The proposed work involves with sound molecular level modeling as well as state-of-art polymerization technique for making our invented novel materials. The invented ionomers could also be used in low cost, high power density fuel cell membarnes. Our invented ionomers have been positioned to the fuel cell membarne market as "the lowest cost and highest power density ionomer membranes". Our invented ionomers will also be positioned into waterproof breathable protective clothing market. The success of current SBIR solicitation could certainly expand our market effort to chemical and biological agent protection market. Nevertheless, our current market effort for fuel cell application and general protective breathable outerwear market of our invented ionomers is going forward without the bonus of the SBIR solicitation.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Bryan Koene
ARMY 01-030      Selected for Award
Title:Selectively Permeable Membranes for Breathable Chemical Resistant Clothing
Abstract:Triton Systems responds to the Army need to produce new and unique selectively permeable membranes for breathable chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agent protection. Our technology is based upon a cylindrical microdomain block copolymer nanocomposite with interpenetrating channels These channels are comprised of a hydrophilic polymer, which allows the absorption of small polar molecules such as water, but block non-polar molecules. Besides this, fine control of the film processing conditions result in nanoscale channels, yielding shape selectivity. Triton's innovation involves the inclusion of chemically reactive nanoparticles within these channels providing a further benefit due to an active barrier besides the existing passive physical barrier. The combination of these effects will permit the permeation of water vapor, but prevent the passage of harmful CBW agents. The Phase I will demonstrate the proof of principle through the synthesis and evaluation of these block copolymer nanocomposites with respect to their water and chemical agent penetration. For Phase II we will optimize these properties, and scale up the synthesis to field test large-scale prototypes. This successful program will develop an enabling technology that will benefit many areas where chemical resistance in a protective clothing application is required such as firefighter or first response personnel. Other applications for selectively permeable membranes include fuel cells, catalysis, and gas separation devices.

XANTHON, INC.
104 Alexander Drive, Bldg #21, P.O. Box 12296
RTP, NC 27709
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 572-0707
Dr. Carole Golden
ARMY 01-032      Selected for Award
Title:Portable Electrochemical DNA Biosensor Unit
Abstract:An electrochemical DNA biosensor is proposed to simultaneously detect and identify multiple nucleic acid determinants of a variety of pathogens using a combination of electronic hybridization, fluidics, and electrochemical detection. The biosensor would consist of a sample lysis and electronic hybridization/release chamber fluidically connected to an electrochemical flow cell for detection, and would incorporate Xanthon's patented platform technology of electrochemical detection of nucleic acids. With this method, specific target nucleic acid species captured by oligo capture probes are directly detected by the electrochemical oxidation of guanine, an endogenous component of the nucleic acid targets. This provides a method of rapid, highly sensitive, and specific DNA detection without the need for complicated sample purification procedures, exogenous labels, labile reagents, or expensive, heavy, power-hungry instrumentation. Upon successful demonstration of the feasibility of the basic components, plans for further miniaturization and integration of the components will proceed toward development of a rugged, easy-to-use handheld unit that will take further advantage of the power and simplicity of direct electrochemical detection, in addition to the economy of time, space, and reagents made possible by microfluidics and electronic hybridization. In addition to military applications, development of such devices would provide prompt detection of potential bio-terrorist attacks, and find wide application for the detection of pathogens in medical diagnostics, point-of-care clinical settings, food production, environmental monitoring, agriculture, and various industrial settings.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5504
Mr. Thomas Campbell
ARMY 01-033      Selected for Award
Title:Airless Composite Tire System with Active Traction Control
Abstract:The proposed approach will develop an innovative lightweight non-pneumatic tire that can be used in the aggressive environment anticipated by the Army for Objective Force. This tire system will combine durable, tough thermoplastic materials with modified tread concepts to offer a ballistically tolerant tire with active traction control. The Phase I program will begin the development of the tire system. Materials and processes will be selected appropriate for production. The design and analysis will be conducted for selected maneuvers and a scaled tire will be fabricated. The Option program will test that tire both statically and in fatigue, while monitoring temperatures and strains. The tests will be correlated to analysis and will form the basis of a Phase II program. The Phase II program will emphasize producibility and durability through extensive testing, both in the laboratory and in the field. (P-010767) The proposed system will develop a unique tire system that is nearly impervious to the typical road damage found by commercial vehicles. The development for a rigorous Army application will enable a rapid transition to the commercial market for the next generation of tire technology.

ROD MILLEN SPECIAL VEHICLES
7575 Reynolds Circle
Huntington Beach, CA 92647
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 847-2111
Dr. Eric Anderfaas
ARMY 01-033      Awarded: 10JAN02
Title:Airless Wheel for Future Tactical and Combat Vehicles
Abstract:Breakthrough airless tire technology offers significant advantages to the mobility of vehicles currently dependent on the integrity of a pneumatic bladder to carry out their function. The application of non-traditional advanced composite filament and matrix materials such as carbon, Kevlar, and Spectra to an airless wheel design allows for a light weight, high-mobility performance wheel that would not be subject to the same mission-jeopardizing effects of debris or small arms fire as a traditional tire. In addition, derivative designs using these materials have the potential to be adaptable, providing an opportunity for enhanced mobility by mimicking the performance of a current central tire inflation system (CTIS). This proposal will show that Rod Millen Special Vehicles (RMSV), in conjunction with subject matter experts Sandia National Labs and Michelin, has the expertise, test equipment, and facilities to develop an airless wheel concept for current and future combat vehicles in a timely, cost effective manner. The potential market for an airless wheel meeting the necessary criteria would extend not only into existing and future DoD wheeled vehicles but also for more conventional commercial markets. Potential end uses of such a product would be any vehicle market environment where there is a significant chance of puncturing a pneumatic tire and any "costs" (i.e., downtime, high value of replacements, and logistical burden of transporting replacements) associated with changing the flat couldn't be tolerated. These would include Border Patrol, off-highway vehicles (construction, mining), sportsmen/hunters, all terrain recreational vehicles, and auto (on and off-road) racing.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 222-0444
Dr. Leonard Haynes
ARMY 01-034      Awarded: 26DEC01
Title:PCA-based Network Intrusion Detection and Health Monitoring
Abstract:The basic innovation herein proposed exploits Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensionality of trace data, and to represent the data in a reduced dimensional feature space. From previous work, we believe that normal and abnormal battlespace network activities will form clusters in that space which we can identify. Furthermore, we expect that the trajectory of the computing activity through the feature space will allow comparison with normal trajectories to further identify anomalies. Our approach will enable a much larger variety of values which represent ongoing activities in an information system to be used for intrusion detection than have been used by other researchers. While it is relatively obvious that using more data to represent the ongoing activities of a computer is probably better than less data from the point of view of detecting intruders, using more data also causes problems in determining how to draw conclusions, especially for data which is often not numeric. Also, to be maximally effective in protecting information, intrusion and other anomaly detection should be near real-time, and using more data suggests that the resulting intrusion detection will become slower and require off-line processing. Our approach solves both these problems. Our approach to commercializing the results of this work will be to make the code available through an Open Source license. While this will give the code away, it will be an ideal way to obtain consulting contracts to help optimize the code for specific customers, and once there is a significant user base, we can then sell modules offering new capabilities which are compatible with the base system.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Joao B.D. Cabrera
ARMY 01-034      Selected for Award
Title:Real Time Intrusion Detection in High-Speed Data Streams
Abstract:We propose to investigate a methodology for designing hybrid (network-based and host-based) Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) for operation at the OC-12 range and above. The scheme is centered on the application of Statistical Pattern Recognition methods for producing computationally cheap, yet effective detection rules to be programmed in dedicated co-processors. The effort addresses the challenges in the development of network-based IDSs posed by the unabated increase in network capacity, and the arise of multi-stage attacks involving host infiltration followed by network scanning and automated packet-flooding. Current schemes for coping with increasing link speed rely on packet subsampling and/or reduction of the signature set, resulting on substantial reduction in accuracy. In contrast, our method offers a flexible alternative with no reduction of detection rate, that can also be easily reprogrammed for new attacks. The inclusion of host-based features allows the detection of multi-stage attacks. The statistical nature of the approach is compatible with IPSEC, as packet encryption preserves the features used for rule construction. Aprisma Inc. (manufacturer of SPECTRUM) will provide consulting in network management and security. Design and evaluation of algorithms will utilize an extensive data set collected by MCNC on a Gigabit Ethernet. MCNC group will also provide consulting in advanced hardware. Prof. Wenke Lee from Georgia Tech will serve as a consultant in Computer Security and Data Mining. Protecting institutional networks from attacks accounts for about 25 billion US dollars each year. It is estimated that 95 percent of the DoD communications pass through the National Information Infrastructure (NII) at some point. The proposed technology has the potential to provide the NII with a robust, real time defense line against general classes of security violations against its backbone and high-speed links.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
Post Office Drawer 719, 735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 465-8939
Dr. Robert D. Eisler
ARMY 01-036      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Dummy for Crewstation Analysis
Abstract:This project will develop a minimum set of manikins that represents the anthropometric diversity of Army personnel, can perform a limited series of dynamic activities emulating crew members in US Army vehicles, and can collect data that enables assessment of factors affecting crew member performance. In Phase I the following fundamental questions will be addressed: 1) for the range of crew stations to be analyzed, what are the suites of functional movements and operations to be considered? 2) what data needs to be collected and how should it be reduced? 3) to what degree can we mix and match manikin body parts without severely distorting anthropometry, body kinematics, and biasing crew station analysis? 5) in what 3D axis system will the geometry be specified? Once these questions have been answered, the Phase I effort will determine how to automate and instrument the manikin and what software architecture is required to support manikin functions. In the design of work and recreational spaces, accommodation and comfort are now tested using software models and human subjects. A standard set of manikins designed for this purpose could be used to develop standards for workspaces that would be comparable across different products and manufacturers. That is, cubicle furniture sets could be evaluated for accommodation and comfort based on their performance in standardized tests utilizing these manikins.

VISUAL SCIENCES, INC.
PO Box 90335
Raleigh, NC 27675
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 782-3030
Dr. Anand D. Kasbekar
ARMY 01-037      Awarded: 17DEC01
Title:Modeling Integrated Helmets for Aviation
Abstract:Computational speed and hardware costs are no longer significant barriers to running complex simulations. Recent advances in non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) make it feasible to study complex interactions between protective equipment and the human body. VSI has devoted several years to developing realistic computer models of human heads for studying the contact interface between the face and protective masks like the M40. This effort has proven to be successful and has resulted in the ability to evaluate fit both visually and quantitatively in terms of contact pressures, deflections, and stresses. Similar to protective masks, understanding the interface between helmets and the human head is necessary to ensure proper fit with regard to Comfort, Protection, Performance and Compatibility (CPPC). These fit related issues are critical to current and future helmet designs. VSI proposes to leverage its prior research experience in developing FEA models of headforms and protective masks to develop an innovative system for studying how various helmet features and design parameters effect CPPC in aviator and other integrated helmet systems. The proposed research will utilize existing 3-dimensional human databases such as CAESAR to develop a large individual headform population and a few boundary figure headforms for simulated helmet testing. Optimal fit and protection of commercial helmet systems are essential in order to promote use and to minimize injury. Manufacturers of bicycle, motorcycle, football, hockey, skiing, aviation and a multitude of other type of protective helmets devote extensive amounts of time and money attempting to improve fit and performance of their helmets. The majority of this development is done by trial and error. The proposed research will result in a powerful simulation tool that can be used to evaluate and optimize new and existing helmet designs without the need for costly prototyping and experimental testing.

ECHO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5250 Cherokee Avenue
Alexandria, VA 22313
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 443-0066
Dr. Mary Beth Tabacco
ARMY 01-038      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Dendrimer-assisted Signal Amplification for High Sensitivity DNA Detection
Abstract:Direct detection of DNA for identification of BW agents and other pathogens would provide both detect-to-warn and detect-to-treat capability. Although many small transducers have been demonstrated in the laboratory for detection of DNA high sensitivity detection generally requires amplification of the target using a method such as PCR. A detector that combines molecular recognition with signal amplification would dramatically minimize or eliminate sample preparation, reduce analysis time, and lower cost and logistical burden. Equally important the risk of sample contamination is reduced by minimizing sample handling. ETI proposes a Phase I program to demonstrate optical signal amplification using gold nanoparticles combined with dendrimer materials. Gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated for selective, colorimetric detection of polynucleotides. Dendrimers have been used for templating and stabilization of small metal colloids. The proposed approach represents a potentially powerful integration of two technologies that show promise for DNA detection and signal amplification. The use of dendrimers as carrier/linker molecules maintains high oligonucleotide loading, yet mitigates the problems of stability and assay response time. Dendrimer-assisted nanoparticles will make the detection method more robust and commercially viable. In Phase II an integrated, multi-channel BW Detection System will be designed, fabricated and evaluated in the laboratory and field. Direct detection of DNA without the need for lengthy laboratory preparation would provide a sophisticated field tool for identifying pathogenic organisms of many types in air, water, food and soil. Military use includes rapid identification allowing protection and decontamination measures to be initiated in a more timely manner. There is also a stated need to assure the safety of source waters as required by the Joint Service Agent Water Monitor program. Specific civilian and commercial applications include the identification of enterotoxin producing bacteria in potable and recreational water supplies, respiratory pathogens such as Legionella in cooling towers, and food pathogens such as E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella in juices and other beverages.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4125
Mr. Uday Kashalikar
ARMY 01-039      Awarded: 17DEC01
Title:Affordable High Performance Composite Armor Encapsulation Technology
Abstract:Foster-Miller will demonstrate an innovative method to improve ballistic performance of ceramic armor tiles via its encapsulation with a high strength metal matrix (MMC) composite material. On account of thermal expansion and moduli differential between the MMC encapsulant and the ceramic armor tile, coupled with our ability to tailor an overall composite armor architecture, a substantial predetermined residual stresses will be generated in the ceramic tile. These residual stresses are expected to improve ballistic performance and damage tolerance of the ceramic tile. Foster-Miller's innovative ceramic materials encapsulation material/fabrication concept is enabled by the proven attributes of our MMC technology: proprietary composite material, flexible and inexpensive one-step fabrication process, which allow fabrication of the large flat and nonplanar armor components to near net shape. Foster-Miller ceramic armor encapsulation concept enables a flexible, affordable, and scalable fabrication of high performance composite armor materials for both military and commercial platforms. Our Phase I team includes a major military ground platforms developer, high performance ceramics materials suppliers, and large and complex ceramic and composite components manufacturing partners to facilitate the proposed material concept and fabrication process a scale-up and industrial implementation. (P-010791) In addition to a wide range of military ballistic and structural applications, these material and fabrication technology are applicable to numerous commercial and industrial applications where simple and affordable local reinforcement of various structural and application-specific components will lead to their cost effective performance improvements.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Magns Snorrason
ARMY 01-040      Awarded: 02JAN02
Title:Autonomous Intelligent Document Analyzer (AIDA)
Abstract:Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is a major component of the document management workflow in both Army and civilian scenarios. It is also one of its weakest links, having no turnkey or standardized solution. The performance of OCR software is further stressed by the need to automatically parse volumes of "legacy" documents captured with old technology or being multi-generation copies of the originals. Even modern document imaging systems still produce various artifacts, such as curved baselines, uneven illumination, low contrast, etc. We propose to design and prototype an Autonomous Intelligent Document Analysis system (AIDA). The system operates on document images (bitmaps) and is capable of different levels of autonomy depending on the usage scenario (field vs. headquarters). The system will consist of a set of document image quality metrics, each detecting a specific defect (artifact) type, and a suite of image enhancement algorithms. Application of the algorithms will be controlled by the AIDA agent which will fuse information provided by the quality metrics and context information (if available). AIDA will then execute the optimal correction steps and select the best OCR engine and its parameter settings to process the page. Techniques derived from this effort will have immediate applicability to increase OCR accuracy and readability of document images in the domain of financial services, medical records, litigation support, and record archiving for corporations, universities, and government. Envisioned product packaging include stand-alone software (possibly bundled in with scanners, etc.) and software plug-ins for existing OCR systems.

HIGHLAND TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1835 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 400
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 306-8200
Mr. Mark Turner
ARMY 01-040      Selected for Award
Title:Document Image Enhancement
Abstract:We will develop a framework for associating measurements of document image characteristics with image transformation techniques and evaluating the utility of both using a supervised machine learning component of the framework. From a training set of images described in terms of their characteristic values, each with its best transformation method, this component will learn a function that maps combinations of feature values to single best image transformation methods. This research extends the ideas in work by McNamara, Casey, Smith, and Bradburn (1996) and by Cannon, Hochberg, and Kelly (1999). In Phase I, we will develop an application that includes components for: calculating image feature values or quality measures, applying image transformation methods, training the system to associate profiles of image characteristics with image transformation methods, selecting image transformation methods on the basis of this training, evaluating OCR results against available ground truth, and evaluating human readability. Because this phase is centered on development of a complete framework, the initial set of characteristics will have a single measure, and likewise the initial set of transformation techniques will include one method (other than keeping the original image). In the Phase I Option, we will add an additional image characteristic and transformation technique. Anticipated benefits of this research and development will be realized in commercial, non-profit, and public sector markets where there is a requirement for evaluation, capture, and/or retrieval of document contents by any combination of automatic (OCR and full-text indexing) and manual (review, manual indexing, redaction, and retrieval) methods. Applications include high-volume processing of business documents - invoices, proof-of-delivery documents, time sheets etc. - found in virtually every commercial, non-profit, and government organization; archiving and retrieval of historical material; processing of large collections for FOIA and Executive Order declassification; and evaluation of documents acquired during intelligence gathering. In each case, enhanced document images leads directly to increased productivity and accuracy of business processes and higher competitive value to end users who are evaluating, retrieving, and using document images and the content extracted from them.

KITWARE
469 Clifton Corporate Parkway
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Dr. C. Charles Law
ARMY 01-042      Awarded: 13DEC01
Title:Web-based Techniques for Remote Scientific Visualization
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I proposal is to design and prototype a web-based visualization system to aid in the analysis of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations. HPC simulations are widely used in the design of new materials and weapons systems. However, the amount of data they generate is large, limiting the analysis of the HPC results to a few high-powered computers. In this proposal we introduce the notion of a visualization server, much like a traditional web server, that would support the analysis and exploration of HPC simulations from a wide range of clients. The visualization server and clients would be built upon the Visualization ToolKit (VTK), a widely used, comprehensive, portable, open-source visualization library. The system uses secure methods of data transmission requiring only basic functionality from a standard Web browser. Because the system takes advantage of VTK's parallel streaming pipeline, large amounts of data (a petabyte has been documented) can be processed and rendered in parallel. The system will be developed by Kitware, Inc., a small business providing commercial support for VTK, and whose employees are the original creators and maintainers of VTK. The proposed project will significantly improve the use and accessibility of HPC clusters in many military and commercial fields. HPC is already used for ballistics, ablation, impact analysis, weather prediction, new weapon systems, communications coverage, tracking systems, logistics, nuclear testing, environmental analysis, and computational fluid dynamics. The web-based client application will provide an easy to use interface to a powerful visualization server. This allows analysts with the proper authentication to quickly and easily access HPC results from their desktop or palmtop computer. The visualization server will make using HPC resources less labor intensive and more powerful by providing a flexible scalable tool that can process data sets of virtually any size on any cluster architecture. The proposed tools will be invaluable post-processing and run-time resources for analyzing and debugging large simulations. Specific benefits will include faster analysis cycles with less wasted runs, and easier generation of animations for communicating simulation results.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2412
Dr. Jean MacMillan
ARMY 01-043      Awarded: 12DEC01
Title:Tool for VISualization of Threats and Attacks (VISTA) in Urban Environments
Abstract:Traditionally, the military intelligence analyst has been able to focus on a known enemy within situations that are relatively comprehensible. Uniforms, military equipment, and communication patterns, to name a few, could identify the enemy. However, increasingly the United States Army faces a new battlefield and a non-traditional enemy. The need exists for a tool that intelligence analysts can use to examine the sudden, non-linear, emergent events that characterize operations in urban settings. In this project, we will create a VISualization of Threats and Attacks (VISTA) tool. We will begin by identifying a constellation of variables that seem to describe critical aspects of urban operations. This work will explore how these variables interact and how they change over time. We will then develop predictive equations and models that are based on these variables and that capture the occurrence of non-linear events, drawing on innovative modeling techniques from the emerging field of complex systems. By combining operational knowledge and research with predictive equations and models, VISTA will be capable of giving the analyst the vision required to produce enhanced intelligence estimates and predictions. The outcome of this program of development will be a tool that assists military intelligence analysts in detecting emerging patterns in urban operations. This tool will greatly aid analysts in predicting areas of disruption, for currently there is no system capable of handling the complex analysis of urban strife. Beyond military intelligence, this tool will have application across a broad spectrum of uses including law enforcement, network security, and virus propagation.

SOPHIA INTERCONNECT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
14225-C Sullyfield Circle
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 961-9573
Dr. Philip Koh
ARMY 01-044      Selected for Award
Title:Compact solid state high-power amplifier with full waveguide bandwidth
Abstract:An innovative compact amplifier design has been developed based on power combining of MMIC amplifiers. This amplifier will provide 10-20W power output with the reliability and compactness inherent in solid-state-based devices. Higher output power amplifiers are needed to extend the range and increase link margin of point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, and satellite communications links in Ka-Band. Solid state amplifiers are uniquely suited to meeting the challenging reliability and cost requirements of these applications.

CERADYNE, INC.
3169 Redhill Avenue
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 549-0421
Mr. Munjal Chheda
ARMY 01-045      Selected for Award
Title:Hardened and Toughened Silicon Carbide Composite
Abstract:A program is proposed to develop a low-cost silicon carbide-based multiphase composite with high hardness and high fracture toughness using a powder-based processing. High hardness is achieved through composition design and high fracture toughness is accomplished by microstructure tailoring. The reinforcing phases will be identified and selected, based on hardness, thermal expansion coefficient, compatibility with silicon carbide, melting point, density and stiffness. Silicon carbide polytypes and sintering aid families will be studied to achieve high hardness and high fracture toughness. Taguchi partial factorial approach will be employed to examine the composition and processing parameters. Standard ceramic processing will be used to fabricate 100 mm X 100 mm X 7 mm tiles for charactrization, and a quick screening test will be developed for the fracture toughness and hardness measurements. A preliminary database will be established for use in designing a Phase II program to scale up and optimize the materials and manufacturing processes for the hardened and toughened silicon carbide composite. The program is based on Ceradyne's extensive experience in material development. With the strong background in ceramic manufacturing and marketing, Ceradyne will commercialize the hardened/toughened silicon carbide composite for advanced armor, industrial wear and electronic applications. Silicon carbide has been considered as the most appropriate ceramic component for vehicle armor for military, law enforcement and protective service industry. The hardened and toughened silicon carbide composite could benefit both public and private armored vehicles used for humanitarian demining and unexploded ordnance cleanup. The resulting silicon carbide composite can be used in high temperature and/or corrosive industrial processing applications as a wear-resistant material.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 978-2126
Dr. Raymond A. Cutler
ARMY 01-045      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Toughness SiC with High Hardness for Advanced Armor
Abstract:Recent efforts at engineering the microstructures of SiC have resulted in fracture toughness values that are 2-3 times that of conventionally sintered SiC. However, these methods of toughening have resulted in decreased hardness, a property that is critical for armor applications. The proposed research attempts to toughen SiC without sacrificing hardness. The Phase I effort is based on toughening using two secondary phases. The first is a sintering aid that results in elongated SiC grains, which toughen by crack bridging and crack branching. The second, added at a much higher volume fraction, allows microcrack toughening to enhance the toughness of the composite material without sacrificing hardness. A Taguchi designed experiment is proposed to look at interactions between the secondary phases, as well as other key variables. A 25 mm x 200 mm x 200 mm SiC composite tile having the target toughness and hardness will be delivered at the end of the Phase I research. Lightweight SiC with enhanced toughness will allow improved protection for the Army, as well as law-enforcement agencies and private armored vehicles. This same material is expected to perform well in non-corrosive environments, such as nozzles for oil well drilling and water-jet cutting.

KTECH CORP.
2201 Buena Vista SE, Suite 400
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 998-5830
Mr. Rick Blose
ARMY 01-046      Selected for Award
Title:Wear Resistant Coating for Tank Gun Barrel Applications
Abstract:Development of a low cost technology for applying wear and corrosion resistant coatings onto the internal surface of tank gun barrels is of great importance for high performance and extending the operational lifetime of modern artillery. Currently, a chrome plating method is used. However, this technology has several serious limitations including environmental hazards associated with the handling and disposal of the chemicals required for the chrome plating process. This proposal presents a new technology that is still under development that appears promising for applying wear and corrosion resistant coatings inside gun barrels. This technology has significant advantages when compared to with the current plating process and conventional thermal spray methods. A brief summary of the problems associated with chrome plating technology is presented; a new concept of spraying high quality coatings based on using the Cold Spray process is described. There is a great demand in industry for a cost effective technology to apply dense coatings inside tubes, pipes, and cylinders to enhance the wear resistance of components in contact with each other, and corrosion resistance to protect the pipe material from attack by the material flowing through it. Industries that would benefit from this technology include the military, chemical refineries, oil and gas, piping and tubing, automotive, and aerospace. Additionally, a market to sell Cold Spray equipment to coat the inside of cylindrical geometries would emerge to compete with other coating technologies stimulating the economy.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Steven H. Pullins
ARMY 01-047      Selected for Award
Title:Theoretical Prediction, Synthesis and Characterization of RSA Materials
Abstract:We propose to synthesize and characterize by time resolved spectroscopy RSA compounds that have been structurally modified to maximize the ratio of excited state to ground state absorption cross sections over a broad visible range. The structural modifications will be made based on ab initio and semiempirical quantum mechanical predictions of excited state energetics and absorption intensities. The theoretical models will be developed by the Mark Ratner group at Northwestern, based on our prior collaborations resulting in accurate prediction of triplet-triplet absorption energies in over 100 organic chromophores, in effect allowing a priori predictions of wavelength-dependent optical limiting curves in hypothetical molecules. Phase I will entail synthesis of several derivatives of a promising RSA porphyrin, the experimental mapping of their energy levels and triplet state absorption spectra, and the use of the results to verify theoretical prediction of the substituent effects on these properties. Phase Ia and II will entail further refinements to the theory and its application to prediction of intersystem crossing rates to provide a package generally useful to Army researchers. This will permit us to design an optimized RSA compound which will be synthesized, characterized and implemented into solid state filter designs with acceptable optical damage thresholds. The general materials approach will enable rapid development of new optical limiting materials for the full range of threat wavelengths. The materials have government markets for sensor and eye protection and commercial markets as laser safety eyewear and as protection for cameras and optical instruments.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Mitchell R. Zakin
ARMY 01-047      Selected for Award
Title:Nonlinear Transmission of Laser Radiation for Eye and Sensor Protection
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop improved solid-state optical-limiting devices incorporating reverse saturable absorber (RSA) materials. Optical limiting (OL) occurs when the optical transmission of a material decreases with increasing laser fluence. OL materials can thus strongly attenuate intense optical beams while keeping high transmittance at low-intensity ambient light levels (providing "passive" protection). OL materials are desirable for protecting optical sensors or human eyes from the high fluence output of pulsed lasers. In this proposal, we detail the synthetic methods that will be used to produce improved composite optical limiting materials and devices incorporating RSA molecules, and describe the methods that will be used to characterize the optical limiting performance of these devices. The proposed optical limiting devices will provide protection from eye and sensor damage from pulsed lasers in military applications. These devices will also have application in the medical, manufacturing, laser research, and entertainment industries where pulsed lasers present an eye-safety hazard.

SAN DIEGO RESEARCH CENTER, INC.
12162 SE 14th Street
Bellevue, WA 98005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 442-9057
Harry B. Lee
ARMY 01-048      Awarded: 19DEC01
Title:Burst Mode, High Data Rate Communication Links with Narrow Beam Directional Antennas
Abstract:The availability of wide bandwidth, and narrow-beam electronically steered arrays (ESAs) at Ka Band creates an extraordinary opportunity for military communications systems. Specifically orders of magnitude improvements appear to be achievable in terms of data rates, Low Probability of Detection (LPD), and Anti-Jam (AJ) performance. Additionally, the enabling technology can support advanced radar functions. For example, the envisioned Future Combat System (FCS) requires such advanced capabilities. The work proposed herein will deliver a highly innovative, practical modulation/demodulation (modem) architecture capable of Supporting high-rate, LPD/AJ communications, and also Radar functionality. The work will demonstrate that the critical net join problem can be solved through the use of creative hand shaking protocols, and specific innovative high-processing gain (PG) waveforms. The work also will identify a preferred modem architecture which incorporates spectrally-efficient, higher-order modulations, channel mitigation, LPD and AJ waveforms, and also supports radar functionality. The modem architecture will be selected to facilitate migration into a real KA Band demonstration radio. The Phase 1 work will demonstrate the practicality of a military Ka Band modem with the following advanced capabilities: 1) Robust, fast net join, re-join protocols for use with narrow-beam antennas 2) Supporting High PG net join waveforms 3) High data-rate communication waveform 4) Advanced Featureless LPD waveform 5) AJ waveform 6) Channel Mitigation 7) Waveforms supportive of high-resolution radar ranging. To date, none of these features have been demonstrated in an operating Ka Band radio.

ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1700 Kraft Drive, Suite 2350
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-1284
Dr. Michael A. Vaudrey
ARMY 01-049      Awarded: 21DEC01
Title:A Real-Time Audio Telepresence Device for Remote Acoustic Monitoring
Abstract:The design, development and testing of a real-time audio telepresence device for remote acoustic monitoring is proposed. The primary goal of the Phase I effort is to deliver a fully functional wired binaural prototype microphone capable of delivering the most realistic hearing capabilities to a remotely located soldier. The technical objectives and work tasks focus on building and testing the proof-of-concept prototype by dividing the project into three design elements including: i) creating highly accurate remote audio signals for wired delivery via a machine-to-soldier digital audio interface ii) head position measurement and remote system control for real-time sound source localization via a soldier-to-machine data interface, and iii) investigation of advanced hearing capabilities and refined system accuracy. The multi-disciplinary approach required by the proposed design is facilitated by a strong technical team and the use of commercially available, high-tech hardware designed to accomplish specific design goals. Custom designed software, in conjunction with COTS hardware, will allow for seamless OEM relationships planned for the development of the Phase II manufacturable prototype. The team assembled for Phase I, and anticipated for Phase II, includes experts in human perception of audio, mechatronics, digital audio design, controls, digital signal processing systems, head-tracking, and wireless technology. The proposed Phase I program will provide the Army with a fully functional wired binaural microphone for remote acoustic monitoring. The advanced design resulting from the Phase I development ensures a successful Phase II manufacturable system. The resulting product will offer new opportunities for hearing research, remote, real-time listening of live audio entertainment, remote audio intelligence, surveillance, and rescue, as well as applications in Future Combat Systems employing autonomously deployed vehicles.

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle, Suite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Bauke Heeg
ARMY 01-050      Selected for Award
Title:A Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Absorption Organophosphorus Biosensor
Abstract:Organophosphorous compounds (OPC's) have strongly adverse effects on human health and ecosystems, and reliable monitoring of these compounds is of utmost importance. MetroLaser proposes to develop a fiber-optic evanescent wave mid-IR absorption biosensor for the detection of OPC's with Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as the sensing material. The proposed sensor is expected to have superior sensitivity, selectivity, and responsivity. To this end, a porous matrix of ordered multi-layers of AChE-coated nano-particles (Quantum Dots, QD's) provide the sensing region. The controlled formation of a thick porous sensing region containing high surface-to-volume ratio QD's ensures minimal sensor-to-sensor variation, maximum responsivity, as well as enhanced mid-IR absorption, and therefore, a substantial increase in sensitivity. It is estimated that the detection limit of the sensor can be made to be in the pM range. Mid-IR "fingerprint" spectroscopic techniques enable specific molecular recognition of OPC's because of spectral features unique to the AChE-OPC complex, and therefore, provide the desired specificity that will reduce the false alarm rate. Development of a compact, portable, ultra-sensitive biosensor can be accomplished using novel quantum cascade lasers to provide a reliable field-deployable instrument with rapid response. The evanescent wave fiber-optic biosensor will have an extremely broad range of applications. The proposed method will produce a mid-IR fiber-optic biosensor that can easily be adapted to include different enzymes and proteins with different specificity. The high surface-to-volume sensing region combined with the far-probing evanescent waves ensures ultra-high sensitivity that may surpass many other sensor performances. Further, the sensor can be made very compact, and therefore portable, with relatively cheap components. There is a broad range of potential applications, including simultaneous trace gas detection of a wide variety of atmospheric pollutants, hazardous gaseous species, explosive decomposition products, and biological agents.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 728-7434
Dr. Francis Fung
ARMY 01-051      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:Enhancement of Biometrics with Advanced Pattern Recognition Techniques for Information Systems Applications
Abstract:The Army is currently working to create effective biometric systems for positive identification of users under tactical conditions including poor capture conditions, quick response time requirements, narrow bandwidth. For instance, a soldier will need to use his weapon reliably even if the fingerprint image he supplies is rotated, smeared, occluded, or damaged. Many advances in pattern recognition have been made in other areas (computer vision, automatic target recognition) that can be applied to biometric measurement recognition. One such advance, the theory of quasi-invariants, studies features that are "slowly varying" with respect to change of viewpoint. We will apply this theory by considering a captured biometric signature and a reference signature as two views of the same object, and matching quasi-invariants computed on them. Quasi-invariants have predictable probabilistic behavior, which allows us to apply Bayesian inference to utilize available evidence effectively, and to make robust and accurate matching decisions with tunable thresholds. The technology that we will develop under this SBIR has clear commercial potential for wide deployment because it will allow the deployment of biometric sensors in a wider class of environments where such technologies were previously unable to function due to excessively harsh capture conditions. IBG is a world leader in evaluation and integration of biometric technology solutions. We plan to leverage their expertise and market position to identify commercial biometric capture products and matching algorithms into which we can integrate our new technology effectively. Identification of the Military Market The U.S. Army's Future Combat System will rely heavily on direct and indirect fire robotic systems. Such weapons could be captured and used against U.S. forces unless they are adequately safeguarded with biometric authentication systems. This situation applies equally to unmanned air and naval systems that will be entering the U.S. force structure over the next decade. Non-lethal weaponry employed in peacekeeping and nation-building missions should also be safe guarded from unauthorized use via biometrics. In short, it is difficult to envision tactical weapons, vehicles, or information systems that would not significantly enhance mission effectiveness and force protection if they were safeguarded by robust, accurate, and real-time biometric authentication technology. Identification of the Commercial Market Handgun control and automobile security are two commercial market areas that clearly can benefit from robust biometric matching advances developed for DoD. More generally these system developments can be applied to any biometric application where rapid, robust signature capture and robust unauthorized user rejection are required. Target industries include financial services, telecommunications, Internet development and law enforcement. IBG is the world's leading organization for identification of emergent COTs biometric capabilities. They will lead the investigation of commercialization opportunities by accessing their broad network of COTS vendors and clients on behalf of this SBIR opportunity.

ULTRA-SCAN CORP.
4240 Ridge Lea Rd
Amherst, NY 14226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 832-6269
Dr. John K. Schneider
ARMY 01-051      Selected for Award
Title:Investigation into a Military Grade, Field Deployable Biometric Identification System
Abstract:This proposal focuses on the analysis, requirements definition, and methodology for quantitative measurements and testing of a tactical grade, field deployable biometric sensor and identification system. A thorough compilation of the various factors that affect overall performance of a field deployable biometric system will be conducted. This will include effects of environmental factors, situational factors, technology factors and user considerations pertaining to the biometric sensor. In addition, several system architectures will be developed that are applicable to the deployment of biometric devices in a variety of different field situations and address issues such as methods of storage, encryption and distribution of templates. The results will serve as a requirements specification for the design and development of the next generation of biometric devices that will have both tunable performance accuracies and confidence factors, with False Acceptance and False Rejection error rates of less than one in a million. Finally, a brief investigation of a multi-biometric solution, based on using ultrasonic imaging, will be performed. This investigation will attempt to collect preliminary data supporting the ability to develop a superior biometric sensor, that meets the established performance requirements of a tactical grade, field deployable system, utilizing ultrasonic imaging techniques. The successful outcomes from the work proposed will result in a requirements document that can be used as a design guide by many researchers and product developers of biometric systems in their effort to create the next generation of biometric devices that have an order of magnitude increase in accuracy over existing solutions available today. The development of a superior performing biometric for information systems would quickly be adopted for all types of biometric identification applications. The applications are virtually endless and include time and attendance, access control, patient identification, prisoner tracking systems, and many more. The biometric market is forecasted by market analyst experts such as Frost and Sullivan to be a multi-billion dollar market over the next several years. Much work is needed however by the scientific community to advance the performance and reliability of these systems prior to this market reaching its full potential. A case in point, the FBI has been working for many years on an initiative referred to as NCIC 2000, which requires a fingerprint scanner placed in every police car for the purposes of field identification. This program has suffered significant delays because no fingerprint vendor has been able to provide a scanner that can perform adequately in the field environment experienced by the police officer, and at the price points needed for this industry. The work done as part of this proposal could be applied to similar analysis for the NCIC 2000 program.

ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS, INC.
2020 Alameda Padre Serra, Suite 123
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-3331
Dr. Roger Stettner
ARMY 01-052      Awarded: 18DEC01
Title:Opto-Silicon-Integrated System for High-Resolution Real-Time Image Quality Analysis
Abstract:There is a continuing need for high frame rate cameras with a large number of pixels in the image. These are desirable for targeting on high-speed aircraft, autonomous systems, smart missiles and a variety of high-speed vehicle applications and testing applications. The proposed High Speed Vision System (HSVS) is a breakthrough FPA-based technology for these applications; it combines very-high-speed data output from the focal plane and very powerful image processing, outputting only the objects and numbers of interest. HSVS has very high commercial potential in the machine-vision field. High-speed machine vision, orders-of-magnitude faster than current systems, at low cost, and with minimum volume and weight penalties, is clearly a quantum leap forward. HSVS will make a whole new generation of high-speed manufacturing machines possible.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. Jay Cleckler
ARMY 01-053      Selected for Award
Title:Self-Aligning Windscreen for UGV Flow Noise Reduction
Abstract:Flow noise currently limits the applicability of acoustic detection/tracking arrays on mobile platforms. Reduction of this noise is necessary for the acoustical detection of targets at tactically significant ranges, in conditions of high winds and/or high vehicle velocities. The most direct and effective way to reduce the effects of flow noise is to keep it from being generated in and around the microphone detection elements. SARA Inc. proposes a novel flow self-alignment microphone windscreen to minimize the effects of aeroacoustic noise on array elements. This concept is based on SARA's proprietary windscreen designs, which have provided in excess of 15dB of noise reduction for analogous applications. SARA offers its aeroacoustic design expertise to minimize vehicle flow noise by small modifications to the vehicles aerodynamics. For second order flow noise reduction SARA offers one of two powerful signal-processing techniques capable of improving detection confidence in noisy conditions. Reduction of flow noise would greatly extend the range for acoustic detection benefiting the following applications: Un-manned ground vehicles (UGV), Un-manned air vehicles (UAV), manned ground and air vehicles, and unattended ground sensors. Advanced windscreens may also benefit professional film production and the monitoring of environmental noise.

INNOVATEK, INC.
350 Hills Street, Suite 104
Richland, WA 99352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 375-1093
Dr. Qimin (Quentin) Ming
ARMY 01-054      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Catalyst For Microchannel Fuel Reformer
Abstract:InnovaTek proposes to further develop a robust sulfur-tolerant steam reforming catalyst based on a proprietary formulation. As a component of an advanced fuel processor, this catalyst will be capable of reforming various hydrocarbons, including readily available fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and natural gas. The research will also include determination of the optimal operating conditions such as temperature, space velocity, steam/C ratio, pressure, etc. where the catalyst has high activity and selectivity and also maintains stable and durable performance. At such conditions, carbon formation (coking) on the catalyst and catalyst support shall be minimized. The effect of various parameters on the performance of the catalyst will also be investigated. These include catalyst composition, total loading amount, the effect of different promoters and additives, and preparation method. Performance of the catalyst will be tested in a microchannel reactor that is designed to produce enough hydrogen to power a 100-watt fuel cell. Fuel cells are clean power generators with high-energy efficiency, and are projected to be a significant portion of total energy produced in the next three decades. Due to their high power density, quick dynamic response to power demand, and low operating temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are envisioned to be useful in a wide range of power applications, such as vehicular (50-200 kW), residential (5-10 kW), portable (10-1000 W), and stationary (MW). The projected commercialization of PEM fuel cells requires the availability of economical pure hydrogen. Reforming of various hydrocarbons, such as methanol, natural gas, gasoline, and diesel for the production of hydrogen, is being considered for both stationary and mobile applications because it offers higher hydrogen density (for example, 12.7% for gasoline) than metal hydride (1.7%), carbon nano-tube (5.8%) and other technologies of hydrogen carriers. Due to the existing distribution and supply infrastructure, gasoline and diesel are attractive choices as primary fuels to generate hydrogen for use by fuel cells. Gasoline has sulfur concentrations in the range of 50 to 300 ppm, and the concentration of sulfur in diesel is higher than that of gasoline. For small and portable power applications it is unlikely that adding a desulfurization unit to the reformer is practical because of size and weight constraints. Therefore, catalysts with improved sulfur and coke resistance for steam reforming of readily available hydrocarbons, such as gasoline and diesel would be highly desirable. Such catalysts must also have high activity, selectivity, and durability.

