---------- NAVY ----------

188 Phase I Selections from the 01.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
EUREKA AEROSPACE, LLC
400 Continental Blvd, 6th Floo
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 426-2160
Dr. James Z. Tatoian
NAVY 01-108      Awarded: 19NOV00
Title:Through the Wall Sensor
Abstract:This innovative approach uses a non-conventional imaging radar system, an Impulse SAR (ImpSAR). When placed in a moving platform, such as a truck or airborne platform, at 100 meters or more from a wall, it can detect and localize (1) people and materiel on the "other" side of the wall and (2) underground structures, including caves, tunnels and bunkers. The ImpSAR operates in a transient mode where extremely short (picoseconds) pulses yield ultra wide bandwidth (many Gigahertz), having frequencies capable of penetration through the wall and the ground. Moreover, ultra-wide bandwidth implies extremely high (few centimeters) resolution that is necessary for localization and identification of targets on the other side of the wall. Limited experiments using a stationary brassboard impulse radar system, concrete "test wall" with multiple rebar layers and canonical targets will be carried out. The proposed ImpSAR system has great potential for miniaturization and adaptability to variety of host moving platforms. Commercial applications include law enforcement, fire and rescue and military. Potential benefits include localization of suspects inside the building by law enforcement officers, localization of people trapped inside the building by fire and rescue operations.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 222-0444
Dr. Leonard Haynes
NAVY 01-108      Awarded: 09NOV01
Title:Ultra-Wideband Through the Wall Imaging Sensor
Abstract:The focus of the work herein proposed will be to exploit what is often called Impulse Radar to implement a through the wall imaging capability. This proposal identifies approaches to significantly improve the performance of current system for through the wall imaging. The key goal is to improve the resolution of the resulting images so that the image will be able to show if a moving person is carrying a weapon, and if so to allow the class of weapon to be identified. This proposal is very specific as to how this will be achieved. Other improvements over the-state-of-the-art will also be made in range and standoff distance. The basic technology is based on the availability of very low cost ultra-high precision delays. Using these delay circuits, Impulse Radar systems, which have no carrier frequency, can be built. The only signals transmitted are single impulses, which have very wide bandwidth and can be generated by a single transistor which is either on or off. The advantages of this paradigm include robustness to multipath, low probability of detection, low power, trivial implementation of true time delay for electronically steerable phased arrays and enhanced SAR imaging capability. Our partner company, Time Domain Corporation (TDC) has invested $100 million in private funds to commercialize this technology. A set of custom ASICS have reduced the electronics down to three chips. Our work will be synergistic with TDC's commercial development, using the ASIC chips as the implementation kernel, and developing the theory and practice to improve on the current through the wall imaging hardware.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Div., 20600 Gramercy Plac
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Keehoon Kim
NAVY 01-108      Awarded: 05NOV01
Title:Active/Passive Pulsed Infrasonic Through-Wall Sensor System
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new clandestine Active/Passive Pulsed Infrasonic Through-the-Wall Sensor (APITS) system, consisting of an infrasonic sensor suite plus 2-D image reconstruction, to meet the Marine Corps need for situation awareness and tactical information acquisition through a wall from a remote location. The APITS will have the unique advantages of infrasonic image profiling, passive human detection, and 2-D image display. These advantages arise from specific innovations: actively pulsed modulation, passive human target detection, and neural network image reconstruction. In Phase I, POC will optimize the system configuration and methodology and design software algorithms and hardware specifications for APITS. Using the developed technology, POC will demonstrate the Active/Passive Infrasonic Through-the-wall Sensor and automatic image reconstruction. APITS technology will have widespread applications in both the government and commercial sectors. It will be a valuable tool for locating people and materials in a variety of situations. Potential users of this technology include the military, fire departments, rescue teams, law enforcement agencies, and commercial security firms.

SENSIS CORP.
5793 Widewaters Parkway
DeWitt, NY 13214
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 445-5064
Mr. Dan Colasanti
NAVY 01-108      Selected for Award
Title:Through the Wall Sensor
Abstract:Many military and civilian groups need a capability to sense/determine the location, armament, and other status information on personnel and equipment/materiel through a structure from a remote safe location. It is desireable that the remote sensors work at ranges greater than 100 feet and through as many construction materials as possible including caves, tunnels, and /or underground bunkers. Sensis proposes in Phase I to conduct a very thorough trade study of technologies capable of clandestine operation for seeing through ground, walls, foliage, debris and/or structure surfaces from the outside surface in real-time to locate persons/items and to track their movements. The study shall determine insofar as possible the scientific, technical, and commercial merit and feasibility of a system or "system of systems" to meet the needs of the potential military and civilian markets. Some of the technologies that will be considered in this study include Ultra Wideband (UWB), Milli-meter Wave (mmW), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Infrared (IR), X-Ray, Laser, and Magnetics. Sensis will determine the best-valued alternative for satisfying the technical requirements considering cost, schedule, technical performance, and risk. Sensis will also develop and demonstrate the performance of brassboard models of the critical components of the selected candidate. Defense related applications may include: 1) detecting the presence, occupancy, and actions/activities/status of enemy personnel /captured soldiers in underground tunnels, buildings, or caves; 2) characterization of anti-personnel landmines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO), etc. Commercial applications may include: 1) locating people trapped in rubble or buried in avalanches, 2) detecting buried or hidden objects (not human) prior to drilling, 3) locating stow-a-ways in packing crates, 4) detecting the presence of underground facilities used for drug trafficking, etc.

STARMARK, INC.
P. O. Box 270710
San Diego, CA 92198
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 676-0055
Dr. Franklin S. Felber
NAVY 01-108      Awarded: 05NOV01
Title:High-Power Stealthy Acoustic Through-the-Wall Sensor
Abstract:We have demonstrated a capability with ultrasound to detect and locate even stationary persons through certain interior walls at ranges up to about 8'. The Phase I program objective is to develop and demonstrate a proprietary high-power upgrade to this capability. Starmark's novel system concept should increase the power of the recently developed through-the-wall sensor by up to a factor of 100,000 in the Phase I breadboard and 900,000 in the Phase II prototype. The upgrade will make possible surveillance of persons through many more types of exterior building walls, including metallic walls, and over much greater ranges. In Phase I, we will design, build, test, and demonstrate a high-power, high-frequency monotone transmitter optimized for a through-the-wall sensor. In the Phase I Option, we will test and demonstrate the transmitter operating through a variety of realistic external walls, and we will produce a conceptual design of a Phase II system. In Phase II, we will integrate an array of the new high-power transmitters with the by-then completed acoustic through-the-wall sensor from the ongoing Air Force/NIJ program, and demonstrate the performance of prototypes in stealthily detecting multiple persons through exterior walls and displaying their locations. This proprietary development will extend by orders of magnitude in power the capabilities of the recently developed acoustic sensor to locate stationary and moving persons through walls. The low cost of the through-the-wall sensor, projected under $1000, will allow these greatly enhanced capabilities to benefit a wide range of law enforcement and fire and rescue organizations, as well as military personnel in operations in urban terrain.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Iain T. McKinnie
NAVY 01-109      Awarded: 05NOV01
Title:High-energy, multi-spectral laser for surf-zone mine countermeasures
Abstract:CTI proposes a high efficiency, extremely compact, multi-band laser source suitable for use in a beach and surf-zone imaging system. The transmitter will utilize low-risk laser components in a novel device geometry that permits the development of very high wall plug efficiency transmitters with minimal cooling requirements. Additionally, the multi-band imager can be configured for polarization discrimination allowing more detector degrees of freedom. This feature enables the development of a multi-discriminant sensor for improved mine countermeasures. The proposed device is based on demonstrated CTI achievements in the area of solid-state lasers resulting in a low-risk Phase I/II program with a clear path to future production of minimal cost, turn-key, military hardware. At the end of Phase II a useful, multi-band device will be delivered to the Navy. This work will also fund development of an enabling technology that can impact a variety of fields including remote sensing, science and medicine. High electrical efficiency, visible and short-wave infrared, pulsed laser sources are needed for a variety of applications including: detection and imaging, altimetry and ranging, terrain mapping, designation, search and rescue beacons, surgery, photodynamic therapy and cosmetic skin repair.

XYBION CORP.
8380 Miralani Drive
San Diego, CA 92126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 566-7850
Dr. James Pierre Hauck, PhD
NAVY 01-109      Awarded: 26OCT01
Title:Diode Pumped Ti:Sapphire Hybrid Laser
Abstract:This project will be devoted to the development of an illuminator technology suitable for use in underwater and on-shore imaging applications. This illuminator will be capable of generating at least 5 different wavelengths across the Short-wave IR, Near IR, Visible and Near UV Spectrum. Wavelengths of particular interest include a pair, one on each side of the NIR rise in the 600 to 950 nm range, a pair in the Short-wave IR between 1000 and 1340 nm, and another pair in the visible that is transmitted through coastal seawater between 400 and 600 nm. We have identified the technologies to generate these wavelengths, and will provide a conceptual design of a system that produces adequate energy and power for coastal imaging missions. The major advantage of this approach is to be able to illuminate both on-shore and underwater objects from aerial platforms. A secondary advantage is that the illuminator will provide superior capability when used with a suitable camera to identify mines, and other obstacles in the coastal environment. A tertiary advantage is that the beam could be zoomable, allowing adaptation of the illumination to allow deeper water penetration, and more clear imagery, leading to a higher probability of detection, and a lower incidence of false alarms. Thus applications such as search and rescue, airborne reconnaissance, imaging for surveillance and security, (coastal through fog), and many others would be feasible.

FRACTAL ANTENNA SYSTEMS
300 Commercial St, Suite 27
Malden, MA 02148
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 381-9595
Dr. Robert Hohlfeld
NAVY 01-110      Awarded: 16NOV01
Title:Non-Intrusive, Window Mounted, Conformal Antennas
Abstract:We propose to undertake a design study on conformal antennas for USMC Radio Battalions. The Phase I study will identify and optimize wideband fractal element antennas (FEA) for this application through computer (NEC and FEM-based) modeling, guided by our firm's genetic optimization using efficient and proprietary hardware and software. The resultant optimized fractal elements fall within the firm's existing patents and pending patents, thus combining a successful design solution with the rights to implementation. Both the approach and technology access are unique to our firm in this task. In addition to providing a design solution, the firm will also undertake proof of concept fabrication of wideband fractal element candidates on transparent substrates in preparation for Phase II prototype fabrication and testing. Wideband conformal antennas from fractal designs provide unique opportunities for application in vehicular, aviation, amateur radio, consumer electronic markets. Convergence towards multiple frequency use in wireless and telecom also requires a 'one size fits all' antenna approach easily met by the technology.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Ave, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Dr. Vladimir Litvinov
NAVY 01-110      Awarded: 15NOV01
Title:Transparent Conformal Antenna
Abstract:WaveBand Corporation (WaveBand) proposes to develop an entirely new type of antenna: optically transparent fractal antenna that will be operating in the 0.5 GHz to 2 GHz frequency band, transparent to light, therefore ideal for window mounting, easy to manufacture, therefore low in cost. The key to the proposed design is that the fractal shapes will be formed by use of a transparent (non-metal) conductive coating deposited onto a dielectric substrate, which can be either flexible or rigid. Since fractal antennas have high-gain and multiple-band capabilities, and also can be made much smaller than the conventional antennas, the proposed antennas can be applied to a huge broadband communications market.

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
7057 Old Madison Pike
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9229
Mr. Larry Fullerton
NAVY 01-111      Awarded: 09NOV01
Title:Wireless Radio Frequency Communication Link for Small Unmanned Ground Vehicles
Abstract:Reconnaissance of tunnels, buildings, or other enclosed spaces is extremely dangerous for the modern warfighter. Small Unmanned Ground Vechicles (UGVs) are ideal for this mission. Unfortunately, convential RF communications links do not function well in these enclosures due to multi-path effects, and tethered links are impractical due to tangling and susceptibility to cutting. Time Domain Corporation has developed patented ultra wideband (UWB) technology, that can overcome these problems. Previous experiments have shown that TDC UWB technology actuall exhibits enhanced performance in enclosed enviornments. In this proposal, TDC presents an approach, based on sound engineering principles, that lead to a prototype wireless RF communications link for UGVs, based on TDC patented PulsON Application Demonstrators and our own prototype UGV in real world environments and from this testing, develop a prototype RF design for Phase II implementation. The result will be a well developed design that will enable the use of UGVs in enclosed enviornments.

LSA
1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1300
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
Mr. Alvin B. Cabato
NAVY 01-112      Selected for Award
Title:Internal Periscope Displays for Embedded Training
Abstract:LSA proposes to develop a visual display monitor that can be permanently built into the periscopes on the AAAV to provide embedded training capabilities. Our novel approach provides three modes of operation. The system can be switched ON so that the display becomes opaque for presenting the simulated out-the-window (OTW) view provided by the on-board embedded training simulator server. The display can be switched OFF so that the synthetic imagery display is transparent and the vehicle operator can view outside of the vehicle in a normal fashion through the periscope. A third state is added to further enhance the functionality of the internal display by allowing the system to superimpose synthetic imagery over the OTW view. In training, this capability allows synthesized targets to be overlayed on the real- world view. On the battlefield, navigation status and reconnaissance data can be incorporated in the OTW view, augmenting situational awareness without obscuring important details. Allowing the operator to maintain focus on the periscope view port and stay aware of crucial status information will enhance battlefield effectiveness. This proposal specifically aims to outfit the AAAV with ruggedized periscope displays as part of the embedded training system, but the technologies presented here can be applied to other vehicles as well. Military applications will include integration of high-resolution displays into other armored vehicles and periscopes for embedded training and wartime use. The techniques developed in this program can be modified for other situations where it would be beneficial to have an overlaid image. The microdisplay is an alternative rugged information display that allows a virtual large screen and high resolution in a confined space while using little power. Commercial applications include head-mounted displays for video gaming, maintenance technicians, and other equipment for service and manufacturing users that need to be able to switch between fields of view.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optic & Holography Div, 20600 Gramercy Pla
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Mr. Kevin Yu
NAVY 01-112      Awarded: 05NOV01
Title:Periscope Integrated Collimating Display
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel periscope integrated collimating display (PICOD) for out-the-window embedded training, which can be integrated into the AAAV periscope system and can be switched ON to display a simulated out-the-window scene, and OFF to view through the visual path of the periscope. This collimating simulator system combining POC's unique holographic technology with a COTS miniature image source, can be integrated with POC enhanced Bluetooth wireless technology. Efficient narrowband three-color (RGB) multiplexed reflective holographic optical elements function as a head-up display combiner in the collimating simulator geometry. Because of the HOEs' unique wavelength and angle selectivity, they selectively display the collimated imagery only when the narrowband three color (RGB) light from the miniature display is turned on, whereas they are transparent to the outside light of periscope real imagery. In Phase I, POC will design and analyze the performance of the proposed system and demonstrate feasibility by means of an experimental prototype system. Compact high quality switchable miniature collimating displays will benefit many commercial applications, including video games, head mounted displays, automotive displays, and virtual environments for medical and other training.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5668
Mr. James Gorman
NAVY 01-113      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:Composite and Metallic Solutions for Shipboard SMART Foundation Adapter
Abstract:KaZaK Composites Incorporated (KCI) proposes to develop and demonstrate a modular adapter system for connecting COTS equipment to the SMART track foundation. This adapter system is comprised of channel-like extruded or pultruded beam segments that may be easily assembled to a COTS equipment base by cutting to length and fastening with standardized connecters. The assembled base contains provisions for SMART compatible fasteners to slide along its lower channel edges, the fasteners dropping into the foundation tracks at locations providing the most robust load capacity possible within the COTS equipment footprint and floor plan. The SMART fasteners connecting the adapter channel segments to the foundation tracks are then secured by a wedge mechanism contained within the adapter channel, thus tying the COTS equipment to the foundation tracks without the necessity of turning individual fasteners in awkward locations. A key element of the developed adapter system will be the formulation of an installation manual that provides charts and instructions guiding the installer as to the number and location of fasteners required to secure the equipment as a function of weight, footprint, and C.G. height. The Phase I project will develop and validate the strength requirements for this system in standardized shock environments. The principal expected commercial benefit of this Phase I development will be an efficient low cost system for fastening COTS equipment to the SMART foundation system. The basic concept may in addition be easily adapted to other modular construction systems (e.g. Unistrut), providing secure connections without the necessity of manipulating individual fasteners. In collaboration with our Bath Iron Works partner, KCI will adapt the developed connector/adapter system to equipment installations aboard CG-47, LPD-17, DDG-51, CVN-X, and other platforms. With the likely extensive use of service life extension programs, the need for such a modular and adaptable attachment system will be extensive.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. Brian Muskopf
NAVY 01-113      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:Shipboard SMART Foundation Adapter
Abstract:The Shipboard Modular Arrangement Reconfiguration Technology (SMART) track system is being adopted as the standard shipboard equipment mounting system. SMART track installations provide a cost effective system for installing equipment aboard ships by simplifying the structural work involved in reconfigurations. However, current installations require individually constructed intermediate foundation adapters to mount equipment to the SMART interface, resulting in increased costs and creating potential ergonomic problems due to the increased height of the foundation adapter. A cost effective, lightweight, low profile, reconfigurable foundation adapter family is required that can serve as the interface between various equipment types and mounting orientations, and the SMART track foundation interface. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. proposes to develop a cost effective, lightweight, fire resistant, damage tolerant polymer composite foundation adapter. The composite material will provide substantial weight savings while having comparable strength and stiffness to a metal. The composite will not corrode and will not require a corrosion resistant surface treatment that can be damaged or scratched off. This means that the composite will not require periodic cleaning and repainting reducing life cycle costs. The composite adapter will utilize materials that meet MIL-STD-2031 fire, smoke and toxicity requirements. In addition to immediate U.S. Navy surface ship applications, the composite SMART track equipment foundation adapter has commercial applications in the commercial shipbuilding, offshore oil and gas, and military and commercial aircraft industries where lightweight, corrosion resistant, cost effective, low maintenance foundation adapters are required.

THE S. MAIN CO. L. L. C.
50489 West Pontiac Trail
Wixom, MI 48393
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 960-1540
Mr. Mark Mosher
NAVY 01-113      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:Universal SMART Track Adapter
Abstract:The S. Main Company proposes to study, design, and analyze a family of universal fittings for use with SMART Track that will increase modularity from the current grid of 12" in the X direction by 1" in the Y direction to a more useful grid of 1/8" in both directions. This must be done without a degradation in performance of the existing medium and heavy duty fittings. Additional concerns are to minimize height of the fittings (and therefore minimize loss of headroom for mounted equipment), to minimize or eliminate tripping hazards, to minimize the number of parts and to simplify installation. Our approach for increasing modularity to a 1/8" grid will be to incorporate slotted holes whereby the underside of the fitting and the nut will have mating linear threads (used extensively in the metal working industry for modularity in clamping of parts to milling machines). The threads prevent slippage in the direction of the slot. Much of the work involves solving some very complex engineering stress analysis problems related to predicting slippage of threads. Additionally, it will be necessary to destructively test samples to verify computational models. The commerical shipping industry increasingly relies upon changing computer, communications, and navigational equipment. Any system that decreases the time required and the effort expended to change this equipment has the potential of commercial sales. While commercial ships do not utilize similar Navy shock requirements, the potential for a reduced weight system is well within the capabilities and expertise developed from work performed in this SBIR solicitation. Additionally, several non-shipping uses of this modular equipment include automotive robotic welders and assemblers, which must be reconfigured upon each automotive design change, and microwave relay towers, which must be loaded with new antennas on a periodic basis. Essentially, any industry that would benefit from a modular, quick-disconnect system that holds equipment in place in rugged environments is a potential commercial application.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CORP.
15210 Dino Drive
Burtonsville, MD 20866
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 989-8016
Mr. C. Mark Klemick
NAVY 01-114      Awarded: 19DEC01
Title:Automated Shipboard Food Service
Abstract:An automated material handling system combined with a high-level system control will be designed for the DD-21 class ships. The system will allow for automated material handling technology to induct food commodities into a storage system, to retrieve on-demand items, to automatically move the items to the galley, to automatically prepare the items for serving, and to automate the handling and processing of utensils through the cleaning process in the scullery. When combined with the use of advanced food preparation and packaging technology, this system will use automated material handling and robotic elements to move food items through the complete induction to usage cycle with minimal human intervention, and it will allow for real time inventory status and control status of each system element. The system will be designed not only for efficient operation, but also for robust operation considering not only the rigors of normal at-sea motion and environments, and also the need to function in stressful combat and casualty modes that allow for continued galley operations under degraded situations. Such a system could be modeled for translation into existing ship classes, their upgrades, and for ashore facility designs where automated galley efficiencies are desirable. Automating shipboard galleys in conjunction with the utilization of advanced food preparation technology will result in reduced labor for food service duty aboard ship, more accurate control of stores inventory, safer handling and preparation operations, and improved menu consistency and quality aboard ship. Such a system concept and design could be translated into other ship classes for similar savings of labor and improved quality of life, as well as introduced ashore in the military and/or commercial market where central food preparation and distributed preparation sites would benefit from labor saving, operational safety, process control, and real time inventory information.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4096
Mr. William Leary
NAVY 01-114      Selected for Award
Title:Development of an Automated Shipboard Food Service System
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to develop a plan for an automated shipboard food preparation and scullery operation through a Systems Engineering Process (SEP) development program. Food service and scullery operations are complex systems that require a carefully executed plan that only this type of an approach can fulfill. Foster-Miller will use its experience in food cooking and processing systems, along with our experience with the application of a SEP based program to present a logical development plan for Phase II. The key to this Phase I effort will be the utilization of simulation and animation modeling to verify the system engineering process. Foster-Miller proposes using simulation and animation to verify the requirements and physical functions of this complex system. The product of this effort will include a process flow model for both the Food Item Preparation System (FIPS) and Scullery Management System (SMS), through simulation, to properly integrate all operations based on capacity and demand. A 3-D animation based on the simulation model to establish the physical parameters of the FIPS and SMS and demonstrate a "working system". All major components will be specified in terms of commercial availability or need for further development. An automated solution is presented. (P-010754) Automation of the shipboard food service systems will reduce the highly intensive manpower operations currently in place. Workload reductions in food preparation will decrease menial labor jobs and provide more time for sailors to accomplish other work with greater professional/growth opportunities. Potential opportunities exist in the commercial fast food area and small industrial, commercial, and institutional cafeterias.

CARLOW INTERNATIONAL, INC.
20856 Waterbeach Pl.
Potomac Falls, VA 20165
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 444-4666
Mrs. Thomas B. Malone
NAVY 01-115      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Human System Integration Rapid Analysis Tool for Evaluation of System Concepts Early in Development
Abstract:Carlow and Trident are pleased to submit this proposal to develop a rapid analysis tool to reduce time and effort in conducting human systems integration (HSI) analyses in the early stages of Navy system acquisition. The need for the rapid analysis tool stems from the fact that, in early stages of system acquisition, there is typically not sufficient time and/or funding to support a complete top down requirements analysis for each of several competing concepts. The rapid analysis tool should support the application of HSI to assessment of alternative concepts as part of the AoA in the areas of (a) conduct of quick-look workload and manpower assessments; (b) analysis of task sequences, dependencies and performance requirements; (c) identification of human performance issues and concerns with alternative concepts, and (d) assessment of the expected human performance interoperability of concepts. The rapid analysis tool developed in this project will be designated the Rapid Personnel Options Requirements Tool (RAPPORT) tool. RAPPORT will support the computation of average workload for an alternate concept performing a mission scenario. The tool will also support the analysis of tasks and the identification of human performance issues and human performance interoperability requirements with alternative concepts. This tool will support early HSI analysis to assess workloads, manning and human performance of commercial as well as military systems with significantly reduced time, effort and cost of the analysis. Potential commercial applications include commercial shipping, maritime and offshore systems, manufacturing plants, electrical power plants, chemical and pharmaceutical plants, and any other commercial enterprise where manpower reduction and human performance improvement is a priority.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4900 Pearl East Circle, Suite 201E
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-6947
Ms. Beth Plott
NAVY 01-115      Selected for Award
Title:Human System Integration Rapid Analysis Tool for Evaluation of System Concepts Early in Development
Abstract:This project will result in the design and prototype of a performance evaluation, workload assessment, and decision support tool for assessing human systems integration (HSI) aspects of US Navy and commercial ship designs. The designed tool will help analysts evaluate different manning concepts in terms of system performance, operator workload and cost. The tool will contain situational awareness, human error, and visualization components. The tool will support a flexible analysis approach through which system designers can apply varying levels of fidelity to the analysis of manning and automation alternatives. The tool will include a large database of predecessor system maintenance, equipment and job data. The tool will also include a database of scenarios, events, and watchstander and maintainer tasks that the user can utilize and/or modify for a new analysis. The tool will be able to help designers assess the impact of reduced manning levels on performance in various dimensions of the systems (e.g., levels of automation required, allocation of tasks to human operators, workload of the reduced crew, subsequent risk associated with degraded performance due to excessive workload, etc.). Tool users will evaluate and trade-off these factors to determine the ultimate success of the system in terms of human performance, cost and safety risk. The issues that are currently driving the acquisition of military and commercial hardware systems are those that revolve around personnel costs, system performance, and safety. Designers and manufactures of advanced commercial systems must respond to the pressure to be more cost effective without sacrificing safety. The proposed software tool will leverage existing HSI analysis tools and will advance the state of the art in human systems integration technology so that the ability of sailors to operate, maintain and support a system will be used to impact system design. It will be able to help analysts evaluate shipboard reduced manning and automation concepts for safety and affordability impacts prior to building the ship. This will result in an effective force under today's reality of smaller crew sizes.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 30
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Mr. James Hicinbothom
NAVY 01-116      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Embedded Training in an Optimized Manning Environment
Abstract:The demands upon Naval training systems, organizations, and staff will only increase as the 21st Century unfolds. Significant strides have been made not only in demonstrating feasibility (e.g., AETS) of advanced embedded training systems, but also in deploying embedded simulation/stimulation and training systems (e.g., BFTT, ATEAMS). Unfortunately, many advanced training systems under development focus quite narrowly on what happens during a given full-up training exercise, and far too little on what happens between training exercises. The notebook computer-based PSYNTHIA (Personal SYNTHetic Instructional Agent) is intended to fill those gaps while also helping supervisory personnel and training staff manage the "big picture" for each warfighter's advancement to competence and cognitive readiness. PSYNTHIA will observe warfighter performance via middleware communication with BFTT, contribute to and collect After Action Review (AAR) results from warfighters and instructors, and maintain confidential "student" records. Furthermore, Phase II development will create a novel capability enabling PSYNTHIA to interact with each warfighter between exercises, analogous to the way a Marine instructor might use a sandbox to lay out a situation for a trainee - explaining, quizzing, and probing the student's understanding of the underlying processes, potential courses of action, and myriad other factors affecting the outcome of the situation. The proposed technological innovations brought together to create PSYNTHIA are very marketable for transition to the commercial sector, as well as many other potential uses by DoD and foreign military organizations. The innovative 24x7x365 "anytime" advanced tutoring, and the more common student record keeping, capabilities which PSYNTHIA will provide can be applied to a wide range of jobs where individual job competence also requires competence at being a good team member. Potential applications abound in operation and supervision of control systems, production systems, and many other work environments. Typical industries in which applications might be found include aviation, defense, chemical processing and production, power production and distribution, transportation of hazardous waste, and many others. Furthermore, the key underlying technological innovation in PSYNTHIA, the ability for a cognitive agent to dynamically construct display contents to carry out interaction with a human, could lead to a revolution in human-computer interaction, finally fulfilling many of the dreams held by researchers of intelligent user interfaces and adaptive interfaces in the past two decades.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North, P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3760
Mr. John L. Wayne
NAVY 01-116      Selected for Award
Title:Embedded Training in an Optimized Manning Environment
Abstract:The Phase I effort will include a detailed methodology for conducting training in the anticipated manning environment for new and evolving 21st century ship classes (DD 21, CVNX, LPD-17, etc.). A training infrastructure will be defined that will accommodate individual and team training requirements within a closed-loop adaptive training system employing a seamless combination of adaptive IMI- and simulation-based tutoring. Sonalysts will examine several technologies during the Phase I study for potential leverage into the Phase II prototype system. These include: Afloat Training and Exercise Management System (ATEAMS), ExpertTrainTM (simulation-based intelligent tutoring technology), InTrainTM (adaptive interactive multimedia instruction), Variable Virtual Combat Mockup (VVCM), Advanced Embedded Training (AET) system, and the Synthetic Cognition for Operational Team Training (SCOTT). Phase II will include development of a small-scale closed-loop system focused on a shipboard Combat Information Center (CIC). This research will significantly contribute to development of a fully functional closed-loop training system that will support individual and team training within a total-ship environment. We anticipate that the technology developed under this SBIR topic will be employed in future naval ships (DD 21, CVNX, etc.), and within the Navy's shore-based training infrastructure.

CONTINENTAL CONTROLS & DESIGN, INC.
1921 N. Gaffey Suite J
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 831-8669
Mr. James P. Hynes Jr.
NAVY 01-117      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Non-Lethal Ship Defense Response Systems (Anti-surface)
Abstract:asdStopping persons in their tracks without risking injury is a tough assignment. We don't have the ultimate answer. Instead, we propose to build an inexpensive delivery vehicle that can carry a TBD small payload, or non-lethal warhead out beyond 500 meters with pinpoint (2 meter CEP) accuracy. This delivery vehicle is essentially a miniature inertially guided Non-Lethal Cruise Missile (NLCM), made possible and affordable by new MEMS sensors. Fired from a handheld 40mm grenade launcher, it reaches out 500 meters in under 6 seconds, cruising with non-lethal kinetic energy at 300 fps (paintball speed). The `warhead' can be a rubber nose, noise/flash maker, sticky goo, tear gas, fireworks, or any future combination of non-lethal deterrent. Built entirely with COTS components (and a MEMS IMU we are completing in an independent project), we can demonstrate this miniature munition with full range flight tests next year in Phase 2. Benefits: This technology has wide application in both government and commercial security business (high value site protection) and in law enforcement (non-lethal weapons/crowd control).

