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386 Phase I Selections from the 02.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
 INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC. 7519 Standish Place, Suite 200 Rockville, MD 20855 Phone: PI: Topic#: (301) 222-0444 Dr. Chujen Lin AF 02-001      Selected for Award Title: UWB for Target Identification Abstract: We propose to develop a target identification system using Time Modulated Ultra-Wide Band (TM-UWB) radars. The prototype hardware will be based on the TM-UWB ASIC chips developed by Time Domain Corporation of Huntsville AL. The only signals transmitted by UWB radars are pulses generated pseudo-randomly in time. The pulses we are currently using are « nanosecond in duration and the energy extends approximately from roughly .8 to 3 gigahertz. The energy content in any conventional frequency band is below the noise, making TM-UWB transmission highly covert unless you know the specific pseudo-random sequence. With TM-UWB there is no carrier frequency, no up-conversion and no down-conversion, and the output stage can be a single transistor which creates a binary pulse, all resulting in decreased radio size, cost, and complexity. The duty cycle of the pulse generated by our current hardware is approximately 1/200, resulting in low power consumption because 99.5% of the time, nothing is being transmitted. Because of the low frequency content of TM-UWB signals, they are able to penetrate foliage and nonmetallic obstacles better than conventional radars. During Phase I, we will design a UWB conformal array antenna system and demonstrate the prototype system in a laboratory environment. The primary potential military application for this technology is the location and identification of obscured objects. Civilian applications include future time domain communications systems as well as airborne mapping of buried cables, pipelines, and mine shafts. IAI and TDC are aggressively working to develop through-the-wall imaging radar for use by polices, fire fighters, and for use by the military for MOUT operations. There is great interest in through the wall imaging, and congress has specifically earmarked substantial funds for this development. The developments from the subject work should lead to the next generation of through-the-wall imaging radar. The ability to electronically steer radio transmissions will also increase the range and/or data rate of TM-UWB radios.

 SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC. 15261 Connector Lane Huntington Beach, CA 92649 Phone: PI: Topic#: (714) 903-1000 Mr. Michael Marino AF 02-001      Selected for Award Title: Identification of Small Metallic Objects Using UWB Excitation Abstract: SARA proposes to design a coherent, hybrid, UWB detector and analyzer (CHUDA) system that uses commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology. SARA will use proven technologies and algorithms, developed during the conduct of 5 previous Phase II SBIR programs. CHUDA is comprised of multiple wideband conformal antennas, a hybrid radio frequency (RF) receiver, and a digital signal processor (DSP). This architecture has the combined benefits of spectrum analyzer and transient digitizer systems, while greatly reducing the disadvantages of these systems. The system will detect, identify, and localize ground objects. This SBIR addresses the receive system. We expect "small, metallic object detection" to be the primary product of the proposed technology. This system holds great promise as a commercial product and we envision the following commercial and military applications: The primary military application will be the a mobile and/or airborne system capable of detecting and identifying small (less than 6 ft.) metallic objects in a clutter environment. The system can be used to scan public places (airports, schools, sport stadiums, demonstrations, ...) to detect and pinpoint persons carrying metallic weapons. This system could augment search and rescue efforts. Sensors would be installed at various mountain peaks that are commonly used by hikers and cross country skiers. The system could locate lost individuals from their cell phone transmissions or by providing them with a transponder at the start their trip. The system could be installed in urban areas for localizing cellular 911 emergency calls. The system could be installed in urban areas for stolen vehicle recovery systems. The system could be used by local law enforcement for locating unauthorized transmitters.

 CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORPORATION 727 Airport Boulevard Ann Arbor, MI 48108 Phone: PI: Topic#: (734) 668-2567 Mr. Joseph Tesar AF 02-002      Selected for Award Title: An Optical Health Monitor for High Power Lasers Abstract: Research on high energy lasers (HELs) has been taking place in laboratories for several years. As the technology matures, HELs are moving out of the laboratory and into applications such as military weapons, industrial material processing and fusion research. HELs make significant demands on the optical components, often subjecting coatings, mirrors and lenses to optical energy near the damage threshold of the element. In less-than-ideal environments, contamination of mirrors and lens elements can quickly cause optical coatings to degrade. For this reason, the need exists for on-going monitoring of the critical elements in a HEL system. Cybernet proposes to develop an automated optical health monitoring system that can alert the laser operator to degraded performance and coordinate predictive maintenance. The system acquires data from a number of standard metrology instruments, storing diagnostic data into a dynamic database. Optical characteristics to monitor include reflectance, transmittance, scatter, photothermal and photomechanical response. Once data from the optical sensors is in the database, software routines based on expert systems will track diagnostic data and alert maintenance personnel when performance decreases, or when optically induced damage is imminent. Commercial applications include industrial material processing (welding, cutting, etc) and fusion research.

 CLARK-MXR, INC. 7300 Huron River Drive Dexter, MI 48130 Phone: PI: Topic#: (734) 426-2803 Dr. Larry Walker AF 02-003      Selected for Award Title: Drilling 170 Micron Diameter Holes Abstract: The goal of this Phase I program is to define the system concept (including hardware and software) needed to produce holes whose entrance, bore, and exit are contoured to user-defined parameters, reliably and repeatedly time-after-time, with a minimum of intervention by the user, and in less than one minute per hole (hopefully substantially less.) We will demonstrate basic concepts by drilling 170 micron diameter holes in 1 mm thick metal plates using a commercial, ultrashort pulse micromachining workstation, and then compare the results to the requirements set forth in "Specifications for Rapid Hole Drilling" by William Latham. This Phase I program will lay the groundwork for construction and commissioning of a system whose performance provides the best fit to these requirements. This work will find applications in the military in the ABL program, in the automotive industry in the manufacture of fuel injectors that result in better fuel atomization (and consequently more efficient and cleaner burn), in the heavy-duty truck industry by helping them meet the EPA's goal for reducing emissions by CY-2007 (see www.epa.gov/otag/diesel.htm), in micromachining inkjet printers by eliminating the need to use the hazardous and corrosive gases required to run excimer lasers, in biomedical applications in the design and fabrication of "lab-on-a-chip" devices, and in the fabrication of stents serving specialized medical needs.

 DYNAMIC STRUCTURE & MATERIALS, LLC 205 Williamson Square Franklin, TN 37064 Phone: PI: Topic#: (615) 595-6665 Dr. Jeffrey S. N. Paine AF 02-003      Selected for Award Title: Rapid Hole Array Drilling Using Laser and Mechanical Processes Abstract: An innovative solution is proposed for production of precise hole arrays in metals and other materials. To create arrays of holes on the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mm diameter and 0.5 to 5 mm deep, DSM proposes a combination of high peak-power lasers and very precise and accurate part manipulation. "Pico and femto-second" lasers with very short pulse duration and very high rep-rates produce streams of high intensity energy pulses that excel at micro-drilling of metals. A critical requirement for precise drilling and cutting is the avoidance of heat dissipation and the loss of concentrated energy at the ablation site. With the ability to deposit the energy at very short intervals and high rep-rates, heat dissipation can be minimized. By attempting the precise drilling of sample materials with a number of laser sources, an effective combination of laser wavelength, pulse duration and rep-rate will be determined. A novel part handling and precision manipulation platform will be used to achieve precise drilling control and correct for any laser beam quality errors (taper and/or non-circularity errors). Finally, Phase I will demonstrate the ability to rapidly position and process the part to achieve desired hole production throughput. Precision micro-machining and micro-processing of materials is an increasingly important tool for the production of MEMS, biomedical devices, photonics components, and precision apertures. The ability to accurately drill precise holes and handle the parts to facilitate rapid production of micron level features makes the production of these devices much less expensive. Devices such as the Singlet Oxygen Generator for the ABL and other injection devices can also be realized in a reasonable amount of time with rapid and accurate hole production.

 E. M. OPTOMECHANICAL, INC. #310, 13170B Central Ave, SE Albuquerque, NM 87123 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 281-1746 Mr. Thomas A. Swann AF 02-003      Selected for Award Title: Rapid Laser Drilling and Inspection of Contoured Holes Abstract: The Air Force's Airborne Laser System needs technology to rapidly produce high-quality 170-micron diameter contoured holes in quantities of millions. At a target rate of one hole per minute, a single production workstation running 24/7 would take 46 years to produce the number of holes required for a fully operational system consisting of seven aircraft. E. M. Optomechanical, Inc. is proposing a unique combination of laser micromachining, machine vision, and robotics technologies into a cost effective workstation capable, with multiple workstations, of meeting the Air Force's quality and throughput requirements. The most critical feasibility issues are how fast can holes be produced, with the techniques necessary to produce high quality contoured holes, and how can the quality of the holes be assessed. The objective of this Phase I technical proposal is to experimentally produce high-quality contoured holes in one minute or less per hole and to determine a means to ensure the quality of the holes that are produced. E. M. Optomechanical has assembled a highly qualified team experienced in producing systems that incorporate laser micromachining, machine vision, and robotics technologies as well as the successful commercialization of work funded through the SBIR program. The Air Force's application is to produce holes in the injector heads of singlet oxygen generators that are used in chemical oxygen iodine lasers. In addition to drilling holes, the system proposed would be versatile enough to be used for many other laser micromachining applications. Commercial micromachining applications include microelectronics packaging, semiconductor manufacturing, medical devices and diagnostics, data storage devices, telecommunications devices, and computer peripherals.

 EXTRUDE HONE CORPORATION 1 Industry Blvd, P.O. Box 1000 Irwin, PA 15642 Phone: PI: Topic#: (724) 863-5900 Mr. Ralph Resnick AF 02-003      Selected for Award Title: Drilling 170 Micron Diameter Holes Abstract: This project proposes to develop and quantify the performance characteristics for processing the holes in the injector heads of the ABL weapon system. The objective is to provide the Air Force and supporting contractors with the technology and equipment to manufacture holes of virtually arbitrary size, contour and accuracy. Techniques and concepts that will form the basis of machining holes with a new short-pulse laser system will be investigated. Specifically, it will be determined if it is feasible to produce holes of sufficient quality and at production rates capable of meeting specifications for the injector heads of the laser modules for the Air Force ABL weapon system. Development of short-pulse laser machining technology and processing parameters will lead to the design, manufacture and demonstration of a prototype Short-Pulse Laser Machining system capable of meeting the objectives of the injector heads for the laser modules on the Air Force ABL in Phase II. The new short-pulse laser technology proposed represents a significant advance in precision manufacturing and its potential is of the same order as other revolutionary new machining technologies of the past few decades. Short-pulse lasers can be used to precisely machine virtually any material, including metals, dielectrics, semiconductors and those that are optically transparent, and the process yields no heat affected zone, no mechanical damage, burr-free cuts, and no modification of material properties. It is clear that the technology will have broad impact over a range of market sectors and user communities. Both the commercial sector and the DOD would be attracted by the potential of the SP laser as an industrial tool.

 LASER FARE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY GROUP 70 Dean Knauss Drive Narragansett, RI 02882 Phone: PI: Topic#: (401) 738-5777 Dr. Paul Jacobs AF 02-003      Selected for Award Title: Drilling 170 Micron Diameter Holes Abstract: The U.S. Air Force must develop the ability to rapidly drill many millions of 170 micron diameter holes through metal plates, to form injector heads as part of its ABL program. The holes must be high quality, non-invasive to the surrounding metal, and the process must be less labor and time intensive than present methods. As discussed in this proposal the physics of material removal with pulsed lasers is uniquely different for short pulse laser drilling (pulse duration < 20 ps) than for the more common long pulse laser drilling ( > 20 ps.). During the proposed Phase I program we will perform analytical modeling of both long pulse and short pulse laser systems. Also, we will down-select the best candidate laser(s), based upon anticipated drilling speed and hole quality. Next, we will assemble/locate prototype candidate laser systems. This prototype system(s) will drill 300 holes in each of three 316 stainless steel plates, 0.2 mm, 1.0 mm, and 5 mm thick. Statistically significant mean value and standard deviation values of : (1) hole drilling time, (2) inlet diameter, (3) inlet eccentricity, (4) outlet diameter, (5) outlet eccentricity, and (6) surface roughness will be demonstrated in Phase I. The ability to drill precise, high aspect ratio holes at a highly productive, cost efficient rate is not only critical to the ABL lasing process, but it is also an enabling capability for other applications such as in the filtration industry and in the airframe industry. Small diameter precision holes have long been considered for the leading edges of airfoils (wings and stabilizers)for drag reduction, but lack of cost effective capability has stifled development of this concept Although these types of holes can be drilled on a limited, ideal condition basis, the time (schedule) and cost make it prohibitive to incorporate large numbers of these holes in concept designs. The benefit of consistent quality, high speed hole drilling on a virtually lights out 24/7 basis would enable these concepts to be a reality.

 PARADIGM LASERS, INC. 402 Commercial Street East Rochester, NY 14445 Phone: PI: Topic#: (585) 248-0290 Mr. Tim Irwin AF 02-003      Selected for Award Title: Drilling 170 Micron Diameter Holes Abstract: To achieve the required accuracy, precision and production rate we propose to apply our specialized experience in lasers and Electrical Discharge Machining(EDM)for drilling precise 170æm diameter holes. The proposed technique combines the advantages of each of these technologies. Using a DPSS Laser to pre-drill the holes, rapidly removing 90% of the material, and EDM to finish the drilling process, ensures the desired hole geometry and internal surface quality, while having the goal of achieving an operational rate of one BHP injector head every two hours. We will demostrate the drilling process to confirm the soundness of our approach and provide a number of holes in the specified metal stock. A combined process drilling machine will be conceptualized and described for BHP injector production. There is a strong need in the industry for rapid drilling of small diameter precision holes in a variety of materials, a problem that as yet has not been adequately solved. Examples of applications are automotive fuel injection systems, ink jet printers, near-field optical scanning microscopes, Laval nozzles for gas dynamic lasers and many others. We believe that our approach will provide a good solution.

 PHOTON PRIME INC. 119 South Vine Street Plainfield, IN 46168 Phone: PI: Topic#: (317) 627-4829 Mr. David E. Stucker AF 02-003      Selected for Award Title: Drilling 170 Micron Diameter Holes Abstract: The process of producing tightly toleranced holes on the order of 170 microns enters into a realm of great difficulty. Though thousands of holes are produced in the automotive industry daily approximating this size, standard EDM techniques do not approach the tolerances requested of <0.01 X hole feature for a reasonable process time. Further compounding the problem is the increased difficulty of producing a said hole in a thicker substrate material as could be required for this particular program. In this Phase I Program, a 500W TRW DP-11 high brightness DPSSL laser, as developed under the DARPA sponsored Precision Laser Machining Program, will be used to laser process small diameter holes and evaluated as to define whether the required tolerances may or may not be met in a reasonable cycle time. If successful, it is projected that this process could replace a major portion of the EDM processed holes as done today. Given the success of this Phase I Program, an immediate benefit would be to provide the ABL and GBL Laser Programs a confirmed process and site for limited production of components. If carried through Phase II, it is proposed that a beta turnkey system would result allowing gasoline and diesel fuel injector drilling. Medical component processing would likely follow as applications arise.

 PHYSICS, MATERIALS & APPLIED MATH RESEARCH, L.L.C. 1333 N. Tyndall Ave. suite 212 Tucson, AZ 85719 Phone: PI: Topic#: (520) 882-7349 Dr. Kevin Kremeyer AF 02-003      Selected for Award Title: Small Holes, Drilled in Hard Materials, Using Ultrasort Laser Pulses. Abstract: Ultrashort laser pulses are able to deposit nearly all of their energy before the target material responds significanly. As a result, they avoid the losses/scattering which typically accompany other forms of laser processing. Another benefit is the absence of the melt-phase with its associated slag and thermal trauma/cracking. The amount of material ablated by each pulse can be controlled by adjusting the pulse energy and spot size. For very small pulse energies, incremeental amounts of material can be removed. If the spot size is gradually reduced from pulse to pulse, the hole can be very smoothly tapered/contoured. Small pulse energies enable fine control, but also necessitate high pulse repetition rates in order to be useful. One of the main concerns involved in rapid pulse succession is the interaction of a given pulse with the ablation plume of its preceding pulse. This problem can be mitigated by machining in a vacuum, however when multiple holes are drilled, the pulses can be alternated among many holes, allowing sufficient time between pulses at any given hole. We propose the application of ultrashort laser pulses to drill arrays of small holes in hard and/or coated materials. lower cost, finer control, drill through coatings, etc The anticipated benefits of this technology are much lower cost and time requirements over conventional drilling methods in the ABL program. The method will also allow higher precision than conventional methods, leading to much finer control, and better mixing in the ABL combustion chamber. If coatings are used on the injector heads to make them more inert, the ultrafast laser drilling method will allow easy penetration of any coating that may be implemented. Another government application is the DOE's request for small holes of very large aspect ratios in diesel fuel injectors to increase their efficiency. This application is clearly for the commercial market, and will lead to advances that are useful to most all liquid combustion applications. Beside these government applications, there are many applications in commercial micro machining and micro-fluidics, as well as medical applications, such as dentistry.

 BRASHEAR LP 615 Epsilon Dr Pittsburgh, PA 15238 Phone: PI: Topic#: (412) 967-7831 Robert Sobek AF 02-004      Selected for Award Title: Beam Train Flexible Structure Control for Airborne/Space-Based Systems Abstract: Brashear LP proposes to characterize the problem and possible solutions for acoustic induced disturbances. This problem will likely drive the LOS jitter stability of ABL and similar airborne pointing applications. The research will characterize the acoustic disturbance on ABL hardware then use this detailed description to employ more sophisticated methods of jitter control. Such methods include mechanical based solutions (both active and passive) and electronic motion control solutions. The approaches will be quantitatively compared and assessed for practical implementation. The proposed improvements in jitter control would have immediate impact on the ABL program. These benefits would include increased operating range to target, reduced dwell time on target or the possibility of designing and incorporating lightweight, flexible structures to reduce system weight. In addition to ABL any directed energy system on an airborne platform, such as ATL, would also benefit. Other directed energy systems such as M-THEL and SBL could also benefit from the improved jitter performance. Finally, any optical system subject to harsh vibration environments or high acoustic loads (such as those caused by high wind loads) could benefit from the proposed improvements in jitter control. ATL is similar application to ABL that is likely to see a higher acoustic disturbance environment from essentially the same sources as ABL. The goal of ATL is microradian pointing stability on a system intended for installation on various airborne platforms. The disturbance modeling techniques and the jitter control solutions learned in this SBIR would directly apply. Anticipated results for successful Phase I include: 1.A description of the acoustic disturbance problem that can be used to seed advanced jitter control methods. 2.Identification and quantified performance prediction of mechanical and structure based jitter control schemes including their effectiveness on the jitter control as a function of frequency. 3.Identification and quantified performance prediction of motion control based jitter control schemes including their effectiveness on the jitter control as a function of frequency. 4.A quantified benefit to the ABL mission parameters. 5.Experimental data that supports the qualitative attributes of a structure solution to acoustic induced jitter.

 CSA ENGINEERING, INC. 2565 Leghorn Street Mountain View, CA 94043 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 765-5860 Dr. Jerry Alcone AF 02-004      Selected for Award Title: Adaptive Filtering and Disturbance Feedforward Approach for Flexible Beam Train Control Abstract: In this effort, a novel Adaptive Filtering and Disturbance Feed-forward (AFDF) technique is investigated in the context of direct practical application to the ABL beam control system. High performance ATP systems such as those required for ABL often operate in intense aero-acoustic and structural vibration environments. The degradation in performance arising from these disturbances is accentuated as the mass/inertia of the beam train and its support structure are reduced. Further degradation in performance results from the structural-dynamic interactions excited by the high bandwidth, high acceleration operational characteristics, typical of ATP systems. The proposed technique integrates previous proven approaches to AFDF with recent advances in flexible structure sensing and control. The result is a practical AFDF implementation suitable for flexible beam train applications such as the ABL. A unique aspect of the proposed effort is the introduction of closed loop AFDF to improve overall disturbance rejection and simultaneously reduce both structural mode and aero-acoustic environment effects on system performance. CSA currently supports Lockheed-Martin on the development of the integrated beam control system for ABL. The AFDF approach has a direct transition opportunity to the ABL program due to its potential to reduce vibration-induced jitter in the ABL beam control system. Specifically, AFDF can improve performance with respect to turret buffet, stable platform pointing error, and non-common path jitter. CSA also supports a number of other DoD, NASA , and commercial customers in the development of aerospace stabilization systems. Since CSA is an established provider of these solutions, insertion of the higher performance AFDF algorithms represents a significant opportunity. In addition, CSA believes the commercial potential for the AFDF techniques developed in this effort are significant, due to their broad applicability to applications in other industries (e.g. automotive, semi-conductor, medical, etc.). Because AFDF potentially offers higher performance via a more efficient use of available sensing and actuation capability, a large opportunity exists for incorporating into both existing and future products such as isolation tables for wafer manufacturing, high performance automotive suspension systems.

 PLANNING SYSTEMS INC. 12030 Sunrise Valley Dr, Suite 400, Reston Plaza I Reston, VA 20191 Phone: PI: Topic#: (321) 768-6500 Mr. Lawrence D. Davis AF 02-004      Selected for Award Title: Beam Train Flexible Structure Control for Airborne/Space-Based Systems Abstract: The increasing demands for higher performance optical acquisition, tracking, and pointing (ATP) systems, combined with cost pressures requiring lighter payloads, indicates a need for a new approach to slewing and structural control. The use of lighter weight structures exacerbates the interaction of slew maneuvers and acoustic disturbances with the system's flexible modes, causing errors in the alignment and shape of the optical components that result in degraded optical performance. Such gimbaled systems will require control systems that can accommodate the time-varying disturbances, rigid-body, and flexible dynamics resulting from the changing geometry as the payload is slewed. To address these issues, we will show the feasibility of (Phase I) and demonstrate (Phase II) an adaptive control design approach that works during operation to autonomously identify the time-varying gimbaled optical system dynamics affecting the slewing bandwidth, then design feedback control laws to achieve predefined performance and stability criteria. Our technical approach is based on our Frequency Domain Expert (FDE) control algorithm, which has been demonstrated on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE-II). The proposed technology development has the potential to significantly enhance the performance of large, gimbaled optics such as ABL and SBL. The ability of the new, autonomous control design procedure to provide both improved slewing and noise abatement without user intervention would prove especially beneficial to systems (such as SBL) with limits on communication with human supervisors. The same technology for control design will be useful in the commercialization arena, particularly for robotic applications in which a single control law is to function for a wide variety of system parameters and geometry.

 ADVR INC. 910 Technology Blvd, Suite K Bozeman, MT 59718 Phone: PI: Topic#: (406) 522-0388 Dr. Gregg Switzer AF 02-005      Selected for Award Title: Frequency-Agile Monolithic Micro-Laser with Ultra-Narrow Linewidth Abstract: A method for generating a high power, continuous wave (cw) monolithic micro-laser with rapidly tunable, narrow linewidth output is proposed. The concept employs a semiconductor laser coupled to an electro-optically controlled Bragg waveguide in Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP) providing single frequency output. Frequency tuning is achieved by applying a voltage across the waveguide, thereby changing its index of refraction. The targeted tuning range is 30 GHz in 1 ms by applying 18 volts across the waveguide. The output of the laser will be amplified to 1 Watt using a commercially available Yb-doped fiber amplifier. The combined system will provide a high power, rapidly tunable, single frequency output in a robust, monolithic package ideal for tracking fast moving objects in the atmosphere. KTP is an ideal medium for this application because of its high electro-optic figure of merit (~36 pm/V), high threshold for optical damage (~1 GW/cm2), low susceptibility to photo-refractive damage, and the ability to form low loss (0.5 dB/cm) waveguides using standard ion exchange techniques. KTP is transparent from 350 nm to 4500 nm, so the device will work for a wide variety of wavelengths ranges. The proposed monolithic laser will provide rapid tuning over a broad frequency range at high power making it ideal for laser tracking and spectroscopy.

 COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 655 Aspen Ridge Drive Lafayette, CO 80026 Phone: PI: Topic#: (303) 604-2000 Dr. Mark Phillips AF 02-005      Selected for Award Title: Frequency-Agile Laser for Target Velocity Compensation Abstract: Frequency-agile lasers with ultra-narrow linewidth are required for several coherent laser applications, including correction for Doppler frequency shifts between fast-moving platforms, and column content Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements from Space with atmospheric depth biassing. Coherent Technologies Inc. proposes to develop a compact near-monolithic laser that provides 30GHz tuning capability, tunable over its full range in 1ms. The tuning mechanism will be intracavity phase modulation to provide settling times that are commensurate with the 1ms tuning period. A master oscillator, power amplifier (MOPA) architecture is implemented to allow power scaling to the 1W level and above. This program will leverage off CTI?s previous and existing work in frequency offset-locking of single frequency lasers for space-based platform compensation, and power scaling of single frequency lasers using large core fiber amplifiers to avoid nonlinear optical scattering. The tunable laser will likely be based on Nd:YAG, with amplification in an Yb:glass optical fiber. In the final configuration, a separate single frequency laser will be locked to a reference cell, and the tunable laser will be frequency offset-locked to the reference laser. The Phase 1 program will include a tuning demonstration of the low power tunable master oscillator. Anticipated applications include (1) Platform motion correction in Doppler Lidar systems,(2) Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements.

 COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 655 Aspen Ridge Drive Lafayette, CO 80026 Phone: PI: Topic#: (303) 604-2000 Dr. Iain McKinnie AF 02-006      Selected for Award Title: Robust and Efficient Tunable Laser for HEL Applications Abstract: CTI proposes a compact, high-efficiency, high beam-quality 2.6-2.9 micron tunable low energy laser (LEL) for SBL applications. The LEL is required for alignment of HEL resonator optics and payload element, testing of diagnostics and low power testing. The proposed transmitter is based on a laser with OPO frequency converter, and provides significant advantages in efficiency, footprint and beam quality over similar state-of-the-art laser pumped OPOs. Improved performance results from two critical patent-pending technologies. The efficiency and beam quality of the drive laser are optimized using a proprietary technology that combines the high efficiency and diffraction-limited output of a single-mode fiber laser with the power-scaling of a bulk laser. The drive laser is also compact and readily ruggedized, with excellent thermal properties. The OPO uses an innovative architecture to maximize efficient conversion to required LEL wavelengths. Absorption problems in this region (common in many nonlinear materials such as PPLN) are minimized. Minor modifications to the OPO architecture can provide up to 40% efficiency enhancement at certain wavelengths, and single frequency operation using a proprietary low-loss spectral control technique. Phase I will conduct risk-reduction demonstrations of the two critical technologies. The program leverages multiple other programs at CTI, enabling delivery of a brassboard prototype laser in Phase II. In addition to LEL applications, robust, compact and efficient frequency-agile laser transmitters in the MWIR region are needed for commercial DIAL sensors for industrial chemical detection, pollution monitoring and leak detection. These lasers are also useful for scientific applications such as high resolution spectroscopy. With minor modifications, SWIR output can be generated as a diagnostic source for WDM communications. High efficiency infrared lasers are also attractive for wind-sensing, free-space communications, search and rescue beacons, IR countermeasures and medicine.