PRECISION COMBUSTION, INC.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 287-3700
Dr. Maxim Lyubovsky
ARMY 01-054      Selected for Award
Title:Methanol Micro Reformer
Abstract:Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a compact methanol reformer based on this Microlith, catalytic reactor technology, capable of delivering 20 V 400 cc/sec of high purity hydrogen for use in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating at 15 V 300 W range. The size of the catalytic reactor required to supply a 300 W PEM fuel cell, is expected to be extremely small. The proposed reformer will have near silent operation, low capital and maintenance costs, will be rugged and durable with near instantaneous startup and transient response. Development of a compact Microlithr-based methanol reformer system capable of high rates of hydrogen production would be a significant benefit for fuel cells or other hydrogen based energy conversion systems. The size of the catalytic reactor required to supply a 300 W PEM fuel cell, would be approximately that of a standard AA battery. The technology is also readily scalable to larger sizes, with the same low volume benefit as compared to other hydrogen generation systems. Because the CO production is expected to be less than 1% a water gas shift reactor may be eliminated along with the cost and associated weight. Coupling the methanol reformer with either a downstream preferential CO oxidation reactor (PROX) or a membrane separator for isolating hydrogen are possible approaches to obtaining high purity hydrogen. These characteristics are beneficial to the needs of a small, light, 15-300 W power supply for use in powering cellular phones, laptop computers, camcorders, and other small devices for individual soldier power for extended missions as well as for civilian use.

T/J TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3850 Research Park Drive, P.O. Box 2150
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 213-1637
Dr. Hanwei Lei
ARMY 01-054      Selected for Award
Title:Microchannel based fuel processor
Abstract:This project addresses the critical need for portable hydrogen generators for small proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of using microchannel based fuel processors. Microchannel reactor designs offer attractive advantages of miniaturization, integration, and heat management. The phase I feasibility demonstration will focus on developing a microchannel reactor and improved catalyst for the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. The WGS reactor is a critical component, constituting the largest portion of the volume, mass, and cost of the fuel processor system. T/J Technologies will collaborate with the University of Michigan (UM), combining the Company's expertise in supported catalysts and portable power supply development with leading edge UM technology in fuel processor and microchannel reactor systems. Methods will be devised to produce catalysts and integrate them into microchannel reactors. It is anticipated that microchannel reactors with improved WGS catalysts will lead to improved hydrogen generation performance with reduced volume, mass and cost compared to conventional fuel processors. In phase II, the microchannel reactor concept will be extended to the additional fuel processor stages including the steam reformer and preferential oxidizer. A laboratory prototype of an integrated microchannel fuel processor will be constructed and demonstrated. Improved compact fuel processors will facilitate the production of portable 15 - 300 W power sources to support individual soldiers on extended missions. Private sector applications include use in auxiliary power units for hybrid vehicles, tractor-trailers, boats, RV's, etc. It is likely that the technology will also scale to smaller 1 - 10 W power units which have immense market potential for portable electronic devices such as cell phones and palm/laptop computers.

ENSOLVE BIOSYSTEMS, INC.
3209 Gresham Lake Road, Suite 147
Raleigh, NC 27615
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 954-6196
Dr. Jason Caplan
ARMY 01-055      Selected for Award
Title:Biofilm Remediation for Restoration of Contaminated Army Sites
Abstract:A number of U.S. Army sites are contaminated with recalcitrant chemicals such as trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), vinyl chloride, and various explosives (i.e., TNT). Bioremediation is the use of microorganisms to eliminate or reduce the concentrations of hazardous materials from air, water, or soil. Over the past 20 years, this technique has been utilized in the successful cleanup of thousands of contaminated sites with more labile chemicals such as petroleum hydrocarbons, non-chlorinated solvents, and soluble organic wastes. However, very little research has been conducted on the contributions of individual species in the complex and unique roles involved in the degradation of the above-referenced recalcitrant compounds. EnSolve has developed a patented fixed-film bioreactor that is successful in reducing high concentrations of labile organic chemicals such as those mentioned earlier. It has not yet been employed in the degradation of recalcitrant molecules. EnSolve proposes to develop a TCE-degrading biofilm using a unique co-substrate "pulsing" technique. Attempts will be made to develop biofilms composed of bacteria only, fungus only, and mixed cultures (i.e., both bacteria and fungus). TCE degradation rates and electron microscopic techniques will be utilized to follow the growth and development of each biofilm type. A fixed-film system that could degrade recalcitrant molecules would have tremendous benefits to the DOD, DOE, and private industry. In addition to being more environmentally friendly, the successful biotreatment system would save customers money by minimizing excavation, digging and hauling of hazardous wastes to landfills or incinerators. Such a system could be employed on over 3,000 DOD and DOE sites within the next 10 years thereby generating high paying employment opportunities for over 400 people.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4181
Dr. Vladimir Guilmanov
ARMY 01-055      Selected for Award
Title:Biofilm Remediation for Restoration of Contaminated Army Sites
Abstract:Free-phase pollutants are persistent environmental contaminants. Present in situ remediation involving biological/chemical oxidation of trichloroehylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE) and explosives [2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)] is limited to diluted plumes. Physical and mechanical removal of free-phase pollutants results in the generation of air pollutants and contaminant spreading. An enhanced process of in situ free-phase pollutant removal by indigenous micro-organisms that are pre-adapted for metabolizing the pollutants on the pollutant free-phase surface is proposed. The micro-organisms will have a high affinity to the pollutant free-phase because of their increased hydrophobicity. This will drive the degrading micro-organisms towards the sites where the free-phase pollutants are localized, fix them to the sites, thereby assuring the long-term stability of the formed biofilms. The contaminants will be continuously degraded by the biofilm. When formed, the biofilm will also prevent further mobilization of pollutants in the environment. An advanced continuous selection process will achieve the desired hydrophobicity of the microbial surface. Selective pressures for this system are the availability of pollutants, as the phase separated carbon source, and an antibiotic, causing desired changes in cell hydrophobicity. The pre-adapted microorganisms will be returned to their native environments and form/participate in the pollutant-degrading biofilms. Additional nutrients will be required. (P-010749) In situ biological remediation is preferred to ex situ treatment because of lower energy and capital investment costs, it is more efficient due to immediate localization of the polluted area, and the aquifers can be completely restored. This development, if successful, will provide a unique opportunity for removing the source of extensive environmental contamination, namely pools of chlorinated solvents and solid residues of explosives. This process can be used not only by the US Department of Defense, but also by commercial firms both in the United States and abroad.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Narasimha Prasad
ARMY 01-057      Selected for Award
Title:Wideband Acousto-optic Tunable Filter and Retarder for Spectropolarimetric Imagers
Abstract:It is critical to extract maximum information from IR images for target detection, identification and classification purposes. Besides acquiring intensity variations, rapid collection of corresponding polarization signatures at desired wavelengths with an imaging spectropolarimeter could enhance the information content of an IR scene. Present spectropolarimeters operate over a narrow spectral band. Furthermore, they are heavy, slow due to moving mechanical parts, and operationally complex. Coherent Technologies Inc. (CTI) is proposing to design and develop two key components namely, an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a matched active retarder required for a spectropolarimetric imager to operate over the 2-12 micron spectral band. These components will enable the imager to simultaneously measure the spectral intensity and polarization content of an image in real time. These components are anticipated to guide the development of a versatile spectropolarimetric imager that will be broadband, wavelength agile, electronically tunable, all-solid-state, compact, field-deployable, and rugged. In Phase I, detailed designs, including material trade-off study and performance evaluation, of an AOTF and active retarder for a broadband spectra-polarimeter will be generated. An active retarder will be fabricated and tested. In Phase II, a portable, field-deployable, brassboard components operating over 2-12 micron spectral band will be developed and delivered. The proposed components have wide applications in sensitive target detection, identification, and discrimination systems, active and passive remote chemical sensing systems, imaging lidars, IR spectroscopy, terrestrial and space surveillance systems, machine vision systems, etc.

CLIFTON LABS, INC.
3678 Fawnrun Dr.
Cincinnati, OH 45241
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 563-4731
Mr. Dale E. Martin
ARMY 01-058      Selected for Award
Title:PHOCI: Photonic Communications Imager
Abstract:Clifton Labs, Inc. proposes to develop a fully functional optical imaging system that is suitable for both image capture and reception of optical communications data. The proposed system, called PHOCI (for Photonic Communications Imager) includes a novel image/data capture chip that imbeds high-speed optical data communications receiver technology into the image capture array of a digital video camera system. In addition to the development of a new image/data capture chip, the proposed project includes the design of a hardware interface that allows the PHOCI system to pass both image and optical communication data through a USB (or similar communications port) to a COTS portable computer. Finally, the project includes the development of system software that will run on the portable computer. In addition to providing the device drivers necessary to communicate with the PHOCI hardware, the system software provides the data structures and graphical user interface (GUI) that allow a system operator to see the camera image along with the location and recent movement vector for communication sources in the image. Additionally, the GUI provides a point-and-click environment for viewing the most recent communication data or a communication history from any communication source identified in the imager field of view. The Phase I products (including VLSI layouts, interface circuit designs, system software and a final technical report) will clearly identify the technological barriers associated with the implementation of an optical communications imager. With the Phase I products it will be possible to implement a fully functional prototype PHOCI system.

ELECTRODYNAMICS ASSOC., INC.
409 Eastbridge Drive
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 977-1825
Mr. Jay Vaidya
ARMY 01-060      Selected for Award
Title:Integral Starter/Generator Technology for Oil-Free Turbine Engines
Abstract:With increased use of electric power on Army air and ground vehicles, compact, lightweight integrated turbo-generator sets with electric start capability are needed. Foil air bearings for high temperature oil free gas turbines are now feasible. Other barriers include electrical insulation and structurally sound components for applicable generator technologies. Electrodynamics Associates, Inc. has developed expertise in high-speed starter generators that will be applicable. In addition, we have teamed with Williams International and R&D Dynamics to address the issues relating to integration with the high-speed turbine using foil air bearings. During Phase I, we propose to select high power density generator and controls technology for high-speed,high temperature environment, create preliminary designs addressing electromagnetic, control system, as well as structural, thermal, dry bearing, and rotor dynamics issues. During Phase I Option, we will produce generator design layout, test electrical insulation scheme for high temperature, and simulate the start mode and generate mode operation using Matlab/Simulink software. This will prepare us for fabrication, test, and demonstration of a high-speed starter generator unit, in high temperature environment during potential Phase II. Compact light weight and cost effective integral starter generators will find use on military and commercial vehicles, and also as UPS for emergency power requirements in industry and businesses including department stores, hospitals and others.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. James A. Janni
ARMY 01-061      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra-Sensitive Raman Detector:A SERS Spectrometer
Abstract:Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for handheld, field analysis of biological health and safety threats requires the development of an advanced, compact Raman spectrometer tailored to SERS. Our proposed efforts will decrease spectrometer size, lower its power consumption, expand the Raman spectral range and develop an optical interface that improves excitation and collection efficiency when compared to current portable Raman systems. A novel spectrometer design based solely on fiber optics technology will be built in a fraction of the volume possible with dispersive instruments as a means of achieving the goal of handheld operation. This spectrometer will be coupled to our highly sensitive SERS sensors through specially designed and tested optical interfaces that account for the angular and spatial dependence of the excitation phenomenon. Analyte will be delivered to the substrate through sample collection mechanisms that account for the aerodynamics and thermodynamics that dictate SERS substrate/analyte interactions. The design features of the proposed SERS spectrometer based biological sensor will be thoroughly tested in a research program organized around understanding optimal SERS excitation, collection, and substrate analyte interactions. The research will also be directed at increasing excitation efficiency through the use of microcavities. Small and inexpensive Raman instrumentation will bring new commercial applications of the method, including quality control analysis, process controllers, forensic instruments for identifying illegal substances, and air and water monitors.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4438
Mr. Tom Schilling
ARMY 01-062      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Material Technology for Thermal Management of Gun Barrels
Abstract: Abstract not available...

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. James Burnett
ARMY 01-062      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Lightweight Advanced Composite Mortar Barrels
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. proposes to design, develop the fabrication processes, and to test a full-bore subscale prototype composite 81-mm type M252 mortar barrel, to demonstrate a 30% weight reduction and advantageous thermal management in a full-sized Mortar barrel. The Army's mission for this lightweight high thermal performance mortar is based on the company level requirement of high firepower, extended range and un-mounted infantry transport. The barrel section will be fabricated using either an aluminum matrix composite (AMC) structural jacket with a steel liner or a proprietary functionally graded metal ceramic matrix composite (MCMC) structure with a fully dense ceramic matrix composite liner. In either case, the structural jacket will be fabricated from fiber-reinforced aluminum that has demonstrated excellent fatigue resistance at elevated temperature, a high tensile strength of 200 ksi, and a low density of 3.4 g/cc. At the conclusion of the proposed SBIR Phase I program the feasibility of using these high specific strength composite materials to achieve the required weight reduction and thermal management under the high firing rates in an 81-mm mortar will completed. The Advanced Composite Mortar proposed for development on this program is expected to have a direct impact on the M252 mortar by reducing the overall weight and barrel soak temperature. Additional near term Army applications include the M224 mortar and other gun systems requiring light weight and high thermal energy dissipation. Future systems applications include hydraulic actuators and pressure vessels for aerospace and commercial aircraft. Additional applications include bicycle frames and related components, automobile components such as drive shafts and propeller hub assemblies and airframe components of all kinds.

APPLIED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, INC.
2009 Huntcliff Drive
Gambrills, MD 21054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 306-7855
Mr. Stephen J. Fujikawa
ARMY 01-063      Selected for Award
Title: Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for A Miniature Rotary Wing UAV
Abstract:Research issues pertaining to the development of an obstacle avoidance system for a highly autonomous miniature rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) performing the urban battlefield reconnaissance mission are proposed. The research objective is to develop the obstacle avoidance technologies, including the overall system architecture, sensors and sensor data processing algorithms, obstacle avoidance rules, logic and computational algorithms, and autopilot structure including control laws and interfaces with sensors and actuators. The research is facilitated by building on the results of extensive previous development in guidance systems for Nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) terrain following helicopters and our earlier efforts in autonomous flights of fixed wing and rotary wing UAVs. NOE helicopters share the same requirements for detecting obstacles and planning and executing avoidance routes using a high agility autopilot. Options for sensors, sensor data processing, avoidance route planning, and autopilot algorithms are outlined. The result of this project will be candidate obstacle avoidance rule sets, autopilot algorithms, and sensor data characterizations to be evaluated in follow-on simulation effort with eventual implementation on a small helicopter during the Phase II of this SBIR effort. This research will facilitate the development of low cost man-portable UAVs for operation in cluttered urban environments, which can perform the reconnaissance mission with more speed and reduced personal risk versus sending a human reconnaissance team. Commercial applications may include mapping of hazardous or unreachable areas and police reconnaissance.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4900 Pearl East Circle, Suite 201E
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-6947
Mr. David Dahn
ARMY 01-064      Selected for Award
Title:Control of Multiple Unmanned Systems
Abstract:The Army is at the beginning of a major force update that will use distributed unmanned vehicles as an integrated force element. Initial developments have been completed that allow a single Soldier to control as many as 4 unmanned vehicles. However, there are no technologies available to assess future designs of a one on many control system to predict a Soldier's ability to effectively control n number of unmanned vehicles in varying terrain, climate, and combat stressed conditions. This proposal describes a specific process that capitalizes on previous work performed in the human factors industry and combines this work to provide an innovative and uniquely powerful soldier performance assessment tool. This soldier performance assessment tool will utilize proven modeling and simulation techniques, coupled with operator workload and situational awareness measurement techniques to help understand the relationships between soldier performance and system parameters that ultimately affect how many unmanned systems a single soldier or group of soldiers can control. This project will establish the state of the art in assessing workload associated with control of multiple unmanned vehicles by a single controller or team of controllers. The tool developed for this effort will provide the ability to assess the workload and situational awareness demands imposed on a Soldier while performing multiple control of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles with potentially different modalities (modes of control) that may be encountered in varying terrain or partial failure conditions of the automatons. Principal benefits will be to provide the Army with a method to reduce Operating and Support Cost by allowing studies of Soldier capacity in controlling multiple unmanned vehicles and other command and control operations simultaneously on the battlefield. This assessment capability can ultimately lead to a reduction in the number of soldiers required to man the future force including the Future Combat System (FCS).

3D-IC, INC.
11 Ward Street, Suite 400
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-2905
Dr. Lisa McIlrath
ARMY 01-065      Selected for Award
Title:A High Resolution, Ultra High Frame Rate Visible Light Imager for High Speed Digital Photography
Abstract:3D-IC proposes to develop design specifications for a 12 megapixel 1000 frame / second digital output imager. The proposed design will be based on using a monolithic substrate for the photosensor array that is engineered to achieve high quantum efficiency and good spectral response in visible light. The company proposes to investigate adaptation of its proprietary pixel-parallel processor core architecture to enable the required high bandwidth data read out in this Phase I study. It will also investigate requirements for the interface camera and propose a suitable camera system architecture. High speed photographic systems are used for many purposes, including ballistics testing, industrial inspection, security, law enforcement, and medical applications. Market research in the domain of high-end imaging applications shows that the demand for these products will exceed $200M/year by 2004 in unit sensor costs. Digital imaging techniques, will significantly improve the quality of high speed photography. They will allow faster, more automated analysis of the available information, and will eliminate the cost and time needed to process film.

AMAIN ELECTRONICS CO., INC.
5301 Longley Lane, Unit 122
Reno, NV 89511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 825-6001
Mr. William Mandl
ARMY 01-065      Selected for Award
Title:All Digital High Speed Visible Imaging Array
Abstract:Amain proposes to develop a large staring array monolithic visible light camera with extremely low power analog to digital conversion, A/D, at each pixel. The approach is based on oversample A/D techniques developed for audio applications, generally known in the industry as delta sigma A/D. Each pixel of the focal plane array will contain a patented converter named MOSAD, Multiplexed OverSample A/D. The study will focus on requirements for building a 4096X3072 array of pixel photo sensors with MOSAD converters. Ultimately the array will be designed to work at 1,000 frame/second sample rate. Data volume issues will be addressed in the initial study phase. In addition, a systolic array processor approach will be developed as a high speed parallel processor for image data rate reduction. Large focal plane arrays operating at high sample rates present a problem for conventional readout techniques due to the wide noise bandwidth and the power consumption. The MOSAD approach reduces noise bandwidth at the pixel to data bandwidth. It also allows substantial power savings because of the lower noise amplitude and thus lower signal switching voltages. Applications for cost effective large array cameras exist in the consumer, commercial and military sectors. Broadcast HDTV cameras, electronic 35 millimeter cameras in the consumer area represent a substantial market potential. Surveillance, mapping and resource monitoring are a few of the applications for the military and industrial markets.

APPLIED PIXELS, LLC
492 Chase Street
Sonoma, CA 95476
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 938-2106
Mr. Christopher Clark
ARMY 01-065      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra High Resolution/High Speed Visible Imagers
Abstract:We propose that the technologies used in advanced telecommunication circuits be applied to the development of a novel active pixel image sensor capable of exceeding the bandwidth-resolution product of present image sensors by a factor of 10x. We will use a bipolar-CMOS (BiCMOS) process to combine the high performance pixels available in CMOS technologies with the high-speed signal processing circuits made possible by utilizing bipolar transistors. BiCMOS has found wide usage in high-speed telecommunication circuits and has proven itself as an economical and reliable process. We intend to use this technology to develop a 1000 frames per second, 12Megapixel, 12-bit image sensor. To support such a sensor, an equally high-performance data acquisition system is required. A critical element in this system is a compression chip (ASIC) that can interface with the pre-compression input/output (I/O) circuitry on the image sensor on one side, and with high-speed network transceivers on the other. We are proposing a detailed study of and solution to the issues related to achieving "lossless" data compression at a ratio of 15:1 or better. Finally, we will create a preliminary design of a full data acquisition system capable of supporting a 12Megapixel, 12-bit, image sensor operating at 1000 fps. We believe the sensor and data acquisition system we are proposing will have a direct benefit to the US Military in their efforts to characterize weapon systems performance. Further, we believe the products of this SBIR effort, both image sensors and data acquisition systems, represent viable products of great interest to several different imaging markets. These commercial markets include machine vision, motion analysis, cinematography and markets that use elements derived from the overall image sensor technology we are proposing. The results of this SBIR can be directly turned into commercial value as marketable products.

GRIFFIN ANALYTICAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
Suite E1-300, 3000 Kent Avenue
West Lafayette, IN 47909
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 426-9586
Mr. Garth Patterson
ARMY 01-066      Selected for Award
Title:Mini-Mass Spectrometer for Point Detection
Abstract:There is a critical need by the U.S. Army to have at their disposal a highly functional, low-cost, chemical warfare detection instrument. An effective instrument must provide selectivity for chemical targets relative to background, fast response times, and a low incidence of false positives and virtually no false negatives. GAT will deliver a fieldable mass spectrometer that will serve as the centerpiece of a high performance chemical warfare detection system. The proposed instrument will use proprietary technology developed at Purdue University (patent pending) that centers on the miniaturization of a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Mass Spectrometers provide quantitative and qualitative information in the same analytical scan. To date, high performance mass spectrometers have been confined to the pristine laboratory environment. However, the innovation realized at Purdue will allow for a high performance instrument that will be uniquely suited for field deployable point detection. Therefore, the laboratory can be brought to the sample instead of the current time consuming methods of taking the sample to the laboratory. The objectives of Phase 1 are to determine the feasibility of development and commercialization of a portable chemical warfare detection system, including, on-line sampling, mini-mass spectrometer detection, and networked data handling. The proposed instrument will provide many markets with affordable, reliable, functional chemical detection in a field portable package. This instrumentation represents a platform technology that can be used in many research and development applications. Therefore, the MMS will expand current mass spectrometry markets and most excitingly, open new markets. Specifically, this type of instrument could be used in process monitoring, environmental testing, for water and air purity, and may be used as a medical monitoring instrument.

TESLA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 31378
Knoxville, TN 37930
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 531-9150
Dr. W.R. Lawrence
ARMY 01-066      Selected for Award
Title:Chemical Sensor Based on Micromechanical Systems
Abstract:We propose to develop a novel type of miniature chemical sensor utilizing very recent developments in microcantilevers. Sensors based on this technology will be up to 100 times smaller, considerably more sensitive, and less expensive than currently available chemical sensors. Microcantilevers that are 50-200 m long, 10-40 m wide, and 0.3-4 m thick and possessing resonance frequencies in the range 10-300 kHz, have recently been used in scanning force microscopy to detect extremely small changes in force in the range of 10-12-10-9 N. The resonance frequency and bending of the microcantilever varies reproducibly and sensitively due to adsorption of molecules on the cantilever surfaces making it an ideal chemical sensor with picogram sensitivity and parts per billion detection. Preliminary detection studies, have demonstrated detection of ppb of chemicals, Simultaneous bending measurements resulted in a sensitivity of 0.6 pg/mV. The recyclability of the chemical sensor will be demonstrated by removing the adsorbed chemical by heating of the sensor element. We also plan to demonstrate that the sensor can be vibrated in liquid environments with a good Q-factors, allowing it to be used to detect the presence of chemicals in liquid environments. Parasitic interferences can be accounted for by using reference microcantilevers, arrays of differentially coated sensors, thermal desorption rates and/or filters. Additionally, due to the extremely small size of the sensor, the development of a personal monitor that is highly sensitive may be possible. The proposed work will provide a highly significant advance in microcantilever sensor technology with possibilities of developing new sensors for many chemicals. Commercial applications of chemical sensors are numerous since these detectors will be extremely sensitive, miniaturized, and could be mass produced. Applications include industrial hygiene, air and water pollution control, mining industry, submarines, air quality monitoring, etc

N&R ENGINEERING
6659 Pearl Road, Suite 400
Parma Heights, OH 44130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 845-7020
Dr. Vinod K. Nagpal
ARMY 01-067      Selected for Award
Title:Probabilistic Design Tool for Small Turbine Engine High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) Life
Abstract:This project will significantly improve the accuracy of small turbine engine high cycle fatigue (HCF) life predictions by including the phenomenon of bladed disk mistuning in the structural analysis modeling. This will be done by developing reduced-order models and integrating them into a probabilistic structural analysis computer code. The reduced-order modeling technique enables a sufficiently accurate representation of the underlying physics while avoiding the prohibitively long computational times required by direct simulations involving random variables. The Phase I Option will develop models and methodologies to predict the redistribution of residual stresses induced by surface enhancement processes (SEP) under thermal and probabilistic HCF loading conditions and use these models to modify the HCF life prediction tool. Phase II would develop the probabilistic model into a robust computational tool and perform verification testing with real data from a limited number of existing turboshaft/turboprop engine bladed disk assemblies. Phase III would generalize the methodology and computer code to a wide variety of gas turbine engine components and applications. The traditional life prediction methodologies used in current small turbine engine design processes are seriously compromised by their inability to capture the inherently random behavior characteristics of bladed disk assemblies due to mistuning. Consequently, either the compressor designs are overly conservative (with concomitant loss in efficiency and weight penalties) or excessive failures occur during operational use. The prediction of mistuning effects in bladed disk assemblies is therefore of fundamental importance in achieving a robust HCF-resistant design for small gas turbine engines. The development and validation of an advanced and economical tool for the probabilistic assessment of random mistuning effects is key to effectively accounting for these important effects during the design process, thereby producing more robust, HCF-free high performance engine components. The application of such an advanced life prediction tool will result in higher performance engines as well as fewer operational component failures due to manufacturing and material property variances. Both military and commercial small engine applications will benefit from the exploitation of this advanced technology. This proposal was recommended by Honeywell Engines & Systems who intend to apply the analysis tool to assist them in the their "Probabilistics for Small Engines" program. (See attachment A, a letter from Honeywell to the Army supporting this proposal).

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Mr. Robert W. Tramel
ARMY 01-068      Selected for Award
Title:An Integrated Framework for High-Fidelity Multi-Disciplinary Analysis of Rotorcraft
Abstract:An integrated framework is proposed for high-fidelity multi-disciplinary analysis of rotorcraft and tail surface aerodynamic and aeroelastic interactions. A novel multi-resolution technique is proposed for efficient capturing of the rotor wakes. A wavelet compression is used to store the flowfield as a multi-level representation in physical space. The primary solution progresses using a very coarse grid. Ideas borrowed from vorticity confinement are used to identify regions of concentrated vorticity. These regions are selectively solved recursively in the finer grid-levels and accurate information is injected into the coarse grids to correctly represent all vorticity. In Phase I, the novel wavelet compression algorithm will be developed as a stand-alone module. An innovative Runge-Kutta temporal update will be used to advance all grid levels independently. The feasibility of the wavelet compression module will be assessed using 1-D moving wave and extensive 2-D vortex-in-box simulations. The Phase I option will focus on developing efficient data structures to store and update the multi-resolution data. The proposed method is expected to provide orders-of-magnitude leap over existing conventional wake capturing techniques. In Phase II, the wavelet compression methodology will be integrated with OVERFLOW into the Multi-Disciplinary Computing Environment (MDICE). The MDICE framework will enable the coupled codes to capture the aerodynamic and aeroelastic interactions of rotorcraft and analysis of rotorcraft vibrations, buffet, and fatigue problems. The proposed framework will provide an order-of-magnitude reduction in computational time for wake capturing and multi-disciplinary analysis of wake/tail interaction induced buffeting using the multi-level resolution and parallel execution. The framework will be directly applicable to multi-disciplinary rotorcraft analysis. With some modifications, the framework could be used for other commercial applications such as flutter and buffet analysis of fighter aircraft, nonlinear lift systems, and wing-trailing vortex dynamics of large civil aircraft.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Freddie Lin
ARMY 01-069      Selected for Award
Title:Video Coding System for Sensor Data Transmission Over Rotorcraft Tactical Radios
Abstract:Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI), proposes to develop a rate adaptable video compression/decompression system (RAVS) in conjunction with current or future generation tactical radio equipment to address Army's need to distribute video sensor data off-platform for use in teaming operations. The RAVS uses a new generation wavelet video coder, which can compress video data in a highly adaptive approach to accommodate a wide variety of radio channel specifications, while maintaining the optimal performance of video compression quality. This enables decoding of video data with variable bit rates and different image sizes, depending on the application and condition of the tactical radio channel. In addition, a unique bit rate allocation algorithm is also applied to the system to increase the systems performance against channel noises and ensure a constant bit-rate compressed video transmission. The proposed system will compress video data in real time and with a high compression ratio. Because of its low complexity and high performance design, the RAVS will be compact and light enough for use onboard aircraft, including unmanned aerial vehicles and rotorcraft, as well as by mobile ground personnel. The resulting system will be able to provide video information that can be transmitted across low bandwidth communication systems. Applications include video-telephones, video security surveillance, teleconferencing, medical imaging, and emergency video broadcasting.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Div., 20600 Gramercy Plac
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Wenjian Wang
ARMY 01-069      Selected for Award
Title:Mobile Advanced Data Compression Adaptive Technology
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Mobile Advanced Data Compression Adaptive Technology (MADCAT) communication system to transmit EIA-170 and EIA-343A streaming video over current tactical radios. MADCAT applies POC's novel soft computing and soft communication fuzzy logic algorithm and supercomputer-class Processing and Ultra-Memory Access IC hardware to achieve 4000:1 video hypercompression. MADCAT video hyercompression removes redundancy mostly by eliminating unnecessary I-frames, without sacrificing video quality. MADCAT hardware physical layer transparency makes it compatible with any type of Army rotorcraft tactical radio, including SINCGARS and AN/PRC-117F. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate a preliminary MADCAT prototype (both software and hardware) that includes video/audio compression, a physical layer, a novel sensor-specific communication interface, and bit-selective error resilient channel coding. In Phase II, POC will develop and demonstrate the full-scale MADCAT prototype model in a realistic environment, transmitting for example, EIA-343A video from rotorcraft to a ground station over Army rotorcraft tactical radios. The final MADCAT prototype will be fully compliant with ROSA RTA. The MADCAT technology addresses a wide range of large and diverse video communication markets. Video conferencing and cellular videophones are two key rapidly growing sectors. It is expected that the video conferencing market will reach $35 billion by 2002 and the cellular videophone market will be $100 billion in 2003. Other commercial sectors include broadcast TV and streaming IP video.

ADVANCED ROTORCRAFT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1685 Plymouth Street, Suite 250
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 968-1464
Dr. Chengjian He
ARMY 01-070      Selected for Award
Title:Generation of Consistent Rotorcraft Dynamics Models for Life Cycle Simulation Support
Abstract:Simulation models of rotorcraft are used in a wide variety of Army applications. Conceptual Design applications use models of the sensitivity of performance to design parameters. Preliminary and detailed design applications use physical models to add detail and predict stability and loads. Test and evaluation applications use stability and load predictions to select maneuvers, instrumentation, and test conditions. Training applications use real time models to drive instrument displays, visual displays and motion platforms. Simulation Based Acquisition combines manufacturing, operational, and economic models to predict life-cycle costs. In order to assure consistency between the models used to support these diverse applications it is desired to derive these specialized models from a "Primary" comprehensive model. This will provide traceability and facilitate Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) for these models. ART has developed FLIGHTLAB, a simulation productivity tool that supports comprehensive modeling and analysis, selective fidelity modeling, and code-generation to separate a model from the development environment and link it to a user's application. In this SBIR, ART proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of using FLIGHTLAB to derive a broad range of specialized rotorcraft models from FLIGHTLAB comprehensive models to support Army applications. The Phase I activity will focus on the development and testing of a rotor performance model to support conceptual design with the Army's conceptual design program, RC. Under Phase II, performance models of additional rotorcraft subsystems will be developed and combined with the rotor performance model to support conceptual design. An additional application will be addressed in Phase II to demonstrate this capability, such as generating a real time model for training applications and establishing VV&A standards for models used in pilot training. The emphasis will be on establishing the VV&A methodology for each specialized model to provide standardization and traceability. Rotorcraft dynamics models are used to support rotorcraft design, analysis, testing, flight training, manufacturing and procurement. Deriving these models from a common comprehensive model that has been validated against experimental testing will reduce the cost of model development and testing and increase synergism between the diverse activities using these models. Commercial applications include the sale of custom models produced from FLIGHTLAB to support specialized Army activities, the sale of FLIGHTLAB development systems to generate and test these models, and the sale of ART training simulators that use FLIGHTLAB models certified by the VV&A procedures derived in this SBIR. The approach can be extended to the fixed wing and automotive industries using FLIGHTLAB's capabilities to support these areas.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Paul Gierke
ARMY 01-071      Selected for Award
Title:Passive Terrain Following
Abstract:Helicopters of the United States Special Operations Command perform missions that require flight at extremely low altitudes and high speeds in order to avoid detection. Currently MH-60K and MH-47E aircraft use a multi mode radar (MMR) to navigate and avoid ground hazards. Such active systems are detectable by passive observers. Helicopters can avoid the use of active systems through the use of Passive Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance (Passive TF/TA). This technique also has the potential to lower the overall altitude of such flights and give the pilots considerable situational awareness. The technology now exists to develop such systems. ALPHATECH proposes to develop and demonstrate algorithms for Passive Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance. The algorithms will be specifically designed to handle the problems of bias and error peculiar to terrain estimation, and will be based on multiresolution statistical models. This approach has several advantages including the versatility to accept data of varying resolutions and irregular sampling geometries, as well as the algorithmic speed, that is linear in the number of grid points. Using this approach, ALPHATECH will evaluate the performance of Passive TF/TA under data of varying resolutions. This study will help determine the data and hardware requirements for an operational Passive TF/TA system. The proposed technology will provide the army with a passive solution for Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance. In addition, the proposed design will have commercial applicability to any system requiring flight navigation with respect to the ground. This is true not only of manned aircraft, but also of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 671-0508
Mr. Jerry Mehlberg
ARMY 01-071      Selected for Award
Title:Passive Terrain Following
Abstract:Special Operations Forces (SOF) MH-47E and MH-60K rotorcraft must use the terrain following tactic to minimize their detectability and maximize their survivability when ingressing or egressing on an operational mission. The current terrain following radar for these rotorcraft can be detected by passive detection systems, does not always display obstacles accurately, and adds 300 hundred pounds to rotorcraft weight. The juxtaposition of recent advances in GPS navigation and the accuracy and coverage of Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) offers the possibility of a passive terrain following system for SOF rotorcraft. FTI will conduct a study of the feasibility of a GPS/DTED-based terrain following system and also produce a conceptual design document and preliminary functional architecture for an operational passive terrain following system. The feasibility study will involve both an anlytic portion and a computer simulation and visualization. Phase II will implement the concepts and designs developed in Phase I and develop an operating prototype system. A system that combines GPS with digital terrain data for navigation and terrain avoidance will be attractive to civil and commercial aircraft, enhancing safety, especially in mountainous terrain bad weather.

AEROVIRONMENT, INC.
825 S. Myrtle Avenue
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 581-2187
Mr. Matthew Keennon
ARMY 01-072      Selected for Award
Title:Reliable Actuators for Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:Recent advances and development efforts in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and sensor technologies have resulted in potential for increased capability in small and micro-sized UAVs. While advanced have been made in the capabilities of the vehicles and some subsystems, a lack of emphasis has been placed on actuator technologies. Reduction in the size of the vehicle characteristically increases the vehicle dynamic frequencies. This has created a requirement for very lightweight and reliable miniature actuators with higher bandwidth. This effort will result in a scalable actuator design that fills the current void in suitable actuators UAVs sized from approximately 3 to 12 inches. Actuator requirements for micro UAVs will be investigated including applications for fixed wing, rotorcraft and payloads. Technologies in various fields will be examined to determine what is the current state of the art and evaluate which technologies may be appropriate for micro UAVs. The resulting data will be used to design a robust, high quality and scalable actuator for micro UAV applications. This effort will result in a design for a high quality actuator for micro UAV applications. Significant ongoing efforts in micro UAV development will benefit from a commercially available actuator. This will have the effect of extending micro UAV applications into new markets as the capability and cost improves. In addition small-scale actuators have wide use in a number of fields such as robotics, small actuators on large aircraft, electro-mechanical locks, aeromodeling, antenna steering, automotive accessories, etc. In some markets, mass quantities of lower quality devices may be appropriate and would result in lower cost devices for both defense and commercial applications.

ISX CORP.
760 Paseo Camarillo, Suite 401
Camarillo, CA 93010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 247-7800
Mr. Brian Kettler
ARMY 01-073      Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Agent-based Information Dissemination System (DAIDS)
Abstract:Every element of the Army airborne combat team depends on shared situation awareness for and other information they need to act as a coordinated mission-effective team while optimizing their survivability in a way that works in real-world environments. To provide this common understanding, ISX Corporation and Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) propose DAIDS, the Distributed Agent-based Information Dissemination System, with three key elements: 1) Distributed Information Dissemination Platform to implement a peer-to-peer information fusion architecture, provide for dynamic registration of network nodes, and provide local infrastructure at each network node to enable information fusion and dissemination policies and behaviors; 2) Fusion Management Agents that apply appropriate information fusion support services, enabling maintenance of a coherent Common Tactical Picture (CTP) at each node while integrating track and sensor updates from multiple peer nodes; 3) Information Dissemination Agents that transport tailored fusion-relevant information to other network nodes. This approach will provide distributed information dissemination services for Distributed Data Fusion amongst participating platforms to manage the CTP, including smart DAIDS software agents that coordinate tracks among peers with overlapping responsibilities; recognize task-, mode-, or context-specific information requirements; handle specific peer information requests; and consider survivability issues in setting dissemination priorities. For Army combat environments like HSKT and FCS, the primary benefits of this research will derive from two aspects of our system concept: localization of fusion activities at individual distributed nodes of the network of combat elements, and selective and intelligent peer-to-peer dissemination of information across network nodes. The localized fusion services we provide will focus fusion activities to form a context-tuned view of the Common Tactical Picture. Intelligent dissemination of information will insure that the information communicated between combat elements improves the Common Tactical Picture for that unit by providing the right information at the right time. Limitations on communications bandwidth and processing must be faced in real-world system employment. The ability to employ intelligent prioritization schemes to communicate only situation-relevant information between nodes, means that scarce comms and processing resources will be used more effectively to deliver the right information to the right place at the right time. Further, DAIDS will permit combat teams to operate dynamically, adding and relinquishing team members as needed, and allows Distributed Data Fusion to form the best possible Common Tactical Picture from the current cooperating resources. This means better decisions by each combat element, better coordination of activities in combat situations, and better survivability and mission effectiveness for every team member. Because dynamic team member sensing capabilities registration is not being funded as a part of the AMUST-D program, DAIDS will fill a critical technology enabling and risk reduction role for Distributed Data Fusion as a part of that program. Intelligent information dissemination also applies outside the Army air combat regime. Any large enterprise faces problems of "information awareness," understanding what information in the enterprise could be available to support better decision making, making the analyst or decision maker aware of that information, and delivering it to him at the time (and in a form) that will best support his decision process. Military C2 examples abound, concepts like the Army Tactical Battlespace Infosphere concept and the Joint Battlespace Infosphere. Similar commercial problems exist in any large organization involved in knowledge- and information-based decisions, such as drug development, supply-chain management, investment management, etc. In each case, and in many more examples, the benefit of decision superiority comes from getting the right information to the right person at the right time and in the right form.

