---------- OSD ----------

100 Phase I Selections from the 01.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
Clear Creek Business Park, 376 NE 219th Ave
Gresham, OR 97030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
Mr. Whitten Schulz
OSD 01-M01      Awarded: 20FEB02
Title:Airframe Health Monitoring using Acoustic Emission Crack Detection with Bragg Grating
Abstract:Identifying crack initiation in an aircraft structure through acoustic emission monitoring has been extensively used to predict the onset of damage. Currently, this technique is only applicable to external tests, as it requires ultrasonic transducers, not easily embedded into the structure. There is a need for in-situ acoustic emission monitoring to further enable effective and objective maintenance and repair decisions. It is proposed that optical fiber Bragg grating sensors be used to monitor acoustic emission pulses with a high-speed optical demodulation system being developed by Blue Road Research. These fiber gratings are non-intrusive, allowing for them to be left on the structure during service, for an in-situ acoustic emission monitoring system. This technology could be used to support damage assessment and health monitoring on a wide variety of aerospace platforms both military and commercial. It is also possible that this technology could be utilized on ships, bridges, and other structures.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Kristie L. Cooper
OSD 01-M01      Selected for Award
Title:Acoustic Emission Detection Using Fiber Bragg Gratings and Fast Signal Processing
Abstract:The proposed program would develop high-speed optical fiber Bragg grating sensors and signal processing methods for the near real-time detection of acoustic emission events and associated material damage in advanced aircraft structures. Acoustic emission is associated with the occurrence and accumulation of microstructural damage in materials. By detecting the amplitude and frequency characteristics of such pulsed ultrasonic stress waves it is possible to determine when structural components are loaded to new maximum levels of stress, and to anticipate the onset of material failure. Optical fiber Bragg grating-based sensors offer a means of implementing networks of acoustic emission sensor elements on large structures such as aircraft. The proposed program would develop near real-time signal processing systems for such sensors, to enable high frequency response to acoustic emission, and thus the ability to characterize damage mechanism sources and pre-failure events. NanoSonic Inc. would work with the Fiber & Electro-Optics Research Center on campus at Virginia Tech on this program through a small subcontract. University researchers at FEORC were among the first to demonstrate the detection of acoustic emission using fiber sensors and systems in the 1970s and 1980s, and to quantitatively compare fiber sensors and conventional 2.25 MHz acoustic emission piezoelectric transducers. Acoustic emission (AE) is an important tool used for the nondestructive (NDE) evaluation of materials and structures. The market for conventional piezoelectric transducer-based AE instrumentation exceeds $250 million annually. The proposed program would also develop high speed fiber Bragg grating demodulation systems of commercial importance to other sensor, signal processing and optical fiber communication system applications.

SYSTEMS PLANNING & ANALYSIS, INC.
7331 Hanover Pkwy, Suite D
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 474-1310
Mr. Christopher S. Baldwin
OSD 01-M01      Awarded: 20FEB02
Title:Airframe Health Monitoring using Acoustic Emission Crack
Abstract:Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) proposes to develop a temperature compensated Bragg grating based acoustic emission crack detection (AECD) sensor system based on our proprietary temperature compensation technique for matched Bragg grating sensor systems. Leveraging previous work by the sponsor, we will perform analytical and experimental analysis to determine optimal system parameters for the AECD system. The analytical models will involve the transmission of an acoustic wave within a composite laminate and the interaction of the wave with a surface mounted and embedded Bragg grating sensor. Composite test specimens conforming to the American Society for Testing and Materials standards (ASTM D5528 and ASTM D5766) will be fabricated and tested in the Phase I SBIR program. Testing of these specimens will provide an empirical method of determining optimal system parameters and validating the analytical models derived during the Phase I effort. System refinements will be implemented and tested to facilitate a risk reduction in pursuing follow on Phase II funding. Temperature compensation tests will be performed in an environmental chamber in a temperature range of 40 to 120 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature compensation and system optimization of the acoustic emission crack detection system will enhance the present Bragg grating based technique currently considered by the technical sponsors. Through the use of fiber optic sensors, integration into composite structures will be a seamless transition into many fields beyond monitoring crack events on aircraft. This technology will enable a real-time monitoring of composite structures during operation and establish condition-based maintenance (CBM) practices for the fleet.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Mr. Kenneth G. Blemel
OSD 01-M02      Awarded: 18DEC01
Title:A Wireless Smart Dataport for Processing and Communication in Smart Spaces
Abstract:This proposal offers to develop, prototype and demonstrate an inexpensive and general-purpose wireless Dataport as a means to implement "Smart Spaces". The Dataport would extract, process, interpret and relay data from wireless micro-sensors and other wireless devices in a ship's compartment. The Dataport will be bulkhead mounted or portable depending on the application. When Bulkhead mounted, the Dataport would act as a compartment information recorder and analysis unit. As a portable unit it would be used in collecting, processing, and decision support during inspection of ship spaces. The Dataport would provide a means to implement Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) and Prognostic Health Maintenance (PHM) to increase reliability, increase operational availability, and reduce total life cycle costs. The Dataport would incorporate diagnostic and prognostic algorithms and would process the sensed data into information and knowledge that would be transmitted to operators, supervisors and maintainers. The processing algorithms of the Dataport would also provide probabilistic risk assessment and decision support information that would be used in scheduling restock, maintenance and repair activities. An inexpensive Dataport would have broad application for automating CBM and PHM in defense and commercial applications. In particular the Dataport would be the coordinating data information recording and information system for maintaining equipment in areas of process plants, in sections and compartments of aircraft, in factories, control rooms, power generating plants, and any place where spaces are filled with failure prone vital systems.

RLW, INC.
1346 South Atherton Street
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 975-2210
Ms. Sue George
OSD 01-M02      Awarded: 17DEC01
Title:Smart Machinery Spaces
Abstract:RLW, Inc. and SBS with support of Electric Boat and Newport News Shipbuilding will design and demonstrate (in a laboratory environment) a wireless smart machinery space network infrastructure. The effort will include an RF survey of a specific shipboard machinery space chosen in conjunction with the customer. The wireless network will employ a combination of BluetoothT and IEEE 802.11b to provide robust, cost-effective networking of smart, equipment sensors. The monitoring points will be selected using reliability-centered principles and measure appropriate parameters and perform onboard analyses to provide a reliable estimation of remaining useful life of equipment for CBM. The compartment-level wireless network(s) will report to a single-access point that can be accessed via a ship-wide network and/or a wireless portable digital assistant from within the compartment. These complementary access approaches provide the ability to avoid manual data collection and paper-based reporting as well as providing wireless access to off-ship technical support while performing maintenance and repair. In order to enable true wireless operation, selected nodes in the network will be equipped with thermal power scavenging based on COTS technology. Other ambient energy sources (e.g., vibration and rotational) will be investigated for applicability. Implementation of wireless networks of sensors creating "smart" islands in industrial applications and "smart" machinery spaces in naval shipboard applications represents a revolutionary step in the ability to cost-effectively monitor the health status and remaining useful life of machines. These islands and spaces are connected by backbone network technology (wired or wireless) to provide global accessiblity to real-time information. Elimination of wires from sensors reduces the cost of an individual sensor channel by as much as 80%. Incorporating processing in the sensor enables a true open architecture that can leverage the economies of scale of the industrial market which is projected at billions of pieces per year. The military gains access to technology that it would not otherwise be cost justified but provides useful tactical and logistics information. Real-time information accessible over a ship-wide network can substantially reduce sailor workload performing unpleasant tasks like roving watch and logging.

WILCOXON RESEARCH, INC.
21 Firstfield Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 216-3020
Mr. Willis Drake
OSD 01-M02      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:Smart Machinery Spaces
Abstract:This proposal provides an architecture for condition-based maintenance hardware/software that will serve the Navy well for decades. The three hardware items are smart Sensor Nodes that can sense multivariate processes (switch positions, tank levels, pressure, flow rates, etc.) from legacy sensing elements already installed in naval equipment. The Sensor Nodes can also measure vibration of critical elements such as machinery bearings as well as temperature. Vibration data is preprocessed in the Sensor Nodes, transmitted over a wireless Bluetooth network to a Supervisory Master device, and processed the data into actionable information for the ship's officers. An Access Point converts the Bluetooth protocols into IEEE Std-802.11 RF signals and TCP/IP protocols for LAN distribution. The software consists of proven COTS routines to provide the data products such as accurate indication of remaining useful life (RUL). Concepts for power scavenging and power saving methods are presented. No single outage of a node or network will compromise the ability of the sensor system to provide information on the state of the bearing. This proposal is results of the best ideas from a leading vibration instrumentation manufacturer, a world-class software provider, and a major presence in the design and fabrication of naval vessels. Bearing failures are a major source of downtime and lost revenue in the commercial sector or reduced military effectiveness for the Department of Defense. With the proposed architecture, the unscheduled replacement of bearings could become a thing of the past. The system would be affordable since the Sensor Nodes can be produced in quantity for a small fraction of what bearing failures cost. The Access Points and Supervisory Masters are essentially commercial items tailored to the needs of equipment monitoring. Wilcoxon Research is one of the leading producers of condition-based maintenance (CBM) sensors and related equipment, worldwide. Success with this proposal will result in savings for the Department of Defense as well as a new line of affordable advanced CBM technology for industry. The "smart" machinery space concept could save hundreds of millions of dollars annually by providing a method to collect data that are precursors for mechanical failures. In the long term, Wilcoxon Research that the concept has validity for application to high-value road vehicles, railroad equipment, and off-road machinery such as heavy earthmoving equipment. The revenue stream to Wilcoxon and its partners would ensure an ongoing supply of improved equipment and lower costs to the end user.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
2721 White Settlement Rd
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 335-1147
Mr. Brent Williams
OSD 01-M02      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:"Smart" Machinery Spaces
Abstract:This SBIR will result in a distributed shipboard system that wirelessly monitors the health of equipment in machinery spaces and reports to a central location. The U.S Navy has been mandated with the task of reducing the current manning levels on ships while enhancing operational efficiency. Currently, a roving watch manually collects health data from up to 30 different machines at 30-minute intervals. This process is time consuming, potentially dangerous, error-prone and requires extensive manpower. Our proposed system automatically monitors, processes, and reports the health of machinery spaces, thus reducing manpower requirements significantly. The proposed system is composed of extremely low-power wireless smart sensors with power-harvesting capability and one Single Point Data Retrieval (SPDR) for each machinery space. The wireless sensors will form a dynamically reconfigurable ad-hoc network, which will wirelessly report to the SPDR. The SPDR will process the data using CBM and RUL software and forward the health findings to a central monitoring station, which will display the health status of every machinery space. When coupled with similar methods developed by Reduced Ships Crew by Virtual Presence (RSVP), this proposed system has the potential to save the U.S. Navy a $2.5-4 billion in life cycle cost avoidance. Our commercialization is a 5-part process. First is a product demonstration for the U.S. Navy and Bath Iron Works at WPI's in-house laboratory. Second, our system will undergo a field test on Navy ships. Based on the field test results, our system will be modified. The third step is a trial production to supply a test market. The trial production will allow evaluation of the production capability and process. The Navy vessel test market will provide feedback regarding system performance. Fourth, WPI's marketing department will investigate alternative product applications. Washing machines, air conditioners, and refrigerators are products that could perform condition-based maintenance using this system. Building controls and industrial/manufacturing applications also offer possible markets. The final step is full production and product launch. Initially, the target for our product launch is DD-21. However, this technology lends itself to backfit and forward-fit applications because the open architecture permits reconfiguration coverage for any ship network. For example, potential backfits include CG-47, DDG-51, and CVN-68. Potential forward fits are LPD-17, LHX, and CVX. We will also pursue partnerships with ship equipment manufacturers such as General Electric, allowing their products to reach consumers pre-equipped with our CBM system.

FOSTER-MILLER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
431 New Karner Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 456-9919
Mr. Gordon Hirschman
OSD 01-M03      Awarded: 20DEC01
Title:Fully Automated Bearing Residual Life Prognosis Wireless Sensor
Abstract:Bearing failures are among the most costly, troublesome forms of breakdowns on mission critical machines within the Navy. A failed bearing causes extended downtime and high repair costs, particularly when secondary machine damage occurs. Magnetic chip detectors, simple vibration monitoring devices, and spectrographic oil analysis do not detect bearing distress until the bearing is in the later stages of failure. Recent advances in digital signal processing and sensor technology have improved on this, providing months-in-advance notice of a bearing failure, expressed in terms of Remaining Useful Life (RUL). A wireless sensor system is proposed that will take these advances to the next level and develop the statistical confidence accuracy required for trouble-free life prognosis for the monitored bearings. This sensor will easily integrate into a shipboard condition-based maintenance (CBM) system and will ultimately be applicable to bearings in a range of shipboard machinery operating in an at-sea environment. The market for wireless sensor technology extends far beyond DoD applications to include power generation, transportation, petrochemical, food processing, and pulp and paper industries.

RLW, INC.
1346 South Atherton Street
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 975-2210
Ms. Sue George
OSD 01-M03      Awarded: 17DEC01
Title:Fully Automated Bearing Residual Life Prognosis Wireless Sensor
Abstract:RLW, Inc. and Impact Technologies with support of the Torrington Company will design and demonstrate a prototype wireless smart bearing residual life sensor entailing best-of-breed prognostic algorithms and open architecture able to integrate seamlessly with a compartment-level wireless network infrastructure. This effort entails three key technical objectives: (1) A quality-driven methodology for selection and qualification of particular CBM technologies; (2) Use of a previously developed hardware-independent software API for smart, networkable sensors; and (3) Design and construction of a prototype networkable, wireless sensor implementing selected condition-status and prognostic tools on a bearing of interest. The smart sensor will contain sufficient processing resources and state-of-the-art diagnostic and prognostic algorithms and models hosted on a sensor designed to be permanently installed on a machine at manufacture. The prototype wireless sensor will be demonstrated on a bearing of interest to the customer in a real application or a simple rig. These smart wireless sensors may be powered by energy scavenged from the environment and will become a part of a compartment-level network accessible from either a ship-wide network and/or a wireless portable digital assistant from within the compartment. Implementation of wireless networks of sensors creating "smart" islands in industrial applications and "smart" machinery spaces in naval shipboard applications represents a revolutionary step in the ability to cost-effectively monitor the health status and remaining useful life of machines. These islands and spaces are connected by backbone network technology (wired or wireless) to provide global accessibility to real-time information. Elimination of wires from sensors reduces the cost of an individual sensor channel by as much as 80%. Incorporating processing in the sensor enables a true open architecture that can leverage the economies of scale of the industrial market which is projected at billions of pieces per year. The military gains access to technology that it would not otherwise be cost justified but provides useful tactical and logistics information. Real-time information accessible over a ship-wide network can substantially reduce sailor workload performing unpleasant tasks like roving watch and logging.

WILCOXON RESEARCH, INC.
21 Firstfield Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 216-3020
Mr. Willis Drake
OSD 01-M03      Awarded: 19DEC01
Title:Fully Automated Bearing Residual Life Prognosis Wireless Sensor
Abstract:Wilcoxon Research, Bath Iron Works, and VibroTek have teamed to develop a method to fully automate determining the condition of mechanical bearings using wireless technology. Each organization will contribute the best technology and experience available to developing a method to determine current bearing status and life expectancy. Wilcoxon Research will build on its experience with wireless vibration sensors using Bluetooth networking to establish a sensor network that can be deployed on a naval ship in a cost-effective manner. VibroTek will contribute its extensive experience and software to reduce the vibration data to establish the bearing's remaining useful life without human intervention. Bath Iron Works provides guidance on the effectiveness of the system and access to information on installation methods for naval vessels. This proposal establishes a logical plan to develop the system over three phases of the SBIR award process. In Phase 1, emphasis is placed on modifications needed by the wireless bearing sensors and interfacing the sensor network to the VibroTek software. In successive SBIR Phases, additional software will be migrated into the wireless sensor units to provide an autonomous network of sensors that assess bearing condition. Bearing failures contribute a substantial fraction of machinery downtime in industry as well aboard naval ships. Wilcoxon Research has established a reputation as a world-class leader in Condition-Based Maintenance sensors and ancillary equipment. Success with this SBIR proposal will open new applications in industrial as well as military applications.

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
Clear Creek Business Park, 376 NE 219th Ave
Gresham, OR 97030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
Dr. Stephen Kreger
OSD 01-M04      Awarded: 17DEC01
Title:Fiber Optic Grating Strain Field Measurement for Aging Aircraft
Abstract:A system is proposed that has the capability of being able to measure hundreds of fiber gratings in a single line. By combining this technology with the multi-axis fiber grating strain sensors developed by Blue Road Research as well as fiber pressure, temperature and moisture sensors effective health monitoring systems for aging aircraft can be realized. Blue Road Research intends to use this technology to support commercial and military aircraft applications and it has potential in the civil structures area as well. It will strongly complement the existing line of Blue Road Research commercial fiber grating sensor products.

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 930-2220
Dr. David Schaafsma
OSD 01-M04      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:ULTRA-HIGH DENSITY FIBEROPTIC STRAIN SENSOR ARRAYS FOR STRUCTURAL EVALUATION AND MONITORING (PR01-470)
Abstract:We propose to research and develop high-density optical fiber sensor systems, including low cost, flight-worthy instrumentation, for in-situ continuous monitoring and non-destructive inspection of aging aircraft. Using unique but established fiber sensor approaches, we will develop sensor systems capable of 1-2 orders of magnitude greater density than conventional sensor arrays, with a cost potential an order of magnitude lower. This system will provide critical data not only for maintenance and safety purposes but for evaluation of aircraft health in flight. This program will be a natural complement to our ongoing fiberoptic sensor efforts with Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, to develop new fiberoptic sensor technologies for integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) systems, and combine those with our unique fiberoptic avionics network for vehicle-wide diagnostics and information management. The applications for continuous monitoring and improved control are numerous, in both the civilian and military sectors. Fiberoptic sensors offer decided reliability, performance, and operational cost advantages over conventional types such as resistive strain gauges.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-4514
Mr. Brooks Childers
OSD 01-M04      Awarded: 17DEC01
Title:Measurement of Strain Fields in Aging Aircraft Using Distributed Bragg Gratings
Abstract:The primary aging mechanisms that are known to reduce the economic service life of both civilian and military aircraft are corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue. The Air Force Scientific Advisory Board on Materials Degradation estimates the costs of corrosion related detection and repair at between $1 and $3 billion dollars annually. An NRC study states that while preventative measures may eliminate two of the mechanisms, fatigue due to aircraft use will always be present. The nature of the problem calls for a global strain measurement techniques to monitor the effects of widespread fatigue damage. In order to achieve this global measurement, 1000's of measurements distributed throughout the aircraft will be required. Only the technique offered in this proposal has demonstrated the ability to obtain 1000's of high spatial resolution measurements on a single optical fiber. The Phase I effort will be used to tailor a prototype system to demonstrate the technology on an Air Force aircraft experiencing both fatigue and corrosion problems. In Phase II, a robust system will be fabricated according to Air Force specifications to meet the demands of routine inspection for widespread fatigue and corrosion damage. The commercial applications include health monitoring in civil, aviation, and marine structures. The push to smart materials and structures requires monitoring of all phases of the construction process and will create a large demand for cheap sensor arrays and deployable demodulation systems. The technology also competes with traditional foil strain gage and thermocouple technology that is well established in all areas of industry. As demodulation systems are introduced to solve measurement problems not addressed by traditional sensors, the technology will gain acceptance by the engineering community and encroach on the traditional sensors market share.