 FIBERTEK, INC. 510 Herndon Parkway Herndon, VA 20170 Phone: PI: Topic#: (703) 471-7671 Dr. Floyd Hovis AF 02-006      Selected for Award Title: Multi-Wavelength Low-Power Solid State Lasers for Space Based Laser Systems Abstract: Abstract: The emergence of space-based lasers as a viable alternative for ballistic missile destruction in space has started a flourish of activity aimed at the development and testing of components and systems required for this application. Current schedule for the completion of these tests is very tight, and the lack of some special items not yet commercially or otherwise available calls for their early and accelerated development. A low-power laser device is needed for a high fidelity low-power realization of a beam with similar characteristics to the one produced by the high power HF laser. This beam is used for emission optics adjustments to precisely aim and focus the high power radiation on the target. Several concepts will be proposed and analyzed. This effort will lead to the design, testing and space qualification of the required lasers. The multi-wavelength and tunability capabilities provided by these lasers, within a power range of 1-10 watts, are very valuable characteristics for their use in other fields such as lidar applications. The novel solid-sate laser technology to be developed will decrease the size, weight and cost of high-power diode-pumped lasers. These reductions will make affordable applications including materials processing and large area displays

 Q PEAK, INC. 135 South Road Bedford, MA 01730 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 275-9535 Dr. Alex Dergachev AF 02-006      Selected for Award Title: Tunable diode-pumped IR laser source Abstract: The Space-Based Laser (SBL) requires a Low Energy Laser (LEL) system to serve as a high fidelity surrogate during startup and optical alignment portions of test operations. In this proposal, we will develop a CW, diode-pumped solid state laser that can meet the requirements for the LEL, namely a CW power level in the 1-10 W range, and wavelengths in the 2600-2900-nm region. The device, based on a direct diode-pumped Er:YLF crystal, is rugged, compact, tunable, and well suited for space-based systems. The general approach will be to develop the simplest possible design with a low component count, providing extreme compactness and ruggedness. In a Phase II program the diode-pumped Er:YLF laser first operated in the Phase I effort would be further engineered into a prototype unit suitable for field tests. The proposed laser technology has immediate applications in laser medicine, for precision surgery. Other possible applications are in low-level detection of gases for process control and in precision cutting and drilling of selected materials.

 SPIRE CORPORATION One Patriots Park Bedford, MA 01730 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 275-6000 Dr. Kurt J. Linden AF 02-006      Selected for Award Title: New 2.7 micron Fiber Laser for Space Laser System Cost Reduction Abstract: Abstract not available...

 ACULIGHT CORPORATION 11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113 Bothell, WA 98011 Phone: PI: Topic#: (425) 482-1100 Dr. David C. Gerstenberger AF 02-007      Selected for Award Title: High Energy Laser Diagnostics for Space Based Applications Abstract: In support of the SBL-IFX program, the Air Force Research Laboratory is interested in the development of advanced laser diagnostics that will provide diagnostic and monitoring optical tools to contribute to the success of the SBL mission. We propose here a novel laser system that can be used in a variety of applications related to this mission and can play a key role in the success of the SBL program. This source is based on a continuous wave (CW), room temperature, widely tunable, single frequency, diode-pumped, doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (DRO). The diode-pumped nature of this source results in a device that is compact, requires small amounts of power and offers the potential for packaging to meet final flight requirements. We propose an innovative and enabling technology with the potential to address many of the outstanding issues associated with the design and deployment of the IFX flight vehicle and future SBL missile defense system. The source has application in measuring key HF laser parameters and has significant utility in a wide array of applications including sensing and combustion diagnostics.

 KESTREL CORPORATION 3815 Osuna Road NE Albuquerque, NM 87109 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 345-2327 Dr. Leonard John Otten AF 02-007      Selected for Award Title: High Energy Laser Diagnostics for Space Based Applications Abstract: Kestrel Corporation proposes an adaptation of a new technology that provides compact set of laser wavefront diagnostics that have the ruggedness needed for a space based applications. An application of a unique grating based phase diversity sensor offers a sensitive wavefront measurement that includes tip and tilt information. The proposed Phase I SBIR will update theoretical models of the sensors and conduct laboratory experiments with existing equipment to demonstrate the diagnostic concepts. The application of the distorted grating wavefront sensing to cornea characterization represents a significant commercial technology transfer opportunity. Exploration of the advanced optical imaging technology can lead to applications in other existing biophysical techniques, e.g., cell level spectroscopy, to assist in understanding the development of a number of eye diseases. Uses in battlefield IR imaging through the highly disturbed atmosphere near the Earth's surface are reasonable extrapolations of the technology. Because the concept does not require an artificial beacon, the technology offers a heretofore unavailable covert compensation capability.

 MEASUREMENT ANALYSIS CORPORATION P.O. Box 1127 Torrance, CA 90505 Phone: PI: Topic#: (310) 378-5261 Mr. Ronald E. Lukins AF 02-008      Selected for Award Title: Active In-Situ Contamination Control Abstract: A device and system has been envisioned that may be highly suitable for cleaning high energy laser mirrors in space, and capable of mitigating or reduce charge buildup, and capable of removing hydrocarbon film contaminants. Low-energy reactive plasma technology is known to encompass windows of high reactivity where the combination of system operating parameters and the conditions at the surface to be cleaned are such that high reactivity (cleaning) rates can be achieved. An innovative approach has been developed that allows a low-cost means for addressing the feasibility of these systems to accomplish desired objectives (precision cleaning, charge buildup mitigation,and hydrocarbon film removal). Several spin-off activities and commercial applications such as pllution preventing replacement of solvent for hydrocarbons, other organic contaminants, and bio-mass reduction are already known. the company would be the first entity to develop, market, and deliver a devise to remove particulate and hydrocarbon film contaminants from SBL coated high energy laser mirrors in space. We would work closely with the Air Force during Pahse I, II, and III in order to meet customer requirements. Upon completion, our primary market targets would be DoD/Government agencies, and satellite manufacturers. During development we would also investigate technology transfer for non-space based applications.

 SOUTH BAY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CORP 7525 W. 81st St., Playa del Rey, CA 90293 Phone: PI: Topic#: (310) 615-8432 Dr. Roger J. Withrington AF 02-008      Selected for Award Title: Active In-Situ Contamination Control Abstract: The objective of the proposed program is to demonstrate that CO2 jet spray cleaning can be applied to the in-situ contamination control of optics in future Space Based Laser weapon systems. The ability to remove particulate contamination and achieve cleanliness levels of 100 on ultra low absorption coatings on single crystal silicon substrates will be demonstrated via scatter measurements. Electrostatic charge effects that may impact the contamination control process will be assessed. On phase 2, the conceptual design of a cleaning system developed on phase 1 will be built and used to establish whether successful in-situ particle removal can be applied in an SBL geometry without re-contaminating other optical surfaces. The experimentation will be performed in a vacuum, be in a geometry that is representative of SBL systems and make use of the Active Contamination Experiment for SBIRS low (ACES) program hardware. The result will be an affordable experiment that can subsequently be upgraded to a shuttle hitch-hiker experiment to validate the technology in space. Provides a fail-safe method to achieve extremely high particulate cleanliness levels on optics critical to SBL performance in space. Can also be applied to airborne and ground based laser systems that have similar cleanliness levels making them costly to maintain. Commercial applications include contamination control for commercial satellites, space manufacturing processes and particulate removal in adverse environments.

 KESTREL CORPORATION 3815 Osuna Road NE Albuquerque, NM 87109 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 345-2327 Dr. Leonard John Otten AF 02-009      Selected for Award Title: High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Laser Beam Diagnostic Sensor Abstract: Kestrel Corporation, with our collaborator Boeing SVS, proposes an infrared hyperspectral imaging technology to remotely sense the spatially distributed spectral signature fingerprints of a high energy laser against a distant target. This technology offers high temporal and spatial resolution for the purpose of measuring laser beam characteristics during airborne HEL engagements, while simultaneously collecting target response data. In this Phase I SBIR, we will define the requirements for a hyperspectral sensor and use of an existing MWIR hyperspectral imager to demonstrate the key technical issues. We will show that the sensor can be used to observe the HEL beam size, energy distribution, location on the target, and target spectral response, with centimeter spatial distribution at rates in excess of 30 full samples per second. The proposed technique takes advantage of the existence of Kestrel developed IR hyperspectral imaging to simultaneous observe reflected HEL energy with the IR radiation and absorption associated with the interaction of the beam on the target. Coupled with existing sensor pointing and tracking from SVS, the sensor offers a spectral, spatial, signature map created at milli-second rates with immediate presentation of the engagement results Uses within the commercial jet engine industry to measure engine performance across a broad band of applications including allow potentially debilitating flaws in the jet engine to be diagnosed during testing. The work addresses Airborne Laser (ABL) program requirements for an adjunct mission sensors and National Reconnaissance Office's (NRO) requirement for ultraspectral sensing. Government and commercial uses environmental monitoring, and applications in treaty verification and counter drug surveillance all benefit from a molecular line resolution spectral imager.

 PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC. 5720 Oberlin Drive San Diego, CA 92121 Phone: PI: Topic#: (858) 455-9741 Dr. George M. Beardsley AF 02-009      Selected for Award Title: Remote Imaging for Airborne Laser Target Observation Abstract: Flight testing of the Airborne Laser (ABL) weapon system requires detailed characterization of the beam-target interaction, including beam energy flux, uniformity, size, position and duration on target, over a several-second interaction period while the ballistic missile target ascends rapidly. This Proposal addresses the design of a remote imaging system, including a sensor, tracking sub-system, and airborne platform, capable of providing the necessary radiometric accuracy and spatial and temporal resolution while flying at a safe distance from both the target missile trajectory and the high-energy ABL beam. Typical test engagements will occur at the ABL flight altitude (40,000 feet) and above. A high-altitude sensor platform minimizes atmospheric attenuation and turbulence effects. We will assess the option of using the USAF-NASA ARES' WB-57, with which our company has extensive mission planning and operations experience. We will explore the extent to which advanced image processing, including deconvolution algorithms leveraging the large signal due to ABL illumination, can deliver the required resolution with an affordable sensor aperture. The proposed high altitude, high spatial/temporal resolution remote imaging system is potentially applicable to other missile defense test scenarios, such as hit-to-kill intercepts outside the atmosphere. It would provide high-frame-rate image sequences of the impact debris cloud, minimally degraded by atmospheric effects. It would also be useful for observation and diagnosis of high altitude laser weapon effects testing in future USAF programs.

 LUNA INNOVATIONS INCORPORATED 2851 Commerce Street Blacksburg, VA 24060 Phone: PI: Topic#: (540) 953-4266 Mr. Robert S. Fielder AF 02-010      Selected for Award Title: Directed Energy Target Failure Sensors Abstract: For the Phase I project, Luna Innovations proposes to develop a fiber optic, high-temperature, multiplexed temperature and strain sensor system for use in directed energy weapon experiments. Luna will leverage its experience with high temperature sensors and their patented fiber-optic based sensor systems to complete this research. A novel system will be based on proven fiber optic sensor technology, and will combine independent strain and temperature measurements in multi-parameter transducers. Sensors will be multiplexed to provide a distributed sensing system capable of making temperature and strain field measurements near the point of beam impingement. Fiber optic sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference, making them an ideal technology for advance energy weapon research. Luna's previous work in high temperature sensors for gas turbine applications has attracted the attention of several aerospace and aerospace sensor leaders who have agreed to test related high temperature sensors. By closely collaborating with these industry principals, Luna's technology will quickly transition from the laboratory to the market place, and will be engineered to meet specific industry needs. In addition to target failure analysis, the high temperature strain and temperature sensors developed here will find wide application in gas turbine, industrial, and structural monitoring systems. ú Commercial and military aircraft propulsion industry ú Turbine engine power generation industry ú Marine gas turbine industry ú Automotive industry ú Industrial processes ú Civil structural monitoring

 SECOTEC, INC. 4935 CENTURY ST., STE 201 HUNTSVILLE, AL 35816 Phone: PI: Topic#: (256) 722-0000 Mr. David A. Kalin AF 02-010      Selected for Award Title: NO-Contact Damage and Optical Witnessing Network Abstract: A low cost, lightweight, optical network for target damage indication in flight with an optical monitoring array of wide and narrow FOV optical detectors built into a thin ring mounted on the rear of the vehicle. By alternating the FOV sensors, impact locations on the target can be monitored on the vehicle for both roll and distance. The optical monitoring will be non-contact and will look for in-band changes in the sensor field of view (HEL or KE damage). This system can monitor the location and time of impact as well as function as a pyrometer to determine the temperature and extent of the impact. A breakwire system can also be used to augment damage. Advanced capability to score GBL and SBL system. High temperature material processing will also be benefitted

 ATEC, INC. 387 Technology Drive College Park, MD 20742 Phone: PI: Topic#: (301) 403-1744 Dr. John Lawler AF 02-011      Selected for Award Title: Heat Flux Sensor With Minimized Impact On Boundary Conditions Abstract: We propose to develop a heat flux sensor that can be used to estimate the temperature and heat flux on the far side of a wall as a function of time. The configuration of the sensor is specifically designed to minimize the sensor's impact on the temperature and heat flux boundary conditions on the sensor's side of the wall, while allowing for both the capability of measuring very high heat fluxes and a high frequency response. Our sensor will employ components and techniques that are currently being used to study time-resolved (15 kHz) and spatially-resolved (0.3 mm) localized heat transfer rates under a vapor bubble during boiling. Our heat flux sensor will allow the measurement of the heat flux on the far side of a wall. This type of device would improve the development and testing of lasers, explosives, or chemical reactions, since our sensor will provide more accurate knowledge of the processes occurring at the interior containment wall of the testing apparatus.

 JONA GROUP LTD. 140 Marine Street Farmingdale, NY 11735 Phone: PI: Topic#: (631) 420-1271 Ronald Rothchild AF 02-011      Selected for Award Title: New Thermal Sensors for Use with Inverse Heat Conduction Problems Abstract: Transient and high intensity heat transfer events are difficult to characterize by conventional means. Temperature is inherently an integral so precise information about the transfer process is lost by averaging. A temperature measurement can be differentiated, but then small errors due to noise and limited resolution are exaggerated. Moreover, high intensity transients can lead to temperatures that are destructively high for conventional sensors. To accurately characterize transients, an instrument is needed that can directly measure heat flux, or the rate of change of temperature dT/dt, over a broad temperature range. Jona proposes to address this need with a combination of calibrated intermediates with isolated elements, and dynamic range compression. Internal heat transfer will attenuate potentially destructive temperature peaks, while range compression enhances resolution and linearity. Objectives of Phase I are: 1. Survey potential instrument applications and develop a classification to minimize the required variations. 2. Develop conceptual designs for both heat flux and dT/dt measurements, and determine structural and dynamic requirements. 3. Develop means to compensate for actual temperature when measuring dT/dt. 4. Confirm critical mechanisms empirically and demonstrate direct rate measurement. 5. Prepare a preliminary design for prototypes to be built in Phase II The proposed instrument will permit accurate measurement of rapid thermal events, minimizing or avoiding the attenuation and averaging effects of intervening structure, even in locations with difficult access and destructively high temperatures.

 METSYS CORPORATION 2014 Millwood Road Millwood, VA 22646 Phone: PI: Topic#: (540) 837-2186 Mr. Daniel R. Flynn AF 02-011      Selected for Award Title: New Thermal Sensors for Use with Inverse Heat Conduction Problems Abstract: Inverse heat conduction involves the application of diffusion theory for estimating unknown boundary conditions, energy generation, rates, or thermophysical properties from measured temperatures or heat fluxes at other locations. Inverse problems are said to be ill-posed in that small errors in the data can produce randomly large variations in the prediction. It has recently been shown that the available of reliable measurements of the rate of change of temperature or heat flux with time can, in conjunction with temperature or heat flux data, provide much more reliable predictions than those obtained using the latter data alone. Unfortunately, there are no reliable sensors available for direct measurement of the rate of change of temperature or heat flux. It is proposed to develop such sensor designs, model their performance, develop simulation tools and error analyses, identify fabrication technologies, and develop plans for verification of sensor performance The sensors to be developed will be of critical importance in experimental investigations of heat conduction problems where the data must be analyzed by inverse heat conduction techniques, such as predicting what energy inputs at an inaccessible surface produced a measured response at an accessible surface. Examples include a structure subjected to a directed energy beam, surface conditions in the interior of a rocket or jet engine, or structures subjected to fire or explosion. Such sensors also can be used in fire detection systems.

 MICROWAVE BONDING INSTRUMENTS 2400 N. Lincoln Ave. Altadena, CA 91001 Phone: PI: Topic#: (626) 296-6480 Dr. John Mai AF 02-011      Selected for Award Title: Microwave Bonded Heat-flux Sensor Array for High Temperature Applications. (Topic: New Thermal Sensors for Use with Inverse Heat Conduction Problems) Abstract: Starting with a proven high-sensitivity, high-density, micro-mechanical electrical system (MEMS) temperature-sensor array design, we propose to make appropriate material substitutions to create a thermal sensor capable of operating in hostile environments, such as at high temperatures, underwater, and in a vacuum. We will then use our patented microwave bonding processing technology to stack these temperature arrays to create robust, low cost, heat flux sensor arrays compatible with flush mounting in thin material substrates. Microwave Bonding Instruments, Inc., was founded to commercialize microwave silicon wafer bonding technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, California). The Company's mission is to become the leading provider of IC, MEMS, and MOEMS assembling equipment for advanced hybrid device applications. MBI is positioning its equipment in the current $2.4 billion die level interconnect equipment niche. Expertise gained from this project will assist MBI in packaging of other MEMS devices for telecommunications and MEMS fluidic devices valued together at up to$3 billion in 2001.

 REDWOOD SCIENTIFIC, INC. 1005 Terra Nova Blvd. Pacifica, CA 94044 Phone: PI: Topic#: (650) 738-8083 Dr. John L. Lawless AF 02-011      Selected for Award Title: Novel Heating-Rate Sensor for Use with Inverse Heat Conduction Problems Abstract: A new and novel sensor is proposed for measuring temperature and heating rate (dT/dt) in hostile environments. The sensor is optical and allows heating rates to be measured remotely. A small button of sensor material is placed on the target. Light emitted from the button is collected by optics and (optionally) directed in a fiber optic to deliver the light to a photodetector. The photodetector can be positioned remotely. This system can measure hearing rates (and temperatures) in materials subjected to rapid heating even in hostile environments. This is important for Air Force directed energy studies investigating material response to directed energy. It will also be useful in applications of commercial interest such as steel manufacture. High quality steel requires accurate control of temperatures during processing. Our sensor would replace current methods to measure steel temperature which fail in the hot and hostile environment of a steel plant.

 G A TYLER ASSOC. INC. DBA THE OPTICAL SCIENCES CO. 1341 South Sunkist Street Anaheim, CA 92806 Phone: PI: Topic#: (714) 772-7668 Dr. Terry Brennan AF 02-012      Selected for Award Title: Active Target Tracking through Deep Atmospheric Turbulence Abstract: Conventional tracking schemes have reached their performance limit for systems such as the Airborne Laser operating in deep turbulence environments. The next generation of high precision tracking systems must exploit all information available to produce the desired track correction. A study of tracking from an integrated sensor perspective is proposed. This will include, but not be limited to, the use of wavefront sensor measurements to enhance the track estimate. A methodology will be developed which will lead to the assessment of tracking performance limits as a function of system parameters such as the Rytov number. Tracking concepts developed in this effort will be evaluated in detail with wave-optics simulations. A successful completion of this study of active tracking in deep turbulence will advance the state of beam control technology for systems experiencing tracking degradation due to high scintillation. This means extending the effective range of operation for weapons systems such as the Airborne Laser system. The concepts developed here will also have application to ground based laser systems and long range laser communication systems

 TEMPEST TECHNOLOGIES LLC Suite 208, 8929 South Sepulveda Blvd Los Angeles, CA 90045 Phone: PI: Topic#: (310) 216-1677 Dr. Yun Wang AF 02-012      Selected for Award Title: Active Target Tracking through Deep Atmospheric Turbulence Abstract: In this proposal we consider the development of statistical image processing and filtering techniques for optical tracking in systems such as the AirBorne Laser (ABL) tactical missile defense system. Based on a combination of stochastic modeling for non-uniform illumination patterns with nonlinear Bayesian filtering, our methods promise to provide greatly enhanced tracking and pointing. Scintillation, the turbulence-induced fluctuation of image intensities, is widely regarded as a major problem for tracking and adaptive optics. The methods we propose herein provide the potential to mitigate significantly the effects of scintillation, thus enhancing system performance. Our estimation techniques are also relevant to problems of anisoplanatism that are of crucial importance in extended range ABL system design. Also included in this effort are the study of data fusion from wavefront sensors and pupil plane imagery and development of robust control designs for pointing. Collaborating with scientists and engineers at Georgia Tech, Trex Enterprises, and AFRL, we will use wave propagation simulations data and data collected in tests at Lincoln Laboratory's ACL facility to score the performance of these algorithms. Our partnership with Trex Enterprises, a leading developer of optical tracking hardware, will allow us to leverage the results obtained in this effort into hardware systems in a most efficient and cost-effective manner. Potential commercial applications will be of a military nature, as the effort proposed herein is heavily focused toward advancing ABL system capabilities. Other optical tracking and imaging systems will benefit, however, from improvements derived from this research.

 LUNA INNOVATIONS INCORPORATED 2851 Commerce Street Blacksburg, VA 24060 Phone: PI: Topic#: (540) 953-4270 Dr. Daniela Marciu Topasna AF 02-013      Selected for Award Title: Transparent Ionically Self-Assembled Thin Films for Contamination Abstract: We propose to develop improved, cost effective coatings for high-energy laser mirrors and windows that repel contamination based on transparent, highly efficient, and durable ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) films. The proposed program involves 1) demonstration of the underlying principle using aqueous ISAM chemistry and 2) build and test a prototype coating based on the new technology. This revolutionary method of creating multifunctional thin-films monolayer by monolayer has been proven to yield self-assembled, homogeneous thin films that can be deposited on any size and shape substrates, as well as on transparent flexible substrates. The ISAM technique allows for precise structural and thickness control at the nanometer level as well as for fabrication of thick multi-layer films. Luna Innovations has previously shown that the ISAM technique can be used to fabricate multifunctional thin-films monolayer by monolayer that are optically, electronically and photonically- active. The ISAM thin films offer additional major advantages of excellent homogeneity for low scattering loss, high thermal and chemical stability, and low-cost. The development of the organic thin film coatings will benefit the laser industry for contamination control of laser windows and mirrors. Coatings that repel contamination fabricated from ISAM thin films have a variety of military and commercial applications such as laser systems, various optical systems, telescopes, and window coatings for buildings.

 METASTABLE INSTRUMENTS, INC. 5988 Mid Rivers Mall Drive, Suite 236 St. Charles, MO 63304 Phone: PI: Topic#: (636) 447-9555 Dr. George Dube AF 02-013      Selected for Award Title: Develop Coatings that Repel Contamination Abstract: Attenuated total internal reflection couples light from the inside of a transparent optical material into an absorbing contaminant contacting the polished surface of that material. If that contaminant is strongly absorbing and the angle of incidence is optimized, more than 80% of the light is absorbed by the contaminant. At a certain mid infrared wavelength, water has very strong absorption, resulting in an absorption depth of less than one micrometer. We propose using pulsed mid infrared laser light absorbed by attenuated total internal reflection to remove water, ice, particles and other contaminants from the polished surfaces of optical elements, such as laser mirrors, windows and domes. Parasitic oscillations (total internal reflections) will losslessly trap the light within the material until it illuminates a contaminated area, at which time attenuated total internal reflection will transfer some of the light into the contaminant, thus heating and removing that contaminant. Internally reflected laser light may also be used to detect the presence of surface contaminants. For substrates not transparent at the mid infrared wavelength and in some other cases, the addition of a simple cover plate or coating may optimize the attenuation of the internal reflection and the contaminant removal process. Clean and dry polished surfaces are crucial for the successful operation of high power lasers, low scatter photographic/optical/lithographic devices and submicron semiconductor components. This space-qualifiable cleaning technique consumes no fluids or materials, works equally well on entrance and exit surfaces, does not increase the IR signature of the host platform and is capable of both detecting and removing water, ice, frost, dew, particles and other contaminants.

 PVD PRODUCTS, INC. 231 Andover Street Wilmington, MA 01887 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 694-9455 Mr. Larry Stelmack AF 02-013      Selected for Award Title: Rugged Packaging of Laser Optics Abstract: The program will emphasize contamination control and the testing of candidate protective, low-maintenance coatings for high-energy laser optics. Coatings will be screened for adherence, environmental durability, and optical properties. The most promising approaches will be applied to laser optical components, and tested. Specifications and conceptual designs will be generated for the most successful coating process and associated deposition and substrate handling equipment. The availability of robust packaging methods for coated optical components will have benefits in many areas of application for lasers, including material processing systems, LIDAR systems, and aerospace systems. Many non-optical commercial applications will be served in data storage, wear and friction reducing coatings, microelectromechanical devices, microelectronics manufacture, displays, and ophthalmics.

 SRS TECHNOLOGIES 1800 Quail Street, Suite 101, P.O. Box 9219 Newport Beach, CA 92660 Phone: PI: Topic#: (256) 971-7846 Mr. Greg Laue AF 02-017      Selected for Award Title: Stress Coatings for Large Scale Membrane Mirrors Abstract: The need for very large aperture (>10m) mirrors for space applications is pushing current technology to its limits in providing a material and design that meet required launch restraints. The concept of using a membrane mirror would allow a light-weight and deployable primary to become a viable option in multi-meter sized aperture imaging and High Energy Laser systems. To maintain the required shape yet retain the pliability of a membrane, methods of applying thin-film optical coatings to counteract residual stress in the membrane to maintain a prescribed curvature will be developed using evaporative deposition. This includes metrology techniques to measure the thickness and stress in such coatings, which will be prescribed by finite element analysis. The end result is a coating process to maintain a curvature in a membrane mirror with traceability to large-scale production. The successful demonstration of the proposed concept of using stress-coatings to maintain a curvature in a membrane mirror will provide an immediate impact on many current and future USAF, NASA, and other DoD space-based large aperture imaging or High Energy Laser (HEL)applications. Many require multi-meter apertures capable of being deployed after launch. The development of this technology would enable such designs to become a reality and also open the door for commercial parties that are interested in the use of very large aperture mirrors. This would not be limited to HEL or imaging applications but also radio frequency and even microwave transmission.