EIDETICS CORP.
3425 Lomita Blvd.
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 326-8228
Dr. Michael Kerho
ARMY 01-074      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Rotor Aerodynamics For Dynamic Stall Alleviation Using Robust Flow Control
Abstract:Compliant structures technology, coupled with variable camber leading-edge dynamic stall control, has the potential to significantly improve the performance of modern rotorcraft. The objective of this Phase I proposal is to use compliant structures technology to design a hinge-less, variable camber, semi-span, leading-edge for rotor blade dynamic stall control utilizing compliant monolithic structures. The system will provide a significantly enhanced performance envelope for the rotorcraft in the form of increased speed, maneuverability, payload, and range as compared to traditional designs. The new compliant structures design will alleviate retreating blade stall with a robust and reliable variable camber leading-edge system. The new system will be lightweight, rugged, maintainable, damage tolerant, and have a low radar cross-section, all while providing exceptional maneuverability, performance, and payload capacity. The commercialization potential for advanced, high performance helicopter blade airfoils, designed with a reliable and robust variable camber leading-edge is excellent. It is recognized that future rotorcraft are expected to play an increasingly important role in military operations in the form of long range transport, low altitude deep penetration, and air to air/air-to-ground combat. The rotorcraft industry will be eager to exploit the advantages of the variable camber compliant structure based design. This new design approach will deliver the advantages sought by rotorcraft designers, but with much lower weight, and much lower cost of manufacture while providing a robust and reliable system. Both commercial and military rotorcraft designers will find the technology extremely appealing, allowing significant commercialization potential.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (ME
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. J.C. Withers
ARMY 01-075      Selected for Award
Title:Affordable High Strength Face Gears
Abstract:The materials properties and inability to grind highly hardened steel into face gears as well as their weight, have limited their inherent advantage and application in high power density aerospace and transportation systems. Laser fusion free-form fabrication has demonstrated custom material compositions can be net shaped produced with superior properties to the same material conventionally formed. Laser fusion fabrication is proposed to net shape produce hybrid materials combination face gears such as titanium webs and steel teeth with controlled nanochemistry that enhances properties over a forged and hardened steel. Material combinations will be produced in a functional graduation between the compositions and characterized for face gear application. A down select materials combination will be utilized to demonstrate a net shape face gear can be laser fusion produced with desired surface finish and surface tribology. The commercial applications of high performance, lightweight, low cost face gears are in a plethora of aerospace, defense, and aircraft, automotive and marine vehicle systems.

MONTEREY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
24600 Silver Cloud Court, Suite 103
Monterey, CA 93940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 970-9119
Mr. Thomas J. Sharkey
ARMY 01-076      Selected for Award
Title:An Improved Helicopter Display That Correlates Flight Symbols with Flight Imagery
Abstract:In visually guided flight mediated by a synthetic imaging system, merely depicting the terrain is inadequate to support safe flight of Army helicopters at low altitudes. Superimposed geo-referenced symbology to is predicted provide the information necessary for near-ground safe flight. MTI will design and demonstrate terrain-overlay symbology that will support safe flight and will determine the cost of building a symbology system for flight test. MTI has over fifteen years experience in Army flight simulation and flight symbology development. Nevertheless, MTI's will review literature and interview pilots to identifying information requirements for flight in demanding environments. MTI will then design candidate symbol sets that provide the information needed for safe and sure helicopter flight. The key innovation in MTI's approach will be to design an efficient set of symbology that augments but does not duplicate terrain information sources. After review by pilots and modification, the final symbology set will be rendered in animated form and shown superimposed over dynamic terrain imagery, for a variety of helicopter flight maneuvers. MTI will prepare a plan for both simulation and flight testing of the symbology. MTI will also develop a preliminary hardware and software design and a cost estimate for the flight test version to be built during Phase II. This display will expand the operating environment for other military and civil helicopters. This will be of value to operators who need to fly in adverse conditions, such as MEDEVAC, law enforcement and search and rescue operations. The display will also be useful where judgements of aircraft position are always difficult, e.g., positioning sling loads, power line maintenance.

SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 679-2281
Mr. Bimal Aponso
ARMY 01-076      Selected for Award
Title:An Improved Helicopter Display That Correlates Flight Symbols with Flight Imagery
Abstract:Innovative pilot cueing display concepts are proposed that will allow helicopter pilots to operate in reduced-visibility environments using a head-down primary flight display. The cueing displays will be based on earth-referenced information obtained by sensing aircraft position and flightpath relative to the earth, and digitized data for terrain and obstacles in the vicinity of the helicopter. The pilot cueing symbology will be superimposed on a computer-generated image of the surrounding terrain and obstacles as well as images of the outside world from imaging sensors such as infra-red and radar. Display concepts are proposed for a complete range of civil and military rotorcraft operations including hover/landing, forward flight and autorotation. Candidate hardware/software architectures for an earth-referenced pilot cueing display will be defined in Phase I based on a limited evaluation of display concepts on a fixed-base simulator. In Phase II, a prototype system will be developed and evaluated using piloted simulation and flight testing. This display will be useful for all civil and military helicopter operators for avoiding collision with terrain and obstacles in impoverished-visibility conditions. Example applications include military night operations, emergency medical evacuation and airborne law enforcement. The concepts can be readily extended for fixed-wing operations as well as for the intelligent transportation initiative for ground vehicles.

ENVIROSPACE SOFTWARE RESEARCH, INC.
507 Alhambra Road
Venice, FL 34285
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(941) 488-7205
Dr. Stephen R. Gerig
ARMY 01-077      Selected for Award
Title:Route-planning on the spheroid gridded by a DTEM
Abstract:Route-planning for vehicles and motion-planning for robots is most effective, and most challeging technically, when it is performed in realtime by on-board computer-processors. The realtime planning allows for responses to changes in the surroundings as the vehicle or robot proceeds towards a goal from a start. En route planning is accomplished by the repeated execution of sophisticated search procedures on the computer-processors to identify the quickest route to the goal from the current location, which route also avoids obstacles and minimizes the exposure to hazards and threats along the way. The present effort is to develop search-procedures not for a plane surface, but for a curved surface, namely the earth modeled as a spheroid. The earth's terrain, that is, the actual surface of the earth as it lies above or below the spheroidal model at each pair of numerical values for longitude and latitude, is modeled by a digital terrain elevation matrix (DTEM.) This DTEM imposes a grid on the spheroid consisting of regularly spaced parallels of latitude and regularly spaced meridians of longitude, a geometry different from the rectilinear gridding on the plane surface, which rectilinear gridding is the geometric basis for conventional search-procedures. The grid imposed on the spheroid by the DTEM will be accomodated by the search-procedures to be developed on the present effort. Realtime, on-board route-planners are already in use, as, for example, on Army aircraft. Thes existing route-planners do not, however, accomodate curved surfaces gridded by DTEMs, but only plane surfaces gridded by straight lines. These Army aircraft, and potentially, robotic, unmanned, military aircraft are existing military markets for the product or service arising as a commercial follow-on to the present effort. A potentially big civilian market exists for motion-planning for mobile robots or the multi-jointed arms of stationary robots. The mobile robots could be either robotic gound-vehicles travelling on or robotic aircraft travelling slightly above the surface of the earth on possibly hazardous missions on or over rugged or inhospitable terrain. The mobile robots could also be specialized vehicles for exploring the surfaces of planetary bodies in the solar system, or service robots on not only a planetary surface, but also the surface of a space station. These route-planners require sensor systems in addition to a DTEM, and for the robots one such sensor system would be the vision system which these robots already possess. An important special use is route-planning to avoid shady country where a mobile robot's solar power collector would not receive sunlight. The multi-jointed arms of stationary robots could benefit from motion-planning constrained to a surface, not necessarily a plane surface, as an efficient alternative to time-consuming motion-planning in three dimensions. The curved surfaces in which the multi-jointed arm could be constrained to move might be identified in realtime by a vision-system mounted on the robot. All of these civilian robotic applications would require significant follow-on effort to become commercial services or products.

ACCUMETRICS ASSOC., INC.
409 Front St.
Schenectady, NY 12305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 393-2200
Mr. John M. Reschovsky
ARMY 01-078      Selected for Award
Title:Wireless Rotor-Mounted High-Speed Data Acquisition System
Abstract:The objective of Phase I of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of a Wireless Rotor-Mounted High-Speed Data Acquisition System for helicopter research. The system requirements encompass demanding features including capacity to acquire up to 256 rotor-mounted sensors at up to 31,720 samples per second. Programmable sampling strategies, and signal conditioning configurations are required. A Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) interface will transmit this data from the helicopter rotor hub to a ground station up to 1000 feet away at rates of at least 10 Mbit per second. The feasibility of many of the required features of this system has already been demonstrated in commercial rotor telemetry systems manufactured by the proposers. Therefore the research in Phase I will focus on a few key areas that are of concern to determine feasibility. These involve the transmission range of a IEEE 802.11 compliant wireless link from antennas mounted on the rotor hub to the ground station, particularly if the aircraft fuselage produces a shadowing effect. System architecture, implementation strategy and commercial component options will also be investigated, and a preliminary design will be developed. This project could lead to a tool that will help engineers and scientists who study the performance of helicopters to acquire data from large numbers of sensors mounted on rotor blades and other rotating components. Strain gages are most commonly used allowing researchers to determine stresses resulting from in-flight maneuvers. Other sensors such as accelerometers and pressure transducers can provide additional understanding of aerodynamic and vibration characteristics of the aircraft. This technology could also lead to automated track and balance systems that could drastically reduce the vibration environment in both military and commercial helicopters. This project has significance that extends beyond the area of helicopter research. The requirements for the system detail a highly flexible and reconfigurable data acquisition platform combined with wireless network connectivity. One can envision many other applications from the results of this research. Remote monitoring of conventional sensors using rugged data acquisition modules, wireless communications and web enabled tools will open significant new opportunities in both DOD and private sector markets.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5509
Ms. Sara E. Rosenberg
ARMY 01-079      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Brazing Technology for Joining and Sealing of CMC/Monolithic Turbine Vanes
Abstract:Foster-Miller and GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) have been working together for years on the next generation ceramic matrix composite (CMC) airfoils required to reach the IHPTET performance goals. Smaller turbines, such as in the Joint Turbine Advanced Gas Generator (JTAGG), have particularly demanding performance requirements. One area of critical development is the trailing edge of the JTAGG high pressure turbine vane, which demands a monolithic ceramic knife edge while maintaining the CMC leading edge performance. On the proposed effort, Foster-Miller and GEAE will team to develop a unique brazing technique to overcome a significant thermal mismatch in order join a monolithic Si3N4 trailing edge to a 3D braided SiC/SiC leading edge. The team's extensive CMC airfoil developments, combined with Foster-Miller's long history of braze development for ceramics and other unique materials, will enable the development of a highly reliable joint and seal for this vital component. During Phase I, Foster-Miller will develop the braze materials and geometries, and will verify their effective strength with shear testing. Phase II optimize the braze materials and demonstrate the joining technology of the full size component. (P-020007) The joining technology developed here will enable high temperature performance in highly loaded turbine vanes. The target JTAGG engine, as well as larger IHPTET and VAATE demonstrators, can also benefit from the development of this airfoil fabrication method. Additionally, as CMCs are introduced into other high temperature applications, the braze methods developed here can be used in order to join adjacent components, be it CMC to CMC, CMC to monolithic ceramics, or CMC to metals.

THOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7600 Jefferson NE, Suite 9-115
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 348-8797
Dr. Stuart T. Schwab
ARMY 01-079      Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid Ceramic Composites for Advanced Turbomachinery
Abstract:Continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites (CFCCs) are inherently wear and oxidation resistant, retain strength at higher temperatures and have lower specific densities than competing metal systems. The hot sections of gas turbine engines and related devices are exposed to aggressive gaseous species at high temperature. Because of their thermochemical stability and oxidation resistance, CFCCs have been identified as leading material candidates for high temperature applications; however, new processing methods are needed to lower the cost of producing these materials, as well as to produce them in forms that can accommodate thin walled sections and that can be attached readily to supporting metal structures. Thor Technologies, Inc. will team with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Materials Research & Design (MR&D), and a turbine engine manufacturer to demonstrate the capability of the innovative polymer infiltration/microwave pyrolysis (PIMP) process to produce hybrid CFCCs for turbine engine applications. These hybrid CFCCs contain integral metal features that enable the use of conventional attachments, such as nuts and bolts. The PI has over fifteen years experience in preceamic polymer science and CFCC processing, and the team has the design, manufacturing and testing expertise to produce turbine engine components at low cost. Lighter weight materials and the reduction in cooling air requirements will lower the overall weight and increase the operating efficiency of turbine engines ranging from aerospace engines to stationary power plants. The availability of low cost CFCCs will enable new industrial applications, such as corrosion-proof piping for chemical processing.

SUKRA HELITEK, INC.
3146, Greenwood road
Ames, IA 50014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 292-8918
Dr. Saeid Niazi
ARMY 01-080      Selected for Award
Title:A Preliminary Design Tool for Shrouded-Fans
Abstract:Shrouded-fans are an integral part of the U.S. Army's transportation systems. The RAH-66's fan-tail, Sikorsky's Cypher and Micro-Craft's UAV are testimonials to their increasing importance. Shrouded-fans are efficient, but aerodynamically very complex, particularly in non-axial flight conditions such as conversion modes. The viscous characteristics of the flow through the shrouded-fan play an imortant role in the three dimensional moments and forces generated in non-axial flight conditons. This proposal offers to develop an efficient, robust and fast preliminary design tool capable of analyzing the performance and flowfield of shrouded-fans in axial and non-axial flight conditions. The principle parts of the tool are: 1. A viscous solver for shroud conforming grids 2. An efficient rotor model 3. An integral body conforming grid generator In Phase I, viscous flow through a shrouded-fan in non-axial flight conditions, but with fixed shroud orientation, will be computed as proof-of-concept of an efficient design tool. In Phase II, continuous rotation of the shroud about its own axis, such as in conversion modes from hover to forward flight, will be undertaken. The software developed under this initiative will find wide usage in the DOD rotorcraft organizations, rotorcraft industry and NASA. This proposal offers a computational tool that will lay the foundations for true transient wake calculation of a shrouded-fan in axial and non-axial flight conditions. Sukra Helitek's flagship, Rot3DC, is currently used for several flight regimes including vortex ring states. Inclusion of a preliminary design tool for shrouded-fans will further enhance its marketability and usefulness.

FAUNCE ENGINEERING
15 Zieglers Lane
Hamilton Square, NJ 08690
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 890-7390
Mr. James Faunce
ARMY 01-081      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Lightweight, High Capacity Airborne Cargo Handling Winch System
Abstract:We propose to design an innovative modular heavy lift system readily configured and optimized for aircraft/mission requirements. The dual winch system will be capable of lifting up to 22 ton of cargo at 60 ft/min, and stabilize the load for flight. We will identify all possible configurations and evaluate the risks and tradeoffs of each configuration. We will define a preliminary design for a modular prototype that will allow development of major components in parallel. We will investigate the effects the winch system will have on the aircraft. A high capacity helicopter winch system will allow transport of vehicles and supplies without long lines in flight. It will allow aircraft to pick-up and deliver in terrain and situations where it previously could not. Potential commercial applications include transporting lumber and supplies. Potential civil applications include firefighting, and debris removal (storms and earthquakes).

JMSI, INC.
1290 Wall St. West, Third Floor
Lyndhurst, NJ 07071
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 460-4700
Mr. David E. Edwards
ARMY 01-082      Selected for Award
Title:Next Generation Software for Efficient Remote Parallel Visualization of Large-Scale Time-Dependent CFD Data
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop easy to use, fast and efficient next generation visualization techniques that utilize client-server architecture, parallel processors and domain knowledge for the analysis and post-processing of large-scale, time dependent, rotorcraft, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets. Large-scale, time-dependent 3D simulations of complex configurations using CFD have become increasingly critical in the design of aircraft, rotorcraft, aerospace vehicles and propulsion systems. As the pace of simulation increases, the sheer volume of numerical data makes it increasingly critical that a stable and easy to operate post-processing/visualization methodology be developed. Technology innovations in this proposed work will focus on robust streakline integration, visualization techniques optimized for rotorcraft grids, high-speed access of data on remote computers and development of an Intelligent Graphical Object (IGO) database for the highly interactive 3D display of transient data including streaklines, streamlines, iso-surfaces, cutting planes, boundary surfaces and vortex cores. These visualization techniques, if fully developed, can have a significant impact on government and industry's ability to post-process large-scale time-dependent CFD simulation data. Large-scale, time-dependent 3D simulations of complex configurations using CFD have becoming increasingly critical in the design of aircraft, rotorcraft, aerospace vehicles and propulsion systems. CFD users in the commercial sector (such as Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, Pratt & Whitney, etc.), the Federal Government (Air Force, Navy, Army and NASA) and the National Laboratories are using this technology. These large organizations that make extensive use of CFD analysis have indicated that large-scale unsteady 3D CFD simulations are almost impossible to post-process without huge investments in computer hardware and staffer's time. As the current state-of-the-art in post-processing large-scale time-dependent CFD data does not provide satisfactory performance for these problems, investment in the next generation of such tools is required. The offeror perceives a need in the marketplace to address these issues in a commercial product offering that provides great benefits in usability, performance and data access. The proposed project will enable the offeror to be responsive to the needs of the CFD community.

APPLIED SYSTEMS INTELLIGENCE, INC.
11660 Alpharetta Highway
Roswell, GA 30076
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 518-4228
Dr. Richard Dunlap
ARMY 01-083      Selected for Award
Title:Use of Crew Intent Inferencing to Augment Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:ASI's technology provides distributed, cognitive decision aiding to increase operational effectiveness at reduced manning and skill levels. This framework enables single-operator / multi-vehicle control; real-time situational awareness, and collaboration between manned and unmanned vehicles whether they operate in the air, on the surface, underwater or in space. For this project, ASI's technology will support single operator - multiple vehicle operations, dynamic RPA planning and operate in a COTS environment. This technology is transferable to a broad range of commercial applications including agriculture, turf maintenance, construction, mining, surveillance, manufacturing, and defense.

MONTEREY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
24600 Silver Cloud Court, Suite 103
Monterey, CA 93940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 970-9119
Dr. Patricia A. Lakinsmith
ARMY 01-083      Selected for Award
Title:Use of Crew Intent Inferencing to Augment Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:Unmanned aerial vehicles are valuable assets to the Army's scout and attack rotorcraft on the digital battlefield. Intent inferencing is critical for these types of mixed-initiative systems designed to carry out the commander's intent without violating mission constraints or overloading their airborne human supervisors. The Monterey Technologies, Inc. (MTI) team has directly applicable experience designing, building, and evaluating intelligent systems for medical diagnosis, tutoring, and military tactical planning. Our approach will use an agile modeling techniques to rapidly design an RPA and Apache Longbow-compatible intent inferencer that accurately and reliably estimates human operator activities and goals based on pilot actions, mission goals and constraints, and aircraft state, and employs state of the art techniques for resolving uncertainty with minimal operator interruption. Our modeling techniques will allow us to rapidly identify, document, and communicate system requirements and implementation constraints, focusing the majority of design time addressing the context model and the challenge of reasoning under uncertainty. MTI will leverage recent technological advances in KBS development approaches such as Bayesian networks, case based reasoning, and hybrid architectures integrating rule and case-based inferencing. The functionality and portability of our final HLA-compliant intent inferencing system design will be demonstrated on the PRISMS simulation system. This technology will be useful to all domains where multiple unmanned entities (e.g. satellites, UAVs, robots, rovers) carry out dangerous work for humans, such as fire fighting, livestock herding, search and rescue, suspect apprehension, and salvage operations. A scalable and portable intent inferencer will have widespread opportunities for use within the DoD's vision of a system of systems modeling and simulation network

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
725 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Magns Snorrason
ARMY 01-084      Selected for Award
Title:Rotorcraft Adaptive Tactical Information Display (RATID)
Abstract:Advances in aircraft and weapon capabilities have led to a dramatic increase in the tempo of tactical situations facing the combat rotorcraft pilot, reducing the pilot's available processing and decision time. Furthermore, technological advances in cockpit displays, sensors, and communications have resulted in an explosion in the quantity and complexity of information available to the pilot. These factors make it increasingly difficult for pilots to effectively use available information; there is too much data and too little time. Poorly designed displays can further exacerbate the problem through excessive labeling, little to no context information, and overcrowding, forcing the pilot to spend additional time on display interpretation. We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a rotorcraft adaptive tactical information display (RATID) for pilots in the digital battlefield. RATID will provide: 1) an automatically generated high-level assessment of the current battlefield and mission situation, based on disparate data sources already available from the helicopter avionics; and 2) a situation-adaptive interface based on this assessment, giving the pilot quick and intuitive access to tactically relevant data. Our approach will support pilot situation awareness (SA) and enhanced performance through intelligent management of tactical display symbology, content, and format. In addition to the system's direct applicability to helicopter avionics (potentially both Army and commercial), the situation awareness, adaptive display, and agent communications algorithms proposed here will enhance a commercial software product currently in development in-house. This product, the Intelligent Agent Toolkit (IAT) will enable developers to specify, design, implement, and validate agent-based systems with a broad range of functionality, and with significantly reduced development resources as compared with home-grown agent-based code development practices now in use.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Div., 20600 Gramercy Plac
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Andrew Kostrzewski
ARMY 01-085      Selected for Award
Title:Beyond Line of Sight Video Delivery System
Abstract:Real-time and near-real-time video can dramatically enhance decision making and aid in last minute target confirmation. To accomplish this, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes a new system based on Tunable Data Rate Compression and Communication (TunDRa). This system will for the first time transmit RS-170 and EIA-343A streaming video in full color (10 bits per pixel monochrome or 24 bits per pixel color), full motion (30 frames per second), and high resolution (525 x 700 for EIA-170 and 875 x 1200 for EIA-343A) over 16 to 256 kbps current or emerging tactical communication channels such as AN/PRC-117F and SINCGARS. The proposed system will achieve both high fidelity video compression with minimal artifacts and real-time transmission of video from the platform to the base and control signals from the base to the platform. This technology will include algorithm, software, and hardware development for both encoding and decoding, as well as efficient communication subsystem integration. A key feature of the communication hardware will by dynamic allocation of communication bandwidth based on current channel noise characteristics. Also, we introduce a selectable carrier frequency, tunable within the VHF band from 140 to 350 MHz and in L-band from 800 MHz to 2.4 GHz. The proposed concept can find a wide range of applications in target confirmation, BDI, and BDA. Compact volume and low weight will allow integration of the TDRCC system into munitions and small UAVs and UGVs.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
3085 Woodman Drive, Suite 200
Dayton, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 299-5999
Dr. Ronald G. Riechers, Ph.D.
ARMY 01-086      Selected for Award
Title:Computational ElectroMagnetics Analysis Assistant (CEMAA)
Abstract:Simulation and Modeling for Acquisition Requirements and Training (SMART) is the U.S. Army's implementation of the DoD Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) initiative. SMART's goal is to significantly reduce the time required to develop Future Combat Systems (FCSs) from over 20 years to about 8 years through extensive use of M&S to rapidly analyze design changes. Increasingly, composite materials are replacing metals in the manufacture of FSC vehicle structures. Because composite materials affect the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic energy differently than metals, there is a growing need to rapidly analyze electromagnetic interactions between composite vehicle structures and vehicular mounted antennas. In order to support acquisition objectives, there is a need to improve and integrate Computational Electromagnetic (CEM) M&S tools. Spectra Research, Inc. (S*R) and Riverside Research Institute (RRI) propose to develop an intelligent CEM Analysis Assistant (CEMAA) that integrates/configures CEM codes and guides the user through a CEM analysis. Our approach will leverage the Army's development of a M&S integration architecture, called the Army Research and Development Center (RDEC) Collaborative Biome (CB), to integrate the Army's M&S resources/design analysis. This will make it much easier to integrate new CEM tools developed by DoD and industry into the Army's CEM analysis. Application of the evolving CB technology will integrate Army CEM tools to provide the rapid response required to support DoD goals to reduce the cost and time required to develop future combat systems. As S*R is developing segments of the CB architecture, the CB investment will be leveraged to develop the CEMAA. This effort will also incorporate artificial intelligence capabilities into the CB architecture, which will facilitate application of the CB within the Army and DoD as well as enhance its commercial potential.

PREDICTION SYSTEMS, INC.
309 Morris Avenue, Suite G
Spring Lake, NJ 07762
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 449-6800
Mr. William C. Cave
ARMY 01-087      Selected for Award
Title:Netted Full Spectrum Sensors
Abstract:The overall objective of this proposal is to provide a Netted Full Spectrum Sensor (NFSS) Operations Management System(OMS)that will allow engineering decision- makers to perform tradeoffs in sensor requirements and design parameters, as well as support staff officer decisions in real-time mission planning and execution. To provide full coverage of the MASINT spectrum using and integrated approach, the NSFF system must contain a full suite of state-of-the-art ground based and air delivered multi-intelligence sensors. To ensure that operational sensor taskings and missions are coordinated will require a management system as part of the NFSS. Effective coordination of a fully integrated set of sensors as defined in the solicitation, will require that the NFSS system interact with other planned operational sub- systems, e.g., INTEL, COMM, logistics, etc., as well as the control stations of new and existing sensor systems. PSI has been developing planning and tasking tools to support CINC staff operations, determining information sources, designing system interfaces, and working with the developers of other systems to ensure seamless and timely passage of required information. PSI has developed the embedded simulations that form the heart of these netted tools, and the real-time inputs for operational scenario and other data required to drive the simulations that predict sensor collection outcomes. These simulations are used by the staff officers to determine optimized sets of targets, taskings, and mission plans. These same embedded simulations, and the resulting measures of performance and effectiveness, can be used to produce the design envelopes for the sensors themselves. PSI participates in large commercial projects that can benefit significantly from the capabilities proposed. Specific applicatons include real-time control of large scale information processing and communications systems, operations planning, network planning, dynamic network management and manufacturing processes.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway, Suite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9465
Mr. James Thomson
ARMY 01-087      Selected for Award
Title:Netted Full Spectrum Sensors
Abstract:The battlefield of the future will be a "digital battlefield" dominated by unmanned air and ground vehicles, precision guided smart weapons, and networked full-spectrum sensor arrays. Measurement and Signals Intelligence (MASINT) micro-sensors will be the "five senses" of future digital battlefields, detecting and tracking friend and foe alike. Maneuver brigade commanders will deploy distributed arrays of micro-sensors containing a range of sensing elements (e.g., chem-bio, acoustic, seismic, magnetic, electro-optical, RF, etc.) for remote sensing, ground surveillance, Signals Intelligence (SIGINT), and Electronic Attack (EA) missions in urban and non-urban terrains. These micro-sensor arrays will be capable of communicating both real-time and historical information to individual soldiers, small units, and higher echelon C4I assets through self-forming wireless networks. The networked sensor arrays will have a flexible architecture; provide full coverage of the MASINT spectrum; be capable of deployment by various means (e.g., manual, robot, air-drop); and will endure long-term, all-weather, unattended deployments while maintaining high reliability and survivability. For this Phase I effort, Scientific Research Corporation (SRC) will define baseline performance and current state-of-the-art for MASINT micro-sensor system elements and design a flexible, open, networked sensor system architecture that includes critical new capabilities, i.e., self-forming wireless networks and sensor auto-configuration. SRC will also investigate the possibility for simultaneous multi-mission applications using the netted full-spectrum sensor system, e.g., by analyzing multi-path reflections of EA and/or network communications emissions to derive situational awareness information. For Phase II, SRC will demonstrate a prototype netted full-spectrum sensor system for tactics and doctrine development and to address issues related to transitioning to Army operational status (Prophet Block IV). In Phase III, SRC will produce deployable networked full-spectrum sensor systems for the Army Prophet program's fusion of SIGINT and MASINT (Block IV) and for commercial applications, such as perimeter intrusion detection systems for industrial sites and airports.

CYTERRA CORP.
85 First Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 926-1911
Mr. Herb Duvoisin
ARMY 01-088      Selected for Award
Title:Mine Detection
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to determine whether or not the modeling of buried mines, along with local environment measurements, can ever be used to predict successful IR sensor mine detection. Field experiments have often resulted in outstanding IR imagery of buried mines. Sophisticated detection algorithms have been developed to take advantage of this imagery. What continues to be lacking is a way to predict in-the-field utility so that the IR can be relied on tactically. After a mission it is easy to say one would have done well (or not done well) to use IR. A potential solution problem is the use of thermal models of the buried mine, combined with measurement of the terrain/weather, to predict for a relatively short time (hours or days) when operations should be carried out that rely on or could best benefit from the speed and standoff of IR. Some recent efforts along these lines have shown promise, but no one has yet determined the true feasibility of this approach. Using an instrumented target, terrain, and weather data collection set, this proposal will analyze 5 months of round-the-clock data in an attempt to help answer the IR feasibility question. The global landmine crisis is one of the most pervasive problems facing the world today. It is estimated that there are between 60 and 70 million landmines in the ground in 70 countries. The widespread employment of landmines threatens to neutralize an army's high technical advantages in firepower and mobility; and to degrade humanitarian demining efforts. Landmines maim or kill approximately 26,000 civilians every year, including 10,000 children. The peoples of these largely developing countries that rely on the land for their food and livelihood are affected by the presence of mines in agricultural fields, which renders large tracts of fertile soil unusable. A successful IR sensors approach to mine detection would be applicable across all the platforms proposed for both military and humanitarian demining: airborne, vehicular, and man-portable. In every application the IR could dramatically increase the speed and safety of demining. For man-portable, insertion into the DoD Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) as part of the scheduled Pre-Planned Product Improvement (P3I) would make thousands of IR sensor units available for buried mine detection to the US Army. The total worldwide IR system sales for demining could approach 60,000 units (as replacements for the extant metal detectors).

METROLASER, INC.
18010 Skypark Circle, Suite 100
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Amit Lal
ARMY 01-088      Selected for Award
Title:Forward Looking Mine Detection with Laser Doppler Vibrometers
Abstract:The purpose of this work is to develop a system strategy to find buried landmines at distances greater than 5 meters and to demonstrate the feasibility of this system with laboratory experiments. We propose to investigate forward-looking and remote sensing landmine detection techniques based on acoustic and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) techniques. During the first half of the Phase I effort we will analyze and evaluate several strategies of probing the ground velocity with the LDV system. During the second half, we will conduct laboratory experiments to substantiate the results of the analyses. The research will provide inspectors with a powerful tool for safely detecting the presence of landmines. These concepts also have wide application in the area of non-destructive inspection for the automotive and aerospace industries

BCL COMPUTERS
990 Linden Dr., Suite 203
Santa Clara, CA 95050
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 557-2080
Mr. Hassan Alam
ARMY 01-089      Selected for Award
Title:Warrior-Centered Knowledge Management
Abstract:BCL proposes to make any electronic document of any format universally accessible to the Mobile Warrior from any electronic device, including handheld Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) using wireless connections. This forms the backbone of a warrior-centered knowledge management system where a mobile warrior can access any information from either proprietary document repositories or from the World Wide Web (WWW). BCL's proposed scheme uses it's proprietary document conversion techniques to build a unique repository of documents where documents of various formats are not only stored in their original format, they are converted to HTML format as well, keeping the layout and information intact. When accessing these documents using a wireless PDA, the HTML documents are summarized using BCL's proprietary document summarization techniques. This summarization produces a Table of Content (TOC) for each page of the document. Depending on interest and relevancy, additional details about the entries in the TOC can be accessed. So depending on whether the documents are accessed via standard computers or PDAs, the documents are either sent as is, as a HTML document or as a summary. The system can also be used for accessing the WWW directly and in this case, each web page is summarized and the summary sent to the PDA. Commercial Applications: [1] Wireless Carriers can package our solution to offer efficient mobile web browsing. [2] Content Providers can include our system to make the content available on an anywhere, anytime, anyway basis. [3] System Integrators deploy our system as in intermediary stage for web access. They can use the toolkit to adapt an existing site in the best way they chose to represent. The toolkit will provide all the functionalities to produce wirelessly accessible websites using a graphical user-friendly tool set. [4] If BCL decides to host the service; end-users can directly subscribe to our system [5] A mobile workforce has to have adequate access to an information bank (IB). IB might provide price points, maintenance instructions or contact details and boost productivity. [6] The output of our system will be adapted to suit specific needs for specific cases. In this case, BCL will undertake research to produce a toolkit to allow customization. Military Applications: With the proliferation of the mobile warrior, there is need for the battlefield soldier to access information from anywhere in the battle filed. The proposed system will allow such access to documents.

SEMANDEX NETWORKS, INC.
201 Washington Road
Princeton, NJ 08543
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 720-4913
Dr. Maximilian Ott
ARMY 01-089      Selected for Award
Title:Warrior-Centered Knowledge Management
Abstract:Semandex Networks is developing an XML Content Routing System, called XML-CRS, that turns data into information by knowing who can make use of it and delivering it securely in real-time. XML-CRS is a network software platform for rapid deployment of real-time content delivery and semantic information services. Semandex's XML-CRS product consists of overlay semantic routers that serve as the network infrastructure, and related API's and middleware for application development. In this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I program, Semandex proposes to develop a prototype warrior-centric application (content-driven instant messaging, CIM) that will significantly enhance warrior effectiveness in battle. Broader application of the technology for a more complete warrior-centric knowledge management system will be considered in future phases of the program. XML-CRS is a dual-use technology that has immediate applications in both military and commercial sectors. The semantic routing network infrastructure we are developing permits development of a variety of applications in which time-critical data must be delivered to individuals or devices who need that information. There are needs for real-time content delivery in various vertical markets including financial, manufacturing, petroleum and corporate enterprise. In all these segments, there is a mass of data being generated but too little information arrives at the right place at the right time. The XML-CRS system has broad applicability to all the market segments mentioned above (in addition to government and military ones) since the product is architected as a generic platform that can be customized by adding middleware and application modules customized to specific needs. Current applications we are targeting include: - Real-time information services in the financial sector - Supply chain management in the manufacturing sector - Collaboration tools for the services and consulting sector - Sensor networks in remote monitoring and control applications (e.g. energy companies) In the long run, our goal is to make Semandex's XML routing a defacto networking standard which would have a mass horizontal market in the data networks and telecom equipment area.

INFRARED COMPONENTS CORP.
2306 Bleecker Street
Utica, NY 13501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-5020
Mr. Jonathan Knauth
ARMY 01-090      Selected for Award
Title:Thin Film Resistive Bolometer Semiconductor Materials Development for Uncooled Applications
Abstract:Amorphous Silicon Microbolometers show great promise as a low cost, high performance thermal imaging technology. Their commercial effectiveness can be limited by the time required to attain long term resistance stability. This SBIR is intended to develop a better understanding of the effects of processing on resistivity metastability over time. Realization of a low cost, high performance microbolometer based upon amorphous silicon will be an important factor in establishing broad applications for thermal imaging technology in a variety of market applications. Potential commercial applications of the technology include firefighting, commercial vehicle navigation aides, medical sensing, surveillance and avionics markets.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 403-9679
Dr. Russell Hollingsworth
ARMY 01-090      Selected for Award
Title:Semiconductor Microbolometer Room Temperature Infrared Detectors
Abstract:ITN Energy Systems, Inc. proposes the development of microbolometer room temperature infrared detectors using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) growth of silicon or silicon germanium alloys. This Phase I contract will see the demonstration of PECVD deposited semiconductors with improved properties for microbolometer applications, especially reduced 1/f noise. Phase I will involve a parametric study of process conditions that yield a wide range of silicon film properties ranging from amorphous to microcrystalline. Additional studies will examine silicon germanium alloys. Silicon micromachining techniques will be used in Phase II to produce sensor elements on an air bridge to enhance the sensitivity. The major goal of the proposed work is the development of room temperature detector arrays for the 3-5 and 8-12 micron wavelength bands. Affordable room temperature infrared detector arrays will have wide applicability in military night vision systems, as well as enabling wide spread civilian applications such as automotive night driving aids, security monitoring, and fire fighting.

ATEC, INC.
Myers Building, Suite 4107, 5000 College Avenue
College Park, MD 20742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 403-1744
Dr. John Lawler
ARMY 01-091      Selected for Award
Title:An Improved Heat Exchanger and An Oil Separator For CO2 Heat Pumps
Abstract:The U.S. military's Environmental Control Units (ECUs) predominantly operate with halogen-containing refrigerants (CFCs or HCFCs). Since many of these units are nearing the end of their useful lives, an opportunity exits to develop more efficient, cost effective, and easily supportable systems that use natural refrigerants such as CO2. While CO2 systems possess advantages over conventional systems, they also present technical challenges that need to be solved before their wide use in military and commercial applications. Advanced Thermal and Environmental Concepts (ATEC), Inc. in collaboration with ThermaSys Inc. and the University of Maryland propose to develop highly effective oil free heat exchangers that will boost the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of CO2 systems. The proposed effort will consist of two tasks. The first task involves development of a novel, inexpensive, controllable (on-line/on-demand) oil separation unit for separation of oil from CO2. The second task will involve development of innovative micro channel heat exchangers using passive or active heat transfer enhancement techniques. The results of this research will enable the design of cost effective, oil-free heat exchangers that are lighter in weight and smaller in size than the state-of-the-art heat exchangers. Development of high efficiency, oil-free micro channel heat exchangers can substantially boost the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of CO2 systems, increasing its competitive advantage over conventional systems. The results of this research will enable the design of oil-free, cost effective high performance heat exchangers that are lighter in weight and smaller in size than the state-of-the-art heat exchangers. Smaller and lighter-weight heat exchangers not only can benefit the CO2 ECUs substantially, but also are critically needed for various other military and commercial applications, such as the Navy's Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV), the Army's M1 battle tank, and various commercial thermal management systems including their use in automotive, refrigeration/HVAC, process, and electronic cooling applications.

WHITEMOSS, INC.
1912 Greenbrier Ave.
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 390-1859
Dr. Rodney D. Hugelman
ARMY 01-091      Selected for Award
Title:Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Reversible Heat Pump System
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to design, model and demonstrate the feasibility of, a reversible CO2 heat pump system, including an advanced compressor design, which meets military requirements for a 3-ton capacity Environmental Control Unit. The CO2 system will utilize state-of-the-art system components and computer modeling plus a novel compressor, capable of both variable displacement and compression ratio, to operate more efficiently and provide a wider range of operating conditions for heating and cooling than possible with existing HCFC systems, with HFC systems of the future or with current experimental CO2 systems. Successful completion of Phase I will permit design, fabrication and testing of working component and system prototypes in Phase II. Commercial partners will be involved in the project from the beginning and have the capability and interest in producing commercial units for the military and adapting the system for consumer and industrial markets. Successful introduction of CO2 refrigerants into commercial heat pumps is expected to increase the range of operating conditions over which heat pumps will operate, greatly reduce life-cycle costs of such units and eliminate the environmental burden associated with synthetic refrigerants.

CUSTOM MANUFACTURING & ENGINEERING, INC.
2904 44th Avenue North
St. Petersburg, FL 33714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 548-0522
Mr. Scott Eiler
ARMY 01-092      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Milli-Meter Wave Sensor for Multi-Function Intelligence
Abstract:The purpose of this effort is to develop an unattended man-portable or light-mobile RF sensor system to provide ground forces with the capability to detect, intercept, identify, precision locate, and develop targets of both threat voice and digital communications and non-communications in the millimeter wave frequency radio spectrum. The system will be designed with a wideband scanning capability in frequencies from 20 to 90 GHz. The proliferation of MMW and digital communications and radar systems changes the threats the SIGINT systems must face now and in the future. The rapid development of new technologies requires open systems architecture, adaptable to change. The development of this RF sensor will provide a plug-n-play sensor capability for a MMW SIGINT manpack sensor suitable for SOF via connectivity and compatibility with Silent Warrior/MIRSS. During the Option, CME will develop a system design concept suitable for Prophet Block IV Ground integration and capitalize on electronic mapping, target indicator, GUI situational awareness or other capabilities already developed as part of the lower frequency SIGINT system integration. This MMW SIGINT system will provide the warfighter with a new robust capability to "own the electronic spectrum" and dominate his battle space. Our modular SIGINT system approach will provide Army and SOF with a gapfiller technology for SIGINT/DF in the millimeter wave spectrum. The sensor will significantly enhance the application of electronic warfare support (ES) for intelligence purposes. Commercialization/transition opportunities include Silent Warrior, Prophet Block IV, and FCS technology development.