LE SYSTEMS, INC.
91 Prestige Park Circle, Suite 5
East Hartford, CT 06108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 633-0459
Mr. Richard J. Nelson
NAVY 01-117      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Non-Lethal Ship Defense Response Systems (Anti-surface)
Abstract:The technology that will be delivered in Phase III, is an integrated 5 watt 532 nanometer ruggedized, fieldable green, Laser Dazzler system. The heart of the system is the compact 532nm laser, currently being developed by LE Systems Inc. The laser will be integrated with a tunable power supply, a reflective beam expander, and interlocked to a rangefinder sized to provide an eye-safe beam. The system will be able to operate from either battery power or a power source of opportunity. The deliverable 5-watt system will provide a unique testbed for demonstrating a number of applications of the technology for Military and Law Enforcement communities. The LE Systems Inc. Laser Dazzler baseline system, developed in conjunction with a joint NIJ, DARPA and USAF Phillips Laboratory contract, has been scaled to the 0.5-watt level, and will be used in the Phase I program, and provide a baseline for the Phase II design effort. The proposed effort extends the 532nm technology to a level that will supply test data for a number of longer range Military and Law Enforcement requirements. For a number of years, we have been able to locate targets, intruders, and etc. in all types of environments and at various ranges. The issue always has been, how do you deter and/or stop the aggressor, and how do you distinguish between friend or foe. Adding to the problem is that in many cases the target maybe an innocent person or persons who has just happened to wander into a restricted area. With the increase of threats to both civilian and military targets throughout the world, and the political ramifications of the use of force, methods to defuse situations in a true non-lethal fashion needed to be developed and tested. The proposed program will deliver a higher power Laser Dazzler system with tunable output intensity to provide the necessary level of output light for long range and wide-angle applications. The non-lethal laser light incapacitates the target by providing a temporary "optical wall" between the target and the source. The current handheld Laser Dazzler has been designed to be eye-safe at the aperture to all current FDA and ANSI standards, by limiting the power to 2.55 milliwatts/cm2. Since an area defense platform will allow for a larger aperture system and minimum engagement ranges can be preset, eye-safe at the aperture is not an issue. The Phase III 5-watt laser demonstration system will provide the platform to obtain test data for all government agencies on the "optical wall" effect. Based on the interest to protect not only our naval ships in port, but also all assets of our government, LE Systems Inc. believes that the development of a smaller, higher power and more efficient 532nm Laser Dazzler will be of interest not only to the Navy, but all branches of the services and other Government agencies, as well as security agencies in the private sector.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. Jay Cleckler
NAVY 01-117      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Non-Lethal Ship Defense Response Systems (Anti-surface)
Abstract:A variety of vessels may threaten a U.S. Navy ship. Accidental intruders may include fishing boats or tugboats that inadvertently get close enough to the ship to pose a threat. Non-dedicated harassers include protestors who want to contest the Navy's presence but are not committed to violent actions. Committed terrorist category would include the crew that attacked the USS Cole nearly a year ago. Non-lethal deterrent must not incapacitate the intruding vessel crew or engine. Doing so could force the vessel to continue drifting toward the Navy ship regardless of the vessel's intentions. Thus non-lethal technology that incapacitates would not allow the skipper to fully assess intent before lethal force would be required. SARA's proposed acoustic perimeter defense concept relies on the natural 1/ r2 fall-off of acoustic intensity to provide a scalable effect. The device uses a newly developed and tested, proprietary acoustic device with no moving parts, coupled to a beamforming antenna. The compact device is rugged, uses little fuel, is easy to setup and stow, and can withstand the deleterious effects of the ocean environment. Other applications, for this easy to use, no moving parts, technology include Coast Guard interdictions, a crowd control device for law enforcement, and a possible delaying "fence" at border crossings.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 625
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 279-3054
Mr. Ronald Borrell
NAVY 01-118      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Surveillance of Ship Security Perimeter While in Port
Abstract:This SBIR is concerned with using remote sensors to enhance the performance of security forces protecting Navy ships while docked in port. The use of remote sensing systems for area surveillance can greatly complement the performance of human sentries. Current remote systems rely primarily on video and infrared sensors. Specific weaknesses of these systems include high false alarm rates, limited detection ranges (especially for stealthy intruders), and a lack of automatic threat localization and tracking. We propose the introduction of acoustic sensing to these systems with the goal of having the additional sensor type improve detection performance and provide additional information that contributes to the reduction of false alarms. The thrust of this proposal is to study, evaluate, and demonstrate the performance that can be provided by using acoustic sensors as part of an area surveillance system. This innovation will provide significant improvement in the detection and localization of stealthy intruders from both dock-side and water-side, as well as provide a dramatic reduction in the number of false contacts that need to be investigated. Effective ship security while in-port can be applied not only to military ships but also to commercial ships containing flammable or explosive cargo (e.g., liquefied natural gas, crude oil). Effective perimeter security is also applicable to buildings, military installations and manufacturing facilities.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 222-0444
Dr. Leonard Haynes
NAVY 01-118      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Ultra-Wide Band Ship Security Perimeter
Abstract:IAI and a partner company, Time Domain Corporation (TDC), are developing a new type of radio called Time-Modulated Ultra-Wideband (TM-UWB) radio. Within the last few years, low cost ultra-high precision time delays have become available, and these now make it possible to build UWB communication and radar systems which have no carrier frequency. The only signals transmitted are pulses. The Fourier transform of a perfect impulse is constant at all frequencies. For the pulses we are currently using (1/2 ns), the energy extends approximately from .5 to 4 Gigahertz, and the energy content in any conventional frequency band is below the noise. Because all that is transmitted is binary pulses, implementation of electronically steerable phased array systems is easy and effective. Similarly, SAR processing is relatively simple and effective. These two features of TM-UWB are exploited to yield an effective ship perimeter security system which will work in all weather, and may even be able to detect intruders through non-metal obstacles such as dock decking. The same basic electronics can also be used to provide communication with sailors, and another unique feature of this technology is that the location of anyone carrying one of our UWB radios can be tracked. Our partner company, Time Domain Corporation (TDC) has invested $100 million in private funds to commercialize this technology. A set of custom ASICS have reduced the electronics down to three chips. Time Domain's business model is to be a chip supplier ("Time Domain Inside"). Our work will be synergistic with TDC's commercial development, using the ASIC chips as the implementation kernel, and developing the theory and practice to apply this new technology to ship surveillance and other security perimeter applications.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Shengji Peng
NAVY 01-118      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Surveillance System for Automatic Object Discrimination and Tracking
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a new automatic object discrimination and tracking surveillance system for Naval ship security. In Phase I, we will develop a Surveillance System for Automatic Object Discrimination and Tracking (Dis/Track) employing multiple highly efficient real-time noise-reducing and camouflage penetration technologies. Because targets move in complex backgrounds, traditional ATR systems, which rely on a fixed number of templates and movement tracking, fail to identify them. The proposed dynamic template real-time updating technology is specially designed to solve these problems. Successful completion of Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the Dis/Track surveillance system and lead to complete system development and testing under field conditions. Commercial applications include security systems and intruder detection systems based on video and infrared cameras for building surveillance.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Ave, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Dr. Lev Sadovnik
NAVY 01-118      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Perimeter Security Monitoring Using a Novel 360 degree Scanning Antenna
Abstract:To overcome deficiencies inherent in perimeter security systems (PSS) that depend solely on FLIR and/or Low-Light TV, WaveBand Corporation, with the support from Ingalls Shipyard, proposes to develop and demonstrate a millimeter wave (MMW) perimeter monitoring sensor. A low-cost, truly affordable sensor becomes possible due to the proposed novel all-around scanning MMW antenna with no moving RF parts, combined with a PC-based radar signal processor (RSP). Phase I will establish the feasibility of the MMW perimeter security monitor (MPSM) will provide: all weather, day/night, perimeter monitoring that features high number (up to 60) full scans per second; 360§ field of view (FOV); high resolution enabling boat (on the water) or human (on the pier) detection; motion and intelligent object discrimination for autonomous operation; automatic alarm and video/FLIR camera queuing due to automatic target detection and tracking; ease of installation and maintenance due to the combined (transceiver + antenna) front end and low-frequency cable connector to the RSP. The proposed MPSM extends its usefulness to civilian applications as an intrusion warning system to protect national assets and limited access areas and as a fire detection system for national parks, nature preserves and urban/wildland interface. It also addresses a large railroad grade crossing monitoring market.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 625
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 683-3472
Mr. Willis Rowe
NAVY 01-119      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Simulation Environment in Support of Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) Algorithm Development
Abstract:Development of a simulation environment concept for stimulation of developmental Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) algorithms is proposed. The proposed concept is based on a distributed architecture simulation, interconnected via a LAN using standard network protocols. This simulation is envisioned to initially include a 3-degree of motion model of a surface surveillance platform equipped with a modern volume search radar, a multi-function radar and IRST. The simulation will also include a database of menu selectable target signatures that model an array of friendly, hostile, and neutral air and space borne targets, with a capability to add surface targets if desired. Target characteristics include all aspect signature profiles with nominal value ranges for measurable features and attributes consistent with the modeled sensors capabilities. Also included will be a propagation environment phenomenology model with a database of attenuation and degradation effects of weather, multi-path, sea state and scenario induced effects such as smoke and dust. The simulation scenario will be overlaid on menu selectable DMA maps using a WGS-84 based reference grid over an elliptical earth profile. Surveillance platform and 3DOF target maneuver and motion profiles will be scenario programmable based on selectable waypoint navigation, altitude and velocity profiles. The proposed simulation will provide a means to reliable evaluation of NCTR algorithm performance under a wide variety of scenarios and sensor performance and configuration profiles. Use of this high fidelity simulation will preclude the expense and complexity of performing equivalent evaluation via field-testing on instrumented ranges using real sensors, surveillance platforms, targets and precision ground truth geometries. The transportability and networking compatibility of the simulation also makes it easily adaptable to training and joint service requirement applications. The simulation technology is also adaptable to non-military applications of air traffic control, search and rescue, law enforcement, and commercial vehicle tracking and location.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 663-9227
Mr. George LeFurjah
NAVY 01-119      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Simulation Environment in Support of Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) Algorithm Development
Abstract:Navy operational emphasis continues to shift to the complex littoral scenarios associated with expeditionary warfare, strike operations, and coastal TBMD. Rapid and accurate target classification and identification become crucial to maintaining effective ship self-defense posture in the presence of greater diversity of threats and higher density non-military targets. The larger the number of features that can be compared with the stored threat library, the higher the level of confidence with which a given track can be associated with a specific threat. Therefore, data from multiple sensors with complementary characteristics, such as radar and IR, affords greater potential for improved NCTR than data from either sensor alone. Because live target testing is prohibitively expensive, offers little control, and is not reproducible, most of the algorithm development will have to be done using simulation. The focus of the proposed effort is to design and develop a laboratory/workstation that combines detailed radar and IRST models, consistent radar and IR target characteristics and propagation and clutter environments, a six degrees of freedom target trajectory model, and a user-friendly graphical user interface. With this tool NCTR algorithm development based upon IR, radar, and fused IR/radar sensor data can proceed in a cost-effective and efficient manner This research and development effort could lead to a dual IR/Radar sensor NCTR development tool capable of modeling simultaneous radar and IR signature generation on a common moving target in common meteorological conditions. Such a tool provides a unique capability for the design and development of NCTR methods and algorithms, as well as much needed predictive analysis for Navy testing.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison Brown
NAVY 01-120      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Global Positioning System (GPS) Jamming Situational Awareness for Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS)
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR is to produce an architectural design for a system of GPS jammer geolocation collectors. The proposed system is called the Situational Awareness of GPS Environment (SAGE) system and is designed to operate using a network of small UAVs, such as the Smart Warfighting Array of Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM) UAVs, as each jammer location sensor platforms. The SAGE system consists of a jammer location (JLOC) sensor on each UAV, and a shipboard master station that processes the JLOC sensor data to compute the jammer location and provides jammer situational awareness to the Naval Fires Control System (NFCS) using a Weapons Effectiveness Prediction Model (WEPM). The SAGE system provides a mission support capability to assess jammer effects on GPS-guided, precision strike weapons. The system leverages the proven NAVSYS Jammer Location capability previously developed under an Air Force SBIR. Under Phase I we will develop a design for a JLOC sensor payload suitable for installation on a small UAV and develop a design to upgrade our JLOC master station to include the WEPM capability to provide GPS situational awareness. As an option, we also propose to support a demonstration of a prototype SAGE system using in-house test equipment. Because of the susceptibility of GPS to interference there is a growing need for civil and Government agencies to be able to quickly locate sources of interference to GPS. The SAGE system will provide such a capability to the FAA, FCC, and other government users reliant on GPS to support critical infrastructure.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Kenan O. Ezal
NAVY 01-120      Selected for Award
Title:Global Positioning System (GPS) Jamming Situational Awareness for Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS)
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation proposes to research and to develop a low-cost, jammer localization and characterization network, as well as the analysis tools necessary to ensure that the system provides valuable assistance in battlefield awareness and mission planning. The system will consist of a single control station and two or more remote stations that can be ground-based or UAV based. The primary focus of this effort will be to locate sources of GPS interference, such as jammers. In order to achieve the highest localization accuracy possible, while keeping costs low, the proposed system will be a hybrid implementation of a bearings-only measurement system and a time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) system. Each remote station will synchronously sample and store the monopulse direction-finding (DF) RF information and compute a bearing measurement. These bearing measurements, along with power measurements, will then be transmitted to the control station and be used to determine whether or not any of the measurements are potentially from the same emitter. In addition, the control station will periodically request that the remote stations transmit the stored samples, which correspond to the previously submitted bearing measurements, for further processing. At this point, both TDOA and differential-Doppler (DD) techniques can be utilized to further improve the initial bearings-only emitter location estimates. The loss of GPS signal lock due to intentional and unintentional interference signals is a real threat to military and civilian positioning and navigation systems which cannot always be avoided. Hence, this threat location estimation and characterization network can be used to potentially find and eliminate sources of GPS jamming signals as well as for improved battlefield awareness and mission planning. In addition, the threat localization concept is applicable for any commercial or military wireless system that is subjected to electromagnetic interference such as GPS aided aircraft navigation systems, wireless communications, wireless local-area-networks, and wireless personal-area-networks such as Bluetooth. Because of the immense popularity of these systems, there is a growing need, and a large commercial market, for systems that can locate and track unintentional emissions, as well as RF jammers. The emitter localization and characterization network concept proposed by Toyon Research Corporation satisfies that need.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Robert J. Kline-Schoder
NAVY 01-121      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Passive Inertial Navigation System
Abstract:GPS-based inertial navigation systems provide a very accurate and cost-effective means of augmenting traditional inertial measurement units. However, the GPS signal is subject to jamming which can render the navigation system useless. The objective of this project is to design, fabricate, and test a navigation system for guided projectiles that does not rely on GPS. This system will provide accurate navigation data with minimum mass and cost. We will achieve this objective by combining inertial measurement unit and altimeter data with magnetometer measurements and a magnetic field map of the earth. The innovative sensor fusion algorithm is based on advanced optimal estimation techniques that will result in highly accurate navigation data. These data will then be provided to the missile control system for projectile guidance. During the Phase I project, we will prove the feasibility of our innovation by performing a complete system study using computer simulation. During Phase II, we will design, fabricate, evaluate, and deliver a fully functional prototype passive inertial navigation system. This technology will have application to both military and commercial aerospace vehicles. An accurate, inexpensive, and low mass passive navigation system has the potential to provide accurate navigation data to vehicles when GPS is not available (such as in canyons, urban areas, mountainous terrain, or when the GPS system is not functioning properly).

MULTISPECTRAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
20300 Century Blvd., Suite 175
Germantown, MD 20874
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 528-1745
Dr. Robert J. Fontana
NAVY 01-121      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Non-GPS Projectile Navigation via Ultra Wideband Signals
Abstract:Multispectral Solutions, Inc. (MSSI) proposes to develop the Ultra WideBand (UWB) Radio Frequency (RF) components of a non-GPS navigation system. The complete non-GPS navigation system solution requires an integration of multiple technologies, ranging from small aircraft to real-time video/map correlation. Here, the scope is limited to propagation and timing of MSSI's UWB waveforms. The beneficial characteristics of MSSI's UWB nanosecond pulse waveforms are that they are spectrally confined, transmit data and allow for precision time of flight to measure distances between transmitters and receivers. Spectrally confined waveforms allow multiple RF systems to occupy the same platform without interference. Additionally, UWB waveforms offer a low probability of interception and detection (LPI/D), hence increasing survivability. Finally, the nearly all-digital nature of UWB hardware allows for microminiaturization via ASIC and RF hybrid technology. These features make the non-GPS navigation UWB system applicable to many US Navy and Marine Corps geo-location applications. Under Phase I, two major objectives are proposed. The first objective will develop geo-location transmitters and receiver hardware in S-band (2-4 GHz). The second objective will support systems studies for non-GPS navigation. The proposed Phase I option will demonstrate the performance of differential time of arrival UWB geo-location hardware. Navigation with the accuracy of GPS or better, without any reliance upon GPS for operation. The system is scalable to any operational area.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison Brown
NAVY 01-121      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Non-GPS Projectile Navigation
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR is to provide an alternative approach for guided projectiles to continue navigation in situations where the GPS signal is unusable because of enemy jamming. Our proposed navigation solution is to modify the guided projectiles' existing GPS receiver to allow it to use the jammer signals themselves as a source of navigation information to update the on-board inertial navigation system once the J/S level exceeds the ability of the GPS receiver to maintain lock. The system relies on a network of small UAVs, such as the Smart Warfighting Array of Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM) UAVs. These provide jammer location sensor data to a shipboard master station which precisely geolocates the jammer sources. This information is passed to the GPS-guided weapon prior to launch. The SWARM UAVs then provide data directly to the projectile in flight to support this back-up navigation mode. In phase I we will demonstrate the feasibility of this concept through a combination of simulation and testing. In Phase II we propose to deliver a prototype navigation system that can be used to demonstrate the system performance during field tests. Because of the susceptibility of GPS to interference there is a growing need for civil and Government agencies to be able to have a back-up capability to operate in the presence of GPS interference. The proposed navigation solution has application to all GPS precision-guided weapons and also as a source of back-up navigation to allow GPS operation in areas not covered by GPS, such as robotic vehicles operating in open-pit mines.

SOFTWARE & ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
1802 N. Carson Street, Suite 200
Carson City, NV 89701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 882-1966
Mr. Stuart S. Dunn
NAVY 01-122      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Modeling High-Temperature Erosive Gas Flow to Support Barrel Erosion Reduction Concept Modeling for Fire Support Gun Application
Abstract:New requirements for modern gun systems have greatly increased the propellant flame temperature and reactivity of the combustion products. As a result, thermochemical erosion can greatly reduced the service life of the gun tubes in these systems. Coatings and liners have been used to mitigate erosion, with mixed results. In order to design a new gun tube which resists excessive wear, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms contributing to thermochemical erosion is necessary. Although most of the tools required to calculate thermochemical erosion exist as individual programs, the actual analysis procedure is quite cumbersome, labor intensive and error prone. These individual physical models need to be extended to increase their applicability for new gun systems and the results merged into a Unified Thermochemical Erosion Program. This new program development will result in a single computer code that melds modern computational modeling with all the prior knowledge of thermochemical erosion. The new code will allow designers to parametrically evaluate and compare erosion performance resulting from various combinations of propellant, materials, and wear-reduction technologies. This screening tool will allow the designer to concentrate on the most promising wear resistant technology, rather than waste time on a hit and miss approach. The benefits of the development of the Phase II product, the Unified Thermochemical Erosion computer code, are that it will allow the gun system designer to quickly and accurately evaluate the relative merits of new gun systems design changes without costly test programs. The user-friendly software will allow the designer to parametrically evaluate a large variety of designs quickly and economically. This software can be extended to the automotive, rocket and jet propulsion, aerospace, petroleum, and chemical industry. Advanced thermochemical modeling in high temperature, high pressure, high carbon/ hydrogen environment as exist in gun tubes is directly applicable to thermal erosion problems in most internal combustion and jet engines utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. The higher operating temperatures and pressures of guns represent the range of operation that higher efficiency engines are already moving toward. Special coatings and shapes such as are being modeled here will be directly applicable to next generation, hotter, high efficiency engines.

NOMADICS, INC.
1024 S. Innovation Way
Stillwater, OK 74074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 372-9535
Mr. Art Crotzer
NAVY 01-123      Selected for Award
Title:HYDRA Wireless Audio/Video Heaset Feasibility Study
Abstract:Nomadics will conduct a study to determine the feasibility and best approach of implementing a system of shipboard data networking that would be built on the HYDRA system and support audio and video transmission. Nomadics is well positioned to complete the study and to implement systems that support the likely findings of such a study conducted by us or others. We are not only experts in wireless systems and networking, but further we have solid strategic alliances with M/A COM, the licensees of the EDACS technology on which HYDRA is based. While the practical transmission of audio and video using the HYDRA radiating transmission line approach poses significant challenges, we have already conceptualized solutions to many of those obstacles. Further, we believe that our proposed approach of working closely with Navy personnel and with realistic scenarios will go a long way in ensuring the success of the proposed project. While the proposed study is directed at a very specific application in a limited environment, the methods of solving some of the shipboard problems that are likely to evolve from the study will have application in many other settings in which wireless communications and wireless networking are employed, especially where video is involved. The template device for the study is a wireless headset, which will be useful wherever wireless communications in a noisy or noise-restricted environment is required.

DIVERSIFIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
35 Wiggins Ave.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9444
Dr. Ian Roth
NAVY 01-124      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Power Distribution Systems
Abstract:Present circuit breakers, in conjunction with UPSs, decrease power reliability with respect to load faults. To eliminate this drawback, DTI will develop an advanced power-distribution system for shipboard use, with a nominal rating of 50 A in each circuit. The switching will be done by IGBTs, which have a switching time less than two microseconds. This is more than three orders of magnitude faster than requested in the solicitation. This fast power-distribution system will further increase the reliability of Navy shipboard power, crucial for computer-based controls. The system design will reduce the required current by a factor of 2.5 or more, depending on the load, correspondingly reducing the cost and size of the power distribution panel. In the commercial sector, a circuit topology similar to that in use on Navy ships is employed by computer intensive internet service providers and server farms to ensure isolation from grid disruptions. As this topology becomes more widespread, the circuit breaker developed under this SBIR will be ideally suited to protect these systems.

IAP RESEARCH, INC.
2763 Culver Avenue
Dayton, OH 45429
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 296-1806
Mr. Antonios Challita
NAVY 01-124      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Power Distribution Systems
Abstract:We propose to extend our Power Node Control Center (PNCC) technology effort to develop advanced power distribution systems for the 120 VAC ship distribution system. The PNCC effort, a program sponsored by ONR, has concentrated on 450 VAC distribution systems with loads under 300 kW. The 120 VAC distribution is a natural extension to the work already done. In our proposed concept, we propose to use MCTs as the solid state switches in AC switch topology to perform the switching and protection function listed in the proposal, while maintaining all the features of the PNCC. These features are modularity, more survivable systems, and continuous high power quality to the laod. In Phase 1 of this effort, we propose to design, build and test an all solid state, 120 VAC power panel which demonstrates the switching and protection functions required in this solicitation. The successful completion of the proposed research effort will lead to a ship power distribution system that is more reliable, more survivable, and more affordable than today's systesm. A PNCC at the low voltage level will definitely have application in the industrial and aerospace markets as well as Naval and commerical ships.

INTEK MARINE TECHNOLOGY, LLC
2231 Crystal Park Drive, Suite 500
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 233-1795
Mr. Tom D' Muhala
NAVY 01-125      Awarded: 10NOV01
Title:Scale Prevention in Seawater and Freshwater Flushed Shipboard Sanitary Waste Systems
Abstract:In the research proposed, INTEK Marine Technology, LLC. proposes to modify and extend its current anti-scale product line (currently in use in the cruise line industry) to both freshwater and saltwater application, by investigating the blending and testing of two separate, but simultaneously usable, scale defeating systems: 1) A set of threshold effect scale-inhibitors that absorb on calcium carbonate crystal growth sites, altering growth patterns such that any crystals form more slowly and will be highly distorted...thus rendering them "non-adhering" to surfaces and, 2) A set of scale-inhibitor compatible, low molecular weight sequestrants having the ability to seek out and "tie-up" calcium ions (at the exclusion of other competing metal ions) in both seawater and freshwater...thus removing their availability to form scale. As part of this work, INTEK also proposes to develop a low maintenance, automated chemical delivery system for use on a wide variety of naval vessels. The use of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors and removers for freshwater flushed shipboard vacuum sanitary waste systems is steadily growing in the cruise line industry. The availability of an enhanced calcium carbonate scale inhibitor and remover for both seawater and freshwater flushed shipboard sanitary waste systems will be of substantial benefit to not only the U.S. Navy, but also the entire commercial and pleasure marine industries. Successful application of an enhanced calcium carbonate inhibitor and remover will eliminate problems associated with calcium carbonate deposit accumulation in seawater and freshwater flushed shipboard sanitary waste systems and periodic dock-side cleaning. This will result in the saving of thousands of dollars in repair and maintenance cost per year for each vessel in the United States Navy. The same order of magnitude in savings can be achieved in commercial shipping as well. As a result of this research INTEK proposes to market this technology to the Navy, Commercial Marine, and Pleasure Craft markets.

SELECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
132 W. First St.
Flint, MI 48502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(810) 767-7530
Dr. Glenn B. Martin
NAVY 01-125      Selected for Award
Title:Induced Nuclei Formation of Calcium and Magnesium Carbonate for Scale Control
Abstract:The ability of three scale control technologies; a copper/zinc bimetallic redox alloy, a magnetic and an electrochemical system, to reduce scale formation in the sanitary collection piping of ships is to be determined. All three of these scale control technologies rely upon inducing nuclei formation in the treated water prior to the water being subjected to conditions that induce scale formation. Thus, it is envisioned these three methods can by implemented by treating the flushing water (seawater and freshwater) prior to use in urinals and water closets. Each of these scale control technologies is environmentally friendly as they do not significantly change the character of the water being treated and should be compatible with the sanitary waste piping systems. A practical, low maintenance scale control free technology has wide application in the military and private sector. Military and private sector uses of this technology are numerous since essentially all water systems where heating and evaporation occur suffer from scale problems. These applications include condensers, firetube boilers, heat exchangers, hot water heaters, cooling towers, chillers, and evaporators. Scale has a significant economic impact due to its insulative properties, which causes decreased efficiency in any heat transfer process, thus increasing energy use.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Ian J. Brown
NAVY 01-126      Selected for Award
Title:An Integrated Bioreactor and Advanced Oxidation Process for the Treatment of Shipboard Non-oily Wastewater
Abstract:U.S. Armed Forces vessels generate substantial quantities of non-oily wastewater (sewage and graywater) from toilet, shower, and galley facilities. Anticipated tightening of regulations will prevent discharge of graywater from Armed Forces vessels within 12 n.m. from the coastline of the U.S. and its territories. The 12 n.m. no-discharge zone will require that graywater generated onboard be treated or held when the ship is in this zone. The holding capacity of existing ships is insufficient to meet the anticipated regulations without wastewater treatment. Current membrane technologies for treating shipboard non-oily wastewater have limitations including foam control, long-term membrane fouling, and the sensitivity of the biomass to chemical shocks that can occur in graywater drains. The proposed non-oily wastewater treatment process utilizes an activated sludge bioreactor that separates the sludge from the effluent without the use of membranes or gravity settling. An advanced oxidation process will subsequently disinfect the effluent so that it will be suitable for unrestricted discharge or re-use. The advantages of the proposed method are its small size, low maintenance, lack of membranes and associated fouling and ability to meet discharge criteria for coastal wasters of the U.S. Rising costs for waste handling on ships and in ports is a major driving force for the development of cost effective treatment solutions for both military and commercial vessels. The Navy spends $5 million annually in Mediterranean ports alone for discharging non-oily wastewater to handling facilities. By installing waste treatment processes onboard, vessels with benefit by minimizing or eliminating the cost of discharging non-oily wastewater to port handling facilities and fines for noncompliance of discharge regulations. The proposed system will be applicable to U.S. Navy ships, U.S. Army ships, commercial vessels, and offshore platforms and as a mobile waste treatment plant for Army and Marine ground operations.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. John Dering
NAVY 01-126      Selected for Award
Title:Shipboard Cleanup of Non-Oily Wastewater
Abstract:SARA, Inc. proposes the use of high intensity acoustic energy to generate sonochemical effects for cleanup and treatment of wastewater onboard ships. The proposed technique can dramatically reduce the need to store and trans-fer non-oily wastewater and greatly reduce the volume of any water that must be discharged into the marine environment. Application of this technology would simplify and expedite Naval opera-tions in foreign waters and eliminate much of the volume of stored water that must be retained for eventual transfer to other holding systems. Overall this would enhance the efficiency of shipboard operations, reduce the volume of waste storage facilities onboard ship and regenerate usable non-potable water. The proposed technique is compatible with existing pipe layouts, plumbing and transfer systems, and existing treatment methodologies including permeable membranes. This technique has applications in many areas including the Cruise Industry, shipping industry, at sewage treatment plants, potentially onboard submarines, and for agricultural to cleanup effluent generated by large scale cattle, pig, fish and chicken producers and the meat processing industries.

APPLIED HYDRO-ACOUSTICS RESEARCH, INC.
15825 Shady Grove Rd., Suite 135
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 840-9722
Mr. Walter Allensworth
NAVY 01-127      Selected for Award
Title:Tactical Sonar Data Fusion
Abstract:The objective of this proposed research is to define a USW tactical data fusion architecture and develop a fusion algorithm baseline that can continue to mature through an incremental technology and software build process. Phase 1 program emphasis will be placed on data fusion algorithm assessments and architecture definition for the USW combat system application. AHA will develop an overall data fusion concept that includes raw data fusion, feature-fusion, and track fusion, in a high-level structure that incorporates consolidation of signal-processing & information-processing displays for all USW combat system functions segments, and leverages the infrastructure of existing information processing databases. Candidate algorithms to be defined and evaluated will include commensurate sensor data correlation, non-linear adaptive detector/estimator, and belief theory (fuzzy logic) methods. The research will assess the performance of candidate algorithms and the characteristics of USW tactical sensor feature estimate sources that will provide inputs to the tactical data fusion function. A system design task will define an approach for efficient integration of promising data fusion algorithms into the baseline AN/SQQ-89A(V)15 USW system architecture. We will define an integrated display concept that augments existing sonar geo-situation and sensor displays with intuitive overlays to depict data fusion results and confidence levels. The anticipated benefits of this technology are increased sonar analyst productivity and improved USW combat system detection, classification, and localization performance. Additional investment in the technology will improve robustness and increase the scope of sensors and feature measurements to be associated. Potential DoD applications include the AN/SQQ-89(V) tactical surface ship sonar, multi-static active sonar, and air-deployed sonobuoy field processors. Potential non-DoD applications include environmental/weather monitoring, multi-sensor imaging, and medical diagnosis systems.

IPEAKSDATA CORP.
2530 Woodstock Place
Boulder, CO 80305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 494-2053
Dr. Robert L Welch
NAVY 01-127      Awarded: 19NOV01
Title:Adapting Distributed Graphical Modeling for Tactical Sonar Data Fusion
Abstract:In this SBIR proposal, iPeaksData Corporation proposes to adapt its Distributed Graphical Modeling (DGM) technology to collecting and integrating sensor data from multiple sonar sources into an intelligent operator display and analysis tool. DGM provides infrastructure for a system of Bayesian agents that provide distributed monitoring and fusion models supporting intelligent operator displays. Geo-spatial mapping methods are used to visualize the situation analysis resulting from this system. Bayesian inference and estimation methods may be employed by the agents for multi-target multi-sensor tracking and fusion or for integration of specialized legacy fusion and tracking software. Operator drilldown will use Bayesian methods for viewing predicted values of missing data and hidden entities, analyzing hypotheses, and viewing sensor health and consistency with the rest of the sensor system. During this Phase I project, iPeaksData Corporation proposes to work with operator trainers to understand operator tasks and the mix of sonars. The objective is a design of a prototype system to built in phase I. A inital capabilities demonstration is the goal of the phase I Option. The sensor fusion and operator display software can be directly applied to real time monitoring of sensor networks and remote sensing in many applications such as network security, pipeline management, mineral exploration and disease control.

CHAOTIC.COM (FORMERLY RANDLE, INC.
P.O. Box 1010
Great Falls, VA 22066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 759-5257
Mr. Rick Holland
NAVY 01-128      Selected for Award
Title:Active Sonar Target Classification in Littoral Waters
Abstract:Attempts to design target classifiers for active sonar have failed to identify reliable features for separating targets and clutter, causing performance in littoral waters to be severely degraded by clutter induced false alarms. The proximate cause of failure is the large number of possible return waveforms that correspond to a target at different possible aspects in complex, multi-path acoustic channels. Further, conventional matched filter techniques cannot distinguish between channel-induced and target-related features in the received signal. By introducing a new and unique replica set to properly decompose the return waveforms, we have solved these problems without recourse to matched-field processing. The resulting time-eigenvalue displays provide between 10 to 20 dB separation between targets and selected clutter. False alarms can be suppressed by several orders of magnitude for a given probability of detection. We have already achieved the Phase I objectives, including making the test statistics robust against non-stationary contamination. The algorithms can run on existing and planned hardware, they are robust to environmental and channel changes, and require no operator intervention. We can now proceed to a demonstration of the time-eigenvalue displays using mid-frequency, broadband waveforms. A 10 to 20 dB improvement in target-clutter separation with the ability to classify targets. The techniques translate directly to radar, cellular telephone, medical sensing, and RF tag identification (RFID).