 TRITON SYSTEMS, INC. 200 TURNPIKE ROAD Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 250-4200 Dr. Akbar Fard AF 02-017      Selected for Award Title: Innovative Coating Design to Shape Compliant Optics into a Parabolic Net-Shape Abstract: Triton systems, a leading developer of thin film membrane materials for space application, has teamed up with Professor Christopher Jenkins of the Compliant Structures laboratory of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T) and Dr. Jack Bradshaw of Atkinson Thin Film Systems to address the critical design and fabrication requirements of large space-based optical telescopes. On this Phase I, Triton's team will utilize its broad experimental and theoretical expertise in membrane materials and coatings to develop a parabolic net-shape telescope. It is well known that the coating of a substrate produces intrinsic and extrinsic stress leading to deformation of substrate. In this program, we will use this concept to shape a parabolic mirror. We propose to design a "tunable coating" system that leads to control the shape of membrane. A mathematical stress coating model will be developed. This stress model will provide us with prescription coating that will guide the coating material selection, polymer membrane selection, coating geometry, and device fabrication. Moreover, We will develop a new metrology to evaluate important membrane properties, in particular, the coating stress. The success of the proposed concept will provide a revolutionary approach to fabricate large, lightweight, space-based telescopes. Some of the benefits of stress coating technique to obtain a net-shape mirror are: ú Reduced optical wavefront distortion ú Less stringent structural and material requirements ú No need for make-up gas, in contrast to inflatable structure ú Low weight and low cost space-based mirror ú Less handling logistics requirements ú Scalable to large telescope

 PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC. 20 New England Business Center Andover, MA 01810 Phone: PI: Topic#: (925) 743-1110 Dr. David J. Cook AF 02-018      Selected for Award Title: Application of Quantum Cascade Lasers to High Explosive Detection Abstract: Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop and demonstrate a chemically-specific standoff sensor for detection of explosive materials within sealed containers, buildings, or clothing. Differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) methodology will be used to provide chemical specificity. Our innovation is the extension of DIAL technology to Far-IR (THz) wavelengths for enabling structure-penetrating radiation to probe molecular features of target substances. This technology represents a long-standing need with the DoD, FAA, and security community for detection of explosive devices containing little or no metal concealed in trucks, luggage, packages, and under clothing. The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept through experimental measurements of absorption spectra of target compounds and structural materials and the first demonstration of a current-pumped Quantum Cascade laser-based sensor in the THz frequency regime. In the Phase II portion of the program, a compact sensor will be developed, tested, and delivered to the Air Force. This program will demonstrate a structure-penetrating DIAL apparatus with the capability of chemically- specific detection of explosive materials. Such an apparatus represents a long-standing need in the military for the detection of hidden illicit materials. Significant commercial applications of the enabling sensor technology exist in the petro-chemical and bulk materials processing industry. PSI has already established a commercialization partnership with the Dow Corporation to exploit these markets.

 SENSPEX 524 Camino de la Tierra Corrales, NM 87048 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 922-0037 Mr. Miguel Moreno AF 02-018      Selected for Award Title: Application of Quantum Cascade Lasers to High Explosive Detection Abstract: During the past few years, and particularly in the last few months after the events of the September 11 terrorist attack, the need of a portable remote-detection system for chemicals agents and explosives has become a priority and necessity to combat global terrorism and confront modern chemical and biological warfare. The present times also offer significant advanced in science and technology to solve critical problems. This project will develop a portable remote sensing system for detecting explosives and chemical agents. The system will use Raman spectroscopy, quantum cascade lasers, and Lidar technology. The program described in this Phase I proposal will determine the feasibility of the concept of an IR Lidar Raman system based in a low resolution Raman spectrometer and the use of QC lasers as the excitation source in the IR region. Completion and performance of the proposed system will follow in Phase II. There is a need for advanced chemical detection sensors. The application of a portable chemical detection system based in Lidar technology is broad. Extending from identification of harmful clouds and vapors, remote detection of high explosives, drug smuggling surveillance and detection, to environmental remote analysis.

 CSA ENGINEERING, INC. 2565 Leghorn Street Mountain View, CA 94043 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 765-5860 Dr. Jerry Alcone AF 02-019      Selected for Award Title: Improved Adaptive Reconstructor Algorithm Performance using Field Programmable Gate Arrays Abstract: A key element required for the successful implementation of higher performance Adaptive Optics (AO) systems is to increase processor performance while minimize mass, volume, and power consumption. A processor based on Field Programmable Gated Arrays, FPGA, offers significant advantages in implementing an ideal image processing architecture. These include: true parallelism, interface throughput, multiply accumulate throughput, determinism, simplicity, and flexibility. Closely associated with this is the Adaptive Reconstructor Algorithm, ARA, used to estimate the wave front. The ARA offers significant improvement in AO performance by changing the basic characteristics of the AO loop to minimize the residual slope error. The computational load, memory requirement and input-output requirements of the ARA heavily impact the processor. It must be tailored to the resolution and dynamic range (both spatial and temporal) of the DM and the Wave Front Sensor, WFS. It must also be integrated with the dynamics of the DM control loop so as to enhance the disturbance rejection characteristics of the system. This effort focuses on developing an appropriate ARA to be used in a FPGA implementation to greatly improve overall AO performance. AO systems are an integral component of directed energy and other optical systems. The performance improvements sought with this effort are key to meeting the stringent performance objectives required tracking targets through atmospheric turbulence for DoD applications of interest. In addition, there is significant commercial potential to be realized for the ARA and FPGA-Processor approach. These include industrial robotics and inspection systems, large dimension process controllers, and medical lasers and imaging systems.

 G A TYLER ASSOC. INC. DBA THE OPTICAL SCIENCES CO. 1341 South Sunkist Street Anaheim, CA 92806 Phone: PI: Topic#: (714) 772-7668 Dr. Glenn A. Tyler AF 02-019      Selected for Award Title: Real Time Adaptive Signal Processors for On-line Performance Optimization of Adaptive Optical Systems Abstract: Abstract not available...

 MISSION RESEARCH CORPORATION Post Office Drawer 719, 735 State Street Santa Barbara, CA 93102 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 429-9261 Dr. Matthey R. Whiteley AF 02-020      Selected for Award Title: Tracking Through Laser-Induced Clutter for Air to Ground Directed Energy Systems Abstract: We address acquisition, tracking, and aim-point selection on tactical targets for air-to-ground high-energy laser (HEL) applications. Effects of complex natural clutter are considered, in addition to effects related to laser propagation such as weather, battlefield obscurants, atmospheric turbulence and thermal blooming. We propose the use of passive multi-spectral sensing techniques for rejecting natural clutter during initial target acquisition. Active, multi-pulse laser radar imaging is proposed for mitigating effects of camouflage, smoke, and other battlefield obscurants in target tracking and aim-point selection. To treat turbulence, thermal blooming, and aero-optical effects, we propose a new direction-angle ambiguity rectification technique. This technique builds on a block-matching algorithm for imaging through horizontal turbulence to determine the laser pointing errors present over a target scene extending many isoplanatic patches. From this information, the direction-angle ambiguity associated with high-resolution range measurements in the presence of turbulence, thermal blooming, and aero-optical gradients may be corrected for use in pattern recognition. Additionally, the block-matching processing output may be used to correct tilt-anisoplanatism resulting in proper HEL stabilization. We propose the development of a MATLAB toolbox to interface Government-developed WaveTrain and Infrared Modeling and Analysis (IRMA) codes for simulation and analysis of tactical directed energy applications. Laser radar imaging techniques show great promise in navigation, identification, and remote sensing. The technologies developed here can be applied to 3-dimensional imaging of objects at long ranges over horizontal paths or through obscurants such as clouds and smoke. This technology may be applied to airport traffic control, fire-fighting, and autonomous vehicles. Additionally, this technology may be used in applications where long-range laser pointing is required, such as laser designation, laser communication, and laser weapons. This effort will result in a software toolbox that integrates capabilities of two existing Government codes for propagation modeling and scene generation. This toolbox may be used in other projects to address the combined effects of propagation and scene clutter in air-to-ground imaging and beam control applications.

 TREX ENTERPRISES CORPORATION 10455 Pacific Center Court San Diego, CA 92121 Phone: PI: Topic#: (858) 646-5479 Dr. Mikhail Belen'kii AF 02-020      Selected for Award Title: Tracking Through Laser-Induced Clutter for Air to Ground Directed Energy Systems Abstract: Dramatic improvements in laser power and beam control technology combined with agility and speed with which directed energy can be retargeted and delivered through the atmosphere to the target makes laser-based weapon highly desirable for several key mission tasks in tactical battlefield environments. Success of the air to ground directed energy systems depends on their ability to acquire and track stationary or slow-moving targets on the ground in changing scene environments under different weather and smoke conditions, camouflage conditions, and in the presence of strong background reflection. To develop a new tracking capability, we propose to build and demonstrate a novel multi-spectral tracking system, which integrates polarization diverse adaptive multichannel radar (AMR) with an optical tracker. In addition, we propose to develop and test two novel tracking algorithms: a hybrid filter, which allows us to track multiple optical targets in clutter environment, and polarization space-time adaptive processing technique, which uses space, time, and polarization diversity to enhance radar tracking performance. Phase I evaluates performance of active and passive optical trackers for various engagment scenarios and selects the best approach, develops and validates a hybrid tracking filter, develops polarization extension of space-time adaptive radar processing technique and evaluates its performance. It also evaluates the effects of anisoplanatism and thermal blooming on pointing accuracy of a combat beam and develops a concept for integration of the radar with an optical tracker. Tracking or observing objects through smoke and fire conditions has always been a problem for firefighters as well as vehicles attempting to navigate through fog. Infrared scanners deployed on large forest fires only could provide information on the actual fire line. Tracking in clutter algorithms developed under this program could lead to a considerable increase in imagery information acquired from a flying platform on location of equipment and personnel. These algorithms can also increase a reliability of navigation systems used on cars.

 NOVA PHASE, INC. 435 Route 206 Newton, NJ 07860 Phone: PI: Topic#: (973) 300-4400 Dr. Barry Wechsler AF 02-021      Selected for Award Title: Periodically Poled Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate for Nonlinear Optical Frequency Conversion Abstract: This proposed research effort program will enable new sources of laser radiation from the near uv through the mid-IR. This will be accomplished by growth and characterization of large high-quality stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystals and demonstration of the superior performance of these crystals in nonlinear optical frequency conversion of well established laser sources via quasi-phase matching. Quasi-phase matched devices base on stoichiometric lithium niobate have applications in generation of laser wavelengths not currently readily availble from blue generation for laser projection displays, mid-IR wavelengths for medical lasers and remote sensing of chemical and biological agents. Periodically poled devices are also used for wavelength channel switching and line switching in telecommunications.

 PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC. 20 New England Business Center Andover, MA 01810 Phone: PI: Topic#: (925) 743-1110 Dr. Douglas J. Bamford AF 02-021      Selected for Award Title: Periodically Poled Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate for Nonlinear Optical Frequency Conversion Abstract: The Air Force needs non-linear optical crystals which can efficiently convert radiation at the wavelengths of solid-state lasers into radiation at other wavelengths. Existing materials which have the desired non-linear conversion efficiency have other shortcomings, including vulnerability to optical damage and limited ultraviolet transparency. Recently a promising new material with superior damage resistance and ultraviolet transparency, stoichiometric lithium tantalate, has become commercially available. Wafers of this material have shown good non-linear conversion efficiency when patterned appropriately. Our innovation is the production of patterned stoichiometric lithium tantalate using commercially practicable techniques which have already led to one successful product, periodically poled lithium niobate. The result will be a commercial product which meets Air Force requirements for conversion efficiency, damage resistance, and transparency. During Phase I we will prove feasibility by showing that our patterning techniques are effective on commercially available substrates. In Phase II we will prove practicality by decreasing the size of the patterned features, increasing the thickness of the patterned wafers, and measuring the non-linear optical performance of the resulting optical chips when pumped with high-average power solid-state lasers. At the same time, we will work with a commercial partner, Deltronic Crystal Industries, to establish the necessary crystal-growth facilities. This program will lead to commercial production of a new non-linear optical material. We will work in partnership with Deltronic Crystal Industries, a major supplier of optical crystals, to enable rapid market penetration. Customers will include the developers of high-average power optical parametric oscillators and second-harmonic generators pumped by solid state lasers, who wish to avoid the damage issues associated with existing materials.

 FARR RESEARCH, INC. 614 Paseo Del Mar NE Albuquerque, NM 87123 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 293-3886 Dr. Everett G. Farr AF 02-022      Selected for Award Title: Artificial Dielectrics and Fresnel Lenses for High Power Microwave Applications Abstract: Lens antennas with large apertures could be useful in a variety of High-Power Microwave (HPM) and Ultra-Wideband (UWB) applications. Such lenses are needed in the frequency range of 0.2-2 GHz, and they must have low loss and dispersion. Existing lenses made of solid dielectric materials, such as polyethylene, are too dense and weigh too much to be practical for large apertures. To build a lightweight lens, one would consider an artificial dielectric (AD) material. Commercially available artificial dielectrics are typically composed of conductively coated glass micro-spheres embedded in epoxy. While they have one-sixth the density of polyethylene, they could be made even lighter with an improved design. A lighter artificial dielectric can be manufactured in a variety of forms, the most promising of which appears to be a uniform array of discs embedded into a lightweight foam. The density of such a material is roughly proportional to the bandwidth of the material. If we limit the high end of the material performance to 2 GHz, then our calculations show that metallic discs embedded in foam will have a density one-third that of commercially available ADs, and one-eighteenth that of polyethylene. To achieve even lighter lenses, we propose the use of Fresnel lenses for the narrowband HPM case. Fresnel lenses use less material than conventional lenses because they allow for 360-degree phase shifts in the aperture fields as they pass through the lens. Fresnel lenses may be composed of standard or artificial dielectric materials, and they can provide an additional factor of three in weight reduction. They are effective only over a narrow bandwidth, but for HPM applications that may be sufficient. This research will lead to a new design for a large, lightweight lens antenna suitable for use in High-Power Microwave or Ultra-Wideband Antennas. A prototype artificial dielectric material will be built and tested during Phase I. We will also develop a design for a Fresnel Lens that will further reduce the weight for narrowband applications.

 RF ENGINEERING 157 North Reamstown Road Stevens, PA 17578 Phone: PI: Topic#: (717) 336-0865 Mr. Ron Focia AF 02-022      Selected for Award Title: Artificial Dielectrics for High Power Microwave Applications Abstract: The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing lightweight artificial dielectric materials for High Power Microwave (HPM) source lens designs. Conventional HPM lenses are usually machined from a dense material exhibiting the desired electrical characteristics, such as polyethylene, and are inherently heavy. Heavy lenses are undesirable for handheld, mobile, aircraft, and especially spacecraft applications. There is an alternative approach to source lens design. Lightweight artificial dielectrics can be constructed of a composite material. One element of the composite is a low loss background (or substrate) dielectric and the other is an additive consisting of metallic particles, metallic flakes, or conducting spheres. The additive acts to increase the dielectric constant of the substrate material and a wide range of values are theoretically possible. Additionally, if the substrate is made of plastic, manufacturing of components can be greatly simplified by using injection molding techniques and the weight can be significantly reduced by introducing voids into the material. Other more complicated alternatives exist for manufacturing composite dielectrics for use in narrow band applications. In this case, resonant structures are used in a periodic array and theoretically any value of permittivity and permeability, even negative, can be achieved. Any application suffering a penalty for the weight of conventional electromagnetic lenses will benefit from this research. The cost of manufacturing will also be greatly reduced by technology investegated in the Phase I research.

 PHOTODIGM, INC. 1225 N. Alma #110, Bld. 412, P.O. Box 830938 Dallas, TX 75083 Phone: PI: Topic#: (214) 768-3032 Dr. Gary Evans AF 02-023      Selected for Award Title: Lenslike Grating-Outcoupled Surface Emitting Laser with Superstrate Reflector Abstract: This proposal describes two major improvements to an existing research concept for a high-average-power surface-emitting semiconductor laser with high brightness. The existing concept is the use of a lenslike lateral waveguide with a grating in the longitudinal direction to provide feedback for laser oscillation in second-order and outcoupling from the substrate surface in first-order. We predict that such a device, with a cavity length of about 1 cm and a lateral active width of about 100 um can provide about 10 W of peak power. By monolithically combining 40 columns of these devices on 250 um centers, a peak power of 400 W could be obtained from a 1 cm x 1 cm chip area. A grown-in epitaxial reflecting stack will minimize loss of light caused by the bi-directional outcoupling of the grating. Efficient transfer of heat from the quantum well active region is obtained by mounting the device junction-side down with uni-directional emission through the transparent, anti-reflection coated substrate. Uniform current-injection and low contact resistance will be achieved by direct metalization to the contact layer. Distributed contacts and narrow (compared to the width of the lens waveguide) contacts will be investigated to provide low resistance. Semiconductor lasers are by far the most efficient source of laser light. However, a long term problem has been maintaining beam quality, coherence and brightness as the laser power is scaled to the Watt level and beyond. High power semiconductor lasers at the Watt level are required today for both EDFA and RAMAN amplification in fiberoptic telecom systems in order to enable transmission of data over long distances. Higher power (up to 10 W and 100 W levels) semiconductor lasers are also required for pumping solid state and fiber lasers, as well numerous industrial applications including laser welding and medical applications such as photodynamic therapy. The monolithic GSE approach in this proposal is inherently low cost to manufacture and will significantly increase the coherence and brightness of high power (100 W level) semiconductor lasers while maintaining high efficiency.