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 930-2220
Dr. David Schaafsma
ARMY 01-092      Selected for Award
Title:Fiberoptic/Electro-optic antenna arrays with wide tuning range (PR01-486)
Abstract:We propose to research, design, and develop electric field sensing and signal processing techniques based on our unique all-fiber approach to RF photonics. Previous developments in optical modulator technology (110 GHz, 106 dB electrical SNR, V ~ 8 V) will be applied to making all-fiber receiver antennas and to upgrading our optical millimeter wave synthesis technology (4-60 GHz, 10 ms setting time, 20 Hz linewidth) for use in carrier frequency and signal generation for transmit antennas. Compared with conventional RF photonics using glass or crystalline integrated optic materials, these devices have the potential for much lower excess loss, better optical performance, better power handling, and much lower cost. These systems by themselves already have a large number of commercial and military applications - both in RF photonics and telecommunications.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Narasimha Prasad
ARMY 01-093      Selected for Award
Title:Laser Communication System with Spatial Tracking for Moving Platforms
Abstract:Coherent Technologies Inc. (CTI) proposes to develop a laser communication system (LCS) coupled with a high-speed pointing and tracking scheme for greater than 1 Gb/s data rate applications in a battlefield environment. The LCS will provide eyesafe operation with an engagement range up to 5 km between two moving platforms. The pointing and tracking unit will be designed to reduce the probability of data link breakdown due to traveling on a rough terrain. The approach will capitalize upon innovative scanner designs developed by CTI for military laser radar systems and the advancing scanning mirror technologies such as Micro-Opto-Electrical-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS). The baseline architecture uses a 1.5-mm transmitter optimally coupled to a micro-mirror assembly. Three potential configurations for tracking in a highly dynamic environment are envisaged. System-level performance analyses will assess the cost effectiveness and field worthiness of competing optical source technologies besides laser diodes. The Phase I effort will, (1) generate system level signal-to-noise ratio assessments for 1.5 micron wavelength data link, (2) establish closed-loop pointing and tracking scheme with link broadcast capability providing maximum covertness, and (3) develop a proof-of-principle prototype and execute risk reduction measurements to ensure technical and cost feasibility for field-worthy hardware implementation in Phase II. Potential applications include ground-to-ground, ground-to-air, sea-to-air mobile communication systems for video broadcast, telecommunication applications, and other data intensive applications that do not rely on two fixed locations. The proposed system is anticipated to enhance troop communications and battlefield awareness and support search and rescue operations.

ANCORE CORP.
2950 Patrick Henry Drive
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 961-9708
Dr. Douglas R. Brown
ARMY 01-094      Selected for Award
Title:Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) Based Mine Detection System - Feasibility Study
Abstract:Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) is a non-intrusive detection technique that can specifically detect landmines by measuring the high nitrogen density in the explosives. This technique is well suited for a confirmatory sensor that can work in conjunction with existing anomaly mine detection sensors, which have high false alarm rates. The proposed Phase 1 program will use an electronic neutron generator (ENG) in an experimental and engineering trade-off study to determine the best sensors for the mine detection problem. The measure of performance will be the signal-to-noise level obtainable within the time budget allotted for a confirmatory sensor that is derived from the overall US Army goals for mine clearing. High-efficiency and medium-resolution sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillators, and lower-efficiency and high-resolution hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) solid-state detectors will be compared. Measurements will be made using a laboratory "sandbox" with buried (simulated) mines of different sizes and a modified TNA measurement system. From the data taken, an extrapolation of the performance (Probability of Detection (PD)/Probability of False Alarm (PFA)) for a field system will be made. The results will be documented in a final report. If the feasibility study is successful, a Phase 2 program to build and field-test a prototype, will be proposed. The TNA based mine detection sensor has a unique ability to detect the presence of all high explosives used in present day mines. It can be used as a confirmatory sensor in conjunction with presently used primary sensors that are based on non-specific, anomaly detection. Successful demonstration of its feasibility in the Phase 1 program should lead to a Phase 2 program to build and test a field prototype. Thereafter, if adopted by the US Army, production models will be engineered to meet mission requirements. The technology has application to humanitarian demining, and UXO detection and confirmation, along with explosive detection for other security applications.

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd., Suite 300
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-0990
Dr. G. Minot Clements
ARMY 01-094      Selected for Award
Title:Associated Particle Imaging Mine Detection System
Abstract:Dynamics Technology, Inc. (DTI) and the Dept. of Energy, Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) will develop a vehicle mounted, explosives specific, mine detection system based on Associated Particle Imaging (API) technology, which can be used as a high performance confirmatory sensor with other sensors, and potentially as a stand-alone sensor for some applications. The system builds on a decade of research by STL and DTI (including explosives identification demonstration), current government-sponsored R&D for similar API applications, and key progress in commercial components that supports rugged cost-effective systems development. Associated particle imaging is a neutron imaging technique that is particularly well-suited to mine detection/identification because of its unique capability to provide: (1) high resolution 3-D imagery to greatly enhance clutter suppression and improve material identification; and (2) maximum penetration and SNR from high energy neutrons. In Phase I, DTI and STL will perform laboratory measurements and analysis to demonstrate explosive-specific detection capability at the scales of interest in representative clutter, and we will characterize key performance figures of merit needed to assess tactical utility and establish Phase II prototype development requirements. In Phase II, we will develop and demonstrate a prototype mine detection sensor. The proposed effort will resolve a current need to reduce the large false alarm rate associated with existing wide-area search sensors. In particular, the proposed API mine detection/identification system will provide a combination of penetration, spatial resolution, and material identification unmatched by other approaches. Operationally, it will provide a means for rapidly and unambiguously identifying explosives with a high Pd and low FAR.

HIENERGY MICRODEVICES
10 Mauchly Drive
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 727-3389
Dr. Bogdan C. Maglich
ARMY 01-094      Selected for Award
Title:SuperSensor
Abstract: Abstract not available...

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 941-0495
Dr. William Schwarz
ARMY 01-094      Selected for Award
Title:Explosive-Specific Mine Detection Using Nuclear Technologies for Countermine Applications
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a real-time nuclear detection system for explosives in mines. Mounted on a vehicular platform, this mine detection sensor will be capable of supporting tactical countermine operations as a confirmatory or even primary sensor system. The advanced mine detection technique will be based on an advantageous combination of pulsed thermal neutron analysis (PTNA) and fast neutron analysis (FNA) to detect explosive-specific signatures in mines with high sensitivity and low background in real time. The development of this sensor system will employ high-resolution gamma-ray detectors and result in performance characteristics providing low false-alarm rate. In Phase I, we will demonstrate a proof-of-concept system in the laboratory, optimize the sensor operating parameters under various conditions, and determine the most suitable design configuration for the Phase II prototype. The goal for the subsequent Phase II will be to build the prototype sensor system and demonstrate its performance in field tests. Potential commercial uses of this real-time nuclear sensor technology include the improved detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents at borders, in airports, and for arms control treaty verification. Real-time screening for smuggled drugs in law enforcement operations is another potential application with a commercial market.

MTL SYSTEMS, INC.
3481 Dayton-Xenia Rd.
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-3111
Mr. R.K. Hill
ARMY 01-095      Selected for Award
Title:Position Displacement Sensor
Abstract:MTL Systems, Inc. presents a unique and commercially-viable solution for a position displacement sensor. Our approach employs an innovative, new methodology which processes signals from inexpensive and rugged monochrome video cameras, and produces accurate measures of relative motion, location, and object velocity. The technique uses fast, accurate image characterization algorithms MTL has recently developed for automatic image registration and change detection, under a National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) project. The Phase I Objectives are (1) Define Requirements, to lay the groundwork for testing feasibility and to produce a preliminary requirements specification, (2) Implement, Test, and Assess position displacement sensor concepts, to evaluate, and demonstrate a prototype, and to determine functional feasibility, (3) Produce a Preliminary Design, to refine and supplement the prototype to become a preliminary design for Phase II, and (4) Assess Commercialization Potential, to determine market potential, and produce a preliminary commercialization (product) plan. The Phase I results will be (a) experimental test and analysis results forming the feasibility assessment, (b) a Phase II preliminary design, (c) an initial product plan, and (d) a prototype demonstration, to explicitly demonstrate feasibility to the Army. The ability to automatically and accurately track location, motion, and speed in a surrounding environment, independent of the particular environment features, is of great importance to government and commercial enterprises alike. Human and vehicular navigation systems can facilitate many commercial and recreational endeavors, as well as military operations. A significant opportunity is a completely passive, undetectable vehicle speed detector. which could replace expensive radar or laser speed detectors with a low-cost alternative.

TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
1313 A North Vinton Road
Anthony, TX 79821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(915) 886-2478
Mr. William Oseles
ARMY 01-096      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Remote Battlefield Surveillance System (REMBASS) - AN/PPS-5D Man Machine Interface
Abstract:The objective in Phase I will be to develop a Universal Ground Surveillance Controller (UGSC) that is in compliance with the JTA Appendix F, and the Weapon System Technical Architecture Working Group guidance. The UGSC will be fully integrated with FBCB2 to be designed such that the integration of additonal sensor suites can be performed in a cost effective and timely manner. The development of the UGSC will be based upon TSI's existing controller architecture, expended to meet UGSC specific requirements, and will leverage existing components and other ongoing programs. Military use of the application could signficantly enhance mission performance by co-locating surveillance tasks, reducing the "footprint" in the TOC, by providing a consistent "look and feel" in a control station, reduce training requiremnts, provide a system easier to upgrade and add capabilities to. Commercial application of the effort would provide a baseline system for the integration of multiple sensor suite combined with the ability to fuse information from multiple sources that will enhance situational awareness and confidence of the "correctness" of the displayed data.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Freddie Lin
ARMY 01-097      Selected for Award
Title:StarWebT Optical Network Infrastructure
Abstract:The Army needs a new generation of optical network architecture, and its associated technologies, to support its future tactical network applications. This new optical network architecture has to accommodate various transmission media such as copper (twisted pairs or coaxial cables), RF/microwave, free space optical transmission, and fiber optic networks. To address these requirements, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) has been developing a patented StarWebTM optical networking architecture and its associated patented technologies. In this project, BCI proposes to develop this StarWebTM technology specifically for the Army's tactical network applications and environment. The StarWebTM creates a unified, low cost, physical optical network infrastructure that seamlessly combines campus intranet, regional access, and metropolitan backbone networks as one single integrated network for a wide variety of QoS (quality of service) multimedia data communication, processing, and service applications. In addition, the StarWebTM provides clear-channel connectivity for diverse TDM based voice and IP based data traffic, military based tactical radio equipment, as well as native, real-time, analog and digital audio/video delivery. The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate the performance and potential of the proposed StarWebTM technology for the Army's tactical network applications. In addition to the Army's tactical network applications, this technology is also applicable to many military real time sensor data collection/processing operations, Global Grid, and mission critical C3I network applications. The proposed technology is applicable to any commercial network applications including, but not limited to, metropolitan optical access networks, fiber-to-the-business networks, digital audio/video entertainment/broadcast networks, integrated enterprise campus networks, videoconferencing, real time video surveillance, multimedia data storage/distribution, and mission critical commerce transaction.

DIGITAL OPTICS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
500 Old West Road
Randolph, MA 02368
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 344-5447
Dr. Selim M. Shahriar
ARMY 01-097      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra High Channel Capacity Optical Network Utilizing Holographic Wave Division Multiplexing Technology
Abstract:The proposed program is for the design of a comprehensive optical networking architecture, network topology, software and holographic hardware modules that can be implemented to interconnect and integrate the diverse communications networks serving the U.S. Army's Tactical operations and designated supporting DOD organizations and to develop high capacity Dense Wave Division Multiplexing system that will be the basic component of the design. We propose to develop a multi-gigabit networking architecture that will be based on optical technology utilizing holographic super dense wave division multiplexing that can be applied to fiber based cable systems as well as over-the-air optical links. We will model a high optical channel DWDM system that utilizes three cascaded stages, populated with 30 channels. Capabilities based on optical component research of holographic beam combining technologies. The design will focus on the integration of diverse communications systems that have been designed for applications that are specific to the tactical missions of the Army, as well as commercial or modified commercial systems that have been built to Army specifications. The system will also enable the Army to smoothly move from circuit based switched networks to packet based voice and data networks. The proposed high bandwidth optical network provides the ability to communicate between diverse systems at data rates not now available from commercial sources. The holographic based DWDM systems allow the development of several thousand channels of several gigabits per second each. The research will result in improving commercial networks to provide interactive video, gigabit Internet and in-the-home video conferencing.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd
Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-3940
Dr. Yibin Xue
ARMY 01-098      Selected for Award
Title:MicroTesting System for Thermal-Mechanical Properties and Interfacial Strength of Micron-Plus Scale Components in Infrared Devices
Abstract:MicroCoating Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes to develop a micro-thermal-mechanical testing system to characterize the structural integrity of components in infrared imaging detectors. Properties including thin film elastic modulus and interfacial fracture toughness between the thin film and substrate will be measured with the proposed new micron scale testing system (MicroTester). In this MicroTester, loading is implemented on inch-scale specimens and deformations are measured on the regions of interests (ROI) of a micron-plus scale, which ensures high precision in loading control and high accuracy in deformation measurement. Local deformation analysis on ROI is conducted with the application of the image analysis program in microDAC, a deformation measurement method based on correlation image processing algorithm. The key feature of the MicroTester is that it enables direct observation and analysis at the evolutions of nano-scale irregular defects. This will facilitate the fundamental understanding of the mechanism of debonding, a major failure state of infrared detectors. With the introduction of Atomic Force Microscope to evaluate the vertical displacement, the MicroTester can be used to monitor the defect evolution process from the top-view of the wafer, which makes it possible to evaluate the mechanical reliability of the infrared detectors. The Phase I research will demonstrate the design and fabrication of the MicroTester. Interfacial toughness of thin film and substrate structure in infrared detectors and the interfacial crack resistant curve will be evaluated. A loading stage and loading control program, and a failure analysis program for infrared detectors will be delivered. The MicroTester is designed to study the interfacial toughness of components in infrared detectors to fulfill the demand of miniaturization on devices. As the miniaturization of devices progress in electronic and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), more and more components fail by irregular defects. Hence the reliability assurance will be in huge demand. In general, this MicroTester can be modified to study most of the components composed of thin film layers in electronic and optical devices and MEMS. This MicroTester will be the quality-insurance for next generation devices.

RESEARCH NETWORK, INC.
361 Timber Way E
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 354-7501
Mr. James A Saffold
ARMY 01-099      Selected for Award
Title:Photogrammetric Camera For Rapid Prototyping
Abstract:This proposal describes an Electromagnetically-Accurate Photogrammetric Camera for assimilation of structural object data from a variety of sources. The system consists of a multi-spectral data capture unit, novel artificial intelligence (AI) and sensor/data fusion processes for object geometry and materials characterization, and a standard interface for 3-D model file downloads. The sensors addressed include acoustic, seismic, radar, ladar, video, and electro-optical. This sensor technology is based on low-cost designs which are in use in today's markets for short range application. Primary anticipated benefits include: 1) minimization of development cycle and product improvement risks for commercial and defense surveillance systems. Alternate benefits include 1) Rapid Model Prototyping, 2) personnel monitoring, 3) site surveillance, 4) Target Identification, 5) Non-LOS detection, and 6) Remote sensing.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8809 Sudley Road, Suite 101
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Mr. Seibert Murphy
ARMY 01-100      Selected for Award
Title:Acoustic Canopy MASINT System (ACMS)
Abstract:Increasing performance of signal processing capabilities, sensors, communications links, and unmanned autonomous aircraft (UAVs) make possible a long range, highly accurate, expendable sensor field which allows precision targeting without risk of personnel loss.Acoustic detection in Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) has relied on expendable directional sensors since the 1950's. This is a DIFAR (Directional Frequency Analysis and Recording ) sensor, comprises omnidirectional and orthogonal cosine acoustic sense elements. This unit is effectively a point array sensor and capable of unambiguous bearing. Progeny Systems proposes to use its unique expertise in DIFAR sensors, digital communications, and algorithms adapted from the ASW community to enhance the probability of detection, localization and classification of targets using acoustic sensors deployed in the tree canopy. This Phase I one study will investigate technologies and provide candidate solutions that address the needs of ACMS. The Phase I Option will present methods to develop a prototype proof of concepts platform. Progeny Systems is a systems integrator for the Submarine Advanced Processing Builds (APB) and the Advanced Undersea Warfare Concepts (AUSWC) that apply across all US Navy participating USW platforms. As such we anticipate to leverage expertise in systems analysis and integration with knowledge gained under this effort to develop more effective reconnaissance and monitoring systems for the joint battlefield commander and participants. Additionally Progeny will apply applicable knowledge gained under this effort to developing solutions for commercial use of spaced microphones such as in recording and sound reinforcement systems.

SENTECH, INC.
38 Montvale Ave, Suite G-80
Stoneham, MA 02180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 279-9871
Dr. George P Succi
ARMY 01-100      Selected for Award
Title:Acoustic Canopy MASINT System (ACMS)
Abstract:We propose to develop a state of the art vehicle and personnel location and tracking system for operation in densely forested terrain without exposing ground troops to compromise. This goal will be accomplished with an array of miniature acoustic sensors dispersed from an unmanned aerial vehicle, which hang from the trees and use power generated from solar cell arrays embedded in the retarding parachutes to detect, classify, track and transmit this information to command centers. The objective is to develop criteria for design of a solar charging parachute, and secondarily to adapt SenTech's existing 40 mm diameter acoustic-seismic transducer to this application. This sensor is fired from a standard 40 mm grenade launcher on a ballistic trajectory of hundreds of yards, extends microphones on outrigger legs, and operates after hard impact with the ground. This sensor assembly consists of a 5 element microphone array, magnetic heading module, radio transmitter, and embedded processor employing algorithms that estimate the bearing and angular rate of moving targets as well as classifying the target type based on acoustic spectra or seismic signal characteristics. The sensor detects vehicles and personnel. Any area that must be monitored for foot and vehicle traffic benefits from use of this sensor. Possible applications include surveillance of airports and border surveillance.

STAR-H CORP.
1853 William Penn Way, PO Box 10368
Lancaster, PA 17605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 394-1981
Mr. G. Yale Eastman
ARMY 01-101      Selected for Award
Title:Low Profile Near Vertical Incident Skywave (NVIS) High Frequency (HF) Vehicle Antenna
Abstract:STAR-H proposes to develop for the Army an antenna with a radiation pattern uniquely suited for NVIS operation. The proposed program consists of three tasks: Survey of Potential Antenna Designs, Modeling of Candidate Antenna Geometries and Reporting. A specific, novel antenna concept is described, which has the potential to meet the Army's requirements. As a result of pre-proposal modeling, there is a high degree of assurance that the Army's NVIS requirements can be met with a practical, highly efficient antenna. Non-military applications may include communications with helicopters and airplanes during forest fire fighting and a range of military and naval uses.

NANOSCIENCES CORP.
115 Hurley Road, Bldg. #3
Oxford, CT 06478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 267-4440
Dr. Charles P. Beetz
ARMY 01-102      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Advanced Technologies for Fabrication of Microchannel Plates (MCPs)
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project aims to develop novel micromachined/microfabricated (mf) silicon based microchannel plate electron amplifiers for use in image intensification. The proposed channel plate structures are made feasible by NanoSciences high rate silicon etching process which enables a cost effective approach. Advances in MCP technology based on silicon micromachining techniques offer the opportunity for previously unreachable performance in image intensification applications, to the extent that a new generation of devices would be spawned. These performance improvements would be under all light conditions with improved visual fidelity (MTF), as well as bright light conditions by halo mitigation and at low light conditions by improvement in SNR. Devices based on this technology such as NVG, ICCD, and other sensors based on electron amplification would benefit. The Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of the microfabricated Si-mf-MCP. Phase II program will focus on fabrication, test and evaluation of prototype Si-mf-MCP?s in Gen 4 intensifiers. The major commercial applications for these new Si-mf-MCP?s will be in lower cost image intensifiers for law enforcement, security applications, visual aids for night blindness as well as biomedical instrumentation for imaging applications such as gene sequencing, protein analysis, and medical instrumentation such as replacements for photomultiplier tubes in gamma cameras.

AUTOMOTIVE RESOURCES, INC.
1926 Industrial Dr.
Sandpoint, ID 83864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 265-2723
Mr. Mark A. Cherry
ARMY 01-103      Selected for Award
Title:1 kW Man-portable Hybrid-Electric Power System using Catalytic Fuel Ignition Technology
Abstract:Work is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of a catalytic ignition system that can be retrofitted to a light-weight, silent-running, 1 kW generator, allowing it to be satisfactorily operated on heavy fuels such as diesel and JP-8. Genset modifications will be closely allied to catalytic igniter technology pioneered by Automotive Resources Incorporated that enables alternative fuel combustion in other small engine, vehicle, and aviation systems. The resulting product will be tested for acceptable fuel economy and noise emissions in military applications. Performance testing will include baseline testing with a 1 kW genset prior to engine conversion. A Phase I option is included to address issues of cold-start, long-term durability, and mass production. Both the military and private sector commercial market for lightweight heavy fuel engines is large and immediate. Military applications, both domestic and foreign, literally cover the entire spectrum of small engine applications. There exists a tremendous opportunity overseas for inexpensive diesel burning engines. There is a price difference paradox between diesel and gasoline fuel versus diesel and piston engines. While diesel fuel is less priced than gasoline, a diesel engine is typically higher priced as compared to a gasoline engine. The application of the SmartPlug, ignition system in a lightweight heavy fuel engine would solve this dilemma, providing an inexpensive engine using a lower priced and readily available fuel. In addition, the construction industry would benefit greatly from many of the advantages of a lightweight heavy fuel engine. This would be especially when working out in the field away from a readily available electrical power source. Also, there is a comercial market for multi-fueled small gensets in industries like leisure boating, hunting and fishing, emergency response centers, etc.

EDTEK, INC.
7082 S 220th street
kent, WA 98032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 395-8084
Mr. Mark D. Morgan
ARMY 01-103      Selected for Award
Title:1 kW Man-portable Hybrid-Electric Power System using Catalytic Fuel Ignition Technology
Abstract:EDTEK proposes a program to develop and validate a conceptual design for a prototype, man-portable, 1 kW multi-fuel thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator suitable for battlefield use. This program addresses both the problems of weight reduction to allow the generator to be man-portable and low thermal and RFI/EFI signatures reducing the possibility of field detection. The proposed TPV technology uses low-bandgap photovoltaic cells to convert radiant energy from relatively low temperatures heat sources to electricity. The EDTEK TPV approach uses a unique infrared bandpass filter to conserve energy in he system and allows fuel-to-electric effieiencies of >15% to be attained. The TPV generator weight can also be substantially lower than conventional generators. In 2000 EDTEK demonstated to the DARPA and U.S. Army CECOM a testbed diesel fueled TPV generator designed to produce 500W of electricity. The unoptimized testbed unit weighed 27 lbs before packaging. Based on the testbed results it appears that a 1 kW unit weighing less than 50 lbs can easily be achieved. With the successful implementation of the proposed improvements, a highly portable, ultra-lightweight 1 kW generator weighing about 20 lbs is feasible at a cost low enough to compete in commercial markets. The result of the proposed effort will be the conceptual design for a man-portable, lightweight, low detection, 1 kW generator whose cost will be competitive in commercial markets. This generator will have applications in military field operations, commercial and institutional power requirements, home and remote power needs, and power for recreational vehicles (land and marine).

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
3085 Woodman Drive, Suite 200
Dayton, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 299-5999
Dr. Ronald G. Riechers, Ph.D.
ARMY 01-104      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor and Payload Evaluation Process
Abstract:Recent developments have led the services to consider the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and/or unmanned ground systems(UGS) to perform tasks that previously performed by military personnel. Reductions in force levels have made it necessary to keep available forces, "out of harm's way" and the unmanned vehicle or unattended sensor offers the solution. Recent advances in technology have permitted size, weight, cost and volume reductions on a scale that makes the use of these devices practical. Payload assessment for cost effectiveness is critical since the likely outcome of using these devices is their ultimate destruction after relaying the collected information. Spectra Research, Inc. and Veridian Engineering propose to leverage the results of an ongoing study funded by DARPA to provide a payload analysis capability to the U.S. Army. The effort will provide an assessment of the requirements for such payloads, the threat to them, and development of a set of analytical tools to perform the trade studies needed to determine the cost effectiveness, reliability, and feasibility of a given payload. The benefit to military analysts is clear, the most effective payload for the mission. An "engineering toolbox" containing the necessary scripts to perform such trades clearly offers the ability to review many scenarios and understand the impact of a particular parameter on the outcome of a mission. An obvious commercial application is in the US Forest Service for use in detection of and fighting of forest fires. The payload will be significantly simpler than that for military application, and the technology of employing unattended ground sensors for monitoring the forest conditions will prove useful.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Jordan C. Bonney
ARMY 01-105      Selected for Award
Title:PAHR: Power-aware Ad Hoc Routing for Microsensor Networks
Abstract:This proposal suggests an ad hoc routing algorithm that minimizes power consumption due to data transmission (and reception) of the individual nodes of a microsensor network. The PAHR algorithm borrows from the existing body of research into general-purpose ad hoc routing algorithms as well as special-purpose routing algorithms designed to extend battery-powered-network longevity. During the Phase I the PAHR algorithm will evolve from its current concept stage to a formal description, and modeling and simulation will be performed to validate the algorithm's utility. The PAHR algorithm has the potential to significantly extend the lifetime of any network whose nodes are battery powered but not particularly mobile. While remote-sensing applications are the most-obvious application, any ad hoc, battery-powered enviornment where the nodes are randomly placed once, but not moved, could benefit from the technology.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 642-3130
Ray O'Connell
ARMY 01-105      Selected for Award
Title:Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Sensor Networks
Abstract:The U.S. Army requires a novel protocol to route data in sensor networks for the Future Combat System (FCS). Current protocols, and those in development, are either suited for Ad Hoc networks or energy efficient systems but not both. Nova's proposed protocol will combine the features of a fully distributed Ad Hoc routing algorithm with the techniques found in finite energy communications systems. The result is a networking protocol that allows the Army to reliably deploy arrays of self-organizing sensor networks in an energy efficient manner in hostile environments, thereby meeting system mission life objectives.In this Phase I effort, the energy efficient Ad Hoc routing protocols and methods most applicable to the sensor network environment will be evaluated. The routing protocol models will be adapted to contain energy monitoring metrics, applicable sensor network traffic/mobility patterns, and a deployable system configuration description. The data published in the technical reports in Phase I will allow the selection of the routing methods to be put into practice in the implementation phase. Nova's prior experience in the development of wireless mobile Ad Hoc network devices and low power RF sensor nodes will be leveraged to guarantee a successful program. Deployable sensor arrays which collect information often in areas, which are hostile to humans, and connecting that information stream to the Internet is an expanding requirement that will be satisfied via Nova's routing solution. Applications involving detection of various hazardous conditions by air-deployed sensors would immediately benefit from the network protocol developed

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway, Suite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9551
Dr. Peter Sholander
ARMY 01-105      Selected for Award
Title:Energy Efficient Routing and Networking in DoD Sensor Networks
Abstract:The Army's Future Combat System (FCS) will include a distributed network-centric communications system that will link small-unit Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), robotic sensors, unattended ground-sensors, robotic "direct-fire" assets, robotic "indirect-fire" assets, and advanced C2-capable Troop carriers. FCS will allow U.S. soldiers to dominate a large battlespace while minimizing their causalities and collateral civilian damage. FCS will use remote unattended sensors for target identification, perimeter defense, and tele-operation of robotic fires vehicles in hostile environments. Since those sensors may be air-dropped, arm-launched or deployed via artillery, they must self organize into highly-adaptive ad hoc networks that can operate on self-contained power for up to 60 days. As such, this SBIR will focus on the development of a highly energy-efficient routing protocol that is applicable to sensor networks within FCS. However, SRC's Phase 1 effort will also consider energy-efficient networking techniques at other protocol layers such as the application and Media Access Control (MAC) layers. SRC's proposed effort will leverage our existing work on ad hoc routing for DARPA and Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) and our microsensor projects for the Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD). SRC's existing software for MANET routing and wireless networking has found extensive interest at DARPA, AFRL, the Army's Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM), the Special Operations Command (SOCOM), and the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). The additional technologies developed in Phase II and Phase III of this SBIR will target the energy-efficiency requirements of the Army's Future Combat System (FCS). However, those technologies can provide collateral benefits for other ongoing DoD projects such as DARPA's Airborne Communications Node (ACN), the Army's Multifunctional On-the-Move Secure Adaptive Integrated Communications (MOSAIC) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD), the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), and the Special Operations Command's (SOCOM's) Joint Threat Warning System (JTWS).

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. R. Daniel Ferguson
ARMY 01-106      Selected for Award
Title:Autonomous Extended Depth of Field for Imaging Sensors
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a closed loop focus control system based upon interactions of the human visual system with a novel NVD optical design. The common feature of existing auto-focus systems is that they depend directly in some way on some information contained in the scene being imaged. The proposed control system uses a key parameter needed to control focus which is totally independent of the visual scene, which renders it insensitive to background clutter. In Phase I, PSI proposes to use this visual property to extract focus control commands directly from the operator's eyes themselves to produce an accommodating night vision device (ANVD). With the needed focus range and speed, the proposed focus control approach becomes a simple electro-optical extension of the human visual fixation reflex, without compromising image quality or covert operation. This capability would constitute a revolutionary advance in the man-machine interface for defense NVD systems to bring any target to focus, all the operator need do is look at it. Compact, low-cost, sensor technology will be designed and demonstrated in the proposed Phase I Program to prove feasibility. The military and civilian applications of night vision systems represent a large market. The proposed focus control approach will significantly enhance performance of man-portable binocular devices, from aviator's heads up displays to hand-held and helmet-mounted NVDs, with minimal impact upon weight and power.

BELTRAN, INC.
1133 EAST 35TH STREET
BROOKLYN, NY 11210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(718) 377-0227
Dr. Alexander Tishin
ARMY 01-107      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Magnetic Metamaterials
Abstract:The essential problem that arises when developing hybrid excitation machines or alternators is the creation of advanced nanocomposite magnetic materials. The problem can be overcome by utilizing new nano-structured soft/permanent magnetic materials with the required magnetic, thermal and elastic properties. The real advance in this direction is the creation of new functional matrices and the use of novel principles for the fabrication of nano-sized incorporated elements. One of the possible ways to progress in this field is to utilize magnetic nano-particles in new matrices such as polyethylene and ceramics. The suitable properties of these materials, which would operate under such hazardous environmental conditions as high and low temperatures, mechanical shock, humidity, etc., as a result of the bonding or sintering of nano-particles will open up the possibility of using these materials as a part of the Army's hybrid excitation machines/alternators. The brittleness that limits the area of potential application of ceramics can be overcome by reducing the particle sizes to nano-meter levels. Beltran proposes to utilize magnetic materials in the form of nano-particles incorporated in thermostable polyethylene or ceramic matrices. The proposed concept should improve active control, increase the operating temperature and prevent aging. The main technical objectives of the Phase I effort are to develop a new approach to improve the magnetic, thermal, elastic and aging properties of permanent magnets. New methods of introducing nano-sized particles of magnetic materials into thermally stable matrices will be created. Advanced magnetic and thermal properties will be demonstrated utilizing prototypes of the magnetic material. The anticipated benefits are: The creation of a novel technology that provides rather large versatility (variations in chemical procedure, nano-particle control, tailored size control, narrow size distribution, variation in processing, sequential routes). The anticipated benefits of the high performance magnets will include: power density, efficiency, compactness, reduced complexity/higher reliability, reduced costs. Other possible benefits are: improved rotor system stability, lowering of total weight of ground and air/space platforms, new nano-scaled magnetic material; improved aging properties and minimal electrical loss; possibility to machine without cracking or breaking; possibility to use special coatings in order to prevent corrosion and improve durability; possibility to develop this technology approach for other technical needs; Potential commercial applications are the fabrication of, for example, magnet bearing systems, brushless dc motors and actuators, cordless tools for powerful robots, turbo-vacuum pumps, novel nano-particle-based magnetic materials for microelectronics, an artificial heart and magneto-electronics components. Potential DOD applications of improved permanent magnets are also ship propulsion motors 10-50 kHp, HEV wheel motors 50-500 Hp, UUV propulsion, torpedo propulsion, auxiliary motors, levitated trains, aircraft carrier catapult and arresting gear, magnetic bearings and magnetic refrigerators

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
12 Elizabeth Drive
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. Michael Koechlin
ARMY 01-108      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturized Multi-channel Tuners/Receivers for Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (TUAV) Applications
Abstract:Proposed here is a synthesizer for a wide bandwidth 0.02 to 40 GHz Receiver capable of converting the 40 GHz spectrum to baseband in one GHz increments. This novel architecture requires a minimum number of synthesized frequencies to accomplish the conversion. The architecture also minimizes internally generated spurious and spurious resulting from image band interfering signals. Two alternate synthesizer architectures will be evaluated as part of this phase one contract, direct and indirect. A selection will be made based on relative performance compared with requirements. The direct synthesizer approach offers the ultimate in speed and phase noise performance but comes at the expense of power consumption and size. The indirect approach compromises speed and noise performance for much smaller size and power consumption. Another factor, which will be investigated, is the best choice for the Master Oscillator. This is another area where power consumption, size and complexity can be traded for performance. Components developed on a Phase II follow on program would be various components for commercial and military synthesizer applications such as: Low Noise MMIC VCOs, Phase-Frequency Detectors, Phase Locked Loop ICs, Low noise Prescalers, Phase Locked Oscillators

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Michael E. Harrell
ARMY 01-108      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Channel, Wideband, 4-40 GHz Tuner for TUAV SIGINT in SiGe (9603)
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop a Multi-channel, wideband, 4-40 GHz tuner for TUAV SIGINT Payload in advanced, 210 GHz SiGe. The TUAV platform demands small size and low power consumption. IBM's 8T SiGe BiCMOS process has been developed around its recently demonstrated 210 GHz HBT. The 8T BiCMOS process enables the integration of the multi-channel receiver on a single, silicon chip at low cost and with low power consumption. Heretofore, 4-40 GHz circuitry required expensive, high-power, hybrid circuits comprised of discrete GaAs chips. Phase I will result in a preliminary design of a highly integrated, multi-channel 4-40 GHz Tuner. Under the option, one (or more), of the critical subcircuits will be conceptually designed in the 8T BiCMOS process to assess its performance. Key subcircuits will be built in Phase II leading to the development of the complete Tuner under Phase III. Cost, size and power will all be reduced by realizing the 4-40 GHz multi-channel Tuner in advanced SiGe BiCMOS technology in place of hybrid circuit built with GaAs chips. Commercial markets include broadband communications, satellite communications and broadband, wireless networks.

SHARED SPECTRUM CO.
8012 Birnam Wood Drive
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 761-2818
Dr. Mark McHenry
ARMY 01-108      Selected for Award
Title:A High Dynamic Range Tuner for Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (TUAV)
Abstract:Shared Spectrum Company and Synergy Microwave Company propose to design a low power, low cost tuner with very high dynamic range and low noise figure for small tactical UAV SIGINT applications. The focus of the project is the design of an innovative high intercept point mixer and a preamplifier with very low noise and high dynamic range. Both will cover the frequency range of HF to 6 GHz. The tuner will have a very high input third order intercept point and a low noise figure from HF to 6 GHz, that will provide an 85 dB spurious free dynamic range (10 MHz bandwidth), which is at least 10 dB better than any receiver in the world covering this frequency range. By using a modular down converter, the tuner's range will be extended to 18 GHz, but with reduced performance. The prime power requirements for a four-channel system will be approximately 60 W. Because the design will use high-volume design practices and highly integrated circuits, the tuner production cost will be low (< $20 k). The mixer and amplifier developed in this project will be widely applicable to commercial and military applications, such as cellular phone base stations, advanced multi-band transceivers, and the DoD's JTRS radio. During Phase I, extensive simulations using advanced non-linear simulation tools will be used to verify the tuner performance and the initial design layouts will be made. Assisting in this program is Dr. Ulrich Rohde, a world-renowned receiver designer and technical author. High-dynamic range, multi-band tuners are applicable to cellular base stations and would enable economical multi-band operation.

APPCOM, INC.
11315 Chestnut Ridge Ct.
Fort Wayne, IN 46814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(219) 625-5672
Dr. Jamshid Nazari
ARMY 01-109      Selected for Award
Title:Extended Range, All Weather, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) for Dismounted Applications
Abstract:Implementing a wireless LAN system for dismounted soldiers presents a number of problems that distinguish it from a commercial LAN system. Some of these unique, difficult problems include the lack of any in-place network support system, severe multi-path and fading conditions, and mobility requirements that need extended ranges of coverage. In addition to communication performance, the LAN units must be small, light weight, battery operated, and easily carried by the dismounted soldier. Perhaps the biggest challenge is getting adequate communication range in a severe channel environment. Although network relaying of data packets can solve this problem to some extent, it inherently relies on a density of nodes and/or the availability of access points. Neither of these conditions can be counted on in a tactical environment. Thus extending range point-to-point must be addressed. Range extension of a point-to-point link in a multi-path and fading environment can be achieved by adding diversity to the communication waveform. Current research in this area is focused on the use of antennas to obtain spatial diversity. Because of the mobility of the dismounted soldier, additional diversity techniques must be used in combination with the spatial diversity to achieve operational reliability. For this study we propose multiple antenna inputs in combination with a frequency hopping waveform to achieve viable range extension in a foliage environment. The range performance is maximized with respect to the operational environment by the adaptive selection of signal combining and forward error correction coding. In this proposal we outline a study to show the benefits of this approach. The communication waveform developed in this study will provide an adaptable solution to achieving range extension for a dismounted soldier LAN in a severe environment. The waveform design will make use of COTS circuits and facilitate a low cost solution. Potential commercial applications that could benefit from a LAN with extended point-to-point range include police, fire, and search and rescue.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Merrill D. Squiers
ARMY 01-109      Selected for Award
Title:An Instant Communications Network for Dismounted Applications
Abstract:In order to facilitate all weather communications in areas with dense foliage, we propose to develop an "instant" wireless local area network (WLAN). The WLAN will be deployed into the area where the dismounted team will operate. Nodes combine as relays in a communications network. Each node is an independent transceiver, able to receive and send data to neighboring nodes. Physically, the nodes are very small and housed in a variety of packages (depending on environment). Some packaging allows the node to intentionally be snagged in foliage. Other packaging can be camouflaged. Upon deployment, each node will activate, find neighborhood nodes (the so-called network discovery process) and relay information to other neighborhood nodes. Dismounted soldiers could also scatter additional nodes when entering an area, throwing them into trees or onto bushes - the node would be snagged in the branches and an aerial relay node is quickly established. Establishing a network is very simple and quick, hence our description that the WLAN is "instant". Poor weather or dense foliage will not degrade network performance since network node density is proportional to the degree of environmental loss. Commercial applications include natural disaster recovery infrastructure and temporary building sites.

OPTOELECTRONICS SYSTEMS CONSULTING, INC.
P.O. Box 158, 23 Fellen Road
Storrs, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 429-3592
Dr. Thomas Phely-Bobin
ARMY 01-110      Selected for Award
Title:Transparent, Conformable Miniature Displays
Abstract:This proposal describes a novel approach, integrating high performance transistors for active matrix addressing with organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology, to fabricate transparent and conformable miniature displays. Using standard low-power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing, we propose to utilize high-mobility silicon thin films to realize high-speed driver electronics. This coupled with the growth of long-lived Alq3-based OLED structures on insulating substrates, provides a viable methodology in realizing transparent miniature displays. Additional features include: radiation hardening properties, higher mobility in strained Si layers, and the ability to integrate other sensors and image processing modules in a monolithic processing needed to develop night vision goggles (NVGs) for defense and consumer applications. In Phase-I, a prototype active matrix addressed micro-array consisting of 4 x 4 pixels and driver electronics will be fabricated using MOSIS foundry according to our initial test chip design. Subsequently, monochrome OLED structures with brightness exceeding 100 cd/m2 will be grown and characterized. In Phase-II, a prototype chip (1" diagonal) consisting an array of 320x240 monochrome pixels integrated with addressing CMOS circuitry will be constructed using MOSIS foundry. In addition to DOD-directed applications such as helmet mounted displays, night vision goggles, and radiation hardened units, we foresee an array of civilian products such as real-time display-equipped eyeglasses, virtual reality spectales, and aids to vision impaired and elderly persons.