MANUFACTURING INSTRUMENTATION CONSULTANT
11000 Cedar Ave., Suite 427
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 721-8030
Mr. Joshua C. Altherr
OSD 01-M05      Awarded: 17DEC01
Title:Development of an Evanescent Microwave Probe Scanner for Detecting and Assessing Corrosion Beneath Painted and/or Sealed Surfaces
Abstract:The corrosion of airframe structures is a serious problem that has economic, performance and safety consequences for both military and civilian fleets. The detection and repair of corrosion in airframe structures is time consuming and leads to delays in aircraft availability, hence, hindering the mission of the Air Force. Through the use of evanescent microwave probes (EMP), it is possible to image the onset of corrosion in large areas of metals and alloys used in military aircrafts. The use of EMPs has many advantages: i) it is already demonstrated that it detects the onset of corrosion in aluminum alloys, ii) owing to its very high operation frequency, the EMP can be scanned at a very fast speeds (> 1cm/s) over the structure, and iii) EMP arrays can be used to further reduce the scan time over very large structures. To realize this ability, we will construct suitable EMP arrays for imaging corrosion, enhance the array performance by making them wireless, and install these wireless arrays on micro-robots that will traverse the surfaces of large structures autonomously. The micro-robots equipped with EMP arrays will report their findings to a central processing unit upon discovering corroded regions. This will allow for the development of easily diagnosed images describing the severity of the corrosion found, as well as its exact location, thus saving the Air Force an estimated $5 million in maintenance and repair. MICC is interested in a variety of wireless non-destructive evaluation and imaging systems and the proposed study will enable it to move into many "inspection" areas where microrobotics, wireless control, and imaging sensors are needed. The EMP microrobots that will be developed through the proposed effort and its continuation in phase II will enable MICC to seek partnership with other more accomplished entities to pursue manufacturing of the developed system. In addition to the DoD applications for corrosion inspection, there are a number of other industries that this technology could provide benefits. These industries are the civilian airlines, chemical industry, and infrastructure where corrosion is a consistent problem: bridges, roads, buildings and piers. We are currently discussing possible commercialization plans with Tristan Technologies, Inc. San Diego CA.

PROVIDENCE HOLDINGS
P.O.box 32693
Charlotte, NC 28232
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 271-5507
Mr. Luis Gomez
OSD 01-M05      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Development of an Evanescent Microwave Probe Scanner for Detecting and Assessing Corrosion Beneath Painted and/or Sealed Surfaces
Abstract:This proposal outlines the development of a wireless Evanescent Microwave Probe (EMP) NDE technique that 1) can detect corrosion on aluminum surfaces at the 100 micron size scale, even below layers of paint, 2) can provide information on the integrity and stability of adhesive bonded patches, 3) can detect minute changes in the metal-patch bondline such as bondline separation and changes in the ambient moisture under the patch and 4) carry out these critical NDE functions in a wireless (ie. remote) operation. In previous AFRL sponsored research, this EMP NDE technique has been used to detect the existence of corrosion pits under painted aircraft wing panels and cracks beneath an adhesive bonded repair patch applied to an aircraft aluminum skin panel. In addition, this EMP NDE system has been used to detect the presence of so-called "kissing bonds" at a metal-epoxy bondline of an otherwise sound epoxy-metal bonded structure. Being able to detect corrosion in aging aircrafts while they are in the field when the crack are the size of 100 microns or smaller.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. Russell Austin
OSD 01-M05      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Development of an Evanescent Microwave Probe Scanner for Detecting and Assessing Corrosion Beneath Painted and/or Sealed Surfaces
Abstract:Current NDI methods cannot detect corrosion onset in painted/sealed aluminum. TRI/Austin's team, including the Applied Microwave Nondestructive Testing Laboratory and Boeing, has successfully used microwave probes to detect 0.08 mm corrosion flaws in primed and painted aluminum panels covered with aircraft. However, no fieldable microwave systems exist today. TRI/Austin will: 1. Make samples with small (down to 25 microns) machined and corroded pits covered by aircraft primers, paints and appliques 2. Experimentally refine inspection parameters for field probes 3. Design battery powered, handheld microwave probes and "plug and play" microwave probes to be integrated with Boeing's automated MAUS scanner. 4. Generate a Business Plan to guide commercialization of both probes The handhled "stud finder" style microwave probe will allow field personnel to: . quickly detect "hot spots" in the field . provide materials and labor planning for Programmed Depot Maintenance (PDM) The MAUS plug-in version of the microwave probe will allow depot level personnel to: . accurately map and measure the extent of corrosion. . conduct data management to monitor actual progression of hidden corrosion areas . base repair/planning decisions on known corrosion rather than trending based on old patterns Both probes will detect tiny corrosion pits without depainting. Development of scanners to detect early stage aluminum corrosion without depainting will save military and commercial aircraft maintenance personnel hundreds of labor hours and weeks of aircraft downtime per maintenance cycle. Environmental impacts caused by depainting will also be removed. Non-aircraft applications include automotive and shipping industries. The MAUS integrated microwave NDI probe will provide a cost effective inspection tool to the dozens of existing MAUS users, while the handheld microwave probe will be less expensive than COTS ultrasonic or eddy current flaw detectors. The market for these probes is projected to exceed $100,000/yr.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Bruce R. Pilvelait
OSD 01-M06      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:A Multivariable Remaining Useful Life Prognosticator for Hydraulic Pumps
Abstract:To avoid catastrophic failure of aircraft hydraulic pumps, scheduled maintenance procedures often call for their replacement even though significant useful life may remain. Creare proposes to develop a Remaining Useful Life (RUL) prognostication tool that facilitates the move toward more cost effective Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) procedures. The system is based on the monitoring of several key operating parameters, while a sophisticated predictive model computes RUL and allows maintenance personnel to replace the pump only when necessary. The system will be automated, low cost, and easy to use by maintenance personnel and has the potential to reduce manpower, materials, and other maintenance costs. In Phase I, we will develop a benchtop prototype and use synthesized pump monitoring signals to formulate the predictive models. Further, we will thoroughly define aircraft and maintenance personnel needs, to ensure that we develop a system that reduces manpower requirements and costs and extends equipment lifetime. In Phase II, we will further refine the system, providing a field-ready system that can be thoroughly evaluated during actual aircraft hydraulic pump lifecycle tests. This system has the potential to drastically improve aircraft safety and reduce maintenance costs by facilitating a Condition-Based Maintenance approach for hydraulic pumps. This technology is applicable to all commercial and military aircraft, so the potential market is substantial. Further, the predictive models developed for hydraulic pumps are also applicable to other types of fluid pumps and rotating machinery.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-6273
Mr. Carl S. Byington
OSD 01-M06      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:In-Line Health Monitoring System for Aircraft Hydraulic Pumps & Motors
Abstract:Impact Technologies proposes to develop and demonstrate a monitoring system that assesses the health of aircraft hydraulic pumps and motors. The approach described herein includes performance models, feature level fusion, and adaptive modeling for estimating degradation through the collection of in-line pump data and onboard processing. This model-based and feature fusion approach will significantly improve the remaining life predictions over what is possible using single parameter trending. The appropriate performance and degradation models will be developed within a probabilistic framework that inherently captures distributions in the data due to random processes and measurement error. Moreover, the failure probability framework will directly identify confidence bounds associated with specific component failure modes progression. By providing continuous, on-line updates/adjustments of the critical parameters used by the fatigue/damage models based on system level measurements, more accurate failure rate predictions can be made throughout the life of the component. Impact Technologies proposes to develop and demonstrate a monitoring system that assesses the health of aircraft hydraulic pumps and motors. The approach described herein includes performance models, feature level fusion, and adaptive modeling for estimating degradation through the collection of in-line pump data and onboard processing. This model-based and feature fusion approach will significantly improve the remaining life predictions over what is possible using single parameter trending. The appropriate performance and degradation models will be developed within a probabilistic framework that inherently captures distributions in the data due to random processes and measurement error. Moreover, the failure probability framework will directly identify confidence bounds associated with specific component failure modes progression. By providing continuous, on-line updates/adjustments of the critical parameters used by the fatigue/damage models based on system level measurements, more accurate failure rate predictions can be made throughout the life of the component.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 222-0444
Dr. Chiman Kwan
OSD 01-M06      Awarded: 18DEC01
Title:A Novel Health Monitoring Approach for Hydraulic Pumps and Motors
Abstract:In this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Incorporated (IAI) proposes a novel and robust approach to detect hydraulic pump and motor failures. The algorithm was recently developed by Dr. Chiman Kwan, the principal investigator of this proposal, and his collaborators. It consists of three major steps. First, based on normal raw sensor measurements, a residual model is built off-line for a given hydraulic pump or motor system. The technique is called Minor Component Analysis (MCA). The residual model outputs are non-zero when there is fault. Our approach is direct, accurate, and based on only normal measurement data. Second, based on the residual model outputs, we define a fault detection index, which gives fast and accurate detection of failures. Third, we will determine the nature of the failures by reconstructing the fault magnitude. Furthermore, from the fault magnitude information, we can predict the remaining life of a component. The proposed method works for both static and dynamic systems. The new algorithm is highly relevant to this subtopic since it specifically asks for advanced techniques to monitor hydraulic pumps and motors. Our idea of identifying component failures will give accurate and early warning of failures and hence exactly fulfills the goals of this subtopic. Health monitoring technology has many applications such as hydraulic pumps, motors, helicopter gearbox systems, jet and automotive engine diagnostics, and many of DOD's flight critical systems. The jet and automobile industries are multibillion dollar industries that are commercial grounds for this technology. The proposed FDI method can be used in many systems mentioned above.

INNOVATIVE DYNAMICS, INC.
2560 North Triphammer Road
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-0533
Mr. Jack Edmonds
OSD 01-M07      Awarded: 12DEC01
Title:In-line Hydraulic Fluid Contamination Multi-Sensor
Abstract:Current hydraulic fluid detectors cannot perform real-time analysis of contamination. IDI will address this problem by developing an in-line multi-sensor for monitoring particulates, water, and chlorinated solvents. An algorithm will be developed to fuse the sensor outputs and provide real-time information to maintenance staff. A key challenge will be to incorporate affordable technologies into a simple-to-operate unit that is small, lightweight and reliable. This program will focus on new and existing sensor technologies that can readily be incorporated into a sensor package with minimal development effort. Candidate sensor technologies that will be evaluated include acoustics, capacitive, and optical. During the Phase I program, IDI will develop a working prototype that demonstrates the multi-sensor's capability in determining contamination levels in-situ. Successful feasibility tests will lead to development of a full-scale working unit in Phase II for testing by the Air Force. This system is expected to provide real-time diagnostic information on the contamination level of hydraulic fluids at a substantial cost savings to the government. An in-line sensor would be directly applicable to the new generation ground support equipment with built-in fluid purifiers. The rapid, on-site capability to assure the hydraulic fluid contamination level is essential to avoid significant delays in servicing the aircraft. Another application would be direct determination of the hydraulic fluid contamination in the aircraft when used on-board as a stand-alone device. Using an online monitor will therefore help provide better reliability and longer system life.

METSS CORP.
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Bradley L. Grunden
OSD 01-M07      Awarded: 12DEC01
Title:In-line Hydraulic Fluid Contamination Multi-Sensor
Abstract:Currently, the U.S. Air Force is evaluating a number of sensor-based techniques that can monitor the `health' of hydraulic fluids on-line and in real time. Implementation of such technology will drastically reduce the risk of premature hydraulic system failures by providing immediate feedback with respect to the condition of the hydraulic fluid. In addition, the U.S. Air Force has embarked on the development of a new generation of ground support equipment, which will possess an on-board hydraulic fluid purification unit to assure that clean, contamination free hydraulic fluid is used to service military aircraft. However, the key component required to achieve these goals, namely an in-line hydraulic fluid multi-sensor capable of determining the level of particulate contamination, water concentration, and chlorinated solvent concentration, has yet to be developed. The primary objective of the proposed research is to demonstrate the capabilities of three individual contaminant sensor techniques to meet the requirements of the U.S. Air Force, and to provide ample support for the feasibility of combining these techniques into a multi-sensor capable of monitoring the contaminant levels of aerospace hydraulic fluids on-line and in real time. The proposed program will assist in providing more rapid, accurate and reliable information with respect to the condition of aerospace hydraulic fluids used in military aircraft by measuring the level of contamination on-line and in real time. In addition, as a stand-alone device, this technology will enable the direct determination of hydraulic fluid quality in aircraft. It is expected that similar benefits will be afforded by this technology in the commercial airline industry, as well as in other industries that utilize hydraulic fluid power. Conceptually, it may be possible to extend this technology into other fluid systems, such as conventional motor oil.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Michael A. White
OSD 01-M07      Awarded: 12DEC01
Title:In-line Hydraulic Fluid Contamination Multi-Sensor
Abstract:A novel three-stage optical multi-sensor for contamination of aerospace hydraulic fluid is proposed. This device will measure particulate contamination concentration and size distribution, allowing accurate alarm thresholding in accordance with existing military specifications for particulates in MIL-H-83282 hydraulic fluid. Additionally, free and dissolved water and solvent concentrations will be measured using proven laser absorption spectroscopy techniques. The resulting multi-sensor will provide a robust and reliable monitoring system to be installed in-line with hydraulic fluid flow systems present in ground servicing equipment or elsewhere on the flight line. This system will allow real-time monitoring and alarm for each species of contaminant as well as a readout of contaminant level. If the proposed project succeeds through Phases I, II, and III, then a robust new technology will be available to the military for facilitating the detection of particulate, water, and solvent contamination in hydraulic fluid. While the current proposal is aimed at the expressed Air Force need in reference to aerospace hydraulic fluid, it is likely that this technology will find widespread application to non-military hydraulic systems as well. Industrial producers may utilize the techniques described to automate refinery operations, and the techniques may find applications that cannot yet be envisioned. These applications could include virtually any liquid process where water or solid intrusion in minute quantities constitute a serious problem.

APES, INC.
6669 Fyler Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 644-6040
Dr. Scott A. Prost-Domasky
OSD 01-M08      Awarded: 06FEB02
Title:Fretting Fatigue Model
Abstract:The multi-task objectives of the plan discussed in this proposal are: research the role and effects of fretting on structural life of components, develop and demonstrate the feasibility of integrating candidate fretting fatigue predictive analytic model(s) into structural integrity methods, integrate and implement the techniques for applications to present and future U.S. military weapons programs, commercial aviation, automotive, and mechanical equipment and provide industry access to the predictive tools and information for commercialization. Fretting, as defined by the American Society for Metals Handbook Volume 10: Failure Analysis and Prevention, is a wear phenomenon that occurs between two mating surfaces: it is adhesive in nature, and vibration is its essential causative factor. Usually fretting is accompanied by corrosion. In general, fretting occurs between two tight fitting surfaces that are subjected to a cyclic, relative motion of extremely small amplitude. Fretted regions are highly sensitive to fatigue cracking. Under fretting conditions fatigue cracks are nucleated at very low stresses. Nucleation of fatigue cracks in fretted regions depends mainly on the state of stress on the surface and particularly on the stresses superimposed on the cyclic stress. The time to nucleation of cracks can be significantly reduced as a result of fretting. Common sites for fretting are in joints that are bolted, keyed, pinned, press fitted, and riveted. These sites are common in the assembly of most air vehicles, ground vehicles, power plants, equipment, and machinery. All applications that have safety issues, maintenance issues, and service life requirements will benefit from quantitative methods that provide the impact of fretting on the component's service. The approach APES, Inc. proposes for this SBIR improves the Holistic Life Prediction Methodology (HLPM) and the corresponding software ECLIPSE that implements the HLPM by adding a fretting fatigue capability that will be validated and verified with experimental and field service data (if available). Phase II's product will be a robust analytical approach that adequately accounts for fretting fatigue mechanisms and influences on predicted structural lives, having tremendous potential for improving durability and damage tolerance (DADT) in many industries. The aircraft industry, both commercial and defense, will be the first industry recipient of the applications afforded by this program. Systems in the aircraft industry that will be afforded benefits by improved analytical fretting fatigue approaches include transports, fighters, helicopter, commercial, small aircraft, and their subsystems, including engines. A robust analytical approach will have many benefits to other industries besides the aircraft industry. Improvements in analytical methods in the automotive, heavy machinery and medical device industries will be possible. For instance, fretting and wear in automotive engines and other components with moving parts such as differentials and transmissions are difficult problems that can become quite costly over the life of an automobile. Also, it is well known that wear and fretting in heavy machinery cost businesses millions each year in maintenance downtime, repair bills, and capital costs for replacement machinery; improvements in analytical predictive methods will contribute to improved maintenance, inspection and intended usage procedures for this type of equipment.

RESEARCH APPLICATIONS, INC.
11772 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite 145
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 259-7541
Dr. Jalees Ahmad
OSD 01-M08      Awarded: 06FEB02
Title:Fretting Fatigue Model
Abstract:The proposed effort is aimed at developing and experimentally validating a model and software for life prediction of structures prone to fretting fatigue damage in benign as well as corrosive environments. An innovative approach with high probability of success is proposed. The proposed modeling framework is based on a recent breakthrough approach developed by Research Applications, Inc. (RAI) that has captured the attention of several military aerospace and commercial heavy equipment manufacturers. In Phase I, RAI's mechanics based model and framework will be validated using available test data on an alloy of direct interest to the Air Force. The framework will be designed to complement ongoing research and development at AFRL on corrosion fatigue life prediction and for further development in Phase II as a stand-alone software product for marketing to the commercial sector. The proposed model will directly benefit prognostic and diagnostic methods developments related to Condition Based Monitoring, Structural Health Monitoring and Aging Aircraft efforts of the Air Force. The need for a Fretting fatigue life prediction model goes well beyond military and aerospace structures. A much broader market exists in virtually all mechanical equipment industries such as automotive, heavy equipment (e.g., Caterpillar), electronics and electrical, health (orthopedic implants) and MEMS. The proposed product will have an immediate and broad market.

POSITRON SYSTEMS, INC.
2676 Balboa
Idaho Falls, ID 83404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 523-2466
Mr. Joel Wenzinger/D.W.Akers
OSD 01-M09      Awarded: 06FEB02
Title:Reliability Algorithms for Corrosion Fatigue
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to utilize a new technology developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and licensed by Positron Systems Inc. that can be used to accurately and nondestructively assess dislocation densities and dislocation types in metals and polymers. This research will focus on developing algorithms to estimate the reliability of corrosion fatigue damage assessments and remaining life estimates. The principal emphasis will be on obtaining accurate remaining life estimates for actual Air Force aircraft components that have been or are currently in use. These data will be used to begin development of accurate remaining life estimates for specific operational scenarios for the items examined. Positron Systems will collaborate with Idaho State University, and the INEEL to understand the phenomena associated with corrosion fatigue; perform assessments of both simulated and actual corrosion fatigue specimens; and develop algorithms that define the remaining life of the types of components examined. This technology has major implications relative to the development of accurate models needed to accurately predict the remaining life of components and the maintenance requirements for these components. Specific issues identified with implementing CBM include defining fatigue damage algorithms that can: (1) assess corrosion fatigue damage accurately; (2) predict how the damage will grow; and (3) provide a reliability measure for (1) and (2). This research will provide a reliability measure essential for developing CBM.