 STELLAR DISPLAY CORPORATION 2020 Centimeter Circle Austin, TX 78758 Phone: PI: Topic#: (512) 997-7780 Dr. Leonid Karpov AF 02-025      Selected for Award Title: Development of Super High Frequency Schottky Barrier Vacuum Transistors Abstract: An extremely high speed transistor is proposed for low-noise high frequency amplifiers using a Schottky barrier with vacuum gap. Low-cost vacuum microelectronic devices have immediate opportunities in the $100 Mn market for cell phone RF devices. They haave further opportunities in high-speed and radiation hardened circuits.  AEROVIRONMENT INC. 825 S. Myrtle Avenue Monrovia, CA 91016 Phone: PI: Topic#: (626) 357-9983 Dr. Zaher Daboussi AF 02-026 Selected for Award Title: Dynamic DC Source and Load System with Energy Recycle Capability Abstract: The development of batteries, fuel cells, flywheels, and other portable energy sources requires power electronics devices to test performance parameters. In most cases, the power electronics devices serve as a load, distributing energy to the grid. For batteries, the devices can also serve as a source of energy for charging. To date, these devices have only been available and cost-effective for large systems on the order of ten-kW's or more and for high voltage. The proposed Phase I effort will investigate the feasibility of developing a bi-directional source/load device with on-grid capability in the two- to five-kW power range. For battery laboratories, with twenty to thirty test stations, the individual station devices would tie into a master server through a DC bus. These devices would have complex characterization capabilities to preserve the functionality of the commercial industrial test devices. They would also have fast charge capabilities. AeroVironment will overcome technical challenges using our commercial high power equipment as a design basis along with our extensive power electronics expertise. By demonstrating feasibility, we will enable greater flexibility in testing portable energy sources such as batteries and fuel cells and allow excess energy to be recycled to the grid. Anticipated benefits include the ability to characterize battery and other energy source performance parameters through a complex range of cycles, while allowing excess energy to be recycled to the grid. Commercial applications include not only government test laboratories, but also the industrial fast charge market for batteries.  TLC PRECISION WAFER TECHNOLOGY, INC. 1411 West River Road North Minneapolis, MN 55411 Phone: PI: Topic#: (612) 341-2795 Mr. Sasidhar Vajha AF 02-027 Selected for Award Title: A 94 GHz Aperture Coupled Circularly Polarized Transceiver Antenna Abstract: Current spaceborne communication systems and missile seeker systems require parallel advances in the W-band (94 GHz) multifunction phase array antenna systems. Relatively large aperture areas of the existing antenna systems radiate heat rapidly into space from the RF components. Also, the existing low-phase noise, tunable local oscillators (LO) used for the RF front-ends of the spaceborne communication systems are external, relatively heavy and bulky. A small low-cost, light weight power and thermal management system integrated with the RF system, which occupy less space si needed. The proposed light weight, lwo cost, 94GHz phase array transceiver antenna will have excellent thermal management and exceptional power and resolution. The proposed all MMIC 94GHz aperture coupled transceiver antenna will take care of the thermal management issue by taking advantage of the aperture coupling. It has a novel low phase-noise LO which include a TLC designed 47GHz DRO followed by a TLC's doubler MMIC. There are a wide variety of possible post appications in both commercial and defense sectors in addition to the missile seeker,smart weapon, and radiometry applications. The proposed project will have potential use fo the Federal Government in telecommunications portable and Satellite applications as well as radar and meteorological sensing systems. The potential for high precision radar, tracking system in commercial telecommunication systems is enormous.  TOYON RESEARCH CORP. Suite A, 75 Aero Camino Goleta, CA 93117 Phone: PI: Topic#: (805) 968-6787 Mr. Michael P. Grace AF 02-027 Selected for Award Title: Multifunction Phase Array Antennas Abstract: Space-based radars for detection and precision tracking of air and ground targets over the entire battlefield require extremely large apertures. Toyon Research proposes to develop an innovative active lens antenna concept that promises excellent RF and DC power efficiency as well as excellent thermal, mass, and packaging efficiency. The proposed research will explore the use of component technologies developed on the TRAM program and other efforts in the active lens application. The ultimate goal will be to develop an antenna system with very large bandwidth capable of meeting tactical air-and ground surveillance requirements. The proposed research will develop a new generation of space-based radars to detect and track mobile targets with higher performance and lower cost than previous designs. A constellation of such radars will give the U.S. a better picture of trouble spots around the globe and support immediate, pinpoint response when intervention is appropriate.  BRIMROSE CORPORATION OF AMERICA 5024 Campbell Blvd.,, Suite E Baltimore, MD 21236 Phone: PI: Topic#: (410) 668-5800 Dr. G.V. Jagannathan AF 02-028 Selected for Award Title: Next-Generation 35-40% Efficient Multijunction Solar Cell: Development of High Efficiency (>35%) and Radiation Resistant 4-Junction Solar Cells on InP Abstract: Brimrose Corporation has identified 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.91 eV band gap III-V semiconductor materials, lattice matched to InP for producing high efficiency 4- junction solar cells for space application. Phase I objective are follows: (1) Optimize the epitaxial growth of 0.75 and 1.0 eV materials and tunnel junction inter connecting these two band gap solar cells and fabricate a high efficiency single junction solar cell and characterize it to prove the concept and (2) Optimize through modeling and epitaxial growth results the 4-junction solar cell device structure. Phase II objectives are : (1) Optimize the growth conditions for producing the optimized 4-junction solar cell structure and subsequently fabricate and test the 4-junction device. (2) optimize the conditions for large area processing (3"diameter or more) and (3) Design a inter connected dual chamber MOCVD multi wafer production reactor for producing these 4-junction solar cell structure in a continuous manner without the problem of memory effects. Samples of single junction cell and details of optimized 4-junction solar cell structure through modeling will be provided to Air Force at the end of Phase I program. The success of the research will be the availability of very high efficiency 4-junction solar cell for space application. The major spin off is the use of this solar cell system for production of high efficiency concentrator terrestrial solar energy conversion system.  HITTITE MICROWAVE CORPORATION 12 Elizabeth Drive Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 250-3343 Mr. Peter Katzin AF 02-029 Selected for Award Title: Phased Array Antenna Power Amplifier Modules Abstract: Today's high-performance radars rely on electronically steered arrays made of thousands of radiating elements with a transmit/receiver (T/R) module connected to each element. One critical design goal for T/R modules is maximization of the power-added efficiency (PAE) of the transmitter power amplifier, usually defined near its saturated output power level (Psat). As more sophisticated modulation waveforms or multiple carriers are introduced, power amplifiers near saturation introduce unacceptable distortion effects. This means that the output power has to be backed-off from Psat with potentially major degradation in PAE. This program will focus on development of distortion reduction and efficiency enhancement techniques applicable to complex modulation or multi-carrier systems and practical implementation of these circuits, including adaptive bias optimization to compensate for variations in signal levels, temperature, and load conditions. The design approach to be evolved will stress capabilities for distortion cancellation and efficiency enhancement, and for integration of the complete circuit into one (or more) MMIC chip(s) that can be incorporated into standard T/R modules. The proposed program will lead to MMIC design concepts for reduction of non-linear distortion and efficiency enhancement in power amplifiers for one or more specific applications with well-defined frequencies of operation, bandwidths, and modulation formats. Successful development of such concept will lead to expansion of the range of application of power amplifiers, in general, and space-based radars, in particular.  CALABAZAS CREEK RESEARCH, INC. 20937 Comer Drive Saratoga, CA 95070 Phone: PI: Topic#: (408) 741-8680 Dr. R. Lawrence Ives AF 02-030 Selected for Award Title: MEMS-based Traveling Wave Tube Amplifiers for Space Applications Abstract: We propose to develop and demonstrate a miniaturized, high efficiency, 100 GHz, 5 W, traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) incorporating micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques. A combination of innovative component designs based on three-dimensional (3D) MEMS fabrication capabilities and advanced computational tools will lay the foundation for miniaturizing TWTAs, thus enabling operation at or above 100 GHz. Initially, the program will investigate novel concepts to miniaturize critical components while optimizing for high efficiency and reduced mass. In particular, the development will focus on TWTAs utilizing field emission arrays (FEAs) as the electron beam source. FEAs offer significant improvements in efficiency compared to conventional, thermionic cathodes. Periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing and slow-wave circuits designed around MEMS fabrication technology will provide compact, lightweight devices. Millimeter-wave RF sources would find wide application for space-based applications due to their small size, light weight, and impressive RF performance. Significant data transfer rates could be achieved for advanced communication applications.  MICROWAVE BONDING INSTRUMENTS 2400 N. Lincoln Ave. Altadena, CA 91001 Phone: PI: Topic#: (626) 296-6480 Dr. John Mai AF 02-030 Selected for Award Title: Cold Cathode Design for Miniature Traveling Wave Tube Amplifiers (Miniature Traveling Wave Tubes for Space Application) Abstract: The integration of carbon nanotubes (CN), which have low-power and high-current density electron emission properties, into a MEMS-scale microwave source, represents a first step to achieve the desired goal of power output in the watts range and frequency greater than 100 GHz. MBI proposes to develop an enabling technology to produce a MEMS microwave source based on a MBI CN cold cathode array. By implementing the following steps based on the cold cathode electron source concept, MBI plans to achieve by Phase II the frequency and power specifications required: (1) Modify several existing MEMS designs to study the feasibility of achieving the power and frequency specifications of solicitation AF020-030. (2) Synthesize CN, test the current emission, and adjust the growth parameters of CN cold cathodes for this application requirement. (3) Begin preliminary CN substrate integration experiments in candidate microwave source subcomponents. In collaboration with experts in this field, initial studies will be performed on various microwave tube amplifier designs that can utilize MBI's cold cathode as well as stacked bonding technology to lead to a Phase II deliverable of a compact, W-band microwave amplifier with minimal power requirements. MBI will be collaborating with existing working microwave tube designs at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (nanoklystron) and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (Klystrino). MBI, was founded to commercialize microwave silicon wafer bonding technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Company's mission is to become the leading provider of IC, MEMS, and MOEMS assembling equipment for advanced hybrid device applications. MBI has a$154,000 California grant to explore other applications for its technology, and will position any consumer cold cathode design for entry into the expected 70 billion flat panel display market.  BRASHEAR LP 615 Epsilon Dr Pittsburgh, PA 15238 Phone: PI: Topic#: (412) 967-7575 Mr. Robert Jungquist AF 02-031 Selected for Award Title: Lightweight Primary Mirror Technology Abstract: Brashear LP proposes to further develop ULE(TM) Lightweight Mirrors. The overall structural efficiency of primary mirrors, such as the one used in ABL or proposed for SBL, is currently limited by the minimum thickness of the core cell walls, and front and back face sheets that is achievable with traditional glass manufacturing methods. The technical objectives of this Phase I activity is to establish the lightest weight ULE(TM)primary mirror design that is achievable while retaining the performance characteristics necessary to satisfy the existing ABL program requirements using novel PM mirror manufacturing techniques. Special attention will be given to launch and/or landing requirements of SBL and ABL. This will entail trading front and rear face sheet thickness, core thickness, as well as cell wall thickness, cell size and geometry. In addition, Brashear LP will evaluate manufacturing techniques that allow an aggressively light-weighted PM to be realized without the complications of quilting print-thru of the core due to polishing pressures as well as 1-G release quilting for Space Based systems. Also, core manufacturing techniques will be evaluated which allow thinner face sheets and improve mirror manufacturing time by altering the current process by which cores and final mirrors are made. The primary initial beneficiary for this SBIR effort is the USAF/BMDO Airborne Laser (ABL) program. The technology and processes developed under this SBIR will enable the ABL aircraft to meet aggressive weight targets at reasonable costs. Current technology is expensive and heavy. The higher level of performance will help support additional sale of ABL aircraft. The current approach uses conventional lightweight mirror technology, which has a significant weight penalty compared to the proposed approach. The reduced weight of the proposed optics will allow additional reductions in the size and weight of the structure required to support them. The technology developed will benefit all applications requiring the use of lightweight optical systems in dynamic environments. As substrate costs are reduced and performance goals are demonstrated, the market for space based and terrestrial applications will be opened to the technology as well. The ability to address terrestrial applications will be very cost dependent.  FOSTER-MILLER, INC. 350 Second Ave. Waltham, MA 02451 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 684-4368 Dr. Peter Warren AF 02-031 Selected for Award Title: Low-Cost Manufacturing of Composite Hybrid Isogrid Mirror (CHIM) Abstract: The Air Force requires lightweight, stiff and stable mirrors for use in high quality, space-based optical observation and energy projection systems. The current state-of-the-art uses various types of honeycomb core material with optical and composite face sheets. The honeycomb material, while excellent in compression, does not transfer the bending shear loads efficiently enough for truly lightweight optical systems. Honeycomb mirrors also are slow and costly to manufacture. The proposed program will develop a novel mirror system that uses highly efficient truss structures to provide bending stiffness for a thin meniscus mirror face sheet. The Composite Hybrid Isogrid Mirror or CHIM uses purely axially oriented, high-modulus fibers to provide an efficient, dimensionally stable support structure. This structure provides even, distributed load to the face sheet and reduces the system mass by using truss elements to transfer load rather than honeycomb plates. The planned manufacturing techniques reduce and simplify the steps required and thus reduce production cost and schedule. Foster-Miller will develop the system through a careful plan of design, modeling, sectional manufacturing and testing and full prototype manufacture and testing. Complete development of this technology will provide a mirror system that will enable better, lighter, and less expensive optical instruments. (P-020085) In addition to the myriad of Air Force missions such as SBL and ABL that would take advantage of extremely stiff and lightweight mirrors, many NASA and private observatories would be ready customers of the CHIM mirror technology. Many industries, such as microchip and printed circuit board manufacturing, use large mirrors in their photolithography machines. While these mirrors are not subjected to the same mass restrictions as aerospace instruments, they still need to be extremely stiff so as not to vibrate in the factory environment. Reduction in manufacturing cost would enable the FMI team access to this highly lucrative market.  SCHAFER CORPORATION 321 Billerica Road Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: PI: Topic#: (818) 880-0779 Dr. William Goodman AF 02-031 Selected for Award Title: High Structural Efficiency, Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS) Abstract: Schafer proposes to further develop Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMs) technology, an all silicon foam-core composite mirror material that is extremely stiff, highly polishable and low cost. High structural efficiency primary mirrors are required for the Air Force Deployable Optical Telescope System (DOTS) and the Airborne Laser (ABL). SLMS technology would greatly reduce the weight of the ABL telescope. SLMS technology has an order of magnitude higher specific stiffness than ULE and offers a potential weight savings of the PM of >250 lbs. Thus, 600 lbs or more are realizable in just the Telescope Assembly of ABL. The complete Turret Ball Assembly weight savings is estimated to be greater than this due to weight savings in the Gimbal Assembly. In the Phase I project, Schafer and teammates Brashear LP and ERG would produce two, spherical, 12.7 cm diameter lightweight SLMs mirrors that demonstrate the DOTS performance goals. During the Phase II project we would leverage the experience gained from the Phase I project, to manufacture two 60 cm diameter DOTS primary mirrors. Finally, in Phase II, the team would initiate the activities required to produce a near-net shape 1.5 meter diameter SLMs substrate for use as an ABL primary mirror prototype. The competitive advantages of SLMs technology as opposed to other materials for high-energy laser beam director are its superior properties and ease of fabrication. Optical glasses, such as ultralow-expansion (ULE) titanium silicate glass and Zerodur suffer from very low thermal conductivity, which leads to irradiance mapping. Also, for glasses, the thickness required to obtain high stiffness results in primary mirror faceplates that are very heavy. The areal density for these glass faceplates can range from 50-60 kg/m2. Compositional and microstructural inhomogeneity in ULE results in anisotropy in the thermal expansion and consequential loss of figure. Likewise, Zerodur also experiences thermal hysteresis that results in figure loss. SLMs technology has a decided advantage in static and dynamic distortion over both glasses and metals. Finally, SLMs can be coated with existing VLA coatings, making them ideal replacements for the uncooled silicon optics and glass primary mirrors used on ABL, SBL, THEL and MTHEL. The primary commercial marketplaces for SLMs components are aerospace corporations such as Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, Raytheon, Ball, TRW, Kodak and our partner Brashear LP. The target markets and products that have been identified to date are Primary mirrors for scientific instruments, primary mirrors for high energy lasers, imaging mirrors, laser scan mirrors, reflective panels, fast steering mirrors and high-energy laser beam walk mirrors. Schafer and our teammates are currently combining resources to market products in some of these areas. Lloyd Harkless, Director of Directed Energy and ABL Program Manager at Brashear LP, is supporting this project with substantial Internal Research and Development funding.  MISSION RESEARCH CORPORATION 735 State Street Santa Barbara, CA 93101 Phone: PI: Topic#: (603) 886-8860 Dr. Daniel R. Weimer AF 02-032 Selected for Award Title: Real Time Prediction of High-Latitude Ionosphere Electrodynamics Abstract: A fundamental result of the solar wind's interaction with the Earth is the generation of electric fields and currents in the high-latitude ionosphere, which in combination with the geomagnetic field, control the dynamics of the near Earth space and plasma environment. This "space weather" that results can have a significant impact on military and civilian communications, radar, electric power distribution, and navigation systems, including GPS receivers. The proposed project will demonstrate a prototype design for a real time forecast of electrodynamic parameters in the high-latitude ionosphere, namely, the electric fields, currents, and Joule heating, as well as associated geomagnetic effects. The prediction will be obtained by means of the real time data stream from a solar wind monitor at the L1 orbit. The objectives will be obtained by a combination of a "tilted phase front" propagation model for the interplanetary magnetic field, an empirical model of ionospheric electric potential, and a similar model for field-aligned currents (FAC), which is base on magnetic Euler potentials. As there does not exist a model for the ionospheric conductivity with the desired accuracy, the FAC model will be used in a innovative technique to compute the desired parameters without requiring the conductivity. The proposed activity will produce prototype programs which will provide a solid foundation for the Phase II design of an accurate, and efficient real time electrodynamic prediction model. The parameters that are derived from this prediction model are intended to be used as an input to other high-latitude ionospheric specification and forecast models, which are the basis for a number of application codes that support DoD and civilian missions. The anticipated benefits of this program are more accurate predictions of the ionospheric conditions which affect communications, radar, satellite orbits, and navigation systems. The prediction model alone will be able to predict geomagnetic variations on the ground, which are of particular interest to the electric power industry. Thus this work may have use in a broad range of military and commercial space weather applications.  SPACE ENVIRONMENT CORPORATION 399 North Main, Suite 325 Logan, UT 84321 Phone: PI: Topic#: (435) 752-6567 Dr. J. Vincent Eccles AF 02-032 Selected for Award Title: Assimilating Physics-Based Model for High-Latitude Electrodynamics Specifications and Forecasts Abstract: We propose to design a physics-based, Kalman filter, data assimilation model of high-latitude electrodynamics. Our new model will provide accurate specifications and forecasts for convection electric fields, particle precipitation, conductances, Joule heating rates, and field-aligned and ionospheric currents. High-resolution patterns of the electrodynamic parameters will be calculated continuously as a function of time, and a unique feature of the model will be its ability to capture sharp electrodynamic boundaries and mesoscale structures. The physics-based model will be a time-dependent, high-resolution, coupled model containing a high-latitude ionospheric model and an MHD electrodynamic model of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The data to be assimilated will include ground-based magnetometer and radar data, in situ satellite measurements, data from imaging satellites, and GPS-TEC measurements. The data will be assimilated via a Kalman filter technique, which has been successfully used in meteorology and oceanography. In addition to producing a workable design of an innovative electrodynamic model, we will write a software design document and we will formulate a validation plan. We will also write a comprehensive report on the strengths and limitations of all current electrodynamic models, and in particular, we will show why they are not capable of providing accurate electrodynamic parameters. The assimilating model of high-latitude electrodynamics will benefit numerous military and civilian systems and operations. On the civilian side, it will benefit power companies that have extensive electric grids and it will also benefit the WAAS system that is being implemented by the FAA for commercial airlines. On the military side, it will be a benefit to personnel using HF communications, OTH radars, and navigation systems based on single-frequency GPS receivers.  SPACE MICRO 12872 Glen Circle Road Poway, CA 92064 Phone: PI: Topic#: (858) 292-7000 Mr. David R. Czajkowski AF 02-033 Selected for Award Title: Low Power Space Computer Incorporating VLIW and SEU Mitigation Abstract: Innovative commercial computer architectures and power saving technologies such as VLIW and frequency scaling are leveraged from state-of-the-art portable computing initiatives, but also addressing the unique space radiation environment eg(SEU). Use of pervasive IP cores, a novel triple modular reundancy technique, and world-class silicon foundries with rad tolerant processes enable Space Micro to develop a low cost rad hard, high performance space computer approach. Our low power space computer (LPSC) concept offers the promise of unparralled performance in space applications, leapfrogging today's space computer offerings. Applications include DOD satellites, NASA/ESA/NASDA missions, and commercial space platforms.  STAR BRIDGE SYSTEMS, INC. 7651 South Main Street Midvale, UT 84047 Phone: PI: Topic#: (801) 984-4444 Mr. Jim Yardley AF 02-033 Selected for Award Title: Power Efficient Space Computer Abstract: Power consumption in microprocessors is rapidly increasing. Reconfigurable computing using FPGA chips where functions can be performed in parallel instead of the traditional serial processing methods of existing microprocessors offers the opportunity for increased capability and performance at great savings to electrical power requirements. With traditional microprocessors, only a very small portion of each chip does productive work at any moment. Yet the entire chip consumes power. The reconfigurable computing approach uses a much larger proportion of the circuitry of each chip to do meaningful work at any moment. Star Bridge Systems is developing reconfigurable computers with associated software to cost effectively program and utilize low power consumption computers. There are many opportunities for improved performance and capability of computers using recongifurable logic. Using parallel computing techniques, made possible through a specialized software development system called Viva, actual reconfigurable computers are now cost effective. This technology is scalable for any type of system from small battery powered applications to supercomputers. Reconfigurable computers will find future applications in any type of digital processing application from DSP control to high level processing.  FOSTER-MILLER, INC. 350 Second Ave. Waltham, MA 02451 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 684-4170 Dr. Nese Orbey AF 02-034 Selected for Award Title: Unique High Temperature Liquid Crystal Polymer Substrate for Thin Film Solar Cells Abstract: Thin film solar cells have promise of producing high specific power values (over 1000W/kg) if a light weight substrate that permits growth of high-quality semiconductor material is available. Past results using CuInSe2 -type materials on polymer substrates have suffered because the CIGS quality has been low due to the limitations on growth temperature imposed by the thermal properties of the polymers used. Cells of CIGS on metal foils have suffered from the problems of the substrate's high density and high conductivity which prevents integrated interconnects. Foster-Miller proposes using PBO, which has been shown to have a useful temperature in vacuum approaching 600øC. This is comparable to the maximum temperature for the soda lime glass used as a substrate in the highest efficiency devices. The PBO substrate should enable CIGS deposition at a temperature high enough to yield high-quality material for high-efficiency solar cells. The high mechanical strength of PBO allows use of a very thin substrate film, which allows for very high specific power values at low cost. Phase I will document solar-cell material quality versus growth temperature, evaluate PBO as a substrate, and document potential problems; samples of CIGS on PBO will be furnished for evaluation. (P-020264) Commercial prospects for CIGS-type cells on PBO are excellent. PBO can be supplied as long, large-area rolls to permit continuous processing and monolithic integration for modules. There is a strong need for a good substrate on which to produce high-efficiency thin-film photovoltaics for both terrestrial and space applications; flexible flat-panel displays are another possible use. Foster-Miller, Inc. plans to supply PBO substrates to our solar-cell production partner for production as soon as feasible.  ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. 8130 Shaffer Pkwy Littleton, CO 80127 Phone: PI: Topic#: (303) 285-5103 Dr. Joseph Armstrong AF 02-034 Selected for Award Title: PBO and Silicone-Resin Free-Standing High-Temperature Films for Monolithically-Integrated CIGS Devices Abstract: ITN Energy Systems, Inc. is developing a space photovoltaic (PV) product based on our commercialization partner, Global Solar Energy, Inc.'s (GSE) flexible thin-film polycrystalline copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) technology. These devices are being made as discrete cells on metallic foil substrates, as well as a monolithically integrated device on a polymeric substrate. While we have demonstrated a cell efficiency approaching 10% on a polyimide (PI) substrate, the record efficiency of 18.8% as measured at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was deposited on a rigid glass substrate, and approaching 18% on a flexible stainless steel foil substrate. ITN has demonstrated that PBO films can survive higher processing temperature than our baseline Upilex PI substrate. Furthermore, we have teamed with Dow Corning to develop free-standing silicon-resin based foils that will be capable of achieving the higher processing temperatures in order to pursue higher efficiencies. Both the PBO and silicones should be able to achieve processing temperatures above 500§C while providing an electrically insulated substrate to facilitate monolithic integration. ITN shall acquire PBO films and Dow Corning shall provide prototype silicone-based films to demonstrate CIGS devices, and the best performing substrate shall be utilized in Phase 2 to demonstrate monolithically-integrated PV modules. Reduced manufactured cost due to monolithic integration, ability to utilize higher-efficiency CIGS processing than used with polyimide substrates, specific power much higher than cells on metallic foils due to the reduced weight while demonstrating comparable efficiencies.  PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC. 20 New England Business Center Andover, MA 01810 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 689-0003 Dr. Robin Coxe AF 02-035 Selected for Award Title: Reconfigurable Logic for Imaging Processing Abstract: Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of reconfigurable computers for image processing on future satellite platforms. A pipelined, inherently parallel procedure such as image processing is conducive to an approach based on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with SRAM logic. Reconfigurable computing platforms have the potential to provide near-real time, customized data products directly from the sensor to the user in the field. PSI proposes to demonstrate the radiometric calibration of archived data from the PSI AIRIS hyperspectral sensor in a reconfigurable FPGA at a data rate of at least 30 Hz. PSI also proposes to detail two alternative concepts for a low-cost, ground-based prototype constructed from COTS components, a crucial precursor to a spaceborne system. In addition to performing the radiometric calibration of hyperspectral data from a variety of sensor platforms, the prototype will be capable of executing user-selected image processing algorithms, again at real-time video rates. Both system concepts will be designed to radically decrease the time between data collection and dissemination of processed data to the end user, will support applications developed on PCs, and will meet size, weight, power, and interface requirements of a generic space-based remote sensing platform. A successful Phase I program would set the groundwork for full-scale hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations of a real time hyperspectral image processor with a variety of sensor configurations and a space-qualification plan in Phase II. An engineering model of a reconfigurable image processing unit for a space sensor would be a key goal in Phase III. Several of the numerous commercial and military applications of reconfigurable processors include onboard image processing capabilities for remote sensors on satellites, as well as on trucks, airplanes, UAVs, and UUVs. The technology could eventually be generalized to provide expanded digital signal processing capabilities for military and commercial radars, laser devices, communications satellites and ground-based mobile communications systems.  CRYSTAL RESEARCH, INC. 45275 Northport Court, Suite B Fremont, CA 94538 Phone: PI: Topic#: (510) 445-0833 Dr. Suning Tang AF 02-036 Selected for Award Title: A Monolithic Integrated On-Chip Optical Interconnect Bus Based on Electrically Switchable Bragg Gratings in Polymer Waveguides Abstract: Crystal Research, Inc. proposes a monolithic integrated optoelectronic chip module concept to optically interconnect chip-level VLSI circuits. Realizing the fact that integration of photonics devices on-chip avoids many of bottlenecks associated with current system architectures, we propose to develop an on-chip optical waveguide interconnect technology for data transmission at rates exceeding 10 gigabits per second. The proposed architecture employs advanced polymer waveguide circuits and innovative electro-optic switchable gratings. Similar to electrical interconnection buses, where control and data signals can be relayed between senders (for example, processors) and receivers (for example, memories), an optical bus based on polymer waveguides is proposed for the first time to provide the optical equivalent of an electronic bus line driver. The bus architecture proposed herein represents one of the major milestones for the realization of on-chip optical bus. Furthermore, broadcasting of high-speed clock signals can be easily achieved through electro-optic waveguide fanout gratings. Crystal Research, Inc. will deliver a preliminary prototype device to the funding agency by the end of Phase I for proof of concept demonstration. Current high performance electronics are limited by interconnects rather than the processor speed. The proposed optical interconnect technology will provide a better alternative to release such a bottleneck. This proposed technology is strictly attached to VLSI technologies. As a result, the feasibility of future transfer this technology to other microelectronic companies is promising. Potential post applications of the proposed idea include intra-MCM, inter-MCM, and wafer-scale optoelectronic interconnects.  OPTICOMP CORPORATION PO Box 10779 Zephyr Cove, NV 89448 Phone: PI: Topic#: (775) 588-4176 Mr. Peter Guilfoyle AF 02-036 Selected for Award Title: Distributed Optoelectronic Switching Modules for Highly Dynamic On-Chip and Chip-to-Chip Interconnects Abstract: The primary goal of the proposed Phase I SBIR effort is to develop high speed, highly dynamic chip-to-chip interconnects utilizing hybrid waveguides and GaAs based VCSEL and photodetector technology in order to relieve the chip-to-chip interconnect bottleneck. The interconnects are accomplished using a unique distributed switching architecture that is low cost, fault tolerant, redundant, format independent, and dynamically reconfigurable. This architecture and the associated hardware can be readily implemented to realize high speed, dynamic chip-to-chip interconnects for demanding computing and signal processing applications. OptiComp Corporation occupies a 7,000 square foot facility which includes a full service, backend semiconductor fabrication cleanroom and optoelectronic device integration laboratory, a optoelectronic testing area, and a MBE based growth facility. OCC?s design center includes optoelectronic based modeling software for VCSELs and waveguide structures, as well as full EDA schematic capture and mask and PCB layout. These facilities support optoelectronic device modeling and design, growth, fabrication, integration, and test. The proposed program will offer a dual-use commercialization opportunity for high speed chip-to-chip interconnects because it will provide a low cost solution that is highly dynamic, redundant, fault tolerant, and format independent. This chip-to-chip interconnect scheme has significant market potential, especially for demanding military and commercial interconnects.  POLARONYX, INC 4025 Ribbon Dr. San Jose, CA 95130 Phone: PI: Topic#: (650) 387-0889 Dr. Jian Liu AF 02-036 Selected for Award Title: Reconfigurable polymer based substrate mode optical interconnects Abstract: We propose a reconfigurable planar optical interconnect structure by using a reprogrammble polymer based hologram integrated with a substrate guided wave plate. The input signals are coupled into the substrate with a grating or micro mirror coupler, zigzagged within the substrate, and then coupled out of the substrate at the desired destination by the reconfigurable waveguide hologram. The reconfigurable waveguide hologram consists of multi layers of inter leaved electrodes sandwiched with EO polymer materials, like PDLC. By controlling the electrodes and the applied voltages, the waveguide grating can tune the coupling wavelength with the needed coupling efficiency. Compact and cost effective 1-D and 2-D structures with features of reconfiguration will be demonstrated. Communications Industry Researchers(CIR), a leading fiber optics survey company, predicted that the U.S. market for tunable (reconfigurable) optical technologies will surpass1.3 billion by 2005, driven by the needs of service providers and equipment manufacturers to reduce the costs associated with building, operating and maintaining networks. The technology we are developing is in this market and can be used in optical add/drop, gain equalization filters, wavelength switching, and tunable laser source. This huge market provides PolarOnyx a remarkable opportunity to fully develop its reconfigurable polymer based substrate mode optical interconnects and apply them into optical fiber telecommunications.

 POWER TECHNOLOGY SERVICES (PTS), INC. 7800 Netherlands Drive Raleigh, NC 27606 Phone: PI: Topic#: (919) 362-1501 Mr. John Driscoll AF 02-037      Selected for Award Title: Novel High Current Switch for Spacecraft Power Bus Control Abstract: The proposed semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor ("SIS") is herein defined as a structure consisting of two semiconductor layers separated by an insulator. PTS proposes such a SIS structure as a latching on/off switch consisting of a GaN-AlGaN emitter or cathode and a SiC anode. The GaN cathode will be designed as an efficient electron gun or cathode. The SiC anode will be designed as both an efficient electron receiver as well as a hole emitter. The design will take advantage of the high thermal conductivity of SiC to dissipate the anode heat. The SIS insulator will be a vacuum, gas or solid. Both anode and cathode emitting/receiving surfaces will be designed as a low work function or negative electron affinity emitter. This microminiature vacuum switch will turn on and off within nanoseconds. The switch will conduct high current, block high voltage, and will accrue the advantages of ballistic charge transfer at operating temperatures approaching 500 degrees Centigrade. The device will be used for aerospace applications and will replace less efficient solid state and spark gap switches. The device will also be useful in pulse power applications with unlimited Di/Dt and blocking voltage.

 SRS TECHNOLOGIES 1800 Quail Street, Suite 101, P.O. Box 9219 Newport Beach, CA 92660 Phone: PI: Topic#: (256) 971-7804 Mr. Paul A. Gierow AF 02-038      Selected for Award Title: Processing of Membrane Materials for Integrated Elements Abstract: Space-based antenna systems require large amounts of power and aperture area to achieve desired coverage and resolution. This Phase I effort will demonstrate a method of printing electronics to interconnect a series of PV cells on a polyimide backplane. This same technology will be applied to print electrical feed lines and radiating elements of a radiofrequency antenna. This technology will replace chemical etching lithography techniques currently used to manufacture RF elements. The printing technique uses the parent polyimide material coupled with metal-ion containing materials. Once cured, the bond between the substrate and metal interface becomes extremely strong improving the reliability and operation of the elements. The use of this technology will enable expanded processes that accommodate production of large continuous film rolls - necessary to fulfill eventual flight requirements. The development of increased efficiency flexible membrane cells will lead to the replacement of traditional rigid panel photo-voltaic arrays. This work will demonstrate the integration of a cell series into a complete integrated one-piece structure that will eliminate many of the concerns of current arrays. The combination of the cells with printed RF elements will support large area and high power antenna systems. The technology is applicable to high power commercial satellites, as well as small micro-sats. The technology has value in the development of commercial and DoD high-altitude airships and long duration air vehicles.

 INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY (ISET) 8635 Aviation Blvd. UNIT#E Inglewood, CA 90301 Phone: PI: Topic#: (310) 216-1423 Dr. VIJAY K. KAPUR AF 02-039      Selected for Award Title: High Efficiency Non-Vacuum Processed Thin-Film Photovoltaics Abstract: We propose to apply ISET's non-vacuum process for fabricating high efficiency thin film CIGS solar cells on polymeric substrates. This project has the potential to meet the specific power density and low cost goals set by US Air Force. The success of this project will have a positive impact on both the space and terrestrial solar power markets. The project has a potential to meet the specific power density and low cost goals set by various space power projects. The success of this project will have a positive impact on the terrestrial markets also.