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 351-4440
Dr. Henry Cox
NAVY 01-128      Awarded: 28NOV01
Title:Novel Approaches for Automated Information Processing of Active Sonar Data
Abstract:A crucial problem for tactical active sonars operating in littoral regions is discrimination between returns from targets of interest and those from clutter. A high probability of detection at low false alarm rates is important. Successful development of new active information processing methods will greatly improve the U.S. Navy's ability to detect and track quiet diesel-electric submarines in shallow water. ORINCON's proposed approach uses Doppler as the primary discrimination clue. During Phase I, we will develop new algorithms for space-time processing and adaptive pre-whitening that will significantly suppress reverberation effects and facilitate automation of the detection process. This effort will build on current work for ONR and NAWC on autonomous active sensors. In Phase II, we will develop additional algorithms that focus on automation, demonstrate a limited real-time processing capability in a lab system, and compute sonar performance metrics for the implemented algorithms. A real-time prototype system on a Navy-specified platform will be implemented during Phase III and tested at sea. Many current and planned Navy towed array processing systems are transition candidates, via the Advanced Processor Build (APB) program, for our proposed automated active sonar signal and information processing technology. The automated signal and information processing algorithms for Navy active sonar systems developed for this SBIR effort will provide improved detection performance, greater clutter rejection, and reduced false alarms against diesel-electric submarines in shallow-water areas. A significant number of current and future Navy sonar systems are transition candidates for our technology. We also plan to investigate civilian application of this technology to fish-finding sonar through license agreements with current suppliers.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS, INC.
521 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Mr. Patrick McGuire
NAVY 01-129      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Actively Cooled Sapphire Windows
Abstract:MSI will design and fabricate actively-cooled sapphire windows containing internal channels for a cooling fluid. The windows will be fabricated from two sapphire plates bonded together with an already-demonstrated index-matching glass. In Phase I, MSI will (1) develop a preliminary flat sapphire window design based on an analysis of the thermal environment, heat extraction using a cooling fluid (e.g., water), and optical requirements, (2) fabricate a subscale demonstration sapphire window, and (3) develop concepts for integrating the window into a frame that interfaces with the cooling system. In the Phase I Option, MSI will (1) refine concepts for integrating the actively-cooled window into the missile system and (2) initiate the detailed design of the window itself. In Phase II, MSI will design, build, and test a prototype system to demonstrate its efficacy at air speeds up to Mach 3 and altitudes as low as 1000 ft. The applicability of the actively-cooled window system to non-planar window geometries will also be demonstrated. This program will provide new actively-cooled sapphire IR windows capable of full optical performance during hypersonic flight conditions, thereby enhancing the performance and reliability of surface-to-air interceptor missiles and tactical aircraft.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Hartmut H. Legner
NAVY 01-129      Selected for Award
Title:Thermal Stress Management of Infrared (IR) Windows
Abstract:One of the major challenges in the development of high velocity interceptor missiles is the need to provide a method of keeping the infrared window cool enough to allow target tracking. Several active window cooling techniques are under investigation, however, these must address the twin challenges of increased weight and added system failure mechanisms. We have recently invented a technique for passive cooling of interceptor windows. Our modeling has shown that this innovative approach can satisfy system needs without adding any moving parts or significant mass to the system. The passive cooling material can also be employed as a window frame material mitigating thermal stress effects for standard IR windows. The material is effective under supersonic and hypersonic heating conditions. In Phase I we propose to experimentally demonstrate the cooling capacity of our window concept under moderate heating conditions. In Phase II we will design, develop, and evaluate a prototype window. A new passive-cooling IR sensor window material is directly applicable to missile defense interceptor programs sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, the U.S. Army, and U.S. Navy. It is particularly relevant to the atmospheric interceptor programs being conducted by the Navy. The commercial benefits of these concepts are to organizations involved in the design and fabrication of vehicles performing sensing and tracking operations at high aerodynamic heating rates.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
5170 N. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 240
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 705-5900
Mr. Robert Cayse
NAVY 01-129      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a Wavefront Sensing Window for Severe Aerothermal Environments
Abstract:To improve the performance and affordability of infrared-guided missiles, we propose to develop a mosaic window concept that would be assembled from many window elements, with each element serving as an optical tilt sensor to detect line of sight to the target. Each single-piece element would consist of three components: a micro-optic for focusing and filtering; an X-Y detector to sense vertical and horizontal line of sight to the target; and an onboard signal processing chip. If needed, each element would be individually cooled by a tangential jet of helium. The array of window elements would form a Wavefront Sensing Window (WSW). The WSW would have several advantages over a conventional window/seeker combination, including reduced total costs, no moving parts, improved resistance to aerothermal environments, reduced sensitivity to aero-optic blur, greater flexibility in external shape (e.g. cone, cylinder, ogive, flat, etc.), and increased temporal bandwidth. The Phase 1 investigation will define WSW functional requirements and then perform analyses and trade studies in optics, thermostructures, and electronics. Phase 1 results will include element materials, element size and count, micro-optic design parameters, detector design parameters, and signal processing architecture. A prototype would be fabricated and tested in Phase 2. Successful development of the Wavefront Sensing Window should improve the performance and affordability of infrared-guided missiles, should reduce the cost of commercial wavefront sensors, and could facilitate real-time aberations corrections in severe aerothermal environments.

BIOSONICS, INC.
4027 Leary Way NW
Seattle, WA 98107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 782-2211
Mr. Janusz Burczynski
NAVY 01-130      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Underwater Sensing System for Platform Safety & Threat Alertment
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of an underwater ship perimeter security monitoring system based on the application and modification of commercially produced hydroacoustic systems and software. The existing hydroacoustic systems are based on SONAR technology common to many navigation and ranging systems but the BioSonics digital sonar equipment and software have been developed and enhanced for scientific detection and monitoring of plankton, fish, marine mammals, plants, sediments, and physical characteristics of marine and aquatic environments. This proposal will explore the adaptation of this COTS technology to the security applications defined in the RFP. The system resulting from this project will be self-contained, portable, simple to set up and operate, PC-based, and usable on virtually any vessel or platform regardless of size or configuration. PC-based software will control the echosounder configuration and operation, collect and record acoustic data, and screen and analyze acoustic signals. Target signature databases will be developed to enable characterization of targets and identification of potential threats. Underwater detection and target analysis currently used for many purposes. However, these systems normally require a high degree of operator intervention and interaction and rely heavily on post processing for analysis of acoustic signal data. A system which could be programmed to perform initial analysis of targets and assign targets to categories for classification and/or response could extend the use of low-cost hydroacoustics to many new areas. Activities in marinas, at ships locks, at aquaculture facilities, in canals and riverine waterways, and in nearshore environments are increasingly in need of monitoring for activity below the surface. The need to start, stop, or modify activities (such as at hydroelectric facilities, locks, water intakes) could be enhanced or simplified by incorporating such a system.

WESTERN MARINE ELECTRONICS (WESMAR)
BOX 7201, 14120 NE 200TH ST
WOODINVILLE, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 481-2296
Mr. Richard D. Williams
NAVY 01-130      Awarded: 25JUL01
Title:Integrated Underwater Sensing System for Platform Safety & Threat Alertment
Abstract:Increased operations by U.S. Navy ships in the near shore and inport environments have increased desire for improved navigational safety and improved self protection from underwater threats. Commercial technologies exist or are under development which could form the basis for shipboard sensors to detect, provide alertment, and, in some cases, indentify underwater natural, manmade, or human threats to ships. Phase I of this project will prove this concept by developing an innovative engineering design for a prototype underwater sensing system that provides hazard and security alertment for U. S. Navy ships. In Phase II the prototype will be built, tested, and readied for fleet introduction. This project streamlines and compresses exploratory, advanced, and engineering developments by leaveraging COTS technologies and commercial processes to provide a system to address needs identified in today's news headlines. This system will have wide applicability across many ship types for improved navigational safety and improved self protection from underwater threats. The system will have similar applicability to allied naval craft and high value commercial vessels.

CALABAZAS CREEK RESEARCH, INC.
20937 Comer Drive
Saratoga, CA 95070
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 741-8680
Dr. R. Lawrence Ives
NAVY 01-131      Awarded: 28NOV01
Title:Multiple-Beam Electron Gun for High Power Amplifiers
Abstract:Multiple beam devices are capable of producing RF power at lower voltages than conventional single beam devices. To date, efforts to extend this technology to high powers (greater than 1 MW) have been unsuccessful due to problems implementing confined flow focusing. This program will develop techniques for designing and constructing multiple beam devices at power levels significantly greater than 1 MW at S-Band using confined flow focusing. The program will develop a doubly convergent multiple beam gun using a minimum of seven cathodes and producing beam power in excess of 3 MW. Successful development of this technology will allow significant voltage reduction in a new generation of high power RF devices used for critical defense systems, such as radar, communications, electronic counter measures and offensive and defensive weapons. Reduction in voltage will dramatically lower the system cost and provide improved performance from the RF device.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 339-6500
Dr. John A. Pasour
NAVY 01-131      Awarded: 03DEC01
Title:Multiple-Beam Electron Gun for High Power Amplifiers
Abstract:The goal of this program is to develop a multiple beam electron gun that can be used to power a new class of multiple beam klystron amplifiers. This gun will be designed specifically to meet the stringent requirements of these amplifiers, which will enable them to achieve the increased bandwidth, higher power, and lower phase noise demanded of future radar and communications systems. Particular emphasis will be placed on reducing the cathode loading (emission current density) below ten amperes per square centimeter, which is important for long operational lifetime. The Phase I effort will make extensive use of state-of-the-art electromagnetic design codes, including the 3-D electron gun code, MICHELLE, to develop a detailed design of the gun. The gun will be fabricated and tested during Phase II. The multiple beam gun is the key enabling technology for a new class of powerful microwave amplifiers that are needed for next generation radar and communications systems. These amplifiers will provide improved target discrimination, greater engagement ranges, improved bad-weather performance, higher data rates, and a more compact package for integration on smaller platforms. Thus, these amplifiers will find extensive use for both military and civilian applications.

AGILTRON CORP.
20 Arbor Lane
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-0513
Dr. Lei Zhang
NAVY 01-132      Awarded: 28NOV01
Title:Low Cost Lead Salt Mid-IR Imager
Abstract:Agiltron proposes a revolutionary approach to Mid-IR imager intrinsically having advantages in sensitivity, energy efficiency, reliability, and cost as compared with the competitive approaches. The innovation is based on pixel-level integration of micro-machined PbSe-Au interferometer that directly converts IR image into visible image providing unprecedented opportunity to produce affordable Mid-IR imager of drastically reduced cost. The design incorporates optical read-out, which eliminates the drawback of electronic means that inevitably introduce additional signal loss due to thermal contact made to the detector element. Moreover, the design is simple, compact, lightweight, low power consumption, rugged, and long operating life. Prototype device will be fabricated to demonstrate functionality in Phase I. We anticipate demonstrating leading edge performance in this program. Success in the Phase I effort will identify a viable manufacturing route for low cost solid-state imagers. These devices have a wide range of "dual use" applications, from various DoD's battlefield applications to commercial applications of fire fighting, law enforcement, industrial control, and driver's aid.

FERMIONICS CORP.
4555 Runway St
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0155
Dr. Muren Chu
NAVY 01-132      Awarded: 28NOV01
Title:Low-cost, Lightweight, Mid-Wave InfraRed (MWIR) Sensors
Abstract:In Phase I of this proposed program, an innovative high yield technology will be developed to produce MWIR HgCdTe arrays operating at TE-cooled temperatures. This technology has been successfully used at Fermionics Corporation to develop shortwave and longwave HgCdTe arrays. By the end of the Phase I program, a camera, using the TE-cooled MWIR HgCdTe focal plane array as the sensing device will be delivered to the Navy for evaluation. The readout circuit used for operating the HgCdTe array will be Circuit ISC9809, a standard product of Indigo Systems. In Phase II, the development efforts will be directed to reducing weight, cost, and dimension of the integrated cameras. Companies with related specialties will be invited to join the development team. Finally, in Phase III, a large-scale production line will be established. The lightweight, low cost, TE-cooled HgCdTe MWIR cameras will be commercialized for both military and civilian applications. The manned land/sea/air vehicle, UAV, and infantry military market for such sensors could be in excess of 1000 cameras per year. Additional applications such as spectroscopy, remote sensing, medical imaging, firefighting, police/border patrol, and other government/commercial/scientific applications could have a market of tens of thousands/year. As the camera costs drop, the market for such devices is likely to expand rapidly.

SENSARRAY CORP.
3 Ray Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-7373
Mr. Paul F. Murphy
NAVY 01-132      Awarded: 03DEC01
Title:Low-cost. Lightweight, Mid-Wave InfraRed (MWIR) Sensors
Abstract:The successful demonstration of staring lead salt based focal plane technology has been impeded by one, the inability of previously existing ROIC technology to integrate the substantial dark currents associated with near foom temperature operation of photoconductive detectors and two, the limitations of surface morphology of lead salt substrate materials. To address these technical challenges, we have developed an ROIC which operates very well with the high dark current of these devices and have developed a concept for detector pixel integration called balanced differential input (BDI). The BDI concept effectively nulls out a significant portion of the dark current before the ROIC input stage. With the develop[ment of the BDI device we have successfully addressed the issue of ROIC dynamic rannge. The BDI detector is comprised of two elements within a single unit cell. One cell is, in effect, "blind" and the other an active cell. the biasing scheme allows for equal and opposite dark currents. By combiming the currents at the input circuit, the integrating capacitor will need to store the difference between the light and dark currents. Besides the advantage of significantly lowering the milirtary system cost for MWIR sensors the commercial benefits are substantial. The concept should reduuce, for example, the cost of a MWIR camera for firefighter protection by a factor of two to under $10K. The potential for spectroscopy and remote sensing applications are boudless.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Mr. Herbert Landau
NAVY 01-133      Selected for Award
Title:Maritime Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) and Space Exploitation
Abstract:Maritime Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) has been proven critical to national defense. Currently, E-2C, S-3B, P-3C and EP-3 aircraft are used to support the Navy's ISR primary missions. Desires to utilize UAVs have significantly enabled platform advances, but still demand the development of small low cost, lower power ISR payloads. ALPHATECH and NAVSYS propose to integrate ALPHATECH's Tracking Technology Product (TTP) with NAVSYS' GPS-based Bistatic Sensor, resulting in a Maritime target detection and tracking capability. This system exploits the signal environment originating from the existing spaced based GPS constellation and can directly take advantage of anticipated GPS upgrades. The system offers a low cost, low power and inconspicuous ISR solution for Maritime applications. The proposed architecture leverages advances in NAVSYS GPS electronics and ALPHATECH multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) technology. ALPHATECH and NAVSYS will evolve the NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) into a Maritime Detection, Tracking and Classification system by designing scanning strategies / RADAR modes, a Sensor Report Generator and a target tracker / classifier. The combined system provides maximal processing gains that are both coherent and incoherent via the track before detect algorithms. These processing gains extend the system range and the detectable target set. The proposed technology will help provide USN surface situation awareness and support tracking and engagement of surface targets in the littoral region. Commercial and military applications include maritime surveillance and reconnaissance, law enforcement for smuggling or illegal fishing activities, passive monitoring from UAVs or unattended ground sensors and collecting data for oceanography and digital mapping.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 413-0290
Dr. Charles Forsyth
NAVY 01-133      Selected for Award
Title:Maritime Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) and Space Exploitation
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I SBIR is to define a unified Maritime ISR processor suitable for use on the GLOBAL HAWK platform. The Phase I effort will adapt and integrate algorithms developed under a variety of Navy programs, that are suitable for using with an imaging EO sensor on a long-duration platform for this mission. These algorithms rely extensively on space-time processing to detect, enhance and/or characterize the individual elements that make up the complex scene, with which the Maritime ISR processor must contend. This notional processor will be evaluated with the existing GLOBAL HAWK EO package. If found to be inadequate due to sensor limitations, an upgrade to the EO package will be defined and the resultant improvements to the Maritime ISR mission with this upgraded package will be evaluated. If succesul, this Phase I SBIR will provide a roadmap for the use of GLOBAL HAWK in performing the Navy's ISR mission.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. W. Reynolds Monach
NAVY 01-133      Selected for Award
Title:Maritime Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) and Space Exploitation
Abstract:Daniel H. Wagner Associates, Inc. will develop a prototype Non-Gaussian Data Fusion System (NGDFS) that will accurately fuse all of the information available from large numbers of sensors using non-Gaussian and multiple hypothesis techniques along with computer resource optimization algorithms and high-performance, inexpensive, hardware to allow this computationally intensive data fusion process to take place in near-real-time. NGDFS will utilize the non-Gaussian tracking information when determining the likelihood that a contact is associated with a particular target, and will also produce target tracks that are as high quality as possible given the available data. NGDFS will process data from passive and active acoustic systems used in both traditional monostatic and bistatic modes. It will also process data from traditional non-acoustic systems such as radar as well as emerging non-acoustic systems such as wake detectors. We will quantitatively analyze the performance of NGDFS in our Decision Support System Testbed (DSST), using hundreds of simulated targets and hundreds of simulated acoustic and non-acoustic sensors. This analysis will measure the distance between the NGDFS Situation Awareness (SA) picture and ground truth, using operationally oriented and honesty inducing metrics and measure the improvement in data fusion performance as a function of computer resources. The prototype NGDFS will allow us to demonstrate how advanced data fusion techniques can significantly improve the ability of United States forces to conduct surveillance against threat submarines, surface ships, and aircraft. Improved correlation and tracking technologies such as these are particularly necessary at a time when the United States is facing sophisticated submarine, surface, and air threats in the much more difficult littoral environment with reduced resources.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Mr. Eric J. Tollefson
NAVY 01-133      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Multiple Hypothesis Nonlinear Tracking
Abstract:This proposal focuses on bringing together the NodeStar tracker (developed by METRON) and the Adaptive Sensor Fusion Multihypothesis Tracker (ASF-MHT) (developed by ORINCON) in a way that takes advantage of the best features of each to produce the most effective and practical system for data fusion and tracking. Significant research issues must be addressed to accomplish this goal. We will address these issues during the Phase I effort by developing an integrated MHT, Gaussian sum EKF, and Monte Carlo particle tracker that will serve as a testbed for research and development. We will develop and evaluate multiple approaches to approximating nonlinear likelihood functions with Gaussian sums. We will develop Gaussian sum conversion techniques that determine the number of terms in the Gaussian sum, the location of the means, and the covariances, and using the integrated testbed, we will compare the accuracy and speed of the Gaussian sum conversion techniques with the accuracy and speed of the Monte Carlo particle tracker. We will compare Gaussian sum extended Kalman filtering results to Monte Carlo particle filter results over an initial set of scenarios. We will compare the accuracy of posterior distributions and computation time. We expect that this effort will result in practical implementation of a superior data fusion and tracking system that will be the standard against which other such systems will be compared. It will provide the speed and accuracy required to significantly improve the Fleet's capability to solve difficult problems in C4ISR, including close encounter, log likelihood tracking, and a broad approach to track-before-detect capabilities. While the immediate application is to provide the highest quality data fusion and tracking system to the Navy for tactical use, the techniques developed will be applicable to a wide range of data fusion and tracking problems both in the military and civilian markets, including Integrated ASW, the Advanced Rapid COTS Insertion (ARCI) program, and the Advanced Processor Build-Tactical (APB-T).

ADEPT SYSTEMS, INC.
21271 Waycross Drive
Boca Raton, FL 33428
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 487-6894
Dr. Samuel Smith
NAVY 01-134      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Component Level, Multimedia communication technology for survivability
Abstract:A detailed feasibility study of the most viable options for RF dual mode communications for enhanced survivability will be conducted. Three major configurations will be investigated and compared. Adept has developed a network analysis tool for survivable topologies that will be used to perform a survivability-cost-performance tradeoff between the different configurations. The feasibility of the best approach will be demonstrated. Existing capability in will be highly leveraged. Enhanced survivability for component level automation infrastructure. Enhanced reliability for commercial applications.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Jordan C. Bonney
NAVY 01-134      Awarded: 28NOV01
Title:WIRL: Wireless Integrated Routing Link
Abstract:This proposal suggests a fault-tolerant communication that uses a wired primary network and a wireless backup network. The Wireless Integrated Routing Link, or WIRL, is independent of specific hardware and can be applied to a number of environments. WIRL provides fault detection on the primary network, switchover to the wireless backup network, multi-hop routing through the wireless network, and wireless-route optimization. WIRL is initially designed for Ethernet/IP environments where no modification of application source code or the network device drivers is necessary, i.e., WIRL is a transparent fault-tolerance module. Extensions for ANSI/EIA 709.x LonTalk networks are provided. In Phase I, a detailed WIRL design will be developed, modeling and simulation will be performed to determine feasibility, and a demonstration of the fault-detection mechanism will be provided. WIRL can be applied to numerous high-availability environments including Navy ships, general maritime applications, nuclear-power generation, and air-traffic control applications. Since WIRL is a transparent fault-tolerance module, it can be easily integrated into existing systems to provide communications fault tolerance. Commercial applications include direct integration into Navy command and control environments as well as any civilian application where a transparent fault-tolerance module is needed.

VAXIN, INC.
500 Beacon Parkway West
Birmingham, AL 35209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 934-6979
Dr. Felix Siegel
NAVY 01-135      Selected for Award
Title:Boost-Phase Sub-Unit Vaccine Development for Binary Vaccines Against Infectious Diseases and Biological Warfare Agents
Abstract:Malaria is a serious threat to people including military personal in endemic areas. So far no prophylactic vaccine is available. The aim of this study is to develop a powerful prime/boost vaccination protocol against malaria using DNA vaccines to prime the immune system and recombinant adenovirus vectors to boost it. The hypothesis is that topical application of adenovirus vectors will strengthen the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by DNA vaccines. The intranasal inoculation of adenovirus is supposed to specifically boost the humoral immune response primed by DNA vaccines. Adenovirus vectors have a good safety record. Adenovirus itself is ubiquitous without causing serious health problems. Adenovirus has also been used in extensive vaccination programs without problems. The vectors are replication incompetent and the amount of vector introduced is far below the toxic level. In these studies, we will evaluate prime/boost protocols using adenovirus vectors to develop a prophylactic vaccine against malaria. We will also compare the protocols developed in this proposal to their counterparts using intramuscular injected DNA vaccines. The line of investigation proposed herein may allow the development of efficacious and safe vaccination protocols against malaria infection and may serve as a useful platform technology for other infectious diseases. The DNA-based prime/boost vaccine as proposed in these studies could arrive as the first prophylactic vaccine against malaria infection if its efficacy and safety should appear superior to other methods. People living in endemic areas, military personal deployed to the tropics and subtropics and travelers would greatly benefit from an effective malaria vaccine. The platform technology may be used against other infectious diseases as well.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 267-2313
Mr. Charles Hsu
NAVY 01-136      Awarded: 03DEC01
Title:Digital Cellular-Phone Transceiver-based Foliage Penetration Interferometric SAR for EO/IR Sensor Fusion ATR
Abstract:In order to develop a cost-effective Foliage Penetration Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (FOPEN IFSAR) system for terrain map navigation and ATR UAV applications using dual-frequency digital cellular-phone transceiver COTS components, this project requires a thorough background in the state-of-the-art approaches to the FOPEN SAR process and a deep understanding of FOPEN IFSAR operations including transmission range, processing speed, power consumption and imagery resolution. Of special note, a highly efficient one-path-fly, bi-static IFSAR algorithm with Stokes polarization vector information is very significant in providing RF signatures and terrain height for location IDs (knowing terrain contour map info stored in the flight data basis). The design of the efficient FOPEN IFSAR algorithm includes integration with a pipelined digital FOPEN SAR processor, a FOPEN SAR array architecture, and development of a digital beam former. Trident will leverage our extensive development experience with FOPEN SAR digital processors, as well as in systems integration and design, to develop an innovative, yet practical, FOPEN IFSAR system solution. Our approach will provide system and component design of digital FOPEN IFSAR at UHF & VHF dual frequencies in order to meet the requirements of a low-cost device capable of UAV targeting and navigation. The successful completion of this project will have a number of potential commercial applications. Law enforcement agencies require high dynamic range and inexpensive FOPEN radar for ground surveillance. Trident also has transition plans for the NAVY UAV project, police enforcement, drug enforcement agencies, NASA resource management, and forest fire fighting.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
427 South 166th Street
Omaha, NE 68118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(402) 384-9893
Dr. Plamen V. Petrov
NAVY 01-137      Selected for Award
Title:Expeditionary Logistics
Abstract:21st Century Systems, Inc. proposes to research and realize an agent-based decision support system for logistics and maintenance operations. We will use a highly innovative hybrid Bayesian/differential game modeling approach to tackle this problem. The resulting theory and technology will facilitate logistics and maintenance operations by addressing such practical problems as tradeoff evaluation for onboard sparing and prepostioned replenishments, predictive failure analysis for corrective maintenance actions, and real-time reevaluation and adjustment of logistics planning packages. 21st Century Systems, Inc. fully expects this effort to culminate in both substantial new applied theory and in a revolutionary advancement in the way computers are used to solve shipboard logistic support planning. We plan to transition this work through incorporating the resulting decision support under uncertainty into our Advanced Battlestation/Decision Support System (ABS/DSS) work under PEO Carriers and ONR funding in collaboration with NSWCPHDDN and NUSC-Keyport, and transitioning aboard the USS LINCOLN (CVN-72). Decision support under uncertainty will also be of significant utility in our work for the USAF Space Missile Center (decision support for SBIRS-LOW surveillance satellite operators) and other USN, USAF and DOD projects. Many commercial applications would benefit strongly from the use of agent-based decisions support under uncertainty and the Bayesian-differential game theory modeling approach: power plants, automated, flexible manufacturing factories, intelligent transportation and communications, air traffic control, space exploration, financial trading (traditional and online) and others. Beyond the command and control applications, transition of the agent and decision support under uncertainty too will be of a very significant potential. Agents in particular have wide potential applicability to just about every industry, which involves humans in the loop (including the consumer sector). 21st Century Systems, Inc. is very well qualified to pursue this work. The proposed 21st Century Systems, Inc.-CALTECH-UNO-USSTRATCOM team includes experts in software, agents and systems (Drs. Petrov and Stoyen), large project integration and military systems (Mr. Flanagan, Drs. Petrov and Stoyen), Bayesian probability, game theory and applied mathematical software (Drs. Asparouhov and Zhu) and an active duty submariner pursuing a Ph.D. in CS with specialization in Decision Support Systems (LCDR Hicks, working for 21st Century Systems, Inc. under permission from the USN and USSTRATCOM). 21st Century Systems, Inc. and its personnel have a strong record in Navy- and DOD-pertinent R&D. In addition to the delivery of the core Logistics DSS product, there is a very high potential for transition to commercial products. Our first commercial product with high potential is an application of the Logistics DSS technology to airline operations and scheduling. Another potential commercial product is a logistics tool for public safety teams such as a SWAT on assignment and training. The problem of processing, analyzing, scheduling large amounts of data and events is common to many industries, such as transpotation, financial, manufacturing, etc. Thus our core DSS technologies can be successfully applied to those problems, resulting in numerous commercial applications.

SONOMA DESIGN GROUP
400 Breezewood Dr.
Geyserville, CA 95441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 857-2010
Mr. Allan Voigt
NAVY 01-138      Awarded: 03DEC01
Title:A Self-Contained Solar Radiation Measurement Package for an Aircraft
Abstract:Sonoma Design Group proposes to design a rugged, highly stable, stand-alone instrument package for measuring solar fluxes and optical depth from an airborne platform. This system will consist of a highly stabilized platform using a fiber optic gyro (FOG)-based inertial navigation system (INS). This platform houses sensors such as photometers and radiometers and includes mounting hardware. To reduce design and recurring production costs, we will integrate commercial products into the design where appropriate. The result will be a very capable, reusable platform that will significantly reduce the cost of payload experiments. This self-contained system will also increase aerial platform flexibility, making the instrument package applicable to aircraft with indicated airspeeds as high as 450 knots. During the course of the Phase I effort we will be working with industry experts to verify sensor selection and applicability. The work will culminate with a concept design and preliminary layout for a complete, stand-alone integrated data collection system This stand-alone instrumentation package fills a general need for atmospheric research and monitoring programs. This system uses an elegant and robust design to achieve gimbal stability, hence enhanced sensor performance. It provides a stabilized housing that readily accepts varied sensors and instruments. Stabilizing aircraft jitter from the sensors enables focused data reduction effort, thus reducing time, aircraft and manpower requirements. This system will be useful on a variety of UAVs and manned aircraft with different indicated air speeds of up to 450 knots and altitudes of over 65,000. It will have growth for future ultra high altitude aircraft. Substantial cost savings will be realized from fielding these systems by focusing manpower efforts and increasing sensor and aircraft flexibility.

CONTINENTAL CONTROLS & DESIGN, INC.
1921 N. Gaffey Suite J
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 831-8669
Mr. James P. Hynes Jr.
NAVY 01-139      Awarded: 28NOV01
Title:Smart Low Altitude Platform for Atmospheric Measurements from a Research Aircraft
Abstract:asdIn this project we develop a smart platform which can be towed behind a variety of aircraft. This platform system automatically flies at any commanded height above the sea surface, down to a few meters, over a wide range of tow speeds. A stabilized smart instrument package opens up a number of possibilities to answer fundamental operational and research questions about the surface flow over the ocean. Instead of reinventing the wheel, we will start with a proven tow platform, the Meggit Southwest Aerospace TLX sea skimming towed target and launch system. With Meggit's help we will convert it from its design role as a 200 to 300 knot, signature enhanced target into a low speed atmospheric instrument carrier by increasing the wingspan, enhancing the altitude hold autopilot, and redesigning the communication and power systems for shorter trailback and increased bandwidth. Benefits to researchers and to research monitoring programs are inherent in the objective of the proposed effort. Commercial applications include oil spill assessment and mineralogical assessment.

ZIVKO AERONAUTICS, INC.
502 Airport Road, Hangar 11
Guthrie, OK 73044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 282-1330
Mr. Christopher Todd Morse
NAVY 01-139      Awarded: 03DEC01
Title:Smart Low Altitude Platform for Atmospheric Measurements from a Research Aircraft
Abstract:Low altitude air sampling is of critical importance to oceanographic and atmospheric research. Most current research aircraft are unable to fly as low as desired (below 30 meters) due to safety concerns. Those aircraft capable of flying at very low altitudes are typically smaller and unable to provide real-time display of the sampled data, or carry multiple scientists capable of interpreting that data and adjusting flight plans accordingly. Additionally, it would be advantageous to be able to simultaneously sample air conditions at multiple altitudes. This Project will develop a tow-behind platform capable of housing atmospheric sampling instrumentation and maintaining an accurate altitude below 30 meters. The data from the instrumentation will be sent real-time to the host aircraft and displayed/stored on a computer system. Additional instrumentation on the host vehicle will allow for simultaneous multiple altitude sampling. Full control of the tow-behind platform will be available from within the host airframe. In Phase I the complete system will be designed including the towed vehicle structure, reeling system, instrumentation package, data transmission system and active altitude control system. Phase I Option would see the fabrication of all master plugs and molds required for the construction of the composite towed vehicle body. Numerous military and scientific aircraft are currently performing atmospheric sampling and are incapable of extremely low level flight. The functionality of these aircraft could be greatly expanded with the addition of a smart, low altitude, tow-behind vehicle equipped with atmospheric sampling instrumentation.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4118
Mr. Thomas Tiano
NAVY 01-140      Awarded: 18JAN02
Title:Advanced Processing Techniques for Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes for EMI Shielding of Naval Aviation Optical Materials
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to prove the feasibility of developing electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding based on single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for naval aviation optical materials. While SWNTs have excellent electrical and mechanical properties, it is only through specialized processing techniques that viable EMI shielding can be made for aviation optical materials. Foster-Miller will utilize novel dispersion and alignment techniques to construct arrays of very fine lines of aligned SWNTs. Utilizing SWNT arrays allows the manufacture of very small lines of SWNT ropes with diameters of 10 to 100 nanometers. These thin line sizes would be much smaller than typical conventional screen wires and therefore have higher transparency in the optical and infrared pass bands. They will provide extremely low obscuration while being very easy to incorporate into a multi-layer window structure and the spacing in the array can be easily tailored. The novel alignment technique overcomes typical geometry problems, such as those encountered with grid appliques, by allowing deposition in varying shapes and curvatures. The process is readily scaleable and has the highest probability for manufacturing very high transmission materials whose properties can be tailored for the specific application. (P-010746) Development of EMI shielding for aviation optical materials utilizing carbon nanotubes will increase optical/IR transmission while at the same time increasing microwave reflection. This technology will benefit both military and commercial aircraft by increasing both the effectiveness and safety of these systems while allowing the EMI shielding to be incorporated into presently used optical materials.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Bob Mojazza
NAVY 01-140      Awarded: 18JAN02
Title:CNT Polymer Composites for Optical & IR Transparent
Abstract:Triton team is responding to the Navy need for EMI shielding of both optical and IR transmitting transparencies, by proposing to develop carbon nanotubes (CNT) polymer composite coatings. For IR transparent EMI shielding we will disperse CNTs in sol-gel derived conducting inorganic polymers; for optically transparent EMI shielding we propose to disperse functionalized CNTs into conductive organic polymers, in both cases to achieve low electrical resistance (10 ohm/sq) with ~ 90 % transmissions. We base this Proposal on Triton's successful experience in coating Navy polycarbonate windshields for anti-abrasion and anti-reflection, and in coating IR transmissive ALON flats with index matching polymers, combined with Triton team member nationally recognized leadership in the development of functionalized CNTs, dispersed in both inorganic and organic conductive layers. In Phase I we will demonstrate transmissive CNT conductive layers for both windshields and IR windows. In Phase II, we will work with the Navy on specific optical or IR transmissive sub-systems and will fabricate coupons and/or subsystem components that will be tested for viability as new-generation transmissive EMI shielding materials. Triton is intending to develop innovative coatings that are readily deployable onto a variety of substrate materials, which can be used for EMI shielding of canopies and IR windows. The innovation discussed in this proposal will allow for coatings that can be coated onto substrate without any impedance to the operation of the aircraft. The coatings can also be incorporated onto other armed forces aviation optical materials. Combing all of the armed forces aviation optical materials, there is a large potential market for the innovative EMI shielding coatings.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Shui Lin Chao
NAVY 01-141      Awarded: 18JAN02
Title:Hand-Held Hemispherical-Dome Emissivity and Reflectance Sensor
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new hand held Hemispherical-dome Emissivity And Reflectance (HEAR) sensor to measure both integrated and bi-directional angular reflectance of installed materials on curved and flat surfaces. HEAR continuously maps reflectance in terms of both direction and spectrum. It is a new design with unique integration of several commercially available components: a fiber-delivered portable broadband radiation source, a miniature hemispherical dome with distributed multi-channel hollow fiber detector outlets, a new compact stacked Rowland spectrometer with multiple layers of hollow waveguides to generate spectrally resolvable reflectance, an uncooled detector array to detect the IR spectrum for each angle, and new software to transform the linear detector array signals to 3-D hemispherical plots and compute the surface emissivity and reflectivity. This accurate, compact, portable, lightweight measurement device will lead to a new generation of miniaturized reflectance/emissivity sensors. It can be operated with a PC in the field, and will detect reflectance/emissivity on curved surfaces in the naval environment. In Phase I, we will develop the concept of this miniaturized reflectance/emissivity sensor for field use without surface curvature limitations. In Phase II we will fully develop the sensor and build an adaptable, portable model. The portable HEAR sensor for measuring infrared properties will find many commercial applications, including industrial furnace maintenance and manufacturing, where it is important to monitor durability at high temperature; thermal control for the aerospace industry, supersonic and hypersonic aircrafts and spacecraft development, where efficient radiation is necessary for cooling at large Mach numbers and high altitudes; vehicle, ship, and target signature analysis for laser radar; surface quality control for finished products - toys, foods, and other goods; coating/paint durability prediction for the paint industry; development of low or high emissivity paints/coatings; image recognition for robots; signature simulation of artificial targets; and evaluation of biological tissues for diagnosis under selected spectral radiation.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Dr. M. Martin Szczesniak
NAVY 01-141      Awarded: 18JAN02
Title:Portable Emissivity / Reflectometer for Measurements on Curved Surfaces
Abstract:This effort will first recognize the broad requirements based on the physical and optical properties of objects identified by the Navy. The design of the instrument requires full understanding of the shapes of the objects, optical and spectroscopic properties of the coating materials, and their sensitivity to heat. This part will be conducted in close collaboration with the Navy. The next step will be to apply the knowledge gained to evaluate the reflectometers currently available from Surface Optics Corporation. Surface Optics developed two portable instruments which measure reflectance: the SOC 600, which measures BRDF and the SOC 400T, which measures directional reflectance. The SOC 400T is a prototype, which was built for and delivered to NASA. For reasons discussed further we believe that the SOC 400T can become a starting point for the development of the desired instrument. The development will be done in close collaboration with the Navy and will strictly implement the conclusions of the established comprehensive Navy requirements. If the general concept of measuring directional reflectance applied in the SOC 400T is acceptable, then it can be implemented in two possible ways. It can be developed into another accessory for the SOC 400 FTIR reflectometer, or as an accessory for possibly a more rugged and smaller spectrometer with compromised spectral resolution and sensitivity. The emissivity measurement tool has a broad potential commercial market value. Development of a commercial directional reflectance measurement and emissivity prodiction device will provide a tool for field assessment of optical properties of paints and coatings. This universal tool will work on flat and curved surfaces. Further commercialized devices will be directly applicable in the field of energy conservation, radiative process optimization, and for corrections in spectral imaging related to remote sensing in military, geological and environmental work.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Stuart F. Cogan
NAVY 01-142      Awarded: 18JAN02
Title:High-Speed RF Switch for EMI Shielding
Abstract:The development of fast-switching coatings and devices for broadband (2-18 GHz) transmission modulation of RF radiation is proposed. The modulation is obtained with intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) that are switched between microwave transmitting and opaque states by controlling the oxidation state of the ICP. The primary RF switching elements will be thin-films of conductive polymers formed by electrochemical deposition on patterned, metallized substrates. The switches will be fabricated in device structures that employ polymeric ion conductors and highly reversible charge-balancing counterelectrodes that are essential for reliable, multicycle performance. The Phase I program will demonstrate the fabrication of small devices suitable for characterization of RF transmission modulation in waveguide instrumentation. Optimization of device performance and durability through control of morphology, density, and composition of the conductive polymer film will be demonstrated. Devices will be challenged by thermal cycling, thermal shock, mechanical stress, and salt spray (ASTM B117) exposure. The Phase II effort would focus on transition of the coatings to substrate materials and geometries suitable for the subsystems relevant to the Navy. Methods for fabricating the devices on substrates with compound curvature and strategies for obtaining rapid switching in large-area applications are proposed. Conductive polymer switches have applications in current and emerging weapons systems for EMI shielding of antennas, communications devices, and power storage devices. Conductive polymer switches have significant private sector potential in commercial aviation, in shielding for consumer electronics, and in communications devices.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. John D. Lennhoff
NAVY 01-142      Awarded: 18JAN02
Title:Rapid RF Switching Conducting Polymers
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to further develop its conductive polymer (CP) ink jet printing technology for application to microwave shutter construction. The working electrode switchable polymer element of microwave shutters is typically deposited using electrochemical techniques which produces a coating that has poor uniformity resulting in less than optimum transmission loss, contrast and switching speed. Using PSI technology developed for the fabrication of chemical sensors, an inkjet printed interdigital deposition of CP can be produced with exceptional uniformity and edge definition. The counter electrode and polymer electrolyte can also be applied using the ink jet technology, providing a complete, scalable manufacturing solution to the current microwave shutter construction difficulties. Additionally, PSI's experience with high performance materials will result in a package with environmentally stable construction. On the proposed Phase I program, PSI will demonstrate enhanced single electrode performance. On a Phase I Option, PSI will construct a solid state RF shutter using the material developed on Phase I. The ink jet printing of CP has been extensively described as an emerging method for fabricating circuit boards, inexpensive electronic circuits, and flat panel displays. This program would further develop both the ink jet printing technology and the CP materials required for advanced applications.