UNIVERSAL DISPLAY CORP.
375 Phillips Blvd
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 671-0980
Dr. Michael Hack
ARMY 01-110      Selected for Award
Title:Transparent, Conformable Miniature Displays
Abstract:The goal of this U.S. Army SBIR Program is to develop conformable, transparent, low power displays for Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) systems. Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and its partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California are developing advanced organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology based on high-efficiency phosphorescent dopants. This team was the first to report phosphorescent OLEDs in 1998, representing a major breakthrough in OLED efficiency. OLEDs are solid-state, thin-film, emissive devices that have demonstrated bright, full-color performance for high-resolution, active matrix displays. For HMDs, OLEDs can simplify the optical design and number of elements, reducing weight, size and cost for better human factors and user acceptance. UDC has also developed expertise in the design, development and fabrication of proprietary, transparent OLEDs (TOLEDTM), and flexible OLEDs (FOLEDTM). Combining these elements, OLEDs are well suited for use in transparent, conformable, miniature displays for HMDs. In Phase I, we propose developing and delivering a transparent, conformable, monochrome backlight that demonstrates the feasibility of TOLED, FOLED and PH-OLED technologies for HMDs. Upon successful Phase I completion, we propose in Phase II to develop a transparent, conformable, miniature, active-matrix OLED display for evaluation in a U.S. Army HMD system. The successful outcome of this Program will create myriad benefits in a variety of potential military and commercial applications. It will provide the U.S Army with a clearly demonstrated technology path for transparent, conformable displays for HMD applications. Beyond current U.S. Army application, HMDs are increasingly being designed into industrial, medical and, even, consumer applications where conformable, transparent displays offer desirable features. Additionally, transparency and conformability have the potential to create a host of novel display products and market opportunities beyond those currently envisioned for existing display markets. For example, these include avionic and automotive applications for conformed instrument panel displays and windscreen-integrated head-up displays. Moreover, replacing glass with plastic substrates improves safety and reduces weight, both extremely attractive features in these applications. Transparency enables overlay displays to be incorporated into cockpits and automobile windshields. Display Search now projects a $3.6 billion market for OLEDs in 2005. By developing all the key technology components necessary to fabricate these displays, the UDC team through the work under this Program, expects to commercialize these technologies for military and commercial applications through joint ventures and licensing partnerships with established flat panel display manufacturers.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
427 South 166th Street
Omaha, NE 68118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 832-4407
Mr. Richard A. Flanagan
ARMY 01-111      Selected for Award
Title:Eyekon: In-the-Situation Awareness for the Dismounted Warrior
Abstract:The goals of an enhanced mobile infantry, a weapons system that leaves the warrior with his whole mind free to handle his weapons and notice what is going on around him, as expressed in Heinlein's timeless Starship Troopers is becoming a reality today through the innovative progress being made by the U.S. Army's 21st Century Land Warrior program. However, the current Land Warrior system does not provide a "heads up" display (HUD) like the capability that avionics provides to fighter pilots. What is lacking is a capability that, when a Soldier shoulders the weapon and looks through the aiming sights, he sees objects easily distinguishable as friendly or not, as well as enemy locations along his current heading on a basic map schematic. In other words, what's missing is intuitive situational awareness for the Soldier immersed in the situation while it is happening. Our objective is to develop software components that overlay smart icons, named Eyekon, on the dismounted soldier's individual weapon sight. Eyekon provides objects for the graphical user interface of friendly and enemy positions in the weapon sight when the dismounted Soldier employs the weapon. Eyekon is an intelligent agent-based decision support system hosted on a wearable computer. The output of Eyekon is fed directly to the soldier's display. Display examples are a hands-free device (HFD), weapon-aiming device (installed on existing M16/M4 systems or the future OICW), or a see-through helmet-mounted display (HMD). The JTA-Army requirement enhances interoperability, cost avoidance, promotes wide use. A prototype will be delivered to illustrate symbol concepts and options along with resource requirements. In addition to the delivery of the core Eyekon product, there is a very high potential for transition to commercial products. Our first commercial product with high potential is a maintenance crew working in confined spaces and need to interact with team members in different area. Examples include aerospace such as in compartments and bays on an airliner or a large rocket and utility services (power, water, gas) crew in service tunnels. Another commercial product is situational awareness for public safety such as a SWAT team on assignment and training.

REALITY BY DESIGN, INC.
354 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 655-0440
Mr. Paul T. Barham
ARMY 01-111      Selected for Award
Title:Land Warrior Synthetic Environment Enhancements for Improved Targeting (LW SEE IT)
Abstract:Reality by Design (RBD) proposes to research, design and develop an advanced situational awareness capability for dismounted warriors to use while aiming and sighting using the Land Warrior (LW) system. This new capability will focus on providing situational icon overlays on the video from a LW weapon sight based on the information available over the LW tactical network. RBD will use a Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) approach during an iterative development process to arrive at an optimal solution. This approach will maximize the use of existing Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software and leverage fully from other RBD dismounted infantry virtual simulation efforts. In Phase 1, RBD will implement prototype Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) for the purposes of demonstration, and for soliciting inputs, feedback and preferences from LW materiel and doctrinal personnel. The feedback received will to applied to refine the software design, development, integration and test plans to arrive at an end solution that matches the schedule and goals of increased lethality and survivability for LW. The system design and execution plan developed in Phase I will provide the framework and will facilitate the construction of an actual situational awareness capability for LW in Phase II. Commercial potential exists for fielding the capability within the LW program and for expansion into the law enforcement and emergency response markets as the technology develops. Adaptations of the resulting technology can be applied to the architectural and construction markets for visualizing planned or future projects by rendering the projects using computer graphics and superimposing and positioning them on real-world video using Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data. Development of LW SEE IT will support the OSCR Program by improving the operational performance of the soldier while reducing overall training costs.

ARGON ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
12701 Fair Lakes Circle
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 995-4242
Mr. Robert L. Kellogg
ARMY 01-112      Selected for Award
Title:Synchronized RF Spectrum Search and Emitter Location
Abstract:Argon Engineering proposes a synchronized mobile platform Line of Position (LOP) signal intercept and geolocation system using digital narrowband scanning of coordinated wideband receivers. This approach provides precision time and frequency locking of independent mobile units under a designated command and control node. To enhance the quality of Electronic Surveillance (ES) during times of Electronic Attack (EA), Argon Engineering proposes to introduce Advanced Event Processing (AEP) and Interference Cancellation (IC) for robust signal detection and LOP measurement. Time/Frequency Difference of Arrival (TFDOA) geolocation as well as spatial LOP geolocations will be compared for accuracy under various system scenarios. These innovative narrowband spectrum search and emitter location features will be supported by a LIGHTHOUSE Technology COTS architecture combining Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and general purpose digital signal processors using CompactPCI format to reduce size, weight and power (SWAP). A complete end-to-end simulation will be used to recommend the best system scaling as a starting point for a Phase II demonstration of synchronized mobile units for emitter geolocation. Synchronized spectrum scanning for LOP or TFDOA measurements can be accomplished in an efficient hardware environment applicable to a range of platforms including Army PROPHET, Aerial Common Sensor (ACS), Underwater Unmanned Vehicles, and other mobile platforms. This versatility increases Argon Engineering's ability to penetrate new military, government, and international markets for mobile systems that include features such as Interference Cancellation, Advanced Event Processing, and Signal of Interest classification sorting. Argon Engineering can use this SBIR to leverage LIGHTHOUSE Technology products into a new generation of Communication Electronic Support Measure (CESM) systems with reduced size, weight, and power by introducing FPGA technology and CompactPCI form factors.

SIGNATRON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
29 Domino Drive
Concord, MA 01742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 371-0550
Mr. James Zagami
ARMY 01-112      Selected for Award
Title:Synchronized RF Spectrum Search and Emitter Location
Abstract:The goal of this research program is to provide an "RF emitter map" of the battlefield by assembling properly synchronized direction-finding (DF) reports from multiple sensors. The proposed system applies a new technique that determines the location of an emitter with enhanced accuracy by optimally combining the data from multiple sensors in a synchronized network. The system will enhance conventional DF-based triangulation systems, which compute a line of bearing from each sensor as an intermediate step. The proposed technique utilizes a novel approach to processing multiple channels in parallel and has the added advantage that frequency-hopping emitters are less likely to go undetected. The location data would be viewed on a digital map display locally or over a wireless virtual private network. The proposed signal-combining approach is a logical extension of the approach developed by the proposing firm for gelocation of RF signals. Experiments with known waveforms have already successfully demonstrated improved location accuracy. In Phase I the system performance using airborne sensors will be studied through analysis and simulation. Performance improvements and system cost will be investigated and compared with other techniques of comparable complexity. A prototype design utilizing extensively commercial off-the-shelf components will be developed and outlined for Phase II with a plan for implementation. The primary application is the mapping of potential emitters in military operations. The proposed geolocation technique also has many law enforcement and emergency applications for locating radio transmitters, cellular handsets, or wireless PDAs. In addition, the technology can be used for locating special tags to find children, patients, and pets, as well as for tracking parolees, cargo, and vehicles.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 847-9123
Mr. Scott Thomas
ARMY 01-113      Selected for Award
Title:QoS-enabled Wireless Reliable Multicast (QWiReM)
Abstract:Communication and wireless network technology have advanced to the state where portable computing devices have proliferated to enable ubiquitous computing. Similarly, Internet technology has grown tremendously including popular media streaming applications that support multicast. There remain significant obstacles, however, to integrate wireless and multicast technologies. Many military applications require multicast transmission to properly and efficiently operate. Particularly, the FCS program and the MOSAIC ATD both have requirements for secure adaptive mobile wireless network communications, including multicast transport. Trident has developed a reliable multicast protocol intended for the Army's tactical networks. The Wireless Reliable Multicast (WiReM) provides reliable multicast transfer, utilizing a dynamic self-configuring routing capability that works well in ad hoc environments. Trident Systems proposes to build upon the successful implementation of WiReM to develop a scalable, mobile QoS reliable multicast protocol. The QoS-enabled WiReM (QWiReM) protocol is a logical evolution of our reliable multicast research. Trident Systems will research and develop different approaches for implementing QoS. We will investigate real-time CORBA and IETF QoS protocols and their applicability to the military tactical environment. For the Phase I Option, we propose to develop a prototype based on the WiReM implementation to validate the feasibility of the QWiReM design. A reliable multicast protocol will provide guaranteed and efficient dissemination of critical information to many users simultaneously. FCS soldiers and platforms can use this protocol for real-time tactical and strategic communications. The proposed protocol will be able to scale to large numbers of receivers. A scalable, reliable multicast protocol has commercial applications as well. Internet Service Providers and wireless communications network operators may use this protocol. Network operators can use a mobile multicasting protocol that will be able to deliver packets based on the QOS requirements. Such a protocol would dramatically increase efficiency and reliability of networks.

LSP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6145 Scherers Place
Dublin, OH 43016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 718-3000
Dr. Jeff L. Dulaney
ARMY 01-114      Selected for Award
Title:Burst Laser System for Standoff Mine Neutralization
Abstract:This Phase I program addresses a critical need for a safe and reliable means to neutralize from a distance of greater than 10 m all types of mines and munitions that might be encountered in a military mission such as route clearing or UXO disposal. In particular, the proposed innovative compact laser technology will access and neutralize buried landmines which are most troublesome. Current mine clearing laser systems such as the 0.5 -1.0 kW ZEUS system work effectively against surface laid mines but are under-powered to penetrate soils. The proposed burst laser system (BLS) will deliver over 10 kW for the duration of a mine neutralization sequence permitting drilling through soil and rapid mine neutralization of the buried mine. The higher laser power in a compact mobile package will be achieved through use of innovative Nd:glass laser technology wherein large aperture glass rods are used in a power oscillator configuration. Burst operation allows the overall package size of the system to be considerably smaller than a continuous laser of the same output power. The Phase I effort will provide laser demonstrations of soil penetration for reaching and neutralizing a buried mine and a preliminary design of a vehicle-mounted BLS. The burst laser system (BLS) will provide a greatly enhanced capability for military services to implement rapid and safe mine clearing operations. The BLS will be cost-effective and will be made available for humanitarian mine neutralization activity as well. In addition to these missions, the BLS technology will find application in industrial materials processing such as intermittent deep-penetration welding.

AERODYNE RESEARCH, INC.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 663-9500
Dr. Kurt D. Annen
ARMY 01-115      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight Scaled-Up Linearly-Oscillating Miniature Engine for Portable Electric Power
Abstract:Microscale power technologies have the potential to fill an emerging military need for portable power generation at the 500 W level for the Objective Force dismounted soldier. This requires, however, scale-up of these technologies to the 500 W level and the ability of the technologies to use logistics fuels. Aerodyne Research, Inc. has developed a linearly-oscillating miniature internal combustion engine (MICE) technology to provide electric power at the 10 W scale at very high energy densities. ARI proposes to scale up its MICE technology to generate power in a 500 W system. This linearly-oscillating engine-generator will use logistics fuels and have low noise and very high energy densities. The Phase I program will perform a detailed characterization of the performance and cost as the power output is scaled from 10 W to 500 W, investigate critical design issues including acoustic suppression and fuel metering, and perform a detailed design of the basic linearly-oscillating internal combustion engine-generator and a conceptual design of the full power system. A lightweight, compact electric generator at the 500 W scale has wide ranging commercial applications. This generator can provide portable power at construction sites, for recreational uses at campsites, picnic grounds, and on boats and larger marine vehicles.

LF, INC.
3201 Elliott Street
Baltimore, MD 21224
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 327-4828
Mr. Robert S. Littlepage, Sr.
ARMY 01-116      Selected for Award
Title:Expendable Radar Countermeausure Modules
Abstract:This proposal describes a parametric approach for optimizing a deception (decoy) and jamming addition to the Network Centric Warfare (NCW) system. This provides to the NCW a response (active) fuction, designed to protect the warfighter from: RF targeting systems, intelligence and reconnaissance systems, and other horizon extending (UAV) RF enabled systems. These new modules are designed to be either self-actuating, or keyed by the sensor suite in the NCW. The proposal also describes a family of low prime power, low cost jammers that are appropriate to the jammer mission. An ACT based target signature emulator handles the deception mission. Novel methods for deployment are described which optimize the jammer's geometry in order to minimize the output power required for victory. This lowers cost, extends liftime, etc. The proposed system is expected to substantially advance the state-of-the-art in low power, stand-in jamming. This will have a very broad application base across all of the military components. The circuit designs are appropriate to micro-UAV payloads, active chaff, and active near-space aerosols.

POLATIN CORP.
57 Janet Terrace
New Hartford, NY 13413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 731-9433
Dr. Paul F. Polatin
ARMY 01-117      Selected for Award
Title:Interference Filters for Robust VHF/UHF Communications in Densely Foliated Regions
Abstract:The work described in this proposal is intended to lay a foundation for the development of filtering technology that would be used in VHF and UHF tactical radios and which would greatly improve the reliability of communications in densely foliated regions. It is intended that these software filters would mitigate the effects of multipath scattering from foliage. The filters would be implemented as part of an external modification package (applique), would cost about $200 per unit, and would improve signal-to-noise performance by better than 20 dB. Therefore, for a relatively low price, and with an additional weight of around 2 lb, reliable VHF/UHF fixed and mobile communications could be established over 10 to 15 km distances through heavily forested areas and in areas where path loss makes communications marginal. The commercial applications of this technology are manifold. Commercial wireless companies would benefit from the availability of an inexpensive method for increasing the range and reliability of their equipment in heavily foliated regions. Mobile, aeronautical and maritime VHF and UHF radio manufacturers would also benefit from the technology that is the intended product of this research and development effort. The ability to provide enhanced reliability and extended range in commercial transceivers would clearly be an advantage to all companies in the RF communications business.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
5170 N. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 240
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 705-5900
Dr. Michael W. Jones
ARMY 01-118      Selected for Award
Title:Spectral/Polarimetric Sensors
Abstract:Applications of IR imaging polarimetry include detection of military targets in clutter, de-mining missions, ice detection on aircraft, roads and bridges, crop monitoring and remote sensing. Key technologies are now sufficiently mature to consider a real-time (video frame rates) integrated imaging polarimeter. Under a separate Phase I SBIR, SY Technology is developing a micro-polarizer array architecture that will allow simultaneous collection of four polarization measurements. The micro-polarizer array consists of four polarization filters that are mounted to a focal plane array (FPA). The completed device will be capable of measuring the full Stokes vector. There is inherently spatial mis-registration between the four channels with such an interlacing scheme. The mis-registration can be accounted for through digital re-sampling of the four images or minimized through additional optical elements such as a micro-lens array. In this Phase I SBIR, SY Technology proposes to develop a micro-lens array design to facilitate spatial registration of the four polarization channels. Refractive and diffractive lens designs will be developed. Chromatic dispersion and off-axis performance will be evaluated through simulation and analysis to determine the optimum solution. During Phase II, the micro-optic design will be integrated with a micro-polarizer array, fabricated, and mounted to a LWIR FPA. It is anticipated that an IR imaging polarimeter will significantly enhance target detection on a wide variety of military seekers. Ice detection, humanitarian de-mining, remote sensing, product inspection/quality assurance, and medical imaging applications are all potential commercial applications of real-time imaging polarimetry.

GOLETA ENGINEERING
P O Box 6208
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 967-0600
John Kirk
ARMY 01-119      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight mm-Wave Synthetic Aperture Radar/Moving Target Indicator (SAR/MTI) Sensor for Small Unit UAV
Abstract:Goleta Engineering (GE) and MMCOMM with support from Northrop-Grumman will design and develop a lightweight MMW SAR/MTI system in the 10 to 20 pound range for installation on a small UAV to support small unit operations. Many key enabling technologies need to be matured to facilitate the timely development and fielding of a lightweight SAR/MTI system. We will leverage off of existing and emerging technologies such as a 7 pound dual-mode seeker to evolve thru extensive tradeoffs a family of alternate designs in the 10 to 20 pound range. One of these designs will then be down selected for further development in the Option phase and demonstration in Phase II. The baseline design employs an FMCW waveform, MMIC hardware including a GAAS FET power amplifier and efficient signal processing. One of the key enabling technologies for implementing the liteweight SAR is signal based motion compensation (SBMC) to reduce the dependence on a motion measurement sensor (MMS). This capability has been developed and demonstrated on prior efforts by GE. MMCOMM, a MMW hardware company, provides the capability to develop and produce the lightweight MMW MMIC componentry. Northrop-Grumman provides expertise in UAV SAR applications and a path to Phase III Commercialization. The U S Army will mature lightweight MMW SAR/MTI technology and develop a system for installation on a small UAV that can be used to support small unit operations. In Phase I, the US Army will obtain detailed information on the design options available and obtain performance tradeoff data that can be used to define other related SAR/MTI systems. In the Option Phase and Phase II, they will design and demonstrate a system with the key enabling technologies.

IMAGING MICROSENSORS, INC.
300 West Route 38, Suite 201
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 273-8200
Dr. Hesham Attia
ARMY 01-119      Selected for Award
Title:A Lightweight mm-Wave SAR/MTI Sensor for Small Unit UAV
Abstract:A lightweight mm-wave SAR/MTI sensor of small size and low power is proposed for small UAVs such as those being developed under the US Army/DARPA FCS OAV Program, or those anticipated in response to the Small Unit UAV ORD. The sensor is based on an innovative radar configuration made possible by the advanced data-adaptive motion compensation techniques developed by Imaging Microsensors Inc. The proposed sensor offers a low-cost, all-weather, high-resolution SAR imaging and MTI capability from such a small UAV for surveillance, reconnaissance, and targeting. In a particular implementation, the resulting sensor offers 0.1 m image resolution, at a range of 10 km in clear weather (with graceful degradation in rain), and provides an MTI mode with 360 degree coverage. Approximately, the sensor of the above example weighs 4.5 kg, occupies 0.25 cubic feet, and consumes 50 W of dc power with further weight, size, and power reductions possible through design optimization. Phase I will develop the lightweight mm-wave SAR/MTI sensor concept and show its feasibility through the design of a flyable prototype. The design will be supported with detailed radar system analysis and computer simulation. In Phase II, the prototype will be built and demonstrated through a flight test. The proposed lightweight SAR/MTI sensor provides all-weather imaging from a small UAV where tactical targets are naturally highlighted and precisely located in range and azimuth. A similar sensor onboard a low-cost UAV can be used by rescue squads in search and rescue missions under poor visibility conditions, and by law enforcement agencies for drug interdiction and patrolling the borders of the USA. Other applications include spotting disabled vehicles on long stretches of the highway and terrain mapping.

RDAS, INC.
11003 E.Bradford Circle
Cerritos, CA 90703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 379-4802
Mr. Augustus H. Gree
ARMY 01-119      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight mm-Wave Synthetic Aperture Radar/Moving Target Indicator (SAR/MTI) Sensor for Small Unit UAV
Abstract:This topic is concerned with the development of a concept for an advanced MMW SAR/MTI sensor for UAV applications that will support future battlefield requirements that are beyond those currently available. This advanced sensor includes an antenna, transmitter, receiver, and signal preprocessor. Radar techniques that are to be considered will be compatible with various operational modes of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system and a Moving Target Indicator (MTI) system. Challenges that are to be addressed in this concept definition are: 1) Determining the most productive and cost effective way to produce the transmit power required for the sensor to meet the ten (10) kilometer range capability. 2) Formulating signal preprocessing techniques that will provide increased gains to the system to minimize the peak and average transmit power requirements. 3) Packaging the sensor in the volume constraints that will meet the power and thermal requirements. 4) Development of an antenna that will meet the requirements defined by the sensors specifications and the packaging constraints imposed by the available "real estate" on the UAV. 5) Integrating both a SAR mode and a MTI mode into a single sensor. The development of this product will lead to the development of a compact sensor that may be used for military and commercial applications. Other uses for the sensor would include terrain mapping for changes in enviromental conditions, medical imaging application, and commercial aircraft landing systems under adverse weather conditions.

ANNTRON, INC.
1315 S. Allen St., Suite 405
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 867-2312
Mr. Scott Thompson
ARMY 01-120      Selected for Award
Title:Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Repeater for Personal Communications Systems (PCS)
Abstract:The Personal Communications Systems (PCS) Base-station Transceiver Systems (BTS) area of coverage is physically near (within a few km) of the BTS. It is desirable to provide range extension for the BTS, perhaps to 10 km or more. It is also desirable to quickly deploy range extension of the BTS, thereby filling gaps in mobile communications around the Tactical Operations Center (TOC). A solution is proposed for evaluation, comprised of Hub (or TOC) BTS and Data Link equipment, and remote station data link and PCS CDMA equipment. The enabling technology is a Hub and Remote Data Link unit developed by Anntron for rapidly deployed data communications networks. At the Hub, a multi-beam antenna, also developed by Anntron for rapidly deployed data links, is the only means to provide versatile, highly directive links to remote stations. The BTS PCS Converter Unit and Remote PCS Converter Unit may be comprised of commercially available PCS market components. Analysis of existing approaches, repeater design trade-offs, simulation of coverage, interference to/from the BTS, terrain profiling, data link frequency, software control, laboratory demonstration, and ultimately field demonstrations using existing Anntron outdoor facilities shall be performed to determine the optimum solution. CDMA PCS provides mobile communications, but only to the extent that the BTS infrastructure is "built out". Total coverage, using a complete BTS, is highly unlikely in a tactical environment. The repeater proposed permits rapidly deployed coverage where required in the mobile tactical environment, expanding the network infrastructure dynamically. Other applications include coverage of "dead spots" and customized cell shaping along highways and other high use areas.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #4
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8730
Mr. David Ludwig
ARMY 01-121      Selected for Award
Title:Readout Integrated Circuits (ROIC) Development for High Performance, Uncooled Imaging Applications
Abstract:ISC proposes to utilize its 3D Stacking technology to reduce the volume of a LADAR receiver system. THe use of stacking technology allows the additional real estate associated with each unit cell to be increased by 3-4 orders of magnitude over conventional designs. This feature opens up the possibility to use inductive components in the readout design. These devices can be used to improve the signal to noise ratio of the InGaAs PIN detectors. This represents a second approach to achieving the required performance in high speed 3D active imaging without the need for tube or avalanche photo diode technology. The reduction in receiver electronics can greatly improve the marketability of commercial 3D imaging systems. The areas of most significant growth would be in the industrial applications associated with civil and mechanical engineering. A similar reduction in the volume of the transmitter would complete the tranformation from a moderate to a miniature imaging system. ISC would team with an industrial 3D LADAR manufacturer as part of its commercialization plan.

Y MEDIA CORP.
5141 California Avenue, Suite 250
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 593-9501
Dr. Stephen Gaalema
ARMY 01-121      Selected for Award
Title:High Density High Performance Readout Intregrated Circuit Development for Uncooled Imaging Applications
Abstract:We will design a CMOS ROIC optimized for high resistivity bolometer detectors operating in continuous or close to continuous bias condition. The ROIC design will be optimized for low detector input noise, low read noise, high charge handling capacity, high density, and large dynamic range and linearity. Detailed noise modeling of the proposed ROIC design will be performed. The commercialization of this technology is expected to provide low cost, reliable, high performance uncooled imagers for potential uses in a variety of commercial applications including transportation, security/law enforcement, medical imaging, fire as well as military applications such as night vision, missile seeker sensors, guide munitions, surveillance and target acquisition missions.

QRDC, INC.
Box 562
Excelsior, MN 55331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 556-5205
Dr. Daryoush Allaei
ARMY 01-122      Selected for Award
Title:Acoustically Intelligent Surfaces for C2 Communication Shelters
Abstract:Noisy enclosures present a problem of great importance to the Army's Command and Control Operations On-the-Move for Future Combat Systems. Examples of these noisy enclosures are Command and Control communications shelters and Vehicles. Fully equipped communication shelters are extremely noisy. A unique and effective solution to the noise problem in both fixed and mobile shelters is offered. The solution is based on the development of Acoustically Intelligent Surfaces using our Smart Skin technology. This solution is energy and space efficient. By adapting a state-of the-art, proactive sound and vibration management technology into the walls of the shelters, the sound energy is diverted and otherwise moved to regions where it does not hinder the mission. The focus of this SBIR is to apply the Energy Flow Control technology to the walls and ceiling of an Army Command and Control communications shelter to maintain noise levels below 65dBA. This will be accomplished via our Energy Flow Control design and control methodology in conjunction with sensor/actuator arrays attached to the walls and ceiling that will channel and shovel the noise to regions where it does not interfere with the operations in a shelter. Acoustically Intelligent Surfaces have application in military and commercial segments of the aerospace and automobile industries. Commercially, Acoustically Intelligent Surfaces have applications in existing noise sensitive environments such as aircraft, automobile, truck, farm equipment, rail, space and industrial operations.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. John Wu
ARMY 01-124      Selected for Award
Title:Agent-based Active Networks for Automated Network Aware Services
Abstract:To support today's warfighters critical decision making process at all echelons, battle command systems must deliver mission critical information to the right person at the right place and at the right time. Quality information must flow seamlessly across both wired and wireless networks under different network conditions. It is a challenge to seamlessly integrate various mobile wireless devices into a variety of information systems so as to more effectively aggregate and distribute real-time information to empower today's soldiers with a new warfighting capability. The presentation of the mission critical information must also be tailored to meet the specific requirements of the individual soldier. The narrow bandwidth characteristics of the wireless network and the limited capabilities of the wireless devices coupled with the fact that each user has different requirements demand the most intelligent delivery and presentation of time critical information for enhanced battlefield awareness. Building upon Architecture Technology Corporation's Active Network Architecture and Agent-Based Technology, this SBIR research proposes an innovative technology which will enable an intelligent and timely delivery of quality information (e.g. voice, data and video) to a wide variety of mobile wireless devices used by today's warfighters, under varying network conditions. Based on the existing information technology standards and infrastructure, the proposed Agent-Based Active Network Architecture will also provide effortless integration of new types of advanced wireless devices that may be developed in the future for both civilian and battlefield use, allowing rapid deployment of new wireless network services. The military and commercial application for this research is an Agent-Based Active Network software product aimed at enabling the smart delivery and presentation of time critical information for mobile wireless users. Potential customers of the commercial product from this research include the military, federal, state and local governments and wireless service providers. In the military sector, this technology will improve battlefield awareness for today's warfighters. It will also provide the foundation for warfighters in the field to more effectively communicate with each other. This technology will also improve the situational awareness and communication capabilities for the civilian disaster responders.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Dr. V. ("Nagu") Nagarajan
ARMY 01-124      Selected for Award
Title:Hardware System for Automated Network Aware Applications
Abstract:Systran Federal Corporation (SFC), the sister-company of Systran Corporation, which is a Products Development Company specializing in real-time and high-speed networking, is proposing to develop a "G4 PowerPC" microprocessor based system (Compact PCI card with PMC slots) that can deliver extremely time-sensitive information (e.g., voice, video, etc.) at the right time and at the right place to the Commander. SFC envisions the use of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) protocol and MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching) protocol on the same network fiber to deliver time-critical information and thus meet the commander's critical information requirements (CCIR). SFC has already developed an ATM network interface card (NIC) containing a microprocessor on a previously funded Army Phase II SBIR (Contract DAAB07-98-C-B305). SFC has also proposed the development of two sets of NICs that will perform "on-card" video compression for the US Army on SBIR Contract DAAB07-01-C-K607. On set of the NICs will be based on a "Compact PCI card" containing a G4 PowerPC microprocessor and two PMC daughter card slots. The other set will be based on a modified version of the ATM NIC developed in Contract DAAB07-98-C-B305. Hence, SFC has the required expertise to conduct this SBIR. The proposed state-of-the-art microprocessor-based system will deliver extremely time-sensitive information (e.g., voice, video, etc.) to the Commander at the right place and at the right time.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street, Suite 246
Northglenn, CO 80260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Dr. W. Kober
ARMY 01-125      Selected for Award
Title:Template Generation From A Small Number of Views
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC), along with Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Co. (LMSC), propose the development of a system for synthesizing alternate viewpoint images of an object which has been previously sensed via a short series of images. This system will be used to support model-based object recognition and cataloguing of unknown objects. DFC's approach will be to: enhance LMSC's previously developed system for feature-based matching in image sequences via the incorporation of anisotropic diffusion and morphological operators, and extend DFC's and LMSC's previously developed point-transfer via geometric invariants software for producing novel views using trinocular invariants. DFC's long-term goal is to produce a real-time version of this system. A real-time version is one that produces 3-D models as the images come in (with processing delays of a fraction of a second). This will require a high level of automation and powerful processing resources. Potential benefactors are in the domains of virtual reality, robotics, industrial inspection, autonomous vehicles, military reconnaissance, etc.

IMAGECORP, INC.
6411 Ivy Lane #106
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 220-2123
Dr. Qinfen Zheng
ARMY 01-125      Selected for Award
Title:Template Generation From A Small Number of Views
Abstract:The amount and diversity of data required for meaningful evaluation of automatic target recognition (ATR) systems under extended operating conditions makes data collection efforts prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Generating novel views of targets from a video segment, or several still images acquired from different viewpoints, will significantly reduce the data collection complexity in evaluation and validation of ATR algorithms. Technical challenges include feature correspondence, target model construction, camera calibration, target model update, and scene synthesis. Promising solutions are based on structure from motion (SfM) and view synthesis using tensor analysis. In Phase I, we propose to investigate and enhance state-of-the-art algorithms for generating novel views from a video segment or multiple still images. Novel solutions for recovery of relative structure from video and subsequent novel view synthesis, and direct novel views synthesis from still images using trilinear tensor approaches will be developed. Emphasis will be on the utility in the design, experimentation and validation of ATR algorithms. During Phase II, a prototype system will be built by integrating the most promising approaches and sensor models. The primary military applications for the proposed work are in generating novel data sets for validating ATR systems and building models of targets and scenes for simulation of battlefields. Commercial applications are in 3-D model building for facial animation, real estate walkthroughs and virtual reality applications.

RF MONOLITHICS, INC.
4347 Sigma Rd.
Dallas, TX 75244
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 789-3896
Robert J. Kansy
ARMY 01-126      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturized Low Jitter Clock for Digital Receivers
Abstract:RF Monolithics proposes to investigate means to reduce the vibration sensitivity of the low-noise, miniature oscillator (MINO) presently being developed for use in advanced communications and radar systems by Q-DOT, Inc. RF Monolithics is providing the STW resonators and the final packaging configuration for this advanced oscillator. The MINO packaging architecture and the STW resonator are both candidates for optimization to reduce vibration sensitivity. Variations in electronic signal path lengths and parasitic capacitance in the hybrid package caused by mechanical deforma- tions can cause loop phase variations that frequency modulate the carrier. Critical nodes in the MINO will be identified and their vibration sensitivity calculated in order to identify and solve potential problems. Similarly, the architecture, mater- ial and acoustic mode of the resonator will be investigated to identify opportunities for reducing vibration sensitivity. In particular, the impact of new acoustic mater- ials such as langasite and its isomorphs will be assessed. Additionally, subsystem level approaches will be investigated that independently measure vibration and provide electronic feedback to the oscillator circuit to compen- sate for arbitrary vibration-induced frequency variations. Specific recommendations for enhancements to the MINO will be developed for a Phase II proposal, and will be described in a Final Report. The ruggedized MINO is essential to maintaining the performance of software radios on portable platforms. It is expected to be valuable commercially in ruggedized, en- hanced precision GPS receivers as well as in precision instrumentation where vibra- tions from cooling fans, etc. can degrade noise performance of internal oscillators.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Joseph Tesar
ARMY 01-129      Selected for Award
Title:Telemaintenance of Future Combat System (FCS) Semi-Autonomous Platforms and Equipment
Abstract:Our proposal is to develop a nearly autonomous control methodology for telemaintenance of robotic platforms. At the core of our approach is an expert decision software module that can combine status (or diagnostic) information with possible maintenance remedies. The expert system executes actions via a vehicular command and control network that can efficiently convey information across the platform as well as communicate with remote operators. This network, referred to as the Local Vehicle Network (LVN), combines sensors, control actions and a high level decision module. Critical vehicle components are connected to nodes on the network, enabling bi-directional communications between the component and the network. Because telemaintenance is a very broad topic, we will focus our efforts on a system architecture that is modular and open source. The LVN will also be very generic in nature, either leveraged from existing automobile networks or based on our own Linux based network server product. Essentially, we will define the foundation and architecture for a maintenance system that can be tailored to any particular FCS platform. This approach is not only widely applicable to the FCS program, but is also the best approach for future commercialization efforts. Commercial applications include the auto and trucking industry, material handling, and artificial intelligence software.

L. C. PEGASUS CORP.
10 Bedford Drive
Basking Ridge, NJ 07920
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 781-0167
Dr. Hong-Liang Cui
ARMY 01-130      Selected for Award
Title:Fiber Optic Dynamic Strain Sensors for Seismic Monitoring
Abstract:This project is focus on the development of a new technology for seismic sensors that are very small, highly sensitive and immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI), along with a sophisticated computer based real time data acquisition, processing and analysis system. The detection system is based on optical fiber Bragg grating sensors for dynamic strain and acoustic emissions. In phase I of this project a single sensor is developed, while in phase II a multiple sensor network covering a wide area will be developed. The detection sensitivity will be high enough so that the sensors will be able to monitor seismic activitis induced by troop and/or vehicle movement in the vicinity of the sensors. The sensors developed under this program will be ideal for troop/vehicle movement monitoring and information gethering in the battle field. These can all accomplished remotely and automatically with the fiber optic sensors proporsed here. Commercial applications are equally promising, since the sensos can be used for highway and bridge monitoring, down hole sensing and monitoring for oil/gas exploration.

OPTIPHASE, INC.
7652 HASKELL AVE
VAN NUYS, CA 91406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 782-0997
Mr. Ira Jeffrey Bush
ARMY 01-130      Selected for Award
Title:Fiber Optic Dynamic Strain Sensors for Seismic Monitoring
Abstract:Optiphase, Inc. proposes the development of a fiber optic seismic sensing system suitable to enhance Army INSCOM capabilities. This system will utilize EMI immune "all-fiber" sensor array elements configurable for both TDM and WDM multiplexing capable of the required high-speed data acquisition rates. The fiber seismic sensor design will utilize interferometric transduction methods to assure the highest possible sensitivity. The system design implements DSP control of sensor array interrogation processes to assure real-time acquisition and a fast data port to a standard host computer. Phase I involves the development of a suitable seismic sensor. The design focus involves use of Fiber Bragg Gratings (for efficient array architecture), and a mechanically efficient fiber transducer design to assure high sensitivity and bandwidth. Sensor designs will be evaluated for performance and capabilities for integration into a multi-channel array (design). Phase II will involve the development and field testing of a real-time multi-channel seismic sensor system, suited to Army requirements. This seismic sensor system will be developed for and have direct application to the Army's Prophet Block IV program. The design evolved however can be generalized as a high performance, multi-channel dynamic sensing system. Such designs have numerous "outside" applications, such as general surveillance, industrial process control, geophysical sensing, power grid monitoring, and pipeline monitoring. If the designs developed in this SBIR program demonstrate high performance and are cost effective, they will also be applicable in these other markets.

REMCOM, INC.
315 S. Allen St., Suite 222
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-1299
Mr. Joseph Schuster
ARMY 01-131      Selected for Award
Title:Wireless Communications-Coverage Software (WC2S) for PCS Network Planning Involving Hills, Foliage, Urban, and Mixed Propagation Paths
Abstract:Predicting the signal level and coverage area of WIN-T radio frequency communication channels between base stations, vehicles and warfighters is a challenging problem. The channel may involve radio frequency interactions with hills, foliage, and buildings. The paths may involve long distances over hilly terrain or shorter distances involving interaction with urban building features. Some propagation paths may simultaneously involve hills, foliage, and urban areas. For example, a warfighter in an urban area may need to communicate with a command station located outside of the city. These mixed path links involving both urban and rural terrain are beyond the capability of any existing physics-based propagation model. Currently available models, including those developed by Remcom Inc., are applicable to paths where both the transmitting and receiving antennas are located in an outdoor urban environment, or indoors, or in rural areas. Development of fast and reliable mixed-path models will be an important part of the overall SBIR effort for development of the Wireless Communication Coverage Software (WC2S). Also important will be the design and implementation of a computer graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for efficient user-control of input of important data affecting network planning. Remcom has already developed a commercial quality radio propagation model called Wireless InSite. Future plans include extending the capabilities of Wireless InSite include propagation prediction over irregular terrain including area coverage, and to mixed paths. At present there is no commercial network planning software product that will predict radio propagation over paths that simultaneously involve irregular terrain and urban features, or urban features and indoor locations, or any combination of these. The market for such a network planning software tool is large, including both commercial and DoD applications.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC.
4030 Spencer St, Suite 108
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 371-4445
Dr. Nahum Gat
ARMY 01-132      Selected for Award
Title:Continuously variable aperture cold stop
Abstract:We propose to build a continuously variable size cold stop that is mounted in a dewar and operates at LN2 temperatures. A fully functional dewar system will be demonstrated during phase I, using manual micrometer via a feedthrough. Under the proposed option the variable cold stop will be motorized. A simple scheme, that monitors signal level in selected FPA regions, can be used then in a manner equivalent to auto exposure control to control the cold stop aperture for optimal camera dynamic range. A variable cold stop can optimize operations of all cooled (as well as uncooled) IR cameras. The technology can be made a standard feature in most commercial camera types to improve performance by adjusting the f/# to match the incoming radiance just like conventional lenses are used in common photography.

AUSTIN INFO SYSTEMS, INC.
301 Camp Craft Road, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 329-6661
Dr. Mike West
ARMY 01-133      Selected for Award
Title:Stability And Support Operations (SASO) Game Theoretic Knowledge Acquisition Tool
Abstract:AIS proposes to investigate a COA Knowledge Acquisition (KA) tool that blends a new AI calculus with a developing visualization technology to extend a promising prototype (FOX-GA) to the SASO/ABCS environment. The proposed Course of Action Evaluation System (CACES) enables a domain expert to readily encapsulate the SASO environment and create effective COAs for an arbitrarily collection of missions and doctrine. An initial approach, using Fuzzy Logic (FL), extends the evolutionary computational structure of FOX-GA to accommodate a fitness function that embraces SASO missions and doctrine. By coupling newly developing visualization technology from the University of Arizona with this augmented decision support product, AIS prototypes a system with innovative capabilities. Supplementing this solution, AIS proposes a second investigation of the utility of multi-agent-based simulation in approximating a complex systems theory solution to COA analysis. The underlying technology for the COA Knowledge Acquisition(KA)tool is applicable to the commercial environment as well. It requires a differing set of variables, but the process remains the same. The benefit to the military planning process is most significant. Planners will now have at their disposal a planning aid that allows them to readily approximate the environment in which stability and support operations will be conducted and to create effective COAs for anticipated missions/requirements.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Mr. Richard H. Stottler
ARMY 01-133      Selected for Award
Title:An Intelligent Tool for SASO Knowledge Acquisition Without Knowledge Engineers
Abstract:We propose to develop an innovative software tool that will permit military analysts to rapidly create SASO gaming systems customized for specific missions without the assistance of a knowledge engineer or programmer. Developing such a tool represents a significant challenge; thus, we suggest an integrated approach drawing upon a broad range of AI techniques. An intelligent visual knowledge editor will guide the user through the knowledge acquisition process. Automated planning techniques will allow the system to collaborate with the user, drawing upon its built-in knowledge engineering expertise to help extract the relevant information from the user. To leverage the experience of past planners, a case-based reasoner will maintain a case-base of previously encoded domain knowledge from which it can dynamically retrieve and adapt elements to fit the current mission context. In addition, a model validation module will constantly check the acquired knowledge for incomplete or inconsistent areas, and a collection of rule-based "smart wizards" will proactively aid the user with difficult tasks. The system will also include a scenario generator that can automatically translate mission domain knowledge into wargaming scenarios. We will absolutely demonstrate the feasibility of our ideas through the development of a Phase I prototype. The proposed system can be marketed as a tool for building entity-based simulations for non-scientific domains that involve analysis of complex systems, such as consumer trends analysis.