 APECOR Research Pavalion, 12424 Research Parkway, St.453 Orlando, FL 32826 Phone: PI: Topic#: (407) 823-0185 Mr. Zaki Moussaoui AF 02-040      Selected for Award Title: Parallel-Connected Converters with Innovative Control Abstract: This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project intends to develop a solar-based expandable, parallel-connected power system with robust maximum power point tracking (MPPT) capability. Solar energy is regarded as an important resource of power energy in the future. As the need for flexible, scalable solar power requirements increases, and in an effort to avoid redesign of solar based power system, a modular infrastructure of power processing management is implemented for maximum utilization of the available power from multi-channel solar array sources. In the proposed system, dither signal is adopted to avoid the trapped-in instability of MPPT controller, and switching cycle, sampling signal and dither signal are synchronized to achieve robust MPPT control. Two-level shared-bus configuration is elaborated to allow the paralleled channels operate in different modes without interaction between each other. Also such structure has the advantage of the flexibility for power expansion and near uniform current sharing. Finally, the potential instability sources and their corresponding solutions, redundant shared-buses for fault-tolerance are also presented in this proposal. The trend toward utilizing natural energy and long-term cost/schedule benefits will make the proposed system accepted by the spacecraft and electric propulsion power systems. Also, it is believed that in the very future such systems have the potential to be extended to home utility and high power application. $20,000,000  VPT, INC. P.O. Box 253 Blacksburg, VA 24063 Phone: PI: Topic#: (540) 552-5000 Mr. Steve Butler AF 02-040 Selected for Award Title: Parallel-Connected Converters with Innovative Control Abstract: VPT Inc. proposes a modular, high-efficiency series-connected boost regulator (SCBR) solar array peak-power tracker (PPT). The modular SCBR PPT allows fault-tolerant parallel operation and is ideal for an expandable satellite power system. The proposed approach combines several innovative technologies and features. These include (1) use of proven VPT standard product hybrid dc-dc converters capable of screening to space quality levels, (2) use of a VPT proprietary current sharing method that provides for fault tolerance with a single current share bus and no master-slave operation, (3) use of a VPT patented magnetic feedback control (without optocouplers) that allows operation down to the zero volts, necessary for SCBR operation, and (4) demonstrated radiation tolerance to over 100Krads total dose and 60MeV of single-event operation. For lower cost, systems can be configured with VPT's commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) modules. In this Phase I SBIR VPT will (1) design proposed changes into one of VPT's standard product dc-dc converter modules to allow SCBR operation without the need for external circuitry, (2) design a current sharing method into the module using a common fault-tolerant current share bus, (3) design a dither-based PPT controller, and (4) demonstrate operation of the modular SCBR PPT system with a breadboard. A low-cost, modular, space-qualified peak-power tracking system that is ideal for small or medium-size satellites  ADVANCED MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY, INC. 176 Waltham Street Watertown, MA 02472 Phone: PI: Topic#: (617) 926-6700 Dr. Joseph Gerstmann AF 02-041 Selected for Award Title: Space-Flight Assessment of a Small-Scale Collins Type Cryocooler Concept Abstract: A compact, reliable, efficient and inexpensive cryocooler requiring less than 1kW of power for 2W of cooling at 10Kelvin is being developed and will be demonstrated. This performance is at least twice as efficient as the best current state-of-the-art for small low-temperature cryocoolers. The proposed technical approach, whose feasibility has been confirmed, is to apply the advantageous features of large-scale cryogenic refrigerators to compact and reliable small-scale systems by implementing a novel thermodynamic cycle in a mechanically innovative machine. Size, cost and complexity are reduced in the proposed concept by employing a modular design whereby each stage is of identical construction (except for length), and where the heat exchanger and expander are constructed as an integral unit. The expanders are of extremely simple floating piston construction that requires no seals or mechanical power transmission devices to extract power from the cold expander. Piston motion is controlled by electro-mechanically actuated "smart" valves that require no mechanical valve linkages or mechanical timing mechanisms. This further reduces system complexity, improves reliability, and eliminates thermal leakage paths. Expander power is dissipated in the warm end of the expander by throttling gas to and from the compressor suction and discharge, and a reservoir volume. The proposed cryocooler is intended for use by Very Long Wavelength Infrared (VLWIR) sensor technology which requires cooling at 10K. The need for improved cryocoolers is not limited to space missions or military uses. There is presently a sizable market for sub-10K cryocoolers for devices such as cryopumps and MRI magnets that can benefit from improved cryogenic cooling. The emerging field of superconducting cryo-electronics is expected to require tens of thousands of small sub-10K cryocoolers within the next decade. In particular, digital superconducting electronics, which promises ultra-fast signal processing and tera/peta-flop computing speeds, will require cooling at 4K. Thus, the development of an inexpensive, reliable, and efficient cryocooler will better meet the cryogenic cooling needs of several existing technologies, and should serve as an enabling technology for emerging cryo-electronics applications.  ATLAS SCIENTIFIC 1367 Camino Robles Way San Jose, CA 95120 Phone: PI: Topic#: (408) 507-0906 Ali Kashani AF 02-041 Selected for Award Title: A Multi-Stage Hybrid 10 Kelvin Cooler Abstract: We propose to develop a multi-stage hybrid cooler capable of providing 1 W of cooling at 10 K. To achieve the most efficient and reliable hybrid cooler possible, we propose to combine a multi-stage, linear-drive pulse tube with a low-temperature reverse-Brayton stage. In this way we will take advantage of the strengths of each system, while minimizing their respective weaknesses. The system avoids the inherent losses associated with a regenerator at low temperature, as well as, the inefficiencies associated with the Joule-Thompson process, by incorporating a novel turbo-expander in the low temperature reverse-Brayton stage. The use of a low-vibration, linear, compressor for the pulse-tube stage provides a large pressure ratio allowing the size and expense of the recuperative heat exchanger to be minimized. These features result in a low-mass reverse-Brayton stage that can be fabricated reliably, at a reasonable cost, without sacrificing performance. The proposed hybrid cryocooler will achieve unprecedented efficiency below 10 K without resorting to high-unit-cost technologies such as super-critical shafts or extremely precise bearing clearances. The system will exhibit the high reliability and low vibration associated with pulse-tube and turbomachine-based reverse-Brayton systems. The result is a cryocooler that is ideally suited to cooling space-borne loads at or below 10 K. The proposed cooler can be employed in a wide variety of commercial applications such as: - Cryopumps for semiconductor manufacturing - Liquefaction of industrial gases - HTS filters for the communication industry - Superconducting magnets for MRI systems - Superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage - SQUID magnetometers for heart and brain studies - Superconducting router - Radio astronomy - Laboratory environment  CREARE INC. P.O. Box 71 Hanover, NH 03755 Phone: PI: Topic#: (603) 643-3800 Dr. Anthony J. Dietz AF 02-041 Selected for Award Title: Advanced Multistage Technology for 10-Kelvin Space-Borne Cryocoolers Abstract: Advanced space-borne infrared sensor technology requires cooling at temperatures near 10 K. Cooling loads for these detectors will range from 0.25 to 1.0 W. The satellites carrying these sensors also have additional cooling loads at different temperatures. A multistage cooler capable of cooling multiple loads will offer large potential gains in system efficiency and weight. Turbomachine-based, Brayton cryocoolers are ideal candidates for these missions because they are highly efficient, lightweight, vibration-free, adaptable to multiple stages, and have long, maintenance-free lifetimes. State-of-the-art technology exists for all the critical components except for a 10 K turboalternator. Creare proposes to develop an advanced, high efficiency turboalternator optimized for a multistage, multi-load application to be identified by the Air Force. The advanced turboalternator promises to enable a significant reduction in cryocooler input power and cooling system mass. In Phase I we will select an optimum multistage, multi-load cooling cycle based on analysis and trade studies. We will then design a turboalternator for these specific conditions. In Phase II we will fabricate the turboalternator and conduct a series of tests to demonstrate its performance and to address the specific technology challenges in a multistage multi-load cycle. The development of advanced low-temperature turboalternators will enable the development of high-efficiency, low-temperature cryocoolers. Multistage cryocoolers will offer substantial savings in power and weight. Military applications include space-based surveillance and missile-defense systems. Scientific applications include space-based infrared telescopes. Commercial applications include communication satellites, superconducting instruments, and hypercomputers.  EQUINOX INTERSCIENCE, INC. PO Box 518 Pinecliffe, CO 80471 Phone: PI: Topic#: (303) 499-2399 Dr. Daniel R. Ladner AF 02-042 Selected for Award Title: Advanced Regenerator for Low Temperature Applications Abstract: The proposed project will develop an advanced low temperature regenerator to enable efficient 4K cooling for many military, scientific, and commercial needs not adequately met by current technology cryocoolers. Our unique approach meets the low vibration and stable temperature requirements of IR detectors and other applications, including space and airborne detectors, SC electronics and communications, medical magnetometry, and radio-astronomy. Our regenerator technology mitigates the problems associated with low frequency PT and GM regenerative coolers by enabling efficient higher frequency operation. The high frequency smoothes out the temperature fluctuations and vibration excursions inherent in the low frequency coolers while reducing their power requirements and operational costs. 4K regenerative coolers operate at low frequency because of void volume losses in their high porosity regenerators. Our new approach decreases porosity, allowing a 4K PTC to operate at 20 Hz instead of 1 Hz, resulting in a reduction in cold end displacement, improved temperature regulation, higher cooling efficiency, higher reliability, lower cost, and reduced cryocooler maintenance . IR imaging and spectroscopy, Ground-based IR Astronomy, Cryopumps, Magnetoencephalography, Magnetocardiography, Radioastronomy, Low Temperature Superconducting Electronics and Communication.  FLUID FLOW TECHNOLOGIES, L.L.C. 28112 Meadow Dr. Evergreen, CO 80439 Phone: PI: Topic#: (303) 670-4964 Dr. Greg C. Glatzmaier AF 02-042 Selected for Award Title: Novel Orbital Compressor for Next Generation Cryocoolers Abstract: Refrigeration needs for space-based applications require cryocooling systems, which are compact, light-weight, energy efficient, and reliable. Overall system performance is highly dependent on the characteristics and performance of a key component, the compressor. The compressor and its mechanical power source are generally the most mechanically complex components of the refrigeration system. State-of-the-art gas compressors offer excellent performance for terrestrial applications where maintenance is not a critical issue but can lack the performance characteristics required for long-term, maintenance-free space applications. Fluid Flow Technologies, L.L.C. proposes to develop a compressor, which is completely novel in its design and operation, and demonstrate performance characteristics, which will meet the rigorous requirements for space-based cyrocooling applications. This design is based on a very simple mechanism, resulting in a compressor that is light-weight, compact, hermetically sealed, and extremely reliable. Another key feature, which is a benefit for space applications, is a design that is mechanically balanced, possessing no net angular or linear momentum, resulting in a quiet and vibration-free operation. The anticipated results from the Phase 1 work plan are the demonstration of the mechanical operation of a small-scale compressor prototype. These results will provide the basis for a full-scale design, which meets the Air Force's rigorous requirements for space-based cryocooling applications. The full-scale compressor is expected to be compact, light-weight, maintenance-free, with a life time greater than 10 years. Knowledge gained in Phase 1 will provide a design basis for variations of the Phase 1 design, which can be applied to compressor designs for terrestrial uses as well.  TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC. 5445 Conestoga Court, #2A Boulder, CO 80301 Phone: PI: Topic#: (303) 443-2262 Mr. Steve Nieczkoski AF 02-042 Selected for Award Title: Advanced Component Technology for Next Generation Cryocoolers Abstract: Present day cryogenic refrigeration technology lacks a major component: a long-life, oil-free, dc-flow circulating compressor. Technology Applications, Inc. in collaboration with Scroll Labs, proposes to address this shortcoming by developing an innovative oil-free scroll compressor with a potential operating lifetime in excess of ten years. The chief innovation is the "floating scroll" concept, which balances pressure and centrifugal forces acting on the scrolls, thereby minimizing forces on contacting scroll surfaces to essentially eliminate wear. This concept is presently under development for medical applications involving oxygen concentration. We propose to drive this technology toward long-life cryocooler applications for both space flight and ground-based systems. Numerous shortcomings of both Stirling and pulse tube cryocoolers using flexure bearing linear compressors can be overcome if a long-life, dc-flow circulating compressor is developed: thermodynamic efficiencies at low temperatures, remote and distributed cooling, and vibration isolation. The primary goal will be to extend operational lifetime to ten years without maintenance intervals by improving mechanisms, materials, fabrication methods, and upgrading the design with features not conducive to commercial cost constraints. Secondary goals include minimizing weight, input power, and induced vibrations such that this compressor can be used in the many applications with mission critical restrictions on these parameters. This unique oil-free compressor offers: long lifetime, high electrical and thermodynamic efficiency, contamination resistant operation, high-pressure ratios at moderate-to-high flow rates, variable flow capacity, and compact and light weight packaging. Developing this compressor can dramatically improve our nation's cooling and thermal management systems in the arena of surveillance, superconductivity, and electronics.  BECK ENGINEERING 3319 21st Ave NW Gig Harbor, WA 98335 Phone: PI: Topic#: (253) 853-1703 Dr. Douglas S. Beck AF 02-043 Selected for Award Title: Advanced Multi-Temperature Load Cooler Abstract: Abstract not available...  STIRLING TECHNOLOGY COMPANY 4208 West Clearwater Ave Kennewick, WA 99336 Phone: PI: Topic#: (509) 735-4700 Dr. Songgang Qiu AF 02-043 Selected for Award Title: Advanced Multi-Stage Cryogenic Cooling Technology Abstract: Stirling Technology Company (STC) proposes to conceptually design a multi-stage cryocooler, capable of lifting up to 2 watts at 35 K with additional heat loads at higher temperatures and rejecting to an 300 K environment, that meets Air Force criteria for robustness and compact size. The compressor will be based on STC's existing high-production linear alternator/motor design. Bench testing of the linear alternator at the cooler drive frequency will also be conducted in Phase I. While cryocoolers with heat lifting capacities of over 2 watts at 35 K have already been developed, a low-maintenance, reliable and robust multistage cryocooler is required for use by the Air Force. STC has developed compact, light-weight cryocoolers based on existing linear compressor technology. The RemoteGenT family of engines and the BeCoolT family of cryocoolers have accumulated over 300,000 hours of operation collectively. A single Stirling engine has been in operation at STC for over 66,000 hours without maintenance or performance degradation. NASA has selected STC to provide Stirling engines for deep space and planetary missions. These missions require units with very high reliability and robustness. Testing has been conducted to determine the reliability and robustness of the space power generators, including operating the engine under launch load conditions. The proposed cryocooler will leverage as heavily as possible from the linear motor/alternator design of these engines to provide a very reliable, robust, compact, light-weight, low-maintenance pulse tube cryocooler.  TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC. 5445 Conestoga Court, #2A Boulder, CO 80301 Phone: PI: Topic#: (303) 443-2262 Dr. Robert Mohling AF 02-043 Selected for Award Title: Advanced Multi-stage Cryogenic Cooling Technology Abstract: Many advanced space-based reconnaissance systems critical to national security employ infrared detectors, optics, and thermal baffles that require multi-stage cooling. If cryocoolers such as Stirlings with single point cooling are used, then multiple coolers will be required that impose mass, power, volume, and reliability penalties; redundancy further increases these penalties. These penalties can be mitigated through the use of a single cryocooler with multiple cooling stages, thereby also reducing the number of compressors and electronic controllers. The objective of the Phase I study is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a Multi-Stage Brayton Cryocooler (MSBC) with simultaneous cooling capacities of 6 W at 85 K and 2 W at 35 K. The cryocooler system will be highly leveraged off components currently under development: a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based expander, an oil-free scroll compressor, and a high effectiveness counterflow heat exchanger. The MSBC's operational capabilities include significant integration advantages: the cooling fluid can be circulated over long distances providing isolation from cooler-induced interference, variable load capability, and a distributed cold-head that can accommodate large are focal pane assemblies (FPA). These features and capabilities will significantly reduce satellite power and heat rejection requirements, decrease overall weight, and greatly simplify cooling system integration. The features of this unique multi-stage cryocooler offer the capability of simultaneous cooling at multiple temperatures for multiple focal planes, optics, and baffling. Potential applications cooling systems for advanced surveillance and communications for the military, commercial communications, and NASA science programs.  FOSTER-MILLER, INC. 350 Second Ave. Waltham, MA 02451 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 684-4237 Mr. David Walker AF 02-044 Selected for Award Title: Development of a Micro-Pumped Cryogenic Two Phase Heat Transport System Abstract: Foster-Miller is proposing a simple solution to the problem of cooling satellite instrumentation to cryogenic temperature. The system is a micro-pumped, 2-phase heat transport loop that employs multiple MEMS-size micro-pumps to move a cryogenic fluid between an evaporator and a condenser. The system is simpler than either a cryogenic CPL or loop heat pipe and a liquid accumulator and a sintered capillary wick structure are not needed for operation, which greatly reduces both the system mass and fluid charge. The micro-pumped cryogenic heat transport loop is particularly adaptable for use across a 2-axis gimbal, since flexure can be provided by simply adding coils to the system tubing. The use of multiple MEMS micro-pumps provides redundancy and reliability to the system and can control temperature precisely at the electronic interface. The pump power required is very low, on the order of 7 mW, which does not add significantly to the heat load of the system. (P020195) The micro-pumped cryogenic heat transport loop is applicable to both government and commercial satellite applications. The system is seen as an enabling technology, since no satisfactory way to cool satellite electronics to cryogenic temperature are now available. Short-term potential applications exist for military satellites. Commercial applications will develop when the heat transport system becomes available.  K TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250 Fort Washington, PA 19034 Phone: PI: Topic#: (215) 628-8681 Mr. Mark J. Montesano AF 02-044 Selected for Award Title: High Performance Passive Flexible Cryogenic and Ambient Heat Transport Material (kTC P203) Abstract: Flexible cryogenic and ambient cooling is essential to meet emerging requirements for advanced systems and is enabling technology for increasingly compact / higher density Air Force and Department of Defense infrared sensing payloads. k Technology Corporation (kTC) proposes a general technology development that permits the design of a high performance passive flexible cryogenic and ambient heat transport material. The conductivity of the proposed material system will exceed 1000 W/mK at all temperatures between 5 and 300K. In addition, the proposed technology development will allow the material system to be tailored and optimized for any temperature in this range at greater conductivity values. This proposed effort will develop a material system that can be specifically designed to satisfy Air Force requirements. The encapsulated APG foils to be demonstrated under this program would have applications in the commercial satellite market, as well as the obvious military and NASA uses. Key potential post application relies heavily on the successful verification and certification of the proposed materials' performance. With increasing acceptance, encapsulated APG will be attractive to automotive and power supply manufacturers. Enabling technologies will allow the increase of production and the realization of the economies of scale.  ISOSTATIC TECHNOLOGIES, LLC 23555 Euclid Avenue Euclid, OH 44117 Phone: PI: Topic#: (216) 692-5400 Dr. James M.Marder AF 02-045 Selected for Award Title: Large Focal Plane Array Cryogenic Integration Technology Abstract: The objective of this Phase I SBIR proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing high-pressure helium contained within a dual-volume system as the basis for future 10 K cryogenic thermal storage units (CTSUs). The motivation for developing 10 K CTSU technology stems from the high specific input power needed for 10 K cryocoolers (~1000 W/W) in concert with: (a) anticipated heat loads (~1.5 W) of large infrared focal plane arrays operating at 10 K; and (b) a need that the focal plane arrays remain isothermal for optimum performance. To reduce input power from 1.5 kW (or more) to more manageable levels of several hundred watts, large focal plane arrays will need to be duty-cycled. To enable duty-cycling without incurring performance-degrading variations in focal plane temperature, CTSUs operating at (or slightly less than) 10 K are a practical necessity. The ultimate objective for this SBIR program is to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize 10 K CTSU technology. In Phase I, we will develop potential concepts and evaluate concept feasibility. In Phase II, we will design, manufacture, and test a subscale, weight/volume optimized, proof-of-concept breadboard test unit. In Phase III, we will transition the technology into government and/or commercial use. The main contribution of the 10 K CTSU to the DoD is that future missions with 10 K detectors may not be feasible from system power standpoint and/or cooler availability standpoint unless the detectors are duty-cycled. The only way to duty-cycle detectors without incurring a degradingly large variation in sensor temperature is to utilize a 10 K CTSU. Thus, a 10 K CTSU is an enabling technology, a power saving technology, and a performance enhancing technology that will be a critical facet of future 10 K imaging systems. One additional benefit of an ultra-high pressure He 10 K CTSU is that if the sensor operating temperature is a few degrees less than or greater than 10 K, the sensible heat device will still function as intended, whereas a latent heat based CTSU would not.  AVYD DEVICES, INC. 2925 College Avenue, Unit A-1 COSTA MESA, CA 92626 Phone: PI: Topic#: (714) 751-8553 Dr. HONNAVALLI R VYDYANATH AF 02-046 Selected for Award Title: Development of High performance, low noise VLWIR HgCdTe photodiodes Abstract: Phase I effort will focus on demonstration of the feasibility of our approach to reduce detector noise via improvement of carrier lifetime and suppression of tunneling related dark currents. Phase I objective includes demonstration of VLWIR HgCdTe films with much improved carrier lifetime and reducd absorber layer carrier concentration. In Phase II, we plan to demonstrate VLWIR detector arrays with detectivity performance superior to the current state of the art. Military applications include improved serveillence and threat warning capabilities. Commercial applications include industrial and auto emission monitoring, tumor detection, environmental monitoring etc.  SMART PIXEL INC 590 Territorial Drive, Suite B Bolingbrook, IL 60440 Phone: PI: Topic#: (630) 771-0206 Dr. Tae Seok Lee AF 02-046 Selected for Award Title: High-Performance HgCdTe VLWIR Photovoltaic Detectors Abstract: We propose a new generation of non-equilibrium superlattice, high efficiency VLWIR(14 um and longer) detectors that operate in the 40-77K temperature range. The objectives will be achieved by combining the advantages of the molecular beam epitaxy(MBE) crystal growth technique, an innovative non-equilibrium device architecture, and a superlattice structure to control the absorption cut-off wavelength more precisely. For improved space surveillance and threat warning capabilities, where the ability to detect faint objects at great distances is absolutely necessary, a breakthrough sensor technology such as that proposed here is critical. The proposed detectors are anticipated to have enormous potential not only in military, but also in commercial applications including industrial and auto-emission monitoring, tumor detection, environmental monitoring, and fire detection etc.  NEURAL COMPUTING SYSTEMS, LLC 2081 Business Center Drive, Suite 206 Irvine, CA 92612 Phone: PI: Topic#: (949) 475-1840 Dr. Bradley Denney AF 02-048 Selected for Award Title: Advanced Algorithms for Exploitation of Space-Based Imagery Abstract: This SBIR will examine the use of hyperspectral mixture models that may be used to create shadow invariant images for material matching and hidden target detection and tracking. This proposal introduces an "Illumination-based Linear Unmixing Procedure" (ILUMP). ILUMP assumes that every image is illuminated by two spectrally different illumination sources and that at each pixel the illumination source may be partly occluded. This is typically the case in outdoor daytime scenes where there is both sunlight and skylight illumination. The ILUMP formulation requires more sophisticated and computationally expensive model estimation. But this more precise model helps improve the results of applications such as shadow removal and material matching. The proposed contract would further the development of this model by developing model parameter estimation methods and applications of the proposed technologies. The proposed technologies are applicable to remote sensing applications for environmental applications, geological applications, and defense applications. Additionally the techniques may be transferable to color image processing for photo labs, digital cameras, and film studio production and processing.  SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC. 99 South Bedford Street, Suite 7 Burlington, MA 01803 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 273-4770 Dr. Robert Sundberg AF 02-048 Selected for Award Title: The Adaptive Spectral and Abundance Processing (ASAP) Algorithm Abstract: This proposal addresses the urgent need for near real-time algorithms for detection, identification and tracking of objects in highly structured environments. Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) proposes to develop an innovative new algorithm for improved clutter mitigation and target detection for Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) sensors called the Adaptive Spectral and Abundance Processing (ASAP) algorithm. ASAP will include fused spatial-spectral processing of endmember abundance images and spectra obtained from a new real-time adaptive unmixing algorithm. The approach is based on the proven technology found in the Sequential Maximum Angle Convex Cone (SMACC) algorithm that simultaneously determines spectral endmembers, representing the most pure' material spectra in the scene, and abundance images for each endmember. In Phase I, SSI will define and demonstrate an adaptive version of the SMACC algorithm that is capable of processing a continuous stream of HSI data and is suitable for Phase II real-time implementation. Phase I also includes the definition, development and demonstration of fused spatial-spectral detection algorithms that will exploit the spatial information contained in the endmember abundance images and the spectral information contained in the endmember spectra. The processing chain will be demonstrated and evaluated with synthetic and measured HSI data. The development of ASAP will provide a needed real-time target detection, identification and characterization tool for HSI sensors looking at objects in highly structured environments. The proposed technique has relevance to any of the myriad applications of HSI sensors being implemented around the world, including scientific observation, agribusiness, precision mining, urban planning and military surveillance.  SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC. 99 South Bedford Street, #7 Burlington, MA 01803 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 273-4770 Dr. Robert Y. Levine AF 02-048 Selected for Award Title: HSI and MSI Atmospheric Correction Using Neural Networks Abstract: Developing real-time, unsupervised, on-board data processing algorithms for emerging remote sensing technologies is a key step towards overcoming bottlenecks in both ground-based processing and transmission capability to a ground receiving station. An important initial processing step is the application of an atmospheric correction algorithm (ACA), in which the effects of the intervening atmosphere are removed from hyperspectral and multispectral images (HSI and MSI). Spectral Sciences, Inc. proposes to develop a novel Neural Network (NN) based ACA for HSI and MSI sensors that can be embedded in an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to perform autonomous, real-time, and on-board atmospheric correction. While sophisticated, non-real time ground-based ACA's have been developed, their representation in terms of a NN has yet to be demonstrated. Significantly, the NN approach may exceed their performance, particularly for the difficult problem of aerosol characterization (visibility and type over various surfaces). The objectives of Phase I are to demonstrate that NN's can accurately perform the ACA functions, which are atmospheric parameter retrieval and spectral reflectance calculation. In Phase II, the NN algorithms will be implemented in a complete, fully automated software package, in preparation for Phase III transitioning onto ASIC or FPGA hardware. Applications include surface terrain mapping and reflectance characterization, oceanography and marine biology, forestry, precision agriculture, mineral prospecting, environmental monitoring including monitoring of pollutants, and a variety of military applications such as surveillance, intrusion detection, and technical intelligence. Installations are envisioned on satellites, aircraft, and ground-based HSI and MSI platforms, and at ground stations for off-line processing.  SCHAFER CORPORATION 321 Billerica Road Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 242-9992 Mr. Edward Nielsen AF 02-050 Selected for Award Title: Small Launch Vehicle Concept Abstract: Miniaturization technology has enabled small satellites in the 100 to 1,000-lb weight range. The ability to produce these satellites has outpaced the ability of military and commercial sector to cheaply launch them into space. Current spacelift is expensive; e.g., it costs roughly$15M to launch a 1,000-lb satellite to Low Earth Orbit, or 15,000 per lb of spacecraft weight. Small satellite potential is hindered by the lack of affordable and reliable spacelift. The market for affordable small launch vehicles is characterized by the classic "chicken and egg" problem. Space users are reluctant to address mission needs with small satellites because launch cost dominates the price of their architectures. Launch vehicle providers are reluctant to focus on developing small low-cost launch systems due to a fear that the customer base will not support the development cost. A Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) using innovative propulsion and structural technologies is proposed to meet this need. A number of innovations are proposed in the propulsion system which minimize technical risk in the development phase and therefore. Successful demonstration of technologies offered in this proposal through the Phase II will ensure mitigation of highest risk element in the recurring cost of SLV. An important consideration for a SLV is economics. A successful business strategy requires a balance between acceptable investor return on investment and a launch price that is competitive. For an SLV, initial investment and operational flight rate are closely coupled to reach business closure. With low transmitting power and small apertures, small-sats are designed to operate in low earth orbit. Large constellations are required to provide full earth coverage at these low orbiting altitudes. An SLV makes economic sense to launch these large constellations with launch costs that are a fraction of existing expendable launch vehicles on a per-pound basis. Besides the military utility of a low cost SLV for small tactical satellites, the commercial sector is fast approaching the technology basis for routine deployment of small-sats. This proposal offers an innovative solution to enable small-sat launch.  