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 930-2220
Dr. David Schaafsma
NAVY 01-143      Awarded: 18JAN02
Title:IR Signature Measurement Using Neural Spectroscopy (PR01-480)
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for fast, rugged, portable, and highly automated coating assessment for military and aerospace vehicles. Spectroscopic identification and quantification of emissivity variations induced by coating degradation is perhaps the most versatile and unambiguous method to achieve this goal, but these systems are often plagued by complex data interpretation requirements. One solution which has not been implemented for this type of work in the mid-IR is neural spectroscopy, where component features in aggregate spectra can be isolated and identified using properly trained neural nets. The proposed development will result in a very flexible automated analysis tool for chemical processes which exhibit spectral features in the mid-IR, which encompasses an extraordinarily broad class of applications. We envision applications of this product development in the materials, pharmaceutical, semiconductor, and petrochemical industries and currently do business with several potential customers. The proposed product will complement our existing line of temperature measurement equipment quite well.

MILLENNIUM ENGINEERING & INTEGRATION CO.
2231 Crystal Dr., Suite 711
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 927-8305
Dr. E. James Bevan
NAVY 01-143      Awarded: 18JAN02
Title:Compact, Digital Man-Portable Infrared (IR) Measurement Device
Abstract:This proposal presents an opportunity to develop a compact, hand-held radiometric measurement device that is capable of measuring the InfraRed (IR) Signatures of military vehicles in terms of their surface temperature and emissivity distributions, based upon 2-color radiometric and supporting measurements. Current IR imaging devices are not capable of characterizing the intrinsic radiometric properties of vehicles that are needed to understand the root causes of IR signature degradation. IR stealth is achieved by a complex combination of measures that range from insulation to low-emissivity coatings, so the IR signature of an integrated vehicle must be measured in operational circumstances for purposes of verification and continued monitoring as the vehicle ages. If signature anomalies are detected, insight into the degradation mechanisms is required to support identification and implementation of remedial action. The proposed 2-color IR measurement device provides such insight by providing the distributions of surface temperature and emissivity over target vehicles, thereby isolating the root causes of signature degradation or anomalies. The proposed Phase 1 effort will define the device requirements and CONOPS (Concept of Operations), as well as the design to be prototyped in Phase II. The primary benefit of the proposed effort will be development of a hand-held device the Navy can use to quantitatively measure the IR signatures of its own aircraft and surface vehicles as well as uncooperative airborne or surface vehicles. Since the proposed device will provide the temperature and emissivity distributions of observed vehicles, insight is provided as to the primary contributors to overall signature. The hand-held 2-color IR Measurement Device will certainly be of interest to the other military services as well. Potential commercial applications include non-intrusive measurement of semiconductor wafer temperature distributions during rapid thermal processing, accurate measurement of melt temperatures in the presence of emissivity-altering slag, and measurement of billet temperatures in the presence of emissivity-altering nonuniform oxidation. Many other manufacturing process applications can be identified wherein accurate temperature measurement is a prerequisite for high-yield process control.

ADIABATICS, INC.
3385 Commerce Drive
Columbus, IN 47201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 372-5052
Mr. Melvin Woods
NAVY 01-144      Selected for Award
Title:Small Diesel Engines, JP5 / JP8 Fueled
Abstract:A small engine concept is being proposed for a 0.25 cid two-stroke commercially available engine that will allow the elimination of volatile fuel additives and lubricating oil. The concept will lead to fuel consumption improvements and increases in power density in heavy-fueled small bore homogeneous compression ignited engines. The concept includes the use of solid lubrication coatings and thermal barrier coatings applied to a engine. Thermal barrier coating applicable to Aluminum surfaces have been developed by Adiabatics, Inc. and will be applied to the combustion chamber surfaces to retain heat of compression. The use of increased compression ratio, thermal insulation and a glow plug will provide the conditions for compression ignition and combustion. Coating technology that is low-cost and conducive to high volume production has been identified for applications to the critical components such as the main bearings, piston skirt, crankshaft rod pin, piston wrist pin and the cylinder liner bore. In addition, the use of technologies such as exhaust port tuning, exhaust gas recirculation and fuel pre-heating are expected to complement combustion improvements. The Phase I option will investigate a low cost lightweight fuel injection system and optimize hot combustion chamber design. Upon completion of this project a small high speed 2-stroke model aircraft engine will be available that will be capable of running on fuels such as JP5/JP8 and not require addition of volatile ethers or lubricating oils that cause emissions problems. This project will also lay the grounds for further identified advances in improving combustion efficiency and power density.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Mr. Anthony Mulligan
NAVY 01-144      Selected for Award
Title:Small Diesel Engines, JP5 / JP8 Fueled
Abstract:The goal of this proposed Navy SBIR project is to optimize, analyze, design, build and test a high efficiency 2 cycle ceramic engine that will run on JP-5 fuel and weigh less than 10 ounces while burning less than 1.0 lbs of fuel per hour. The engine will incorporate a ceramic piston, cylinder, and head to permit high temperature operation without cooling to effectively burn this heavy fuel. In addition the ceramics will virtually eliminate the need for lubricants to be mixed in the fuel as is typical with commercially available 2 cycle motors. Commercial markets include application in SWARM UAV's, small gas powered landscaping tools, model airplane industry, go-carts and mini-bikes.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Mr. Anthony Mulligan
NAVY 01-144      Selected for Award
Title:Small Diesel Engines, JP5 / JP8 Fueled
Abstract:The goal of this proposed Navy SBIR project is to optimize, analyze, design, build and test a novel 0.5 horsepower engine that will run on JP-5 fuel and weigh less than 10 ounces while burning less than 0.5 lbs of fuel per hour. The proposed engine is a four-stroke cycle Rand Cam Diesel engine utilizing continuous injection and combustion in a single combustion chamber. The engine will be of all ceramic construction to permit high temperature operation without cooling to effectively burn this heavy fuel. This new Rand Cam Diesel engine will be used for powering the Navy's new low cost SWARM Unmanned Ariel Vehicle. Phase II will continue the development of the engine to demonstrate a specifice fuel consumption of less than 0.8 lbs/hp-hr (at sea level) at a specific output of >1.8 hp/cid. Phase II will also demonstrate uninterrupted endurance to 48 hours. Phase II will also develop a larger engine design based on Phase I work. Phase III will set up manufacturing operations on a Native American Reservation located in southern Arizona. Commercial markets include application in SWARM UAV's, small gas powered landscaping tools, model airplane industry, go-carts and mini-bikes.

D-STAR ENGINEERING CORP.
4 Armstrong Rd.
Shelton, CT 06484
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 925-7630
Mr. S. Paul Dev
NAVY 01-144      Selected for Award
Title:0.25 cu. in. / 0.5 hp Micro-Diesel Engine using technologies demonstrated on 0.050 cu. in. / 0.1 hp micro-diesel engine
Abstract:D-STAR will develop a 0.250 cu. in. displacement Micro-Diesel Engine to make 0.5 hp using JP-8 fuel. It is based on a 0.050 cu. in. engine recently demonstrated by D-STAR under a DARPA program with additional support from Army and Navy OST. The 0.050 engines have been run for 60+ hours, and have produced 0.1 hp at 15,000 rpm on JP-8 fuel. The engines use no volatile additives (such as ether or amyl nitrate), and use only 0.5% oil (compared to 15+% oil on COTS model airplane engines). The 0.050 micro-diesels also make more power and have 6 to 12 dB lower noise than COTS engines. The proposed 0.250 cu. in. engine will use technologies from the 0.050 engine (discussed later in this proposal), but will be a clean-sheet-of-paper design to ensure success and achieve optimum performance by the end of Phase II. The proposed Phase I objectives are discussions with Navy sponsors, preliminary experiments with COTS engines, modifications to COTS engines and exploratory operation with JP-8 fuel, development of a cold-starting system, and definition of Phase II plans for a clean-sheet-of-paper JP-8 fueled engine. A Phase I Option is to engage in risk reduction efforts for Phase II. The mini-diesel engine would be an ideal power source for UAVs. Potential commercial applications include use by hobbyists, sports equipment, micro-generator sets to charge batteries for laptops and other small equipment, and as the power source for small, personal hybrid-electric vehicles such as intra-city mopeds / scooters.

DAVIS DIESEL DEVELOPMENT CORP.
132 Pepe's Farm Road
Milford, CT 06460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 877-1670
Mr. Robert Davis
NAVY 01-144      Selected for Award
Title:Small Diesel Engines, JP5 / JP8 Fueled
Abstract:For brevity, Davis Diesel Development will be referred to as DDD. DDD was incorporated in 1975. DDD has operated as a commercial enterprise designing, manufacturing, and marketing its many products, chief of which is the miniature hybrid diesel converter for model engines since 1975. DDD's objective is to provide a small heavy fuel capable diesel engine. The performance of which must meet the requirements as outlined in the mission statement. DDD's record of accomplishment and commercial achievement as had a major impact in the field of small hybrid diesel development over these past 26 years. It is reasonable to accept the premise, that if provided adequate funding, as in this SBIR program, a reliable heavy fueled diesel power system would be produced to meet, or even exceed the Navy requirements as stated in the mission statement above. As we have learned, the military and in particular the Navy, has wanted all flammable fuels off of their surface ships for obvious reasons. This in fact was prompted since the gasoline engine powered Pioneer RPV's were first deployed on surface ships many years ago. When the Pioneer aircraft missed the onboard capture net during retrieval, and crashed into the ships superstructure, they sometimes burst into flame. This of course created an intolerable hazard to shipboard personnel and equipment. The Navy has been forced to tolerate this condition all these years due to the lack of work done to convert these gasoline-powered aircraft to heavy fuel. The Army, on the other hand, has wanted a commonality of fuels such as heavy type. Our diesel system when applied to this particular vehicle, or any other like vehicle, would in fact eliminate that hazard while improving performance of the vehicle, in both power, and economy. Another case in point, no pun intended, is the Army Pointer RPV. This simple, reliable, electric aircraft has the typical shortcomings of all battery-powered aircraft, a short time aloft. Dieselize the Pointer, and the flight time would go up five-fold, minimum. Many branches of government need reconnaissance vehicles that can stay aloft for longer periods. The DDD's diesel system as outlined in the proposal can provide this. There is another application for a small heavy fueled diesel that came to our attention years ago, the small generator and battery charger. This would be used to recharge the Army's Abrams tank batteries in the field. There are of course, many applications for small heavy fuel diesel generators for a myriad of applications, too numerous to list here.

ENGINE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
12108 Burning Tree Rd.
Fort Wayne, IN 46845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(219) 338-1010
Mr. Frederick L. Erickson
NAVY 01-144      Selected for Award
Title:Small Diesel Engines, JP5 / JP8 Fueled
Abstract:The objective of this program is to establish a spark ignited engine that will run on heavy fuel (JP-5, JP-8) without the need for volatile additives. This internal combustion engine will demonstrate a high power-to-weight ratio, high fuel efficiency, good durability, cold starting capability and low manufacturing cost. The proposed approach will identify required modifications to the commercial Migrating Combustion Chamber (MCC) full expansion engine for heavy fuel operation. This engine uses only three moving parts, operates on a unique, highly efficient, operating cycle and has a zero pressure, quiet and cool exhaust (without a muffler). This type of engine has already demonstrated excellent performance on zero octane fuel (N-Heptane) and has operated on diesel and JP-8 fuels, under a stabilized operating temperature. The proposed configuration for the Phase I Program will be an MCC SIDE full expansion or PISE self-supercharged version. Offering operation on low octane heavy fuels due to its combustion chamber's unique highly turbulent fast burn characteristics. Computer layout and modeling will supplement the analysis. A base line engine design will be completed, fabricated and tested. Five engine prototypes will be delivered. The successful completion of the program will lead to the evolution of innovative, compact, lightweight, powerful, heavy fuel internal combustion engines that will have the attributes of fuel efficiency, smooth operation and good durability. Applications include model aircraft engines, generators, unmanned vehicles, marine vehicles and numerous other commercial vehicles and equipment.

AVIR, L.L.C.
1616 King Mountain Road, P.O.Box 6634
Charlottesville, VA 22906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 962-7055
Dr. Gabriel Laufer
NAVY 01-145      Selected for Award
Title:Passive, Very Low Cost, Light Weight Remote Detector of Chemicals for Expendable Unmanned Air Vehicles
Abstract:A new compact, lightweight, low-cost, modular, infrared remote sensor of chemical weapon agents will be developed for deployment on expandable UAVs. The sensor will depend on new differential absorption radiometer (DAR) technology that will enable detection of multiple species, while nearly perfectly correcting for interferences by atmospheric gases (such as water vapor) and various sources of clutter, including aerosol scattering and variations in source emissivity. A hard-wired signal processing circuitry will provide these corrections by subtraction and normalization at exceptionally low uncertainty of the signals detected by detector pairs. The sensor is projected to achieve sensitivities matching or exceeding existing passive sensors while using low-energy, low cost, uncooled detectors. The simple design and user-friendly output will allow easy telemetry (low data rate requirements). These features will also allow implementation of the sensor for use by untrained personnel in domestic and military applications. When using natural IR emission, the detector will lend itself for packaging as a remote passive sensor or, when combined with an artificial source, as an in-situ sensor (e.g., for protection of public buildings). Unique technology licensed exclusively to Avir will permit the extension of the sensor for imaging and for downwind hazard assessment. The sensor will be first designed for deployment on expandable UAVs. However, its versatility, low cost, simplicity and robustness will allow it to be quickly modified for security applications such as: 1) handheld sensors for military personnel or domestic first responders; 2) stationary sensors for public facilities such as subway stations, airports, or government buildings; 3) airborne applications such as forward looking helicopter avionics; 4) hybridization with existing equipment such as DIAL and Fourier transform spectrometers for large field-of-view and rapid sensing; and more. The sensor can also be packaged for non-security applications such as detection of natural gas leaks, alcohol sensors for law enforcement applications, or electrical fire detection.

GRAVITON, INC.
11025 North Torrey Pines Road, Suite 200
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 909-2103
Dr. David Baselt
NAVY 01-145      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Cost, Lightweight Detector Technologies for Small, Expendable Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:Graviton proposes to fabricate a Miniaturized Chemical Agent Detector (MCAD) for deployment on UAVs using a microcantilever MEMS based sensor array. The proposed detector could be dramatically smaller, lighter, and less expensive than conventional chemical agent detectors, readily meeting the size, power and cost constraints imposed on payloads for UAVs. The detector utilizes an array of surface micromachined cantilevers, coated with chemoselective coatings optimized for the detection of chemical warfare agents. The Phase I effort will also provide a side-by-side comparison of the Graviton detector system with Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor platforms, coated with the same chemoselective coatings. The MEMS-based microcantilever chemical sensor system proposed here for chemical warfare agent detection on UAVs has very broad relevance in a number of commercial applications. When combined with Graviton's wireless communication technology, these sensors are ideal for monitoring a variety of chemical and physical targets in a distributed system where a premium is placed on early detection of problems. The low cost, low power consumption, small size, and wireless connectivity of this technology is expected to enable penetration of marketspace previously inaccessible to sensor systems.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Mr. Aaron Harcrow
NAVY 01-146      Selected for Award
Title:Airframe Construction for Small, Expendable Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:Accurate Automation Corporation (AAC) proposes to develop a Precision Molded Foam (PMF) method that combines features of precision molding, foam injection and vacuum bagging. This method promises to be low cost, to be scalable to high production rate, to require very little touch labor for finished parts and to provide a high degree of dimensional precision. With this method, small (<20 pound, 4 foot wingspan), low cost, expendable, Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) may be produced to meet the ever increasing need for war fighting operations. This proposed PMF project will result in a military UAV product line, while simultaneously laying the foundations for commercial UAV products. The military product will be directly applicable to the Navy and Marine requirements for small low cost UAVs, with spin-offs to other DoD agencies. The commercial product will be marketed to civilian government agencies; for drug enforcement, border patrol, and police work; and the private security industry. Finally, the PMF technique itself can be used to manufacture structural components for larger aircraft and ground based systems. Given current low cost manufacturing technology, this project is feasible. AAC will leverage its expertise in the design and fabrication of UAVs, and Navy needs to produce a product that will deliver as promised.

BRANDEBURY TOOL CO., INC.
4232 Stafford Road
Olney, MD 20832
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 774-3059
Mr. William Harvey
NAVY 01-146      Selected for Award
Title:Airframe Construction for Small, Expendable Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:In this SBIR effort Brandebury Tool Company,Inc. proposes a method of manufacturing low cost dimensionally accurate airframes. A variety of methods will be used to form thermoplastic materials into expendable UAV components. Tooling design will be directed towards monocoque construction with many subcomponents such as moving surfaces and hinge supports molded in place. The resultant airframes will exhibit high strength to weight ratios and be mass produceable by mechanized means. The base effort will result in four prototype vehicles, the phase 1 option will equip two of the planes with powerplants, radio control gear and test fly. The production method proposed will allow for mass production of UAVs at low unit cost. This type of vehicle will be valuable to the military for training and other missions. The commercial applications for a low cost UAV include law enforcement, marine observation such as fish spotting and commercial media use.

ATHENA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 331-1051
Dr. Ben Motazed
NAVY 01-147      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Cost Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) Avionics
Abstract:Athena Technologies Inc. (Athena) proposes to develop an affordable, lighweight, and low power INS/GPS integrated flight control system (FCS), hereafter referred to as micro-FCS, capable of guidance, navigation, and control of expendable unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The proposed approach leverages Athena's expertise in design, fabrication, and operational qualification of our miniaturized GuideStar flight control hardware and our patented and flight-demonstrated Feedback LTI'zation control algorithms. Unlike conventional gain scheduling techniques that require design and testing of tens or hundreds of control design points and switching among each, Feedback LTI'zation uniquely achieves this with the design of only a few design points, valid and stable over the entire flight envelope. This design formulation elegantly produces robust and very small footprint control algorithms, resulting in efficient software maintenance, moderate computational requirements, and overall reduction in software life cycle costs. We believe Athena's expertise in highly-integrated hardware design, combined with the elegance of our flight control algorithms, affords a powerful and innovative solution in producing a new generation of miniaturized and very affordable advanced avionics applicable to a myriad of expendable UAV systems. The future global commerical potential for the micro-FCS in the model airplane market will be enormous, and will allow a larger group of people, with little or no training, the ability to fly hard to fly airplanes and helicopters. Further, small, man-portable, and expendable air vehicles will have a significant role in future reconanaissance operations for military and many law enforcement agencies.

CLOUD CAP TECHNOLOGY
PO Box 1500, 8 Fourth Street
Hood River, OR 97031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 387-2120
Mr. Bill Vaglienti
NAVY 01-147      Selected for Award
Title:A Sophisticated Low Cost Avionics for Expendable Unmanned Aircraft
Abstract:For years Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have failed to deliver on their promise to revolutionize the remote-sensing industry. Their potential for small size and low cost has been offset by the lack of sufficient avionics hardware and software integration resulting in expensive vehicles that are difficult to maintain, and suffer from high rates of attrition. The recent introduction of the Motorola MPC555 automotive processor, with its integrated memory and extensive onboard peripherals, coupled with the latest GPS technology provides the opportunity to finally realize powerful yet inexpensive UAV avionics systems in very small footprints. Cloud Cap Technology has capitalized on these advances with the development of Piccolo, a full-featured yet affordable end user programmable avionics development platform. The next step, the PiccoloLT, is a low cost derivative that trades hardware flexibility and expandability for further reductions in size and cost. PiccoloLT will provide UAV developers with a highly integrated development platform that is small, reliable and inexpensive enough to use on an expendable airplane. Phase I and II development will result in an extremely inexpensive avionics system which is software compatible with our more sophisticated Piccolo system. The primary market niche for PiccoloLT is developers of expendable small unmanned aircraft; in particular the Navy to whom we hope to sell thousands of systems. However PiccoloLT also has application in other markets: 1) Research institutions that need a low cost yet flexible platform for developing research vehicles. Cloud Cap has been in contact with engineers from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center who have a need for low power avionics for small lightweight research UAVs. Their primary requirements are: low cost, high-speed performance, and rapid development tools. 2) Universities with aeronautical and astronautical programs which need development tools and implementation platforms for graduate and senior design courses: The Aeronautics and Astronautics department of the University of Washington has invested a large part of its capstone senior design course in unmanned aircraft development. Their primary requirement is a low cost, flexible avionics solution that can be used by students to develop unmanned aircraft technologies.

CONTINENTAL CONTROLS & DESIGN, INC.
1921 N. Gaffey Suite J
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 831-8669
Mr. James P. Hynes Jr.
NAVY 01-147      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Cost Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) Avionics
Abstract:asdIn this project we develop an extremely lightweight and inexpensive avionics package for small expendable UAVs. Starting with a proven COTS UAV autopilot, the Micropilot 2000, we squeeze most of its functionality into a lower cost, lower power, more highly integrated microcontroller, the new TI430F149. In another project we are developing a robust 1 cu inch Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for guided munitions using this controller and a suite of MEMS inertial gyros and accelerometers by Analog Devices. A Honeywell MEMS strapdown magnetometer and pressure sensor are added here to help coast through signal outages due to jamming of the tiny GPS receiver. The desired time of arrival at up to hundreds of waypoints can be loaded into the aircraft before or during flight. We develop an innovative Kalman filter to minimize position drift during GPS outages by exploiting the unique characteristics of a stable UAV that are not available in typical munition based GPS/INS guidance applications. asdThe cost target of this system will put it into a cost area that is viable for model airplane enthusiasts.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison Brown
NAVY 01-147      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Cost Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) Avionics
Abstract:Under this proposed SBIR effort, NAVSYS will develop a miniature, low-cost avionics system suitable for employment in a small, disposable UAV. Leveraging our expertise in GPS/INS integration, this system will enable robust navigation even in a GPS-degraded environment by employing tight coupling of the GPS receiver with the onboard navigation sensors, allowing a low-cost inertial sensor package to be used and still meeting the navigation requirements. We will first perform an analysis to determine the achievable performance of the system with different grades of onboard instrumentation and under varying degrees of GPS degradation. Then, in cooperation with the US Air Force Academy (AFA) under a CRADA (See Attachment 1 in Section M), we will develop and demonstrate a breadboard avionics system using COTS components that closely approaches the stringent power and size requirements of the production concept. As an option, we will be able to demonstrate the operation and real-world performance of the miniature avionics system in-flight on an AFA-supplied kit airframe. In a Phase II activity, we will create a tightly-integrated, miniaturized system that will further reduce size and weight while meeting the aggressive cost target needed for a production UAV system. The low cost low cost UAV avionics package will provide a cost effective avionics alternative for military UAV applications. As the military moves towards cheaper, `disposable' UAVs, which can be deployed in large numbers, there will be a corresponding need for low cost components, including avionics. Other applications include UAV commercial uses in numerous applications, including law enforcement, weather and atmospheric monitoring, aerial survey, and emergency communications relay.

CEREBRAL DEVELOPMENTS, INC.
3909 Airport Road, S-579
Ogden, UT 84405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 392-4392
Mr. James H. Mahon
NAVY 01-148      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Cost, Lightweight IridiumTM / GlobalstarTM Communications Modules
Abstract:Traditionally, Command and Control (C2) of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) has been accomplished by an Operator using a Remote Control Station (RCS) interfaced to a direct, two-way RF communications link. These direct C2 links suffer from range limitations, multipath and terrain interference. These problems force RCS assets to be on high ground, near the operational area, and require unmanned platform staging (launch and recovery) to be within line-of-sight (LOS) of the RCS. A wide-area/over-the-horizon C2 Data Link has been needed for some time to physically de-couple the UAVs from their RCSs. Fortunately, commercial systems that may solve the limitations of direct C2 links are now deployed. Based upon constellations of Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites, these new voice/data telecommunication systems hold promise to provide reliable, worldwide remote control of UAVs 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Equipping UAVs and their control assets with satellite transceivers will allow simultaneous OTH, wide-area control of multiple platforms. Building and analyzing such a C2 data link and pursuing further miniaturization of the airborne satellite transceivers forms the basis of this proposal. The proposed program will integrate CDI's technology with the IRIDIUM satellites to create an efficient worldwide Over The Horizon Command & Control system for unmanned vehicles. The hardware and software assets developed under this program will handle Tactical and Target Aerial Vehicles as well as unmanned surface vehicles (on terrain and ocean surface. Commercial operators could use the assets to manage unattended sensors and devices worldwide.

NAL RESEARCH CORP.
8708 Sudley Road
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 392-5676
Dr. Ngoc Hoang
NAVY 01-148      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Cost, Lightweight IridiumTM / GlobalstarTM Communications Modules
Abstract:Increased demands for land mobile and personal communications services have changed approaches to satellite design. Satellite providers are moving away from deploying a few large geosynchronous satellites to deploying tens, even hundreds, of smaller satellites at low-Earth orbit and medium-Earth orbit where the orbital altitudes are ranging from 500km to 14,000km. This new generation of LEO and MEO satellites offers a considerable opportunity for the ONR UAV program. They are much closer to the Earth; therefore, low-power hardware, omni-directional antennas can often be used. Moreover, with a large number of satellites available for a given coverage area, a single satellite failure will not result in loss of communications, contrary to the geosynchronous systems. As a result, NAL Research Corporation proposes to develop a satellite data link system using the Iridium LEO satellites that will provide low-operating and hardware costs, low-power consumption and rugged hardware, secured two-way communications, relatively high bandwidth and continuous and truly global coverage in real-time. Satellite data link system can be extremely useful in many applications. Ships, airplanes and trucks have relied on geostationary satellites to provide mobile satellite services for years. Now, LEO satellite data link system will soon make mobile satellite services available for individuals. Any type of transmission, internet connection, voice, fax, data or paging, will soon be able to reach its destination anywhere on the planet. The system will simplify communications for business professionals such as salespeople, field producers and reporters for television networks, construction engineers sending plan revisions, oil-company geologists uploading test results, just to name a few. People who live in thinly populated areas that will never be covered by regular cellular phone service, travelers, private pilots, yachtsmen and disaster relief teams will benefit from the LEO satellite-based data link system as well.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
1107-C Lyons Road
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Dr. Praveen Chawla
NAVY 01-150      Selected for Award
Title:System Management for Advanced & Replacement Technology (SMART)
Abstract:EDAptive Computing, Inc. (EDAptive), and Dr. Perry Alexander of the University of Kansas present a unique and commercially viable solution to the problem of verifying and validating a replacement/upgrade of an obsolete mixed-technology system that includes digital, analog and mechanical subsystems. Our System Management for Advanced & Replacement Technology (SMART) program will apply an emerging formal specification language standard, and an innovative test generation tool to the problem of verifying and validating replacement/upgrade of a mixed-technology system. Specifically, we propose to research and develop a solution, which will employ two key emerging and innovative technologies for automation in the future, namely (1) the industry-, academia-, and government-sponsored Rosetta, an emerging standard System Level Design Language (SLDL) for characterization of the hardware Input/Output (I/O) interface, and (2) the Air Force (AF) and Navy-sponsored VectorGenT tool to generate tests, expected outputs and the associated test harness to validate and verify a replacement/upgrade of an obsolete mixed-technology system. We have discussed our approach with potential customers and partners such as TRW, Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin, and found a need and desire for the proposed solution among potential customers. Maturation and integration of tools and languages proposed under this effort will alleviate the electronics parts obsolescence problem and reduce the cost of addressing it by at least an order of magnitude, especially for avionics system upgrades/replacement. In addition to DoD applications, the proposed system could be used for commercial mixed-technology systems such as wireless systems to identify potential problems when upgrading or replacing for obsolescence or performance needs.