STI TECHNOLOGIES
1800 Brighton-Henrietta Townli
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 424-2010
Dr. Dan Ghiocel
OSD 01-M09      Awarded: 06FEB02
Title:Reliability Algorithms for Corrosion Fatigue
Abstract:. The proposed innovative research will provide an advanced stochastic framework for developing an integrated risk-based condition assessment and life prediction-analysis system for a cost effective maintenance system for aircraft components. Corrosion fatigue is a key damage mechanism. Based on the component risk predictions, the reliability of damage detection and the reliability of damage growth prediction can be assessed. The reliability measures can be used for improving safety and readiness, and reduce operation and support costs. The proposed integrated system can serve as a state-of-art probabilistic component reliability prediction system that includes all significant post-design aspects, including manufacturing defects, operational loading history, progressive corrosion fatigue damage and life consumption under interactive failure modes, maintenance activities (inspection, repair, replacement). The proposed probabilistic component design system combines stochastic stress analysis and life prediction algorithms with risk-based maintenance analysis. The system can be also used for comparing different designs in terms of risk/safety including maintenance activities or performing "what-if analysis" to see the effects of different design modifications on component failure risks, life prediction and induced costs. The proposed probabilistic approach will offer a generic engineering capability for the reliability component risk evaluation and fatigue corrosion life prediction available for all industries. It is strongly believed that the created engineering capability and software tools developed under this effort will have a rapid spread on industry markets

ADVANCED STRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY, INC.
455 N. Jackson Ave.
University City, MO 63130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 878-8327
Mr. William T. Fujimoto
OSD 01-M10      Awarded: 05FEB02
Title:Improved Rotorcraft Substantiation & Usage Tracking Methodology
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop and validate improved methodology for the substantiation and the usage-based tracking of rotorcraft dynamic system components. A Helicopter Information Retrieval & Substantiation System(HIRSS) is proposed which consists of (1) an Universal Damage Tracking Algorithm(TM) capable of accommodating the different fatigue analysis methodologies of the manufacturers, (2) a flight loads and logistics database management system, and (3) a CAD-based scenario modeler which allows damage summation scenarios to be constructed using point n'click modeling. With the flight loads DBMS, a scalable flight loads database that can be queried by the damage summation algorithm can be automatically built from flight data tapes. With the logistics DBMS, the HIRSS can serve as a base station for processing data from on-board HUMS, and as a maintenance and logistics decision support system. With the scenario modeler, the HIRSS can serve as a methodology development platform, whereby nested multi-level Monte Carlo risk assessments can be set-up or modified, using point n'click modeling, to assess the role of each stochastic driver on the reliability of a member. Availability of the HIRSS can lead to an improved substantiation methodology for dynamic system components. It can help identify any conservatisms which may lead to the premature or unnecessary removal of components, leading to lower operating costs to fleet operators. Because the HIRSS also allows certifying agencies to independently corroborate retirement times, it can also "force" the development of an universal substantiation methodology for the rotorcraft industry.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
13029 Danielson Street, Suite 200
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Dr. Thomas Brotherton
OSD 01-M10      Awarded: 28JAN02
Title:Regime Recognition System
Abstract:Accurate usage information collected by Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) coupled with improved structural fatigue life calculation methodologies promise to reduce helicopter operational and support costs while maintaining current flight safety levels. Current fatigue life calculations assume worst-case flight profiles in determining component life. This approach may be outdated or not reflective of actual aircraft usage. IAC proposes to develop and demonstrate a low cost regime recognition capability as an extension to the US Army's Vibration Management Enhancement program and related UH-60 engine diagnostic system. Our approach relies on multi-sensor data fusion technology and flight parameters collected by the VMEP to provide an accurate flight regime calculation. Recording time in particular flight regimes has the potential of extending aircraft component life without changing proven lifing models. IAC is teaming with Sikorsky Aircraft to bring their substantial usage and component lifing expertise and guide IAC in the development of the regime usage technology. Proposed technologies will: 1) Provide actual flight time, take off and landings, turns and climbs 2) Develop an inferred gross weight calculation 3) Create tools for modification of algorithms and parameters and comparison with established component damage tables. The potential commercial applications for the technology, techniques, and systems to ultimately come out of this SBIR are significant. Sikorsky Aircraft, a partner on Phase I, is interested in applying the technology developed here to its helicopters. If Phase I is successful, Sikorsky will also participate on Phase II and will be a potential Phase III transition / commercialization partner. The technology to be developed here can be applied to significantly improve automated usage monitoring and condition-based maintenance of all military and commercial aircraft as well as all commercial / industrial gas turbine engines (such as those used in electrical generation plants).

SYSTEMS PLANNING & ANALYSIS, INC.
7331 Hanover Pkwy, Suite D
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 474-1310
Dr. Jason S. Kiddy
OSD 01-M10      Awarded: 24JAN02
Title:Structural Component Substantiation Methodology
Abstract:Recently, a number of active military helicopters have been outfitted with a number of sensors which may be used to perform usage monitoring for the individual helicopters. However, a methodology must be developed to utilize this information in an effective manner to reduce maintenance costs while maintaining the overall safety of the aircraft. Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) proposes to utilize artificial neural networks to analyze the helicopter sensor data to perform regime recognition and flight load determination. Based on a detailed Monte Carlo simulation using assumed flight loads and fatigue data, the current helicopter usage monitoring data, and statistical analysis, SPA will develop an updated component life prediction while maintaining a quantitative reliability estimate. Maintenance costs for replacing life-liminted components in rotorcraft is a substantial component of the total operating costs for all helicopters, both military and civilian. These components are replaced after set number of flight hours to ensure that they will not fail in use. However, the replacement times for these components must be based on a worst-case scenario. The proposed usage monitoring system provides a methodology to monitor the loads placed on these components and to then replace the components when a reasonable amount of fatigue life has been expended. This capability will save rotorcraft operators both the component and maintenance costs associated with early replacements.

WESTAR CORP.
6808 ACADEMY PARKWAY EAST, N.E, BUILDING C, SUITE
ALBUQUERQUE, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-1610
Mr. David White
OSD 01-M10      Awarded: 05FEB02
Title:Structural Component Substantiation Methodology
Abstract:The proposed program will integrate off-the-shelf, operationally proven approaches and technologies to formulate a comprehensive system methodology to safely determine the fatigue lives of helicopter structural components based upon actual operational usage. The development of the system methodology include the following specific approaches: (1) Identification of health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) flight parameters required to sufficiently define the flight regimes experienced by structural components during operational usage. (2) Establishment of methods for effectively recognizing the flight regimes and the amount of time, or number of events, that occur in each regime. (3) Determination of the rate at which structural components accumulate damage in each of the flight regimes. (4) Assessment of Pareto-type approaches for achieving (1), (2) and (3) by ensuring conservative, rather than precise, results. For example, data that are difficult or expensive to acquire might be conservatively estimated. (5) Evaluation of each step of the process to ensure that the resulting structural component fatigue lives maintain the required level of structural reliability. The comprehensive system methodology that is developed to safely determine the fatigue life of structural components will (1) monitor and evaluate structural component fatigue damage accumulation and improve safety, maintainability, and cost, and (2) ensure the structural reliability that results from the process. The fatigue damage accumulation will be used to schedule structural component maintenance, overhaul, and replacement. The methodology will have applications to any mechanical system with fatigue-critical structural components for which the repeated loading can be determined. These applications include many military and civilian systems: aircraft, land vehicles, ships, power generators, industrial machinery, fixed structures (bridges, seaport cranes, off-shore oil rigs, etc) and others.

JOHNSON RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CO., INC.
1640 Roswell St., Suite J
Smyrna, GA 30080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 438-2201
Mr. Lonnie Johnson
OSD 01-M11      Awarded: 05FEB02
Title:Power Scavenging in a Cold, Dark Storage Environment.
Abstract:This research project investigates natural and non-natural energy sources available in the environment that can be scavenged to provide electrical power. The sources considered are: thermal, barometric pressure, acoustic, humidity, water, wind, solar and electromotive (low frequency and radio frequency waves). Most existing techniques for scavenging power are built around ideal environments. For example, solar cells may be employed when adequate light available to meet operational requirements of the system being powered. The weapon systems will most likely not have ideal environments for power scavenging yet the energy source must be more reliable than solar as sufficient power must be scavenged on a more or less routine bases for sustained operation of the missile monitoring system. As stated in the proposal solicitation, in `bunker storage', the environment has fairly cool temperatures, no light and no mobility. Preliminary tests will be conducted to evaluate the potential for scavenging power based on ambient temperature and humidity. There are numerous applications for this technology when successfully developed. These applications include a wide range of electronic devices from remote control devices for TVs, garage openers and automobile locks to personal electronics such wrist watches and electronic pagers. Such a technology is needed for package identification and condition monitors in the transportation and shipping industry. The banking industry is rapidly moving toward the use of smart cards which will have embedded computers inside where maintaining internal batteries in a charged state is one of the most challenging problems facing the industry. Security access cards implantable medical devices are also ideal application for the proposed technology

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Mr. Kenneth G. Blemel
OSD 01-M11      Awarded: 25JAN02
Title:Power Scavenging in a Cold, Dark Storage Environment.
Abstract:This SBIR will perform research leading to design, prototyping, and feasibility demonstration of an Inactive RF Tag made with a Radio Frequency Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (RF-MEMS) as a means to provide power scavenging in a power poor environment found in underground missile storage areas. The research will develop the use of RF-MEMS switches in conjunction with RF MEMS sensors as a means to detect and collect ambient and RF energy generated by portable systems used during inspections of an Environmental Monitoring System (EMS). The project will design, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype Inactive RF Tag that, when not being interrogated, consumes zero watts and collects power from ambient RF in a micro capacitor acting as a battery charger. In use, the Inactive RF Tag will awaken on entry of the soldier assigned to inspecting the stored munitions. The collected energy will be used to conserve the energy stored in the EMS, thus significantly increasing its battery life. Power scavenging techniques in cold dark storage areas could revolutionize the electronic market, in the same way solar power scavenging did. This technology could be used in conjunction with solar power cells and be able to provide charging ability during both night and day. Such a device will have broad use in inventory control, enabling battery-less, wireless sensor systems, in wireless monitoring of stored products, and reduce the use of expensive batteries used in remote wireless inspection systems.

SCENTCZAR CORP.
213 Taylor Street
Fredericksburg, VA 22405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 729-3927
Dr. Joseph Roehl
OSD 01-M11      Awarded: 29JAN02
Title:Three energy sources that will work in a cold, dark, static environment
Abstract:Project will evaluate energy sources that are alternatives to chemical storage batteries for a miniature transponder in cold dark spaces. In order of lowest to highest technical risk: a beta battery using a hermetically sealed beta source, RF energy scavenging, and a miniature reformer-fuel cell that scavenges energy from naturally occurring methane or fuel vapors. Power supply based on one of these energy sources will provide in excess of 15 microamps continuously with occasional bursts of 100 mA to provide a total two ampere-hours of direct current over a period of at least ten years. We will design a power supply to match preferred device that will accumulate energy depending on the source, smooth out variations to produce required current, and match the source impedance to the load. Our goal is to provide a system that will require no modification of missile or munitions containers or bunkers and will eventually be installed on containers using an adhesive backing thus allowing the user to retrofit existing containers as well as modifying new ones. We will build laboratory prototype systems in Phase I demonstrating each concept and trade them off to determine the best candidate for engineering development in phase II. This work dovetails with Scentczar work to develop a missile canister heath monitor for the Navy. Numerous applications such as railroad signaling, security systems, and pipeline monitoring systems require continuous low power to interrogate sensors and occasionally report events. Current systems use specialized batteries that rely on hazardous substances and degrade over time. This system will minimize environmental hazards.

ELECTROCHEMICAL DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES
8 Nicole Lane
Groton, MA 01450
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 448-8974
Dr. Michael C. Kimble
OSD 01-M12      Awarded: 01FEB02
Title:Battery Optimized for Long Term Storage and Intermittent Use
Abstract:Higher energy density and longer life fuel cells are desired for long life electric power production. It is desired to improve the operating lifetime of fuel cells to continuously power sub-watt sensors for a variety of applications including missile container health monitors. Electrochemical Design Technologies proposes a Phase I program to demonstrate a novel fuel cell that has a long operating life and that is also regenerative. Our approach incorporates novel catalytic materials into the electrode while optimizing the electrode structure to impart higher kinetic activity, ionic conductivity, and electrical conductivity. During the Phase I program, Electrochemical Design Technologies will develop and demonstrate this process on PEM fuel cell stacks on the order of 1.8 mW. A Phase II program will move this technology towards higher rate manufacturing capabilities for both military and commercial applications while focusing on optimizing the performance to environmental factors such as low temperatures and humidity variations. Regenerative PEM fuel cells are required to lower the costs and improve performance to compete with today?s state of the art battery power sources. This proposed technology will lower the fuel cell costs for PEM fuel cell stacks allowing new commercial opportunities to be explored. Applications for this technology are centered about battery replacement for military and commercial sensors as well as to other electrical applications including portable electronics, power tools, and generators.

EXCELLATRON
1640 Roswell Street, Suite J
Smyrna, GA 30080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 438-2201
Dr. Aishui Yu
OSD 01-M12      Awarded: 05MAR02
Title:Plastic Lithium Primary Batteries For Missile Health Monitoring Application
Abstract:We propose to develop a new type of primary lithium battery using an available polymer lithium ion battery technology. We will use manganese dioxide-polymer matrix as the cathode, lithium ion containing polymer as the electrolyte and lithium as the anode. The plastic lithium primary battery will combine the advantages of lithium primary batteries and plastic lithium ion rechargeable batteries. This research will lead to the development of batteries with high capacity, high power density, flexible and conformable shapes, durability for operation in extreme environments, and long shelf life. This kind of battery will be less expensive since low cost manganese dioxide and plastic packaging can be used. Batteries with this structure will be fabricated and evaluated by electrochemical measurements under various conditions. This kind of battery will be the idea source for application in missile monitoring system. The success of this project will provide a convenient and cost effective way to make high energy, long life plastic lithium manganese dioxide primary batteries in various shapes. This approach will enable us to provide a solid state primary battery for electronic and military applications. The battery developed in this project will be highly marketable to semiconductor and MEMS manufactures. It can also replace the conventional liquid primary lithium manganese dioxide and other types of batteries used for camera, toy, and other electronic and medical devices.

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20955 Morris Avenue, P.O. Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 489-4889
Dr. Jonathan Masere
OSD 01-M12      Awarded: 23JAN02
Title:Battery Optimized for Long Term Storage and Intermittent Use
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to conduct an extensive Phase I trade study for a power source or battery for long-term storage and intermittent use in the munition health monitoring systems. This battery must be enclosed in a box such that it can be stowed away for over ten years while delivering power intermittently over that storage period with enough power to monitor the munition health at army-required extreme ambient storage conditions. We plan to conduct a trade study on all available power source technologies and select suitable technologies that best address the army needs. In addition to the trade study, we also will bring to the army's attention the technology we are working on; which we believe is the most ideal for munition health monitoring purposes. The successful review of an ideal battery system for environmental monitoring and subsequent development of such a system preferably based on thin film high capacity electrodes should pave the way for the development of a viable battery with higher energy density and exceedingly high cycle life than state-of-the-art technology. Applications range from MEMS sensors for environmental health monitoring to medical such as pacemakers and spinal cord stimulations and in smart cards.

MAXPOWER, INC.
220 Stahl Road
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-4230
Dr. David Chua
OSD 01-M12      Awarded: 23JAN02
Title:Battery Optimized for Long Term Storage and Intermittent Use
Abstract:This program addresses requirements for a health-monitoring battery that is cost-effective, capable of sustaining environmental "extremes", and long life with intermittent usage. It also required that the battery has low voltage characteristics. For these considerations, we propose six(6) lithium-based electrochemistries to conduct an intensive trade-off studies with the aim of selecting system(s) to move into Phase II for prototype cell development. The proposed cathode systems are: sulfur dioxide (SO2, a liquid depolarizer), two modifications of vanadium pentoxide (crystalline, and amorphous V2O5), manganese dioxide (g/b-MnO2), and metal oxides of LiCoO2 and LiCoO2(TiO2). The electrochemical couples were selected based on their historical data supporting long-life capability or potential and these selections yielded operating voltages ranging from 3.2-1.5 volts. In particular, we presented a very unique 1.5 volt Li/LiCoO2 or LiCoO2(TiO2) couple which, we project, can deliver about 740 Wh/kg and 650 Wh/l. Two major tasks are proposed for this 6 months Phase I effort: Task 1 involves the generation of iterative designs at both the components and cell level using spreadsheet model, and Task 2 involves cell evaluations to assess both the operational and non-operational capabilities of selected cell systems, including validations of key design components generated by the spreadsheets. Low voltage batteries for portable devices. Has dual applications for both military and commercial usage in all areas of portable units.

DACCO SCI, INC.
10260 Old Columbia Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 381-9475
Dr. Guy D. Davis
OSD 01-M14      Selected for Award
Title:Health Monitoring Using Sensor Blankets and Coatings with Embedded Sensors
Abstract:Corrosion costs for DOD are believed to be >$10 billion annually with $2.5 billion of that associated with the Army. It is estimated that one third of this cost is avoidable. Additionally, undetected corrosion can impact safety and readiness of critical equipment and structures. In extreme cases, it can cause catastrophic failure with fatalities. The most common corrosion protection scheme is paints and other coatings. As coatings degrade or become damaged, they lose their protec-tive ability. For critical applications, condition-based maintenance is needed to prevent structural damage as the coating degrades. DACCO SCI proposes to adapt its corrosion sensor technology for two health-monitoring approaches: a sensor blanket or a smart coating with embedded sensors. The sensors are based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and directly inspect the coating and underlying structures, as opposed to corrosivity sensors that simply monitor the environment. Con-sequently, the technology is ideally suited for health monitoring. The sensor blanket will allow in-spection of multiple structures and localization of coating defects and substrate corrosion. A coating with embedded sensors is well suitable for remote monitoring of critical structures. With suitable electronics, monitoring can occur from a central location. Both approaches enable condition-based maintenance of critical structures and equipment. The sensor blanket and embedded sensors would be applicable to health monitoring of a wide range of military systems, including infrastructure, aircraft, ships, weapons, and support equip-ment. They would also be applicable for civilian systems such as commercial aircraft, bridges, pipelines, and other critical structures and equipment. Furthermore, the sensor technology is applicable to coating development and screening both in the laboratory and in the field.

MID DAKOTA CORP.
P.O.Box 728
Garrison, ND 58540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 272-7634
Dr. YI YANG
OSD 01-M14      Selected for Award
Title:Smart Coatings / Sensor Blankets for Health Monitoring
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will identify corrosion with a smart coating. A smart coating is one that will predict its' own faiure and will warn of coating degradation prior to significant deterioration of the structure. Benchmarks will be established for organic (PDA)/inorganic(silica) composite films that are thermal and mechanically stable and exhibit a chromatic response when exposed to a different thermal, mechanical, or chemical environment. This color shift can be detected using spectroscopic methods making the sensor non-intrusive. Fiber optics can be routed to inaccessible areas of critical components. Whithout disassembly, and using the benchmarks established from testing, and operator will know the exact condition of the component and will not have to make a judgement decision as to the severity of the corrosion. Readings taken of the color shift over a period of time will indicte to the operator the speed at which the degradation is taking place. The applications and commercial potential for this technology cover every industry, both government and private, that have hadware, machinery, and equipment ot maintain.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. Jan Garmany
OSD 01-M14      Selected for Award
Title:Corrosion Monitoring of Metal Structures With Fluorescent Indicators
Abstract:SPEC has developed a prototype fluorescent corrosion indicator (FCI) system that shows tremendous promise in revealing corrosion beneath a specially prepared coating before any visible damage has appeared on the surface of the coating itself. This remarkable early warning system is based on the use of a fluorescent indicator that is distributed throughout the paint. The indicator is quenched by the acidic products formed at sites of active corrosion. That is, the paint will normally be fluorescent under an ultraviolet (UV) light, but above a corrosion pit there will be a dark spot because the fluorescence is locally reduced or absent. In contrast, the behavior of the paint in visible light will be essentially unchanged. Thus, there will be no indication of corrosion in visible light so long as the paint surface is intact, but underlying corrosion will be revealed under UV by dark spots seen against the background fluorescence. This proposal is concerned with the refinement of SPEC's FCI and its integration with photogrammetric or videometric methods of monitoring progressive corrosion. The transition of the fluorescent corrosion indicator technology to a commercial product is organic and central to the proposed program. Our partnership with 3M obviously lends immense technical and marketing strength to the commercialization of the system. The value of an effective and simple corrosion indicating system is obviously of great benefit to our society, protecting our national infrastructure, our private property, our industrial efficiency, and our military strength. We estimate that this system could lead to reductions of costs of several tens of billions of dollars annually. The total commercial market value of a system of this sort is probably in the range of $1-10 billion annually.