STARCRAFT BOOSTERS, INC. 3106 Beauchamp Street Houston, TX 77009 Phone: PI: Topic#: (757) 930-4966 Dr. Ted Talay AF 02-050 Selected for Award Title: Reusable Booster Technology for Small Launch Vehicles Abstract: This proposal addresses AF02-050 ?Small Launch Vehicle Technology?. A need exists for a Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) for deployment of tactical and commercial satellites singly or in satellite constellations and architectures. The SLV must be highly responsive in providing for rapid deployments of these payloads at greatly reduced launch costs. Increased reliability, reusability, and operations efficiency can fulfill these requirements. The objective of this proposal is the conceptual design of the smallest suborbital, reusable, rocket-powered booster demonstrator that provides configuration and technology traceability to and risk mitigation for a future SLV. The primary propulsion will be a Reusable Propulsion Module (RPM) powered by engines now completing development. The booster will provide a laboratory for tests of new launch vehicle technologies and operational approaches and demonstrate improvements in reliability through inspection and reuse. To this end, it is proposed to determine the most critical technologies for the SLV to be tested by the demonstrator and to provide for a mitigation plan for retiring any associated risks during Phase II and Phase III activities. The development and flight test of such a demonstrator will provide a high level of confidence of achieving cost, reliability and response goals for the later, operational SLV. Demonstration of the technologies and operational approaches studied in Phase I research and as products of the full SBIR process will be applicable to a broad range of future launch vehicles. By demonstrating launch cost reductions, increased reliability, and rapid response capabilities, the subscale flight demonstrator will provide important calibration and validation information for cost and operations models. This research will also reduce the risk in high payoff technologies that have the greatest impacts on the cost, reliability, and response goals for an Small Launch Vehicle. Commercialization of these technologies will have a high payoff for companies that utilize them in both existing and future launch vehicles for USAF Space Control, NASA ISS Servicing, and various commercial space launch missions in the one to two metric ton class. Other potential applications include the acceleration of sounding rockets, target systems, and scramjet vehicles to high velocity. This Phase I research builds upon over six years of privately supported work on the StarBooster architecture approach. Starcraft Boosters, Inc. will seek to partner in Phase II and Phase III with several major aerospace commercial companies to move forward with this demonstration and commercialization effort.  SPACEDEV 13855 Stowe Drive Poway, CA 92064 Phone: PI: Topic#: (858) 375-2042 Mr. Jeffrey Janicik AF 02-051 Selected for Award Title: Small Shuttle-Compatible Propulsion Module Abstract: NASA and the Air Force have established a need for smaller payloads launched on the Shuttle Hitchhiker Experiment Launch System (SHELS) to achieve longer missions and/or more useful orbits by use of a propulsion module (PM). For Phase I, SpaceDev will improve on and demonstrate the practicality of the Maneuvering and Transfer Vehicle (MTV) when deployed from SHELS. The MTV is a scalable, affordable and modular design that utilizes safe, storable propellants (nitrous oxide and Plexiglas). The primary difficulty in implementing a PM for SHELS is the stringent safety requirements of the Space Transportation System (STS). SpaceDev proposes to perform a thorough investigation of the SHELS/STS safety requirements combined with a careful design optimization process that emphasizes safety, cost, and performance. SpaceDev will show that an Advanced MTV can serve as a PM and host spacecraft bus that will maximize the available volume and mass for potential SHELS experiments/instruments. In addition, SpaceDev will design a catalyst bed for multiple MTV restarts and select new fuel core compositions to increase performance and potentially reduce vehicle mass and volume. SpaceDev intends to apply these findings to a Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) conceptual design in the event SHELS launches are not readily available. Many payloads get dropped off in an undesirable orbit due to current launch vehicle cost constraints. A recent California-funded SpaceDev study shows almost 700 planned or existing small satellites that need secondary launches. The fact is there are numerous potential customers who could benefit from the capabilities of an MTV. It is safe and affordable and it can be scaled to provide the desired performance. Furthermore, an MTV with SpaceDev's advanced spacecraft bus subsystems can perform on-demand orbit transfer, rendezvous with orbiting objects, and maneuvering for inspection and docking. These mission capabilities could be considered in great demand especially with the recent trend of high failure rates in commercial communication satellites.  ATA ENGINEERING, INC 11995 El Camino Real, Suite 200 San Diego, CA 91230 Phone: PI: Topic#: (858) 792-3985 Dr. Gareth Thomas AF 02-052 Selected for Award Title: Payload Adapter for Satellite Missions Launched using ICBM-derived Launch Vehicles Abstract: The proposed program addresses the development of a lightweight payload adapter able to accommodate a wide range of satellite geometries. Although several concepts will be evaluated before one is selected, the proposal describes a preliminary concept that achieves this objective. This candidate solution consists of a graphite epoxy/honeycomb core laminate formed into an essentially flat plate which provides the most versatile mounting surface for any combination of primary and secondary payloads. The only feature that varies from one launch configuration to the next is the placement of titanium inserts for the payload mounts. An integral low-bending-stiffness outer band provides the capability to tune the modal frequencies of the system to achieve a high level of payload vibration isolation. This innovation reduces cost and part count and greatly facilitates the manufacturing process while meeting challenging structural requirements without resorting to unproven and difficult-to-obtain materials. The preliminary design includes an optional feature that allows for the use of constrained layer damping to reduce vibration levels during sine-sweep testing. Small-scale specimen modal testing to confirm the feasibility of this approach to increase structural damping is included in the Phase I scope of work. The payload adapter researched in Phase I and developed in Phase II will potentially be flown on future missions by the contracting companies. The adapter will be initially designed for a specific launch vehicle, but the technology will be easily adaptable to other launch vehicles. Launch vehicle providers will save money from not having to design a new adapter for each mission. Launch services users such as the Air Force will save launch costs since custom adapter development will be reduced. Additional cost will be saved through increased payload capacity through the reduced adapter weight.  CSA ENGINEERING, INC. 2565 Leghorn Street Mountain View, CA 94043 Phone: PI: Topic#: (650) 210-9000 Mr. Joseph R. Maly AF 02-052 Selected for Award Title: Payload Adapter for Satellite Missions Launched using ICBM-derived Launch Vehicles Abstract: Deactivated ICBMs are a logical means of putting payloads into space, but missile systems are not designed for satellite launches, and payload accommodations on deactivated missiles are inadequate for standard payloads. Furthermore, the vibration and acoustic environments during launch of an ICBM are much more severe than the environments seen on a rocket developed specifically for satellites. The need for new, low-cost launch vehicles combined with the availability of these deactivated ICBMs drive a need to develop a payload adapter to manifest multiple satellites on these new vehicles. CSA Engineering sees this as a unique opportunity to develop a modular, composite payload-adapter system with integrated vibration and acoustic suppression capability. The focus of our concept will be to develop an approach in which a minimal set of components can be interchanged to accommodate multiple payloads on one or more launch vehicles. Vibration damping and whole-spacecraft payload isolation have become proven technologies for reducing the dynamics environment during launch. This SBIR will develop new technology by integrating both types of vibration suppression into a low-cost composite payload adapter. One obvious market is the large number of small satellites to be launched over the next several years by all branches of the DoD. These satellites could be launched on a variety of launch vehicles on which this new adapter could be used, including the Peacekeeper launch vehicle, the OSP/Minotaur space launch vehicle, Taurus, Pegasus, and others. The commercial satellite market also has a need for this new adapter. This profit-driven market is continually striving to increase margins and one way to do that is to sell excess capacity on launchers. And the added benefit of vibration isolation of the satellites and the reduced acoustics will make this an attractive option to customers.  SOMMER MATERIALS RESEARCH 640 North Main Suite G North Salt Lake, UT 84054 Phone: PI: Topic#: (801) 631-5500 Dr. Jared L. Sommer AF 02-054 Selected for Award Title: Low-Cost Enamel Coatings on Stainless Steel Foil for Thin Film Photovoltaics Abstract: High-efficiency photovoltaic cells fabricated from copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) technology are important for the generation of low-cost electrical energy. Greater cost benefits could be realized if photovoltaic films could be fabricated on flexible metal foils using a roll-to-roll manufacturing process. A thin insulative layer is required to separate the CIGS film from the metal foil. This insulative coating should exhibit excellent adhesion to the metal substrate and be compatible with the CIGS and metal substrate layer, both thermophysically and chemically. An inexpensive method of applying this coating over large areas without surface defects is also needed. Sommer Materials Research (SMR) proposes to apply thin pinhole-free enamel coatings to stainless steel foil for CIGS solar cells. Air spraying and electrophoretic deposition will be used to obtain thin uniform coatings. The enamel coatings will exhibit excellent flexibility and be compatible with CIGS processing conditions. The electrically insulative coating will also show high bond strength, a high use temperature, and a compatible thermal expansion coefficient to the CIGS layer and metal foil. Thin enamel coatings on metals have a proven track record commercially and may be the key for producing inexpensive high-efficiency solar cells for military, aerospace, and commercial use. The enameled foils will exhibit high flexibility and compatibility, allowing roll-to-roll fabrication of inexpensive solar arrays. The thin coatings will be uniformly deposited on both sides of the foil without defects. These photovoltaic cells can be used in a wide variety of applications, such as roof and building facades, power sources for consumer goods, and solar modules for space satellites.  TRITON SYSTEMS, INC. 200 TURNPIKE ROAD Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 250-4200 Dr. Somesh Mukherjee AF 02-054 Selected for Award Title: A Novel Insulating Thin Film for High Efficiency Photovoltaics Utilizing Metallic Substrates Abstract: Triton proposes to develop unique insulating layers for a molybdenum and stainless steel film substrates to produce a thin film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) cell. The high efficiency and excellent stability of CIGS thin film solar cells will provide for a cost effective solar electricity generation system. Since CIGS deposition requires relatively high processing temperature (600øC), the device fabrication must take place on substrates such as stainless steel or Molybdenum foil. This precludes monolithic device integration such as series connection of solar cells and incorporation of bypass and blocking diodes. These later processes are analogous to crystalline solar cell panel and array fabrication and accepted industry practice, because the device is produced on a conductive substrate and simple etching procedures can not expose an insulating or conductive layer to isolate or interconnect cells with relative ease. The key to implementing monolithic processes is incorporation of an insulating layer between the active cell and the substrate. The proposed program directly addresses this need. During Phase I, Triton will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed insulating materials for CIGS deposition CIGS solar cells can be used for space applications because of their tolerance to high energy irradiation. They can also be used in remote areas for power generation and in power crisis situations as evidenced recently California.  PRINCETON SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, INC. 7 Deer Park Drive, Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852 Phone: PI: Topic#: (732) 274-0774 Mr. John L Lowrance AF 02-055 Selected for Award Title: Star Trackers Based Upon Advanced Sensor Technologies Abstract: Modern star trackers are based primarily upon Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) image sensors. CCDs are sensitive to the space radiation environment and can degrade rapidly under the influence of energetic charged particles and x-ray and gamma-ray photons. Recently, new types of image sensors have been developed that show promise of being more radiation-tolerant than CCDs. These Active Pixel Sensors (APS) are based on complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing can also include on-chip analog-to-digital converters, on-chip correlated double sampling, and addressability of individual pixels. A back-illuminated CMOS imager can combine the advantages of CMOS arrays with the sensitivity and uniformity advantages of the highest quality CCD arrays. This Phase I study will address the development of a back illuminated CMOS array for star tracker and other high performance applications, ending with the conceptual design for a back-illuminated CMOS array. In Phase II the design will be completed, fabricated and evaluated. The anticipated benefit of Phase I is a star tracker conceptual design that affords greater radiation tolerance and lower cost without sacrificing performance. The prospect of reduced cost and improved radiation tolerance will make the proposed CMOS based star tracker attractive to DOD, NASA and commercial spacecraft manufacturers. There may be a broader market for star trackers as a backup for GPS navigation systems which can be disabled by jamming. This is a more cost conscious market where a CMOS focal plane incorporating the A/D converter and other circuits on the chip can lead to significant cost savings.  ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. 8130 Shaffer Pkwy Littleton, CO 80127 Phone: PI: Topic#: (303) 285-5149 Dr. Lin Simpson AF 02-057 Selected for Award Title: Antenna Arrays for Spectroscopic Division of Wavefront Focal-Plane Imaging Polarimetry Abstract: This SBIR Phase I project will develop an enabling technology that performs Spectroscopic Division of Wavefront Polarimetry using Antenna Arrays in an imaging focal-plane configuration. ITN will combine groups of four carefully designed antennas to form a single pixel that completely determines the polarization state of light. The high frequency energy collected by each antenna will be converted to a usable signal with integrated rectifiers (diodes, bolometers, etc.). Since frequency collection is simply a geometric/engineering issue for antennas, ITN will be able to combine antennas in a focal-plane array to detect a broad spectrum of wavelengths with resolution and band-widths engineered to the specific requirements of the application. ITN has the advanced e-beam lithographic processing available in-house to perform the challenging research and development needed to design, build, and test the small antennas/rectifiers that scale with the wavelength of the light for optimum collection efficiency. Furthermore, ITN has substantial polarimetry expertise including patented technology with unique calibration capabilities. While the processing and goals of this program will be challenging, development of a high-resolution focal-plane array that simultaneously measures the full polarization state of light at multiple (perhaps hundreds or thousands) wavelengths will revolutionize the IR and visible imaging detector industry. An uncooled focal-plane imaging array polarimeter that simultaneously measures the full polarization state of light at multiple wavelengths by itself is extremely unique. However, the unique capabilities combined with relatively low material cost, compared to present IR detectors, and no moving parts is truly an enabling technology that will revolutionize the IR and visible imaging detector industry; providing a market pull for applications ranging from phenomenological polarimetry research and development, in/on-line material characterization, to surveillance with unmatched recognition and tracking abilities. Commercially, surveillance is a growing multi-billion dollar industry. However, development of the unique capabilities of an inexpensive multiple wavelength imaging polarimeter will be truly enabling; not only capturing present market share with superior technology, but also expanding commercial and military markets to applications that had previously been limited by technology and cost.  PLANNING SYSTEMS INC. 12030 Sunrise Valley Dr, Suite 400, Reston Plaza I Reston, VA 20191 Phone: PI: Topic#: (228) 689-8458 Dr. Walton McBride AF 02-057 Selected for Award Title: Simulation of Round-the-Clock Polarization-based Target Discrimination by an Airborne Sensor from .4 to 14 microns Abstract: In response to this Phase I topic, Planning Systems Incorporated (PSI) proposes the development of physics-based algorithms to characterize the effects of the environment on polarization-based imagery collected by an airborne platform over a 24-hour period anywhere in the world, and the development of interactive simulation tools to test these algorithms. A backwards raytrace technique, capable of creating photorealistic simulations, will be used to model the polarized spectral imagery recorded by a simulated array of "mini-sensors" in the imaging plane. The polarized skylight distribution incident on the scene and imager will be modeled using a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo technique developed by Texas A&M University. PSI will leverage proprietary algorithms that simulate the effect of important environmental phenomena such as forward scattering and turbulence, which were previously developed for use with unpolarized imagery. PSI will also apply previously developed techniques that create a surface topology with user-selected spatial correlation statistics. By simulating the approach of an airborne imager from any angle at any time of day, developed algorithms will be directly useful in determining military approach scenarios for optimal target detection/discrimination. Direct follow-on commercial applications include improved airborne monitoring of agricultural/forestry crops and enhanced airborne identification of illicit crops. The proposed effort will provide the tools necessary to help determine the benefits to the military of using polarization in target detection/discrimination missions. These results will be directly applicable to other efforts to discriminate targets from an airborne platform; this includes crop health assessment and the ability to remotely detect illicit crops among legal crops/natural vegetation.  THE SCATTER WORKS, INC. 17 Wagon Wheel Rd. North Attleboro, MA 02760 Phone: PI: Topic#: (508) 695-3164 Dr. John C. Stover AF 02-057 Selected for Award Title: Polarization Phenomenology Modeling and Simulation Abstract: The proposed work suggests a method of analyzing multiple images of the same surveillance scene in order to enhance identification of ground-based objects. The multiple images, which must be obtained using different measurement parameters (polarization, wavelength, relative position, etc.), are compared to a data base generated from scattering models of different objects (and materials) of common ground based objects. A unique method of comparison is employed that allows a computer to generate identification results and related probability of success. The object is to prove the comparison technique for the situation of scattered sunlight; however, once proven, it can be applied to other input data sets, such as, IR emission. Generating the scattering database is a significant portion of the work. Optimizing the choice of parameters to be compared is a key element of the project. In addition to using modeled scatter data for numerical experiments; a set of samples will be measured to obtain their scattering characteristics. This data will be analyzed in a similar way to demonstrate feasibility. If successful the project will demonstrate a technique that can be used to enhance information gathered from surveillance photos. The fact that the comparison technique depends on models to create a comparison data means that the required data base information can be generated in a manner that is very cost effective compared to actually taking data. If successful for use with visible scattered light, then a similar comparison technique can be developed for other forms of surveillance, such as mid-IR emission or even illumination of the scene by radio wave to micro-wave frequencies.  SCION ASSOCIATES 439 Fillmore Street Port Townsend, WA 98368 Phone: PI: Topic#: (360) 379-4681 Mr. Robert C. Livingston AF 02-058 Selected for Award Title: Geophysical Interpretation of Digital Ionosonde Signatures Abstract: The high-frequency ionosonde is a familiar instrument in radio science and an essential asset for operational propagation prediction. However, the capability of the typical ionosonde is under-utilized: it provides a vast amount of information about the ionosphere and its dynamics, extending from short- through very large spatial scales, but little advantage is taken of these data. We propose a merger of software and hardware that can significantly expand the capabilities of the ionosonde as a scientific and operational support instrument. A complex echo recognition approach to data processing has been proven by many years of HF radar science using the NOAA Dynasonde. The technique utilizes the full complex signal returns, resulting in ionogram data of outstanding resolution and precision. In trade for this enhanced function, the processing algorithms place stringent requirements on receiver hardware phase performance. We outline the software tasks necessary to adapt the approach to real-time operation in a generalized, network-based user interface. The hardware effort will specify the receiver performance necessary to meet data processing requirements, considering existing and new receiver designs, with an emphasis on the digital detection portion of the system. The proposed approach provides a cost effective means to obtain significant performance improvement from an asset that is essential to operational DoD systems and to radio science research.  SPACE ENVIRONMENT CORPORATION 399 North Main, Suite 325 Logan, UT 84321 Phone: PI: Topic#: (435) 752-6567 Dr. J. Vincent Eccles AF 02-058 Selected for Award Title: Geophysical Interpretation of Digital Ionosonde Signatures Abstract: The ionosonde is an important ionospheric monitor for determining ionospheric parameters useful in nav/com technologies as well as assimilative space weather models. Unfortunately, existing analysis software requires human assistance to obtain quality parameters suitable for assimilation. Even when expertly reduced, many parameters required by assimilation models, such as error estimates, are not provided. Therefore, existing ionosonde datastreams are not utilized in space weather operations, assimilation models, or other applications. We propose to define and test software technology to overcome the continued neglect of valuable ionosonde networks. First, we will produce a detailed report of the necessary parameters and information required by assimilation models from ionosondes to advance the relevancy of ionosondes. The proposed software package will use innovative ionogram analysis methods including (1) algorithms to remove RF artifacts not associated with the ionosphere, (2) time-series analysis of ionograms, (3) physics-based, expert determination of the ionogram trace, (4) expanded output resulting from the advanced analysis including traditional ionogram characteristics, ionosphere parameters, ionosphere drivers, and, importantly, associated errors and variation characteristics of output parameters. The package will possess adaptable data input capability to allow for broad use. Key technologies to be developed under this proposed effort are aimed at making existing ionosonde networks immediately valuable to the space weather community. The Air Force has ionosonde networks and would be an immediate market for the techology. However, users of other ionosondes and legacy ionosonde databases would be able to use the package. Additional application possibilities will be available as low-power ionosondes become more attractive for use in RF sensitive environments.  SRS TECHNOLOGIES 1800 Quail Street, Suite 101, P.O. Box 9219 Newport Beach, CA 92660 Phone: PI: Topic#: (256) 971-7031 Mr. Brian Patrick AF 02-059 Selected for Award Title: Active Controlled Membrane Mirrors with Shape Memory Abstract: The increasing demand for large aperture imaging and High Energy Laser (HEL) space-based systems has led to a technology push for light-weight, deployable primary mirrors. The use of a thin, space-rated, polymer membrane material as a primary mirror is a possible solution for this problem. SRS has developed processes to produce membranes with a very precise optical quality surface with very low areal density. Incorporation of Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) into an optical quality membrane will then provide the required energy necessary for deployment after launch. Using this process a precision optical shape can be formed using an SMA/Membrane material then a thermal step allows for efficient packaging. Another thermal step then lets the material recover its initial shape. The use of a non-contact magnetic actuation system would then allow for final shape optimization. Under this effort feasibility demonstrations will be conducted on a membrane/SMA composite for use as a deployable mirror, and a non-contact magnetic actuator system. The successful demonstration of the proposed concept of a Polymer Membrane/Shape Memory Alloy material to perform as a deployable primary mirror will provide an immediate impact on many current and future USAF, NASA, and other DoD space-based large aperture imaging or High Energy Laser (HEL) applications. Many require multi-meter apertures capable of being deployed after launch. The development of this technology along with a feasibility demonstration of a non-contact magnetic actuation system would enable such designs to become a reality and also open the door for commercial parties that are interested in the use of very large aperture mirrors.  AEC-ABLE ENGINEERING CO. INC. 7200 Hollister Ave. Goleta, CA 93117 Phone: PI: Topic#: (805) 690-2439 Mr. David Murphy AF 02-060 Selected for Award Title: Long-Stroke Isolation System for Large Flexible Space Structures Abstract: The proposed SBIR Phase 1 program will conceptually develop a lightweight long stroke isolation system for large flexible space structures, and ready this technology for a follow-on SBIR Phase 2 hardware validation program. The isolation system technology to be developed will provide mechanical/electrical connection and dynamic isolation between large steerable deployable appendage and spacecraft, respectively. The proposed Phase 1 program will establish isolation system concept feasibility through design and analytical modeling, and trade study/evaluation activities. Concept feasibility will be determined by quantitatively and/or qualitatively assessing isolation characteristics, agility characteristics, safe mode operation, power/data transfer, weight, cost, complexity, reliability, packaging, deployment, and survivability. The proposed Phase 1 program will be executed through a team approach, working concurrently with the AFRL and other subsystem technology partners. The potential benefits and commercial value of isolation systems could be enormous, as this technology is mission enabling for future missions. Future spacecraft trends for both the DoD and commercial markets are focusing on larger and larger deployed solar array, antenna, and other mechanical systems in an effort to increase mission capability. These large deployable systems will require an isolation system that provides long stroke frictionless motion and isolation of flexible dynamics to completely fulfill mission requirements. A feasible isolation system is mission enabling for many future applications, and as such will capture significant commercial value.  HONEYBEE ROBOTICS 204 Elizabeth Street New York, NY 10012 Phone: PI: Topic#: (212) 966-0661 Mr. Kiel Davis AF 02-060 Selected for Award Title: Long-Stroke Isolation System for Large Flexible Space Structures Abstract: The objective of this proposal is to establish the feasibility of a lightweight, articulated boom concept capable of providing a mechanical connection between two spacecraft while maintaining a high-degree of dynamic isolation. During a previous study, the functional tasks of the boom system were defined and preliminary performance requirements for subsystems were derived. Basic boom system principles were reported and a technology concept was formulated. This proposal seeks to further characterize the boom system feasibility through analytical and experimental investigation of critical functions. Specifically, the proposed research will focus on the design and performance of the boom's robotic joints. The system's kinematic configuration will be validated through analysis of workspace, packaging and deployment requirements. The robotic joint design concept will be validated through thorough analysis of joint performance models and simulations that assume the use of existing, commercially available components and technologies. Robotic joint technical challenges will be identified and a program plan will be formulated that includes an implementation and development strategy for any new technologies. Designs and test plans for critical-function breadboards will be developed. One breadboard will be built and tested. While the Honeybee Robotics work to date has been largely project-based, the company is eager to expand its business in the area of recurring sales and product lines. The proposed application has a large potential in the commercial satellite industry and Honeybee Robotics believes that it is well placed, with the development assistance of the SBIR program, to make the innovation commercially available if successful.  CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS INC. 625 Mount Auburn Street Cambridge, MA 02138 Phone: PI: Topic#: (617) 491-3474 Dr. Mark L. Hanson AF 02-062 Selected for Award Title: Multi Agent-based Satellite System for Information Fusion (MASSIF) Abstract: Recent military operations illustrate the importance of information dominance and the subsidiary need to provide enhanced battlespace awareness to the warfighter. The emergence of space-based assets offers an unprecedented opportunity to enhance battlespace awareness. Because space-based assets are inherently distributed and are becoming even more so due to satellite clusters, achieving information dominance requires fusing large amounts of information between sensors and vehicles based on intelligence requirements. For satellite clusters, this implies that cluster management (e.g. formation planning, payload management, etc.) needs to be more closely coupled with information fusion. In cluster operations, traditional research has focused on formation control algorithms. Here, we focus on information fusion with respect to: 1) assessing the battlespace situation with respect to overall mission requirements; 2) determining the information needs based on high-level user-generated requirements; and 3) translating the information needs into high-level cluster specific tasking. We propose to develop a Multi Agent-based Satellite System for Information Fusion (MASSIF). The innovation is the application of computational intelligence techniques such as fuzzy logic and Bayesian belief networks with distributed agent technology and messaging for information fusion in distributed systems such as spacecraft clusters. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing cluster management control. The proposed technology will directly support and augment present and future autonomous systems involving multiple spacecraft, UAVs, and underwater submersibles. It is also applicable to complex systems such as power plants that possess distributed components, which require reconfiguration and monitoring. The core technology complements various ongoing projects including a current effort sponsored by NASA to build a distributed environment for spacecraft onboard planning and scheduling. We also plan to generalize the agent to embed in our Intelligent Agent Toolkit for use in any domain requiring intelligent agent interaction.  