THE CONSULTING NETWORK, INC.
209 Washington Street
Middletown, MD 21769
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 765-2183
Mr. Andre J. Pruitt
NAVY 01-150      Selected for Award
Title:Technology for Logistics Productivity
Abstract:Any Total Ownership Cost (TOC) reduction initiative requires completion of a cost/benefit analysis, including the detailed preparation of a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis. LCC models are often very labor intensive to complete with inputs that are typically derived from various engineering disciplines and/or existing databases. The proposed SBIR development will provide an Internet accessible LCC model for rapid completion of Navy related cost/benefit analyses in a collaborative environment. Application-specific schemas will be developed to link existing Navy and commercial databases for "auto-completion" of LCC model inputs. An Application Programming Interface (API) will also be developed to facilitate interfacing with other Navy applications. The output format of the cost/benefit analysis will use a standard Navy TOC reduction format. An Internet accessible LCC model would provide a collaborative environment for rapid cost/benefit analysis of commercial products. Since model inputs are typically derived from various engineering disciplines and/or existing databases, an Internet accessible LCC model would expedite completion of a cost/benefit analysis by supporting input from diverse locations. Application-specific interfaces would support linking existing commercial databases for "auto-completion" of model inputs. In addition, an Internet accessible LCC model will support rapid revision of an existing cost/benefit analysis based upon updated model inputs.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. James J. Barry
NAVY 01-151      Selected for Award
Title:Model-Based Design of a Steam/Heat Fabric Test Apparatus
Abstract:Conditions of convective heat and steam pose serious threats to Navy fire fighting and damage control personnel, but the only test environments available for testing of protective clothing for such conditions are large and very costly to use. The proposed convective heat and steam test apparatus will enable rapid and low-cost evaluation of candidate fabric samples in the laboratory. The apparatus will be designed using unique computational models for fluid flow and heat and mass transfer through textiles. The resulting equipment will be compact, accurate, repeatable, easy to use, and include its own data acquisition system. During Phase I, a comprehensive design for the complete test apparatus will be developed. In Phase II, a prototype apparatus will be constructed and tested. The proposed test apparatus will enable the Navy, other military services, and others in government and industry to quickly and inexpensively evaluate the protective characteristics of candidate textiles for fire fighting and steam-protective ensembles. The result will be lower development costs and improved protective clothing that better protects wearer against burns while reducing development and acquisition cost.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. George P. Hansen
NAVY 01-151      Selected for Award
Title:Laboratory Convective / Steam Heat Test Apparatus
Abstract: Abstract not available...

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2339
Dr. Andrew W. Myers
NAVY 01-152      Selected for Award
Title:Biodegradable Nanocomposite Films
Abstract:The disposal of ship-generated waste remains a problem for the Navy as it struggles with the issue of storing food-contaminated plastic waste for long periods at sea while maintaining necessary sanitary conditions. Plastics are currently prohibited from disposal at sea; however, if the plastic is quickly degraded in the ocean, overboard disposal would have little or no deleterious effect on the marine environment. Several biodegradable plastics are now commercially available. Unfortunately, these biodegradable plastics often do not have the necessary physical and barrier properties to make them useful as a food packaging material. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to use our proprietary inorganic/organic hybrid nanoparticles to improve the barrier properties of polycaprolactone, an already biodegradable polymer. We have developed nanoparticles that when added to polymers, improve their barrier properties and toughness while maintaining other necessary properties. Our nanoparticles can be incorporated into current PCL formulations, allowing minimal changes to existing processing methods. The material developed from the Phase I project will be a biodegradable nanocomposite with improved barrier properties against water vapor and oxygen. Biodegradable nanocomposites would answer a military need by developing food packaging materials that degrade in the marine environment, thus allowing the potential for overboard disposal. Biodegradable plastics with good barrier properties would find commercial markets in grocery stores and food supply and delivery services. Biodegradable plastics would also address the problems of solid waste generation and disposal.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Bryan Koene
NAVY 01-152      Selected for Award
Title:Biodegradable Nanocomposite Polymers for Food Packaging
Abstract:Triton Systems responds to the Navy need to produce new and unique biodegradable food packaging. Our technology is based upon the use of known marine biodegradable polymers based on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) for thin films fabrication that can be disposed overboard. Triton's collaboration with the Biodegradable Polymer Research Center at the University of Massachusetts Lowell will utilize their world-renowned expertise in biopolymer synthesis and processing. The use of Triton's nanocomposite technology will result in the improvement of film strength and oxygen barrier for food preservation. The incorporation of nanoscale silicates with high aspect ratio platelet morphology has demonstrated increased strength and gas barrier in a number of other thermoplastic resins. On this program we will develop the relationships between polymer structure, morphology, properties, and degradability as required for the Navy's needs. The Phase I will demonstrate the proof of principle through the synthesis and evaluation of these biodegradable nanocomposites with respect to their biodegradability, oxygen barrier, and film forming ability. For Phase II we will optimize these properties, and scale up the synthesis to field test large-scale prototypes. This successful program will develop an enabling technology that will benefit many areas where biodegradability of plastics is required. This includes disposable fast food packaging and medical wound dressings.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2302
Dr. Ronald L. Cook
NAVY 01-153      Awarded: 18OCT01
Title:Low VOC Nanocomposite Lubricant Coating
Abstract:Solid-film lubricants are materials with inherent lubricating properties, which are firmly bonded to the surface of a substrate. Solid-film lubricants can be used where conventional wet lubricants are ineffective (e.g. in space or high vacuum) or where the lubricant cannot be reapplied. They offer advantages other lubricants such as greases and liquids don't, including, effective lubrication over temperature ranges where greases and oils are ineffective, the ability to withstand higher loads (e.g. in excess of 250,000 psi), and typically they exhibit a lower coefficient of friction as the load increases. Polymer resin solid lubricants have the most commercial significance. However, many resin- bonded solid lubricant coatings release large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) during application and curing. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed surface modified nanoplatelets with lubricious surfaces that can be applied using a waterborne epoxy formulation. The nanoparticles can be readily dispersed in the air-dried epoxy coatings and will therefore offer a low VOC coating material. Previous at TDA has shown that the nanoplatelet epoxy coatings have good wear properties and excellent corrosion resistance. Solid lubricants significantly extend the lifetime of mechanical devices. The proposed work will demonstrate the effectiveness of organic monolayer nanoplatelets as low-cost base lubricants for a low-VOC coating. The resulting solid nanocomposite lubricant will also have good wear and corrosion resistance. This technology will find widespread use in civil aviation, transportation and space applications.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. George P. Hansen
NAVY 01-153      Awarded: 15OCT01
Title:Low Volatile Organic Content (VOC) Solid Film Lubricant
Abstract:Dry film lubricants are used extensively in military and commercial aircraft engines to prevent galling, fretting and seizing and to aid in maintenance disassembly and re-assembly. Most dry film lubricants contain volatile organic compounds as carrier solvents. Many also contain lead compounds for added endurance life and antimony oxide as a corrosion inhibitor. Graphite is often used as a lubricant by itself or with other solid lubricants. Each of these components poses an environmental hazard and their use must be discontinued. TRI/Austin proposes to develop a water-based system containing alternative lubricants and additives that will be environmentally and toxicologically benign, meets the requirements of MIL-L-23398 and MIL-L-46147, and can be applied using standard procedures with minimal impact to the Navy. The technical challenge to be faced in this development involves obtaining an adequate dispersion of the lubricant in the water-binder solution so that coating segregation does not occur during binder cure. The proposed new dry film lubricant will be environmentally and toxicologically benign without deleterious impact to existing Navy field practices.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
13029 Danielson Street, Suite 200
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Dr. Thomas Brotherton
NAVY 01-154      Awarded: 15OCT01
Title:A Testbed for Probabilistic Mission Engine Usage Analysis
Abstract:Engine component fatigue life prediction is based upon material conditions such as temperature, stress and exposure time, all of which are induced by system and flight cycle usage. With weapon systems being called on to perform a greater variety of missions like those envisioned for JSF and UAVs/UCAVs, asset usage and mission tracking are becoming crucial for life assessment. Concurrent pressure for system reliability and readiness further accentuates this requirement, not only from a deterministic, but a probabilistic basis as dictated for overall fleet management. The capability to reduce raw fleet duty cycle data into information usable to both designers and maintenance planners is essential. Proposed here is the development of a testbed to perform probabilistic analysis of mission / engine duty cycle data to aid in diagnostics, prognostics and condition based maintenance of gas turbine engines. The testbed will include data collection, analysis, visualization, signal processing and probabilistic analysis and system development tools for engine usage cycle analysis for component and system life modeling. Pratt & Whitney, world leaders in the design and production of gas turbine engines, will support IAC in all phases of the SBIR by supplying expertise and real engine data The potential commercial applications for the technology, techniques, and systems to ultimately come out of this SBIR are significant. Pratt & Whitney, a partner on Phase I, is interested in applying the technology developed here to its engines. If Phase I is successful, Pratt & Whitney will also participate on Phase 2 and will be a potential Phase 3 transition / commercialization partner. The technology to be developed here can be applied to significantly improve automated monitoring and condition-based maintenance of all military and commercial aircraft gas turbine engines

STI TECHNOLOGIES
1800 Brighton-Henrietta Townli
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-2010
Dr. Dan Ghiocel
NAVY 01-154      Awarded: 15OCT01
Title:Probabilistic Mission/Engine Duty Cycle Analysis
Abstract:The proposed project will address the engine mission statistical modeling at the needed level of detail. Special attention will be given to the key mission aspects that influence the vibratory stresses in engine components and may produce their HCF failure. The proposed research will provide the following key capabilities: (i) a complete handbook on the statistical description of engine missions based on the available information from the Navy databases and (ii) an integrated software with tool boxes to compute the engine mission characteristics, to simulate random missions and to determine "representative" missions for life assessment analyses. The user-friendly software that will be developed will enable the engine design and/or maintenance engineer to visualize mission profiles, statistics, simulated mission sequences, and "representative" deterministic missions calibrated based on probabilistic life analyses. The proposed "representative" deterministic missions will be established for five different severity levels (extreme, very high, high, moderate and average) which will correspond to five non-exceedance probability levels in the probabilistic HCF/LCF life distribution. To compute "representative" missions for a given engine component the user has to input the steady and resonant stresses at critical locations for different speeds and strain-life and damage curve parameters. The software product developed by this effort can be directly used by the commercial engine manufactures to improve their engine design and reduce maintenance costs. With minimum adaptation the software can be applied to life assessment of any system, machinery or component that is subjected to random variable loading including aerospace, power and automotive industries.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4806
Dr. James A. Keenan
NAVY 01-155      Awarded: 23OCT01
Title:Coupled VSTOL and Ship Air Wake Turbulent Flow Simulation Model
Abstract:A computational approach, utilizing a polyhedral unstructured Navier-Stokes flow solver with a Cartesian and chimera/overset grid technology, is proposed for solving ship airwake and VSTOL ground effect flows. The unstructured flow solver allows for any mesh topology around complex aircraft and ship geometries. The chimera capability allows flexibility in using separate grid systems on the aircraft and ship and re-using these grids for modeling different aircraft landing locations. The adaptive Cartesian capabilities can efficiently generate background grids that overlap both the aircraft and ship grids. Advanced higher order time marching schemes and turbulence models will be developed to solve the unsteady turbulent flow of the ship air wake and the turbulent transonic/supersonic VSTOL aircraft flow field. In Phase I, a computational approach will be developed and validated for the prediction of VSTOL-ground effect and ship air-wake flows. The most suitable grid topology will be separately selected for each aircraft and ship. A higher order time marching scheme will be developed and implemented into existing CFD software for time accurate ship airwake predictions. A computational approach for coupling of the VSTOL and ship flow field predictions will be conceptually developed. This approach will be implemented and validated in Phase II. The technology developed for the coupled flow of VSTOL and ship will have direct commercial applications for helicopters landing on ships and other non-moving structures in order to enhance Dynamic Interface performance. Direct applications include coast guard, police and medical operations. The unstructured chimera and adaptive Cartesian technologies will be implemented into the commercial CFD-FASTRAN flow solver and will be immediately available to all users. These techniques will be very useful for solving complex geometry problems such as store separation, missile staging, missile fin/canard/shroud cover and other complex multi-body applications.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, I
174 North Main Street, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
NAVY 01-155      Awarded: 24OCT01
Title:Coupled Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing (VSTOL) Down Wash-Ground Effect and Ship Air Wake Turbulent Flow Simulation Model
Abstract:Integration of aviation units with air capable Navy ships has always been a challenge. V/STOL aircraft, e.g. AV-8B, JSF, etc. encounter unique challenges in performing takeoff and landing during the course of shipboard operations due to the interaction of the propulsion-generated jet downwash with the unsteady air wake generated by the ship superstructure & deck. Operational envelopes must be developed through extremely expensive, time-consuming and demanding at-sea trials. Additionally, the powerful V/STOL jet outwash is a major safety hazard for ship deck personnel. The proposed effort will lead to the development and validation of a physics-based, high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model for predicting dynamic interface (DI) performance. Complexity of the geometry, magnitude of the domains entailed, and presence of a very broad range of physical phenomena make this into a challenging proposition. A novel unstructured CFD method is proposed which brings together: 1) innovations in CFD numerical algorithm; 2) resource efficient hybrid RANS-LES turbulence modeling; 3) turbulent flowfield reconstruction using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD); and 4) an advanced parallel architecture framework. A zonal simulation strategy has been formulated which provides optimum utilization of computational resources for simulating DI performance of realistic ship-aircraft at true conditions. The technology development proposed is directly applicable to JSF. The technology developments proposed are also of extreme relevance to commercial aviation, especially with regards to commercial aviation and safety guidelines under high-wind conditions, etc. The modeling tools developed are also of direct relevance to Coast Guard operations and local law-enforcement.

SUKRA HELITEK, INC.
3146, Greenwood road
Ames, IA 50014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 292-8918
Dr. Saeid Niazi
NAVY 01-155      Awarded: 24OCT01
Title:Coupled Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing (VSTOL) Down Wash-Ground Effect and Ship Air Wake Turbulent Flow Simulation Model
Abstract:Shipboard landings of JSF, AV-8B and Bell-Boeing's V22 have identified unique dynamic interface issues and the critical need for an accurate and efficient technique for simulating wind-over-deck situations. In this research, a novel approach is proposed wherein the flowfield of the ship, its superstructure and the complete aircraft are solved using a coupled viscous flow solver for various relative wind speeds and directions. The engine of the innovation, RotUNS, is a comprehensive CFD tool for multi-body-rotor flow simulation. It consists of a cartesian, unstructured, viscous, unsteady solver for the flow and a momentum source representation for the rotors. RotUNS generates the cartesian unstructured grid efficiently from the geometry definition and will be suitable for dynamic adaption to the turbulent flow field. The entire computational domain will be solved simultaneously to yield the interacting flow field and the loads on the body. The simulation tool developed under this initiative will find wide usage in the Navy reserach organizations and rotorcraft industry. The proposal offers to develop a tool that will lay the foundations for true coupled flow field and load calculation of a complete configuration such as JSF, AV-8B and V-22 in a multi-body interfering environment as would be on an aircraft carrier. Sukra Helitek's software, RotUNS, is currently used for shipboard simulation of V-22. The proposed research has resulted from the direct knowledge of the needs of the industry and the government. RotUNS is an extension to the well tested Rot3DC (a rotor simulation package offered by Sukra Helitek, Inc.) and the enhanced capabilities will further increase RotUNS's marketability and usefullness.

SOFTWARE & ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
1802 N. Carson Street, Suite 200
Carson City, NV 89701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 882-1966
Dr. Jonathan C. French
NAVY 01-156      Awarded: 02NOV02
Title:Nonlinear Combustion Stability Prediction of Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:Software & Engineering Associates, Inc., proposes to develop a new tool to analyze solid rocket motor combustion stability which will predict for an unstable motor the combustion chamber's maximum over-pressurization. When a rocket motor experiences combustion instability, it often does not experience a catastrophic failure, but a temporary amplitude limited pressure fluctuation. If the magnitude of the fluctuation can be predicted, one can then determine if it is sufficiently low as to be ignored, or if it will damage the payload or cause unacceptable flight variations. The current stability analysis code examines each of the combustion chamber's acoustic modes separately. As such, it cannot model the transfer of energy between unstable and stable acoustic modes, transfers which can act to dampen the unstable mode, resulting in an amplitude limited pressure fluctuation (limit cycle). A new non-linear analysis technique developed at Cal Tech compares a given unstable acoustic mode with the other modes in the system, and from that predicts the maximum amplitude of the over-pressurization. The focus of this Phase I SBIR will be to identify the algorithms and inputs required to implement a non-linear stability analysis into the current solid rocket motor combustion stability code. This research will result in an innovative design tool to predict combustion instability amplitudes of an unstable solid rocket motor during the design phase. This new tool will take advantage of the multi-dimensional stability analysis code currently being implemented. This product will bridge the gap between university (MURI) research and the solid rocket motor community.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Dr. John P. Campbell
NAVY 01-157      Awarded: 24OCT01
Title:Transparent Conducting Oxides for Forward-Looking IR (FLIR) Sensors
Abstract:Current transparent conductors have insufficient transparency in the infrared to be useful for shielding infrared sensors against electromagnetic inteference. This project investigates the feasibility of developing the next generation of transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) via a novel approach. The result will be a series of both p-type and n-type materials with high conductivity and transparency through the visible into the mid infrared. This is expected to benefit the United States with applications from electromagnetic shielding of infrared sensors, to transparent electronic p-n junctions and circuitry. The proposed effort would lead to a new family of high-conductivity, wide bandwith transparent conducting oxides (TCO)s. The potential commercial applications include 'smart' thermal control windows, substrates for photovoltaic cells, and transparent electronic circuits.

EIKOS, INC.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Mr. Paul Glatkowski
NAVY 01-157      Awarded: 24OCT01
Title:Infrared Transparent Electromagnetic Shielding Utilizing Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:Eikos Inc. proposes to develop transparent EMI shielding materials to meet the design objectives of Naval IR transparent optics. In the proposed Phase I program, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWnT) will be incorporated into inorganic polymers to impart EMI shielding while maintaining optical transparency across several infrared bands in the EM spectrum. This novel material is based on NanoshieldT EMI shielding technology already demonstrated and patented at Eikos Inc. It represents a new class of nanocomposite polymers utilizing the extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes. Eikos will compound nanotubes into inorganic polymers and organic polymers to form nanocomposites, fabricate films/coatings, measure the electrical, optical, and EMI shielding properties. The development of these nanocomposite materials is crucial to overcoming the current plateau in materials development which is constraining the development of new multispectral and low cost sensor systems. This material will replace metal grids currently in use and allow new electrically insulting IR optical materials to be utilized. This technology lends itself to application and enhancement of existing IR sensor optics in night vision goggles, missile seekers, cameras and windows. The development of an EMI shielding transparent material will have immediate application in meeting the needs for military and commercial transparences. EMI shielding products are experiencing rapid grown due to ever increasing use if wireless devices at increasingly higher operational frequencies. This need for new optically transparent EMI shielding materials will draw a premium value in the marketplace. The current EMI market exceeds 500M$/yr with the IR optical components market is dominated by DoD applications with >150M$/Yr in sales. Eikos will enter several sectors of these markets, by solving existing problems and permitting application of next generation devices, across all these markets.

SIENNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
19501 144th Avenue NE, Suite F-500
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 485-7272
Dr. Ender Savrun
NAVY 01-157      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Transparent Conductors for EMI Shielding of Sensor Windows
Abstract:This project will investigate a novel family of infrared transparent thin film materials having high electrical conductivity for electromagnetic interference shielding of IR sensor windows. High purity powders of bulk materials will be synthesized. Sputtering targets from the powders will be fabricated via pressureless sintering. Thin films will be deposited by rf magnetron sputtering. Electrical conductivity, optical IR transmission and microwave attenuation of the films will be determined. The microstructure-property relationship will be established. Potential commercial applications include architectural shielding in industrial environments, view windows on magnetic resonance imaging systems, windows in embassy buildings and other government installations, view IR windows on all types of electronic equipment and instrumentation, and transparent electrodes in display devices.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Joel L. Berg
NAVY 01-158      Awarded: 06DEC01
Title:A Tactile-Based Alert Device to Improve Safety Around High-Risk Areas
Abstract:Aircraft carrier personnel are exposed to additional risks when working around propeller-driven aircraft such as the E-2C and C-2A. To avoid injury from rotating propeller blades, an alert system is needed that performs even under conditions of poor visibility or high noise. Creare proposes a proximity-based, tactile alert device that can be worn as a wristband to alert the wearer when (s)he penetrates a region that is established as high-risk. The components of the system are inexpensive enough so that the device can be standard issue to all deck personnel. Creare will demonstrate the feasibility of our innovation during Phase I through bench-top tests. During Phase II, we will develop and field-test a prototype system. Because the proposed alert system provides proximity-based tactile feedback, these devices could be used for personnel guidance as well as personnel safety. For instance, the device could be used by the visually impaired to locate particular zones or objects (e.g., the telephone or doorknob).

NOESIS, INC.
10530 Linden Lake Plaza, Suite
Manassas, VA 20109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 349-4001
Mr. Thomas Buckingham
NAVY 01-158      Awarded: 27NOV01
Title:Enhanced Propeller Visibility
Abstract:High tempo 24 hour day and night flight operations on a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier create a hazardous environment that taxes even the best safety procedures and programs. As the only propeller driven aircraft deployed on carriers, the E-2C and C-2A present a unique problem. Their rotating propellers create a serious threat to the safety of maintenance and flight crews working in close proximity to the aircraft, particularly in low light/low visibility conditions. Understanding the nature of the problem, this proposal addresses a visual warning system that will incorporate a Low Light Level Illumination appliqu‚ on the propeller. The appliqu‚ will combine the attributes of two materials: a powerful and revolutionary photoluminescent compound and retro-reflective sheeting. In so doing, we will maximize visual awareness in both low light and no light situations. Contingent upon successful shipboard evaluation, it is reasonable to assume that the solution developed in the proposed effort for the E-2C and C-2A application could readily transferred to other propeller aircraft in the Navy and commercial inventory including: the helicopter fleet, the P-3 land-based aircraft and the V-22 tilt-rotor. Operations involving those aircraft are also conducted in all types of lighting conditions during high tempo operations either onboard ship or at land-based sites presenting similar safety concerns to the support crews. The commercial opportunities for this product are extensive and include: the small, private aircraft industry; the commercial airline fleet of propeller-driven commuter planes; and the commercial helicopter industry. Only recently there was a fatality at a major Washington, D.C. airport in which a maintenance worker was fatally struck by an aircraft propeller, bringing home the fact that safety remains an important consideration in commercial airport and aircraft operations. In fact, Bell Helicopter Textron has indicated significant interest in our technical approach to enhancing propeller visibility. Not only does their interest validate the serious safety hazard operating tail rotors pose to maintenance crews in the commercial industry, Bell Helicopter believes our LLLI material shows great promise as the solution.

QUANTUM TECHNOLOGY SERVICES, INC.
1980 North Atlantic Avenue, Suite 707
Cocoa Beach, FL 32931
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 868-0288
Dr. Jeffrey R. Cavins
NAVY 01-158      Awarded: 06DEC01
Title:Enhanced Propeller Visibility
Abstract:The Navy has identified a requirement for enhancing propeller visibility for personnel safety on carrier-based aircraft such as the E-2C and C-2A aircraft under nighttime or inclement weather conditions. After careful consideration QTSI has developed an approach based on using scanning laser diodes to paint an image on the rotating propeller. Such a device would be low cost, lightweight and low power. Placement of the device could be mounted either on the aircraft on the carrier deck, or in some remove before flight equipment such as wheel chocks. We believe such a design can be implemented cheaply and with a minimum of modification to the aircraft. Clearly this sensor has significant commercial applications. Commercial commuter aircraft have the same issues regarding propeller safety as military aircraft, and the number of small 2 and 4 engine propeller driven commuter aircraft has exploded over the last ten years. We would expect the opportunity to refit all propeller driven military aircraft over a period of time, plus incorporate the scanners in all new production aircraft for the civilian market.

CG2, INC.
6000 Technology Drive,, Bldg. 1, Suite A
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 217-2703
Mr. Mark Bowden
NAVY 01-159      Selected for Award
Title:Material Encoded Textures with Computer Generated Forces (CGF)
Abstract:Historically, Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) simulators have utilized battle space models designed to present a view of the battle space to a human. The view could be a typical "out-the-window" view or a view produced by a sensor, such as an infrared navigation pod or a night vision device. Thus, a battle space model for each type of view would have to be constructed from imagery appropriate to the sensor type. This arrangement presents difficulties in correlation between the models and is time consuming because of the duplication of the battle space. Furthermore, the models consist of radiometric response images that are of little use to a CGF simulation. In recent years, the Navy developed a method whereby a single battle space model could be used for all the views presented by a HITL simulation. Rather than build a battle space model based on the optical response of materials, which results in a waveband-dependent model, the model is constructed of material-encoded imagery. CGF simulations stand to benefit greatly from the advent of material-encoded imagery digital battle space models. The overall objective of this proposal is to identify hardware and software approaches for the design and development of a Computer Generated Forces/Semi-Automated Forces (SAF) System that is not constrained by current polygon/vector based methods of scene rendering, but takes advantage of material-encoded imagery digital battle space models. The commercial potential will be a run-time license of the modified CGF software to use this capability as part of a delivered training system. The software capability lends itself to the next generation of game engine in the commercial market.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Dr. James English
NAVY 01-159      Selected for Award
Title:Material Encoded Textures in Computer Generated Forces (CGF)
Abstract:Current Computer Generated Forces (CGF) systems use polygonal representations of the terrain, augmented with vector data, for terrain reasoning. Algorithms such as vehicle movement and line-of-sight use this data to determine vehicle speed and orientation, as well as for targeting and navigation. 3-D visualization systems, used in human-in-the- loop simulations, provide additional data in the form of geo-specific texture information, however. Humans can interpret this additional data and make decisions based on it. Current CGF systems cannot represent or reason on this texture data, leading to interoperability and correlation issues between human-in-the-loop simulations and CGF systems. MŽK Technologies, along with Terrain Experts (TERREX), Inc., propose to develop a CGF terrain representation that supports the incorporation of pixel-level data that augments the current polygon and vector representation. We will demonstrate this terrain representation in MŽK's VR-Forces commercial-off-the-shelf CGF system. The results of this research will increase the fidelity of CGF terrain representations, allowing higher fidelity modeling of terrain reasoning and sensor simulations. It will also improve correlation between CGF and man-in-the-loop simulations, since texture data is currently not used by CGF reasoning algorithms, but is used by humans. This research has high commercialization potential. At the end of Phase II, this research will have been integrated into MAK's commercial CGF product, VR-Forces, and will also be available for other government CGF projects, such as OneSAF.

AURORA FLIGHT SCIENCES OF WEST VIRGINIA,
3000 East Benedum Industrial
Bridgeport, WV 26330
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-3633
Dr. John Langford
NAVY 01-160      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Lifetime Performance of Nonmetallic Honeycomb Cored and Modified Aluminum Cored Honeycomb Structures
Abstract:Aurora Flight Sciences of West Virginia (AWV) is small business offering a complete range of aerospace structural manufacturing capabilities in both metals and composites. Our largest customer is Northrop Grumman, for whom we manufacture flight-rated production parts for such aircraft as the E8 JSTARS, E2C HawkEye, and RQ4A Global Hawk. We are ISO-9000 registered and we hold materiel review board (MRB) authority on JSTARS. Many of our staff of almost 100 are former Grumman employees, and have extensive experience with the F14, A6, and other aircraft We are developing new sealing techniques to improve the resistance of aluminum cored sandwich structures to moisture penetration, which is a major cause of delaminating and life shortening. In this SBIR, we have teamed with Northrop-Grumman ISA to offer a complete design solution that can rapidly transfer the resulting technology into production. In Phase I we propose to conduct preliminary evaluations of new nonmetallic core materials which could replace aluminum honeycomb core and accelerated life testing of our sealing techniques. In Phase II we will demonstrate production versions of our processes. As a major supplier to the OEM on the F-14 and other subject aircraft, Aurora West Virginia is well positioned to quickly transition the technology from this project into production and into the fleet. Aurora has teamed with Northrop Grumman, and together we offer a complete understanding of the problem and a complete capability to implement the solution.

AZTEX, INC.
360 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5529
Mr. John Harris
NAVY 01-160      Selected for Award
Title:Truss Reinforced Foam Cores for Replacement of Aluminum Honeycomb Structures
Abstract:Sandwich core structures represent a lightweight and structurally efficient approach for composite airframe fabrication. However, the use of sandwich core structures has also presented many challenges, particularly for Navy aircraft that tend to see extensive exposure to salt spray and high humidity environments. In these environments, any defect or damage to the sandwich facesheets allows moisture intrusion into the cells of the honeycomb. Once this process has begun, the result is almost inevitable - corrosion of the metallic components and delamination of the facesheets from the core. Aztex has developed a technology that utilizes a lightweight, closed cell foam as a base. The foam is then reinforced with very small diameter pultruded rods. This technology provides a means to utilize a closed cell foam core with relatively poor mechanical properties and by the addition of Z-FiberT rods, create a high strength, damage tolerant core structure with the potential for strengths comparable to aluminum honeycomb. In this program, Aztex proposes to utilize our K-CorT product as a basis to develop a replacement core material for aircraft control surfaces, focusing on the F-14. This technology would be applicable to other existing or future aircraft applications. Aztex has developed a technology that utilizes a lightweight, closed cell foam as a base. The foam is then reinforced with very small diameter pultruded rods. This technology provides a means to utilize a closed cell foam core with relatively poor mechanical properties and by the addition of Z-FiberT rods, create a high strength, damage tolerant core structure with the potential for strengths comparable to aluminum honeycomb, excellent damage tolerance and resistance to moisture intrusion. An alternative to conventional honeycomb materials without the inherent problems associated with honeycomb cores has potential applications in both military and commercial aerospace applications. In addition, there are many non-aerospace uses such as railway floor panels, truck bodies, Formula 1 cars, etc. Our research indicates that the market potential for commercial applications for this technology (both aerospace and non-aerospace) exceeds $50M/year.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Anthony J. Dietz
NAVY 01-161      Awarded: 23OCT01
Title:Active and Passive Reduction of Noise Caused by Bone Conduction to the Head of U.S. Navy Deck Crew Personnel with Helmets
Abstract:The goal of this project is to characterize the magnitude and transmission paths of bone-conducted noise, and then to use this information to design an effective Noise Reduction System (NRS) for use in crew helmets. US Navy personnel working on the decks of aircraft carriers operate in a very high noise environment and are at considerable risk for hearing damage. There is no technology available to reduce engine noise levels without significant performance penalties. Further, noise levels will not improve with the next generation of aircraft, where noise levels for deck crews will exceed 150 dB. At these levels, sound conducted to the cochlea via bone and tissue conduction may inflict damage despite complete attenuation of air-conducted sound in the ear canal. The phenomenon of bone conduction is not well understood. During the Phase I project, we plan to use two new innovative audiometry techniques, supplemented by laboratory tests, to characterize this phenomenon. We will then use these data to model the noise conduction mechanism in order to design an effective countermeasure. During the Phase II project, we will fabricate and test prototypes of the NRS. The results of our unique tests on bone/tissue conduction to the cochlea will be of benefit to those setting hearing protection guidelines as well as to designers of hearing protection systems. The Creare Noise Reduction System (NRS) will reduce the effects of this potentially harmful source of noise, allowing longer durations of exposure to high-noise-level environments. The system will be of use to military and civilian aircraft operations and maintenance personnel as well as to workers in construction and manufacturing industries.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road, Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6112
Dr. William P. Marshak
NAVY 01-161      Awarded: 24OCT01
Title:Active and Passive Reduction of Noise Caused by Bone Conduction to the Head of US Navy Deck Crew Personnel with Helmets
Abstract:SYTRONICS proposes Bone Conducted Noise Reduction (BCNR) research to accomplish Phase I objectives, establish a foundation for further research and product prototyping in Phase II, and product testing and development in Phase III. The Phase I objectives are: propose new design approaches to protect Naval deck crew personnel from bone conducted sound to the inner ear; establish a protocol for determining the path(s) of bone conducted noise to the inner ear; and develop a preliminary conceptual design for a solution to the problem. Proposed work includes: assessing current approaches to measuring bone conducted noise using distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAEs) technology; determining new methods for measuring bone conducted noise by generating DPOAEs in a novel way to study the cancellation of bone conducted noise in the cochlea; performing a series of preliminary bone-conduction studies designed to explore the effect of level changes in air-conducted and bone conducted stimuli, examine cancellation of the bone-conducted tone, compare the sensitivity of DPOAE measures with conventional behavioral measures, and make a preliminary determination of bone conduction pathways to the inner ear; providing a concept demonstration of a potential bone conducted noise reduction. We anticipate the benefits of this research to include (1) a better understanding of the pathways and practical effect of bone conducted sound to the inner ear; (2) determination of an effective way to reduce the level of bone conducted sound to the inner ear; and (3) preliminary design of a protective system that effectively reduces the level of bone conducted noise to the inner ear and is feasible for use in the Navy aircraft carrier and "L" class ship deck environment. If successful, this technology application will benefit workers operating in any high noise military and industrial environment.

ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1700 Kraft Drive, Suite 2350
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-1284
Dr. Michael A. Vaudrey
NAVY 01-162      Awarded: 05OCT01
Title:A Personal Active Communication System For Use in Extreme Noise Environments
Abstract:The extreme noise fields encountered by U.S. Navy flight deck and cockpit crewmen interfere with speech intelligibility and cause hearing loss to warfighter personnel, even with the currently-fielded communication systems. This Phase I program will develop new active noise reduction (ANR) technologies and improve existing passive technologies for incorporation into a prototype double hearing protection, helmet-integrated communication system. The advanced system will target up to 50 dB of noise reduction on the flight deck and 40 dB of noise reduction in the cockpit. Feasibility studies will first investigate: enhanced performance of earcup materials and seals in extreme noise, improvements to the noise reducing microphone, ANR designs that are compatible with prototype communication earplugs, and novel component configurations that optimize simultaneous noise suppression and speech intelligibility. Attenuation and intelligibility data for a Phase I prototype system will be measured during the Phase I option project. A unique team of small businesses has been assembled to ensure a successful Phase I solution to this extremely challenging and multidisciplinary design problem. The corporate team members will extend their cooperative efforts after Phase I to address any further development issues, leading to a manufacturable prototype at the conclusion of Phase II. The benefits of the extreme-noise, personal active communication system for U.S. Navy personnel include significantly reduced occurrences of hearing loss and improved battle situation readiness through improved speech intelligibility between tower, cockpit, and flight deck personnel. Additional DOD applications include tank pilots, crewmen in the U.S. Marine's AAAV, and shipboard engine room crew. Commercialization of the advanced ANR earplug and noise-reduction microphone will be applicable in a variety of industrial, marine, and vehicle racing environments.

MICRO OPTICS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8608 University Green #5, PO Box 620377
Middleton, WI 53562
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 831-0655
Dr. Jeffrey Buchholz
NAVY 01-162      Awarded: 15OCT01
Title:Helmet Integrated Communication System with Optically Driven Earplug
Abstract:A helmet based crew communication system is designed incorporating an optically driven earplug as well as active noise reduction signal processing at the crew station. The optically driven earplug is added to the helmet communication system to both increase the passive noise rejection through use of an earplug as well as well as to improve intelligibility through use of an active earplug speaker. The earplug is optically driven through free space to eliminate the wire connection of conventional active earplugs to ease helmet don and doff limitations. The earplug small size and freedom from helmet connections also allows the helmet to continue to have conventional ear cup speakers for redundancy and use in active noise cancellation. Sensing microphones of either a conventional or fiber optic type are also included for use with digital signal processing using compact low power DSP chips. Active earplugs for improved communication in noisy environments including industrial, medical and law enforcement environments.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road, Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6112
Dr. William P. Marshak
NAVY 01-162      Awarded: 17OCT01
Title:Active Noise Reduction Earplug and Improved Speech Intelligibility for Aircrew and Deck Crew Personnel with Helmet Integrated Communication Systems
Abstract:SYTRONICS proposes Noise Reduction and Improved Speech (NORIS) research to accomplish Phase I objectives, establish a foundation for further research and prototyping in Phase II, and product testing and development in Phase III. Phase I objectives are: propose new design approaches using existing technology for hearing protection of personnel using communication systems; identify performance differences between custom-fit and foam earplugs; compare new materials available; include data on new speech intelligibility technologies; and develop a conceptual design. The proposed work includes: Assessing currently used passive systems, performing comparative analyses and identifying differences in performance with foam earplugs; Performing preliminary studies to determine passive attenuation requirements by (1) replicating a 1981 Shanks and Lilly study to determine the most sensitive measure of ear canal residual volume; and (2) identifying and verifying the most effective method for estimating residual ear canal volume when using deep-seated earplugs; Determining active noise reduction (ANR) requirements using deep-seated ear plugs and a noise sensing microphone; Investigating ANR, Communications Earplug (CEP) and other techniques that hold promise for reducing noise at the inner ear and improving speech communications; Providing a concept demonstration of a preliminary noise reduction system for deck crew with communications. We anticipate the benefits of this research to include (1) a better understanding of the technologies and applications that are most effective in reducing noise levels at the inner ear; (2) realization of effective techniques and applications for improving speech intelligibility in high noise environments; and (3) preliminary concept design and demonstration of a more effective passive and active noise reduction hearing protection system with improved speech intelligibility capabilities, that is feasible for use by aircrew and deck crew personnel operating in Navy aircraft carrier and "L" class ship deck environments. If successful, this technology application will benefit workers operating in any high noise military and industrial environment.

ONTARIO ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL
3333 Harrision Street, Unit #6
Riverside, CA 92503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 283-5971
Mr. Russell Abbott
NAVY 01-163      Awarded: 27NOV01
Title:High-Voltage Cables and Connector
Abstract:In Phase 1, Ontario Engineering International will perform a feasibility study to develop a high voltage cable and connector system for the ALE-55 FOTD that will significantly improve MTBF at the magazine/cartridge interface and extend the cables mission life. The current system will be analyzed and documented by generating a Failure Modes Effects Analysis based on failure and maintenance reports. From this analysis several innovative designs will be developed. These designs will then undergo a trade off analysis to determine the most viable design to meet the requirements of the ALE-55 FOTD. The product of this effort is to develop a specification that will be used in the development of an engineering design model in Phase 2. Included in the Phase 1 effort will be the fabrication of a cable capable of supporting the expected loads while being exposed to a simulated jet exhaust. Also provided will be a blind mate connector design showing a self-wiping capability. The result of this effort will be the development of a specification for use in a Phase II effort. This technology development will enable provide miniature high temperature cable and connectors for industrial and hostile environments found in process industries.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 956-1000
Dr. Balakrishnan Nair
NAVY 01-164      Awarded: 15NOV01
Title:MICRO-FABRICATED CERAMIC COMPONENTS FOR OPTICAL FIBER CONNECTORS IN HARSH OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is designed to develop and characterize a novel ceramic material and microcomponent fabrication technique for application as optic fiber connectors in harsh operational environments experienced by the Integrated Defense Electronics Countermeasures (IDECM) ALE-55 Fiber Optic Towed Decoy (FOTD). Current fiber-optic connectors do not possess the desired mechanical performance and high-temperature performance for FOTD applications, and often have a high failure rate during operational conditions. The objective of the proposed research project is to utilize an innovative, cost-effective technique for microfabrication of ceramic components, developed at Ceramatec Inc., to fabricate optical fiber connectors with mechanical and thermomechaniccal properties superior to current silicon technology. The proposed process is a low-temperature, net-shape fabrication technique that is expected to be efficient, cost-effective, scalable and environmentally friendly (no-byproducts). The proposed material is a nanophase ceramic whose composition and microstructure can be tailored, depending on the specific requirements of the application, by simple changes in the processing technique. Our research will involve materials processing optimization and characterization of material properties including mechanical properties and thermal shock performance as a function of material composition and microstructure. Successful completion of Phase I and Phase II of the proposed research project will result in an alternative to silicon processing technology that would be attractive for a very large industrial sector, namely the fiber optic communications industry. The high production capacity and tight dimensional tolerances for components fabricated using this material/technique makes it an attractive option for optic fiber component manufacturers, who are interested in faster techniques to process components with dimensional tolerances similar to that achieved by silicon technology. Further, the fabrication technique also has direct relevance to other products like micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), packaging for electronic components and microchannel devices.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Brock Gilbertson
NAVY 01-164      Awarded: 21NOV01
Title:Fiber Optic Cables and Connectors
Abstract:Burn-through of the cables used in the Integrated Defense Electronics Countermeasures (IDECM) ALE-55 Fiber Optic Towed Decoy (FOTD) system as installed on the F/A-18E/F precludes successful operation of the FOTD. The currently used organic fibers do not retain their strength when exposed to the extremely high temperatures of the aircraft exhaust. Fiber Materials, Inc. proposes an innovative solution to the burn-through problem by utilizing a high strength, commmercially available fiber with a higher maximum use temperature. FMI will also utilize ablative materials to keep the temperature of the cable below its failure temperature. In Phase I, FMI will perform elevated temperature tensile strength testing (up to 1000§C in air) of the proposed towlines. The benefit of this SBIR project will be candidate material systems for high temperature, high strength towlines for Fiber Optic Towed Decoys (FOTD). The successful conclusion of this research will allow reliable deployment and use of the FOTD system to protect US military aircraft from enemy missiles. Approximately 20,000 disposable towline units are planned for the F/A18, F-15, and various other platforms. Industrial applications that will benefit from this research include space tethers, high temperature seals, and high temperature cables for the geothermal and mining industries.

AMERICAS PHENIX
121 Tennessee Avenue, N.E.
Washington, DC 20002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 546-7442
Mr. Marcio Duffles
NAVY 01-165      Awarded: 28DEC01
Title:Corrosion/Erosion Resistant Coatings for Turbine Compression Systems
Abstract:The proposed Corrosion/Erosion Resistant (C/ER) coating is a multi-layered "Titanium-Nitride" coating that is applied to different compressor airfoils via a Cathodic-Arc Physical Vapor Deposition process. The C/ER coating has been applied to over 2000 Russian manufactured TV2-117 turboshaft engines and demonstrated significant operational savings due to decreased rejection of compressor airfoils, decreased fuel consumption and increased operational hours before engine overhaul. In addition, the C/ER coating recently completed a successful Foreign Comparative Test (FCT) test & evaluation program for application on a GE T64-419 turboshaft engine. The C/ER Coating process and composition can be optimized for different gas turbine engine compressor systems and subsystems. For example, the coating composition can be enhanced to provide greater corrosion protection and maintain erosion protection, and the coating application can be optimized for application on single compressor airfoils, vane segments, blisk rotors and centrifugal compressors. The anticipated benefits of the C/ER Caoting includes decreased total ownership cost to the operator via: a reduced number of compressor airfoil subsystems rejected due to corrosion or erosion; increased engine performance due to decreased compressor degradation, increased mean-time between engine repair and increased engine time-on-wing. These anticipated benefits can be realized for gas turbine compression systems and subsystems on military and commercial air, ground and marine vehicles.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-3250
Dr. Suri A. Sastri
NAVY 01-165      Awarded: 23DEC01
Title:Dense, Hard Tough Coatings for Corrosion and Erosion Resistance Applications
Abstract:Engine corrosion and erosion of compressor blades and vanes has been a critical degrader of gas turbine engine fleet for naval applications. Corrosion of compressor airfoils has also been found to be a major problem causing high compressor airfoil scrap rate, more frequent engine overhauls and an appreciable engine performance reduction with operational time. Protection of these systems involves coating the gas turbine compression system parts with an erosion/corrosion resistant coating. Surmet proposes an innovative coating structure that will combat the naval environment involving corrosion and erosion (salt, air steam sand and dust ingestion). The structure provides high toughness, high strength and very low coefficient of friction. Preliminary erosion tests indicate high potential of these coatings for providing erosion resistance. In Phase I, Surmet will demonstrate feasibility of achieving high erosion resistance via fabrication of coated coupons and extensive microstructural, mechanical and erosion characterization. Surmet has teamed up with a major aircraft manufacturer to demonstrate applicability of the coating to a prototype component in Phase I Option. In Phase II, the coating technology will be optimized through coating and system level characterization of a large number of components. A Phase III commercialization plan will be developed for rapid insertion of the technology in operating aircraft. Gas turbine engines (SDCs) are used in a variety of military and commercial aircraft. Development of corrosion and erosion resistant coatings will prevent rapid erosion and catastrophic system failure in dusty and naval environments, prolonging component life and reducing life cycle costs. Erosion resistant coatings will also have application in commercial equipment such as pumps, compressors, energy generation equipment (erosive effluents), mining equipment, etc.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Amarendra K. Rai
NAVY 01-165      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Corrosion/Erosion Resistant Coatings for Turbine Compression Systems
Abstract:Erosion and corrosion of compressor blades and vanes have been critical degraders to the life of the gas turbine engine fleet for naval applications. Similar problems also exist for civilian aircraft engines. Protection of turbine compression systems has historically consisted of coating airfoil surfaces. New and advanced base material systems and advanced engine configurations are under development. Thus, new coating deposition techniques which can be applied without degrading advanced material systems and engine configuration are required. UES, Inc. proposes to utilize a patented vacuum filtered arc based technology for coating application. The coating systems will be characterized in terms of their composition and corrosion/erosion performance. Based upon their performance ranking, coating(s) and coating process(s) will be identified for further development in Phase II. Successful completion of the project will provide demonstrated knowledge about the coatings and deposition technology for mitigating corrosion/erosion of advanced turbine compression systems of military as well as civilian aircraft. There is application potential of coatings to a broad range of air, ship , automotive vehicles and in metal machining.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 245-6465
Dr. Clifford T. Tanaka
NAVY 01-166      Awarded: 22OCT01
Title:Multi-Channel Electronic Scanning Module for an Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) Circular Array
Abstract:The objective of this project is the development of a control module capable of providing the excitation for the Navy's UHF electronically scanned array radar currently under development. This radar will enable enhanced beam agility and scan rates over present radar systems. The Navy has identified a need for a scanning module able to direct a tapered excitation to a subset of a fifty-four element array. The solution Trex Enterprises proposes is a module which integrates basic branchline couplers with advanced, high-power ferroelectric phase shifters. Branchline couplers are commonly used as beam splitters or combiners in microwave electronics. The novel design proposed utilizes the phase shifting capability of ferroelectrics to achieve independent control over the phase and output power to each of the array elements. This enables a tapered excitation to the array with enhanced gain and maximum power efficiency in a compact, lightweight package. In Phase I of this project, Trex shall develop a detailed design of the control module, including the device layout, dimensional, thermal and electrical specifications. 1. Military airborne radar with superior beam agility. 2. Wireless data transmission. 3. Cellular base stations.

AFR/APSI - JOINT VENTURE
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 528-9806
Mr. James R. Markham
NAVY 01-167      Awarded: 05NOV01
Title:Emissions Reduction by Catalytic Reformulation of Jet Fuel
Abstract:Many of the naval bases proposed to accept deployment of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) are in non-attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the emissions of ozone precursors: oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The emissions of particulate matter including soot are also a concern. The Navy would benefit from a cleaner fuel so that high performance engines can run cleaner and criteria pollutants in the exhaust, regulated by the Clean Air Act, will be reduced. This proposal addresses contaminant reduction by catalytic reformulation of the jet fuel. The Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of a novel, innovative fuel catalyst that will significantly lower the pollution emissions from engines fired with jet fuel. It will be demonstrated that treated fuel will exhibit an improvement in thermal stability and meet other chemical and physical requirements for jet fuel. The project will then proceed with combustion testing with emissions monitoring to verify the emissions reduction needed by the Navy. In addition to emissions reduction, the product could also improve the quality of jet fuels subjected to long term storage, and in foreign source locations where quality control may not be as stringent. The success of this project will provide significant benefit to the Navy's deployment of the JSF and to key air platform technology areas of the DoD that rely on jet fuels. However, engine emissions are a problem both in the private sector and DoD. Currently, the DoD has in service 63,000 turbine engines, and commercial and general aviation aircraft rely on 65,000 turbine engines. Consumption of fuel is on the order of 70+ million barrels per year of JP-8 by the DoD and 300+ million barrels per year of commercial jet fuel by domestic airlines. Large growth of these markets is to happen over the next several years. A federal objective is to double the capacity of the U.S. aviation system within 10 years and triple it within 25 years in anticipation of commercial and general aviation growth. The DoD projects more than 3,000 advanced turbine engines will be needed for JSF military aircraft in the next 15 years. The jet fuel market for the catalyst is already substantial, and sustainable for years to come.

DIRECTED VAPOR TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONA
P.O. Box 329
Free Union, VA 22940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 825-1345
Dr. Douglas T. Queheillalt
NAVY 01-168      Awarded: 03DEC01
Title:Thin Layered Damping Treatments for Turbo Machinery
Abstract:Rotors, such as for gas turbine engines and the like, are typically subjected to high stresses and high temperatures. Extensive efforts have been made over the years to develop new alloys, new fabrication techniques, and new component designs which permit operation of these rotors at higher operating temperatures and/or which lead to lighter weight, longer lived components. State-of-the-art designs of compressor and turbine rotors for aircraft gas turbine engines are using integrally bladed rotor (IBR) technologies (rotor and blades are one piece - continuous structure). The advantage of this one-piece construction is weight savings and reduced losses from cavity flows inherent with a bladed disk. The disadvantage comes from the reduction of overall damping provided by the friction interface at the blade/disk attachment. The first approach we will pursue using the DVD process will make use of a porous columnar Ni- or Ti- alloy to perform the bulk of the energy conversion. Another approach will pursue using the DVD process will make use of a cellular NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) to perform the bulk of the energy conversion. The coatings will consist of a compliant bondcoat, porous columnar or cellular SMA and constraining layer. Development of a cost effective vapor deposition method for the production of multi-layered damping structures.

FORTIS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 66618
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 429-3609
Dr. Wade Pulliam
NAVY 01-168      Awarded: 13NOV01
Title:Thin-Layer Magnetostrictive Damping for Compressor Blade Damping
Abstract:Fortis Technology proposes to use their novel manufacturing technique based on magnetic fields to distribute nano-particulate in a polymer resin and apply it in thin-layer on turbomachinery blades for vibration damping. These magnetostrictive particulates, to be included in the resin, provide damping through domain wall switching, a non-conservative action which provides a high loss factor. These nanocomposites can be easily fabricated into thin films, provide stiffness and strength while also incorporating novel damping capabilities which exceed in performance and temperature range viscoelastic materials, the current state of the art for blisk damping. The objective of this program is to demonstrate that magnetic fields can be used to effectively distribute the nano-particles throughout the thin film and produce a composite with properties superior to conventional polymer systems. Once demonstrated, we believe this economical process can easily be scaled up to large structures and commercially implemental for a variety of applications. The passive damping technology provides extremely large damping losses in a structurally stiff polymer and carbon fiber composites. Currently damping is either active (expensive and complex) or uses viscoelastic materials (poor structural coupling and temperature range). The magnetostrictive particulate composite technology, patent applied and licensed by Fortis Technologies, provides a simple, large temperature range, high stiffness materials to be used in many applications where the current technologies fall short. Fortis sees application of this technology for improvements in sporting goods, power/hand tools, space launch and satellite design, noise abatement and vibration isolation.

AGILTRON CORP.
20 Arbor Lane
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-0513
Dr. Jing Zhao
NAVY 01-169      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Beam Steering for Infrared Countermeasure
Abstract:The traditional way of steering light is using turnable mirrors, prisms or other optical components by mechanical actuators. These are usually large, heavy and consume relatively high powers. Moreover, the rate/speed at which light can be modulated is slow compared with today's demand on switching speeds and modulation frequencies. There is considerable value of adding non-mechanical steering of laser beams. Many military and civilian applications would benefit from the proposed devices to electronically control and switch light. Based on innovative material engineering, Agiltron Corporation proposes to develop a novel solid-state beam steering technology. Our approach has leading edge performance attributes which include large dynamic angular range of +-45o, high speed operation of sub-microsecond, little beam distortion and loss, high optical power handling, low power consumption, rugged to withstanding, and long operating life. Moreover, the design is simple, compact, light weight, and low cost. It is anticipated that state-of-the-art performance in several key specifications can be achieved through this program. Prototype device will be fabricated to demonstrate functionality in Phase I. Applications for optical scanning products include laser imaging, DNA biochip analysis, laser vision correction, direct to plate printing and virtually hundreds of laser-based material processing applications (cutting, coding, drilling, marking, welding, heat treatment, etc.) used in the manufacturing of semiconductor, electronic, telecommunication optics and automotive products.

OPTRA, INC.
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Dr. Michael Hercher
NAVY 01-169      Selected for Award
Title:Compact and Robust Beam Steering for IRCM Applications
Abstract:A technique based on a pair of in-line cesium bromide prisms is proposed for the rapid and reliable steering of a 5-watt laser beam as part of an Infra-Red Counter-Measure system for use in naval aircraft. To steer the beam, both prisms are rotated about an axis coincident with the incoming laser beam axis. By using prisms with a 24ø angle, laser beams with a wavelength between 0.5 micron and 5.0 microns can be steered in any direction up to 45ø from the incoming beam axis. This range can easily be increased by adding a reverse telescope immediately following the prism pair. The beam steering angle is to first order insensitive to tilts and displacements of the prism pair, and the prism/motor structure is compact and has a high mechanical resonant frequency. These factors work to minimize the systems sensitivity to vibrations. The approach is based on mature technologies and should lead to a robust, reliable, accurate, and economical solution to the Navy's beam-steering problem. Static in-line beam-steering, continuous spiral laser beam scans, high-speed and high-resolution random access beam-steering with very high optical efficiency.

ELECTRODYNAMICS ASSOC., INC.
409 Eastbridge Drive
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 977-1825
Mr. Jay Vaidya
NAVY 01-170      Awarded: 05NOV01
Title:New Cooling Technology to Increase Aircraft Generators Power Rating
Abstract:A number of Navy aircraft including P-3, E-2C, and C-130 have electric power systems that use Honeywell generator type 28B95. This generator was rated at 60-kVA per military standard Mil-G-21480A and is capable of providing up to 90-kVA output during flight. Due to the growth in Avionics, it is desirable to increase the power by 30 to 50%. This must be accomplished within the existing constraints of size, thermal management, and control system to the extent possible. Electrodynamics Associates, Inc. has set up working relationship with Honeywell to obtain the essential technical data for the current design from which the enhancements will be made. Improving the electromagnetic capability through use of better magnetic materials, and using cooling techniques suggested in Eddie Sines' innovation are the 2 main approaches to increased power capability. Mechanical and structural design, and control and protection circuit compatibility with the existing power will be also considered. A team of experts is assembled to address all these issues. During the Phase I program, a preliminary generator design layout showing the enhanced design will be prepared. Experimental verification of the cooling scheme and final layout and bill of materials will be done in Phase I Option. This will form the basis of fabrication, and demonstration of the generator during the potential Phase II contract. Most aircraft have 400 Hz. ac elctric power systems. The proposed air cooled generator will be applicable to many existing aircraft systems where large power capability is required without change of other interfacing mechanical and control system components in a cost effective manner.

INNOVATIVE POWER SOLUTIONS, LLC
22 Meridian Road, Suite 3
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 544-1075
Mr. Scott Jacobs
NAVY 01-170      Awarded: 07NOV01
Title:New Cooling Technology to Increase Aircraft Generators Power Rating
Abstract:Commercial and military aircrafts are kept in service for longer periods than originally intended, and many aircrafts designed and built in the 60's and 70's (e.g., CH-46, 737), are still in service with no immediate replacement plan. At the same time, avionic equipment and advanced weapon systems were developed, which require much more electric power than was originally perceived when the aircrafts were designed. Installing new generators, which provide additional electric power is limited by the available space and existing aircraft interfaces that cannot be changed, since it will have a significant effect on engine and accessory gearbox design and other aircraft systems. It would be very beneficial if a new generator with 30% to 50% more power, with same envelope and installation interfaces, could replace the existing aircraft generator without changing any aircraft systems/interfaces. A way to increase power output and maintain weight and size is to improve the cooling system, so that higher power densities could be accomplished without effecting generator life and reliability. This proposal, geared for the P-3 aircraft, is for a generator with an improved air cooled design, which provides at least 33% more power output, in the same envelope without requiring any aircraft changes. The cooling technology developed under this effort will have widespresd application in generators and transformers. Improved heat removal will allow for an increase the power density of electromagnetic devices, which will result in smaller size and weight or increased power output. The results of this effort will benefit the airlicraft industry, both military and commercial, that is constantly looking for more electrical power at a lower power to weight ratio. The results of this program will also be beneficial to consumer products and industrial applications because of improvements in thermal efficiency and reliability.

AEROARTS LLC
4611 Rockbluff Drive
Rolling Hills Estate, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 548-0927
Mr. Brooke Smith
NAVY 01-171      Awarded: 13NOV01
Title:Quantified Unsteady Flow
Abstract:AeroArts, a small Limited Liability Company, proposes to develop an experimental test method to improve data accuracy for simulation and prediction of unsteady aerodynamics. The method will capitalize on the advantages of testing in water utilizing our new model support and balance system. Accurate force and moment data and flow visualization records of models undergoing motions in up to six degrees of freedom will be collected simultaneously. Effects of time delays, hysteresis and other unsteady and nonlinear phenomena will be included. These effects will be examined using parameter identification methods, both in the time and frequency domains. The method with its hardware and software will have application to markets for both military and commercial aircraft development and to education and research facilities. A significant number of other aircraft manufacturers, along with research and educational institutions around the world, have active water tunnels from different manufacturers, and this represents the marketplace for the AeroArts Scorpio system. Following thorough validation of the concept in Phase II, a significant percentage of these facilities would benefit from the capability to correlate video capture with dynamic force and moment measurement

BIHRLE APPLIED RESEARCH, INC.
400 Jericho Turnpike
Jericho, NY 11753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 766-2416
Mr. David Gingras
NAVY 01-171      Awarded: 05NOV01
Title:Visualization and Quantification System for Modeling Unsteady Aerodynamics for Aircraft Simulations
Abstract:Novel approaches in the real-time synchronization and reduction of surface pressure data, flow flied velocities, and force and moment measurements will provide the experimental tools necessary to advance the state of the art in unsteady aerodynamics testing, modeling, and analysis. Using these tools during dynamic wind-tunnel tests, data will be collected and applied to extensions of unsteady aerodynamic response models based on nonlinear indicial response and internal state methods. Phase I efforts will focus on the analysis of timing, and frequency response of key components in the wind-tunnel test set-up. A limited experiment will be used to verify data synchronization algorithms and related software. Also during phase I, an investigation of the formulation of functional components of nonlinear indicial response and internal state approaches to unsteady modeling. With this information, further investigation into appropriate test motions and reduction techniques will also be performed. Software tools for real time flow visualization and data reduction will become a commercial product. Interest is anticipated in the aircraft industry as well as the automotive and motor sports industries. BAR will also provide addition testing, analysis, and modeling capabilities as a result of this effort that will be offered to both commercial and civil aviation industries.

EIDETICS CORP.
3425 Lomita Blvd.
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 326-8228
Dr. Michael Kerho
NAVY 01-171      Awarded: 13NOV01
Title:Flowfield Tool For Enhanced Modeling of Unsteady Aerodyanmics in Aircraft Simulation
Abstract:It is proposed to setup a full volume 3D particle tracking velocimetry system and expand on an existing particle tracking code to obtain quantitative flow visualization of the entire flow field around an airplane model in a low speed water tunnel. The off-body flowfield data will be used to describe and model the unsteady velocity field by a finite number of elementary Rankine-vortices, which will also demonstrate vortex breakdown. It is postulated that surface pressures on the model can be derived with sufficient accuracy from the energy equation by estimating the vortex-induced pressures on the model surface. Simultaneous measurements of the global forces and moments using a classical sting balance coupled with the quantitative flow visualization will be used to create a physically representative nonlinear aerodynamic model. The ultimate goal of this program is to provide a time accurate math model for the high fidelity simulation of aircraft. It is anticipated that the model will be real time capable upon sufficient optimization of the vortex model. The proposed invention has considerable commercial sales potential in the fluid mechanics research community and also for industrial aerodynamic design. The combination of real time quantitative flow visualization and integral aerodynamic force and moment measurements is unique and will stir interest in the product in sales and in service. This measurement tool will help to optimize preliminary design study and also help understand the nonlinear behavior of forces and moments in the high AOA regime of modern fighter aircraft.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Krishna C. Mandal
NAVY 01-172      Awarded: 28SEP01
Title:Crystal Growth and Characterization of High-Quality Erbium-Doped KPb2Cl5:A Novel Mid-Infrared Laser Material
Abstract:This Phase 1 project will investigate the crystal growth aspects and optoelectronic characterization of a new ternary alkali lead chloride material, Er-doped KPb2Cl5, which recently showed high promise in mid-infrared (3-4.5 um) laser applications. In particular, it has an excellent potential as a mid-infrared laser because of two factors: 1) the high concentration of erbium ions (2 x 10^20 ions/cm^3) with its large cross section provides excellent energy storage lifetimes (~ms), and 2) the crystals are hard and very stable at or above room temperature, enabling practical large scale laser sources. The goals of the Phase I project are to identify and select optimum growth conditions for ultrapure high quality erbium (Er)-doped KPb2Cl5 large single crystals in a cost-effective way, to develop new post-growth treatments to improve the quality of the grown crystals, and to characterize various optoelectronic properties in order to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating mid-infrared lasers from these crystals. The proposed material would be used to fabricate compact, highly efficient mid-infrared (IR) laser, which would find application in remote sensing instrumentation, IR countermeasures, molecular spectroscopic studies, and in environmental monitoring.

SENSARRAY CORP.
3 Ray Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-7373
Mr. David R. Gabbe
NAVY 01-172      Awarded: 28SEP01
Title:New Mid-Infrared (IR) Laser Materials
Abstract:A new low photon energy host, which is much more stable than the lanthanide trichlorides is of current interest for direct mid-infrared rate earth lasers that operate at room temperature. Applications are in pollution control, ground vehicle protection, spectroscopy, remote sensing, countermeasures and imaging. Crystals currently grown by the Bridgman method in sealed silica ampoules are not widely available. Growth of crystals heavily doped with Er3+ of interest to this program still requires process improvement and advancement in materials chemistry. SensArray will develop the Czochralski method for growth of KPb2Cl5 from a stoichiometric melt with emphasis on Er3+ doping. A system of demountable fused silica furnaces and supporting purification equipment to facilitate processing in a chlorinating atmosphere will be developed to prevent oxidation and hydrolysis. The process and equipment will be suited to scale-up and transition to commercialization. Development of a crystal growth process that will lead to higher quality materials than one currently available.

ADVANCED POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1250 24th Street, NW, Suite 850
Washington, DC 20037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 549-2412
Dr. James Galambos
NAVY 01-173      Awarded: 23OCT01
Title:Non-Explosive Broadband Acoustic Source for Multi-Static Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW)
Abstract:The U.S. Navy has developed an important ASW capability using impulsive sources to provide broadband spectral illumination for submarine detection. Present sonobuoy sources use high explosives to achieve the required source levels. Explosives present serious safety hazards and subsequently incur significant operational and manufacturing costs. Additionally, explosives produce inherently short (<100 micro-second) high intensity pulses, which are not efficient for creating low frequency acoustic energy. Advanced Power Technologies, Inc. (APTI) proposes to develop a non-explosive source by electrically initiating combustion of aluminum with water to create a long (milli-seconds) high-energy acoustic pulse. The aluminum/water reaction is highly energetic (15 kj/g aluminum) and affords the opportunity to use surrounding seawater as the oxidizer such that the energy output exceeds present explosive driven buoy systems. APTI has significant experience combusting aluminum and water and has demonstrated this combustion technique using solid aluminum wire, water, and battery to generate pressures in excess of 50 kpsi to accelerate projectiles. The immediate benefit of this program is to provide the Navy with a substantially safer and less expensive inventory of anti-submarine warfare sono-buoys. Present systems contain high-explosives that require special handling and care to both manufacture and deploy. The proposed concept will eliminate those explosives and lower overall lifecycle costs by eliminating the need to handle explosive materials. Commercially, an immediate market for several thousand buoys exists to upgrade and replace the present systems both in the US and abroad. The long term benefit of this program is to eliminate the use of highly toxic and expensive underwater propellants with a safe environmentally friendly energy source for underwater vehicles, both commercial and defense related. Developing the proposed impulsive source is the first step leading to steady state combustion of aluminum and seawater. The commercial potential for an efficient, safe, underwater energy source is tremendous.