ARPHARM BIOTECHNOLOGY, LLC
4801 North Shore Drive
Little Rock, AR 72118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(501) 758-8500
Dr. Slaton E. Fry
OSD 01-P01      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Production of Human Papillomavirus Oncogenic Proteins E6 and E7 in Genetically Modified Green Plants
Abstract:Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, with about 450,000 new cases diagnosed each year. In the United States, widespread screening (the Pap smear) has reduced mortality by 70% and reduced incidence to approximately 15,000 new cases annually. Approximately 35% of U.S. patients will develop advanced, metastatic disease, for which treatment results are poor. Specific strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) are known to represent important risk factors in the development of cervical cancer. An experimental vaccine has been developed that involves stimulating dendritic cells from the patient by exposure to two marker proteins from specific strains of HPV. The stimulated cells are injected into the patient, which produces an immune response to the tumor. The vaccine depends on having a reliable supply of the two marker proteins. We plan on applying recombinant DNA technology to induce a genetically modified (GM) strain of canola to produce these proteins in seeds. In this phase, we will develop the methodology for genetically modifying the plants and will prove the presence of E6 and E7 in the seeds. This work will lay the foundation for the eventual development of a commercial route to produce both proteins. The proposed research, if successful, will determine if these two proteins can be produced in a system employing green plants as manufacturing units. These data will form the foundation for future Phase II work, which will be directed at developing a commercially viable purification process for the two proteins from seed matter. Also, data from growing the GM plants in the greenhouse will be used to provide information for growing the GM plants in the field and for controlling the proper variables so that current good manufacturing practices are observed in the field production and purification processes. Phase III research and development will be aimed at scaling the process to enable production of all of the E6 and E7 needed for this particular application. Ultimately, if this project is successful, the production of the two proteins in this manner will make the experimental vaccine for the treatment of cervical cancer widely available. Lastly, the work in this phase will provide data that will be used in the development of plant systems for the production of a pipeline of therapeutic proteins, which ArPharm Biotechnology intends to commercialize. These proteins, many of which are currently being tested as potential treatments, will be directed towards treatments of cancers of the reproductive system and for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

VECTORLOGICS, INC.
824 Linwood Rd.
Birmingham, AL 35222
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 933-8378
Dr. Nikolay Korokhov
OSD 01-P01      Awarded: 12DEC01
Title:Development Of A Vaccine For The Treatment And/Or Prevention Of Cancer
Abstract:The practical utility of anti-cancer immunization is limited by the poor immunogeneicity of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) normally used for vaccination. This problem may be overcome by direct delivery of TAAs to dendritic cells (DCs), which play a central role in the generation of the immune response, by using TAA-encoding adenovirus (Ad) vectors. The specificity and efficiency of this vaccination strategy may be improved by targeting the vectors to DCs via DC-specific markers. The goal of the proposed studies is to develop an Ad vector targeted by CD40-specific ligands to CD40 molecules expressed on the surface of DCs. These ligands, the natural CD40 ligand (CD40L) and an anti-CD40 single chain antibody, will be cross-linked to TAA-expressing Ad virions by peptide zippers genetically incorporated in the structures of both the Ad vector and the ligand. The completion of the studies proposed in this application will result in the generation of an Ad vector encoding both the TAA and the zipper-tagged ligand, so that the entire targeting complex is designed to self-assemble during the propagation of the Ad vector. This vector design will result in a more efficient antigen presentation by DCs, thereby leading to significant improvements in anti-cancer immunization-based treatment strategies. The development of the improved technology for genetic immunization using dendritic cells proposed herein will have immediate practical implications for anti-cancer treatment. With the estimated market for immunotherapeutic drugs for cancer increasing considerably and being anticipated to reach $5 billion annually of the U.S. and more than $15 billion in the major worldwide markets within the next ten years, any significant improvement of pre-existing anti-cancer vaccination strategies will have an immediate impact on the various product development strategies. While this proposal is primarily focused on the development of a genetic immunization strategy for prostate cancer, which by itself is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, its utility expands well beyond this disease context. Specifically, the wide range of identified tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and cancer type-specific target molecules rationalizes a broad spectrum of anti-cancer immunization approaches utilizing that approach described in this proposal as a prototype. The modification of this basic technology by employing new combinations of TAAs and cancer cell-specific surface markers will allow for the rapid development of immunization strategies tailored to a specific cancer type, thereby making the approach proposed herein even more appealing from both the therapeutic and commercial standpoints. Furthermore, the proposed adenoviral vector-targeting strategy may find broad utility in vaccination against diseases other than cancer. For instance, the strategies presently used to treat AIDS and various forms of viral hepatitis may benefit from immunization approaches utilizing targeted adenoviral vectors. In the aggregate, the versatility of the basic technological paradigm to be developed in our studies ensures its commercial success.

A.L.TECH BIOMEDICAL, INC.
9700 Great Seneca Highway #194
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 828-1095
Dr. Joe N. Lucas
OSD 01-P02      Awarded: 13DEC01
Title:Development Of A Serum Based Biomarker For The Detection Of
Abstract:We propose a breakthrough technique for ultra rapid, sensitive detection of cancer specific chromosome rearrangements in solution to facilitate bulk quantification of tumor cells for early detection of metastatic tumor cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood. Combining two separate, novel techniques (1) hybridization of chromosomes in suspension using (2) Repeat Sequence Depleted DNA probes, we will: (I) Apply DNA hybridization in suspension to human breast cancer cell lines. Chromosome aberrations will be detected using reversible DNA-hybridization probes that uniquely bind to DNA normally present in a specified subset of the genome. A second set of reversible DNA hybridization probes is used to uniquely hybridize with a corresponding second subset of the genome. Any (aberrant) chromosomes containing both subsets will be rapidly, efficiently isolated and quantified. (II) We will determine the translocation detection sensitivity using serial dilutions of a human breast cancer cell line (with known translocation) with the human lymphoblast cell line AG122. We expect our technique will have sensitivity similar to PCR and far higher than FISH, with specificity similar to or better than PCR and FISH, thus revolutionizing FISH and PCR medical diagnostics techniques. The research will lead to technology for licensing and commercial kits for early diagnoses of metastatic tumors as well as detecting minimal residual disorders in hematological malignancies. Pharmaceutical, biotech and hospitals will embrace this technology as it will lead to early detection of metastatic tumors cells and minimal residual leukemia cells. Early detection will increase patient survival, profoundly impact cancer patient management, and reduce cost.

FASGEN DIAGNOSTICS, L.L.C.
5210 Eastern Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21224
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 558-9200
Dr. Susan Medghalchi
OSD 01-P02      Awarded: 10DEC01
Title:A Novel Serum Biomarker for Cancer Based on Fatty Acid Synthase
Abstract:Current serum biomarkers for cancer do not approach the ideal of 95% sensitivity and specificity. Tumor-associated fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been identified as an immunohistochemical marker potentially useful in monitoring tumor aggressiveness and predicting disease course. FAS can be detected in sera of individuals with pre-neoplastic diseases, as levels increase as disease progresses. In a first generation format, FASgen's 2-site ELISA has detected significantly (p<0.01) increased levels of FAS in sera from patient with the following cancers: breast (83%), prostate (55%), colon (90%), and ovarian (40%). While there may exist subsets of cancer patients who do not elaborate FAS into their sera, FASgen believes that the sensitivity, possibly the specificity, and the commercializability of the assay will be improved by further optimization of the capture and detecting reagents used in the sandwich assay. The serum FAS based test is a potentially sensitive and specific marker of a wide range of cancers and preneoplastic disorders that will enhance the screening of asymptomatic populations, the early detecetion of aggressive cancers, therapeutic decision making, and the monitoring of individual patient's course.

IMPACT INSTRUMENTATION, INC.
27 Fairfield Place, P.O. Box 508
West Caldwell, NJ 07006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 882-1212
Mr. Leslie H. Sherman
OSD 01-P03      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Lightweight Trauma Module
Abstract:The proposed research is intended to evaluate the feasibility of a lightweight medical equipment and supplies module for the treatment of trauma patients. This module will consist of interlocking and interchangeable functional modules, or their equivalent, that can attach to, or detach from, a standard military stretcher (litter) without tools and with attendant medical personnel wearing standard issue gloves. The subject module is intended to provide an innovative solution to the need for providing a continuity of trauma care to patients. Such care can range from battlefield to rear echelon facilities and involve medical personnel with various levels of training and expertise. The commercial applicability of this module is well suited for what is now referred to as "homeland defense" and emergency disaster management. The consensus opinion of U.S. susceptibility to weapons of mass destruction (WMD), particularly those consisting of chemical and/or biological agents is no longer considered an improbability, but rather a question of where and when such an event will occur. As the country continues to model and plan its proposed response and reaction to such events, the logistical deployment of equipment and supplies will prove to be a major task. As major disasters have shown, the need for immediate support to supplement overwhelmed local resources is a very high priority. The commercial applicability of this modular system is well suited for what is referred to as "homeland defense" and emergency disaster management. The ability to deploy comprehensive medical logistical support in a timely and focused manner has a direct effect on survival outcomes. It is a well-established fact, that local resources become quickly and hopelessly overwhelmed. The modular system is a means by which logisticians can quickly and easily quantify support items based on need and then have these items rapidly deployed and placed into use. The on-scene level-of-care improves dramatically, as chaos transforms into coherence - immediate medical care becomes available and the orderly transfer of patients from site becomes possible. Development of a simple-yet-sophisticated, self-contained, automatic ventilator for the treatment of traumatized patients has been lacking ever since the first automatic transport ventilator was introduced more than 25-years ago. The advent of Automatic External Defibrillators (AED's) has resulted in automated equipment becoming available for emergency defibrillation without its user being highly skilled or even knowledgeable in medical care. The result has been reports of lives being saved every day. This project will result in the development of a self-contained, automatic ventilator, the operational equivalent of an AED that will do for emergency breathing, what an AED does for cardiac rhythm.

RAPID MEDICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
PO Box 228
Hermosa, SD 57744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(605) 255-4369
Scott Thompson
OSD 01-P03      Awarded: 11DEC01
Title:Lightweight Trauma Module
Abstract:This phase I SBIR project will develop a trauma unit that combines emerging life support technology with innovative wireless units that can transmit vital patient data to a central computer. The applicant intends to develop a separate, low-cost, soldier born monitoring module that is capable of long-term battery operation (several days per charge) and able to transmit the patients location using GPS and vital information regarding the patients survivability; assessed by diagnostic software modules under development by the applicant. The wireless module will be designed (during phase II) to fit into a military uniform, provide silent mode operation, and to communicate with the stretcher mounted trauma unit. The stretcher unit will house the remaining devices comprised primarily of life support modules and a back-up module to provide vital monitoring functions in the event of failure (of the soldier worn unit). The phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility and suitability of including each module in the final system and will conclude with design suggestions for phase II. The applicant has developed several FDA approved field portable modules that will serve as components in the proposed system. The remaining components that fulfill functional requirements of this solicitation will be outsourced. Home Health Care, Assisted Living, Patient Medical Record Gathering/Keeping, Hospital Patient Care, Ambulance/Emergency Trauma Support, Trauma Room/Emergency Room Health Care Supplement.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Jeffrey Mecham
OSD 01-P04      Awarded: 11DEC01
Title:Photo-curable Biodegradable-based Tissue Solders containing a Photochromic Endpoint Indicator
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed OSD Phase I program is to develop and commercialize novel tissue solders based on a biodegradable copolymer system that contains a controlled degree of acrylate-terminated photoactive branch sites. This will result in a process that, with the addition of a biocompatible and non-toxic photosensitizer/electron donor initiating system, will rapidly cure from a viscous liquid to a tough ductile polymer in a matter of milliseconds. This reaction occurs with a minimal heat of polymerization in an oxygen-containing aqueous environment at physiological pH. The free-radical cure reaction is easily triggered by applying a filtered and focused light beam via optical fiber from a source with a broad wavelength range to the synthetic solder (polymer/initiator) formulation. Utilization of a specified fiber type allows control of this range such that the surrounding tissue is not subjected to potentially damaging wavelengths that are frequently a problem associated with laser systems. Addition of a light sensitive dye to the formulation serves as a visual cue to the surgeon as an indicator of cure conversion. As the dye changes color, visual feedback is provided to the surgeon indicating the completion of the procedure. The purpose of the proposed OSD Phase I program is to develop and commercialize novel tissue solders based on a biodegradable copolymer system that contains a controlled degree of acrylate-terminated photoactive branch sites. This will result in a process that, with the addition of a biocompatible and non-toxic photosensitizer/electron donor initiating system, will rapidly cure from a viscous liquid to a tough ductile polymer in a matter of milliseconds. This reaction occurs with a minimal heat of polymerization in an oxygen-containing aqueous environment at physiological pH. The free-radical cure reaction is easily triggered by applying a filtered and focused light beam via optical fiber from a source with a broad wavelength range to the synthetic solder (polymer/initiator) formulation. Utilization of a specified fiber type allows control of this range such that the surrounding tissue is not subjected to potentially damaging wavelengths that are frequently a problem associated with laser systems. Addition of a light sensitive dye to the formulation serves as a visual cue to the surgeon as an indicator of cure conversion. As the dye changes color, visual feedback is provided to the surgeon indicating the completion of the procedure.

PHOTOBIOMED CORP.
2454 Walnut Ridge Street
Dallas, TX 75229
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(605) 357-1359
Dr. Kaia L. Kloster
OSD 01-P04      Awarded: 13DEC01
Title:Photoactivated Naphthalimide Compounds for Tissue Bonding
Abstract:Army medical personnel are often required to perform rapid hemostatic closure under combat or close-support field conditions. Wound closure in rear area medical facilities is carried out to preserve tissue, function, and the physical appearance of the healed superficial wound. Conventional wound closure involves suturing, which requires considerable time, effort, and skill. Recent experimentation is seeking faster, easier, and more effective ways to repair tissues. Many surgical adhesives, tissue sealants, and the use of lasers for tissue welding have been explored. Limitations include deleterious tissue response and ineffective bond strengths. With outstanding bond strengths and impressive healing results, our novel photoactivated naphthalimide compounds show tremendous promise in the field of tissue repair. In the current proposal, we are looking to further explore the use of naphthalimide compounds alone or incorporated into a biologically compatible filler material, which would be used to provide controlled delivery and to limit the required applied force. In addition to photochemistry, PhotoBioMed has significant strengths in optical fiber device development. The combination of an effective photoactivated tissue adhesive paired with an effective means for delivery and activation would facilitate future commercialization for both military and civilian medical applications. The impact of this research has the potential to apply to all tissue repair. We have found these naphthalimide compounds to be extremely adaptable and capable of being modified to suit various tissue environments. We currently have hydrophilic, lipophilic, and bipolar naphthalimide species that we use in a wide range of tissue types including effective bonding in skin, cartilage, cornea, dura mater, and arterial tissue. If the use of a filler material as a delivery vehicle proves as advantageous as proposed, this novel approach to tissue bonding will affect all fields of medicine.

MAXWELL SENSORS CORP.
15902A Halliburton Road, #135
City of Industry, CA 91745
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 336-1363
Dr. Winston Z. Ho
OSD 01-P06      Awarded: 20FEB02
Title:A Highly Sensitive Array-Based POCT Sensor for Respiratory Pathogens
Abstract:Respiratory infection is the most common cause of acute infectious disease in U.S. adults, the leading cause of outpatient illnesses, and a major cause of hospitalization for U.S. military personnel. The DoD is looking for a simple, rapid, sensitive, point-of-care test (POCT) and diagnostic tool, which can identify emerging strains of militarily important pathogens. Maxwell Sensors Inc. proposes to develop and construct a non-invasive pharyngeal pathogen sensor (PPS) system, based on a one-step fluorescence immunoassay strip array, for respiratory pathogen detection and identification. The test based on throat swab samples is simple to perform, and fluorescence detection is highly sensitive. Unlike conventional membrane-based color immunoassays, which have poor sensitivity, the PPS system produces rapid and accurate results in a compact hand-held unit. An array of respiratory pathogens can be identified simultaneously. During the Phase I project we will investigate and select immuno-specific agents & materials, develop membrane strips for sensitive assay, construct a hand-held PPS system, perform bioassay, and characterize the strip and system performance. Physicians request virology services, because nearly half the ill children seen by the primary care physicians have acute respiratory ailments. The decision to use antiviral agents or antibiotics can only be made on clinical and epidemiological grounds, if viral diagnostic services are not available. Such treatment decisions are problematic because there is a significant overlap in the clinical syndromes caused by different infectious organisms. Therefore, a rapid diagnostic tool , which is sensitive and specific, is urgently needed.

NOMADICS, INC.
1024 S. Innovation Way
Stillwater, OK 74074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 372-9535
Dr. Jean Clarke
OSD 01-P06      Awarded: 20FEB02
Title:Amplifying Fluorescent Polymer Diagnostics for Respiratory Pathogens
Abstract:Nomadics has demonstrated the tremendous amplification powers of a revolutionary polymer material developed at MIT. We have demonstrated the ability of a detection system based on the polymer to detect buried landmines with a sensitivity that is 1000 times greater or more than that of currently available explosives detection technologies. The polymer lends itself to functionalization for the detection of other compounds with similar amplification capabilities. Current research efforts are directed at exploiting this innovative technology for the detection of other types of chemicals, including organic compounds. We have demonstrated the capacity to detect DNA and similar biological constituents by making oligonucleotide conjugates with the polymer. In the proposed research, we suggest a method of structuring the polymer with aptamers to allow detection of a species unique lipopolysaccharide for the detection of Bordetella pertussis, the causative pathogen of whooping cough and other respiratory distresses. The proposed approach promises to lead to the development of a platform technology that will have widespread application in medical diagnosis and other pathogen detection activities. Additionally, the resulting system will be low-cost and simple to use, as well as rugged enough to use in deployed force situations and other field applications. As a means of detecting and identifying pathogens, the proposed technology will have extensive application in the fields of biological agent detection, food safety, and medical diagnosis. Because the system is inexpensive, it can be used by semi-skilled personnel in field operations, emergency responses, developing countries, and other situations.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7892
Dr. Gregory Zeltser
OSD 01-P06      Awarded: 20FEB02
Title:Immunofluorometric Pathogen Detection System
Abstract:Living conditions in the military often give rise to epidemics of acute respiratory infection too often costing the lives of servicemen and women. Rapid point-of-care diagnostic tools are needed for the detection of emerging respiratory pathogens to allow appropriate intervention and treatment. To address this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop and fabricate a novel Immunofluorometric Pathogen Detection System (IPDS) as a rapid, sensitive, and simple-to-use multi-pathogen diagnostic tool with disposable cartridges. The IPDS consists of two elements: a high surface area cartridge and a portable fluorometric reader. At the core of the IPDS technique is POC's state-of-the-art, proprietary holographic surface technology and innovative design of a portable fluorometric reader. Unqualified personnel can easily use the hand-held device and the testing time is as short as 5 to 7 minutes. Successful demonstration of the IPDS proof-of-concept in Phase I will lead to design and fabrication of the IPDS for both government and commercial applications in Phase II. Commercial applications include on-site detection of practically all respiratory bacteria and viruses, detection of pathogens in body fluids; rapid immunoassay for hormones, medications, and metabolites; and evaluation of nucleic acid probes for identifying genetic diseases. The IPDS can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries as well as for environmental monitoring and industrial safety.