INTERFACE AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, INC. 8945 Guilford Road, Suite 120 Columbia, MD 21046 Phone: PI: Topic#: (410) 290-7600 Pat Cappelaere AF 02-062 Selected for Award Title: ABEL: an Adaptive Belief Engine for Satellite Cluster Data Fusion Abstract: To support autonomous scenarios, future constellations of satellites must manage multiple sources of information carrying various levels of uncertainty. Multi-mode payloads will be autonomously configured based on fusion of evidences provided by independent cooperative agents. This will require an advanced architecture to loosely couple distributed knowledge sources. The Adaptive Belief Engine will concurrently manage uncertain information from onboard processing agents as part of a Cluster Manager's intelligent reasoning. The same engine will concurrently support integrated Fault Management at the vehicle and/or cluster level. It will manage, corroborate or refute evidences with varying degrees of certainty. These evidences are dynamically gathered from various diagnostics and prognostics engines providing unparalleled confidence in spacecraft automation. Results will be accumulated into the embedded shared database. Significantly, a cooperating expert system will evaluate rules, dynamically uploaded, that will trigger based on user-tunable thresholds of certainty associated with the current set of hypotheses. The real-time executive will then concurrently process specified scripts to intelligently task the cluster payload and elements or even recover from newly detected faults. This component will be integrated within a distributed blackboard architecture required to allow interchange of information across heterogeneous elements such as subsystems, satellite clusters or other unmanned vehicles. - Increase return in opportunistic acquisition of data (based on unanticipated events detected onboard) for military or science applications. Sophisticated image or geo-location processing algorithms intrinsically generate uncertain data. However, combination of enough evidences provided by cooperating agents could result in opportunistic acquisition not previously anticipated. Autonomous and continuous monitoring of wide areas becomes possible. Stealth or silent mode of operations becomes the norm until specific data is downlinked. This results in an effective data compression ratio that can reach 10,000:1 as proven by the New Millennium Space Technology 6 program. - Increase effectiveness in delivering the right information at the right time to the right person (i.e. "direct to the shooters or the scientists"). - Enhanced fault management allowing uncertainty within a set of cooperating diagnostics/prognostics engines working at the subsystem or system level and providing the means for autonomous recovery. - Decreased ground support cost due to a more effective onboard autonomous fault management recovery architecture that will communicate with the onboard planner and/or the model-based reasoner to reconfigure or re-plan as necessary. This open architecture provides the necessary framework for inclusion of best-of-breed products to interoperate in a cooperative manner assuming that they handle uncertainty in a similar manner. This paves the way for more intelligent and capable systems in the field. - Significant software cost reduction by providing a freely available, open-source component supported by a proven software vendor. Potential Commercial Applications of the Research and Development There is an increasing desire in many organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DOD), to use constellations or fleets of autonomous spacecraft working together to accomplish complex mission objectives. The Afghan conflict saw the first unmanned vehicle with missile capability opening the way to Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) constellations already planned by the Air Force and the Navy. The Office of Naval Research, Future Naval Capabilities, states: "Let robots do the dangerous work. Naval forces can enhance their capabilities with technologies that increase the autonomy, performance and affordability of their organic uninhabited vehicle systems. Autonomous systems will let Sailors and Marines disperse throughout the battlespace and still operate effectively, influencing the action over great distances and long spans of time." NASA's Space Launch Initiative has invested significant resources to perform risk reduction in key technology area deemed necessary to close the business case for the next-generation space vehicle. One such technology area (TA-5), will address risks in developing an Integrated Vehicle Health Management system onboard the vehicle and on the Ground. The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), National Security Agency (NSA), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) programs such as Counter Camouflage, Concealment and Deception (Counter CC&D), Foliage Penetration (FOPEN) and UAV classified programs will also greatly benefit from this proposal work. These capabilities usually require a multi-mode radar and need to be interfaced with other sensors. Onboard processing and fusion of uncertain data is a key element. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has initiated the TechSat-21 program to serve as a proof of concept mission for a new paradigm for space missions. This paradigm seeks to reduce costs and increase system robustness and maintainability by distributing functionality over several micro-satellites flying in formation. Our involvement in this program gives us a unique opportunity to address both system/cluster level health management as well as radar payload data fusion in a flight configuration.  AEROASTRO, INC. 520 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon, VA 20170 Phone: PI: Topic#: (858) 481-3785 Mr. Ray Zenick AF 02-063 Selected for Award Title: Proximity Inspection Sensor Array and Remote Radio Frequency Diagnostic Tool Abstract: A significant problem for stakeholders in large satellite systems is the difficulty of getting data about these systems when it counts the most - in orbit and during critical anomalous situations. Near-field diagnostic tools - including visual and infrared images and close-range radio frequency measurements - are now becoming feasible to examine performance, anomalies, and failures on orbit. AeroAstro proposes the conceptual development of a sensor suite for satellite inspection. The goal is to develop a toolbox' for inspection and failure diagnosis, and to study how this would be implemented on a mission such as XSS-11. AeroAstro will focus on the development of an RF probe, which could be used in space to inspect the RF signals emanating from a target satellite. This probe would be much like an intelligent spectrum analyzer, which when used in conjunction with a calibrated, wide-bandwidth antenna would be capable of signal level, classification, and quality measurements of a target satellite's transponders, antennas, waveguide assemblies, and near-field RF emissions. Based on patented conceptual work already completed by AeroAstro, the RF probe high-level design relies on straightforward RF technology. Commercial-off-the-shelf components will be used wherever possible, and AeroAstro will leverage other ongoing RF work for certain components where applicable. AeroAstro will develop a conceptual satellite diagnostic toolbox' and apply this concept to existing satellite inspection systems, with a particular focus on bringing the RF probe to near-PDR level in Phase I. The Phase I effort will provide a solid foundation for developing a working RF probe prototype for ground testing with an actual satellite in Phase II. The primary application of the RF probe is providing satellite information-gathering and diagnostic capabilities. In addition, the RF probe could be used for intelligence gathering on uncooperative spacecraft, undetected by the target satellite, or used in sentry mode to detect foreign satellites entering into a sensitive designated area around an important satellite. Satellite manufacturers, insurers, and operators would all benefit from proposed technology. Furthermore, the technologies developed through this project, including digital RF components, miniaturization, and signal processing tools, have applicability to other terrestrial applications. These spin-offs will be harnessed and commercialized.  SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC. One Crystal Park, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 100 Arlington, VA 22202 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 275-0101 Dr. Dunning Idle V AF 02-063 Selected for Award Title: Remote Satellite Diagnostics Abstract: SOpsSim-RSDT is physics based with detailed spacecraft models, orbital environment effects, and an analyst workstation. It models prox-ops of servicing-inspection vehicles with Resident Space Objects (RSOs) as well as ground, airborne, space-based, or RSO attached sensors producing realistic data. It processes real world or simulated signature data. The outputs describe the RSO system state. This proposal emphasizes a single area that should give good early results for Phase I. That is developing the theory, code, and observation data needed to determine current and future attitude motion and mass properties based on images available from the AFRL Starfire Optical Range and then based on optical cross section only. We will test against computer generated images, and then against real field data. Knowledge of attitude motion and mass properties will reveal details of Attitude Control System (ACS) operation and momentum-wheel motion. To demonstrate a new capability enabled by such knowledge, we also examine the case of a spacecraft in a three-axis tumble with failed attitude control, requiring external stabilization. We propose a device that flies in formation with the tumbling RSO, latches onto it, and despins it. This is the vital precursor to all servicing scenarios that include lost attitude control. SOpsSim-RSDT anticipated benefits are focused on providing satellite analysts a platform for modeling both cooperative and uncooperative Resident Space Objects. Current capabilities of the toolkit include scheduling ground and airborne sensor overflight, planning rendezvous and proximity operations for teleoperated servicing missions, and high fidelity 3D graphics visualization of the relative geometry between sensors and RSOs. The ultimate goals for the toolkit increased spacecraft effective mission lifetime through better knowledge of RSO system state prior to a servicing mission, and increased Space Situation Awareness for organizations tasked with monitoring all RSOs. SOpsSim-RSDT anticipated benefits include but are not limited to: * Capability to model the complex physical geometry of spacecraft for visualization and synthesis of expected signatures such as imagery and optical cross section * Capability to model basic subsystems of spacecraft including power, attitude control, communications, thermal control, propulsion, and payload * Earth orbit propagation (using NORAD element sets or user supplied ECI radius and velocity vectors), relative proximity operations orbit propagation, and attitude propagation for planning sensor to RSO relative geometry and deriving attitude pose estimates from synthetic and real world images and cross section measurements * Linearized Least Squares Estimator which can use a sequence of attitude pose estimates to derive both attitude trajectory, angular velocity path in ECI or spacecraft body space, and principal moments of inertia of RSO * Polytope search algorithm for optimized search of basic states from which to initialize estimator * Evaluation of servicing mission, to include orbitology, servicer design and operations, and rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking trajectories * High fidelity visualization of complex robot manipulator geometry * Avoidance of plume impingement affects during proximity operations, stationkeeping, and final docking/capture * Initial human control of flight path and manipulator trajectories can be used as a starting point for evaluating mission feasibility and optimization of final automated control sequence * Point design TALON spacecraft allows the capture of uncooperative RSOs in uncontrolled full three-axis tumbles. This includes use of video imagery to estimate current target attitude, attitude rate, and mass properties. * Point design INCHWORM allows self repair without the cost of mounting a full repair mission. This will avoid the major expense of the launch of a servicing spacecraft and even the propellant costs of a maneuvering a space based servicing spacecraft. It also will allow for self assembly of large structures such as Space Based Laser or Relay Mirror beam expander optics. For spacecraft which are already on-orbit, INCHWORM is the ideal platform for diagnostics sensors. It can externally attach to an RSO and then "walk" over the exterior surface to place sensors in desired locations. It can then conduct spacecraft repairs if equipped with the appropriate end-effector tools. * Potential Integration with other current and planned Joint BattleSpace InfoSphere products for mission evaluation, conduct joint exercises, military utility studies, and operator training and rehearsal SOpsSim-RSDT is designed as one of a series of Satellite Advisor Module (SAM) modules that cooperate in aiding Ground Systems Operators (GSO) GSOs and the warfighter customers. The SAM series of products are all aimed at providing a unified robust environment to research, develop, implement, and VVA within. Ultimately, the SAM interface can evolve into the actual operational interface with training features being used as operational aids and operational features being embedded into the training tutors. SAM products are designed upon shared communication and DMT type environments to ensure that realistic high fidelity team training occurs including the stress of simulated combat operations.  SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS INC 55 Middlesex street Chelmsford, MA 02144 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 251-4554 Dr. John Noto AF 02-064 Selected for Award Title: An innovative dayglow spectrometer utilizing Fabry-Perot etalons Abstract: This proposal investigates the use of two different Fabry-Perot based airglow sense to determine the most efficacious design of a daytime airglow sensor. Using a combination of holographic optical elements and Fabry-Perot etalons a system will be designed that will have the ability to observe several different wavelengths during the entire diurnal period. Airglow observations proposed in Phase I will be used to validate the holographic FP-CCD coupling optics. Then two strawman models will be developed to compare and contrast an FP imaging system with a non-imaging system this will allow the full system design of a dayglow spectrometer that will be constructed in Phase II. The system will provide spatial as well as spectral information, allowing the detection of 630.0nm airglow to be used as a predictor of equatorial spread-f. Scientific Solutions has a long heritage of airglow observations including a robotic airglow photometer in Chile, the proposed system will incorporate many of the same design elements. The final system will be autonomous, capable of independent or remote controlled operation over the Internet. The commercial aspects of this technology are unlimited. An immediate customer will be NOAA and the Air Force both who need thermospheric dynamics information for many space weather models. A variant of this technology can be used for in-situ clear air turbulence detection and the construction of very efficient LIDAR systems.  ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. 8130 Shaffer Pkwy Littleton, CO 80127 Phone: PI: Topic#: (303) 285-5116 Dr. Michael Schwartz AF 02-067 Selected for Award Title: Low Temperature Ceramic Oxygen Generating System Abstract: ITN Energy Systems, Inc. proposes to develop an electrically-pumped, low-temperature ceramic oxygen generating system to support aeromedical and On-Board Oxygen Generating System uses. The proposed ceramic oxygen generating system is based on ITN's novel five-layer, monolithically integrated unit cell and incorporates an advanced, low-temperature (500-700 oC) thin-film electrolyte. In addition, the system will incorporate state-of-the-art components, including recuperators, heat exchangers, insulation and air blowers to minimize the system size and power consumption. During this Phase I program, ITN will design, fabricate and operate a ceramic oxygen generating system resulting in the characterization of a small-scale (0.1-1 liter/min) breadboard device. Experimental results will be used to gain an understanding of the performance issues associated with the low temperature operation of a ceramic oxygen generating system. A model of the overall system will also be developed and used to optimize the system for minimum size, weight and input power. Successful completion of Phase I will result in the demonstration of the basic ceramic oxygen generation components. Performance metrics will be determined and an overall system design for the OBOGS will be performed. The use of a thin-film, monolithically-integrated unit cell will result in a ceramic oxygen generating system that will be more efficient and more compact than existing electrochemical approaches for oxygen generation from air. This device is also expected to be more efficient than the pressure swing adsorption technique. This will allow for the ITN ceramic oxygen generating system to find applications in the Air Force On-Board Oxygen Generating System and in commercial applications for the generation of medical grade oxygen.  NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD. 720-I Lakeview Plaza Blvd. Worthington, OH 43085 Phone: PI: Topic#: (614) 842-6606 Dr. Matthew M. Seabaugh AF 02-067 Selected for Award Title: Low Temperature Ceramic Oxygen Generation Abstract: Numerous applications within the military and medical fields would benefit from compact and electrically efficient oxygen generation systems. Ceramic-based electrochemical oxygen generation systems are under consideration for military applications, including oxygen supplies for aircraft, medevacs, and mobile hospitals. On-board oxygen generation systems (OBOGs) reduce logistics costs associated with liquid oxygen delivery systems. Current OBOGS systems, based on molecular sieve and pressure swing absorption (PSA) technology, generate low-pressure, oxygen-enriched air (90-95% oxygen). Compared to PSA systems, ceramic oxygen generation systems provide higher purity oxygen (>99%) at higher pressures (>2,500 psi), in a smaller unit, with reduced lifecycle costs and no moving parts. The advantages of ceramic oxygen generation systems are well known, although successful deployment has been elusive. NexTech Materials will collaborate with Northrup Grumman to demonstrate cerium oxide-based ceramic electrolyte materials that operate at low (~650 C) temperatures in systems that are manufacturable, smaller, more reliable, and more efficient. In the Phase I program, materials and components for working prototype will be produced and assembled to prove the viability of the concept and demonstrate oxygen generation. In Phase II, breadboard ceramic oxygen systems will be optimized with respect to system design and operation. The targeted ceramic oxygen generation system will operate at low temperature and provide high pressure, high purity oxygen for life support and medical applications. Potential commercial applications include medical oxygen generation for home health, paramedic and disaster relief and small-scale oxygen generation for welding, chemical, and semiconductor manufacturing.  VIRTUAL SIMULATION AND TRAINING INC. 1538 Scottsgate Court North Xenia, OH 45385 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 879-4183 Mr. John F. Lethert AF 02-068 Selected for Award Title: DMT Training Requirements and Capability Analysis Abstract: Distributed Mission Training (DMT) provides mission training and rehearsal in a simulated full-mission environment. Since technology cannot support a completely realistic environment, analyses are critical to determine what technology permits to be trained, and to what level it can be trained. Technology vs. training performance trade-offs need to be consciously examined and prioritized. Virtual Simulation and Training, Inc.(VSAT), supported by the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), will perform the research and analysis needed to tailor the Air Force standard Training System Requirements Analysis (TSRA) process for the DMT environment. These analytic changes will then be supported by an interactive Mission Training Analysis Database (MTAD) ultimately connecting task requirements to training equipment performance characteristics on one end of a continuum, and to issues understood by high level decision-makers on the other. The new process, called Distributed Mission Training Streamlined Requirements Analysis (DMTSRA), will differ substantially from the standard TSRA process. Phase I will include research to develop the DMTSRA process using the combat portion of an air-to-air fighter mission. Results will be incorporated into a prototype MTAD. The architecture and key features of the MTAD will also be demonstrated in Phase I. Benefits include: (1) production of valid technology-training trade-off data supporting high-level decisions; (2) audit trail from mission tasks and scenarios, through measures of performance and effectiveness, finally to the required characteristics of DMT media (simulators) and other DMT components, (3) ability to determine the effects of new players, threats, scenarios, and subsystems on DMT performance requirements, and (4) ability to determine what training is not effective in DMT so that it can be addressed elsewhere. Potential commercial products are the DMTSRA process, the MTAD architecture, populated MTADs, and related software packages. Potential customers include a wide variety of military and civilian aerospace systems and other complex systems requiring training analysis.  OMNI MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS, INC. 1150 Airport Drive S. Burlington, VT 05403 Phone: PI: Topic#: (802) 865-5223 Mr. Mark Harvie AF 02-069 Selected for Award Title: Aircrew Bladder Relief Capability Abstract: Omni Measurement Systems, Inc. of South Burlington, Vermont has designed a comfortable, automated bladder relief system for female and male aircrew members flying long-distance missions in aircrafts without toilet facilities. The system does not use any type of catheter, is compact and can be worn so that it is not visible to others. The pilot can chose between two hands-free and odor-free methods of urine collection: either an attached bag or detachable bag. The system keeps female pilots dry after urination, unlike the adult diapers currently being worn. For male pilots, the system not only keeps them dry, but requires significantly less time and attention to use than currently available "piddle packs". The Omni Bladder Relief System could easily be adapted for use by ambulatory, bedridden and wheelchair-bound adults with urinary incontinence. It can be used by civilian, hang glider and glider pilots whose aircraft lack toilet facilities, and long-distance truckers and race car drivers whose vehicles lack toilet facilities. It can be adapted for use by rescue workers, firefighters and other professionals who cannot remove their protective suits to urinate. It can also be used by male and female ground troops, and soldiers in tanks.  PRECISION DESIGN INC. P.O. Box 2064 Weatherford, OK 73096 Phone: PI: Topic#: (580) 772-2140 Mr. Craig Easter AF 02-069 Selected for Award Title: Aircrew Bladder Relief Capability Abstract: The VARS (Vacuum Assisted Relief System) is a novel system that provides aircrew bladder relief of both male and female pilots using the same type private individual interface. Comfort for long duration flights is achieved through a natural interface. The system may be integrated to the aircraft or secured to the body by belt clip or other methods. The system includes barrier creams, an interface that replaces existing undergarments, plastic tubing, and in some cases pumps and reservoirs. The system has features that provide for essentially eliminating leakage and additionally provides for drying of the skin. This system has usage across the social spectrum from astronauts to those confined to wheelchairs. Commercialization Potential:  Urinary incontinence alone. Prevalence: About 13 million adults  Replacement of conventional diapers a 3.5 billion annual market.  VARS has the same potential to replace disposable diapers as disposable diapers did in the early 60's, in eliminating laundry trucks  APTIMA, INC. 12 Gill Street, Suite 1400 Woburn, MA 01801 Phone: PI: Topic#: (202) 842-1548 Dr. Michael Paley AF 02-070 Selected for Award Title: Time Critical Targeting Cell (TCTC) for Team Training and Evaluation Abstract: The training of effective teams has become increasingly important in both military and civilian settings. The state of our current knowledge about taskwork and teamwork processes enables us to propose a theory-anchored, systematic method for the design of team training and evaluation. In Phase I we will design an integrated team training system, that employs a synthetic task environment representing the Time Critical Targeting Cell (TCTC), that links team competencies, mission scenarios, and measures of performance to provide focused, distributed simulation-based training. This team training system will afford its user the ability to define team synthetic tasks that will train team competencies and generate tailored feedback, based on performance measures, to support training processes. In doing so, we believe that this project offers the unique opportunity to close the loop in the scenario-based training development process. Synthetic task environments, capable of distributed simulations, provide the infrastructure for this training and the proposed team training system will be built as an extension of the Distributed Dynamic Decisionmaking (DDD) team-in-the-loop simulator. In Phase II, we will operationalize the requirements for the team training system and develop a tool to create and administer distributed, scenario-based team training. The team training system described in this proposal provides an integrated method to design and execute team training and evaluation. Our approach gives training developers a specific process to generate training programs that are directly related to specific team competencies. Incorporating scenario design and specification of measures of performance into the team training tool will help to ensure that the simulation-based training, using the DDD, will trigger the targeted competencies and generate feedback that supports learning. The tools we propose will reduce the front-end time and effort needed to design training scenarios and improve the quality of the time spent training teams. This tool will be useful to military and commercial applications that need to train and are dependent on high-reliability team performance.  INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC. 2800 28th Street, Suite 306 Santa Monica, CA 90405 Phone: PI: Topic#: (310) 581-5440 Dr. Azad M. Madni AF 02-071 Selected for Award Title: ProcessTrainT: Cognitive Model-driven Distributed Interactive Training for the C2 Aerospace Operations Center (AOC) Abstract: The Aerospace Operations Center is a weapon system through which the Joint Forces Component Commander exercises command and control of aerospace forces. The mission of the AOC is to plan, execute, and assess aerospace operations. These functions cut across multiple aerospace disciplines and specialties in both a vertical and horizontal fashion creating a major training challenge. The paramount need of AOC personnel today is for a cognitive framework-driven process training implemented via an Internet/Intranet environment that allows students easy, 7x24 access to scenario-based process training. Phase I of this effort will demonstrate the feasibility of designing and developing an interactive, scenario-based process training system. The training system will benefit all military/civilian/commercial programs requiring a cognitive framework for assessing the importance and relevance of information flow. Commercial applications include: emergency preparedness planning and execution training for hospitals, trauma care, natural disasters, as well as major event planning (e.g., Olympics).  STOTTLER HENKE ASSOCIATES, INC. 1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350 San Mateo, CA 94402 Phone: PI: Topic#: (650) 655-7242 Mr. Richard Stottler AF 02-071 Selected for Award Title: An Intelligent Tutoring System for the Aerospace Operations Center (AOC) Abstract: The ultimate goal is to improve the cognitive skills of AOC personnel by providing them practice, evaluation, and feedback in simulated AOC operational scenarios. This will be accomplished by the development of an Intelligent Tutoring System for AOC operations. The ITS will allow instructors to create scenarios and to customize methods to automatically evaluate student decisions. Evaluation of student decisions will occur automatically by the ITS which is monitoring the student's and possibly other team members' actions. Based on this and other information the ITS will automatically assemble a debriefing which will include the student's correct and incorrect decisions; for the incorrect ones a description of what the correct decision should have been and why, playbacks of critical events, and additional information from the scenario run. The ITS will automatically formulate a remedial course of instruction which includes additional scenarios to test the student's updated knowledge and provide additional practice in their weakest areas. During Phase I we will elicit the required AOC knowledge including models of information flow and processes, design the AOC simulator and instructional strategies and demonstrate a limited prototype of the Tactical Decision-Making ITS to prove its feasibility beyond a doubt. AOC personnel are the direct targets for this effort. Other military applications of the technology abound. Commercial variants could be directed toward large companies to teach their information flow, processes, organization, and policies to employees.  SONALYSTS, INC. 215 Parkway North, P.O. Box 280 Waterford, CT 06385 Phone: PI: Topic#: (860) 326-3792 James E. McCarthy AF 02-072 Selected for Award Title: Integrated Satellite Operations Training and Rehearsal for Multiple Satellite System Ground Control Abstract: The Phase I effort will develop a Functional Description Document to establish requirements/constraints for a closed-loop adaptive training architecture that will support mission-area training. This training architecture will provide integrated satellite operations training as well as mission rehearsal for multiple satellite systems by using advanced interactive multimedia instruction (IMI); intelligent tutoring system (ITS) technology; and advanced modeling, simulation, stimulation, and visualization technologies. Preliminary designs for an Instructional Expert and Learner Model will be included the Phase I effort. Also, a demonstration will be created with the appearance of a prototypical closed-loop training curriculum for a targeted mission-area that will be implemented under the new three-phase Satellite Training Concept. Finally, a curriculum analysis and a first-level requirements analysis will be performed. The curriculum analysis will provide a sample of the content to be taught with the technology. The first-level requirements analysis will describe the implications of the closed-loop functionality from a software perspective. The Phase I effort will provide the groundwork for a solid training system that will support continued research into training effectiveness, satellite operations training continuum concepts, human systems integration, manning reduction, and automation of satellite system operation. Human resources allocated to student and instructor billets are a major life-cycle driver in any complex system. Advanced learning technologies have the potential to reduce both training times to achieve mission-capable personnel and to reduce instructor billets for equivalent training. Closed-loop adaptive training concepts also apply to efficient and effective maintenance of mission-critical skills. A scaleable and extendable architecture based on proven COTS components offers the potential for open-architecture solutions and competitive pressure to provide better training for less cost.  OPTICAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATES 3280 E. FOOTHILL BLVD.,, SUITE 300 PASADENA, CA 91107 Phone: PI: Topic#: (216) 831-0780 Arvi Jeffery AF 02-073 Selected for Award Title: Advanced Runway Lighting Technology for Portable Applications Abstract: Optical Research Associates (ORA), teamed with key subcontractors, will develop an efficient and reliable temporary runway lighting system to improve the ability of pilots to land at secondary landing sites under battlefield conditions. ORA will present runway lighting systems that are fully FAA compliant and based on the latest advances from the lighting industry. All systems will be developed to be robust and operator-friendly, for use by Joint operators in all world-wide theatres of operation and under all environmental conditions. While the main objective is a build a tactical system for U.S. and allied military services, a secondary application is as a temporary, backup lighting system for commercial airfields throughout the US.  PROTOBOX LLC 1464 North Broad St. Fairborn, OH 45324 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 879-2588 Mr. George J. Valentino AF 02-073 Selected for Award Title: Advanced Concepts for Runway Visualization (ACRV) Abstract: Protobox LLC has formulated a series of advanced concepts to improve runway visualization at both austere fields and at more permanent installations. We propose specific improvements to the existing, yet dated EALS (Emergency Airfield Lighting System), as well as a revolutionary concept called the Augmented Reality Runway Visualization System (ARRVS). The goals of our research effort will be to maintain or improve, but never diminish, the aircrew's ability to locate the runway and to safely land on (or takeoff from) the runway, while at the same time reducing weight, volume, and power requirements of conventional, portable runway lighting systems. Our research also includes a process for interacting with operational organizations, aircrews, and standards organizations, so that a melding of these advanced concepts with existing and emerging runway lighting standards and operational considerations will occur. From our pre-proposal activities, we believe that such a process will be critical to the overall viability of any proposed runway visualization system. Additionally, our concepts will be compatible with Night Vision Goggle (NVG) and other on-board sensor systems. Our proposal also includes preliminary plans for Phase II and III. A Phase I demo of the ARRVS will also be conducted. Our advanced concepts for runway visualization provide the basis for significant weight and volume reductions when compared to conventional portable and emergency runway lighting systems. We have plans for new features, functions, and capabilities that can be added to the existing EALS, plus new concepts that significantly changes the conventional runway lighting paradigm in order to improve the overall performance of the aircraft-aircrew-runway "system."  