INOVATI
PO Box 60007
Santa Barbara, CA 93160
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 571-8384
Dr. Ralph M. Tapphorn
NAVY 01-173      Awarded: 05NOV01
Title:Solid-state Spray Forming of Thermite and Porous Aluminum for Aluminum-Water Acoustic Sources
Abstract:Development of broadband acoustic sources using an aluminum-water reaction can now be attained using a solid-state spray forming technology to consolidate aluminum powders into porous foam structures and thermite composite igniters. The Navy is currently seeking a non-explosive command activated broadband acoustic source for multi-static anti-submarine warfare. Key attributes for attaining a stoichiometric yield of an aluminum-water explosion depend on ignition-threshold temperature, heat rates, particle size, seawater infiltration, and sustaining transportation of seawater steam into the aluminum matrix during the confined reaction. Thermite composite igniters are the only low power (electrical) candidates for providing a sufficiently uniform heat impulse with a threshold temperature >1170 K for the confined mixture. The object of the Phase I research is to investigate parametric configurations for an aluminum-water acoustic source consolidated with aluminum powders using the solid-state spray forming technology. The intended application is a low cost and safe replacement for the high-energy explosive capsules currently used on the SSQ-110 sonobuoys. The object of the Phase I "fast track" option is to begin initial Phase II activities with detailed design of housings, deployment mechanisms, the ignition and control systems necessary to deploy and direct a broadband acoustic pulse. Development of a high-energy underwater acoustic source has excellent dual use applications. Military acquisition of thermite materials includes underwater acoustic sources, miniature interceptor components, initiators, rocket igniters, IR decoys, time delay elements, incendiary ammunition, and destruct systems. Commercial applications in the oil exploration industry include the use of thermite igniters in aluminum-water activated detonators for sounding rockets, land and underwater devices and borehole-coring guns. The basic technology also permits rapid prototyping and near-net-shape fabrication of particle reinforced metal matrix composites.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 222-0444
Dr. Chiman Kwan
NAVY 01-174      Awarded: 13NOV01
Title:A Novel Wireless System for Structural Integrity Monitoring of Aircraft
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Incorporated (IAI) and its subcontractor, Penn State U., propose a novel system to detect damage in aircraft structures. The system combines a novel wireless sensor for signal acquisition and a robust software for fault prognosis. The sensor is known as SAW-IDT (Surface Acoustic Wave Interdigital Transducer). It is low cost, passive, compact, and can be operated in a wireless manner. The sensor has been proven to be useful for sensing cracks in rivet holes. Other structural defects such as corrosion, delamination, fatigue cracking can also be detected. The second element of the system is an automatic fault prognosis tool, which consists of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), and Hidden Markov Model (HMM). PCA is a popular neural network tool for extracting useful features. LVQ is used to generate the code sequence. HMM has been proven to be extremely useful in several applications, including some use for equipment diagnostics. However, unlike conventional usage of HMM for fault isolation, HMM is used here to perform both fault prognosis and diagnosis. Our proposed system can perform continuous monitoring of aircraft structures in both ground and in-flight situations, and the sensors can be easily embedded into the structure. The ability to predict the onset of structural failures is critical for reducing cost and improving safety in aircraft. At the end of Phase 2, we will have a system with both hardware and software for structural failure prognosis and diagnosis. The system will perform continuous monitoring of aircraft structures in both ground and in-flight situations. We expect the market for this system to be at least 10 million dollars.

JENTEK SENSORS, INC.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Dr. Neil Goldfine
NAVY 01-174      Awarded: 13NOV01
Title:Wireless Communications with Electromagnetic Sensor Networks for Nondestructive Evaluation
Abstract:Many aircraft components that were originally designed to last the design life of aircraft without experiencing cracking are now failing in service as a result of corrosion and fatigue damage. These components are often in difficult-to-access locations. This proposal addresses the need for wireless communication with networks of leave-in-place nondestructive evaluation sensors for inspection of such locations. Eddy current sensors, in particular, have proven most sensitive and reliable for many aircraft NDE requirements. Surface mountable, conformable eddy current sensors, called MWM-Arrays, have been successfully demonstrated for detection of early stage cracking and monitoring of fatigue cracks in fatigue tests. This has been demonstrated both on external surfaces and between metal layers. These sensors are also suitable for monitoring of corrosion fatigue. This Phase I will include detailed design of a wireless eddy current sensor network and assessment of the feasibility of implementing such a network on Navy aircraft. In Phase II, a prototype system including miniaturized sensor electronics and wireless communication will be fabricated and tested. This system will reduce the costs of labor intensive inspections of difficult-to-access locations by reducing or eliminating required disassembly and surface preparation. It will also provide easier access to near real-time condition assessment information. Wireless communication to and within networks of leave-in-place eddy current sensors will have substantial commercial applications, not only in aerospace, but also in energy, construction, and manufacturing. Eliminating the costs of disassembly, accessing remote locations and surface preparation will provide substantial return on investment for inspection applications on commercial aircraft and civil structures. Furthermore, wireless networks of low cost and light weight electromagnetic sensors, including eddy current sensors, can be used to reduce exposure to hazardous environments for inspectors. Finally, capability to detect hidden damage early and execute alternative actions with near real-time information can improve safety and ultimately reduce costs.

NASCENT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, LLC
P. O. Box 1470
Yorktown, VA 23692
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-0687
Dr. Joseph S. Heyman
NAVY 01-174      Awarded: 13NOV01
Title:Wireless Leave-In-Place Aircraft Structural Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Sensors
Abstract:Wireless NDE is a dream ready to become a reality. The increase in capability of commercial systems for communication and computation has opened the door for many novel new NDE applications. As with any breakthrough, the first runners set the tone for acceptance for those who follow. Nascent is committed to utilize this SBIR opportunity to develop a practical NDE system to monitor selected critical parameters that assess structural integrity of aircraft systems. Embedded, wireless, multi-modal sensor modules at global and critical local sites will be the heart of our concept. The system will monitor factors such as such as strain and ultrasonic propagation, linked to structural degradation at critical sites and maintain records of global phenomena, such as vibration and temperature for integrated assessments. The measurements will be processed in situ and will communicate with the outside world via wireless interrogation. The first stage of this project is agreement on critical aircraft sensors and Naval monitoring needs to insure that our focus is on priority targets. The success of this Phase I SBIR project will drive exciting new applications for both NDE and wireless systems. Nascent believes that the future of large-area and/or limited-access NDE applications lies in cost-effective, wireless in-situ devices such as the ones proposed in this project. Success in this project will hasten the transition of advanced diagnostic measurement techniques into non-aerospace markets. Potential applications include health monitoring of storage tanks, pressure vessels, nuclear waste containers, buildings and bridges.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
12030 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite 400, Reston Plaz
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 788-7737
Mr. David Minton
NAVY 01-175      Awarded: 25OCT01
Title:CODEC (Code/Decode) for Digital Buoys in a Harsh RF Environment
Abstract:Recent simulator studies have concluded that significant channel interference and fallout occur when interferors occur within the uplink transmission band. Although methods involving redundancy, encryption, compression, code/decode (CODEC) can address improvements in sensitivity, each is also susceptible to interference in the RF link domain. What is proposed here is an entirely new method of implementing Forward Error Correction (FEC) which uses a feature scale forecast model. It is anticipated that this method will decrease, by an order-of-magnitude, propagation errors due to the Bit Error Rate (BER) in the RF link domain. As more and more wireless devices take advantage of connectivity in the RF domain, susceptibility to the bit error rate (BER) will remain an issue. This problem will remain for devices in the digital domain, as well as in the analog domain. Digital devices include other digital sonobuoys and other digital in-situ sensors, digital telephones and digital assistants, such as the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Each of these devices communicates wirelessly using various message and packet structures, each of which could benefit by a forecast method for a Forward Error Correction (FEC) method. Research into the optimum method of implementing FEC for each of the various message and data domains will have to be conducted. In certain cases, it may be necessary to implement unique algorithms for the most efficiency, whereas more general algorithms and transformations may be useful for general connectivity.

RDA, INC.
P.O. Box 49
Doylestown, PA 18901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 340-9514
Mr. Malachi E. Higgins
NAVY 01-175      Awarded: 20NOV01
Title:CODEC (Code/Decode) for Digital Buoys in a Harsh RF Environment
Abstract:In a tactical deployment of ADAR sonobuoys, a number of VHF "wideband" channels are used for the uplink communication between each sonobuouy and a tracking aircraft. In littoral environments close to shore-based commercial and other radio frequency emissions, the uplink frequency bands are subject to in-band radio frequency interference (RFI). Such RFI can result in a significant probability of failure of an ADAR tactic requiring a certain minimum number, say 8 or 4, of clear channels. Several possible and feasible approaches have the potential of offering substantially improved performance for the uplink communications in the assigned VHF bands for ADAR tactics. Current systems for satellite data links, wireless mobile telephony, terrestrial digital TV transmission, and generally digital data links, successfully deploy a variety of more sophisticated modulation and coding strategies. Under this Phase I effort we propose to consider the applicability of some promising techniques of modulation and coding for ADAR deployment, drawing upon the developments in data communications over the last two decades. The proposed improvements can have significant performance advantages for the current ADAR system: Not only will an increase in immunity to RFI interference be possible, but the efficiency and lower BER can also allow for trade-offs in channel assignments and use of buoy power. Further, the same techniques apply to future digital sonobuoy systems such as Compact Deployable Multistatic Receiver ("Super-ADAR"), Active Capable Expendable Surveillance (ACES), and Deployable Autonomous Distributed System (DADS). These systems use In-Buoy Signal Processing to reduce the uplink data rate, but will nevertheless benefit from the efficiencies of the proposed techniques.

MATHTECH, INC.
6402 Arlington Blvd., Suite 1200
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 294-5821
Ms. Jo Ellen Hayden
NAVY 01-176      Selected for Award
Title:Fiber Optic Ethernet for Aviation Intercommunications System Voice Transmission
Abstract:Mathtech has developed a digital Advanced Inter-Communications System (AICS) for the E-2C aircraft. The AICS is an Ethernet-based system with many user-friendly features, and both weight and cost savings over competing systems. This proposal describes our approach to architecture and options for converting the AICS to a fiber optic bus. There is increased interest in the use of fiber optic voice and data transmission in military aircraft. Commercial applications include all aircraft as well as other industrial applications.

TECHNOSYS, INC.
3209A Corporate Court
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 461-5436
Mr. I. Anthony Krauth
NAVY 01-176      Awarded: 28DEC01
Title:Fiber Optic Ethernet for Aviation Intercommunications System Voice Transmission
Abstract:TechnoSys, Inc., proposes to develop a unique interface and network topology that will allow the use of the standard Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet protocols to be used in a distributed network composed of point-to-point connections. A Distributed Ethernet Adapter (DEA, implemented at each network node will perform the translation between Ethernet and the distributed network. The DEAs and point-to-point connections between nodes allow the central Hub or Switch presently required for all Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet systems to be eliminated and a more aircraft-compatible cable routing to be implemented. Several candidate Ethernet Adapter approaches have been conceived and are based on Bus, Ring, and Mesh topologies, with routing variations using Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) techniques. The Phase I effort will evaluate and compare the candidate concepts and determine feasibility, taking into account any negative effects on real-time voice transmission, relative cost, availability of components, size, power, and relative reliability. The distribution media is assumed to be implemented as point-to-point fiberoptic. The Adapter itself will be a mix of electrical and fiber optic elements, depending on the candidate approach. A significant part of the Phase I effort will be devoted to the evaluation of state-of-the art fiber components. The Gigabit Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC) market is expected to increase from 800K units in 2000 to 11.3M in 2004. The Distributed Ethernet Adapter (DEA) will allow Ethernet systems to operate without a centralized Hub or Switch, facilitating cabling of LANs and WANs. The distributed architecture is a particular benefit in non-benign electrical environments where the inherent noise immunity of fiberoptic distribution can be exploited. The distributed Ethernet topology allows the DEA to be incorporated in existing EMI/RFI shielded station-enclosures, while communicating voice and data over an EMI/RFI immune fiberoptic network.

METSS CORP.
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Donald M. Bigg
NAVY 01-177      Awarded: 28DEC01
Title:Replacement Long-life Hydraulic Seal
Abstract:In military aircraft, there is a high rate of premature failures of elastomeric seals that costs over $200,000,000 in annual repair. Because all hydraulic components rely on fluids for lubrication and cooling in service, when fluid is lost these components run dry and seize. The hydraulic fluid itself is also an environmental contaminant that contributes to collateral damage. Further, the fluid used in the environmental control system has contributed to electronic component damage through corrosive attack. As such, the seals play a critical role in ensuring mission readiness and system functionality. Currently, the hydraulic seals in question are manufactured from nitrile rubber compounds that do not maintain sufficient elasticity or integrity over the full range of mission profile temperatures. As a result, leakage occurs that is not always detected in time to prevent primary system or collateral damage. METSS will demonstrate the feasibility of exploiting recent advances in elastomer chemistry and available material technologies to develop materials as direct replacements for aircraft hydraulic system seals. METSS will build on recent developments in rubber chemistry that have resulted in the extension of performance properties at both low and high temperatures, and have already demonstrated significant potential to meet the service requirements. Leaking seals are found frequently enough to constitute a major problem, leading to performance shortcomings in service, as well as increased downtime for the aircraft as they are refitted. There is also a substantial cost associated with refitting the seals and replacing the hydraulic fluid. The hydraulic fluid itself can be quite corrosive, leading to degradation and the need to replace other parts. Because this a widespread problem common to military and commercial aircraft, the development of a reliable seal will improve mission readiness, sustainability, as well as provide cost savings.

PHOSPHAZENE CUSTOM SYNTHESIS, INC.
2820 East College Ave., Suite N
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 865-3527
Dr. H. R. Allcock
NAVY 01-177      Selected for Award
Title:Hydraulic Seal Replacement
Abstract:Chemical processes will be developed to examine the feasibility of the production of fluoroalkoxyphosphazene elastomers for use in hydraulic seal applications. The program is a collaboration between Phosphazene Custom Synthesis (PCS) and The Pennsylvania State University to establish the chemistry and engineering needed to optimize the properties and scale-up the preparation of these elastomers. The elastomers are expected to be superior to other materials for hydraulic applications. The work should initiate the commercial develpment of these elastomers in hydraulic, aerospace, and other applications.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Freddie Lin
NAVY 01-178      Selected for Award
Title:A Stacked Planar Waveguide Switching Array Technology
Abstract:The Navy requires a switched fiber optical communication technology to implement fail-safe optical interconnections and provide real-time configuration of the cable plant for in-flight diagnostics. This photonic switching implementation must be highly scalable, accommodate at least a 32x32 or higher array in a small package. Its switching parameters have to be optimized for throughput, bandwidth, switching speed, power dissipation, packing density, and fan-out. To address this need, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes to develop a unique stacked planar waveguide switching (SPAS) technology. The SPAS combines three unique technologies: (1) a stacked waveguide coupling (SWC) package that miniaturizes the optical switching device's volume and power dissipation for a large sized switching array used for high bandwidth (>10Gb/s) data communications; (2) a waveguide grating switching (WGS) technology that allows ultrahigh speed (in the nanosecond range) switching; and (3) a resonated grating coupling (RGC) technology that maximizes the coupling efficiency and reduces overall insertion loss (<3dB per device). In Phase I, the concept and feasibility of this proposed SPAS network system will be developed. In addition to the Navy's optical network applications, this technology is also applicable to many military real time sensor data collection/processing operations and mission critical C3I network applications. The proposed technology is applicable to any commercial network applications that can benefit from an all optical network architecture. Potential applications include, but are not limited to, terabit routing networks, optical long-haul and metropolitan area networks, mission critical real time network operations, and crisis management data networks.

LIGHT BYTES, INC.
3361 Rouse Road, Suite 170
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 381-1663
Dr. Nabeel Riza
NAVY 01-178      Awarded: 05DEC01
Title:Mult-mode Fiber-Optic Switch
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project deals with multimode fiber-optic switching based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and low loss efficient optics for military applications. The two approaches meet the rugged fail-safe optical interconnect requirements for implementing a multi-mode NxN fiber optical switch that allows aircraft redundancy management and computer data network applications. One approach is modular and uses compact 1x2 switches to build the larger 32 x 32 network. The alternate approach is a three dimensional MEMS approach that uses 2N mirrors to make a NxN multi-mode switch. The NxN switch delivers desirable capabilities in one optically reversible unit, making a high optical isolation, broadband operation, polarization and temperature insensitive robust system. Phase I research will concentrate on the design of the basic proposed switch structures and a proof of concept experimental demonstration will be performed to study, analyze and optimize basic switch performance. A 32 x 32 multi-mode fiber switch design will be analyzed. Groundwork will be laid to indicate technical concept selection and feasibility that will lead to a Phase II plan for prototyping and development of the 32x32 multimode fiber-optic switch. The proposed high speed, high isolation multi-mode fiber-optic switch can be used in optical switching applications such as : (a) Local area network (LAN) optical fiber line protection, (b) Gigabit Ethernet, (c) Computer Interconnects, (d) industrial controls, and (e) electrical power distribution via optical fiber.

OPTICOMP CORP.
PO Box 10779
Zephyr Cove, NV 89448
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 588-4176
Mr. Peter Guilfoyle
NAVY 01-178      Awarded: 04DEC01
Title:Fault Tolerant Distributed Optoelectronic Switch
Abstract:The primary goal of the proposed Phase I effort is to develop a fault tolerant distributed optoelectronic switch. The crossbar switch will utilize wavelength division multiplexing to increase the throughput and enhance the fault tolerance. In addition, the distributed nature of the switch combined with its utilization of fan-in and fan-out provide a network that is highly fail safe, low latency, and protocal independent. The distributed optoelectronic switch architecture will be implemented with the company's enabling optoelectronic integrated circuit technologies. This system architecture can be readily employed in local, storage, metro, and wide area networks that require a high speed, flexible, fault tolerant solution that can be scaled to meet future needs. The proposed program will offer a dual-use commercialization opportunity for high speed switching networks because it will provide a protocal independent, fail safe architecture which can be readily implemented into both military and commercial fiber optic networks. The program technology has significant commercial potential in the LAN, SAN, MAN, and WAN sectors with projected sales in excess of $7 billion by 2003.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optic & Holography Div, 20600 Gramercy Pla
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Tin M. Aye
NAVY 01-178      Selected for Award
Title:Optical Switch Based on Electro-Holographic Liquid Crystal Polymer Bragg Grating
Abstract:Today's military aircraft and aerospace systems employ optical networks for data transmission. Data is bottlenecked in switching, which is currently performed by slow, bulky, heavy optomechanical methods. Fast electro-optical switches have been suggested as replacements, but these tend to have large insertion losses and low extinction ratios. The U.S. Navy is seeking a high-speed, low-loss, high extinction ratio optical switch for its optical networks. To address this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel optical switch based on liquid crystal polymer holographic Bragg grating nanotechnology. This concept is superior to existing switches in that it can switch in under 25 microseconds, has insertion loss below 1 dB, exhibits an extinction ratio above 50 dB, is nonmechanical, and scales to large array sizes. It can be designed to be narrowband for wavelength division multiplexing or broadband for greater system compatibility. The proposed optical switch technology is commercially attractive because it is based on mature volume holographic and liquid crystal/polymer nanotechnology. In Phase I, POC will design, fabricate and test the proposed optical switch technology, and demonstrate its feasibility by analytical calculation, computer modeling, and experimental demonstration. In Phase II, an advanced prototype will be fabricated and field tested. POC expects this unique switch to open a new market for rapid optical switches. The capabilities of this switch are far beyond what is commercially available today, and it will be useful in a wide range of applications, from DOD aircraft to cable television, from space-based radar systems to industrial control centers, from military control centers to internet-based high speed switches.

BODKIN DESIGN ENGINEERING
P.O. Box 81176
Wellesley, MA 02481
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 235-6351
Mr. Andrew Bodkin
NAVY 01-179      Awarded: 22OCT01
Title:Low-Cost Dual-Mode (Visible/Infrared) Imager
Abstract:The developed dual wave-band, Visible/Long Wave Infrared camera will permit the collection of data in two widely seperate bands. Its unique miniature footprint and sturdy design will allow the system to be easily integrated into missile seekers, head mounted imagers, vehicle mounted imagers, stationary imagers, and into airborne reconnaissance systems. The developed design will benfit military users who require dual wave-band information for their detection algorithms. But equally important, it's unique optical design will permit the simplification of all uncooled microbolometer camera optics. This benifit will greatly reduce costs of long focal length uncooled IR cameras systems industry wide.

EQUINOX CORP.
9 West 57th Street, Suite 1650
New York, NY 10019
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 421-2999
Dr. Lawrence B. Wolff
NAVY 01-179      Awarded: 22OCT01
Title:Low-Cost Dual Visible/Thermal IR Camera System
Abstract:A simplified optical design is presented for a dual visible/thermal IR camera system that can be cost effective through modularity. This optical design has additional performance benefits supporting accurate co-registration of both modalities and simplifying end-user operation of the camera system. A low-cost visible/thermal IR camera system combines complementary technologies that can be useful for automatic target recognition, identification friend or foe, search and rescue, and firefighting

ZYBRON, INC.
3915 Germany Lane
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-2892
Dr. Evan Zhang
NAVY 01-179      Awarded: 22OCT01
Title:Low-Cost Dual-Mode (Visible/Infrared) Imager
Abstract:In order to overcome the short distance (it is critical for seeker) and high cost problems of the dual-mode imager using UFPA and fully meet the task requirement, very innovative ideas and designs are proposed: 1. By using a smaller UFPA format of 240x320/25 u and adding an immersed detector lens on it, the detection distance can be increased 8 times. 2. By designing a 150-mm and F/1 objective lens with non-Ge materials and using its simple production method, the price can be reduced to 1/3 of the Ge lens. 3. By using two heads and a video switch to let the VS and IR share time alternatively on the LCD, we are able to combine the VS and IR images together without blurring the overlapped image. 4. In order to eliminate the parallax between VS and IR for pixel by pixel image fusion and autonomous target recognition, three common optical apertures: common refractive objective lens, common reflective objective lens, and common beam splitter are designed. The common refractive objective lens uses ZnSe as the common front lens then uses normal glass for VS and IR glass for IR to correct their aberrations in VS (0.5-0.9 u) and IR (8-12 u), thus we don't need to correct aberrations in the whole band from 0.5 to 12 u. Without this innovative idea, it is impossible to design a lens for both sensors. 5. All existing UFPA imagers use traditional electronic circuit design with Thermal Electrical Cooler, thus the volume is big, the power consumption is large and the cost is high. Our new design only uses one Altera chip for all digital signal processing and does not use TEC. Therefore, a 3.5 OZ Si-bolometer IR imager (excluding lens) with 240x320/25 u resolution can be produced. Two 1.2 V Lithium "AAA" batteries can power the imager for half-hour. It will be long enough for seeker during its flying. 6. By using above innovative designs, the total volume of the dual-mode imager will be less than 7-cube, the weight will be less than 1.2 Lb, the resolution will be better than 0.25 mrd, the NETD will be less than 0.9 degree C, and the price will be less than $10 k. The imager will have RS-170 output, digitized imagery, signal interface, simultaneous display/processing, and electronic zooming. 7. We will deliver a dual-mode VS/IR imager prototype for seeker to Navy and conduct the lab and field testing. We also will give detailed optic, electronic and system designs and drawings to Navy. The proposed dual-mode imager not only will give great help to Navy for the development of new seeker, but also will greatly assist government agencies to detect and identify suspicious subjects without prompting flight or confrontation in a variety of environments (darkened buildings, jails, alleys, night scenes, smoke, dust, and other adverse weather conditions). Not only fire fighting, anti-terrorist, building security, and hunting, but also most squad cars and police helicopters would require this type of system. In most applications, the visible is used for daytime or artificially lit scenes and the infrared for smoggy or nighttime conditions. Under many daytime conditions, the visible and infrared images can be correlated with each other to maximize the information gathered. Maxtech International, Inc. has predicted that the US market for this type of imaging system will exceed 1.3 billion dollars by 2003.

MTI-MILLIREN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
Two New Pasture Road
Newburyport, MA 01950
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 465-6064
Mr. John DeGenova
NAVY 01-180      Awarded: 16NOV01
Title:Low-Cost Global Positioning System (GPS) Oscillator
Abstract:Next generation high performance Global Positioning System (GPS) guidance, tracking and timing systems will need to be smaller lighter and less costly. The oven controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO) is a key component in determing the performance of the GPS system. Conventional OCXO's suitable for precision GPS applications are large, require substantial amounts of power and are costly to manufacture. These limiting factors play a role in determining the overall size and cost of the GPS system. MTI has developed a very small and power efficient OCXO in our standard Model 220 which is currently manufactured in high volume. In Phase 1 we will focus on reducing the warm up time of the 220 and the amount of power required during the warm up mode. Our goal is to realize a warm-up time of <30 seconds while consuming 2 watts of power maximum. With some modification it is possible that MTI can offer a compact, power efficient, economical and specification compliant OCXO. MTI has been designing frequency control products for the commercial and military wireless industry since 1989. Our experience and engineering resources make us an excellent candidate to successfully perform the required research and development in Phase I that will allow us to fabricate and test prototypes in Phase II. Phase I research will provide the initial design work needed to modify MTI's standard model 220 OCXO to meet power requirements and stability performance over an extended temperature range. If successful this OCXO will minimize power supply requirements and the amount of board space required for mounting while meeting the unit target price of $125.00 in production quantities. This OCXO can be used in commercial and industrial tracking and timing systems for public safety, marine, avionics as well as military applications.

VISIDYNE, INC.
10 Corporate Place, South Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-2820
Mr. Geert Wyntjes
NAVY 01-180      Awarded: 24OCT01
Title:Low Cost Photonic GPS Oscillator
Abstract:The performance of a GPS receiver is critically dependent on its internal oscillator clock's long term stability, affecting time-to-first measurement and its short term, phase noise level, since it limits the ultimate precision with which a range increment can be recovered. Visidyne proposes to demonstrate that by adding a photonic control loop to an existing low cost RF oscillator both long term drift and short term, i.e., Allan variances can be greatly improved on. The goals for ready time, size/weight and power consumption as well as cost also appear to be within reach. High performance local oscillators with less jitter, lower phase noise are a critical element at both ends of the scale, low signal-to-noise as in a GPS receiver or in the case of multiple input signals of large magnitudes to reduce the intermodulation products. DoD needs include advanced digital intercept receivers, commercial uses are in wireless, e.g., cellular phone networks.

BONN CORP.
1350 E. Flamingo Road, #479
Las Vegas, NV 89119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 735-5651
Mr. David Bonnesar
NAVY 01-181      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Strike Package Planning System
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR is to define a system that fulfills the strike package planning requirements for low observable (LO) vehicles and addresses the needs of the Joint Armed Services. BONN Corporation will work with user communities from all the armed services to identify LO strike package planning requirements. Part of this effort will be to design a platform-independent, distributed architecture and define the functionality that satisfies the user community requirements. The design will take into consideration dynamic mission management; aircraft and weapons deconfliction; and battlespace characterization that addresses the special needs of the LO community in order to maximize battlespace effectiveness. BONN will explore Passive Coherent Location (PCL) technologies and will define tools to assist the mission planners with tactics and techniques to lessen the effects of these new LO countermeasures. The system architecture design will take advantage of today's technologies and will be flexible enough to accommodate the technologies of the future. The major goals of this system are to significantly reduce the strike package planning timeline, bridge the gap between unit-level mission planning and the force-level planning process, and accommodate multi-service and coalition requirements. The system architecture and some of its functionality have numerous commercial applications. The results of this SBIR have direct application to both the DoD and commercial communities. The resulting system could be incorporated into many facets of the joint armed services, from exercises such as Red Flag and supporting Navy airwing training cycles, to operational units such as JSF and other LO platforms, to joint air operational centers and carrier deployments. The capabilities of this work have civilian application as well, especially in air traffic management and harbor vessel traffic coordination. Airlines have expressed the interest to be able to determine a route on-the-fly and depend on the ground controllers when they get close to their destination. The package planning and deconfliction capability could make on-the-fly air traffic planning a reality. The combination of these capabilities, along with wireless communication technologies currently in use and under development for use on commercial airline platforms, will make the on-the-fly air traffic routing a reality, while at the same time providing a real-time picture to air traffic controllers. Another potential application is in the deconfliction and route planning of naval shipping traffic in congested commercial shipping lanes, especially in and around major harbors.

OR CONCEPTS APPLIED
7032 Comstock Avenue, Suite 100
Whittier, CA 90602
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 907-6700
Dr. Rubin Johnson
NAVY 01-181      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Strike Package Planning System
Abstract:Effective automated computer tools can greatly improve integrated strike package planning and contribute substantially to the operational effectiveness of both Low Observable (LO) and conventional air forces. OR Concepts Applied (ORCA) has a wealth of experience in developing route planning tools for LO aircraft, technology for inflight replanning, and decision aids for command and control applications. This experience will be put to use in providing a prototype system for the distributed planning of LO strike packages with the capability of 1) pre-mission planning, 2) dynamic mission management, 3) time critical targeting, 4) attrition analysis, 5) aircraft-aircraft and aircraft-weapons deconfliction, and 6) visualization tools. The attrition analysis tools will address not only the typical radar and shooters associated with a sophisticated integrated air defense system but also the emerging technology of passive coherent location systems. We will focus on applications of this technology for the Joint Strike Fighter. This SBIR effort will benefit the Joint Armed Services by providing advanced technology for the effective strike planning of low observable and conventional aircraft as well as analytical tools to examine deconfliction and the effects of threats employing Passive Coherent Location (PCL) technology.

AERA, INC.
6350 Walker Lane, Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22310
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 321-7903
Mr. Raymond Valori
NAVY 01-182      Awarded: 26NOV01
Title:Advanced Modeling to Characterize Failure Progression Rates from the Incipient Stage to Component Failure
Abstract:Advanced failure progression modeling will be demonstrated on selected gear and bearing components for the purpose of providing a basis for fully enabling the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) to assess the remaining useful life of components and their risk to catastrophic failure. Fracture Mechanics methods within a framework of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) will be applied to a crack in the root of a spiral gear tooth to simulate crack growth to final failure. The gear selected for analysis will be one of those for which the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) has generated full scale H60 helicopter drive system testing. The data will provide a basis for validating the model. Additional fracture mechanics analysis will be developed to determine a risk factor for catastrophic bearing inner ring fracture in the presence of a fatigue spall. The risk factor will be based on sensitivity to fracture of bearing geometry, bearing/shaft interference fit, material fracture toughness and operating speed and load. The models provide benefit by more accurately predicting the remaining useful life of components. Model development will provide a basis for: (1) developing improved diagnostic algorithms for fault detection, (2) assessing the risk to catastrophic failure of detected bearing faults, (3) understanding component failure progression rates, and (4) determining more accurate inspection and maintenance intervals. Commercial applications apply to aviation and power generation rotating machinery. Industry using health monitoring systems, condition-based maintenance, diagnostic or predictive analysis for rotating machinery will benefit.

EXSELL, INC.
964 Autumn Oak Circle
Concord, CA 94521
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 422-8224
Mr. Wayne C. Haase
NAVY 01-182      Awarded: 15OCT01
Title:Advanced Modeling to Characterize Failure Progression Rates from the Incipient Stage to Component Failure
Abstract:This SBIR proposes to extend crack detection technology past the detection stage, and develop a system that discriminates cracks, and also predicts the residual life left in a disk. The ultimate goal of this SBIR is to develop a test system to be used at the depot maintenance level that can run a relatively simple set of tests on a disk and determine the residual life of the disk in terms of potential cycles. This system could be used as an important element in a Retirement for Cause disk life program, and/or as a critical check for disks before re-installed in an aircraft. This program will make use of an existing model developed by ExSell that describes in detail the change in center of mass of a rotating object with a crack as a function of speed, using damping ratio, initial unbalance and crack size as parameters. This model will be extended to encompass a wide variety of disks, increased discrimination of different types of cracks, and a predictive algorithm that uses data from the test and the disk history to determine residual life. This SBIR is aimed at development of a test system to be sold to aircraft depot maintenance facilities to test disks as a part of a Retirement for Cause program. Commercial benefites include revenue to ExSell for system sales, and significant savings to the Navy and US Government through life extension of existing aircraft hardware.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
NAVY 01-182      Awarded: 05NOV01
Title:A Generic Prognostic Toolkit for Characterizing Failure Progression Rates
Abstract:Impact Technologies proposes to develop and demonstrate a generic software modeling tool that integrates advanced stochastic failure mode modeling, measured failure progression rate features and inspection data, and available experience bases, to enable the predictive part of Prognostics and Health Management for critical aircraft components. The state-of-the-art structural/material level modeling technology aspect of this tool will include the utilization of a stochastic, physics-of-failure model, system level information fusion, and adaptive model updating techniques for "tuning" key failure mode variables at a local material/damage-site. The failure rate prediction strategies will be implemented within a probabilistic framework to directly identify confidence bounds associated with specific component failure mode progression. The proposed modeling scheme will minimize inherent modeling and operational uncertainties by updating local (damage site) material/fatigue properties, component loading/forcing and failure mode contribution/interaction via sensed system measurements that evolve as damage progresses. By providing continuous updates/adjustments to the critical parameters used by the probabilistic fatigue/damage models based on observing system level measurements, more accurate failure rate predictions can be made throughout the life of the component. Finally, this software tool will further aid PHM by acting as a prognostics test bench for evaluating the performance of sensors and algorithms designed for mitigating critical failure modes. Impact Technologies proposes to develop and demonstrate a generic software modeling tool that integrates advanced stochastic failure mode modeling, measured failure progression rate features and inspection data, and available experience bases, to enable the predictive part of Prognostics and Health Management for critical aircraft components. The state-of-the-art structural/material level modeling technology aspect of this tool will include the utilization of a stochastic, physics-of-failure model, system level information fusion, and adaptive model updating techniques for "tuning" key failure mode variables at a local material/damage-site. The failure rate prediction strategies will be implemented within a probabilistic framework to directly identify confidence bounds associated with specific component failure mode progression. The proposed modeling scheme will minimize inherent modeling and operational uncertainties by updating local (damage site) material/fatigue properties, component loading/forcing and failure mode contribution/interaction via sensed system measurements that evolve as damage progresses. By providing continuous updates/adjustments to the critical parameters used by the probabilistic fatigue/damage models based on observing system level measurements, more accurate failure rate predictions can be made throughout the life of the component. Finally, this software tool will further aid PHM by acting as a prognostics test bench for evaluating the performance of sensors and algorithms designed for mitigating critical failure modes.