OMNISITE BIODIAGNOSTICS, INC.
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. John G. Bruno
OSD 01-P07      Awarded: 20FEB02
Title:Handheld FP Reader and Aptamer Tests for Soft Tissue Injury
Abstract:OmniSite BioDiagnostics Inc. (OmniSite) proposes to aid in the field diagnosis of soft tissue injuries of DOD troops by development of DNA aptamer-based assays for protein markers and hydroxylated amino acids in diluted whole blood. DNA aptamers are novel, inexpensive replacement reagents for antibodies that do not require animal hosts for production and are therefore inexpensive and simple to produce. In phase I, OmniSite will focus its assay development efforts on skeletal Troponin I (sTnI), creatine kinase isoform MM1 (CK-MM1), carbonic anhydrase III (CA III), hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline. This panel of candidate markers for soft tissue injury will be simultaneously analyzed in OmniSite's partitioned microfluidic cartridge by fluorescence polarization (FP). FP provides rapid, highly sensitive and accurate one-step binding assays without the need for wash steps. OmniSite has an intellectual property position, which allows miniaturization of FP into an inexpensive handheld reader format. The fusion of these powerful technologies will provide the DOD with facile and reliable field assays for soft tissue injuries. In Phase II, OmniSite will sequence the DNA aptamers, refine the FP-aptamer assays and deliver an FP reader prototype with model assays for testing. If successful, OmniSite will have an assay system that numerous point-of-care facilities may desire to aid in diagnosis of soft tissue injuries or cardiac infarctions for the general public.

ENTREMED, INC.
9640 Medical Center Drive
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 217-9858
Dr. B. Kim Lee Sim
OSD 01-P08      Selected for Award
Title:Production of Purified Recombinant Proteins for Development of Vaccines of Military Importance.
Abstract:Production of malaria proteins in recombinant protein expression systems in a commercially viable manner for use in vaccine development and in in vitro assays has been complicated by the adenine/thymine rich genome of Plasmodium falciparum and the requirement for properly folded recombinant protein. To overcome both of these constraints, we propose to alter the codon usage of P. falciparum genes for expression in the eukaryotic methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We have GMP experience with this high yield P. pastoris recombinant expression system for manufacture of therapeutic proteins and experience producing Region II of the P. falciparum erythrocyte binding protein (EBA-175) in P. pastoris at quantities of 125 mg/L fermentation supernatant for pre-clinical malaria vaccine development. The specific aim is thus to express P. falciparum proteins in P. pastoris. Short term goals for recombinant protein production are: 1) expression and purification, 2) biochemical, and functional characterization, and 3) study immunogenicity in mice. The Phase II goals are optimization of expression and purification, and analysis of protective efficacy in a non-human primate model, and in Phase III the goals are large-scale GMP production of vaccine candidate proteins for Phase I/II human studies alone and/or in combination with a DNA vaccine. There are an estimated 300-500 million new cases of malaria and 1.5-2.7 million deaths caused by malaria annually (World Health Organization, 1996). Every year an estimated tens of millions of North American, European, and Asian residents of non-malarious countries travel to countries where malaria is transmitted. They currently have to take antimalarial drugs which have side effects and are losing their effectiveness. In fact there are more than 1000 reported imported cases of malaria in the US each year, and it is estimated that several more thousand are not reported (Hoffman, 1992). Furthermore, during the 20th century when engaged in areas of the world where malaria is transmitted, the U.S. military has lost more person days to malaria than to bullets (Beadle and Hoffman, 1993). A vaccine against malaria would have enormous domestic and international commercial value.

LIFESENSORS
271 Great Valley Parkway
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 644-8845
Dr. Hiep T. Tran
OSD 01-P08      Selected for Award
Title:Ubiquitin assisted production of multivalent vaccine in yeast
Abstract:The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility to express in a short period of time a large number of malarial antigens by using ubiquitin fusion technology. We will design the yeast expression vectors for rapid cloning of a vast number of malarial genes. N-terminal of malarial antigens will be fused with C-terminus of ubiquitin to enhance quality and quantity of recombinant proteins in yeast. The following malarial candidate antigens will be included: multiepitope synthetic gene, FALVAC-1, AMA-1, CSP, EBA-175, LSA-1, MSP-1, PfHsp60, Pfs25, Pfs28 and SSP-2. These malarial antigens are components of the promising multivalent vaccine candidates. There is a consensus that an effective malaria vaccine will contain antigens or antigenic determinants from several stages. Thus, the methodology to express proteins quickly, and in large quantities will be an important advance. The success of this proposal will be proof of principle that new technique will allow cloning and expression of a large number of antigens with improved quality and quantity in comparison with the existing methods. The presence of the multivalent antigen pool will serve as a vaccine candidate for immunological characterization in monkey model and further clinical testing. Anticipated improvement in protein expression and secretion will be of immediate use for protein production in general and for malaria antigens in particular. The success of Phase I will be cornerstone to exploit the DNA information of P. falciparum genome sequence. The availability of the 10-antigen vacccine candidate will allow to proceed to Phase II where the multivalent pool of antigens will be tested in monkey model and future clinical study. We will be in cooperation with Dr. Altaf A. Lal, Chief, Molecular Vaccine Section, Immunology Branch, CDC in Atlanta in Phase II for primate trial and cooperation with Dr. Carole Long, Malaria Vaccine Unit at NIAID, NIH to produce clinical-grade vaccine for clinical testing. In addition, development of fast cloning and expression system will open an avenue for vaccine research. Gateway cloning technology (Life Technologies) has been proven by research community to be a superior cloning system that allows quickly transfer a large amount of genes into expression vectors. We expected to clone all the listed genes into modified yeast expression vectors. The success will demonstrate that we will be able to transfer in future all 6000 ORF of P. faciparum to yeast expression system opening a global approach for antigen expression and production. Commercialization Strategy. Potential post applications The immediate application of the success of this study will be a production of an effective vaccine against malaria with multivalent multi-layered antigen components. All the ten antigens involved in this study are promising vaccine candidate and many of them are in clinical trial. We expected that our vaccine will be combination of all the best effects of composing antigens. While the malaria claims an estimated 1-2 million lives worldwide annually and accounts for untold morbidity in approximately 300-500 million people infected annually, the impact of the successful vaccine is of tremendous significance. If the vaccine is successfully developed we plan to license the vaccine and production technology to different institutions and countries for vaccine application. Lifesensors Inc. is open to all interested parties to license the technology. To the research community, the availability of yeast expression system will allow to expand our research to tackle new antigens by quickly cloning and expression. As we have mentioned before, there are difficulties to express malaria antigens in different systems, the developed expression system will facilitate research community to scope with new antigens counting available P. falciparum genome sequence data.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 30
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. Wayne Zachary
OSD 01-P10      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Technology Enhanced Human Interface to the Computerized Patient Record
Abstract:Although computerized patient records have been the focus of much recent research and a number of commercial systems have been developed, they have met resistance from the clinician user community because key end-user issues have not been addressed. Previous research by the proposed research team applied cognitive and ethnographic methods to analyze clinician needs for interacting with patient records. The end-user needs identified led to the design and development of an interface framework to support multiple "views" of the patient record, each executed on a different computational host (a pen-based clinical encounter view, which provides flexible, mobile forms-based interaction during patient encounters; and a desktop data view for record review/analysis in the clinician's office). The proposed research will extend this work to the rapidly emerging family of PDA and tablet platforms by developing an interface reference architecture and wireless application suite, tailored to the specific constraints/needs of the Military Health System. The resulting Reference Architecture for Patient-record Interface Deployment (RAPID) will not only be adaptable to multiple platforms to meet specific application needs (e.g. field medic vs. primary care physician), but will meet the challenge of user acceptance and usability as well. The Reference Architecture for Patient-record Interface Deployment (RAPID) will provide enhanced usability in medical information systems, with a common look and feel across multiple platforms and settings developed from human factors needs and requirements. This will minimize user training requirements and maximize intuitiveness of use. With an overall improvement in scalability, evolvability, and adaptability, RAPID-based systems while provide improved performance with reduced life cycle cost to the military. Through a combination of custom applications and partnering with vendors of Computerized Patient Record systems, the benefits of RAPID technology can be brought to both DOD as well as civilian enterprises which provide a similarly extensive continuum of care, such as HMOs.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street, Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
OSD 01-P10      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:HealthTrakT: Technology Enhanced Human Interface to the Computerized Patient Record
Abstract:There is an identified need within the Military Health System for physicians to spend no more than 15 minutes with each patient during routing outpatient appointments. The collection of administrative and medical data as well as the collection of information for diagnosis and treatment (by the provider) from sources other than the patient detract significantly from the time the physician can devote to the patient. The proposed effort is intended to create HealthTrakT, a small footprint, wireless web-based system for non-intrusive data collection for heterogeneous sources. The innovations within this system will simplify and accelerate physician-patient encounters by providing a set of high payoff automated capabilities within the entire military continuum of care. A congenial physician-patient interaction during patient encounters/Commercial applications include sales to NATO countries as they modernize their healthcare delivery systems as well as provision of heathcare within civilian settings with extensive continuum of core business practices at HMOs that encompass a full range of services from outpatient primary care in remote clinics to intensive care within large teaching medical centers.

ONTAR CORP.
9 Village Way
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-9622
Dr. John Schroeder
OSD 01-P10      Awarded: 25FEB02
Title:Technology Enhanced Human Interface to the Computerized Patient Record
Abstract:There is a need in the modern military to optimize the time physician's spend interacting with patients. For example, a goal is for doctors "to spend no more than 15 minutes with the patient during routine outpatient appointments." During this period a great deal must be accomplished, and information must be both recorded and received by the physician. Information such as patient demographics and immunizations, active medication and allergy interactions, patient problem list and alerts, etc. A significant step can be taken in achieving this goal by having a system that allows the physician to easily receive and record archival patient information. Such a system must have numerous capabilities: portability (it must easily fit in a physician's pocket); wireless (with fast access); multiplatform (desktop, handheld, pagers, cellular phones, head counted, etc.); security (both in the login and in data transmission and retrieval); voice interactive (voice commands, and voice transcriptions); readily adaptable to numerous medical databaes; powerful processing capabilities; and use an open architecture (operating system agnostic, non-proprietary, use XML and HTML technology). Ontar currently has in place a system with all these capabilities, called TENOR. It is beind implemented under an Air Force Phase II SBIR program, but can be easily modified for the proposed program. Ontar anticipates that the successful completion of this program will lead to a CRDA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) for the long-term support and development of the techniques developed under this work. Ontar has successfully entered into agreements with several government agencies and other organizations for technology transfer. In an era of severe budget cuts this may be the best way to guarantee the life of the product. We anticipate commercial products resulting from the proposed work. Ontar has found there is a large commercial market for products derived from DoD research. Approximately 50% of our total sales are from such products, with 45% of these sales outside the United States. These products are used by over 2500 DoD, industrial and academic institutions. The techniques developed under this program will have many commercial applications in military and civilian medical facilities.

SIGMA SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
9725 Aspen Hollow Way, #210
Fairfax, VA 22032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 864-8506
Dr. Jerzy Bala
OSD 01-P11      Awarded: 15FEB02
Title:Patient-Clinician Encounter Information Modeling Through Web Based Intelligent 3D Visual Interfaces
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop an integrated system for Patient-Clinician Encounter Information Visualization Model (PCEIVM) that will exhibit a mechanism of intelligent interactivity. The project will explore advanced 3D visualization interface techniques that incorporate adaptive patient encounter models as well as machine reasoning about the immediate information needs of clinicians. The ultimate goal is to allow for more cooperative, and thereby intelligent, reasoning between clinicians and patient's data models and more cognitive presentation of clinical data. The implemented PCEIVM system (to be initially demonstrated in Phase I and shrink-wrapped in Phase II) is expected to yield robust performance in a qualitative term of better informational management of patient-clinician encounters. The commercial potential for this technology will be pursued with the Department of Defense (e.g., TRICARE - the Department of Defense healthcare program for military families and retirees) and non-government healthcare organizations. Specifically, the technologies developed under this SBIR project should be readily applicable to those HMO type healthcare provider commercial sectors that encompass a full range of services from outpatient primary care in remote clinics to intensive care within large teaching medical centers.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Mr. James Ong
OSD 01-P11      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:An Intelligent Patient Data Review Assistant
Abstract:Continuing advances in computer networking, distributed computing, and the standardization and exchange of medical information are making it possible for clinicians to retrieve increasing amounts of patient data on-line. However, accessing upwards of hundreds of pages of data for each patient can overwhelm the clinician who may have just a few minutes before and during each brief patient encounter to review the patient's records. We propose to develop an Intelligent Patient Data Review Assistant (IPDRA), a web-based, intelligent user interface that will enable clinicians to visualize interactive, graphical reports of patient data gathered from heterogeneous, distributed, electronic health records databases. IPDRA will help clinicians review patient data more effectively by selecting an initial subset of the patient's records that are of greatest relevance to the patient encounter, presenting information to the clinician in the most effective manner, and responding to (or anticipate) additional requests for other information about the patient. Our interdisciplinary project team will apply expertise that spans clinical practice, clinical information and data visualization systems, user interfaces to clinical systems, artificial intelligence, knowledge management, and intelligent information retrieval systems. We plan to use the IPDRA technology to create and market an application framework that can be used as a foundation for providing IPDRA-like assistance and clinical knowledge management to hospitals and HMOs. This framework would include a knowledge base of template-based and adaptive reporting capabilities that rely upon clinical reasoning expertise stored in IPDRAs knowledge base. Customers would be able to extend the IPDRA knowledge base and adapt the data access subsystems to interface with their particular patient record systems.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Satheesh Ramachandran
OSD 01-P12      Awarded: 23JAN02
Title:Military Health Data Mining Algorithms Library (M-HDML)
Abstract:The aim of this project is to develop a framework to mine the MHS data repositories to extract and communicate medical knowledge that would ultimately enhance the delivery of DoD medical services. We propose to design, develop, and deploy a Medical Health Data Mining Library (M-HDML) tool-kit that leverages the power of intelligent knowledge discovery approaches. The principal innovations in this project would be (i) a validated universal representation scheme for the diverse types of clinical data, (ii) a sophisticated framework for rapidly building knowledge discovery applications that could be used to analyze medical data, (iii) a library of customized health data mining algorithms, and a set of reusable knowledge analysis templates that are geared towards discovering specific types of knowledge from clinical data, and (iv) automation mechanisms that would lead to significant reductions in time and effort needed to convert medical data into taxonomical knowledge types. The primary anticipated benefits in this project would be a validated universal representation scheme for the diverse types of clinical data, and a sophisticated framework for rapidly building knowledge discovery applications that could be used to analyze medical data.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Mr. Terrance Goan
OSD 01-P12      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:A User-centered Approach to Mining Health Information for Epidemiological Research and Comparative Analysis
Abstract:We propose to develop a new form of data mining software application that will be uniquely capable of overcoming the challenges to the effective use of advanced data analysis algorithms in support of epidemiology and comparative analyses. In the design of MediMiner we have been motivated primarily by two potentially conflicting observations: (1) there is substantial evidence that the domain independent "data archaeology" systems available today are only useful to skilled data mining specialists; (2) it is a certainty that the objectives of our end users will change over time, as will the contents of the MDR. To address these observations we have developed an innovative approach that will enable data mining specialists (or other skilled and motivated users) the full exploratory power of an interactive integrated data mining system, but also allow the efficient construction of more targeted solutions that are better suited to the needs and capabilities of end users such as healthcare researchers. In the development of MediMiner we will build upon our integrated data mining solution called IKODA. Phase I research and development of a proof-of-concept limited prototype will lay the groundwork for the Phase II implementation of a fully functional prototype of MediMiner. The MediMiner system will be attractive to the healthcare professionals within both public and private sectors. Further, our approach is equally applicable to a great number of other domains.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Jared Freeman
OSD 01-R01      Awarded: 28NOV01
Title:A Model-Based Index of Cognitive Fightability for Warrior Systems
Abstract:Measures of the usability of systems have traditionally focused on the physical fit between man and machine. We propose to develop model-based measures of cognitive fit, or cognitive fightability. The proposed measures are a function of the congruence between three factors: the mission, the cognitive abilities and capacities of warfighters, and the information presentation and control features the system. We will integrate these measures into a modeling system with which scientists, engineers, and acquisitions specialists can make useful, quantitative predictions of system impact on Army operations. In addition, the system can automatically optimize aspects of system design and generate specifications for optimal user teams. Our approach leverages (1) validated measures of human abilities, (2) deep knowledge of military systems for cognitively intense tasks, and (3) multi-objective optimization techniques. The proposed R&D will provide the Army with the capability to efficiently assess cognitive fightability; to specify selection criteria and training requirements for a given system; to compare the efficacy of alternative systems, users, or missions; and optimize the design of system features or user teams.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Eric Lichtenstein
OSD 01-R02      Awarded: 14DEC01
Title:Hand-Held Readiness Assessment Tool
Abstract:Cognitive readiness is as important a factor in battlefield success as nourishment, hydration, and physical energy. Physical ability and readiness are well known and easily measured qualities. While there exist numerous tests that provide an assessment of cognitive readiness, these tests are normally only suitable for a stable research environment. Furthermore, these question-and-answer type tests do not take into account the physiological state of the subject. Heart rate, breathing rate, and eye movements, for example, can all provide physiological insights to a subject's cognitive readiness, and are necessary to achieve a full account of cognitive states. The solution is to bring standard cognitive assessment tests together with physiological measurements, in a small hand-held computing device capable of collecting and displaying data. The device will be a modified COTS rugged hand held, capable of performing the Unified Tri-Service Cognitive Performance Assessment Battery (or any other), as well as collecting physiological data from any COTS medical devices that might be available in the field. Based on accepted cognitive physiological research, this additional data will be folded into the results from the UTC-PAB, to provide an almost immediate view of a subject's cognitive readiness, in the lab or on the battlefield. Cybernet's cognitive readiness assessment tool will allow physicians to quickly, cheaply, and accurately get physiological information about at patient's cognitive state, allowing them to diagnose cognitive mental illnesses at a much reduced cost. Wireless data transmission technology will free a physician from the confines of a psychologically oppressive laboratory environment, enabling a more realistic test environment. By combining all the accepted cognitive tests into a single device, the industry can save money by reducing costs. Because Cybernet will provide the collected data over the Internet, data will be available to the physician (and patient) immediately. Also, this technology can be used to assess if people should be allowed to drive cars, trucks, or operate heavy equipment.

NTI, INC.
5200 Springfield Pike, Suite 119
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 253-4110
Dr. Robert D. O'Donnell
OSD 01-R02      Awarded: 30NOV01
Title:Development of a Field-Practical Automated Battery for Assessing and Monitoring Cognitive Readiness
Abstract:Even as military conflict becomes more complex and technologically sophisticated, it is evident that there is a need to focus attention on the individual as both warrior and system controller. DoD is committed to optimizing the warfighter's physical, psychological, and cognitive capabilities to permit him/her to successfully operate in an information-rich and high stress environment. One result of this commitment has been the development of cognitive assessment/readiness test batteries based on a variety of diverse theoretical underpinnings. This has given rise to batteries that often overlap cognitive functions, or worse, fail to consider warfighter cognitive skills that are critical to mission success. In Phase I, NTI will survey current cognitive models and test batteries and will develop a final recommended state-of-the-art battery that will encompass behavioral and physiological measures of skills critical to military and civilian missions. This battery will consider simple cognitive skills, metacognitive skills, and affective states that may modulate performance (e.g., stress measures). A panel of experts from Army, Navy, and Air Force human performance research programs, as well as from other Government and civilian agencies will be assembled to review the test development process. Phase II will include validation and evaluation of this multidimensional automated tool. The importance of cognitive readiness ranges far outside of military applications. For example, companies in which employees perform safety critical jobs will benefit from knowing the cognitive status of their workers. These industries include the airlines, truck and bus companies, pharmaceutical industry, hospitals, and so on. A well-developed, validated, portable, cognitive readiness assessment battery could have significant impact on the safety records of such industries. In addition, researchers world-wide are often interested in acquiring reputable batteries for use in their own human performance research programs.