APPCOM, INC.
11315 Chestnut Ridge Ct.
Fort Wayne, IN 46814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(219) 625-5672
Dr. Jamshid Nazari
ARMY 01-134      Selected for Award
Title:Spectrally Efficient High Data Rate Robust Network Waveforms
Abstract:Increased demands for data capacity, combined with increasingly limited spectral resources, are rapidly exceeding the capabilities of current communications systems in the battlefield. As in the commercial sector, the nature of the data demand is increasingly multimedia, with a variety of quality-of-service (QoS) requirements imposed on a shared spectrum. The communications infrastructure for the modern battlefield is the tactical internet, where data traffic is routed through a network of internet protocol (IP) based radios. Ultimate spectral efficiency is not determined on individual links, but by the spectral efficiency of the overall network. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative spectrally efficient high data rate waveform for the 21st century digitized battlefield. Our multimedia waveform enhances total network spectral efficiency by comprehensively addressing all applicable protocol layers - physical, link and networking. The waveform is power efficient and adaptive at all protocol layers to respond to rapidly changing channel environments. Phase I feasibility is demonstrated by computer simulation, with a potential Phase II feasibility demonstration in a network of JTRS-compliant SUO/SAS radios. If successful, our proposed research and development will provide the Army with individual, innovative, spectrally efficient, high-data-rate waveform technologies that are multimedia, adaptive, robust, power-efficient and JTRS-compliant. But more importantly, this effort will provide the Army with a comprehensive multi-layer waveform, which coherently and synergistically combines these innovations to provide a total system performance not otherwise achievable. This waveform will also contribute directly to research and development for the military's future WNW for JTRS.

RADIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
329 North Bernardo Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 988-4723
Dr. Steve Bruzzone
ARMY 01-134      Selected for Award
Title:Spectrally Efficient High Data Rate Robust Network Waveforms
Abstract:This Phase 1 SBIR proposal addresses a new waveform for wireless communications for the US Army's Tactical Radio Communications Systems (TRCS). The evolving digital battlefield will require significantly higher communication data rates to support transmission of voice, video and data. New, spectrally efficient waveforms will be needed to accomplish this in the presence of existing communications systems and radios. With increasing demands on limited RF spectrum, more spectrally efficient waveforms that can withstand in-channel and adjacent channel interference and jamming are required to allow the Army to fully perform its mission on today's digitized battlefield. These waveforms will need to be compatible with the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) platforms being developed and as such will need to implemented in software. The waveform proposed herein is an advanced technology that has been matured under commercial development, and which has proved its capability to provide robust, high-efficiency communications in heavy interference and multipath environments. The waveform accomplishes this by a synergistic combination of several enabling technologies, namely packetized time-division duplex (TDD) networking protocols, stacked carrier spread spectrum (SCSS) modulation formats, fast Fourier transform (FFT) based discrete multitone (DMT/OFDM) modulation formats, adaptive antenna arrays, blind adaptive spatial and spectral despreading (receive combining) and spreading (transmit combining) algorithms, and trellis and turbo coding algorithms. The results of this Phase I program can provide a very high spectral efficiency, covert and jam-resistant waveform for hosting on the JTRS family of radios. The basic tech-nique can also be used to greatly enhance the capacity of commercial wireless voice and data commu-nications networks, cellular overlay networks, and burst-ori-ented wireless local-area networks and pri-vate branch exchanges, PCS/PCNs, and packet-data networks, where it can provide as much as 30-fold capacity over the existing GSM, D-AMPS (IS-54), CDMA (IS-95), and Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) networks.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
1107-C Lyons Road
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Dr. John L. Bellando
ARMY 01-135      Selected for Award
Title:Rapid Eye-Tracking Integrated Application (RETINA-II)
Abstract:EDAptive Computing, Inc. (EDAptive) presents a unique and commercially viable solution to the problem of incorporating a minimally-intrusive eye gaze monitoring system with a helmet mounted virtual display to provide improved human-machine interaction, localized display optimization and display image stabilization. Our RETINA-II (Rapid Eye-Tracking Integrated Application) program will investigate and evaluate a variety of techniques to integrate an eye gaze monitoring system with existing helmet-mounted displays (HMD). Specifically, we propose to leverage the features of our RETINAT system, a proven non-intrusive, rapid eye-tracking system developed by EDAptive, including 1) automatic, resolution-dependant accuracy scaling, 2) real-time processing, and 3) efficient and robust performance. By utilizing our existing RETINA technology, we are able bypass many development costs and focus our Phase I effort on the important integration issues, including camera choice, hardware acceleration and various communication interfaces. Our Phase I focus on feasibility assures that we provide a solution that addresses the concerns and meets the requirements set forth in the solicitation. In this proposal we present a focused approach to assess the feasibility of integration in Phase I, and prove the concept and prepare for technology transition in the form of a prototype in Phase II. This technology provides groundbreaking opportunities for the Army. The integration of a minimally intrusive eye-tracking system with a helmet-mounted display will greatly affect the Army's desire for soldier modernization. The increased efficiency of the human-machine interface and display localization based on eye gaze angle are technologies that will benefit not only the Army's immediate needs but also provide a solution to other areas of the military that utilize HMD's, such as the Air Force and Navy. In addition, this integrated technology would provide solutions in several commercial applications in medicine (endoscopic surgery and ultrasound), manufacturing (prototype 3D displays and walkthroughs) and robotics (remote guidance).

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #4
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8833
Mr. Charles S Kaufman
ARMY 01-136      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturized Fused Reflected/Emitted Light Camera
Abstract:Irvine-Sensors Corporation (ISC) has developed a variety of technologies and advanced sensor systems that now make it practical to develop an advanced small, light weight Miniaturized Fused Reflected/Emitted Camera system. This multi-spectral camera system is based on fusing of digitized reflected image intensifier (I2) imagery with emitted long wave infrared (LWIR) thermal imagery. The I2 imagery provides high spatial resolution over a wide variety of ambient lighting conditions while the LWIR thermal imaging provides full day/night capability with the integration of emitted thermal imagery. This system collects the dual band imagery using 2 individual apertures and provides a single digital video output. The imagery will be combined at the pixel level. The LWIR imagery will be collected using a 320x240 uncooled micro-bolometer and the I2 imagery will be collected using a miniture 16mm Gen IV I2 with a 1.3 Mega-pixel CMOS imager. A high degree of miniaturization is achieved through the use of ISC's novel LWIR imaging temperature compensation approach, and using ISC's NeoChip heterogeneous 3D chip stacking technology to integrate multiple electronics functions into a single monolithic structure. This effort will result in the develop of the design of miniaturized fused multispectral camera system. This single system would be used in place multiple existing systems. This will significantly reduce operational encumbrance, simplify logistic support and enhance performance by fusing multiple camera systems into a single system.

PHOENIX ANALYSIS & DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES
1465 N. Fiesta Blvd., Suite # 107
Gilbert, AZ 85233
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 813-4884
Mr. Michael R. McNamee
ARMY 01-137      Selected for Award
Title:Aerosol Collection Technology
Abstract:Phoenix Analysis and Design Technologies (PADT) proposes to develop two particle collection and concentration devices, one designed for 100 LPM and another for the 600 LPM flow rate. Both configurations will be optimized for collection efficiency, power consumption, size, cost, and weight. The proposed solution is comprised of a custom inlet, a novel collection chamber, and a continuous gas-to-liquid concentration mechanism. An autonomous, `point-into-the-wind', iso-kinetic inlet is planned to maximize the inlet collection efficiency for difficult sampling conditions, such as shipboard sampling. A collection mechanism is proposed that relies upon well-understood physics and will exhibit the combined behavior of an impactor, cyclone, and centrifuge, all in one system, with minimal additional pressure loss. The gas-to-liquid concentrator will consist of a liquid injection and recovery system. Both designs will also require a preconditioning stage to remove large particles (i.e., insect, crustal matter, etc.). To meet these objectives, PADT will draw upon recent successes in system-level modeling, and a historical expertise in applying Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to critical components. Leveraging PADT's experience and current leading-edge position in rapid prototyping technologies should allow for a single, representative, `proof-of-physics' prototype near the end of Phase I. The proposed designs could have immediate application in Army and other Joint Services activities if all project targets are achieved. Other government agencies, such as the EPA, may also have need for similar devices. Additionally, civilian applications exist in areas such as pollution monitoring, environmental monitoring, hazard detection, and, particularly, in medical and virology settings. Interest has already been expressed concerning coupling the smaller device with a biosensor application for airborne particulate toxicity detection.

OBSERVERA, INC.
4451 Brookfield Corp. Dr., Suite 107
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 444-6905
Mr. Todd Jamison
ARMY 01-138      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:Using High Resolution Multispectral and/or Hyperspectral Imagery to Improve Digital Land Cover Classification From Low Resolution Multispectral Imager
Abstract:Observera proposes to integrate several innovative fusion concepts (resolution enhancement technology, high resolution signature data, and spatial texture) into the Army's process of Land Cover / Land Use (LCLU) classification from LANDSAT. This integration will result in substantially improved classification over current techniques. Specific focus will be on automating as much of these techniques as possible in order to maximize their utility for quick response missions. In addition, we will also develop the collection strategies necessary for cost-effective collection of the high-resolution imagery needed to support these new concepts. Demonstrating these capabilities lays an effective foundation for the development of an integrated classification process in Phase II, which will consist of the development of a prototype LCLU system. The Phase II effort will use rapid prototyping methodologies in order to develop a series of incrementally more capable prototype systems. Commercialization of the integrated system is one possible avenue, either as an add-on to a commercial image processing package or bundled with a commercial package as a complete system. Additionally, several of the individual components have independent commercial viability. In the larger context, the concepts developed here also enhance our ability to provide customized feature extraction capabilities to government and commercial customers worldwide.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Sid Kudige
ARMY 01-139      Awarded: 21DEC01
Title:Integrated Network Architecture for Information Dissemination to Mobile Subscibers (INAIM)
Abstract:US warfighting strategy envisions the use of lighter, rapidly deployable, highly versatile forces that disperse widely into hostile territory. To ensure high mobility and flexibility of the forces, intelligence and tactical data must be exploited to provide customized, mission specific information to the force. The widespread availability of low-cost PDA's (Personal Digital Assistant's) equipped with wireless WAN/LAN and GPS cards facilitates customized communication and intelligence dissemination among on-the-field commanders and soldiers. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes to design a novel architecture called Integrated Network Architecture for Information dissemination to Mobile subscribers (INAIM) that will provide communication services for mobile warfighters. INAIM services will address the problems associated with low bandwidth wireless networks and small screen mobile clients by including mechanisms for bandwidth management and dynamic content adaptation. To preserve information confidentiality and prevent Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, INAIM will provide services for secure transmissions and stealth communication. Seamless wireless communication is achieved by INAIM services utilizing link layer mechanisms and TCP/HTTP protocol optimizations. In short, INAIM services will lead to the design of a system that provides secure and seamless wireless network services for the army. The end product resulting from this research is a wireless WAN/LAN and GPS enabled PDA, CDMA/wireless LAN enabled mobile base station, with software running on mobile base stations and PDA's that enables the implementation of INAIM services. Military applications include emerging communication systems for small unit operations, emergency warning/response systems and communication systems for mobile warfighters. Civilian applications include seamless wireless access to the world wide web using handheld devices.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Susan T. Pasco
ARMY 01-140      Awarded: 21DEC01
Title:Rapid Detection and Mapping of UXOs and Munitions Contaminants
Abstract:Unexploded ordnance (UXO) such as TNT, HMX and RDX from buried landmines and waste munitions are a threat to both military and civilian populations. Detection of UXO can be accomplished by using a highly luminescent material whose luminescent properties change upon interaction with a target explosive compound. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a polymeric detection system which will safely, inexpensively and accurately identify trace amounts of UXO's and map a munitions field with <= 1 m^2 resolution. The UXO detection formulation will be optically excited by a UV laser source and the signal will be collected by an integrated detection system. The basic concept of this two-component detection system is that the polymer's fluorescence will be quenched when exposed to a target compound and a tracer component will remain fluorescent as long as the material is on the field. The detection system will consist of a spray-on luminescent detection material and an optical detection system that can be operated from a flight vehicle. In Phase I, we will develop a polymeric detection system that will identify the location of UXO at a distance of up to 500 m. The proposed polymeric detection system will provide a powerful and versatile technology that can be applied to sensitive detection of a variety of signature compounds. The underlying technology can be applied to the detection of a range of commercially important species. Particularly important dual use applications include clinical diagnostics.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Joseph Tesar
ARMY 01-141      Awarded: 17DEC01
Title:Techniques for Viewing Terrain Data on Handheld Displays
Abstract:While the technology is now available to deliver complex graphics files (such as terrain maps) to field-based users using handheld computers, it is difficult to view and navigate a large graphics file through a small viewing screen. The option of increasing the size of the display to give greater resolution (and comprehension) is not practical since field based personnel need portability and small size. One way to improve graphics comprehension with limited resolution is to impart the illusion of a depth perception on a flat screen by modifying the image with techniques such as rendering, perspective, shading, and distance hazing. We will use our experience with computer game development (which frequently uses such techniques) to develop the best method for viewing terrain data on a handheld display. These techniques will help the soldier to better interpret the terrain data while in the field.. Auxiliary viewers or viewing techniques will also be evaluated, especially those techniques that can be implemented with handheld devices in the field. Commercial applications include: Surveyors, engineers, and field-based personnel.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Div., 20600 Gramercy Plac
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Shengji Peng
ARMY 01-141      Awarded: 21DEC01
Title:A Real 3-Dimensional Digital Terrain Map System
Abstract:A soldier's ability to get a feel for terrain from maps before or even while he walks over it can be critical to the success of a mission. A virtual three-dimensional view of the terrain is a dream of every warfighter. To address this Army need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new 3-Dimensional Map System (3DIMAS). POC's approach is to store geographic data independently in a separate database imported from other applications or through the Internet. This ensures that the data to be processed is on the server, and transfers maps directly to the warfighter's portable map device, which displays real-time/static geographic data from multiple sources. This will be the first real three-dimensional map viewer application in the world. This dual mode capabilities of the proposed DIMAS provides the user with a flexible user-friendly environment. It combines portability with full client-server capability in a single application. In Phase I, POC will complete a feasibility prototype 3DIMAS. Adding a third dimension to standard 2-D displays enhances the viewer's awareness, providing better visualization of data, events, and messages. Commercial benefits in the areas of TV, medical education, and computer aided design fields will be huge.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Joseph Tesar
ARMY 01-143      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:Pin Array Approach to the Dynamic Sand Table
Abstract:Cybernet plans to provide a solution to the dynamic sand table problem by employing an array of pins driven by an arm equipped with a vector of actuators. The pins shall lie at rest upon a board filled with holes for the pins. The array board will be similar to an optical breadboard with one major exception; the holes will be as close together as the hardware allows. The pins will be placed such that they can be pushed up to protrude past the surface of the array board. This is how the device will display elevation data. Each pin's hole will have a clamping mechanism that will engage when the pin has reached the height it is supposed to represent. The pins will be pushed by a moving arm carrying a row of actuators. The entire device will be controlled by an implementation of stepped motors utilizing a simple open-looped control scheme. There are a few possible markets for a device such as the one proposed. First of all the military wishes to have such a device for use in tactical planning. This corresponds with the contractual goals of this proposal. Secondly, Construction companies who build large commercial buildings or complexes, such as theme parks or major shopping centers, may wish to have such a device for use in the planning stages of their work. They could get a physical feel for several different plans of what they plan to build, without having to build several models. Thirdly, the oil and precious materials industry may be interested in such a device for use when prospecting. The device could be used to give a field agent a feel for the area when a site visit is unwarranted. It could also be used in the planning stages of material extraction (mining and drilling).

XENOTRAN LLC
898 Airport Park Road, Suite 205
Glen Burnie, MD 21061
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 761-2445
Dr. Derrick J. Page
ARMY 01-143      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:Dynamic Sand Table
Abstract:Xenotran proposes to conduct a program of research and development that will result in a physical terrain model with a surface that can be reconfigured based on digital terrain information. Currently, the U. S. Army produces 3-D solid terrain models using stereo lithography or CNC mills. Current modeling methods take many hours to complete and result a solid product which must be stored. The Army wishes to have equipment that can be rapidly configured as one terrain model after another. Xenotran proposes to develop, during Phase I, a rapidly adjustable sand table system that can configure a terrain model in under 3 minutes, is low-cost, and solves the storage problem. During Phase II, the resolution will be increased and the reconfiguration time will be reduced to under one minute. For displaying the digital terrain information, an overhead projector will be used to project images onto a terrain model surface. In addition to the sand table, Xenotran also proposes a projection system that will include imaging correction software. The purpose of the sand table, as opposed to a map, is to readily demonstrate the topology or elevation of a given geographic region. It is important that this be accomplished in a fast manner so that when emergency issues arise, such as emergency briefings or disaster relief, information can be relayed quickly and accurately. Having the ability to quickly produce accurate topography models will also be beneficial to a variety of other disciplines, such as resource planning and/or local and state government planning. In the private sector, there will be a large number of applications for this technology. The 3D map producing equipment will find applications in real estate planning and marketing, as well as in sports such as golf and skiing. The ability to rapidly create a 3D surface will find many applications in rapid prototyping, such as using the surface as a mold for objects like automobile body panels. Also, the entertainment and advertising industries could use this equipment for dynamic murals and advertising signs.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRON
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-9217
Mr. Robert Sinclair
ARMY 01-144      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturized, Synchronized, Data Acquisition System
Abstract:A miniature distributed data acquisition system with it's own wireless local area network (LAN), based on the IEEE 802.11b specification will be developed for airblast and explosion property measurements. This system LAN will operate at up to 11 Mbps and have the added features of a synchronized clock controlling all of the remote data acquisition recorders. Since all of the recorders are connected to the central computer by the LAN, synchronizing the timing functions becomes a straight forward task. The data acquisition modules feature a dual LAN interface allowing either RF connection and/or a 2 wire cable connection for applications out side the targeted 1K meter RF range. Up to 30 recorders can be configured on the LAN with a mix of RF and cable. Up to 8 megabytes of nonvolatile storage will be available in each recorder with a conversion speed of 1 megahertz and a resolution of 12 bits. An assortment of front ends will be available on each recorder to service all of the sensors required for this program. Technogy from 100K g shock recorders developed for Eglin and Kirtland AFB will be used as a basis for this program. Both the Military and commercial industry will benefit from this product by being able to measure events in harsh environments. Synchronized measurements of events will allow distributed measurements over a wide area . The aerospace, utilities, telecommunications, petrochemical, NRC, EPA, and NASA organizations will benefit from this technology as well as automobile and aircraft impact characteristics, vehicle safety improvements, and cargo impact monitoring.

TRAUTWEIN SOIL TESTING EQUIPMENT CO.
6909 Ashcroft, Suite 104
Houston, TX 77081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 596-9662
Mr. Stephen Trautwein
ARMY 01-145      Selected for Award
Title:Rapid Determination of Field Density and Moisture Content
Abstract:The broad objective of this proposal is to develop an apparatus that is capable of measuring the in-situ density and moisture content of pavement bases, embankments, and other construction sites. The PI's propose an approach based on combined measurement techniques that include time domain reflectometry, P-wave propagation, and in-situ saturation process. Phase I includes evaluation of the proposed methodology and the most appropriate technology to measure such properties. The research team envisions that the proposed approach will yield robust and accurate assessment of field density and moisture content. The proposed research has wide range of applications. The field density and moisture content measurements are required as a quality control/ quality assurance criterion in highway construction, construction of earth dams, and other earthwork projects. This research will lead to the development of a new field density/moisture content apparatus/gauge that has a major impact on the civil and construction engineering areas. Providing accurate and robust measurements results combined with no regulatory/safety restrictions will result in reducing labor time to conduct the field measurements, which means huge savings for the army and the construction engineering industry.

CARLYLE CONSULTING
1009 Buckingham Way
Yardley, PA 19067
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 428-4556
Dr. John M. Carlyle
ARMY 01-146      Selected for Award
Title:Nondestructive Testing for Service Life Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Structures
Abstract:We propose to develop a nondestructive testing instrument with an algorithm that implements a structural life prediction model, which can be used in the field to predict the "remaining life" for concrete structures such as bridges and dams. Our approach rests firmly upon physical principles, and draws heavily upon past successful acoustic NDT projects. This minimizes the risk that the Army will obtain a method that works in theory but which will not work in real-world situations. Our project team has extensive real-world acoustic experience (with a solid background in designing acoustic NDT instruments and their software), and offers world-wide recognized expertise in the fracture and durability of concrete. We have built management controls and risk mitigation into our work plan, and have defined a project scope that fits within the Phase I budget. The results of this project will form a solid foundation for a successful Phase II project that will not only prove our approach in the field but will also produce a new, effective acoustic NDT instrument for the life prediction of engineered concrete structures. The Phase I project will demonstrate the technical feasibility of an NDT instrument that will enable owners of large concrete structures to efficiently schedule maintenance efforts towards structures that truly require repair, including bridges, dams, nuclear reactor confinement housings, parking garages, jetties and foundations.

KRONOS AIR TECHNOLOIGIES
8551 154th AVE NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 885-9739
Dr. Igor Kirchtafovitch
ARMY 01-147      Selected for Award
Title:Electrostatic Dehumidification Technology
Abstract:This study will determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the motion and collection of water molecules and droplets when influenced by a strong electric field and corona discharge. An innovative way of developing a high electric field with air moving past the field will be examined and tested. The key parameters will be identified and incorporated in an improved theoretical model. The model will describe electric field and corona behavior, energy consumption, ionic charging processes, kinematics, and state transitions of water molecules and droplets in a strong electric field gradient. The model will account for interaction of these key parameters with electrode configurations, voltage and current waveforms and ions density. Comparison of relative strength of coulombic, dielectrophoretic, and Biot-Savart forces in space-charged moving media under a range of experimental conditions typical for dehumidification processes will be examined. A bench-scale system of a dehumidification apparatus will be demonstrated and its performance and efficacy will be compared to best available practices in the field. Finally, a qualitative relationship between the energy and space requirements for dehumidification and the mass of water collected and removed in different conditions and humidity rates will be formulated. In an environment where space and energy are scarce commodities, separate traditional dehumidification technology is not viable. This results in an over-spec of the air conditioning system to attempt to control the overall humidity. The result is wasted energy and poor humidity control leading to increased corrosion. An energy efficient, space-saving electrostatic dehumidification device solves many significant DoD and private industry concerns.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7892
Dr. Michael Resnikov
ARMY 01-147      Selected for Award
Title:Vapor Electrostatic Condensator System (VELCOS)
Abstract:A critical need for Army storage facilities is a new technology for humidity control that has very low requirements for maintenance and energy. Conventional dehumidification technologies use either the condensation of moisture below the saturation temperature of air or direct absorption of water molecules by a desiccant material. Both technologies are energy consuming because they use a difference of chemical potentials that is produced by cooling the air or heating the desiccant material (regeneration). To meet Army's need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an innovative new technology for humidity control, the Vapor Electrostatic Condensation System (VELCOS). The VELCOS will use the motion of dipoles in the gradient of an electric field (dielectrophoresis) and the spatial distribution of electric potential in heterogeneous media. In Phase I, POC will develop a theoretical model of the VELCOS, identify the governing parameters for the motion of water molecules, formulate the qualitative relationship between needed energy and the mass of removed water, develop and bench-scale test system, and use test results for evaluation and revision of the theoretical model. In Phase II, POC will develop and demonstrate a VELCOS prototype and test it under field conditions. The VELCOS technology can be incorporated by a variety of military applications, including field storage facilities, command facilities, and battle vehicles. Such an energy saving dehumidification unit can be a part of field air conditioning systems and closed protective suites. In addition, the VELCOS will have a wide range of commercial applications, especially in homes and medium- to small businesses in which integration of isothermal drying with an independent thermal conditioning technique will significant reduce energy consumption and provide a more comfortable and healthy environment.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7892
Dr. Alfred Goldsmith
ARMY 01-148      Selected for Award
Title:Laser Opacity Retroreflector System (LORS)
Abstract:During Army training or other activities, particulate matter plumes are generated that cause air quality degradation. To comply with regulatory requirements, the Army is required to measure the opacity of these plumes. The EPA method for assessing opacity requires an observer to judge opacity against the sky's background. These human observations are subjective and therefore disputable. To meet the Army's need for an objective opacity measurement of particulate matter plumes, POC proposes to develop a novel Laser Opacity Retroreflector System (LORS) that uses a low-cost, eye-safe solid-state laser diode. LORS will operate with a scanned laser and sensitive photodetector/amplifier coupled with retroreflectors placed radially in roughly a semicircle approximately two kilometers away to ensure a strong, dependable return signal. LORS will be portable, and may be hand-held, attached to a vehicle, placed in a tower, or carried aloft by an aircraft or balloon. The inexpensive retroreflectors can be permanently installed or quickly placed for one-time events. They will have hemispherical fields of view, returning all signals to the receiver regardless of angle of incidence. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate a proof-of-concept prototype; in Phase II, POC will develop a production-scale prototype LORS for field-testing. The Army, Navy, or Air Force can use the LORS system during training activities, including bombing exercises and explosive detonations that generate large plumes. LORS can also be used in connection with fires, explosions, or other accidents when large quantities of pollutant(s) are released into the atmosphere. LORS will help assess possible environmental damage, and it can also be used to monitor potential pollution (smog generation) or as an indicator of air quality. Oil refineries could use LORS either as a portable or stationary indicator of excess particulate matter or other pollutants.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Ave, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Vladimir Manasson
ARMY 01-149      Selected for Award
Title:Direct Detection Polarimetric Radiometer
Abstract:The major problem in microwave radiometry is weakness of the signal. This causes a low signal to noise ratio. To attain the required temperature sensitivity it is necessary to integrate the signal for a long time. It has been shown that for icing condition detection the required integration time can be as long as several tens of seconds. Most radiometers are built as heterodyne receivers. They suffer from relatively narrow bandwidth (typically 0.5 GHz). Direct detection receivers can operate in a much wider spectrum (10 GHz and wider) and thus have better sensitivity. In recent years, with advances in HEMT MMIC technology, implementation of MMIC radiometers for MMW spectrum became a reality. A new design of a dual-frequency polarimetric radiometer is proposed. The use of direct detection MMIC receivers will make it possible to improve sensitivity and achieve compactness and cost effectiveness. The area of application of the new radiometer is detection of icing conditions in-flight for small aircraft.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
ARMY 01-150      Selected for Award
Title:Coordinates Determination System Based on GPS/IMU Positioning and Acoustic Ranging
Abstract:The objective of this project is to design a Coordinates Determination System Based on GPS/IMU Positioning and Acoustic Ranging. This system will provide accurate coordinates of the unexploded ordnance (UXO) in rough terrain where the GPS signals are blocked. AGNC's product, the AGNCT-2000CMIMU/GPS Palm NavigatorTM is used to provide accurate position reference at three or more points where GPS signals are available. Acoustic ranging is used to transfer the accurate positions to the handheld sensor unit that is used to detect the UXO. The accurate coordinates of the UXO are thus determined by the Palm NavigatorTM provided positions and acoustically determined ranges. In the Phase I of this project, we first perform the task of system configuration design for acoustic ranging. A correlator is used to estimate the time delay of an echoed acoustic signal. A set of orthogonal pseudo random codes are used to identify echoed signals from different transponders. Then the signal modulation scheme is designed. Next, acoustic channel circuit design is performed and implementation methods are investigated. The integration of the transponder based on the embedded GPS receiver and GPS/IMU integration is carried out. Finally the Coordinates Determination System is tested and evaluated through simulation and laboratory testing. The Coordinates Determination System Based on GPS/IMU Positioning and Acoustic Ranging developed in this project finds wide applications in the commercial sector. The typical applications include acoustic navigation of the robots, small unmanned vehicle guidance and collision avoidance, automobile collision avoidance, personal tracking etc.

MENZIE-CURA & ASSOC., INC.
1 Courthouse Lane, Suite 2
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 322-2864
Ms. Katherine von Stackelberg
ARMY 01-151      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Statistical Approaches to Provide Toxicity Estimates from Exposure Data to Support Risk Assessments
Abstract:The technical objective in Phase I is to review and identify potential statistical approaches for obtaining probabilistic concentration and exposure threshold values for screening contaminants of military interest (military unique compounds, or MUCs) based on existing laboratory-based toxicity and bioaccumulation data. The goal is to develop validated statistical approaches to determine the uncertainty, or confidence limits, surrounding exposure-based (e.g., bioaccumulation) toxicity estimates for use in ecological risk assessments. These tools and approaches will enhance and further develop current ecological risk assessment techniques, which tend to focus on single threshold values derived deterministically, and typically do not provide confidence intervals even in the case of probabilistic assessments. Following the identification, review, and application of potential statistical approaches that may be used to estimate concentration-based toxicity thresholds from existing toxicity and bioaccumulation data sets, we will evaluate the selected approaches. This will be done using chemical data sets that can support development of body-residue toxicity threshold and confidence intervals. We will compare the results of applications of the statistical approaches for the selected contaminants with the goal of developing an approach that combines the best features of existing methods. We anticipate developing an integrated framework to evaluate bioaccumulation and potential toxicity using sophisticated statistical techniques that quantitatively characterize uncertainty. Particular emphasis will be placed on applications of these models in cases with limited toxicity and bioaccumulation data. The statistical models developed here will be valuable for application at U.S. Army installations and training ranges as well as for civilian uses such as environmental evaluations required under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) dredging program. This work will support environmental decisionmaking at every level and inform the regulatory process by providing quantitative uncertainty information for available toxicity and bioaccumulation data. Models and statistical approaches to developing screening levels and guidelines are in great demand by risk assessors, regulators, and the regulated community. Many users of these values are unaware of the inherent uncertainty in the calculations. This product will provide a method for obtaining threshold concentrations and associated confidence levels to characterize uncertainty in support of ecological risk assessments.

INTERSCIENCE, INC.
105 Jordan Road
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 283-7500
Dr. James T. Woo
ARMY 01-152      Selected for Award
Title:Transportable Waste Management System for Rapid Deployment
Abstract:The development of a transportable waste management suitable for rapid deployment is proposed. The system shall be based on the optimum integration of a commercial wastewater treatment system with a state-of-the-art plasma pyrolysis system. Because of the very high temperature generated by the plasma torch, the system is capable of decomposing virtually all types of materials into their elemental form, rendering them inert. Integration with a wastewater treatment system would improve the energy efficiency of the system by eliminating the need to vaporize large quantities of water which can be safely discharged after treatment, leaving only small amounts of residue which can be destroyed by the plasma pyrolysis system with other solid waste. The design of a fully self-contained, transportable system shall be based entirely on demonstrated technology. The Phase I effort is to evaluate the design options to arrive at an optimum top level design with projections of system size, weight, processing capacity, capital and operating cost, and operation and maintenance requirements. The Phase I Option shall be to initiate the detailed design for an operational prototype demonstration system to be completed under Phase II. Development of the proposed system would allow the military to resolve the various sanitary environmental safeguard and securities concerns associated with rapid deployment. The system would also find civilian and commercial applications such as for disaster relief, for installation at construction sites and transient large venues.

FARADAY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
315 Huls Drive
Clayton, OH 45315
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 836-7749
Dr. Maria Inman
ARMY 01-153      Selected for Award
Title:High Frequency Pulse/Pulse Reverse Processes for Water Intrusion Control in Containment Sites
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program addresses the need for containment of hazardous species in landfills and hazardous waste sites, by preventing groundwater from leaching contaminants from the soil. The proposed approach, based on electro-osmotic methods, will use 1) pulse/pulse reverse processes to prevent water seepage through the soil, 2) pulse/pulse reverse processes to enhance mass transport rates and eliminate pH excursions, which would result in increased power consumption, and 3) integrated ion exchange electrodes to remove hazardous species from the soil, for recovery/recycle. In the Phase I program, a theoretical model will be developed to explain the effect of pulse/pulse reverse process parameters on the containment process. Small and large scale laboratory testing will validate the model, and demonstrate feasibility of the technology. In the Phase I Option period, the design of three full-scale field test systems, to be demonstrated in Phase II, will be completed, as well as further testing. Faraday will be assisted by Terran Corporation, an environmental engineering firm specializing in field installation and monitoring of DC electrochemical processes for soil remediation. The anticipated benefits of the proposed pulse/pulse reverse processes are a significant reduction in the cost of maintaining landfills and hazardous waste sites at DoD and commercial facilities, compared to current baseline technologies. Commercial applications include brownfield sites.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. G. Duncan Hitchens
ARMY 01-153      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Electro-Osmotic Pulse Process for Electrokinetic Remediation
Abstract:There are over 100,000 sites in the United States that are contaminated with hazardous wastes. Conventional technologies are expensive to operate (remediation costs in 1996 were estimated at 187 billion dollars) however, the beginning of this new century has seen electrokinetic site remediation and electrokinetic site preservation emerging as one of the leading site decontamination and restoration technologies. Electrokinetic soil processing is an in situ technique and contaminants are removed by utilization of an electric field applied between strategically placed electrode wells. However, without the correct fluid handling systems and electrode placement physical and chemical changes within the soil can lead to a severe drop in the effectiveness of the treatment and thus increase the cost. Lynntech Inc., has developed and patented a unique electrokinetic field deployable technology that includes all necessary fluid handling and collection systems, optimum electrode spacing, and a remote monitoring station that allows off site operation. . During Phase I Lynntech Inc., will design and build a series of bench scale electrokinetic soil test beds to simulate a landfill site, a hazardous waste site, and remediation barrier formation. In Phase II Lynntech will install and demonstrate a full scale prototype system. The technology described in this proposal will be of considerable use to the Federal Government and civilian users as a cost effective, environmentally benign, in situ method for the treatment of contaminated soils. This multi-billion dollar market can also be extended to construction and building preservation and restoration.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Jordan C. Bonney
ARMY 01-154      Selected for Award
Title:Virtual Network Monitor (VNM)
Abstract:US warfighting strategy envisions Army and Joint Interoperability focused on system-centric technology to support the information needed to sustain command and control. A key obstacle to interoperability is the development of systems from the unique perspective of each individual system. Architecture Technology Corporation proposes to develop a Virtual Network Monitor (VNM) to allow the warfighter or operator to customize the network view to ensure timely exploitation of the growing Network Information Grid. To optimize the network-centric paradigm, the VNM concept will apply proven network monitoring technologies with specific features of object oriented systems to enable symbiotic battlefield interoperability of Army and Joint systems functioning at near optimal performance and warfighting capability. The Virtual Network Monitor (VNM) is a network monitoring/management tool that will allow dynamic network changes (either preplanned or real-time) that increase communications reliability and bandwidth utilization, ensure timely delivery of critical data/information, and reduce data latency. As a product, the Virtual Network Monitor will provide a virtual view of the physical network information grid that can the customized to allow different users to tailor their field of interest to a specific subset of the grid. VNM will also provide the facilities to manage the resources of the grid as the situation changes, supporting real-time reaction to the network dynamics. This will be applicable to the many future network-centric information services being developed for business transactions, medical systems, etc.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Freddie Lin
ARMY 01-154      Selected for Award
Title:Application Specific for Network Centric Data Processing Technology
Abstract:Army AMCOM is developing network centric interoperability (NCI) technologies that can provide reduced data latency, increase processing efficiencies, improve bandwidth utilization, and enhance technical performance measures to the Army's and Joint Interoperability's network centric warfare operations. This implies that NCI based network systems have to be able to perform beyond just efficient on-time data delivery, and further include versatile autonomous data processing functions for many applications, e.g., sensor fusion. This essentially calls for an entirely new network data communication and processing system that can fully support real time BM/C3I integration in one single network platform. To address this NCI demand, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes to develop an Application Specific Computing Router or Application Specific CompuRouter (ASCoR) technology. The ASCoR will not only be an advanced switching router (e.g., today's switching routers that handle quality-of-service (QoS) IP/TDM/ATM data delivery), but it will also handle powerful application specific computer processing. ASCoR will identify and process a specific set of data packets for a designated application and deliver processed/analyzed data packets to pre-specified locations (e.g., command centers) in real time or on a user-on-demand basis. In Phase I, the concept and feasibility of this proposed ASCoR network system will be developed. In addition to the Army's NCI applications, this technology is also applicable to many military real time sensor data collection/processing operations and mission critical C3I network applications. The proposed technology is also applicable to commercial network, including, but are not limited to, business-to-business commerce, collaborative security networks, mission critical real time network operations (such as air traffic control and navigation), and crisis management networks.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mr. William R. Baschnagel
ARMY 01-154      Selected for Award
Title:Ring Buffered Network Bus (RBNB) Core Technology for Implementing Network-Centric Interoperability
Abstract:In order to realize the potential of Network-Centric Warfare through Network-Centric Interoperability (NCI), a high performance information grid is essential. We propose to demonstrate that our patented Ring Buffered Network Bus (RBNBr) technology, as implemented in the commercial Java based DataTurbiner data server, is uniquely well suited to hosting this information grid and enabling true NCI in the tactical arena. Our innovative architecture uses portable Java code and standard networking protocols for deployment on most modern computers, including cost-effective PCs. It provides multi-input multi-output "ring" buffer(s) between data sources and destinations. This decouples connected applications, enabling time-synchronization of multiple real-time data sources, with simultaneous asynchronous data access from multiple on-line display and analysis stations. Merging time-synchronized data from multiple sources can occur in real-time or after the fact. Attached to an RBNB backbone, tactical sensors, command and control systems and processing applications collaborate to provide a high-performance integrated system. This network of data servers and clients creates a robust, reliable, accessible extended virtual network. Enabling the interconnection of reusable, modular legacy and custom components, our innovation greatly enhances the efficiency and performance of large-scale data distribution systems. In addition to addressing current Army interoperability requirements, we see opportunities both in other service environments as well as in industrial and manufacturing settings. The development of enterprise level business and facility management and operation practices are critical on the ability to make existing and future systems interoperable on a real-time basis. The techniques and applications developed under this effort have clear application in those environments.

MITECH, INC.
8484 Georgia Avenue, Suite 950
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 282-8642
Dr. Klaus Schug
ARMY 01-154      Selected for Award
Title:Network Centric Interoperability
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to further refine, develop and provide a proof of principal demonstration of MiTech's INCAPatPend network I/O performance enhancing technology reducing data latency, increasing processing efficiencies and improving bandwidth utilization by nearly two orders of magnitude, making possible the addition of Network Centric Interoperability (NCI) functionality to future and existing BM/C3I TAMD systems. Test results of a software implementation of INCA on actual systems and networks show almost two orders of magnitude increase in application level throughput of network data with complete interoperability with the significant investment in present and near term technologies. Retaining existing INCA interoperability with all AMCOM programs, computers, operating systems (OSs), communication protocols, network interface units and networks, will remain an objective for all Phases of the effort. The interoperability of the proposed final product will allow the application of the technology to existing systems, extending their life cycles by squashing NCI communications overhead. These top level objectives will assure timely, highly reliable, and secure interoperability for BM/C3I TAMD. The additional overhead from secure communications is also directly addressed and reduced by the same factor of 250-750 % by the proposed development of MiTech's INCA I/O processing software architecture. The anticipated result, an interoperable, able to be retrofitted, portable software library product that reduces data latency, increases processing efficiencies and improves bandwidth utilization by up to two orders of magnitude will be very attractive to military and commercial communication systems, network components and applications. The final product would provide the necessary network I/O throughput and processing performance improvements needed for implementing all anticipated real-time AMCOM system network centric interoperability communications functions. The approach of applying the resulting INCA architecture protocol library to network communications for all types of network communications and distributed systems could lead to numerous products and commercial endeavors. If added to applications, as opposed to host computers, the architecture can be used to offer high performance versions of existing and future network communicating applications such as Internet World Wide Web (WWW) browsers. Server class machines, network routers and network gateways could all make use of the technology for performance improvements. As a result, not only the multi-billion dollar simulation industry, but also almost every other telecommunications and information management system and application is a potential market for the product.