RESEARCH APPLICATIONS, INC.
11772 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite 145
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 259-7541
Dr. Jalees Ahmad
NAVY 01-182      Awarded: 24SEP01
Title:Advanced Modeling to Characterize Failure Progression Rates from the Incipient Stage to Component Failure
Abstract:A model and software for fretting fatigue damage is sought to complement existing life prediction technology. An innovative approach with high probability of success is proposed. The proposed modeling framework is based on a recent breakthrough approach developed by Research Applications, Inc. (RAI) that has captured the attention of several military aerospace and commercial heavy equipment manufacturers. In Phase I, RAI's mechanics based model and framework will be validated using available test data on an alloy of direct interest to the Navy. The framework will be designed for further development in Phase II as a stand-alone software product for marketing to the commercial sector. The proposed model will directly benefit prognostic and diagnostic methods developments related to Condition Based Monitoring and Structural Health Monitoring efforts of the Navy. The need for a Fretting fatigue life prediction model goes well beyond military and aerospace structures. A much broader market exists in virtually all mechanical equipment industries such as automotive, heavy equipment (e.g., Caterpillar), electronics and electrical, health (orthopedic implants) and MEMS. The proposed product will have an immediate and broad market.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4114
Dr. Robert Kovar
NAVY 01-183      Awarded: 02OCT01
Title:High-Temperature/Lower Cost Appliqu‚ Material
Abstract:Applique materials under development for the past seven years have demonstrated the potential to replace current spray applied polyurethane topcoats on high performance military aircraft with significant savings in initial cost and in-service supportability through elimination of hazardous materials associated with conventional paint /depaint operations. Next generation aircraft will require higher temperature appliques. These new appliques should also be self-priming to obtain maximum cost savings. Foster-Miller proposes developing a new high temperature self-priming applique topcoat system that will meet all the requirements for the JSF and other new aircraft. To accomplish this,Foster-Miller has assembled a team of the leading technical experts in aircraft applique technology including Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, a leader in aircraft applique development, PATCO, a leading speciality adhesive tape manufacturer, and CORTEC, developer of unique corrosion inhibitors . During Phase I the team will select and modify the requisite materials to demonstrate an applique that is self-priming and that can meet the high temperature operating environment as well as all other specifications for a topcoat material. Phase II will focus on optimizing the system and lab and field testing leading to early commercial deployment for military use during Phase III. (P-020018) Successful development of the proposed applique will lead to total life cycle cost savings of $817,000 for each JSF aircraft in reduced generation of hazardous materials, faster turn around times, lower fuel costs due to less weight and lower maintenance expense. Significant savings can be realized on other military aircraft as well. Potential commercial applications for this high performance applique include certain commercial aircraft and other non-aerospace applications that require a high degree of corrosion protection.

INTEGUMENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
70 Pearce Avenue
Tonawanda, NY 14150
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 873-1199
Dr. Terrence G. Vargo
NAVY 01-183      Awarded: 02OCT01
Title:High-Temperature/Lower Cost Appliqu‚ Material
Abstract:Current aircraft coating systems contain large amounts of VOC's, HAP's, and heavy metals, such as methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, and chromium compounds. These chemicals pose a serious threat to the environment and the health of workers at aircraft maintenance depots. In order to address these problems, both Military and Commercial aircraft programs have been tasked over the last decade to investigate, fabricate, and commercialize paintless appliqu‚ systems that are environmentally friendly. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, these new appliqu‚ systems are being designed to reduce time-consuming paint application. This represents a major turning point in the way military aircraft are coated during manufacturing and maintenance cycles. This proposal will focus on the development of novel fluoropolymer appliqu‚s that offer significant advantages when compared with current commercialized appliqu‚ systems. Fluoropolymer appliqu‚s with costs between $5 and $10 per square ft will be developed. These appliqu‚s will have enhanced field operating characteristics and will exhibit thermal stability throughout a -65§ F to 350§ F range. The synthesis and formulation of a new pressure sensitive adhesive that will contain non-toxic corrosion inhibitors will also be investigated. No primer will be required for the proposed applique. The defense and commercial aviation industry will directly benefit from a one coat paint replacement, peel and stick fluoropolymer appliqu‚ that has (1) No Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's), (2) no Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP's), (3) superior adhesion, (4) built-in corrosion inhibition; and (5) clean removability without toxic or noxious solvents. The new appliqu‚s will support both traditional aluminum and composite substrates, and will also enable lightning strike protection appliqu‚ systems, providing superior performance and lower maintenance and initial installation costs at a better value per square foot.

PHOENIX INNOVATION, INC.
20 Patterson Brook Road, PO Box 550
Wareham, MA 02576
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 291-4375
Dr. Brian G. Dixon
NAVY 01-183      Awarded: 02OCT01
Title:Phosphoryl-Based Nanoscale Appliques
Abstract:A novel appliqu‚ formulation is described whose polymer backbone is designed to possess excellent adhesive qualities over a wide range of temperatures, at least -65 to +350oF. By design the polymer will be low cost. This polymer is derived from ongoing membrane research at Phoenix Innovation that has identified a polymer formulation that adheres tenaciously to a variety of substrates and is inherently thermally stable and retains useful physical properties at low temperatures. There are many possible Federal and commercial applications for appliqu‚s that include aircraft, as well as a range of adhesives that must perform well in many different sets of environmental conditions.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3055 Plymouth Road, Suite 205
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 747-6646
Dr. Kin Sze
NAVY 01-184      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Simulation of Radiation Scattering and Coupling Properties of Large Phased Arrays
Abstract:In this Small Business Innovation Research project, we propose to develop a software tool for the modeling of radiation, scattering and coupling of large phased arrays. The available full-wave simulation techniques require enormous computation time and memory usage when treating large finite-size arrays, while infinite periodic simulators cannot predict the coupling and edge effects accurately. For this project, the object-oriented foundation of EMPiCASSO, an existing antenna design CAD software, will be used and enhanced with a novel technique based on the scatterer and matrix decompositions methods. The proposed technique decomposes the large phased array into smaller segments including inner and outer (edge) subarrays, solves for them separately and recomposes them again for the final solution. The code implementation will further be parallelized for the DoD?s high performance computing platforms. Some validation will be conducted in Phase I on moderately large arrays, which can currently be solved by EMPiCASSO?s moment method simulator. The proposed software tool will be used for the design of phased arrays and large-scale antenna systems. These types of antennas have a variety of applications in both military and civilian communications and sensing systems.

RM ASSOC.
1211 Deerfield Drive
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 865-1298
Dr. Raj Mittra
NAVY 01-184      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Simulation of Radiation Scattering and Coupling Properties of Large Phased Arrays
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop a new approach for solving large phased array problems that cannot be handled by presently available Electromagnetic Field Solvers. Previously, RM Associates has developed a code for analyzing large Frequency Selective Surface(FSS) type of radomes by using a novel version of Plane Wave Spectrum (PWS) approach, specially tailored for handling these problems. We now propose to further extend and generalize this approach to handle large phased array antenna modeling problems that can only be described by using a large number of degrees of freedom and, hence, cannot be simulated by using available computer codes. When fully developed, the PWS-based Phased array code will be useful not only for predicting the radiation and impedance characteristics of large arrays, but also the coupling ptoperties between two such array apertures. In addition, it can be interfaced with an electronics code to predict the signal spectrum and intermodulation products of the received signals. Coomercial organizations developing large antenna arrays for signal communication would greatly benefit for the availabilty of computer codes with which they can relaiably design these arrays.

DEVELOSOFT CORP.
1630 30th Street, Suite 121
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 544-1978
Mr. Mark Yager
NAVY 01-185      Selected for Award
Title:State-of-the-art Tracking and Video Mosaic
Abstract:We will demonstrate state-of-the-art techniques which meet and exceed current operational capabilities for the ILARTS island operator. Sophisticated tracking will allow automatic slewing of a pan/tilt/zoom camera during launches and recoveries to maintain an aircraft at a user specified position and size within the camera's field of view. The tracking can also follow an arresting wire and an occluded aircraft until its sidenumbers become easily visible. Our video mosaic approach will offer better capabilities than are currently possible: 010 Level cameras will be less obstructed than an 07 Level operator's view; imagery can be digitally enhanced with integration, sharpening, and de-glare algorithms; the digitally constructed panoramic view can have superimposed cueing information (movement in hard to see aircraft, possible foul deck conditions). Finally, even non-routine/emergency incidents can be tracked with minimal manual control of the pan/tilt/zoom camera; automatic tracking algorithms can follow hovering helos, aircraft with blown tires, or Tilly after being manually targeted an a particular object. Our technology provides real-time tracking and video mosaicing capabilities on inexpensive PC compatible desktop workstations. Automatic tracking has profound application in environments which require tedious manual tracking of objects (either with eyes or a mechanical device); the security industry; entertainment; sports; and traffic management. We offer a low-cost approach to performing these functions in software. Video mosaicing provides better situational awareness and detection of exceptional events - particularly in the security industry.

FULLVIEW, INC.
3 Field Point Drive
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 275-6500
Dr. Vishvjit (Vic) S. Nalwa
NAVY 01-185      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Flight Deck Camera Control with Video Mosaic
Abstract:FullViewr cameras provide high-resolution up-to-360ø video in real time without equal. This video is created by mosaicing, in real time, video from multiple cameras looking in different directions from a single location. FullViewr cameras are a natural fit for surveillance, as in views from both 180ø and 360ø such cameras, with proper positioning, objects need not abruptly go off the edge of the view, as in views from normal cameras. Such cameras can then be used to provide an overview of the scene being monitored, this overview usable both automatically and by humans to control Pan/Tilt/Zoom (PTZ) cameras. The ensuing system could be used for any monitoring and surveillance activity.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. W. Reynolds Monach
NAVY 01-186      Selected for Award
Title:Environmental Data Fusion for Mine Warfare
Abstract:Daniel H. Wagner Associates, Inc. proposes to develop a requirements report and a detailed design for a Current, Wind, and Wave Data Fusion (CWWDF) system for Mine Countermeasures (MCM). The proposed CWWDF system will significantly improve the ability of Naval MCM forces to carry out their missions through the more effective use of available environmental data to accurately estimate the current, wind, and wave conditions in the area of interest. The system will allow MCM planners and operators to: (1) More accurately estimate the location of drifting mines at all times of interest, optimize search for them, and estimate their source, (2) Improve the placement of cleared lanes for use by landing craft such as AAAVs making it easier for the landing craft to stay in these lanes, (3) Develop more effective plans for MCM systems, such as divers, that are significantly affected by current, wind, and waves, and (4) Improve the ability to sweep pressure mines. Improved MCM technologies such as these are particularly necessary at a time when the United States is facing a sophisticated MCM threat with limited funds to procure additional MCM assets/sensors. Effective use of environmental data fusion techniques in MCM operations will produce more effective MCM operations, conducted at lower risk, which will result in fewer casualties to friendly forces and improved overall US Navy effectiveness.

GEOPHEX LTD.
605 Mercury Street
Raleigh, NC 27603
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 839-8515
Dr. I.J. Won
NAVY 01-186      Selected for Award
Title:Active Broadband EM Detection and Classification of Buried Naval Mines
Abstract:We propose a new active broadband electromagnetic (EM) sensor to detect and classify naval mines buried in the littoral. The sensor will work like an underwater metal detector, but it will operate at multiple programmable frequencies suitable to a given littoral environment. Once it detects a potential target, the sensor will interrogate the target and measure its spectral responses (inphase and quadrature) over the entire operating bandwidth. The sensor will then compare the measured spectrum with a library of spectra stored for mines that are known or presumed to occur in the survey area. The process will generate a rank-ordered list of spectral matches. As the sensor finds new mines at a site, it can expand its spectral library - a "learn as you go" approach. The proposed active EM sensor can be used as a "confirmation sensor" when it is integrated with other sensors such as passive magnetometers and sonars. A mathematical framework will be developed to interface this data with fusion algorithms being pursued for buried minehunting. In addition, the sensor will serve in a dual role to simultaneously measure the conductivities of the seawater and bottom sediment, which can be used to derive sediment density and porosity, providing important environmental data for mine warfare. Target classification based on the spectral fingerprints is called Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy or EMIS. It is known that an EMIS spectrum depends on the object's shape and metal compositions in terms of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability. Apart from a possibility of direct detection of explosives, EMIS is the only rigorous, physics-based phenomenology for identifying buried mines. The EMIS algorithms, validated for land mines, will be modified for the classification of buried sea mines to provide computer-automated target recognition. This proposal addresses developments of both sensor hardware and EMIS-based software to solve the buried naval mine detection and classification problem. It has been well known that the high false alarm rate is the main factor that complicates naval mine warfare. Without discrimination capabilities to reduce the false alarms, good detectors alone will not be able to solve the problem. Since the majority of resources is currently wasted for dealing with benign objects, reduction in the false alarm rate would result in huge savings in cost and speed. The EMIS concept has far-reaching implications in the general target classification arena such as identifying hidden weapons at a checkpoint.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive, Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 437-2435
Dr. Mark Williams
NAVY 01-186      Selected for Award
Title:Environmental Data Fusion for Mine Warfare
Abstract:Effective countermeasures against enemy mines in the littoral require comprehensive knowledge of the undersea environment. To compile an accurate and comprehensive model of the undersea environment these data must be fused effectively. There are many challenges associated with these data fusion tasks. In order to fuse images or maps the images and/or maps must be registered against each other. Without an accurate registration successful fusion cannot take place. Often the metadata may not hold all the measurements required for registration, or there may be unknown biases present in the metadata. In addition the images and maps may contain nonlinear distortions that make registration a challenging task. Our proposal is to use graph matching techniques in order to achieve the required registrations between imagery and/or maps. Graph matching has been the subject of considerable interest in the image processing literature over the last five years and has been shown to be an effective method for image registration. Graph matching techniques are unaffected by bias in position, orientation and scale. In addition the techniques are robust against non-linear bias and measurement error. The first application of graph matching would be in the registration of sea mine survey maps. Success in registration of sea mine survey maps would lead to a number of benefits that can also be generalized to success in the registration of undersea imagery. Primarily the successful registration of multiple overlapping sea mine survey maps will lead to higher quality maps in which the number of detections increases over any of the detection rates in the single maps whilst the number of false alarms will decrease and the position estimates will become more accurate. A major consequence of this technology would be that it would become meaningful to archive such maps because it would be possible to combine them with later surveys. This would allow greater benefit to be gained from the expensive process of making such surveys. The registration of maps and imagery is a topic of concern in many areas within DoD and the private sector. Metron has work with BMDO where graph matching is used to register radar and infrared images. There are many other opportunities for using graph matching to solve military problems. One example is in the registration of sensor images against map data bases so that autonomous vehicles are not wholly reliant on vulnerable GPS systems or inaccurate INS for navigation. Graph matching has wide application in the field of image registration and Metron will seek to commercialize added maturity in the technology to opportunities in emerging fields. Potential applications include face recognition and general computer vision.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison Brown
NAVY 01-187      Awarded: 16OCT01
Title:Optimal Diversity Reception for Ship Relative Global Positioning System (SRGPS)
Abstract:A key requirement for an operational SRGPS system is to assure the continuous transmission of shipside carrier-phase and pseudo-range measurements to the approaching aircraft. The continuity and quality of these measurements are critical. Of particular concern are: (a) the robustness to signal blockages from the ship's superstructure; (b) the ability to operate in the presence of multipath and maintain the carrier-phase and pseudo-range integrity; and (c) the ability to continue operation in the presence of RF interference and jammers in a tactical environment. Previous research has investigated the use of multiple reference antennas and diversity processing for improving the signal-in-space accuracy and integrity. Under this SBIR effort, we propose to develop a SRGPS reference station capability that includes the use of multiple controlled reception pattern antennas (CRPAs) to allow both spatial and post-correlator diversity (SPCD) processing to be performed to enhance the continuity and integrity of the SRGPS carrier-phase and pseudo-range corrections. Under the Phase I effort, the NAVSYS SPCD algorithms will be further developed. Using simulated and real-world data, the algorithms will be tested to show their performance. Under the Phase II effort we propose to deliver a prototype P(Y) SRGPS reference station including the SPCD capability for field testing. Applications exist for leveraging the improved measurement accuracy, interference mitigation, and multipath mitigation techniques provided by the SRGPS reference station for both civil and military precision approach and landing systems, such as LAAS or JPALS. Other applications include high-accuracy, high-integrity reference stations for kinematic and surveying applications.

TRACKING & IMAGING SYSTEMS, INC.
418 N. Linden Street
Bloomington, IL 61701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(309) 827-9555
Dr. James W. Sennott
NAVY 01-187      Awarded: 17OCT01
Title:Optimal Post Correlator Diversity Reception with Beamforming for the Ship Relative Global Positioning System (SRGPS)
Abstract:In the SRGPS landing system, phase observables are uplinked to approaching aircraft where an integer ambiguity based double difference solution is computed. The probability of successful updates is sensitive to the number and quality of carrier phase observables. SRGPS must contend with rapidly changing multipath scatter and blockages from the ship's structure. Antenna mounting limitations mandate multiple antenna diversity: System software must continuously select the best available signal path for each satellite. A post correlator diversity (PCD) approach has been developed for monitoring and weighting raw data prior to tracking loops by leveraging TISI's patented Integrated Demodulation/Navigation (IDN) processor. In contrast to conventional post loop diversity (PLD), this method responds before tracking loop damage can occur. PCD also offers J/S improvement. Phase biases induced by antenna lever errors are minimized by integrating ship flexure and IMU biases states. Beamformer diversity antenna elements are utilized for enhanced jamming margin and multipath rejection. Beamformer synthesis is based upon a proven military design. Integrity monitoring is provided over an independent ship-referenced path. In TISI's Phase I effort, both non-linear tracking simulations of the SRGPS shipside architecture and interfaces between TISI's PCD processor and Rockwell Collins beamformer are carried out. The post correlator diversity processor applies to all precise positioning and attitude determination applications subjected to blockage and multipath. Beyond aviation, construction vehicle guidance and control as well as marine docking guidance are important. Low earth orbit attitude determination and docking in space applications would benefit. PCD also applies to cellular communication station capacity improvement.

INTERFACE DISPLAYS & CONTROLS, INC.
4630 North Avenue
Oceanside, CA 92056
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 945-0230
Mr. James V. Phillips
NAVY 01-188      Awarded: 13NOV01
Title:Smart Flat Panel Multifunction Color Display (MFCD) with Positive Pilot Feedback
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a multifunction flat panel display using active matrix liquid display (AMLCD) and touch screen technology that will provide both visual and biomechanical feedback to the pilot or operator. Evaluation of mechanical properties will include the investigation of three haptic design approaches, which provide positive visual and tactile feedback using a touch screen that is mounted on to a 5" x 5" AMLCD. Each approach will be assessed with regard to its practicality and utility for a cockpit environment and will be reviewed against Navy requirements for aviation display systems. Performance parameters and technology deficiencies will be identified in order to detect the most suitable approach that shall be adopted and integrated into a 5" x 5" AMLCD display for testing and evaluation. Haptic Force Feedback Display technology may be used to provide operators with both visual and tactile feedback in any environment that CRT or AMLCD display technologies are currently being used. The haptic technology will allow for increased display sizes, increased user-friendly interface, and improved performance and reliability for all applications where keyboard bezels are currently required such as; (1) military and commercial avionics; (2) industrial monitors; (3) personal computers; (4) hand-held electronic display devices; and (5) cell phones to name a few.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORP.
2300 Windy Ridge Parkway, Suite 400 South
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 989-9492
Mr. Raymond Wallenmaier
NAVY 01-188      Awarded: 02NOV01
Title:Smart Flat Panel Multifunction Color Display (MFCD) with Positive Pilot Feedback
Abstract:Scientific Research Corporation proposes to develop a Smart Multi-Function Color Display (SMFCD) employing a color flat panel active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) and MFCD technology. This SMFCD will incorporate touch screen technology to activate sub-screens or internal systems. The activation of sub-screens or internal systems will provide the user visual and bio-mechanical feedback. The investigation into the design of the unit will select the optimum topology to incorporate positive user feedback into SMFCD with touch screens. The implementation of touch screen technology will benefit the SMFCD in two ways; replace the existing high failure rate Bezel assembly, and allow for an increased viewable area on the display. This SMFCD will be capable of displaying mission data, navigation data, and other multifunction color display information in high performance aircraft. The SMFCD will be a form, fit, and functional (F3) replacement to the targeted MFCD on the T-45. The user-interface on the SMFCD will be identical to the user-interface on the existing MFCD. The "Fast-Track" avenue will be pursued for this effort including signing Non Disclosure Agreements with Government approved AMLCD display manufacturers such as already having signed with Astronautics Corporation of America. This implementation strategy of immediately designing a F3 replacement with superior reliability and upgradeable for touch screen technology represents the optimum "Win-Win" scenario for the Government and negates the cost of major retrofits to the T-45 and the retraining of U.S. Navy personnel. The SMFCD will be designed as a scaleable form, fit, and function replacement that can be easily installed into any ground, airborne, or rotary based platform in the U.S. Armed Forces, NATO, and other foreign military platforms. This SMFCD will be low cost for commercial airlines and small to mid size aviation companies usage. By adding voice activation, the SMFCD can be used in the automotive industry.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8809 Sudley Road, Suite 101
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Mr. Gary Sikora
NAVY 01-189      Awarded: 20NOV01
Title:Open Architecture Software Using Middleware Isolation Layers
Abstract:Today's sophisticated aircraft such as the F-22 will have expended billions of dollars on software over the life cycle, constituting a large portion of the TOC (Total Cost of Ownership). Tomorrow as seen in the JSF architecture, the hardware/software interface will move forward to the sensor level and the common avionics approach will increase the software complexity, which will impact the TOC by a surmountable amount. To combat this, the architecture must support: an open architecture concept; insertion and use of commercial and military technologies and standards; and the reuse of software. Additionally, the avionics architecture should minimize the reliance on specific technology implementations that allows interfaces, communication protocols, and software to evolve over time. To this end, we propose a unified, heterogeneous middleware solution that allows interoperability of middleware technologies such as CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture), RT (Real-Time) CORBA, P2P (Peer-to-Peer) and Client/Server. The innovated idea is to manage the middleware using the new Web Services Universal Description Discovery Integration (UDDI) technology to register the connections, to provide interoperability through startup code interface snippet distribution - bringing Web interoperability solutions to avionics. This research will produce both military and enterprise opportunities. As technology advances and military equipment become increasingly reliant on software, the need for unified, heterogeneous middleware solutions will arise. We are already experiencing this for the Navy Integrated Development Plan (IDP) sonar systems and Advanced Undersea Warfare Concepts (AUSWC), and anticipate opportunities involving the Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE) systems such as Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS).Web Services UDDI and companion technologies are almost a year old. Combining enterprise middleware technologies using the developed services architecture will provide many opportunities in the commercial enterprise community where Intranets and Extranets are typically made up of systems of varying bandwidth and platform requirements, demand a unified, heterogeneous middleware solution.

WW TECHNOLOGY GROUP
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-4353
Dr. Chris J. Walter
NAVY 01-189      Awarded: 20NOV01
Title:Middleware for Portable Avionics Software
Abstract:The project goal for Phase 1 is to define an approach for a portable avionics software platform that facilitates re-use of avionics applications from platform to platform, meets stringent real-time performance requirements and incorporates standardized interfaces and services. The standardized interfaces and services to be supported will include, but will not be limited to, CORBA interfaces and services. Over the last several years CORBA and its services and facilities have evolved to the point where they have the potential to be used as a distributed object computing middleware component for avionics systems. CORBA was selected as the baseline distributed object computing standard because of its wide acceptance in both commercial and military systems and recent work performed on real-time and fault tolerant CORBA. This project focuses on methods for efficiently integrating standardized services into an avionics environment while maintaining high levels of performance and determinism and support for multi-level security. These goals will be achieved through adaptive middleware techniques that stress performance, portability, extensibility, and configurability. A multi-phased commercialization program is defined for the selection, demonstration, and transition of an approach for middleware isolation layers for open architectures for critical applications. The promise of middleware based system engineering is substantially improved reuse potential. It is estimated that the development of future large commercial avionics systems will require multi-billion dollar investments if present methodology is employed. It is estimated that middleware based system engineering can reduce the cost of critical system development by half or more. The WWTG middleware approach will provide an abstraction layer that makes it possible to move software from one platform to another in a much more interoperable fashion. With a Prime Contractor (see letter of support), an initial commercial application will be to reduce the significant cost incurred in the development of commercial avionics systems and the certification to FAA requirements through the enhanced reuse of system software. Other widespread opportunities exist for military systems and commercial applications in real-time control, banking, and telecommunications.

GREEN HILLS SOFTWARE
131 Avenida Victoria
San Clemente, CA 92672
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 369-3950
Mr. William Hart
NAVY 01-190      Awarded: 05NOV01
Title:Multi-Level Security in Real-Time Shared Memory Avionic Systems
Abstract:Report upon and demonstrate the use of commercial technology, specifically RapidIO and the INTEGRITY Real-Time Operating System, for the purposes of testing this technology in a Multi-Level Secure Real-Time Shared Memory Avionic system. Greater knowledge of requirements for extending commercial products and specifications in support of a Multi-Level Secure Real-Time Shared Memory Avionic system, with potential for greater functionality and reduced costs in implementing such a system.

OR CONCEPTS APPLIED
7032 Comstock Avenue, Suite 100
Whittier, CA 90602
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 907-6700
Dr. Rubin Johnson
NAVY 01-191      Awarded: 20NOV01
Title:Autonomous Vehicle Management System
Abstract:OR Concepts Applied (ORCA) will investigate requirements for an effective and vital software component called the VTUAV Intelligent Planner and Router (VIPR). VIPR is designed to provide Level IV and V levels of vehicle interaction for autonomous vehicle management capabilities that address dynamic retasking, inflight replanning and multi-vehicle coordinated operations. VIPR autonomously determines alternate routing to avoid detection, engagement, or to escape. Designed to work initially within the VTUAV's Ground Control Station's (GCS) Tactical Control System (TCS) environment, VIPR's in-flight replanning capabilities can be hosted within the VTUAV's on-board Datalink Control Module (DCM) for total autonomous vehicle operations. VIPR provides the capability to generate rapid course of action in response to dynamically changing battlefield environments. This capability utilizes Intelligent Autonomy (IA) mission planning techniques that use real-time data streams such as sensory, imagery, vehicle status queues, changing battlespace state, and preflight data such as vehicle performance data and vehicle RCS to generate vehicle retasking and survivable routes. VIPR will provide a capability for multi-vehicle cooperative planning in dynamic environments. VIPR offers to the VTUAV/MMP operator greater supportive functions that assist in executing vehicle re-planning/re-tasking efforts under uncertain and time critical conditions. VIPR can autonomously provide re-program data for the VTUAV to meet time critical RSTA objectives that enhance sensor-to-shooter capabilities and abilities to direct and coordinate fires. Integral to the VTUAV GCS/TCS, VIPR offers a means for communicating newly generated plans to complimentary forces of sea based elements, land based tactical elements, remote destinations, and C4I, thus enhancing situation awareness for all complementary force elements. In this proposal, this domain is explored and innovative concepts for this dynamic environment are presented. VIPR will benefit a host of users concerned with using software tools that incorporate autonomous operations models. This tool has applications for Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV), Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUV) and mission planning functions that support autonomous operations utilizing ground robots. Naval missions such as maritime reconnaissance, undersea search & survey, submarine track and trail, mine clearing operations and communications relay will also benefit from this capability. VIPR will foster opportunities within the Federal and State governments as well as private sector companies that will use this technology. Industries in traffic engineering, forestry fire operations, weather monitoring, emergency management, police surveillance and maritime patrol, Search and Air Rescue (SAR), medical rescue, FBI/CIA/ATF operations, MOOTW, and M&S, are just a few. We plan to merge our VIPR technologies with the TBMCS suite of tools and to make it part of the next generation Joint Mission Planning System (JMPS) ? a collaborative program of the US Air Force, Navy, Marines, and SOF. Leveraging off of our proven knowledge base and achievement record in in-flight replanning, autorouting, modeling and simulation, this is an opportunity to significantly advance the Navy's efforts in autonomous mission planning. The Navy will derive capabilities with lower development risk, shorter development cycle, and greater product sophistication per investment dollar.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Jovan D. Boskovic
NAVY 01-191      Awarded: 03DEC01
Title:Autonomous Vehicle Management System
Abstract:We propose to develop a Decision Aiding Tool (DAT) for operators of multiple UAVs. The tool will consist of the following: (i) A user-friendly operator interface based on Multiple Unified Simulation Environment (MUSE); (ii) Finite-State Machine (FSM) based software for determining the status of subsystems and components in multiple UAVs; (iii) On-line trajectory generation software for trajectory reconfiguration in response to the dynamically changing environments; and (iv) Fault-tolerant control software. The main idea behind the proposed approach is to migrate a number of tasks from the operator to the intelligent DAT that will enable straightforward operation of multiple UAVs. In order to achieve these objectives, we propose to carry out the following tasks: (i) Problem formulation; (ii) System-wide health monitoring and status determination; (iii) Autonomous trajectory reconfiguration in response to pop-up threats; (iv) Develop an integrated Operator Aiding (OpAID) simulation; (v) Demonstrate the new capabilities enabled by the proposed tool. The feasibility of the proposed approach will be evaluated using a VTUAV simulation and an integrated simulation environment to be develped through a joint effort of SSCI, Altair and Draper Lab. Potential applications of the proposed OpAID system, combining effective health monitoring, status determination, and fault tolerant operation with autonomous path planning and trajectory generation, include both military and civilian missions performed using both semi- and fully-autonomous agents. The application include autonomous military UAV and spacecraft missions; autonomous "smart" missiles; autonomous underwater and ground vehicles; and commercial UAV missions such as acquisition of information following floods, fires, storms, earthquakes and other natural disasters.

CG2, INC.
6000 Technology Drive,, Bldg. 1, Suite A
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 271-7591
Mr. Chris Blasband
NAVY 01-192      Selected for Award
Title:Personal Computer (PC) Graphics Support for Texel Level Sensor Simulation
Abstract:As the military relies more and more on advanced sensors to deploy its weapons and execute missions, the importance of realistically simulating these sensors in training has increased. Recognizing that trainers need to include the physics required to make the exercise and scientific data as accurate and realistic as possible, but faced with reduced budgets, the U.S. Government is looking to recent advances made in commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) graphics technology. Public demands for more realism from the gaming industry has led to low-cost COTS technology having graphics capabilities that rival those of the highest priced graphics workstations. Current COTS graphics hardware offers low-cost, yet realistic training opportunities for Government agencies. However, their inability to represent the physics of the sensors that our military is heavily dependent upon, keeps them as-is from being the solution to this training dilemma. It is the objective of this Phase I effort to investigate and formulate a plan for advancing current COTS graphics hardware to incorporate several of the most important high-end sensor graphics capabilities, while keeping the price down to a fraction of the proprietary systems cost. This Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of advancing the physics implemented in real-time simulations by developing or modifying a PC video card to incorporate dynamic texture indexing and three independent spline fogging, two functions identified as key to realistic sensor simulation. There are a tremendous number of commercial opportunities for an advanced graphics chip with the capabilities described in this proposal. Besides the military and government applications, those involved in gaming, industrial design, CAD, urban simulation and 3D web design are requiring more and more realism in their applications and simulations. All disciplines involved in 3D visualization want the immersive experience to be as realistic as possible. The advanced hardware and software developed under this SBIR will be a major step toward achieving that goal.

SIMWRIGHT, INC.
7552 Navarre Parkway, Suite 2B
Navarre, FL 32566
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 939-8707
Mr. Kerry D. Christopher
NAVY 01-192      Selected for Award
Title:Personal Computer (PC) Graphics Support for Texel Level Sensor Simulation
Abstract:This topic recognizes the limitations of the graphics hardware/software that has been produced in the past and requests the development or modification of a PC video card to allow it to more accurately simulate the performance of advanced sensors. This proposal answers that request by leveraging recent advancements in PC graphics hardware and combines that with a significant amount of research and product development in the area of sensor simulation to yield sensor simulation capabilities that are both solidly grounded in validated algorithms and accurately reflect sensor characteristics in the generated image. The latest generation of graphics cards allows the user to download custom programs into the vertex and pixel processing sections of the graphics pipeline. These custom functions are applied by the graphics hardware to each vertex and pixel being processed. This capability permits the user to get customized performance out of a graphics card without going to the expense of producing custom hardware. Multi-texturing has emerged as a powerful new feature of the new generation of graphics cards. These new graphics cards also allow the user to program their texture engines to build textures on the fly from texture components already in the texture memory. The focus of the project will be to define and produce a series of custom shaders and texture blenders that can be used with PC graphics boards to simulate material-wavelength specific propagation and other sensor-unique visual attributes while reducing the required texture memory and bandwidth requirements. This is a critical step that will allow the maximum number of users to leverage the power of the new generation of graphics boards in the shortest possible time. Our approach is focused on improving the realism and fidelity while minimizing the hardware complexity to maximize our customer's investment. Being able to utilize the current trends in commercial PC graphics hardaware leverages investments from the gaming community.