RSK ASSESSMENTS, INC.
1040 Woodcock Road, Suite 227
Orlando, FL 32803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 894-5090
Dr. Robert S. Kennedy
OSD 01-R02      Awarded: 11DEC01
Title:Field-Practical Automated Battery for Assessing and Monitoring Cognitive
Abstract:The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) intends "to develop and validate a field-practical, cognitive readines assessment battery validated for use within information-rich and high stress environments." To this end, we propose in Phase I to evaluate current cognitive assessment tools, identify theoretical and practical frameworks, and submit each to a set of criteria for inclusion in the final battery. Building upon the most valid cognitive assessment tools, we will also evaluate both high-level memory tests and noninvasive physiological measures for inclusion in order to better assess a war-fighter's situational awareness of the operational environment. Efforts will be directed as well toward developing and programming a field-ready computer with effective administrative procedures, usable displays, and rapid reporting capabilities. We intend to coordinate Phase I efforts with key cognitive researchers within the DoD and other subject matter experts. In Phase II, we will further develop the standardized assessment program by addressing research and methodological questions regarding cognitive readiness and technical questions concerning implementation of a field-practical automated tool. We will test it within digitized scenarios and urban environments using a consortium of military agencies, academia, and industry to conduct collaborative research investigations. A computerized hand-held self-administering performance readiness measurement system which provides stable data over repeated measures would have many uses as a human "dosimeter" or "assay" to screen employees for a jub function where safety or work quality may be critiical. Additionally, a cognitive readiness battery employing job samples would be useful in many places in the private sector and certain industries (e.g., trucks, aviation, farming) where fatigue is experienced, environmental agents occur and safety issues are factors of interest. Relatedly, the same performance testing technology could be used in research into selection, classification, rehabilitation from injury, memory, and cognition, environmental stress, psychological stress, and toxic agents.

MEDICAL DECISION LOGIC, INC.
724 Dulaney Valley Road
Towson, MD 21204
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 828-8948
Dr. Allen Y. Tien
OSD 01-R03      Awarded: 11DEC01
Title:Screening Test for Detection of Major Psychiatric Disorders in
Abstract:This SBIR project proposes to develop a software system ("MHealthWorks"T) designed to efficiently detect and describe risk for psychiatric disorders in military recruits. The system goals are to reduce psychiatric attrition during basic training by: (a) identifying recruits who are unlikely to complete basic training prior to their entry, and (b) facilitating attrition-preventative interventions after entry. The core system is based upon three components: (1) recruit self-report interfaces for efficient adaptive assessment; (2) staff interfaces for effective reporting; and (3) a management framework for analysis and recursive feedback of outcomes to refine assessment question sets and logic. MHealthWorks will be constructed based upon a multi-tier central data model with distributed clients for assessment, reporting, and management. In Phase II the MHealthWorks system will be field tested with recruits as they enter basic training. The Phase II study design will support generation of psychometric parameters, including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, efficiency, and ease of correct performance of the test. The utility of repeated measures will be investigated. Response burden and cost-effectiveness will be examined. Psychiatric outcomes gathered from multiple cohorts of recruits over the course of Phase II will be used for iterative refinement of the assessment question sets and logic, and to establish a management framework for this refinement process. A system that efficiently detects risk of psychiatric problems and uses outcomes feedback to refine testing psychometrics has value in the military accession process and also in general corporate and community markets.

PROFESSIONAL SERVICES GROUP
PO Box 4914, 4046 Quenita Drive
Winter Park, FL 32792
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 262-1412
Dr. Mark E. Koltko-Rivera
OSD 01-R03      Awarded: 13DEC01
Title:Screening Test for Detection of Major Psychiatric Disorders in
Abstract:The ultimate SBIR goal is to develop a theory-based screening instrument for major psychiatric disorders, applicable to a wide range of military and civilian assessment requirements (e.g., military recruitment, hospital admissions, counseling center outreach). There have been notable improvements in the accuracy and sophistication of psychiatric diagnosis. However, there has not been a corresponding development of reliable, valid, and easily interpretable instrumentation to screen simultaneously for multiple major psychiatric disorders. Most current diagnostic procedures screen for or detect a single disorder, or are unsuitable for mass administration and easy interpretation by non-psychologists/non-psychiatrists. We propose to carry out extensive surveys of: (1) existing psychodiagnostic procedures, and (2) current psychometric literature regarding assessment of psychopathology under resource constraints. Based on these surveys, a recommended set of questionnaire items will be developed to screen inexpensively for the presence of mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders, cognitive impairment, and major personality disorders. In addition, a detailed validity design will be generated that will follow military recruits from induction through the first 12 months of service. This study will provide extensive psychometric data relative to the validity, reliability, and ease of use of the instrument. Phase II will implement these plans. A psychiatric screening instrument will allow military command to identify individuals who should not enter active duty, as well as those who would benefit from appropriate intervention during basic training. This function, in turn, will significantly reduce premature attrition among individuals who have entered active duty. Commercially, a reliable, valid, inexpensive screening instrument will find use in primary health care settings (e.g., hospitals and clinics) and in mental health outreach settings (e.g., college and community mental health centers).

SOVOZ, INC.
38 Cherry Brook Drive
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 466-5434
Dr. Stephen H. Lane
OSD 01-R04      Awarded: 11DEC01
Title:Technology and Tools for Creation of Reusable 3D Content in e-Learning Systems
Abstract:Use of 3D content can be a very effective tool for developing cognitive readiness, providing information visualization and interactive physical simulation capabilities across a broad range of subject areas. However, there is still a lack of design experience and dedicated authoring tools allowing course instructors to seamlessly integrate and reuse this type of 3D content in today's education and training applications. soVoz's approach to developing encapsulated 3D components not only can provide these capabilities, but simplifies the 3D development process as well, thereby allowing domain experts to directly author 3D content without the assistance of professional artists, animators and programmers. Phase I of the project will investigate the feasibility of developing reusable 3D content for Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) environments that is conformant with the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). This will be accomplished by integrating existing soVoz behavioral animation technology with a scaleable, open standards-based, runtime 3D framework known as ANIMA. A set of functional requirements and design specifications for SCORM-compliant, 3D component interfaces and authoring tools will be developed, and a mobile robot platform simulated for testing and evaluating reusable 3D learning content created with the authoring tools and execution framework developed during the Phase II work. Successful completion of the project will result in an authoring system and runtime framework that allows easy creation of 3D Shareable Content Objects (SCOs) for ADL systems and virtual environments using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) graphical models and animations. This toolset would be intended for educators and other content creators and would have application across a wide range of industries, including: education, training, industrial design, maintenance, entertainment and information technology. Specific applications of the toolset include: preparation of instructional materials (i.e. visualization and physical simulations) for equipment use, assembly and maintenance tasks; computer generated force (CGF) development, training and simulation; creation of online repositories of 3D learning objects organized based on subject matter; and educational computer games.

SURVICE ENGINEERING CO.
1003 Old Philadelphia Road, Suite 103
Aberdeen, MD 21001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 273-7722
Mr. W. Keith Bowman
OSD 01-R04      Awarded: 11DEV01
Title:3D Components for Virtual Environments
Abstract: Abstract not available...

VCOM3D, INC.
3452 Lake Lynda Dr., Suite 260
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 737-7309
Dr. Edward M. Sims
OSD 01-R04      Awarded: 11DEC01
Title:3D Components for Virtual Environments
Abstract:We propose to develop an authoring tool and run-time environment for learning modules based on reusable 3D components. For Phase I, we will define and develop a proof-of-concept authoring tool and run-time environment using VRML and Java. We will define a concept and interface standards for reusable 3D components. Using these standards, we will create at least the following types of 3D components: a simple terrain environment, a human character, a vehicle, and a set of simple objects that can be manipulated by the Learner or by a simulated human character. We will also develop key components of an Authoring Tool for creating 3D objects that can form the building blocks of ADL Shareable Content Objects (SCOs). For Phase II, we will create a full prototype of the Run-Time Framework and Authoring Tool based on Phase I results. We will create a SCORM-conformant prototype training application, and we will integrate this application with a conformant Learning Management System (LMS). This project will develop Authoring Tools, a Run-time Environment, and proposed ADL-compatible standards for 3D reusable objects that may be used to build SCORM-conformant learning modules for government, university, and corporate training programs. Vcom3D has demonstrated the ability to rapidly transition virtual reality technology to commercial products. Our most recently completed Phase II SBIR was commercialized as a K-12 education product within six months of SBIR completion. It has been featured on CNN Headline News, has won multiple international awards, and was demonstrated at the U.S. House of Representatives as an example of the effectiveness of the SBIR program.

ACUSOFT, INC.
13501 Ingenuity Drive, Suite 200
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 658-9888
Mr. Jesse Liu
OSD 01-R05      Awarded: 07JAN02
Title:Real Time Collective Performance Feedback For Combat
Abstract:After Action Review is an essential part of both the training and actual combat environment. Sophisticated AAR Tools, such as PowerSTRIPES, have been developed for use in the modeling and simulation environment. These tools allow users to collect the data, transform the data as useful information, and present this information in multi-media formats as objective evidence of performance. These tools operate real-time with minimal effort from the user. As the battlefield becomes digitized, the data necessary to automatically generate AAR aids is becoming available electronically. There are numerous sources from which this data can be gathered. An existing AAR tool from the simulation environment could be "fed" with the digital battlefield data, and used to generate performance analysis information. This proposal will outline how PowerSTRIPES could be adapted to gather the digital battlefield data and empower soldiers with a tool for creating realtime, customized AARs. In the combat environment,such feedback could be applied to the decision making process before mistakes are made. Soldiers would be able to continually assess their situation with access to the appropriate tools to transform that data into information that is pertinent to the situation and the actions which the soldier is about to take. Objective Performance Feedback is essential for reinforcement of combat skills. If implemented, this system will provide the non-instrumented live, simulation and actual combat environments with immediate analysis of performance, when the events are most vivid in the participants' minds, i.e., hot wash. Integration of the digitized battlefield with existing simulation based AAR systems will take significant steps toward eliminating the gap between live and simulated operations. As this gap diminishes, simulations can be used to play an increasing role to provide real-time feed back to the soldier as a "Smart Team" member that can answer questions, and even anticipate probable outcomes of operations before they occur. This system could be effective not only in the digitized battlefield, but also as a commercial application in other areas where digital information is available and there is a need to compare ground-truth of performance against performance measures. In areas such as manufacturing involving complicated work flow processes, such a system could identify and document the probability of product failures that result from poor manufacturing processes, e.g.,the automotive industry.

FSCX, INC.
511 S.W. 'A' Avenue, Suite 2
Lawton, OK 73501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(580) 353-4030
Mr. Vance Miller
OSD 01-R05      Awarded: 01JAN02
Title:Real Time Collective Performance Feedback For Combat
Abstract:FSCX will develop a methodology and system design that will lead to a Phase II SBIR prototype, which will provide automated, decision support products to improve collective performance in training and real world operations. The prototype will improve individual and collective understanding in information intensive, digital environments. FSCX calls this prototype SpectoAgnito, a coined term meaning "to see knowledge". SpectoAgnito will help soldiers and leaders visualize knowledge within a combat situation to improve their proactive and reactive performance. SpectoAgnito's automated, intelligent data collection, exercise control, measures of performance, After Action Review (AAR) and trend analysis capabilities will permit trainers to spend more time on coaching and mentoring without increasing the number of trainers or exercise control stations. Similarly, SpectoAgnito's exercise control and AAR training features readily apply to operational control and mission rehearsal capabilities in real world operations. Further, SpectoAgnito's capabilities can be embedded in tactical Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I) systems operating over a Tactical Internet. An embedded SpectoAgnito will permit units to train and fight with the same system. SpectoAgnito then can serve as an embedded trainer/real-time situational alert, prompting individual operators and leaders at various echelons to make better-informed decisions and actions. Development of a SpectoAgnito prototype will enable us to commercialize its technology for automated, intelligent decision support systems to improve decision-making in high stress situations. Potential applications include military test, training and real world operations; disaster and emergency response operations, including police, fire, medical and civil rescue operations; racecar crew, air traffic control and port operations; etc.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2427
Dr. Eileen B. Entin
OSD 01-R06      Awarded: 28JAN02
Title:Scenario-Based Decision Skills Training for Geographically Distributed Teams
Abstract:The goal of this work is to develop a web-enabled scenario-based decision skills training program for distributed teams. In Phase I, using applicable research on team theory and scenario-based team training, we will develop a methodology for implementing a distributed team training program using web-enabled collaborative technologies. The program will be comprised of a set of scenarios each of which is linked to particular task and teamwork training objectives that will have been identified during a training needs analysis of a selected domain. Each training scenario will include a self-contained pre-brief, a problem solving session, and a framework for a post-scenario debriefing that will allow the team to conduct an analysis of their task and teamwork processes without the requirement for an instructor or facilitator to be present. Phase I will culminate in a proof-of-concept demonstration in the selected domain. In Phase II we will develop all the components of the team training program for a family of training scenarios, including self-contained pre-briefing materials and post-briefing team analysis and feedback tools. We will also provide an instructional guide for implementing the team training program in other domains in Phase III and beyond. The value of this work is that it provides a vehicle for geographically distributed teams to develop teamwork and task skills before being deployed to an operational setting. It is different from other training programs in that it is a self-contained program that can be used without having an instructor present when the team is training. The approach that is developed for this program can easily be adapted to any domain in which distributed teams will benefit from pre-deployment training, such as peacekeeping missions, medical interventions, and disaster relief.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd. N.
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(763) 561-0210
Dr. Karol Ross
OSD 01-R06      Awarded: 25JAN02
Title:Development of a Pedagogy and Tools for Scenario-Based Decision Skills Training for Geographically Distributed Teams
Abstract:Emerging new missions, complex new teams, and rapid deployment goals require effective, integrated training systems to support geographically dispersed teams. Distributed Mission Training (DMT) is a new training concept being pioneered in the military, and in the Air Force in particular. DMT is based on three principles. Teams, not individuals, execute missions; team skills are built upon individual skills, but are different; and technology must be used to overcome the limitations of time, distance, and training resources. Existing models and training paradigms do not adequately support the analysis of requirements for distributed team decision making and careful structuring of training to achieve team competence. Klein Associates' models of teamwork, cognitive task analysis expertise, and successful projects in Decision Skills Training provide an ideal basis for understanding and providing solutions to the challenges of distributed team decision making. In addition, our ability to leverage training tools we have already produced to support training development and distribution will allow us to move ahead quickly into prototype development and pilot testing of distributed training in a domain outside of the military-firefighting. The results will provide a rich foundation for further development of a training system for the military and other domains. The DMT concept originated from military training, but distributed teams in other domains such as business, firefighting, corrections and law enforcement, and medicine can benefit from military solutions. A solution that supports the development and implementation of Decision Skills Training in one setting will have direct implications and transferability to other domains.

SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
One Crystal Park, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 282-4432
Dr. Dutch Guckenberger
OSD 01-R06      Awarded: 25JAN02
Title:Scenario Based Decision Skills Training for Geographically Distributed Teams
Abstract:The Decision Skills Training Web Module (DST-WM) is focused on exploring the feasibility of--and exploiting team participation in--scenario-based training to greatly enhance problem-solving and decision-making skills. The DST-WM is initially designed as an on-line module to assist instructor/operators brief, run and debrief scenario-based distributed exercises. The DST-WM key innovations are encapsulation of the decision-making skills being trained per scenario, including basic-team DM-skills to scenario-specific DM-skills. Specifically, the DST-WM identifies the DM Training Objectives linked to Observable Scenario-Based Performance Criteria, while also providing Scenario-Based Scoring Logic which in turn is utilized for participant debrief, coupled with After-Action-Review (AAR) and participant records. Potentially, scenario results can be utilized for customization of DM training to Soldiers/Civilians for the Next Block of Scenario-Based Training. DST-WMs will evolve to higher levels of automation in support of the instructor/operators, eventually culminating in on-line intelligent tutors for some of the lower-level team decision-making skills training. Realistically, effective advanced team decision-making training will always require a human expert's interaction. The DST-WM is envisioned to organize and automate the scenario-based data and information for the instructor(s) and distributed teams benefit. DST-WM runs on existing GOTS/COTS E-Learning Networks, On-Line Gaming Networks and supports interoperability/integration with HLA/DIS Distributed Simulations. The Decisions Skills Training - Web Module will utilize existing GOTS/COTS E-Learning Networks, On-Line Gaming Networks and existing HLA/DIS networks to provide integrated Scenario Based Training. The module encapsulates the decision-making training objectives, the observable performance measures, coupled with the scoring logic, debrief, AAR and participant records all from a Scenario Based context. Specifically, the module stores and codifies the initial cognitive task analysis which identifies the knowledge, skills and experiences required for competent mission performance for a given team context. SDS's Phase I team context for the DST-WM prototype will focus on Emergency Response Teams (ERT) (fire, police, hazardous materials, medical) and reactions to natural disasters (medical, civil preparedness, government). The specific scenario basis context will be "Florida On Fire" and utilize the Volusia County ERT as the team SMEs. The design of the DST-WM is aimed at being a generic add-on module that supports scenario based training in distributed environments (e.g., Distributed Simulations, On-Line Gaming Networks, WBT, Learning Networks). The supported distributed environments include but are not limited to: distributed simulations such as USAF DMT, Navy BFTT, Army CCTT, Civil Emergency Response Team, Navy Microsoft Flight Simulator, Marine DVTE Infantry Video Game Cognitive Training network, combined with Web-Based Training and E-Learning Networks (e.g., ThinQ, Navy E-Learning, etc.). To be specifically in terms of mapping training programs to training systems, DST-WM automation and enhancement will enhance USAF FLUG training in DMT Contexts, Navy CIC training in BFTT, Army Section and Company Leader Training in CCTT, Volusia County ERT Training and AEF spin up via simulated in theater run-throughs with the geographically distant teams. The core innovations of DST-DM center on reuse of existing COTS and GOTS E-learning networks reasoning, scoring and reporting features being driven by small SDS written translation applets utilizing an XML Database that encapsulates the taxonomy of soft and hard skills that are important to the team decision making performance for a given scenario based context. The generic application of the DST-WM coupled with a quality cognitive task analysis conducted to identify the knowledge, skills and experiences required for competent mission performance for specific contexts is anticipated to benefit a plethora of decision making skills training arenas. Further, the DST-WM support and integration of web based E-Learning Networks, On-Line Games and with HLA/DIS Distributed Simulation Networks coupled with existing Web Based Collaboration software provides a truly advanced distributed learning environment upon which to imprint the value add of Scenario Based Decision Making Training. The DST-WM will support multiple fidelity and cost levels of Scenario Based interactivity and geographic locations options, including but not limited to: . High fidelity, higher cost AFRL Mesa DMT style FLUG training with multiple virtual F-16 simulations coupled with advanced briefing and AAR facilities, to . Medium fidelity lower cost Marine Deployed Virtual Training Environment of On-Line COTS Video Games coupled with basic NetMeeting collaboration facilitates . Mixed fidelity levels Navy E-Learning applying multiple WBT and Video Based Distance Learning applications coupled with multiple Web based collaboration tools. The DST-WM products will include an ERT prototype design, sample training scenarios, and an architecture based upon a PC based extension of the DMT environment combined with ThinQ Learning Network and Volusia County ERT organic communication, command and data sharing facilities. The DST-WM add-on architectural feature will also be applied to DMT FLUG and to DVTE Infantry On-Line Game Cognitive Trainer as example designs for developing similar systems for other civilian and military specialties.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Susan C. Fischer
OSD 01-R07      Awarded: 28JAN02
Title:Professional Leadership Development Skills Training for the 21st Century
Abstract:In response to quickly changing military environments in which leaders must face non-traditional missions, the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and the individual services have recognized the need for changes to leadership preparedness and training. This project seeks to determine the feasibility of developing computer-based instruction that increases non-cognitive and cognitive leadership skills in military officers. The proposed research focuses on three technical objectives. First, we seek to identify and select skills important to effective military leadership. Second, a model of military leadership will be developed to define leadership and associated concepts. Third, current teaching methods for developing leadership will be evaluated. The Phase II research will use the model and incorporated list of leadership skills to develop a computer based instructional system for Air Force personnel. The instruction will focus on at least one cognitive and one non cognitive skill. Because military leadership now requires new and different leadership skills, the provision of the proposed training is critical to the effectiveness of Air Force leaders. The instructional system would also be a valued and highly marketable product for the other services, as they face similar demands on their leaders. In addition, CBT that develops non cognitive skills in leaders would be of great interest to civilian industries that also require high levels of leader effectiveness. For example, corporations may want to use the system to train their employees in non cognitive leadership skills. The model could also be used to direct the development of reliable and valid assessment instruments of leadership that could be marketed to other services and businesses.