FASTVIDEO LLC
5565 Sterrett Pl., #322
Columbia, MD 21044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 730-9191
Dr. Pankaj Topiwala
ARMY 01-155      Selected for Award
Title:Digital Television Exploitation
Abstract:By 2006, all television programs in the US will be broadcasted in the new Digital Television (DTV) standard format. Digital video signals of typical sizes (SDTV 480p/i: 704x480, progressive/interlaced, 60fps; HDTV 720p: 1280x720, progressive, 60fps; HDTV 1080i: 1920x1080, interlaced, 30fps) represent a staggering raw data rates. Even with compression, the bit rate range is still overwhelming (3-19.3 Mbps). Transmitting such video over channels orders of magnitude lower in data rate requires the latest advances in compression technology as a fundamental enabler. This is especially true for communications over wireless links that often support data rates of maximum 16 kbps "C one needs more than 50,000:1 compression! While it is desirable to use standards-based solutions and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, as we will demonstrate, no existing video coding standard can adequately meet the needs of this program. To apply the DTV technology to the more limited environments of missiles, Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAVs), manpackable systems, unmanned sensors, etc, we concentrate on two related solutions: 1. Optimizing and upgrading current DTV components to meet the performance, size, weight, and power constraints. Try to employ as many COTS components as possible with minimal software/hardware upgrades. 2. Exploit the most forward-looking compression technology in the market within the next five years, preferably in a form factor that can be integrated into legacy systems. While the hardware integration aspect is an important consideration, we view the most critical factor as the compression technology itself. FastVDO, in partnership with Sharp Labs of America, plans to integrate the emerging ITU-T H.26L Standard for this application, which offers proven coding efficiencies beyond all prior standards and existing technologies. Commercial applications include videophones, video for PDAs, wireless video, video streaming over the Internet, for which the standard is designed. Significantly improved sensor data transfer for the military, high-performance low-cost components for advanced digital television

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Div., 20600 Gramercy Plac
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Andrew Kostrzewski
ARMY 01-155      Selected for Award
Title:Universal Compression and Communication System
Abstract:The challenge of this project is to take advantage of existing digital television (DTV) developments and apply them to missiles, unmanned vehicles, manpack systems, and unmanned sensors. The unique capabilities that Physical Optics Corporation (POC) brings to this problem are nearly lossless extreme compression techniques implemented within military size/weight/power constraints. Based on these techniques, POC proposes to develop a novel universal compression (UC) system compatible with all present and future DTV and compression standards. The proposed system hardware will have ultra-high processing power, over 30 billion operations per second, to execute even the most demanding compression algorithms for all current and emerging Advanced Television System Committee formats. Some of the advantages of UC technology include: compatibility with all current and emerging DTV standards through digital cosine transform (DCT), motion estimation, and wavelet compression; ultrahigh processing power, over 30 billion operations per second; ultralow latency of wavelet-based compression (less than 15 ms), and low latency for MPEG compression (less than 150 ms); remote selection of compression ratio from 10:1 to 4000:1. The proposed concept will find a wide range of applications in target confirmation and battle damage indication and assessment. Small volume and low weight will make the proposed system easier to integrate on munitions and small UAVs and UGVs.

POTOMAC ELECTRIC CORP.
One Westinghouse Plaza
Boston, MA 02136
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 364-0400
Mr. Eugene Gevorgyan
ARMY 01-156      Selected for Award
Title:Small, Light, Inexpensive Control Valves for Fuel and Oxidizer Gels for Use in Gelled Bipropulsion Systems
Abstract:A new high pressure Gel Propellant Valve is presented. Valve is completely electrical and operates at high pressures. Valve is designed for a tactical missiles but will also applicable for commercial applications. The new valve has smaller size and lower cost than currently available hydraulic valves. It will not have leaks and does not require seals. PWM control will regulate the flow of material.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4150
Mr. Brian Farrell
ARMY 01-157      Selected for Award
Title:Polymer Microfabrication Techniques for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)
Abstract:In this proposed Phase I effort, Foster-Miller will develop and demonstrate microfabrication and 3D packaging techniques for a new class of electronic substrate materials known as liquid crystal polymers (LCPs). Foster-Miller has been developing an electronic packaging technology based on these innovative LCPs for microwave multichip modules, advanced surface mount printed wiring boards and optoelectronic applications. We believe that LCPs have several advantages for use as MEMS substrates, including:  Low substrate cost.  Large substrate area.  Demonstrated compatibility with microfabrication processes.  Flexibility of LCP materials will allow designers to consider flexible and bendable MEMS structure. While the basic focus of this program is to develop microfabrication processes and demonstrate the ability to form microstructures in LCPs, consideration must also be given to the eventual packaging and integration of the MEMS system. In fact, many MEMS experts will tell you that packaging and interconnection is one of the biggest issues facing MEMS today. Bearing this in mind, our ultimate aim, by the end of a Phase II program, is to develop a 3D integration of the MEMS structures, associated components and the system packaging and interconnection. We believe that LCPs offer the best approach to achieving this ultimate goal. (P-0200012) This program will develop and demonstrate a low-cost MEMS device technology based on LCP substrates. This technology will allow for lower cost sensors and actuators for a host of applications ranging from photonics, biosensing, inertial and vibration sensing, to mention but a few. The need for MEMS-based devices is fueled by ever-shrinking consumer and telecommunications products and this technology will provide a low-cost solution to these markets.

MICROSOUND SYSTEMS
34935 SE Douglas St., Suite 200
Snoqualmie, WA 98065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 396-5707
Mr. Joe Ketterl
ARMY 01-157      Selected for Award
Title:Polymer Microfabrication Techniques for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)
Abstract:Industry and the military have strong unmet needs for greater miniaturization and efficiency of device functions including sensing, switching, robotics, microfluidics, optics, and power generation. Micromachining of polymers and other materials besides silicon, when combined with technologies such as flexible high density interconnects, could provide economical solutions. Development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has traditionally borrowed or adapted processing technology used for silicon-based integrated circuit manufacturing. This approach has serious limitations impeding widespread implementation of MEMS. A polymer-based microfabrication technology could provide functionality far beyond that of silicon-based MEMS devices and at much lower cost. Polymers could be used with microstereolithography to fabricate very large arrays of many different three-dimensional structures or devices, whereas the silicon-based technology is restricted to planar two-dimensional devices consisting of at most several layers, with arrays being limited by wafer size. In this Phase I SBIR program, MicroSound Systems proposes to investigate the use of polymers for fabricating MEMS sensors. Processing polymers for MEMS will be demonstrated by making a small set of different types of sensors in Phase I, and processes for fabricating large arrays of a variety of such devices will be developed in Phase II. Microfabrication of MEMS and sensors from new electronic and optical polymers could perform a much greater variety of sensing functions than silicon, and this would allow the manufacture of affordable sensors useful for monitoring warfighters and eaquipment, and detecting biohazards and mines.

CARCO ELECTRONICS
104 Beta Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15238
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 408-6404
Mr. Kenneth Willis
ARMY 01-158      Selected for Award
Title:Compact Range Implementation of RF Target Glint Signatures for Multi-mode Hardware-in-the-loop Simulations
Abstract:This proposal describes a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) system for testing millimeter wave radio frequency (RF), multi-mode missile seekers. The system consists of a unique five-axis (three seeker axes plus two target axes) flight motion table (FMT), an off-axis parabolic RF reflector, RF feeds, and an electronics box for the control of RF phase plane. RF energy of a given target signature is fed into the reflector from a antenna feeds assembly mounted on the inner target axis, at the focal point area of the parabolic reflector. The parabolic reflector, together with the three RF antenna feeds (the Compact Range), effectively produces a far-field image of the RF target. Both FMT target axis motion and electronic control of the RF beams (deflection) modify the simulated line-of-sight target angles. Multiple (multiplexing) targets, glint, multi-path, and ECM, can be introduced electronically. To evaluate multi-mode seekers, the center section of the parabolic reflector is replaced with an IR-transparent, but RF-reflective section. An IR scene projector or Semi-Active Laser (SAL) return generator mounts to the FMT target axes, with its image focused on the intersection of the FMT seeker axes. The system eliminates the need for a large anechoic chamber and "Target Wall" or target motion system used with conventional HWIL systems. The compact range is less expensive to procure and operate than alternative HWIL systems that require an anechoic chamber. Multi-mode missile simulation can achieve perfect registration of both the RF and IR target systems and provides precise control over seeker/target geometry. Many foreign and domestic prime missile development contractors are potential customers for commercial applications.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Ave, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Lev Sadovnik
ARMY 01-158      Selected for Award
Title:Compact Optimized Multimode Simulator Utilizing a Novel Electronically Steerable Antenna
Abstract:WaveBand's solution for RF target glint signature generation as it applies to a compact range multi-mode hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulator is based on the following three innovations: a phase/amplitude controlled electronically steerable module (ESM); wide angular view adjustable MMW optics; and a trichroic beamcombiner, for the alternative geometry of RF folding/IR transparent window. The combination of these novel, but verified, techniques allows WaveBand to optimize the compact range design and fabrication, both in terms of the overall range footprint and of its cost and complexity. WaveBand's solution overcomes inherent compact range limitations caused by the fact that the far-field antenna requirements cannot be satisfied. The application of the proposed innovations will enable: 10 MHz angle of arrival update rate for the composite signal synchronized with the seeker waveform; multiple target simulation; 1.0 GHz instantaneous bandwidth; +/- 1.5 mrad accuracy of beam pointing; dynamically adjustable beamwidth compatible with the seeker under the test (SUT); multi-mode operation by combining IR and SAL signals with MMW on SUT. Phase I will demonstrate experimentally 1-D functionality of the proposed compact simulator using WaveBand's scanning antenna as SUT. The proposed range will benefit MMW radar development for automotive, aviation, security, railroads and marine markets as a compact and affordable test bed.

ZONA TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7430 E. Stetson Drive, Suite 205
Scottsdale, AZ 85251
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 945-9988
Mr. Ping Chih Chen
ARMY 01-159      Selected for Award
Title:Body-Flexure Control with Smart Actuation for Hypervelocity Missiles
Abstract:We take advantage of the flexibility of slender missiles, rather than treating it as an undesirable feature, by using smart structure (PZT) to actuate the CKEM center-body in achieving instant bending through aeroelastic amplification. Thus, the CKEM can be controlled effectively in hypersonic/supersonic flight without any control canards. Nor would it require mechanical actuation for hinged bent-nose control. Hence, the merit of the body-flexure PZT control CKEM design lies in its being a simpler system but with reduced weight and enhanced maneuverability. The proof-of-concept study is overwhelmingly positive in favor of PZT-actuated body flexure control design concept. A low-power PZT control system is proven feasible for trim, and high-G maneuver control of hypervelocity CKEM configurations. While maintaining stability, the CKEM smart-actuation control forces and moments can be amplified by the aeroelastic effects of an optimum aeroelastically-tailored composite structure using ASTROS* optimization. ASTROS* can also optimize sensor and PZT locations which are necessary to achieve an ultimately effective control system design. ZONA intends to work closely with the MRDEC R&D personnel and system developers for the continuing staged-CKEM development. The phase I outcome will be a minimum weight structure and a minimum-power integrated control system design that satisfies given performance requirements. ZONA envisions that ASTROS* and its presently developed modules in aerodynamics/aerothermoelasticity/ASE/sensor-PZT optimization for hypervelocity CKEM can become a powerful extended MDO engineering tool for design/analysis of modern aerospace vehicles. (1) With a CRDA approved, ZONA will market the extended ASTROS* to the aerospace industry worldwide through its 15-year software licensing network; (2) Potential applications include next-generation missiles/projectiles, TAV/RLVs, modern fighters, UAV/UCAVs , etc.; (3) Potential customers include DoD, NASA and aerospace/defense industry.

EERGC CORP.
18A Mason
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 768-3756
Mr. Mark Sheldon
ARMY 01-160      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Gellants for Optimized Fuel Gels
Abstract:Gelled propellants are generally safer to handle, have reduced flammability and detonability, and lower spill susceptibility compared to traditional liquid fuels. However, they are more difficult to atomize and combust, and the presence of the gelling agent can cause a loss of specific impulse. EERGC Corporation in cooperation with subcontractor TRW, a leader in gel propellant technology, proposes an SBIR project to identify promising particulate gellants for use in MHZ and DMAZ bipropellant fuels and to optimize them with respect to chemical stability, gel stability and properties, rheology, combustion performance and cost. Models, calculations, and engineering judgement will be used to evaluate and screen a number of potential gelling agents based on their theoretical ability to form gels with MHZ and DMAZ, to react with the oxidant but not the fuel, and to burn quickly leaving minimal visible signature. The more promising ones will be selected for limited testing for chemical and short-term gel stability, density, centrifuge stability, and yield point; and the most promising ones will be selected for more detailed testing including long term stability and high-shear rheology tests. An optional bridge to Phase II is proposed to examine variations of the best gels to optimize gel properties. The gel fuels to be developed in this proposed SBIR project will be suitable for integration into Common Missile and modernized Hellfire program applications. This is applicable to a number of missile systems such as TOW, Javelin, Hellfire, and potentially Stinger-type systems. In addition, gel propellants' potential for enhanced safety and control make them appealing for NASA launch vehicles, spacecraft, and satellites as well as future commercial spaceflight applications.

ACTA, INC.
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1008
Dr. Timothy K. Hasselman
ARMY 01-161      Selected for Award
Title:A Stochastic Neural Network Model for Missile Reliability Prognostics
Abstract:The proposed project will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a Stochastic Neural Network for Missile Reliability Prognostics. A neural network model will be developed to predict missile reliability based on the environmental history of particular missiles. Prediction training will be employed to predict missile reliability at future times, based only on training data available at the current time. Principal components metrics will be used to quantify generic modeling uncertainty based on past experience, for purposes of evaluating the predictive accuracy of future reliability estimates. The innovation proposed here will combine the benefits of prediction training and generic uncertainty modeling to quantify the accuracy of reliability predictions based on a statistical comparison of earlier predictions with subsequent observations. Both will be correlated with measurements of the ambient environment recorded by a data logger. Statistical analyses of the environmental data will be performed to coincide with the update of reliability information, reducing the environmental data to time dependent statistical parameters. In addition to providing the Army with a tool for missile reliability prognostics, an immediate spin-off might very well be the application to Sandia's maintenance of the Nation's nuclear weapons stockpile, where radiation is an important environmental factor. Other potential applications involve various types of mission-critical equipment used by all branches of the armed services, as well as both military and commercial aircraft. ACTA has taken the first steps in developing a fiber-optic structural health monitoring system for aerospace vehicles under a SBIR project funded by NASA. This system will record stress cycle histories throughout an aircraft for purposes of monitoring its structural health. The use of a reliability prognostics tool in conjunction with stress cycle monitoring could significantly improve the operational safety of military and commercial aviation.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, I
174 North Main Street, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Mr. Brian J. York
ARMY 01-162      Selected for Award
Title:Extended, Transient, Rocket Exhaust Plume Modeling
Abstract:The extended transient exhaust plume from hypervelocity tactical missiles contains particulates which degrade EM waves used for guidance and/or tracking. Our proposed Phase I effort initiates the development of an efficient parallel architecture framework to analyze the complete transient plume, from launch to target, using specialized Navier-Stokes methodology in a dynamic and expanding grid system. A multiple time-scale formulation is used to treat the disparate scales in the plume nearfield, farfield, and atmospheric dispersion domains. Efficiency strategies will be examined using a sequence of quasi-steady solutions. A key element of our Phase I work entails the inclusion of RANS particle dispersion methodology which utilizes a Lagrangian particle solver and implements stochastic methods to emulate the turbulent eddy structure. The eddy structure for high speed plumes differs substantially from that in lower speed laboratory jets and we will use LES simulations with particles to provide data at higher speeds. An optional task entails use of our dynamic grid, incompressible unstructured code to simulate atmospheric dispersion over an ever expanding and moving domain using Lagrangian methodology within an LES framework. A demo calculation will be performed for a CKEM type missile over a complete trajectory. The ability to deal with the extended transient plume problem has significant commercial potential as related to a variety of dispersion problems which include: (1) dispersion of noxious elements from rocket boosters during launch; (2) vented exhaust plume products from Naval launchers as related to IR and ship component interaction problems: (3) Varied commercial smokestack dispersion problems; and, (4) Chem/Bio bunker venting and threat missile post-hit cloud dispersion scenarios. This effort will expand the types of problems we can support and will enhance the commercialization of specialized codes we now license.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Iain Mckinnie
ARMY 01-163      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Compact Short-Pulse Eyesafe Transmitter
Abstract:Compact, rugged and efficient imaging ladar transceivers are required for future autonomous navigation and missile guidance systems. Current systems do not simultaneously satisfy requirements for transceiver size, weight, prime power, robustness and high range resolution. This is particularly true of the most expensive and complex transceiver subsystem - the ladar transmitter - which must provide 1 nanosecond class pulses to resolve <20-cm depth for typical target features. Currently available transmitters cannot address all of the operating requirements: Q-switched lasers based on Erbium do not meet the pulse width requirements due to the low gain; mode-locked lasers do not provide a robust solution and excessive PRFs lead to range ambiguity; in OPOs, sensitivity to phase-mismatch, pump parameters, and build-up inhibit efficient sub-nanosecond pulse generation; and bulk Raman lasers are inefficient under low energy, high PRF operation. CTI proposes a breakthrough miniature, short-pulse (< 1-nanosecond) eyesafe transmitter to meet the requirements for a scanning ladar system. The transmitter combines two proprietary technologies for pulse compression, high efficiency and high beam quality. Together with a novel approach to rugged optical component mounting, this provides a robust and compact transmitter architecture. Phase I will validate the novel transmitter and mount concepts. Phase II will develop and test prototype transceiver components. Anticipated applications include (1) laser range finding for military and commercial markets, (2) eye-safe laser remote sensing transmitters, (3) a new line of compact diode-pumped eye-safe lasers for industrial, medical, and scientific applications.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #4
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8730
Mr. David Ludwig
ARMY 01-163      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Technology Development for Lasar Radar (LADAR)
Abstract:ISC plans to utilize its packaging expertise to design a miniature LADAR receiver system for 1Km active imaging applications. The receiver will contain custom designed readout electronics in a stacked silicon module configuration. The custom ICs will contain signal processing electronics to determine the time of arrival of laser pulse echoes. The system will also employ a stack of off-the-shelf digital electronics taht will make up the image processing section of the receiver. The receiver electronics will be made up of three boards each 2.5 x 2.5 inches. The digital processor stack is based on the Intel StrongArm processor and will be able to run Windows NT or Linux operating system. The reduction in receiver electronics can greatly improve the marketability of commervial 3D imaging systems. The areas of most significant growth would be in the industrial applications of civil and mechanical engineering. A similar reduction in the volume of the transmitter electronics would complete the tranformation. ISC will team with an established industrial LADAR company for commercialization.

QUANTERION SOLUTIONS
811 Court St.
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-0097
Mr. Preston MacDiarmid
ARMY 01-164      Selected for Award
Title:Reliability Analysis and Project Tracking Environment (RAPTRE) Tool
Abstract:Military program offices are challenged to make effective reliability decisions throughout development and acquisition programs. The decisions range from determining what reliability requirements to specify to assure that the system users' mission needs are met to selecting the most effective means of assessing whether the system reliability is adequate to pass through various program decision "gates." These challenges are often faced by personnel with varying reliability-specific experience and training who have multiple program responsibilities and, therefore, need the benefit of the accumulated knowledge and expertise that a tool like RAPTRE offers. The proposed RAPTRE tool will bring together the types of decision rules, analysis tools, checklists, as well as other forms of reliability knowledge, information and data to facilitate the decision making process. The tool's project tracking capability will provide a mechanism for measuring the effectiveness of reliability approaches in the form of lessons learned and metrics tracking allowing it to "learn" from continued use. Although the RAPTRE tool will be developed for the military, it has tremendous long term commercial potential as well. The development of RAPTRE will greatly facilitate the reliability decision making process for military programs but it will also be very useful outside the military. Other government organizations like NASA, the FAA and NOAA face many of the same reliability decisions as the military; the same is true for non-government organizations like the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute as well as the utility industry in general. In this era of Defense Acquisition Reform with "performance based requirements" RAPTRE can be very effective in helping prime contractors structure their reliability approaches that will successfully meet the government's needs. Also, because reliability and quality have become discriminating product attributes in the marketplace, commercial manufacturers can benefit from use of the tool as well. Benefits of using RAPTRE for organizations buying and using systems and products are more effective reliability decisions, and therefore lower risk and lower cost in meeting the users' needs as well as in fielding more supportable systems. To the developers and manufacturers of products and systems the benefits are more success in the marketplace, whether competing for government systems or selling commercial products, lower warranty costs and reduced manufacturing costs.

SIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3307 BOB WALLACE AVENUE,, Suite 3
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 955-7288
Dr. Annie V. Saylor
ARMY 01-165      Selected for Award
Title:Common High Resolution Modularized Millimeter Wave (MMW) Scene Generator
Abstract:A radar scene generator meeting the requirements of both digital and hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulations for modern millimeter wave (MMW) systems is proposed. The scene generator will meet the level of fidelity expectations of digital simulations, with adaptability to real-time HWIL applications. The simulation will be modularized so that it can be adapted to varying waveform parameters, while retaining computational efficiencies necessary to real-time updates. Simulation Technologies, Inc. (SimTech) proposes to approach this problem using real-time radar scene generation computers and software tools. The scene generator will be targeted to two markets, the first of which are the DoD and contractors who develop radar seeker systems. The second market is to signal and image analysis medical applications using the specialized math libraries developed as part of the scene generator.

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
Clear Creek Business Park, 376 NE 219th Ave
Gresham, OR 97030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
Mr. Whitten Schulz
ARMY 01-166      Selected for Award
Title:Embedded Sensor Technology for Solid Rocket Motor Health Monitoring
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR will study the potential of a multi-axis fiber grating strain sensor system that is capable of monitoring strain internal to a solid rocket motor bondline. This multi-axis technology would allow unique multidimensional strain field analysis via a non-intrusive, embedded optical sensor. This technology could not only be used to monitor solid rocket motors, but has a wide range of aerospace platform applications, both military and commercial that employ bonded structures. It is also possible that this technology could be used on ships, briges, and other large structures where bonded materials are playing an ever more important role.

MICRON INSTRUMENTS
4509 Runway St.
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 522-4676
Mr. Herbert Chelner
ARMY 01-166      Selected for Award
Title:Embedded Sensor Technology for Solid Rocket Motor Health Monitoring
Abstract:One of the important parameters required for solid grain motor health montitoring is case bond stress. It is also the most difficult parameter to measure. To be a health monitor, these sensors must be small so as not effect the performance of the motor. They must have very low thermal hysteresis and long term stability. Service life determination requires the monitoring of additional prameters such as temperature, humidity, shock and vibration. Phase 1 is to improve a currently available bond stress sensor to make it more accurate and stable. Sensors and loggers will be fabricated and used in support of the customer defined sample testing program. Phase 2 will continue with anologue motor trials and work to improve logger capability. During Phase 3, the Phase 2 logger will be developed which will provide real time data and location via a satellite com link. Digagnostics within the logger permits fault danger detection warnings, complete measurement data and useful life computation. The system will be self powered, light and versitile. It will accomodate any sensor and communicate via parallel BCD, RS485, optical or transmit to a satellite. Real time detection of damage to strategic missiles in silo's or during shipment permits avoidance of explosions and malfunctions. It also eliminates the need for expensive removal from silos or storage for X-ray and other non destructive and destructive testing. This saves on test facilities, eliminates potential damage during shipping and the cost of testing and extends the useful life. The system is capable of health detection and sending real time warning of critical faults when and where they occur via satellite or other detectors.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. George P. Hansen
ARMY 01-167      Selected for Award
Title:Assessing the Impact of Lead-free Solders on the Long-term Reliability of Weapon System Electronics.
Abstract:Lead based solders have been used for decades to make conductive and structural connections in electronic assemblies. Whole manufacturing technologies are based on the melt, flow and wetting characteristics of these materials and establishing new solder platforms requires substantial and pervasive changes in the industry. As industry moves away from the use of lead in electronic assemblies, the development of qualification standards for lead free solders and conductive adhesives is needed to ensure continued performance reliability. In the proposed work, TRI/Austin will develop procedures that can be used as a "standard of evaluation" for lead free solders, making it possible to compare them with each other and with well established lead/tin solders. During Phase I, leading lead free solder alloys and conductive adhesives suitable for military applications will be cataloged. Standardized models to predict thermal-mechanical failure will be developed, given a formulation and a specified geometry. A standardized stress test will be designed to validate the above model and enhance failure prediction. TRI's expertise in accelerated life testing will provide the basis for evaluating lead free solders using thermal models and in the simulation of actual exposures to various "real world" environmental conditions. The proposed technology will be enhance the reliability of future missile and other weapons systems, and is applicable to National Missile Defense initiatives. It will also provide the commercial electronics industry with tools to increase the reliability of future consumer electronic components that will use lead free solder interconnects.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7892
Dr. Paul Shnitser
ARMY 01-168      Selected for Award
Title:Multiwavelengths Laser Blood-Flowmetry/Oximerty for Monitoring of Angiogenesis
Abstract:Neoangiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries, is critical for normal healing of various injuries. The cross-sectional dimensions of the newly developed blood vessels range from one micron to tens of microns. Therefore, a technology with a very high spatial resolution is needed for angiogenesis monitoring. Current imaging technologies such as MRI and Doppler sonography provide spatial resolution just down to a few millimeters. To overcome these drawbacks, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to design and develop a novel Multiwavelength Laser Confocal Doppler Microscope (MLCDM). The MLCDM will be capable of performing simultaneous measurements of both blood flow velocity and blood oxygenation -- rapidly and with a spatial resolution down to 20 microns. The combined measurement of both parameters will create an opportunity for a reliable monitoring of neovascularisation. POC's proposed MLCDM integrates laser Doppler flowmetry with oximetry and is designed on the basis of optical coherence tomography/confocal microscopy with an electronically tunable liquid crystal lens. The MLCDM prototype developed for superficial operation in Phase I will be adapted in Phase II for endoscopic applications. The proposed MLCDM will be at the forefront of optical diagnostic technologies that by mapping simultaneously blood flow velocity and oxygen concentration providing an indicative tool for neovascularization monitoring and hence, early evaluation of the process of wound healing. This instrument may be used for diagnostics and monitoring of numerous diseases such as diabetes, mellitus and atherosclerosis, Raynaud's phenomenon and different vasculitieses. Potential spin-off products and applications for this technology include diagnostic endoscopy and colposcopy.

DIMENSIONAL MEDIA
22 W 19th Street
New York, NY 10011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 620-4100
Dr. Alan Sullivan
ARMY 01-169      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Surgical Simulation Workstation based on the DepthCube 3D Display
Abstract:We propose to develop a general purpose PC based surgical simulation workstation utilizing our new DepthCube 3D DisplayO technology combined with Sensible Technologies' PhantomO haptic interface. The DepthCube display creates full color true 3D volumetric images that float in space where they can be touched and felt through an appropriately calibrated and aligned haptic interface. The workstation will integrate the DepthCube display and haptic interfaces into a single hardware assembly. We will also develop and integrate a simulation workstation application programming interface (SWAPI) that will allow simulator developers to define the visual and tactile characteristics of their simulated anatomy through a haptic extended version of OpenGL. The API will manage all of the visual and tactile resources of the workstation leaving the developer free to concentrate on the challenges of simulating anatomy and developing surgical training methodology. By building their software around our simulation workstation and API the simulator developers are guaranteed a set of reliable and integrated visual and tactile resources. They also obtain flexibility by being able to run a range of simulation applications on a single platform. The proposed system will also provide portability by being what we hope is a commonly available simulation resource. Surgical simulation systems for training, pre-operative planning, and the development of new surgical procedures are expected to play a valuable role in the improvement of patient outcomes through the reduction in the duration of procedures and the rate of mistakes. However, current mannequin-based simulators, such as MedSim's PeopleSim Simulator, deal only with a very narrow range of procedures and severely limit student throughput. What is needed is a general-purpose PC-based surgical simulation platform on which an unlimited range of surgical simulation software applications can be run. This approach would allow a single system to simulate any part of the body for training and allow multiple systems to simulate the same or different procedures as determined by the instructor. The simulation workstation developed under this proposal has additional applications that extend well beyond medicine. Indeed the system can be used for training any tactile task that can fit within the display volume of the workstation. Additionally, the same platform can also serve as the control console for a wide range of telepresence tasks included telepresence surgery, remote surveillance, hazardous waste manipulation, undersea and outer space robots, and micro and nano manipulation.

PROCELL CORP.
2190 Fox Mill Road, Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 745-2491
Dr. Yvonne Rosenberg
ARMY 01-170      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Preparation and Testing of Human Compatible Serum Butyrylcholinesterase
Abstract:Exposure to organophosphates (OPs), in the form of nerve gas and insecticides poses an ever increasing military and civilian threat. In recent years exogenous administration of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) have been successfully used as safe and efficacious prophylactic treatments due to their capacity to scavenge OPs in the blood before inhibition of the targeted endogenous AChE can occur. Importantly BChE has also been used for treating cocaine-overdosed individuals and alleviating succinylcholine-induced apnea. However, while the currently used methods of native enzyme isolation from frozen plasma are effective on a laboratory scale, they are time consuming and expensive. These factors, coupled with potential safety issues associated with the purification of proteins from human blood (i.e. hepatitis, HIV, prion contamination), highlight the importance of developing recombinant BChE technology as an alternate and parallel strategy for the commercial production. This Phase I application proposes to produce highly purified recombinant rhesus macaque BChE (rMaBChE) that exhibits chemical and functional properties similar to the native enzyme i.e. circulatory stability and no immunogenicity when injected into an homologous host. Administration of native Ma BChE into macaques results in long circulatory times and serves as an excellent system for elucidating rBChE expression technology and for comparing homologous native plasma-derived and recombinant forms for use as OP scavengers. The study involves three specific aims (i) To clone and express two different MaBChE cDNA clones in CHO cells and to further sialylate the protein in vitro in order to mimic glycosylation pattern similar to the native form (ii) To test the stability of each purified products in vivo following injection of mice and (iii) to examine the pharmacokinetics of the most stable sialylated rBChE (both fresh and frozen) in homologous macaques. In phase II, through collaborative efforts or partnerships, scaled-up production of a highly effective human rBChE scavenger will be done under GMP conditions in order to conduct human trials. Commercial applications include situations where delivery of `self" protein based drugs are life saving e.g. 1) for the rapid treatment of inhaled toxins eg nerve gas 2) for increased quality of life for patients requiring chronic i.m. or i.v. administration of protein/peptides (i.e. diabetics) 3) alleviating life threatening condition(s) e.g. apnea in BChE atypical people 4) for delivery safer and more efficacious vaccines human studies

PMI, INC.
5951 Halpine Road
Rockville, MD 20851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 816-9212
Mr. Edwin R. Hotchkiss
ARMY 01-171      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a Mobile, Miniaturized, Field Deployable Pupillometer to Assess Fitness for Duty
Abstract:DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT RESEARCH This project will take the commercially available FIT 2000 pupillometer and make it smaller, lighter, and more resistant to environmental extremes for use by a wider commercial and military population. Prior research has validated the present FIT pupillometer as a rapid, noninvasive, self-administered test for sleep deprivation related impairment as well as impairment from drugs and alcohol. This project proposes to redesign the present FIT pupillometer, which is currently restricted to indoor use under constant light conditions, to achieve a new mobile version that can be used in varying weather and ambient light conditions. Performance variation due to impairment from sleep deprivation and other causes is a very common problem in the military as well as in commercial operations. With this simple and fast technology, management can evaluate the readiness of troops or employees and therefore assess the risk of accidents in safety sensitive tasks versus continuing operations. Phase I will complete the overall design of the "mobile" FIT including both the technical design and packaging concept. In addition, Phase I will design and execute a study to determine the effect of ambient light differences on Saccadic Velocity, Pupil Diameter, Constriction Latency and Constriction Amplitude. Phase II will be to implement the design into a full development project and build 6 prototypes to use for measuring and compensating for ambient light effects on normal and sleep deprived subjects. Phase III will be to build production models for both military and commercial applications. The current FIT 2000 design has already shown that there is market demand for a fast, non-invasive test that can show the presence of risk factors associated with both overt and covert performance deficits. The current design will only operate under very mild environmental conditions including constant ambient light which severely limits the utilization of the current device. Once the new mobile design has been completed as part of Phase II with full validation, the market potential within military and commercial applications is huge. The military and many commercial applications have become extremely concerned with sleep deprivation and is actively looking for ways to better manage this issue. The new design impairment screener can be used for sleep deprivation only or as a full fitness-for-duty screener in safety critical industries such as mining and transportation. The Phase I benefit will be the completion of all of the feasibility testing addressing the open issues that exist today along with a complete plan to bring this technology to its full potential.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4157
Mr. Malcolm Taylor
ARMY 01-172      Selected for Award
Title:Field Portable Blood Collection and Separation Device
Abstract:A military version of Haemonetics Corporation's Chairside Separatorr will be developed which meets or exceeds all of the U.S. Army requirements for blood collection and separation. The Chairside Separatorr is based on Haemonetics' Dynamic DiskT technology, which allows rapid collection and processing of blood in a very small package. In addition, faster and simpler methods of leukocyte reduction will be investigated to advance the state of the art in this area. The small, lightweight, and highly automated Chairside Separatorr being developed for the civilian market already meets most of the requirements for use in a military environment. In the Phase I project, a simplified concept for leukocyte reduction will be defined and demonstrated on a "breadboard" set-up. An overall concept design for a military version of the Chairside Separatorr will be defined, incorporating the new leuko-reduction technology if appropriate. The optional effort, if approved, will define data transmission methods and protocols for military use of the device. The concept design and technology demonstration done during Phase I will be the basis of prototype device development and submission for FDA approval in Phase II. (P-020017) Successful development of a military version of the Chairside Separatorr and simpler means of leukocyte reduction, will allow blood to be collected and processed more conveniently in a military environment. Meeting the U.S. Army development objectives will result in significant cost savings as well. If appropriate, technology developed for the military version of the device may be applied the civilian version, which is already nearing commercialization.

3RD MILLENNIUM, INC.
125 Cambridge Park Drive
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 441-3030
Dr. Jack Pollard
ARMY 01-173      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Web-driven Bioinformatic Platform for Microarrays
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to create an innovative bioinformatics system for the management and analysis of microarray data. It will be a new generation of informatics system that goes well beyond any system presently available. The system will not only allow users to track the generation of data with a flexible laboratory information management system (LIMS), but it will also allow users to track and manage the analysis of the data automatically with a pioneering analysis information management system (AIMS). The AIMS portion of the system interfaces with external bioinformatics tools and databases to allow users to process and interpret their data. The integration of LIMS and AIMS will produce dramatic new benefits to researchers in terms of improved research quality and decreased time to biological discovery. Existing microarray informatics systems are very incomplete solutions because they fail to address the entire process and fail to track and integrate critical experimental and analysis information. No existing solution provides as complete or as integrated a solution as system proposed here. Technologies developed for this proposal will also be extremely effective for the management and analysis of other biological, high throughput functional data besides microarrays. Benefits: Significant cost reductions for conducting and analyzing microarray experiments. Dramatic improvements in the speed for conducting microarray experiments and for analyzing and appropriately documenting results. Substantial new functionality to support collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge resulting from varied uses of microarray technologies. Potential Commerical Applications: New class of LIMS, AIMS, and LIMS-AIMS combination products for microarray, protein-protein interactions, and metobolic research markets.

KUMETRIX, INC.
29524 Union City Blvd.
Union City, CA 94587
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 476-0950
Dr. Robert Jones
ARMY 01-174      Selected for Award
Title:Aptamer Array Microsampler for Detection of Cancer Markers
Abstract:There is an acute need to rapidly detect cancer markers and help diagnose cancer at the earliest stage possible. The objective of this Phase I proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a simple point-of-care diagnostic tool for the detection of cancer markers. Early diagnosis of prostate, ovarian, breast and other cancers will allow the physician to intervene earlier in the cancer progression, with greatly improved outcomes. Rapid monitoring of cancer markers will also allow evaluation of a cancer patient's response to therapy and to check for recurrence or metastatic spread. We propose a revolutionary new device for the detection of cancer markers via the synergy of two emerging technologies, the silicon microsampler that was pioneered at Kumetrix for painless blood sampling combined with rapidly developing aptamer technology. The proposed diagnostic device will enable the user to quickly and accurately identify cancer markers. Early identification of cancer will lead to immediate treatment and thus a much greater chance of recovery. This small device will painlessly draw a blood sample and quickly determine the presence of cancer markers. Identification of cancer at a very early stage will permit timely intervention, thus greatly enhancing recovery rates. This device has applications for both military and civilian care.

PARAVANT, INC.
3520 U.S. Highway 1
Palm Bay, FL 32905
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 727-3672
Mr. Lary Beaulieu
ARMY 01-175      Selected for Award
Title:Ruggedized Medic
Abstract:The Army medical community needs a small ruggedized computer for use in combat casualty care and field health support operations. This device must meet the functional needs and requirements of the field medical first responder and be of a rugged nature sufficiently robust to withstand and operate in the severe environmental conditions operationaly encountered. In response to this requirement, Paravant proposes a coordinated modification and redevelopment effort to provide an operating Rugged Medic handheld computer, using Paravant's existing RHC-1000 (Windows CE/Linux) and RHC-500 (Palm OS) rugged handheld computer designs as a baseline. The resulting Rugged Medic computer will provide a unique environmentally sealed implementation of the (PIC) read and write system, as well as a user available PCMCIA interface card slot to facilitate such functionality as high speed wireless LAN, FDA certified diagnostic modules such as the QRS EKG, commercial and military SASM equipped GPS, and other type II PCMCIA based custom and commercial peripherals. Paravant expects a significant commercial market to exist for this effort both with the DOD and in the private sector marketplace. Within the DOD, it is noted that there are close to ten thousand US Army first responder medics that could utilize this advanced technology to better perform their jobs of saving and prolonging life until primary care can be reached. The Marines and Special Forces medics are an additional market able to benefit, adding several thousand more possible systems. The same need exists within the private sector. Harsh environmental conditions require a first responder computer system to meet many of the same environmental requirements as for military use. This market is estimated to much larger than the DOD market. Paravant expects to utilize distribution channels and Representative Organizations within the Public Health and Safety community to serve this marketplace. In summary, there is a tremendous unfilled need in both the DOD and Private Sector markets for such a device, and Paravant is well positioned to successfully serve both.

KUMETRIX, INC.
29524 Union City Blvd.
Union City, CA 94587
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 476-0950
Dr. Wilson Smart
ARMY 01-176      Selected for Award
Title:Automatic Assay of Blood Cholinesterase in the Field
Abstract:A unique minimally invasive system for painless blood testing, now being commercialized for diabetic blood glucose monitoring, can be adapted to measure blood cholinesterase activity. The consumable, the key novel system component, consists of a hollow silicon microneedle comparable in cross-section to a human hair integrated with lab-on-a-chip microfluidics. This device is made by silicon microfabrication technology developed for the manufacture of electronic integrated circuits, and can be produced in high volume at low unit cost. In use, the microneedle punctures the skin and draws a 10 to 60 nanoliter blood sample into the chip, where the assay is performed automatically. On-chip microfluidics under microprocessor control mix the blood sample with a buffered solution of a selected cholinesterase substrate, and an integrated electrochemical biosensor measures the rate of choline (or thiocholine) production. The strength of this new approach lies in the combination of biosensors and our unique silicon microneedles, which possess high strength, flexibility, and fracture toughness resulting from extensive MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) R&D in the proposer's laboratory. By rendering use easy and painless and sharply reducing cost, disposable chips for field measurement of the activities of specific enzymes in blood, such as the cholinesterases, become practical. Assay methods for true and pseudo cholinesterases, and for genetic variants, can be adapted to this innovative sub-microliter blood testing system. Using an identical silicon consumable, either a small hand-held field instrument or a clinical laboratory bench-top instrument calculates and displays the assay result, compares it with the baseline for the specific individual, holds it in memory for recall, and interfaces with data collection systems. The Phase I Basic Program will show feasibility by integrating choline biosensors into silicon, demonstrating a technique for stable long-term on-chip storage of acetylcholine, and fabricating silicon chips with microfluidics for cholinesterase assays. The Option proposes microfluidics optimization calculations, and improved cholinesterase chip fabrication based thereon. This unique one-step automatic painless blood testing system will enable rapid and accurate measurement of cholinesterase activity in the field for evaluation of exposure to nerve agents in both military and terrorism contexts. It is also applicable for easily and reliably monitoring chemical and agricultural workers handling pesticides for toxic exposure. Addition of other analytes will extend this technology to an ever increasing portion of the blood testing market.

MESOSYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1021 N. Kellogg St.
Kennewick, WA 99336
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 272-7505
Mr. Ezra Merrill
ARMY 01-177      Selected for Award
Title:Technologies to Reduce Water Requirements of Soldiers in the Field
Abstract:The U.S. military has a pressing need for technologies that are capable of reducing the logistical burden of supplying water to soldiers deployed in the field. We will demonstrate the feasibility of rapid swing isothermal adsorption/desorption combined with a mesochannel heat exchanger to eliminate water loss from a soldier's body due to respiration. The mesochannel adsorption water-recovery device will utilize a state-of-the-art, high-capacity adsorbent to separate water vapor from the soldier's exhaled air. The water vapor will then be desorbed into the airflow as the soldier inhales. This cycle repeats, thus nearly eliminating water loss from the soldier's body through respiration. Recent advances in adsorbent-film-deposition techniques on mesochannel banks and microchannel heat-exchanger designs make this a viable approach. Adsorbent film deposition techniques developed by NanoPore Inc. and MesoSystems Technology Inc., allow the independent and precise control of film thickness, composition, diffusion-pathway dimensions, and pore-throat diameter of high capacity adsorbents. The film will be deposited on the surfaces of a mesochannel adsorbent bank. A mesochannel heat exchanger will be developed that will efficiently extract and store heat from the exhaled air and transfer it to inhaled air. The system will not require an energy source. It functions fully on differences in partial pressures of water vapor in the inhaled/exhaled air and on heat that is extracted, stored, and released. Lightweight and highly effective aerogel insulation developed by NanoPore, Inc. will be used to insulate the device. The final system mass will be less than 40 grams. The mesochannel adsorption water-recovery device will greatly reduce water loss due to respiration. This will reduce the military's logistical burden of supplying water to deployed troops. With a mass of less than 40 grams, the device will recycle up to 100 grams of water per hour.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Craig C. Andrews
ARMY 01-178      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Device for Wound Irrigation and Debridement
Abstract:A significant number of bone and tissue combat injuries require surgical debridement, usually accompanied by irrigation with sterile water with simultaneous suction. While this approach to removal of devitalized tissue has been quite successful, a debrided wound often becomes infected due to insufficient irrigation (volume) or direct contact with pathogens via the irrigation water or surgical materials. This problem is further complicated in battlefield scenarios where supply and casualty care logistics and availability of sterile water are insufficient for adequate care. To overcome these obstacles faced by far-forward and rear support units, Lynntech will develop a rugged, lightweight debridement irrigation and suction device incorporating two electrochemical technologies in tandem. This new device will allow for the in-line sterilization of any external source of potable water while providing a small amount of short-lived, safe, residual disinfectant to deter infectious microorganisms. In Phase I, Lynntech will design, fabricate, and test the irrigation water system, focusing on durability, weight, source water effect on sterilization, energy (battery) requirements, integration of subsystems, and sterilization efficiency against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacteria. Phase II will focus on construction, testing and delivery of wound irrigation/suction device to be further tested in vivo for proof of performance and safety. Manufacture of sterile water at the point-of-use is attractive for uses within the medical/surgical areas and in general water treatment. A direct avenue to commercialization is evident for military field hospitals, civilian emergency response (natural disasters), industrial first aid, rural and developing country medical treatment, and mobile veterinary care. A similar interation of the device could also be used to treat drinking water in remote locations where pathogens are endemic or in areas that have had water quality compromised by microorganisms. A personal disinfection device, which uses similar technology, is already being launched into the home healthcare market by a commercial partner and thereby will facilitate commercialization of this electrochemical water treatment approach.

VASMO, INC.
4101 E. 30th St.
Indianapolis, IN 46218
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(317) 549-3764
Dr. S. "Mohan" Mohanraj
ARMY 01-179      Awarded: 15DEC01
Title:Development of Two-stage Multivaccine Delivery System with Protective and Bioadhesive Properties for Oral Immunization
Abstract:There is an ever increasing danger of biological warfare and bioterrorism. Among many agents, anthrax has been of prominence. The objective of this proposal is to develop Microsphere-based Delivery Systems ("MDS") for controlled and pulsed-release delivery of anthrax vaccine via single-dose oral immunization. The MDS will be designed and developed as follows: 1. The recombinant protective antigen will be incorporated into biodegradable polymer microspheres to provide controlled and pulsed-release delivery of the anthrax vaccine equivalent to multiple immunizations. 2. The antigen-encapsulated microspheres will be further coated with a bioadhesive polymer to promote the adhesion of the microparticles on to the mucosal membranes of the intestine. 3. The above microspheres will be further coated with an enteric polymer to increase the protection of the antigen against the acidic pH of the stomach. 4. A mucosal adjuvant will be incorporated into MDS to provide further potentiation of the immune system. The MDS products will be characterized and In Vitro release studies will be performed. Selected MDS products will be tested for their efficacy to induce antibody response in mice. In Option B, we will develop optimized MDS for immunization of rabbits which will be monitored for antibody response and shipped to USAMRIID for challenge with anthrax spores. The MDS is convenient, single-dose oral administration, and offers long-term protection without multiple boosters. The preparation can be packaged in a stable form and carried by individual soldiers in the field of action. MDS protects antigens against the acidic pH of the stomach, and presents antigen in its native conformation to the various cells of the immune system, inducing both mucosal and systemic immune responses.

IMMERSION MEDICAL, INC.
55 West Watkins Mill Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 984-3706
Dr. Joseph L. Tasto, MD, MS
ARMY 01-180      Selected for Award
Title:Needle Thoracentesis Simulation Workstation for Medical Training
Abstract:Immersion Medical aims to establish the feasibility of a medical training simulator for needle thoracentesis. The proposed project involves several technical advances to Immersion's pre-existing simulator for needlestick procedures. We propose a haptic computer touchpad as an innovative solution to three tactile techniques used in thoracentesis: palpation of anatomical landmarks, percussion, and fremitus. Active force feedback will be developed as well as controlled passive haptics to provide realistic procedural feel in the manipulation of needles, catheters and syringes. Planned software advances include refinements in computer modeling for surface deformation and for the interaction of rigid needles and catheters with body tissues that are pliant (e.g., pleura) and rigid (e.g., bone). Six external experts will evaluate the completed prototype for perceptual realism. In success, the completed simulator will be a real-time training device that integrates visual, haptic and audio features and will be operable on a laptop computer for enhanced portability. Needle thoracentesis is a procedure for which advanced training has important implications in both military and civilian medicine. By creating a simulator for thoracentesis, we can transcend problems with traditional training methods (human patients, mannequins, animals). Simulation has numerous advantages for the trainee, including: no risk to patients, no risk to trainees (e.g., no exposure to patient blood-borne pathogens), familiarity and comfort with the procedure through repetition, exposure to various cases, and built-in competence assessment through longitudinal data tracking of trainee performance. In success, implementation of the proposed technology will enable the DoD to provide improved medical rehearsal and treatment, which can improve military readiness through shortened recovery times. The proposed research will lead to the production of commercially viable products with educational and training benefits for U.S. hospitals and medical schools. Laptop portability will allow training in field situations currently inaccessible for thoracentesis training. The proposed simulator builds on Immersion's pre-existing CathSim platform for needlestick procedures. The proposed technical advances could be applied in future to other medically and commercially important medical procedures that present similar challenges, such as amniocentesis, pericardiocentesis, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, and bronchoalveolar lavage.

GUILD ASSOC., INC.
5750 Shier Rings Rd
Dublin, OH 43016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 364-5059
Dr. Gus DiNovo
ARMY 01-182      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:New Biosensors for Real-Time Aquatic Toxicity Monitoring
Abstract:Water is essential to our lives. We need it for consumption, cleansing and cooling. We must ensure that the water we use is safe. We must be able to continuously detect the level of toxic materials found in our water supply, whether the toxics are of natural, industrial or sinister origin. In most of the US, we are blessed with alternative supplies and our industrial infrastructure is broadly capable of dealing with many extreme demands as long as they know quickly that a water source is uncertain. Guild plans to develop a biologically-based sensor for monitoring water-borne military and anthropogenic contaminants present in natural and artificial bodies of water. Both continuous and discrete versions of the technology are anticipated. The biosensor capable of detecting multiple toxins is based on a unique combination of cellular and molecular biology that represents a significant advance beyond conventional biomarker systems. In Phase I, Guild plans to initiate the development of this sensor by building a prototype sensor that responds to selected water-borne heavy metals chosen from the Army's priority list. In Phase II Guild plans to prototype the entire field-ready system and extend the technique to include other key contaminants. Clearly, providing a means to continuously and accurately monitor the status of water supplies has a host of military benefits, both in the context of battlefield and home defense water quality/potability issues. Beyond these key needs are important environmental and ecological issues that beg for interpretation in a biological framework. The proposed device should make significant impact in these areas as well as in broader areas of cellular and molecular biology and the engineering disciplines dedicated to harnessing these powerful ideas for human progress.

ASH MEDICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2700 Kent Avenue
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 463-9540
Stephen R. Ash, MD
ARMY 01-183      Selected for Award
Title:Waterless Dialysis System
Abstract:Early and effective hemodialysis can decrease mortality of trauma patients with acute renal failure, but current technology is not easily deployed in the field or during transit of patients. The "Redy" machine using the Sorb column was portable and utilized only 6 liters of water but did not make dialysis more automated or intrinsically safer. The SHD now being developed by Ash Medical utilizes the Sorb column and includes pressure-actuated blood pumping, single- or dual-lumen operation, an automatic sorbent saturation monitor and completely automated fluid management to make dialysis simpler and safer. In this project we will modify the SHD to meet requirements of a field-deployable and portable dialysis machine (the WDS) by including: one liter of tap water as dialysate, volumetric ultrafiltration insensitive to machine motion, visual/automatic saturation monitor, and variable bicarbonate buffering. In Phase I we will construct a prototype WDS and demonstrate that hydraulic and chemical function are suitable for rapid treatment of acute renal failure patients. In Phase II we will finalize the design of a sturdy, lightweight and small WDS machine and demonstrate that the system can also be utilized for CRRT. The WDS could be life-saving in treatment of trauma causalities with renal failure. Potential commercial application include military and natural disaster trauma victims. WDS (Waterless Dialysis System) concepts may improve the current SHD (Sorbent Hemodialysis) System for home and acute hemodialysis.

IROBOT CORP.
22 McGrath Hwy, Suite 6
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 629-0055
Polly Pook
ARMY 01-184      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Robotic Medic Assistant
Abstract:iRobot Corp. proposes to develop a battlefield medical robot, Bloodhound, that will be able to navigate autonomously to wounded soldiers and provide telepresence for remote medics. Bloodhound will be built on the iRobot Urban Robot/PackBot platform. PackBot is an extremely robust tracked robot with all-weather and all-terrain capabilities. PackBot can drive in both wilderness and urban environments, outdoors and indoors. PackBot can drive through fields and woods, over rocks, sand, and gravel, and through water, mud, and snow. Bloodhound will combine PackBot's mobility with the iRobot-LE's telepresence capabilities. The iRobot-LE's camera, microphone, and speakers provide real-time video and audio interaction between the people near the robot and remote users. Medics at remote locations will use this capability to examine and diagnose patients on the battlefield. Bloodhound will leverage the technology of Personal Status Monitors to determine the patient's location, and use a GPS system to determine its own location. Bloodhound will navigate autonomously to the patient across unknown terrain using directed frontier-based exploration. Using this technique, Bloodhound will build a map as it navigates to the patient, and use this map to navigate around any obstacles or impassable terrain that it encounters. This project will have both direct and indirect commercial benefits for iRobot Corporation. This effort will help iRobot broaden its newly developed market for the Packbot and the iRobot-LE. We anticipate that Bloodhound itself can be developed into a product with both military and civilian applications. We expect to sell Bloodhounds to the military to locate wounded soldiers on the battlefield and allow remote medics to examine those soldiers. We also expect to sell Bloodhounds to paramedics who need to perform search-and-rescue missions in hazardous environments. For example, skiers and hikers could carry civilian versions of Personal Status Monitors that automatically notify a rescue service if the individual is injured. Bloodhounds could then be sent out to find the injured person in the wilderness, and once found, enable remote medical personnel to evaluate their condition and determine the best course of action. In addition to the direct applications of Bloodhounds, the technology developed in this project can be leveraged by other projects at iRobot. In particular, directed frontier-based exploration will provide a general capability for goal-directed navigation in unknown terrain. This capability can then be applied to a wide range of outdoor mobile robots, for both military and civilian applications.

OMNISITE BIODIAGNOSTICS, INC.
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. John G. Bruno
ARMY 01-185      Selected for Award
Title:Fluoresent Signaling Aptamers for Rodent B&T Cell Analysis
Abstract:OmniSite BioDiagnostics proposes to demonstrate and develop artificial receptors composed of DNA called "aptamers" to replace anti-B and T lymphocyte and cytokine antibodies for rabbit and guinea pig immunologic analyses. DNA aptamers will be generated by the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) combinatorial chemistry technique. The anti-rodent B and T cell DNA aptamers will be engineered with intrachain fluorochrome and quencher pairs that will cause a change in fluorescence intensity upon binding to target lymphocyte subpopulations or cytokines. Hence, such aptamers will be useful in fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometric, and spectrofluorometric analyses. SELEX aptamers offer several major advantages over antibody technology; most notably obviating the use of animal hosts and taking advantage of tremendous sequence diversity to select very high affinity specific binding DNA molecules developed against any target molecule. SELEX DNA aptamers can be rapidly and inexpensively mass produced with relative ease compared to antibody production and purification. In Phase I, OmniSite proposes to develop a set of specific DNA aptamers to characterize rabbit and guinea pig memory B and T cells as well as key cytokines. In Phase II, the anti-cellular and anti-cytokine aptamers will be cloned and sequenced and their fluorescence properties will be optimized for use in flow cytometry. There is a worldwide need for a simple and cost-effective method of developing diagnostic or prognostic tests. SELEX is a combinatorial chemistry technology that meets this need. SELEX has tremendous potential in the areas of drug discovery, screening assays, detection and monitoring of the environment, and medical diagnostics. This project may identify previously unknown markers for memory B and T cells that could be very commercially viable.

PRECISION CONTROL DESIGN, INC.
135 Eglin Parkway, S.E.
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 244-1923
Mr. Robert W. Conlan
ARMY 01-186      Selected for Award
Title:Dedicated Computational Microsystems for Biomedical Sensors
Abstract:Human activity monitoring with a wrist worn instrument, the actigraph, has successfully been used to quantify bulk human activity, and predict macro-quantities such as hr:min of sleep. These devices do not yield information about the underlying movement physiology because the simple detection methods ignore important signal characteristics. Recently it was demonstrated heart and lung ballistic activity are measurable from the wrist with a wireless device the size of a wristwatch. These conclusions derived from extensive bench top data processing and sophisticated tools like the wavelet transform. This SBIR seeks to build the next generation actigraph, one that can predict heart rate and breath rate from a sleeping or ambulatory individual "in situ", and expand this technique to other physiological processes. The device will use a custom built analog integrated circuit (from a related SBIR), coprocessor, adaptive digital filtering and 'non-stationary spectrum' processing techniques. Phase I will concentrate on building the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) actigraph, and testing it worn on sleeping subjects. One goal of the DSP actigraph is produce a stream of estimates for heart and breath rate over the duration of a sleep period. Phase II will extend the technique to ambulatory subjects, and improve hardware producibility. The ambulatory wrist worn DSP actigraph will able to measure ballistic cardiac and breath rates "in situ" in near real time, which is expected to have military and civilian clinical applications. Such a device will simplify long term monitoring on adults, children and neonates. When fully developed, it will combine physiological data with conventional sleep scoring and performance modeling. Techniques developed have wide application to other ambulatory instruments and sensor types.

ACTIVE SIGNAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13027A Beaver Dam Road
Cockeysville, MD 21030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 527-2031
Mr. John M. Sewell
ARMY 01-187      Selected for Award
Title:Electronic Stethoscope for Use in Helicopter Noise Environment
Abstract:Active Signal Technologies proposes to develop an active noise reduction (ANR) stethoscope that will enable detection and discrimination of heart and breathing sounds in the high noise environment of a UH-60 BlackHawk helicopter. We will enhance our direct contact sensor technology, which already provides state-of-the-art physiological signal detection and passive noise rejection, to better match the mechanical impedance of soft tissue and electrical impedance of the headphone/earplugs. Our current system has no air cavities or acoustic tubes and discriminates against all airborne noise leakage. Its effectiveness against all disturbances coupled through the body, whether airborne or structure borne, will be enhanced through frequency-domain digital-filtering ANR algorithms similar to those used in speech recognition. Since Active Signal's passive noise reduction stethoscope already exhibits excellent performance and the ANR approach does not require any additional sensors or actuators, our program starts with established hardware and can move forward aggressively on the ANR implementation. In Phase I we will deliver an enhanced passive noise reduction stethoscope and will demonstrate the ANR on a workstation simulation using prerecorded data. In the Option we will interface the stethoscope to the workstation and conduct a real-time ANR demonstration in the most challenging noise environment. Noise immune auscultation is a pivotal technology required throughout the prehospital emergency medical field. Commercial adoption would be anticipated across ambulance fleets, medevac helicopters and throughout the military medical community.

POLIUM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2155 Stonington Ave., Suite119
Hoffman Estates, IL 60195
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 310-8725
Dr. Michael Gololobov
ARMY 01-188      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Thermally and Photochemically Stable Anesthetic Components
Abstract:Low photo- and thermal stability of (R)-epinephrine (vasoconstrictor) in local anesthetic formulations compromises their anesthetic afficacy in field austere environments. The overall objective of this proposal (Phase I and Phase II combined) is to synthesize potentially stable vasoconstrictors, study their stability, and prove their anesthetic efficacy. Toward this end, Phase I focuses on the synthesis of ring-fluorinated analogs of (R)-epinephrine and (R)-phenylephrine using Polium Technologies proprietary biocatalyst, Finezyme-H1. Synthesis of chiral fluorinated derivatives of (R)-phenylephrine by any methods has not been described. Published methods of the synthesis of chiral fluorinated epinephrine derivatives use harsh conditions that are difficult for the scale-up. Contrary to this, Finezyme-H1 catalyzed reactions use mild conditions and the method is easily scaleable. The literature data suggest that these fluorinated analogs may possess required biological properties. Phase I focuses on the synthesis of these compounds using proprietary technology and stability studies of fluorinated analogs. If candidate compounds synthesized during Phase I show higher stability than existing vasoconstrictors, during Phase II we will test these compounds in local anesthetic formulations, perform biological affinity receptor assays and perform toxicology studies. Successful candidates will be commercialized in DOD and private sector Many third world countries do not have climate-controlled environments to safely store pharmaceuticals. Transport and storage of anesthetic to these regions, especially in hot climates, may compromise the efficacy of the drug. Development of new anesthetic components would be of great benefit to the oral care of many civilians in these nations, as well as military personnel deployed in austere environments

MORGAN RESEARCH CORP.
4811A Bradford Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 533-3233
Dr. Wayne Long
ARMY 01-189      Selected for Award
Title:Glare and Haze Operational Simulation and Testing (GHOST) System R&D
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal is for the initial development of an ophthalmologic Glare and Haze Operational Simulation and Testing (GHOST) system for generating, quantifying and assessing the impact of scattered light under normal operational environments and visual duties. The proposed concept employs scattered light glare and haze generating light sources, projection of visual targets onto normal visual scenes using a projected scene generator or heads-up display, measurement of light scattered and reflected from specific parts of the eye, determination of eye characteristics (such as light adaptation) during testing, as well as documentation of relative geometries and other test conditions by a computer control, data acquisition, and signal processing system. The optimum configuration, optical brassboard design, packaging and computer requirements will be addressed in the Phase I effort. A Phase I Option effort is also proposed that includes the fabrication, assembly and laboratory performance testing of optical brassboard components. The proposed GHOST system offers the potential for improved evaluations of the effect of glare and haze on visual performance. It represents enhanced instrumentation for investigations into the contributions to scattered light by natural causes, disease or due to eye surgery. It further represents advances in investigative tools for developing improvements in eye surgery procedures or implants, accident investigation diagnostics and it can be used as ophthalmologic instrumentation for assessing and documenting the visual capabilities of critical mission personnel such as aviation pilots. The fully developed GHOST system has immediate application and benefits to many ongoing and planned DoD and civilian activities as well as vendors and users of glare and haze related ophthalmologic instrumentation and surgical procedures.

IMMERSION MEDICAL, INC.
55 West Watkins Mill Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 984-3706
Dr. Joseph L. Tasto, MD, MS
ARMY 01-190      Selected for Award
Title:Catheter Insertion Simulation for Epidural Anesthesia and Spinal Tap
Abstract:Immersion Medical aims to establish the feasibility of a medical training simulator for epidural anesthesia and spinal tap. The proposed project involves several technical advances to Immersion's pre-existing simulator for needlestick procedures. We propose a haptic computer touchpad as an innovative solution to the palpation of anatomical landmarks. Active force feedback will be developed as well as controlled passive haptics to provide realistic procedural feel in the manipulation of needles, catheters and syringes. Planned software advances include refinements in computer modeling for surface deformation and for the interaction of rigid needles and catheters with body tissues that are pliant (e.g., dura mater) and rigid (e.g., bone). Six external experts will evaluate the completed prototype for perceptual realism. In success, the completed simulator will be a real-time training device that integrates visual, haptic and audio features and will be operable on a laptop computer for enhanced portability. Epidural anesthesia and lumbar puncture are procedures for which advanced training has important implications in both military and civilian medicine. Creating a simulator for these procedures has numerous advantages for the trainee, including: no risk to patients, no risk to trainees (e.g., no exposure to patient blood-borne pathogens), familiarity and comfort with the procedure through repetition, exposure to various cases, and built-in competence assessment through longitudinal data tracking of trainee performance. In success, implementation of the proposed technology will enable the DoD to provide improved medical rehearsal and treatment, which can improve military readiness through shortened recovery times. The proposed research will also lead to the production of commercially viable products with educational and training benefits for U.S. hospitals and medical schools. Laptop portability will allow training in field situations currently inaccessible for thoracentesis training. The proposed simulator builds on Immersion's pre-existing CathSim platform for needlestick procedures. The proposed technical advances could be applied in future to other medically and commercially important medical procedures that present similar challenges, such as amniocentesis, pericardiocentesis, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, and bronchoalveolar lavage.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 972-9954
Keith Furrow
ARMY 01-191      Selected for Award
Title:Condition Assessment of Personal Ballistic Armor Using Fiber Bragg Gratings
Abstract:The primary ballistic protection against small arms is based on ceramic with fiber-reinforced composite backing. During normal use, ballistic armor inserts (BAI) made with this material can be damaged. This proposal describes a simple, inexpensive, nondestructive technique to assess the ballistic integrity of the armor system in the field. BAIs instrumented with optical fiber Bragg grating strain sensors will be loaded in bending. A single fiber is capable of carrying hundreds of strain sensors providing a nearly continuous visualization of the strain field. The strain field, continuity in the fiber and the grating birefringent response will determine the location, extent and type of damage in the insert. Strain measurement with surface mounted and imbedded fibers will be demonstrated for damaged and undamaged BAIs. Comparing X-rays and measured strain fields of damaged panels will generate qualitative relationships between damage and strain response. The type and extent of damage is then correlated to ballistic performance. Finally, fiber egress techniques will be developed. Robust fiber egress is important because the personal ballistic protective vest is handled continuously resulting in the potential to break sensor leads. Limited ballistic tests will be conducted to determine the influence of imbedded optical fibers on ballistic performance. The commercial nonmilitary market for ballistic protection inserts is primarily law enforcement agencies. The fiber optic monitoring system could be supplied to individual municipalities or the system's capabilities could be sold as an inspection service. Additional applications of the technique include evaluation of lightweight armor for vehicles and structural monitoring of aircraft and civil structures.

PHYSICAL ACOUSTICS CORP.
195 Clarksville Road
Princeton Jct., NJ 08550
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 716-4000
Dr. Valery Godinez
ARMY 01-191      Selected for Award
Title:In-service Technique for Assessing Conditions of Ballistic Protective Inserts in Personnel Armor
Abstract:Primary ballistic protection offered against small arms rounds is mostly based on ceramic with fiber reinforced backing. Due to its complex structure and, in general, anisotropic material properties, ballistic personnel armor is very difficult to inspect using conventional Non Destructive Evaluation/Inspection (NDE/I) methods and instruments, such as ultrasonics. Moreover, methods such as x-rays or CT scan are too complicated to use in the fielded units for economic and logistical reasons. Thus, there is great need for the development of new NDE technologies that can address these complicated assessment issues. Physical Acoustics Corporation (PAC) has developed a unique Guided Wave Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) technology, which is designed for the inspection of thick multi-layered, multi-functional composites. This Guided Wave Acousto-Ultrasonic method will provide the basis for designing a completely portable system capable of assessing the ballistic integrity of personnel armor both in the field or directly after manufacturing. It is anticipated that the results of this program will lead to the development of a portable personnel armor Ballistic Protective Insert(s) (BPI) inspection system that can be used to assess the condition of ballistic protective composite. The developed system will have applications for many industries beyond the government and could be applied to a broad range of commercial applications. Body Armor vests with BPI are useful for combat missions, Law Enforcement, security patrols, and Protective Services (Army version of Secret Service). In both the military and commercial industry, there are many benefits to be derived from developing a system that is capable of inspecting personnel armor BPI for damage or degradation. Regardless of the situation, Body Armor with BPI can function as an effective protection against fragmentation and small arms, but only if the BPI is in good condition and has not suffered any loss in performance. Presently there are no reliable systems available to inspect these inserts to determine damage or degradation and, without this determination, unreliable vests and BPI could be worn by personnel in critical missions. The system Physical Acoustics Corporation (PAC) will develop will be able to assess the condition of the BPI to ensure that only structurally sound BPI is used to protect personnel. In addition, the developed system could easily be adapted to inspect any number of composite structures in military and civilian applications to determine structural integrity.

VERTIGO, INC.
29885 2nd Street, Suite N, P. O. Box 117
Lake Elsinore, CA 92531
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 425-5147
Mr. Glen Brown
ARMY 01-192      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Actuators for Precision Guided Steerable Parachutes/Parafoils
Abstract:A number of precision-guided aerial delivery systems are in development or advanced prototype stages, in accordance with Army Science and Technology (S&T) objectives. The actuator subsystems are a major cost element in each of these systems, in some cases, the largest cost element. The actuator subsystem, consisting of an energy source, controlling elements (e.g. switches, valves), and the actuators, is also a major fraction of the suspended weight, reducing payload fraction. Improvements are needed in weight and cost for both types of aerial delivery systems: medium-glide, such as GPADS-L, which use trailing edge control lines for steering and flare; and low-glide, such as AGAS, which use riser slip control to glide on command. The proposed research will investigate two innovative concepts: high energy-density pneumatic sources to pair with existing high power/weight pneumatic actuators, and an innovative zero-or low-power actuator for low-glide systems and for parafoil flare. (Separating the flare function from parafoil steering actuators greatly reduces their power requirement, which reduces weight and cost.) In each case, the weight, performance and cost of the innovative designs will be compared with high-performance electro-mechanical devices as a measure of benefit, and, therefore, system level feasibility. Precision-guided aerial delivery systems are available, but are not affordable for most cargo delivery applications. They also, for the most part, do not have the payload capacity needed by military users. Larger systems are expected to be even less affordable. Low cost actuators will make a significant impact on the cost of these systems. The market for actuator systems includes both Government users and contractors offering integrated systems to the Government.

FEDERAL FABRICS-FIBERS
45 W. Adams St
Lowell, MA 01851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 441-3037
Dr. Fred Geurts
ARMY 01-194      Selected for Award
Title:Non-powered Condensation Control Mechanisms for Shelters
Abstract:Federal Fabrics-Fibers (FFF) proposes a double walled shelter with a moisture permeable inner layer and a vented outer shell. The differential temperature between the inside and the outside will create a natural convection driven air flow between the two layers. This air flow will be used to carry away evaporating moisture from the inner shelter skin. Un-coated fabric woven from fibers with known moisture transport capabilities such as micro-capillary polyester will be used as the inner skin layer on the roof section of a two skinned shelter. The outer coated fabric needs a controlled window/vent that can be open when desired to allow the convective air to be circulated next to the un-coated fabric, and exhaust the moisture to the atmosphere. FFF will Identify and test un-coated fabrics with moisture transport capabilities suitable as an inner shelter skin. Develop and mature a controlled vent that will allow high rates of natural convection airflow between the moisture transport skin and a weather proof skin. The vents will be constructed in such a manner as to prevent rain from coming in between the two skins without mechanically weakening the shelter. Test the idea using a double walled, vented shelter to determine under what conditions it will and will not function adequately. There are several commercial applications for this type of product outside of the obvious military applications. Including backpacking and expedition tents.

FULFILL AMERICA, INC.
8748 E. Valley Bl., Suite L
Rosemead, CA 91770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 225-0671
Mr. Ben H Wu
ARMY 01-195      Selected for Award
Title:Dual-use Durable Water Repellent and Anti-chemical/biological Agent Treatments
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of our invented durable water repellent and oil loving materials for (1) anti-chemical and biological agent treatment on textiles and (2) durable usage to washing and dry cleaning and (3) low temperature cured application. Our invented materials were originally developed to satisfy textile mills for lower cost alternative wherein only durable water repellency is needed without oil repellency properties. It is important to understand the value of our invented materials for anti-chemical and biological defense textile system. Our invented water repellent product concept is "the lowest cost and the most durable water repellent treatment for textiles". Our selling point is lower cost and more durable water repellent treatment than commercial fluoroalkyl acrylate based materials. The success of the SBIR solicitation could certainly expand our current market effort to chemical and biological agent protection market. Nevertheless, our current marketing effort for general textile industry is going forward without the bonus from the SBIR solicitation.

DIVERSIFIED MARKETING GROUP
109 Forrest Avenue
Narberth, PA 19072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 667-5589
Mr. David M. Goodman
ARMY 01-196      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Enhanced Chemical Biological (CB) Closure
Abstract:The CB uniform program requires a state-of-the-art closure system for the next generation of protective clothing. Advances in fabrics, design and technology must integrate with the closures in order to achieve the best possible synthesis and computability. To date, no closure system or fastening products available have been designed with air/water tight CB protection as the priority. Until it is, the scope of the CB uniform program will be limited as existing CB air/water tight fasteners are presently too stiff, hard starting, bulky, difficult to fold, uncomfortable to wear, permeable and/or expensive. Lightweight CB liquid, vapor and aerosol-tight suits that are also flexible, easily packable, launderable, durable, cost efficient and lend themselves to mass production have been created and must be built. Diversified Marketing Group is an agile, free-thinking company and will research the technology, produce prototypes, formulate cost-effective manufacturing bringing the CBD closures up to the state-of-the-art. We are the only company that has already researched this topic extensively, assembled a team of proven experts that can be relied upon to actually deliver an outstanding solution to the military, commercial and civilian market. Phase I requires 6 months and the Phase I Option will require an additional 4 months to complete. In addition to the benefit the results of this SBIR topic will directly serve the CB uniforms, this technology will be applicable and easily adaptable in items such as Sleeping Bags, Personal Shelters, Diving (Wet & Dry) Suits, Waterproof Storage Containers & Underwater Equipment, Toxicological & Chemical Protective Clothing, Boat Covers, Recreational Outdoor Clothing, Hostile Environment CB Protective Gear

TECHNOVA CORP.
1232 Mizzen Drive
Okemos, MI 48864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 485-9583
Dr. Zahir Shah
ARMY 01-197      Selected for Award
Title:Reliable, lightweight and convenient multi-helix soil anchors for deployable structures and shelters
Abstract:A refined helical screw configuration is proposed as an efficient, versatile and economical anchor for deployable structures and shelters; the system design allows for convenient and rapid driving into soil through rotation. The refined helical screw configuration complements high frictional resistance with added bearing capacity. The proposed Phase I research will: (1) quantify the design parameters of anchor system; (2) fabricate prototypes and validate their technical features and ease of use; and (3) identify and test chemical stabilizers that enhance performance of the system in weak, saturated soils. The Phase I Option will: (1) develop and verify optimum system designs; and (2) assess competitive position of the technology in different applciations. The efficient anchor design proposed here maximizes load-carrying capacity, minimizes weight, and allows for rapid and convenient installation. The system is simple and amenable to low-cost manufacturing. The new design is versatile and suits diverse site conditions. Major applications of the anchor system include deployable structures and shelters, slope stabilization, retaining wall stabilization, and foundations for small structures in difficult soils. Technova Corporation has formed an alliance with a major anchor/fastener manufacturer (Hilti Inc.) and a leading academic institution in the field (The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) towards development and broad commercial implementation of the new anchor system.

ADVANCED MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY, INC.
176 Waltham Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-6700
Mr. Charles Hannon
ARMY 01-198      Selected for Award
Title:Distillation System for Recycling Greywater Generated by Field Feeding Operations
Abstract:Military field feeding operations require an easily transportable and energy-efficient system to recycle the greywater produced in ware washing. A multiple-effect evaporator is proposed that will distill the greywater, heated by a diesel/JP-8 powered oil burner or other available liquid/vapor heating medium. It is designed to recover at least 90% of the greywater as potable hot water or steam to be used for warewashing, using as little as 0.02 lb of fuel per pound of greywater. The Phase I project will evaluate the feasibility of an innovative compact multi-effect evaporator module that facilitates accessibility for cleaning and can be adapted to a wide range of heat sources. The proposed multi-effect evaporator module can process greywater generated by field laundries and showers, in addition to field feeding operations, and can be used to purify brackish water. It could find many non-military applications, such as in disaster relief where potable water supplies have been disrupted, or in arid regions where greywater recycling and brackish water purification would increase the net supply of potable water.

GSE, INC.
219 East Enterprise St., P.O. Box 7743
Incline Village, NV 89450
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 831-3917
Mr. Greg Stevenson
ARMY 01-199      Selected for Award
Title:Common Fuel Engines for Powered Parafoils and other Airborne Systems
Abstract:The military "Single Fuel Forward" policy under DOD Directive 4140.25 has placed high priority on the implementation of heavy fuel engines (HFE) capable of operating on logistically available kerosene based fuels. (ie: JP-5, JP-8, DF-2) Subsonic airborne applications defined by maximum endurance and payload capacity require the HFE to have outstanding specific weight ratios below 1.5 lbs/hp as well as excellent fuel economy under .5 lbs/hp-hr. The air dropped mission scenario of the Powered Parafoil further complicates the HFE requirement of having to predictably start in-flight during the chute deployment at high altitude. This unattended cold start requirement is unique to the project and is the main focus of this phase I feasibility study/demonstration. The proposed high-speed multi-cylinder compression ignition (CI) diesel relies on cylinder pressure/temperature to self-ignite the fuel. High altitude starting is by an innovative low cost and robust variable compression mechanism with the assistance of conventional cold start aids. Current logistically available fuels have variable viscosity, lubricity, and cetane values that are critical factors to engine start up, peak performance, and endurance. The proposed approach incorporates an innovative high-speed diesel injection and combustion system that is specifically designed for multi-fuel operation. The proposed effort matures a much-needed high speed, multi-fuel diesel engine technology with high power density particularly well suited for airborne applications requiring specific weights of 1.5lbs/hp or better. The future of both military UAV and commercial GA aircraft propulsion require this technology to operate on near term logistically available fuels.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4368
Dr. Peter Warren
ARMY 01-200      Selected for Award
Title:Deployable Rigid Parawings for High-Altitude Aerial Delivery
Abstract:The Objective Force Army requires low-cost, accurate aerial logistical supply. Traditional, low altitude methods expose aircraft and crews to dangerous ground fire. Existing high-altitude technologies are too expensive and have limited payload mass and glide ratio performance. Foster-Miller has teamed with Irvin Aerospace to provide an innovative, low-cost, high performance airdrop system, enabling the future Army to safely deliver large payloads over great distances. The innovation combines Irvin's expertise in recovery systems with Foster-Miller's Integral Folding Hinge (IFH) structures. Use of the IFH will enable the deployment of a high performance Deployable Rigid Parawing (DRoP). The DRoP uses a monolithic rigid frame that stretches a single fabric skin into an airfoil. The rigid frame improves lift and reduces drag by controlling the leading edge and reducing the line count. This high performance airdrop system can be manufactured at lower cost than competing technologies because of the single skin fabric construction and use of commercially available reinforced thermoplastic composites. Phase I will focus on the design, construction and flight test of a 500 lb "door bundle" DRoP system. The Phase II program will integrate the required control systems and scale the approach up to a 2,000 lb A-4 pallet. (P-010615) The proposed technology will positively impact US Army airlift capabilities by enabling high-altitude airdrop of cargo, equipment and troops. The advanced structural design of the deployable, rigid parawing (DRoP) combines the maneuverability and glide ratio of a hang glider with the in-flight deployability of a parachute. Off-the-shelf guidance, navigation and control systems will be used to deliver payloads safely and accurately, even across large lateral offsets. The resulting system will allow pinpoint aerial delivery of heavy (10,000 lb) cargo and equipment from high altitudes (17,000 to 25,000 ft), minimizing the risk to aircraft and their crews.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4171
Dr. Patricia Wilson
ARMY 01-201      Selected for Award
Title:Thermally Adjusting Regulating Panels for Internal Thaw (TARP-IT) for Safely Thawing Frozen Food
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to develop Thermally Adjusting Regulating Panels for Internal Thaw (TARP-IT) to safely thaw frozen foods without the use of electricity. The TARP-IT kit will be designed in a modular fashion such that the panels can be easily transported and stored. The panels can be quickly assembled to fit any size of frozen food pallet from the US Army's Unitized Group Ration (UGR), up to a maximum of about 80 square feet of surface area. Foster-Miller will explore several design concepts, including the use of novel phase change materials (PCMs) to regulate the temperature near the food surface to a constant 45F. A thermal model of the system will be used to predict effects of insulation, reflective materials, and phase change materials on the thermal regulating capabilities of various blanket designs. Small-scale test articles will be fabricated and tested under simulated environmental conditions. Prototype panels will be fabricated in the Phase I option. An alternative option plan, incorporating novel liquid-vapor Phase Change Materials, is proposed in the event that greater thermal capacity than originally anticipated is required in the panel design. The Phase I program will focus on manufacturability and cost considerations in addition to system performance. (P-010694) The TARP-IT system is an enabling technology for the US Army's logistics strategy to supply increased quantities of fresh food to field units via the UGR concept. Commercial applications of the TARP-IT include use by disaster aid organizations, food vendors at outdoor events, caterers, and outdoor recreational enthusiasts.

HY-TECH RESEARCH CORP.
104 Centre Ct.
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 639-4019
Dr. C.Christopher Klepper
ARMY 01-202      Selected for Award
Title:Non-stick Coating for Field Cookware
Abstract:In collaboration with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Facilities, HY-Tech Research has developed a unique technology for the deposition of thin films of boron, a high-temperature material with excellent hardness and lubricity properties. Since the potential for economically depositing pure boron films did not previously exist, HY-Tech has undertaking the mission to promote the benefits of this product to various applications. This solicitation provides an ideal application for boron films, because it would benefit from the metallurgical properties as well as from the chemical inertness of these coatings. The deposition technique developed by HY-Tech is based on the vacuum arc concept, which is the basis for the most economical deposition systems for metallurgical coatings. The vacuum arc generates its material from a solid source. This is important in the case of boron, since most gaseous precursors are biologically hazardous. All the material is deposited in an ionized form, which allows for good control of the energies, which leads to good film adherence to the substrate. A preliminary calculation shows that the injestion limit for boron exceeds the total material that would be found in the coating. Therefore, no problems are anticipated in this area. Good adherence to aluminum alloys has already been seen for thin (<1micron) coatings. The goal of Phase I will be to demonstrate thick (1-2micron) coatings on 6061 Al which will withstand the rigors of field testing as specified in the solicitation. HY-Tech's