SOLUS, INC.
6555 Fort Myer Dr., Suite 700
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 333-3175
Dr. Roger von Hanwehr
OSD 01-R07      Awarded: 28JAN02
Title:Multi-Dimensional Leadership Skills Development Training
Abstract:Solus, Inc. proposes to develop a computer-based leader training system targeting key leader attributes and, adaptability skills that promote performance in complex military environments. Solus will investigate and utilized state of the art knowledge of cognitive and non-cognitive aspects of human performance, particularly those related to leadership skills development and effectiveness. The proposed leader training system will be grounded in conceptual principles of training leader adaptability, and will provide assessment, automated feedback, and progress-tracking and other features consistent with identified best practices in leader training. We think we the research and develop we outline in the proposal will lead to greater efficacy in leadership training systems. The fundamental leader attributes are applicable to domains other than DoD, so if successful we expect to find non-DoD coustomers.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Dr. Sowmya Ramachandran
OSD 01-R07      Awarded: 28JAN02
Title:ALTO: An Adaptive Leadership Training System
Abstract:Humanity has been concerned with the issue of effective leadership since time immemorial. However, as the world changes so must the qualities of an effective leader. Today's world is more uncertain, fast paced, and global than ever before. New ways of thinking about effective leadership are emerging as a result. One such significant shift is the concept of emotional intelligence. Leaders not only need to be skilled at cognitive tasks such as decision-making, they also need to be skilled at knowing their emotions, the influence emotions have on their behavior, the emotions of others, and ways of handling them. This proposal seeks to develop a computer-based tutor for leadership training that will capture some of the most recent advances in the field. Based on research of recent literature on leadership, we propose to develop an effective instructional model for computer-based instruction. We propose to build a Simulation-based Intelligent Tutoring System that will deliver customized training. Phase I has the objective of developing an instructional model addressing both cognitive and non-cognitive skills, and of developing a limited, proof-of-concept prototype to illustrate the concepts. Klein Associates Inc., a leader in studying leadership behavior, will assist us with these objectives. Leadership training is a massive market. Every organization, government or military is interested in producing effective leaders. Thus, we have a whole range of markets, from small businesses to multi-national corporations. However, there is also an equally large amount of competition. By designing an innovative training computer-based training system that incorporates the latest findings about Emotional Intelligence, we will be ahead of most of the competition. Training departments across organizations are moving more and more towards online training. This proposal gives us an opportunity to capitalize on this trend. It gives an opportunity for early entry into the market for online leadership training.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Michael D. Silver
OSD 01-R08      Awarded: 17JAN02
Title:Tactics, Training, and Procedures for the Warfighter Reacting to Crowd Dynamics
Abstract:As the military assumes more missions involving operations other than war (including humanitarian operations and support to domestic authorities), our forces will come into increased contact with crowds of varying levels of conflict potential. It is vital that our forces be trained to react to crowds in ways that minimize conflict intensity. However, there is currently insufficient training focusing on identifying real-time indicators of impending crowd conflict escalation, and little training in reacting to real-time crowd actions in ways that minimize conflict escalation. The primary objectives of Phase I will be to 1) identify real-time indicators of impending changes in conflict intensity, and 2) identify security force actions that result in minimal conflict escalation. In identifying these and other factors from historical (e.g., after-action reports) and other sources, a quantitative model will be developed that will allow the prediction of crowd reactions to the range of potential security force options. The results of Phase I will be used in Phase II to direct development of 1) a training program focused on real-time assessment of and reactions to crowds, and 2) a computer-based decision-support tool for use by security forces in predicting and reacting to crowd actions in real-time. Benefits of the training program and decision-support tool will include a lower chance of injury or death (compared to current training) for both security force members and crowd members, with an accompanying increase in the political and social acceptance of military operations other than war. This will be accomplished through more efficient and effective tactical intelligence collection, crowd assessment, rapid decision-making, and employment of appropriate lethal and non-lethal weapons. Upon completion of Phase II, the tactics, training, procedures, and tools developed during Phase II would be readily marketable to the military, and may be adapted for use by civilian police and other security and non-security forces as well.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd. N.
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(763) 561-0210
Dr. Karol Ross
OSD 01-R08      Awarded: 13DEC01
Title:Developing a Rapid Situation Awareness in Complex, Crowd Control Environments: The First Step in a Training Program for Warfighter Readiness
Abstract:Assessing crowd dynamics is a nearly impossible task. The myriad of available data makes it difficult to determine how and when a crowd of people will act and/or react. What is needed is a taxonomy of how experts in the field of crowd dynamics assessment do what they do best. How do these individuals know a crowd is nearing its boiling point? What actions can enforcement agencies take that will help mitigate these events? Around the globe, U.S. soldiers are placed into situations where their assessment skills are being put to the test and their reactions to changing events often determine whether a crowd turns violent. This effort would be the first step in a training program for those U.S. soldiers who are faced with these difficult decisions. In the Phase I, we will conduct a Cognitive Task Analysis of experts to determine how they develop their assessment of a crowd. What do they attend to that allows them to make predictions about a crowd's future actions? This study will lay the groundwork for the development of a training program to train tactics and procedures for individuals when faced with difficult decisions regarding crowds and crowd control. Following the successful completion of the Phase II, the training program will have immediate application within other areas of the DOD. Any tool that would benefit the Air Force in these situations will be of benefit to the Marines and Army as well. Yet, the impact of this training program will go far beyond military applications. Local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies are in dire need of such a program. These agencies are being asked to respond to an ever-growing number of crowd events and crowd control situations. This training program will provide the training support that is needed. First, this program will be based on sound research. The identification of how experts in the field size up a crowd to determine how they will act and/or react will provide this solid foundation. The resulting training program will provide specific guidance regarding how to assess crowds and how actions of law enforcement officials can help to successfully mitigate these events.

METRICA, INC.
8620 N. New Braunfels, Suite 603
San Antonio, TX 78217
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 822-2310
Mr. Brice Stone
OSD 01-R08      Awarded: 19DEC01
Title:Tactics, Training, and Procedures for the Warfighter Reacting to Crowd Dynamics
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to conduct research to develop tactics, training and procedures for users of lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons (NLWs) that would enhance the warfighter's ability to rapidly assess a situation and determine the optimal course of action. Rapid and accurate assessment of potential agitation indicators in a crowd allows for better real time decisions and provides a better opportunity to optimize the applied force required to meet mission objectives, while minimizing the level of conflict escalation. The Phase I of the project will focus on the development of a methodology to support the decision-making process used to analyze the impact of a threat and the means to deal with the threat. Phase I will be comprised of four tasks. Task 1 will consist of a literature review and information gathering task to identify factors that could influence crowd behavior or mood (e.g., size, motivation, age range, and cultural diversity). Classification schemes, which aid in the decision-making process, will also be considered. Task 2 will also consist of an information gathering exercise to identify existing civilian and military training courses that use these factors (crowd indicators) to assess possible crowd control actions. Task 3 is a multi-faceted task. First, additional information will be collected to identify data regarding historical crowd behaviors such as Chicago in 1968, Seattle in 1999, St Louis in 1964, Watts in 1965, Newark 1967 or Detroit in 2001 and consequences of the applied security responses in each instance. Secondly, a synthesis of the information collected in Task I, II and the first part of Task III will be performed for the development of an understanding of how actions by military or police forces modify crowd behavior based on the identified crowd behavior indicators. Lastly, courses of action will be identified which were most beneficial in reducing crowd escalation. Task IV involves the documentation of the methodology and findings in a technical report. The existing focus of training for the warfighter has not been directed at making rapid and accurate reactive decisions based on feedback from crowd behavior. This is a shortfall, which the proposed research effort is addressing. Phase I will provide the basis for the development of methodology and coursework to train the warfighter to employ select tactics to control and redirect crowd behavior under varying circumstances. Developing and enhancing these reactive decision-making processes for the warfighter making lethal and NLW employment decisions will lower the probability of conflict escalation. In addition, the methodology and proposed coursework resulting from the proposed research will not only benefit the warfighter, but will also have value to other Government and private sector agencies who deal with the destructive forces of crowds.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
12030 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite 400, Reston Plaz
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 788-7737
Mr. David Minton
OSD 01-R08      Awarded: 21DEC01
Title:Tactics, Training, and Procedures for the Warfighter Reacting to
Abstract:There exists a body of information associated with crowd dynamics. However, much of this information is associated with overall characteristics (e.g., crowd size, motivation, age range, and cultural diversity) or exit behavior at games and concerts. Information concerning interactions and responses between the crowd and the crowd managers is sparse. A new approach to the problem is proposed using wavelets. Wavelets will be used to transform the crowd dynamics information domain into a compressed domain. In the compressed domain, specific features will be examined, such as crowd vector acceleration, to determine their effect on the overall crowd behavior and the interaction between the crowd and the crowd managers. Based on this approach, thresholds, which lead to changes in the overall crowd behavior, can be detected and isolated. With this information, crowd managers will have additional information to make a more informed decision concerning, for example, the use of Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW). Parameters and factors which effect crowd behavior and dynamics will be very useful in a variety of government and commercial applications. As the number of crowds increases, and the crowd dynamic becomes more a part of the process for both political and entertainment events, more and more research into the use of the variables and parameters, which will be defined under this proposal, will be necessary. Tactics, procedures, and training courses can be developed which illustrate the effects of the changes in these parameters in the crowd dynamic and how the decisions of crowd managers are likewise effected.

SCENPRO, INC.
101 W. Renner Rd., Suite 130
Richardson, TX 75082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 437-5001
Mr. Robert Williams
OSD 01-R08      Awarded: 14JAN02
Title:Tactics, Training, and Procedures for the Warfighter Reacting to
Abstract:Emerging war-fighting concepts, along with the shift in U.S. policy toward more humanitarian and peace keeping missions, requires U.S. and NATO forces to spend more time in urban settings confronting a wide variety of organized and disorganized multicultural populations. The mood and behavior of these populations will reflect the environment that surrounds them. This reflection will present in the form of desperate and hostile crowds seeking resolution to their situation. The warfighter will require enhanced training to effectively manage these crowds. ScenPro, Inc. will conduct research to develop a comprehensive set of crowd behavior models to support the training of warfighters in the use of Non-Lethal Weapons Systems and related tactics. These models will include factors that affect crowd behavior, characteristics, acceptable courses of action, and predictive responses. Once developed and validated, these models can be incorporated into existing training technologies to enhance a warfighters' ability to recognize and assess key crowd agitation behaviors, determine the most appropriate course of action, and deploy the least amount of force necessary to de-escalate the situation and complete the mission. Dynamic decision-making models that support warfighters appropriate respond to crowds. Threat identification, analysis, assessment, decision-making, and response training for military forces and civilian law enforcement applications.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Alan Spiker
OSD 01-R09      Awarded: 28JAN02
Title:Cognitive Demands of Warfighter Readiness
Abstract:This SBIR will identify a set of high-payoff training interventions that can be applied to improve the mission planning skills of USAF fighter pilots. The project will focus on the planning needs of warfighters who are using the Distributed Mission Training (DMT) testbed at AFRL in Mesa, AZ. Interventions will be identified through a systematic Training Needs Analysis, in which a set of high-payoff mission planning skills are identified, promising interventions extracted through SME interviews and literature review, and a Delphi approach is used to achieve consensus among a panel of experts concerning those interventions that will have potential to improve effectiveness of mission planning training. Phase I will result in concept design specifications for the most promising interventions, including a plan for developing, implementing, and evaluating a package of interventions at AFRL's DMT testbed. Possible candidates include: computer-based training of key mission planning skills; embedded training of time-critical planning decisions; focused, intensive (deliberate) practice of error-prone planning tasks; on-call access to a dynamic mission archival library; Web-enabled "spin-up" training of mission- and environment-specific planning skills; one-on-one cognitive apprenticeship training; specialized cross-training in other weapon systems; and development of a portable digital assistant (pda) containing customized checklists, among others. A number of benefits of improved mission planning training will result from the project. These include better utilization of limited planning time, increased situation awareness, greater team coordination and inter-flight resource utilization, along with increased confidence in one's own flight team and weapon system capability. Phase II will entail developing the most promising interventions, trial implementation, and a formal evaluation of the intervention "package" by representative warfighters. Development of a validated taxonomy of mission planning skills will facilitate training even in areas for which no explicit interventions have been developed. Moreover, information gleaned during the research will support AFRL's active, on-going program of research using the DMT paradigm. Because many of the requisite planning skills encompass in-aircraft replanning, improvement in mission planning training will facilitate a cadre of onboard aircraft tasks, such as radar mechanization, targeting, sorting, threat management, and "contract" development between and among flight elements. Beyond Phase II, lessons learned from improvement in mission planning training should facilitate participants of related areas and industries where planning impact is high. This will include emergency response crews, process control teams, power generation stations, and the civilian aircraft industry.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 30
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 277-9288
Dr. Kelly Neville
OSD 01-R09      Awarded: 27FEB02
Title:Cognitive Demands of Warfighter Readiness
Abstract:The intent of the proposed effort is to develop and demonstrate a feasible design for the Cognition-Centered Constructivistic Program of Instruction (C3PI) for Aircrew Planning. C3PI will consist of a set of training interventions that are designed to strategically build aircrew mission planning proficiency. These interventions will include strategies embedded in the pre-mission planning phase and the mission execution phase, as well as strategies that are implemented prior to the planning phase or during the debrief phase. C3PI also will include a set of recommendations for targeting mission planning proficiency during other types of training opportunities and programs, such as classroom training and live training exercises. We propose to develop C3PI by employing theoretically sound R&D techniques, including cognitive task analysis techniques, and by working closely with the operational community. In this effort, we will identify skills and types of knowledge that contribute to effective planning both in preparation for and during mission execution. In addition, we will design a program of instruction that facilitates the acquisition of the identified skills and knowledge. These products may benefit a wide range of tactical teams similar to the tactical teams that are the focus of this Phase I effort. Likewise the identification of important planning knowledge categories and skills may benefit a wide range of strategic planning teams in both the military and civilian sectors. In addition, we expect the program of instruction we develop to have significant commercialization potential due to the important role planning and replanning play throughout the business community. Medical teams, civilian flight operations, satellite control operations, and city/urban management and development are examples of additional commercial opportunities for a system of instruction that builds planning and replanning proficiency.

SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
One Crystal Park, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 282-4432
Dr. Dutch Guckenberger
OSD 01-R09      Awarded: 26FEB02
Title:Cognitive Demands of Warfighter Readiness
Abstract:The aims and opportunities of Combat Mission Planning Cognitive Skill Training (CoMPCoST) Web-Module are providing: effective Combat Mission Planning cognitive-skills training-interventions for aviators and add-on augmentation and enhancement for Operational Aviation Mission Planning Applications. CoMPCoST's innovative add-on web-module design supports inclusion into DMT DIS/HLA architectures, E-Learning Management Networks, and Operational Aviation Mission Planning Applications for existing, planned and legacy planning systems. Research will focus on: identifying cognitive skills that contribute most heavily to effective combat mission planning for aviators and incorporating them into a Requirements Matrix and associated UML USE Cases; selecting and developing candidate training interventions designed to develop these cognitive skills; and developing scoring and evaluation logic/applications that evaluate/feedback the training interventions on subsequent mission-planning performance. Innovatively, SDS will use a synergy of JSAF/SOAR with Smart-Board technology to: augment/enhance interviews of DMT participants to identify mission areas that are particularly sensitive to mission planning and replanning skills; support data collection for the conduct of cognitive task analyses. Use of JSAF/SOAR in Above-Real-Time execution of the initial plan may have merit in presenting and evaluating multiple "what if" plans. Ultimately, CoMPCoST is envisioned to augment and enhance planning training, and actual operational planning for military and civilian organizations. The CoMPCoST Web Module will benefit combat mission planning on multiple levels. Uniquely, the Module will encapsulate cognitive skill aids and enhancements for both training and operational contexts. The module's flexible design supports COTS and GOTS E-Learning Management Network On-Line Software to present cues, suggestions, checklists, scripts, full multi-media case studies/examples, interactive tutors, etc., focused on effective development of combat mission planning cognitive skills in aviators. The Phase I soft skills training research benefits include: * Requirements Matrix and selected UML Use Cases developed as a set of targeted planning skills through a review of existing DMT mission planning and replanning reports, observation and interviews of DMT participants to identify mission areas that are particularly sensitive to mission planning and replanning skills, and conduct of cognitive task analyses * Development of feasibility concept designs for training interventions that are designed to take advantage of DMT capabilities to develop critical mission preparation and replanning skills. * Development of the PI's "Leader Identification of Team Weakest Link" concepts as candidate interventions * Initial Analysis of Operational Mission Planning enhancements and aiding via evolution of the training module. Other benefits include providing deign of advanced virtual environment enhancements from GOTS and COTS components aimed at aiding and automating training research to capture mission planning data for analysis and eventually as mechanisms for delivering effective training interventions. Additional benefits center on evolving the mission-planning weapon of choice beyond the ubiquitous white board, to synergies and combinations including: * Smart Boards for capturing the planning interactions, diagrams, and sequence of events * E-Learning Management Network Applications to support training research objectives, organization of data, analysis support, scoring, data recording, records, reporting, and visualization. * Projected Mission Planning Tools, large screen format of the planning tools GUI and graphics * Above Real-Time "What If" JSAF/SOAR execution of multiple variations of mission plans as an aid to evaluating and refining plans * Digital Logging of DIS/HLA JSAF/SOAR exercise combined with digital voice recording for time stamped mission planning records The near-term CoMPCost Web Module variants will range from conventional internet on-line E-Learning, coupled with the limited on-line collaboration tools, to state-of-the-art DMT virtual briefing-rooms where the SMART board is combined with JSAF/SOAR and DIS/HLA components adapted to Above-Real-Time in support of end-to-end training, briefing, monitoring, evaluating, and debriefing/after-action-review cycles. Future CoMPCoST Modules are envisioned for direct utilization by teams of aviators training combat mission planning and executing planning at flight, squadron, wing and AOC levels. Further variants will eventually be utilized by civilian and commercial organizations training for-- and execution of--similar planning contexts.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
427 South 166th Street
Omaha, NE 68118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 981-8731
Mr. Stuart L. Aldridge
OSD 01-R10      Awarded: 25JAN02
Title:Tasking, Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination (TPED)-Knowledge Acquisition and Assessment System (KAAS)
Abstract:In response to Small Business Innovative Research solicitation OSD01-CR10, 21CSI is pleased to propose the development of a proof-of-concept software knowledge assessment tool for TPED teams. Our assessment tool, the TPED Knowledge Acquisition and Assessment System (TPED-KAAS), will be built from the bottom up to support TPED team assessment and training. The heart of this system will be a unique Knowledge database derived from an extensive research in the Mission Essential Competencies (MECs) of the TPED team and its members. It will employ intelligent agent technology to generate an incomplete intelligence situation and to assess TPED team members as they prosecute the TPED cycle and complete the situation. We propose to focus our development activity on the TPED assessment needs of the AF Distributed Common Ground Station (AF-DCGS). This SBIR will culminate in an integrated TPED-KAAS software package that will assess TPED teams and individuals for cognitive readiness and tactical knowledge of a particular situation. This will be a unique product. Many government and commercial entities, which must assess team performance for readiness, would benefit strongly from the TPED-KAAS concept: FEMA and other disaster response agencies (who could benefit from rehearsal assessments), power plants, automated, flexible manufacturing factories, intelligent transportation and communications, air traffic control, and others. The TPED-KAAS product will be delivered through 21CSI's open architecture AEDGETM environment. Beyond the TPED-KAAS core product, transition of the team assessment system technology itself also will have very significant potential. Team assessments have wide potential applicability to just about every industry involving teams, procedures, and domain-specific knowledge (including the professional sports sector). Our first commercial, non-military product incorporating TPED-KAAS technology will likely be part of a team assessment tool for a government disaster preparation agency at the state of federal level. The tool will be used both in support of team assessment and for distributed training.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Jared Freeman
OSD 01-R10      Awarded: 19FEB01
Title:Latent Semantic Analysis for Assessment and Training of Knowledge and Competencies in Air Force Intelligence Organizations
Abstract:A highly automated approach is proposed to measure learning and performance of cognitive tasks in Air Force intelligence organizations. We propose to identify key knowledge requirements, Mission Essential Competencies, and training needs in a representative intelligence domain; develop a Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) model of domain knowledge with which we will assess expertise and diagnose specific knowledge deficits among individuals and teams; devise training strategies that take advantage of automated assessment capabilities; and illustrate them ? along with assessment and knowledge acquisition techniques ? in a web-based conceptual prototype. Work in this and subsequent SBIR Phases should produce: reliable, valid, and non-invasive measurement and diagnosis of knowledge and competencies in the CAOC or DCGS; improved selection, training, and real-time decision support; improved planning of new intelligence missions supported by a topically organized knowledge base of prior missions.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4900 Pearl East Circle, Suite 201E
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 347-6117
Mr. Tom Carolan
OSD 01-R10      Awarded: 28JAN02
Title:Assessment Methods for Tactical Knowledge and Cognitive Readiness of
Abstract:Tasking, Processing, Exploitation and Dissemination (TPED) systems and teams provide the capabilities for processing, analyzing and disseminating imagery intelligence when and where it is needed. The Air Force has identified the need for methods and tools to support and enhance the human performance component of TPED operations. Micro Analysis & Design, Inc. (MA&D) proposes to team with The University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) on this Phase I innovative research effort to demonstrate a proof-of-concept method for defining and assessing mission essential competencies required for cognitive readiness and effective performance. The emphasis is on identifying tactical knowledge requirements and cognitive skills involving team knowledge acquisition, synthesis and dissemination. The feasibility of using information captured from TPED team work process and products as a basis for automated team knowledge assessment will be evaluated. The objective is to integrate information from distributed sources to develop collaborative team knowledge assessments. Assessment categories will be linked to instructional strategies defined in terms of scenario-based training and rehearsal events. Human performance modeling tools will be applied to defining team performance readiness expectations under different workload, experience and training levels. The benefits to government and private sector agencies from automated assessment support tools include reduced training support requirements and a capability to focus training activities and content to specific knowledge shortfalls thereby increasing training effectiveness and reducing team time-to-proficiency.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Ste. 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 643-1444
Dr. Eric A. Domeshek
OSD 01-R11      Awarded: 08JAN02
Title:Instructional Authoring with Problem and Lesson Cases
Abstract:Case-based instruction is a major alternative instructional approach widely used in management training and certainly applicable as well to high-level military training dealing with tactical and strategic decision-making. A wide range of instructional practices and technological approaches has been advanced under the broad banner of case-based instruction, with a wide range of claims made and/or demonstrated (to varying degrees), about the benefits of such techniques. We intend to synthesize some of the recent advances in cognitive science and information technology into an authoring shell and runtime system that support the process of preparing and delivering effective adaptive case-based instruction for a range of complex skills. SHAI will develop a Runtime and Authoring Shell for Case Analysis and Learning (RASCAL). Given an underlying domain formalization, the system will enable domain experts to author both problem-cases intended to serve as context for instruction, and lesson-cases to serve as useful content remindings during exploration of problem cases. Experts will also be able to author curricula and cases, and link the cases to specified curricular objectives. Depending on availability of case materials, we will develop an initial demonstration of this system either in the domain of Naval exercises, or in the domain of business strategy. An authoring shell that eases construction of case-based instructional systems and helps insure fielded systems exploit the best known pedagogical technique and implementation technology will lower costs while improving quality and availability for an important class of computer-based adaptive instruction. Case-based instruction is appropriate in training a wide range of high-level skills, ranging from military command reasoning to business and other forms of professional decision-making.

GLOBAL EMEDICINE
2710 W. Burbank Blvd.
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 612-2200
Dr. Greg Thompson
OSD 01-R12      Awarded: 25JAN02
Title:Authoring Shell for Case-Based Instruction
Abstract:Global eMedicine, with UCLA, proposes to design and fully develop a remote intelligent case authoring toolset. Phase I efforts will focus on the collaborative design and development of the tools through staged formative evaluation and iterative refinement of the application's technical and functional specifications until a complete operational prototype tool is achieved. Systematic user studies, in cooperative effort between the Principal Investigator and UCLA research faculty, will be used to iteratively incorporate needed modifications and functional enhancements by Global eMedicine's development team. The toolset will interface with our existing SCORMv1.2-compliant digital asset management system for the incorporation of standards-based learning objects. Phase I will additionally involve technical modifications to the case simulation engine and existing didactic lecture engine which will allow variable integration of case-based learning with lecture-based learning for further Phase II research and development. Phase II will evaluate the toolset's value in the context of the whole case production process as well as optimal use of case-based and traditional lecture-based learning when these two teaching methods are variably integrated into a Distance Learning platform. The intelligent toolset will be Web-based and constructed with open-architecture technology that can be easily installed on existing DoD DL networks. Because Problem Based Learning (PBL) has shown substantial benefits over traditional lecture base teaching, case simulations have become an important means of incorporating PBL into many different types of professional curricula (medical, law, business administration, etc). This is true within the DoD as well as academia and the private sectors. However, case production processes are still primitive, very resource-intensive and are not intelligent or standards-based. Therefore, great reluctance exists on the part of technology-challenged subject matter experts to use these tools. A fully automated intelligent tool that incorporates standards-based digital assets and learning objects is expected to be a market leader for teaching institutions and organizations that utilize PBL curricula. Such an intelligent authoring toolset will enable rapid, scalable, cost-efficient production of case vignette libraries that can be easily modified as knowledge updates occur, thus preventing obsolescence of these curricular materials. Specifically, because most instructors do not possess Web development skills, teachers who wish to incorporate PBL can use the intelligent toolset without reliance upon expensive and time-consuming IT resources for case creation and revision. The utility of such a tool extends far beyond medical education into any form of Distance Learning education that incorporates case simulations. Because Distance Learning is expected to be an $11billion market in coming years, the commercial value of an intelligent tool for the creation of engaging case vignettes should be great.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North, P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3792
Dr. James E. McCarthy
OSD 01-R12      Awarded: 03JAN02
Title:The Grain Size Of Student Models As A Factor In ICAI Effectiveness
Abstract:The Phase I effort will include a detailed study design leading to the identification of intelligent tutor dimensions, components, and instructional features that are impacted by student model grain size. The study will also develop the experimental methodology that will compare learning effectiveness and instructional efficiency information for tutor variations of different grain size. In addition, costs for design and development of the fine-grain models and their courser-grain derivative will be recovered and analyzed as a basis for comparison. Sonalysts proposes ExpertTrainO simulation-based intelligent tutoring technology as the basis for the grain size comparison. As we will describe, the ExpertTrain engine readily accommodates moderate to course grain sizes and can be extended to support cognitive diagnosis. Sonalysts has produced a number of fielded tutors with the ExpertTrain engine. Considering technical issues, experimental design, costs, and commercialization potential, we will, in conjunction with the sponsor, determine whether any of these courses can be used as the basis for the comparison, or whether a new, albeit limited, course should be developed. Phase II will include completion of multiple tutors (varying in grain-size) and performance of a comparative analysis. This research will significantly contribute to development of cost versus effectiveness metrics for various intelligent tutor components and features, particularly those related to grain size. We anticipate that the most useful metrics will describe the curve shapes for tutor cost and training/ remediation time versus granularity. The shape of these curves coupled with standard training planning factors (e.g., student throughput, technology refresh cycle, etc.) will help resource sponsors and program managers make reliable training investment decisions based on life-cycle and total ownership costs. Reliable cost versus benefit metrics are key decision-making tools for programs such as DD 21, JSF, Space Based Infrared Systems.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2419
Dr. Kathy Hess
OSD 01-R13      Awarded: 21DEC01
Title:Instructional Design Aid for Creating Pedagogically Correct, Interesting and Motivating Instructional Content
Abstract:Technological advances such as advanced electronic classrooms, video tele-training, and web-based curricula offer flexibility for training not possible in traditional settings. Computer-supported training must be more than a simple digitization of training materials. Rather, training has to support engaged learning and leverage the full range of resources employed in classroom-based instruction, from training texts, to interactions with the instructor and peers, to hands-on experience using actual equipment. To maximize engaged learning, it is essential to consider relevant motivational factors during the planning, designing, and delivery of computer-supported training. We propose to develop a web-based instructional design aid for designing computer-supported training that is both engaging and effective. For our Phase I effort we propose to gain a deeper and more thorough understanding of the factors affecting student motivation and interest in learning. We will develop an extensive and extendable set of criteria for instructional design based on those factors, design and demonstrate a proof-of-concept web-based instructional design aid, and write an evaluation plan for assessing utility and effectiveness. The proposed work will (1) identify a comprehensive set of factors affecting student motivation and establish links between those factors and specific characteristics of military training and, (2) produce a web-based prototype instructional design aid and a plan for its evaluation.

FLORIDA MAXIMA CORP.
507 N. New York Ave., R-1
Winter Park, FL 32789
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 647-8021
Dr. James E. Driskell
OSD 01-R13      Awarded: 21DEC01
Title:Toolbox/Intelligent Advisor for Creating Pedagogically Correct,
Abstract:The Department of Defense is pursuing a program to convert thousands of hours of courseware to an Internet or intranet-based distance learning system. The potential benefits of ADL technologies include providing greater access to learning, incorporating advanced technologies into instruction, and achieving savings in instructor time, student costs, and reduced infrastructure. On the other hand, the potential disadvantages of distance learning include poor quality instructional content, loss of student motivation, detachment of learners from the instructional community, and high drop-out rates. To address this problem, this proposal describes a two-pronged effort to (a) derive instructional guidelines for developing distance learning courseware and (b) develop a toolbox/intelligent advisor to present these guidelines in a format that is easily accessible and informative to the user. There has been phenomenal growth in recent years in distance learning courses in education, industry, and the military, yet most institutions lack the expertise to develop distance learning courseware in an online environment. This project will result in a software application that will provide course development/management capabilities to support instructional design for distance learning in the military, government, and industry.

INSTRUCTIONAL SCIENCE & DEVELOPMENT, INC
14117 Perdido Key Drive
Pensacola, FL 32507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 492-7522
Dr. H. Dewey Kribs
OSD 01-R13      Awarded: 15JAN02
Title:Toolbox/Intelligent Advisor for Creating Pedagogically Correct,
Abstract:The Intelligent Advisor for designing motivating and interesting Web-based instruction will involve the user in a two-step interaction process. First, the Advisor will query the user to determine the status of the instructional program and the characteristics of the instruction that pertain to each of the three Toolbox areas--social interactions, interactive multimedia instruction, and gaming strategies. The Advisor will setup the information for the Toolbox of design strategies to work with. The Advisor may query the user to determine whether it is an existing or emerging instructional program, whether the content is fully analyzed and learning objectives have been developed, and whether MILPRF29612 guidelines or others are to be met. Next, the Advisor will automate many of the query outcomes and the application of a series of design principles based on parsing of learning objectives or other descriptions of the learning situation. An Intellligent Advisor with a Toolbox of design strategies for interesting and motivating instruction is needed across all Web-based instructional content to alleviate the nature of learning alone.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 222-0444
Dr. Jacqueline Haynes
OSD 01-R13      Awarded: 21DEC01
Title:Courseware Developer's Workbench
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) proposes to design and develop The Courseware Developer's Workbench (CDW), an expert system that assists courseware developers in the process of creating Web-based training material that is interesting and motivating. A courseware author will use this tool as he/she considers and implements the design for an instructional program. This tool will provide expert advice to the author, derived from (1) the advice of successful, expert instructors; (2) Navy policy and parameters; and (3) the results of recent research on methods and instructional practices that promote learners' motivation and interest in acquiring new information and skills. Along with advice on using these principles in designing Web-based instruction, CDW will provide a Toolbox of examples and strategies for the implementation of these methods. In particular, the advisor will present strategies for incorporating opportunities for social interaction, dynamic graphics and sound effects, and gaming/simulations. The resulting knowledge base of rules, procedures, and heuristics will be usable in print format; however, the more powerful use of the knowledge base will be demonstrated in an expert system that will dynamically guide the courseware developer to those elements in the knowledge base that are most clearly relevant to the current situation. The military, business and, and job training/retraining institutions are all realizing that effective training is increasingly crucial and are adapting CBT and distance learning systems to replace traditional paper-based and classroom training. Our intelligent instructional systems design aid will be an effective, portable, and flexible tool that can be incorporated with any CBT authoring software used by developers. This aid, by providing cognitive science advice and strategies for motivation to the courseware developers in a dynamic and effective way, will be welcomed in the courseware authoring community and grow with the increasingly wide use of high quality courseware. We believe that the potential for commercialization of our product is closely tied to the rapid growth of the computer-based training (CBT) and distance learning markets. As a participant in the Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative sponsored by OSD, we are keenly aware of the explosive growth and interest in distributed learning systems used in a distance-learning context. We believe that the issue of quality becomes critical in a Web environment, where materials "published" directly by authors have not been subject to the same rigor of professional quality review that most commercial products undergo prior to publication. Therefore, our product will also be marketed to purchasers of CBT and distance learning technologies as a method of reviewing courseware for the quality of its design in terms of cognitive science attributes.

GLOBAL EMEDICINE
2710 W. Burbank Blvd.
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 612-2200
Dr. Gregory Thompson
OSD 01-R14      Awarded: 21DEC01
Title:Intelligent Authoring Tools for Web-based Case Vignettes
Abstract:Global eMedicine, with Stanford University, proposes to design and develop an intelligent remote authoring toolset for clinical case simulation vignettes. Phase I efforts will involve development of complete functional and technical specifications for the toolset as well as usability and cost-effectiveness determination. Starting with a minimum set of functional specifications and raw prototype application, input from sample case authors through systematic user studies will be iteratively incorporated into the intelligent tool's design until final specifications are achieved. This staged formative evaluation will result in a complete prototype application that will interface with a SCORMv1.2-compliant digital asset management system and then be studied for usability by a full subject group of sample authors. Cost of case production will be compared to other, non-intelligent case production processes in use. Phase II will involve full production of the intelligent authoring toolset and formal remote authoring by subject matter experts of multiple clinical case vignettes. A study of student end-users will then evaluate these case vignettes for consistency of vignette quality and ability to meet stated learning objectives. The intelligent toolset will be Web-based and constructed with open-architecture technology that can be easily installed on existing DoD DL networks. Because Problem Based Learning (PBL) has shown substantial benefits over traditional lecture base teaching, case simulations have become an important means of incorporating PBL into many different types of professional curricula (medical, law, business administration, etc). This is true within the DoD as well as academia and the private sectors. However, case production processes are still primitive, very resource-intensive and are not intelligent or standards-based. Therefore, great reluctance exists on the part of technology-challenged subject matter experts to use these tools. A fully automated intelligent tool that incorporates standards-based digital assets and learning objects is expected to be a market leader for teaching institutions and organizations that utilize PBL curricula. Such an intelligent authoring toolset will enable rapid, scalable, cost-efficient production of case vignette libraries that can be easily modified as knowledge updates occur, thus preventing obsolescence of these curricular materials. Specifically, because most instructors do not possess Web development skills, teachers who wish to incorporate PBL can use the intelligent toolset without reliance upon expensive and time-consuming IT resources for case creation and revision. The utility of such a tool extends far beyond medical education into any form of Distance Learning education that incorporates case simulations. Because Distance Learning is expected to be an $11billion market in coming years, the commercial value of an intelligent tool for the creation of engaging case vignettes should be great.

INSTRUCTIONAL SCIENCE & DEVELOPMENT, INC
14117 Perdido Key Drive
Pensacola, FL 32507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 492-7522
Dr. H. Dewey Kribs
OSD 01-R14      Awarded: 15JAN02
Title:Intelligent Assistant for Web-based Training Vignette Design
Abstract:We propose an approach to research intelligent technologies and design a Web-based, SCORM compliant system that will 1)generate training vignettes that provide challenging and motivating instruction across content domains, 2)manage the presentation of the training vignettes, and 3)monitor the learner's performance and evaluate the learner's proficiency in attainment of the learning objectives. In addition to achieving more behavioral and cognitive interactions with the learner, we see applications in the military as well as the civilian sector dealing with dynamic situations and in Information Technology and Human Resources settings.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street, Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
OSD 01-R14      Awarded: 21DEC01
Title:INSTRANETTET: Intelligent Assistant for Web-based Training Vignette Design
Abstract:In principle, training vignettes hold significant potential in creating instructional "mini-scenarios" that actively engage and motivate trainees and that can be completed by trainees in relatively short periods (i.e., significantly less than an hour). However, there are specific challenges that need to be overcome before training vignettes deliver on their promise. These include developing a precise definition of training vignette that includes learning objective, instructional strategies, possible behavioral responses, performance metrics, and feedback opportunities. Phase I of this effort will respond to these challenges by creating the system concept and implementation architecture for a prototype training vignette design tool; and selecting appropriate content that serves to showcase and test the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of training vignetttes. Training vignettes hold significant payoff for all organizations that have embraced distance learning as a corporate strategy to amplify their skill base. These include IT companies, telecom, life sciences, construction, and aerospace. In particular, training vignettes hold great payoff in training "black-belts" for the Six Sigma defect elimination objective.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd. N.
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(763) 561-0210
Dr. Karol Ross
OSD 01-R14      Awarded: 08JAN02
Title:Developing an Intelligent Vignette Development Tool for Distance Learning Applications
Abstract:Vignettes and scenarios have come into widespread use as one basis for instruction. They have met with success, especially for training decision-making skills and the cognitive aspects of task performance. One challenge with using training vignettes is in their development-what skill or support is required in order for the trainer to produce a high-quality vignette that will result in positive learning? Another challenge is to utilize vignettes in distance learning applications-what is the best way to build vignettes that meet the unique requirements of the distance learning environment? The proposed effort seeks to make headway on each of these two challenges. Klein Associates proposes to interview individuals who create or otherwise participate in distance learning programs to identify the unique requirements of the training environment. We will also draw on our extensive experience developing and refining a program of vignette-based decision skills training, of which vignette development is a primary feature. We will design and demonstrate an online intelligent vignette development prototype that lends trainers the personalized support necessary to create high quality vignettes for distance learning applications. The prototype will feature an on-going assessment and feedback function to help the trainer improve each vignette. The envisioned vignette development tool will be applicable to any domain that employs vignette-based training, including firefighting, law enforcement, emergency response, and power generation. It will be directly applicable to distance learning programs within these domains. We anticipate that it could also be used, if tailored appropriately, for vignette-based training in more traditional (e.g., classroom) settings.