CHI SYSTEMS, INC. Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 300 Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002 Phone: PI: Topic#: (407) 277-9288 Dr. Kelly Neville AF 02-078 Selected for Award Title: Messaging Interaction Simulation Abstract: Readiness training for satellite operators does not currently feature certain important systems that exist in the operations center - systems that play a major role in space operations and, more importantly, systems that play key roles in coordinating with and supporting external agencies and personnel. While the specific systems that are excluded vary somewhat across satellite systems, they can include the weather system (e.g., the Advanced Meteorological Information System [AMIS]), scheduling system, Defense Message System (DMS), and subscriber terminal (ST). The exclusion of these systems from the training environment is problematic for a number of reasons including the loss of opportunities for training teamwork within the SOC and larger mission team. CHI Systems proposes to improve the training provided to satellite operators by developing a system that emulates the functionality of the four systems listed above. This system, called the Multi-Use Training Technology (MUTT), will be implemented as a training suite workstation that is networked to an instructor workstation that features training exercise controls, uses intelligent agent technology to monitor and assess trainee proficiency; and allows the instructor to communicate with the trainee via the emulated DMS and ST as well as via a separate messaging tool that supports training-related communications. The Multi-User Training Technology (MUTT) represents an important training device for satellite operators across Department of Defense (DoD) services and agencies. It is similarly valuable to training commercial satellite operators, although for these operators the Defense Message System (DMS) portion would likely be excluded. American business depends on over 150 commercially owned communications and imaging satellites, and the DoD manages and uses significant numbers as well. The war in the Balkans reportedly made use of four dozen satellites from nearly two dozen countries. Clearly, there is a demand for satellite operators, and the rapidly growing role of space in both military and commercial applications means that these operators will be increasingly challenged. Accordingly, high quality and thorough training will become increasingly important for satellite operators. MUTT represents a set of key components of that training - training of the use of the operations center weather system, scheduling system, DMS, and subscriber terminal (ST), and training of the team coordination required to successfully use the latter three systems. MUTT will be built using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and inhouse software and technology. In addition, it will feature agent-based instructional capabilities that are influenced by preceding research and development efforts but which are uniquely suited to the requirements and characteristics of satellite operations personnel.  SYTRONICS, INC. 4433 Dayton-Xenia Road, Building 1 Dayton, OH 45432 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 431-6121 Mr. John Friskie AF 02-078 Selected for Award Title: Messaging Interaction Simulation Abstract: Space systems are expensive to develop and deploy. Oftentimes, budgeting tradeoffs dictate increases in spacecraft development at the expense of developing the training systems needed to learn how to operate it. This results in on-the-job training using operational equipment versus using a controlled training environment. This is especially the case in learning the use of subscriber terminals by space crews. To counter this problem, we propose the Collaborative Operational Unit Messaging Simulation and Interaction Modeling (COMSIM) system. COMSIM applies advances in computer-supported collaborative learning to create a subscriber terminal learning environment separate from operational equipment. Additionally, COMSIM trains message interaction as the inherently collaborative activity it is through innovative applications of enterprise software, intelligent agents, and distributed simulations. A COMSIM-based training system will train space crews to become expert in messaging and provide aerospace forces to see the big picture value messaging plays in overall military operations. Potential commercial applications include COMSIM-based training environments for commercial telecommunication services that are expected to greatly increase in availability over the next decade. Additionally, we foresee opportunity to apply COMSIM to the war on terrorism as the Federal Government engineers computer support and information sharing systems to allow diverse Federal agencies share knowledge.  DIAMOND VISIONICS LLC 400 Plaza Drive, Suite-A, PO Box 1276 Vestal, NY 13851 Phone: PI: Topic#: (607) 729-8526 Mr. Graham Upton AF 02-080 Selected for Award Title: Imagery Manipulation for Simulator Databases Abstract: In military simulation, there is an ever-increasing demand to support more complexity in the visualization of synthetic environments. Tools that automate the generation of terrain databases from overhead imagery are necessary for simulations that require a high degree of geo-specific 3D cultural content given limited resources. Current tools do not address the removal of time-specific artifacts such as aircrafts, vehicles, and shadows. This reduces database realism and thereby limits the situations in which these databases can be used. In Phase I, Diamond Visionics will focus on investigating the technical feasibility of developing a highly-automated process that will perform the following steps: merge and orthorectify various numbers and types of images, automatically recognize and replace selected objectionable time-specific artifacts from image with realistic and believable non-time-specific data, and generate OpenFlight models of selected items, correlated with the source imagery. Phase I provides a documented baseline, by feasibility studies and risk reduction demonstrations, of a road map to an automated tool for the removal of time-specific artifacts from overhead imagery and a road map to an automatic creation of 3D cultural features from overhead source imagery usable for simulator database development. The technology which will allow overhead imagery to be rapidly converted to simulator databases will have potential applications on military simulators for rapid ability to do mission rehearsal for situations which come up on short notice. This would include applications such as drug interdiction operations, air traffic control in hostile areas, insertion, evacuations, etc. In commercial airline applications it will increase fidelity of simulation and improve speed of generating new databases for new PC-IG with new data of commercial airfields, rather than re-hosting old databases from legacy simulators. Furthermore, any application that demands photo-realistic, accurate and quick response databases will benefit by this technology  CREARE INC. P.O. Box 71 Hanover, NH 03755 Phone: PI: Topic#: (603) 643-3800 Dr. Robert Kline-Schoder AF 02-081 Selected for Award Title: System for Enhanced Communications in High Noise Environments Abstract: Creare proposes to design, fabricate, and test a system that will simultaneously protect personnel working in extremely high noise environments and enhance voice communications. Current Air Force ground crews are forced to work in close proximity to aircraft engines that produce in excess of 150 db of noise, which can result in noise-induced hearing loss after brief exposures without sufficient hearing protection. These flight and ground crews also have a need to communicate with other personnel. However, no existing hearing protection system offers the right level of noise reduction for these crews to work safely in extreme noise environments while simultaneously enhancing the communication signal for effective communication. Our extreme noise communication enhancement system is based on combined passive and active noise reduction technologies and will mitigate the contribution of both air- and bone-conducted noise on the inner ear while improving speech communications. During the Phase I project, we will demonstrate innovative algorithms for enhancing communication signals in high noise environments and develop a design of a system for enhanced communications in high noise environments. During the Phase II project, we will fabricate and test a prototype system for enhanced communications in high noise environments. The Creare system for enhanced communications in high noise environments will reduce the harmful effects of long duration exposure to extremely high noise levels and will facilitate speech intelligibility. The system will be used by tank crews, flight crews, flight deck personnel, mechanized infantry, and commercial operators of noisy equipment.  RED TAIL HAWK CORPORATION 135 Storm Rd. Groton, NY 13073 Phone: PI: Topic#: (607) 272-1288 Dr. John W. Parkins AF 02-081 Selected for Award Title: Development of a 50 dB ANC Ultra-Plug Abstract: An active noise control (ANC) earplug with communications capability is proposed. The earplug implements a new passive attenuation feature that will improve attenuation by 10 dB(A) over traditional earplugs. When used in combination with the ANC and a passive earmuff, over 50 dB(A) of noise attenuation will be achieved. The attenuation of the system will be limited only by bone-conducted noise. The bone-conducted noise is minimized in the ANC earplug compared to traditional earplugs. Speech communications will be sensed using a novel and superior approach. RTH Corporation will deliver to the Air Force an ANC earplug prototype that has been tested on an acoustic test fixture as well as on one human. The use of the ANC earplug with an earmuff will provide noise attenuation superior to any personal hearing protection device. This technology is directly applicable to the civilian aircraft environment as well as manufacturing plants, construction sites ... The improved attenuation results in superior protection from hearing trauma and improved speech intelligibility.  SHEET DYNAMICS, LIMITED 1776 Mentor Avenue Suite 170 Cincinnati, OH 45212 Phone: PI: Topic#: (513) 631-0579 Dr. Stuart Shelley AF 02-081 Selected for Award Title: Active Acoustic and Bone Conduction Noise Cancellation for 150 dB(A) Noise Environments Abstract: There is a great need for improved hearing protection equipment with integral communication for high noise military environments such as flight lines and aircraft carrier flight decks. Deep insertion, communication earplugs (Attenuating Custom Communication Earplug - ACCES) combined with earmuffs are the current, state-of-the-art. Through a separate Program Research and Development Announcement (NR:01-01-HE, "Active Noise Reduction Earplug System") the Air Force is soliciting approaches to add active noise reduction capability to the ACCES earplugs to improve the low frequency noise reduction. Regardless of the reduction in acoustic pressure that can be achieved near the eardrum by any means, the factor limiting the reduction in perceived loudness (cochlear response) is bone conduction of acoustic energy directly to the cochlea. SDL proposes an innovative study that accounts for both the acoustic and bone conduction pathway contributions to cochlear response, evaluating the feasibility of actively attenuating the cochlear response attributable to both mechanisms. This technology has immediate commercial application to civilian industrial sectors including the airline industry, firefighters, law enforcement, search and rescue, industrial high pressure cleaning and sandblasting, mining and other areas.  OPTICS 1, INC. 3050 E Hillcrest Drive, Suite 100 Westlake Village, CA 91362 Phone: PI: Topic#: (603) 432-2148 Mr. Michael E. Couture AF 02-082 Selected for Award Title: Viewer for Vision Research in Developing Agile Laser Eye Protection Abstract: The use of laser devices in the battlefield is rapidly increasing - from low power line-of-sight communications to high-power lasers designed to disable or destroy enemy weaponry. These laser devices operate over a wide range of spectral regions, depending on specific application. With the increasing number of devices, the hazard to battlefield personnel is becoming a potentially significant issue. If protective devices are to be designed and deployed to personnel, it is key that these devices do not introduce unacceptable levels of image distortion that may have physiological effects such as disorientation, headache, or nausea. OPTICS 1 has extensive experience in the area of night vision goggle design and development and specifically in the area of direct-view laser eye protection devices using optical limiter materials. Principal benefits and use for this technology will remain in the military sector for the immediate future. Evaluation of this technology and fabrication of potential devices/instruments will enable quantitative study of physiological interaction between directed energy devices and human tissue. In addition, detailed evaluation of human factors will enable development of protection devices that can be worn for extended periods of time without undue distress to the wearer.  PHYSICAL OPTICS CORPORATION 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100 Torrance, CA 90501 Phone: PI: Topic#: (310) 320-3088 Dr. Kevin Yu AF 02-082 Selected for Award Title: Agile Laser Filters Visual Simulation Device Abstract: Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Agile Laser Filter Visual Simulation (ALFVIS) device, based on Multiplexed Reflection Holographic Filters (MRHFs) and a Liquid Crystal Digital Switch (LCDS) panel. The proposed ALFVIS will have a form of a viewer for vision research on the effects of agile laser protection filter. POC's approach combines simple, compact, rugged optical components that perform high-efficiency band-rejection and have high transmission in the high- and low-pass regions. The multiplexed holographic filters can be easily swapped out to match the agile laser eye protection filters being emulated. The proposed device offers high switching speed, low voltage and low power and high stability of field response over years of field operations. In Phase I, POC will design and build the key components and analyze their performance, and will present an experimental proof-of-concept demonstration, so that in Phase II we can build a preproduction prototype. The proposed technology will form the basis of a new generation of test equipment for vision research into agile laser eye protection. Potential applications include modules incorporated into display systems, sensor protection, remote sensing, product inspection, manufacturing process control and medical instrumentation.  CREARE INC. P.O. Box 71 Hanover, NH 03755 Phone: PI: Topic#: (603) 643-3800 Mr. Harold P. Greeley AF 02-083 Selected for Award Title: Remote Cognitive State Assessment Using Voice Analysis Abstract: Military and civilian experience has shown that long-duration assignments present increased risk of performance failures as the mission progresses. This is due to interruption of normal sleep cycles and to the psychological pressures of the living and working environment. The overall objective of this project is twofold: (1) to ensure the safety and effectiveness of friendly military personnel, and (2) to access the level of fatigue of military opponents. Creare proposes to provide these measures using automated voice analysis software algorithms that can be operated from a wide range of hardware platforms already receiving remote communications from military personnel. In Phase I, we will identify and characterize changes in fatigue sensitive components of voiced words as the speaker's level of alertness changes. Voice analysis results will be compared to fatigue assessment techniques routinely used in sleep laboratories. In Phase II, we will design, build, and test a system that automatically determines a remote speaker's level of fatigue. Further testing will be done to extend the capabilities of the system to discriminate between changes in voice due to fatigue, intoxication, or physical impairment. Extension of the system's capabilities to non-English speakers will also be demonstrated. The ability to predict the readiness of personnel involved in long duty time or stressful activities has widespread military and commercial uses. Military planners will be given the ability to recognize fatigue-related weaknesses in their own forces as well as in the forces of their opponents. Planners and supervisors of airlines, truck fleets, and bus lines, as well as police and firefighter companies will be given a capability that will result in fewer accidents and increased efficiency.  SPEECH TECHNOLOGY & APPLIED RESEARCH CORP. 4 Militia Drive Lexington, MA 02421 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 863-0310 Dr. Joel MacAuslan AF 02-083 Selected for Award Title: Fatigue Assessment through Voice Analysis Abstract: This project will produce a speech-based fatigue assessment system. Speech-based systems can have very limited intrusivity, making them useful for a wide variety of military, commercial, and even private-vehicle applications. Indeed, some systems can be fully passive, permitting fatigue assessment in the course of other communications, even in opponents. This project will select certain reliably automated, acoustic measures of vocal control, laryngeal dynamics, and speech articulation to produce an estimator that correlates highly with fatigue measures. The emphasis will be on measures that have high potential for rapid and robust assessment, with minimal human judgments except for high-level control of the system. Phase I will focus on feasibility, establishing a set of measures that, for a modest collection of native English speakers, demonstrate the required correlation with fatigue. The system architecture will also be a deliverable for Phase I. Phase II will produce an operational prototype. It will additionally address other, potentially confounding influences, such as hypoxia and antihistamine use, to differentiate these from fatigue. Phase II will also investigate the importance of task variety and native languages other than English. Many activities in both civilian and military operations can benefit from a fatigue-assessment product that is passive or minimally invasive. Such assessments based on speech can provide critical information about alertness and task performance for both friendly and hostile forces. These assessments are also valuable to government agencies responsible for human safety or other high potential-loss activities, such as the FAA, local fire departments, and FEMA. Likewise, many commercial entities with similar concerns can benefit: trucking and shipping companies, nuclear-power operators, emergency medical services, and airlines.  APTIMA, INC. 12 Gill Street, Suite 1400 Woburn, MA 01801 Phone: PI: Topic#: (202) 842-1548 Dr. Jared Freeman AF 02-085 Selected for Award Title: Adaptive Training for Real-Time Intelligence Monitoring & Evaluation Abstract: We propose to develop an Intelligent Tutoring System for AF intelligence analysts (ITS4Intel) that helps student analysts to refine and apply the two cognitive skills that are fundamental to their work: categorization and inference. It will use scenario-based training to team them to assess the quality of intel products (e.g., messages); assess their relevance to current information requirements; make assessments of intent, predictions, and other inferences from the data; and select the best sources from which to elicit additional information. The system will employ three technologies: an extension of Latent Semantic Analysis for modeling human categorization abilities, an IBIS architecture for representing relations between elements of knowledge and emulating expert inference over it, and an instructional system shell that integrates these modeling engines and adaptively presents explicit instruction, practice scenarios, and feedback. A significant innovation is the explicit representation of mental models that elicits observable and measurable indicators of cognitive state and process. By working with the explicit models, students will learn how to structure and use a large, complex body of intelligence material. A key efficiency of this effort is that it will leverage knowledge acquisition research underway in an existing AFRL SBIR concerning AF intelligence analysis. When completed, the Phase I work will produce as catalog of mental models and quality assessment heuristics used by expert intelligence analysts in a specific domain, training objectives for intel analysts, measures of student performance, a prototype training system, and an evaluation of the prototype by operational personnel. The Phase II work will produce a robust system for training AF intelligence analysts, deep and formally represented knowledge of the mental models employed by analysts, and validated measures of cognitive state and cognitive processes pertaining to intel analysis. In Phase III, we will transition the system to other markets that value training in qualitative analysis skills, and address opportunities to transform the training system into a job aid for AF intel analysts.  STOTTLER HENKE ASSOCIATES, INC. 1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350 San Mateo, CA 94402 Phone: PI: Topic#: (206) 545-1478 Mr. Terrance Goan AF 02-085 Selected for Award Title: Exploiting Latent Semantics for Embedded Intelligence Monitoring and Trainer Development. Abstract: We propose an innovative approach to achieving Cognitive Readiness with respect to Information Warfare through a combination of automated monitoring, adaptive information display, real-time coaching, and the capture of scenarios suitable for training and rehearsal. In particular we will investigate the exploitation of Latent Semantic Analysis, which is a means for making accurate comparisons of the semantic similarity between pieces of textual information, and has been applied with success to a number of problems closely related to the task at hand. But real-time monitoring of intelligence information poses some unique challenges including the need to maintain the currency of LSA's matrices, and feeding its voracious appetite for training data. To overcome these obstacles we propose a unique combination of new and proven techniques. Our approach will exploit our recent advances in fully automated search to capture the required training data, as well as recent techniques for detecting content drift so as to minimize the update requirements of the LSA matrices. Our Phase I work-centered research and design, and the development and operational testing of a limited prototype, will lay the groundwork for the Phase II complete implementation and validation of our technology, called Aware. The technology proposed herein offers the potential to fulfill the market demand for tools to increase productivity in the processing of electronic documents, and tools that can support "situational visibility" and competitive intelligence.  ALPHATECH, INC. 50 Mall Road Burlington, MA 01803 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 273-3388 Dr. Steve Zabele AF 02-089 Selected for Award Title: Enhanced Interoperability Through Common Translation Architecture Abstract: The primary goal of this SBIR is to develop a layered architectural approach for future inter-exchange gateways that enables data translation from one medium to another and/or among several mediums. For example, with the mandated proliferation of Link-16 over the next 5 years, every SPO must work together to ensure overall interoperability, not only among Link-16 participants but also among numerous other diverse systems and datalinks which are not Link-16 compatible. This non-interoperability between diverse systems may be resolved by implementation of data forwarding rules, translation architecture(s), or other unique translation applications that act as a "gateway" between otherwise non-communicative datalinks. These gateways will provide communications connectivity for legacy and other disparate communications systems. Our approach seeks to leverage established or developmental initiatives in DoD and commercial practices that deal with the translation of data from one medium to another. As this SBIR progresses through its phases, the end objective is to minimize the duplication of effort at various AF agencies, establish a centralized translation protocol and provide a body of reusable tools that any future gateway might use. The benefits of an interoperability gateway based on a common, neutral data format is best evidenced by the considerably increased number of users of disparate systems that will be able to contribute to and acquire a more complete, common operational picture. The modeling, simulation, and training communities will also be able to use this gateway as a direct conduit to the real Command, Control, Communications, Computers & Intelligence (C4I) systems. Research in the commercial sector has uncovered similar data translation issues. For example, the Open Applications Group (OAG), a commercial organization, is tackling very similar translation and forwarding issues from the electronic commerce and business interoperability perspective, and is building a consensus-based interoperability framework using Object Oriented Design and metadata concepts. We believe this core approach, with key performance-related enhancements, offers a promising solution to current and future communications interoperability problems.  TACTICAL COMMUNICATIONS GROUP, LLC 900 Technology Park Drive Billerica, MA 01821 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 932-0120 Mr. William Brock AF 02-090 Selected for Award Title: Data Link Common Software for Multiple Link-16 Applications Abstract: The SBIR AF02-090 project for "Data Link Common Software for Multiple Link 16 Applications" addresses the need do reduce the cost of data link development and maintenance. The Air Force has funded a common Low-Cost Integration software solution to satisfy this need for Link 16 software being integrated on C2ISR, fighter, and bomber platforms. This SBIR Phase I project will perform the analysis and design of tools to extend the functionality of the existing Data Link Integration (DLI) product. It will produce the plans, analyses, and prototype tools required to follow on with a Phase II implementation of a fully functional simulation and test facility. The simulation and test facility will be used to assist with the performance evaluation and integration of other Air Force platforms with DLI. This extended LCI solution using DLI has direct application to the DoD market where multiple data links and platforms with multiple implementations of the same data link will co-exist for the foreseeable future. Provide a common performance evaluation testbed that will reduce integration time and cost.  MODASCO, INC. 4303 Vineland Road,, Suite F-7 Orlando, FL 32811 Phone: PI: Topic#: (904) 276-8296 Dr. John Woodring AF 02-091 Selected for Award Title: Evaluation of C2 Model Architectures Designed Using Colored Petri Nets Abstract: Modasco proposes to extend the capability of Colored Petri Net design and architecture specification tools to include model performance measurement and evaluation. The methodology is based upon an automated simulation of the system executed within a controllable run-time interface. A graphical language is proposed for describing the complex logic and mathematical relationships of transitions between system states. Integrating graphical design, model architecture specification and simulation capabilities into one tool provides a highly-efficient way of performing end-to-end virtual prototyping of a proposed system architecture that avoids the need to create artificial interfaces among several specialized tools. The system designer can also define performance metrics with the rule-based design interface, store them for future application and assign them to model architectures. During the execution of a model's simulation, the values of assigned metrics are updated and displayed to the analyst. This tool will significantly reduce the time and cost currently required to create and update model simulations and thus will produce system designs that are more robust and whose properties are better understood. The proposed system is directly applicable to the collaborative development of large scale systems by remote teams of specialists whose designs can be integrated and evaluated in operational conditions. Decrease the development time and cost for prototyping new systems. The proposed software tools are directly applicable to the design and analysis of commercial and military processes including information systems, health care, economic forecasting, software and hardware.  RT LOGIC! 1042 Elkton Dr. Colorado Springs, CO 80907 Phone: PI: Topic#: (303) 703-3834 Mr. Thad Genrich AF 02-092 Selected for Award Title: Portable Universal Ground Processing Unit Abstract: Technologies for radio frequncy (RF, intermediate frequency (IF) and baseband signal processing and methods for data distribution have rapidly advanced over the past few years. These technologies have advanced to the point where significant reductions in size, weight and power can be realized over traditional satellite ground station implementations. A portable, universal ground processing unit (PUGPU) for satellite command and control remote terminals is within the realm of today's technology and could easily be made available to the many users and designers of satellite command and control remote terminal ground stations. With advances in digital signal processing techniques, a single core set of hardware & software should be able to support multiple types of satellite missions without affecting the basic hardware. This SBIR should show that ground support missions for Military, Civil and Commercial satellites could be supported by a small footprint, common IF, Baseband and networking element. For Phase I of the research, RT Logic will establish a baseline of RF, IF, baseband and networking requirements derived from USAF, NASA, NOAA and Commercial remote terminal specifications. RT Logic will go on to investigate, survey, evaluate, analyze and compare available COTS products, technologies and common intermediate frequencies to determine an optimum approach and cost for implementing a PUGPU capable of handling the preponderance of those identified mission requirements. Cost estimates for a prototype PUGPU, an operational demonstration unit and production units will be made. At the end of the three phases of research and development for a PUGPU, RT Logic will be ready to support the various U.S. Government and commercial satellite ground stations with a commercially available, low cost, small profile, highly flexible and powerful IF and Baseband Unit. These agencies will also have access to RT Logic's technical expertise, experience and related products. Combining the PUGPU and RT Logic's capabilities will insure the successful integration of the PUGPU into any ground station's RF subsystem and Telemetry, Tacking and Commanding (TT&C) infrastructure  ETHERWARE, LLC 305 Briton Park Court Duluth, GA 30097 Phone: PI: Topic#: (775) 833-0587 Mr. Joseph J. Tavormina AF 02-093 Selected for Award Title: Leveraging Enabling, Commercial Technologies into Tactical SATCOM Abstract: The powerful technologies of today and tomorrow emerge from the digital revolution - namely, computing ("DSP") and storage. Cell phones, satellite TV, and indoor wireless networking - are beneficiaries, and represent large commercial markets. A challenge remains, however, in sending high data rate signals to mobile, vehicular users with small antennas. This next generation "On-Star" system, combining in-car entertainment and "telematics", is set to take center stage in the automobile market. In the tactical mobile world, wide area terrestrial communication is usually not an option. Applying these same technologies in the SATCOM world, however, may have a significant impact in: (1) reducing the cost of the mobile terminal (2) providing improved immunity to detection, and (3) providing improved high data rates, especially on the downlink. Cost reduction, lower power transmitters, and lower profile "tracking" antennas may benefit from this transfer. This effort will explore the use of commercial "spread spectrum" technology (especially modems) to achieve these objectives for both existing satellite platforms and new systems. The effects on other elements of the system (satellite, tracking antenna.) will also be evaluated. Based on the study results, the commercialization plan will be refined and a second implementation phase proposed. The potential benefits of a successful application of high volume, advanced commercial spread spectrum technology to satellite communications include the following: (1) The terminal's rf power can be distributed over a wider bandwidth, reducing the probability of detection ("LPI") (2) The terminal antenna size can be reduced, since typically adjacent satellite interference governs the minimum antenna size, making mobile platforms more attractive ("low profile") (3) If spread spectrum can be successfully implemented on the downlink (or "forward channel" in terrestrial terms), then the size of the receiving antenna can be dramatically reduced, especially in high data rate situations. (4) If operation at high efficiency in the satellite amplifiers can be combined with spot beam technology, then higher frequency operation with greatly improved performance can be achieved, especially in a jamming environment ("AJ"). The translation of these technologies into the commercial world will allow communication of video entertainment and high speed Internet to the family car with an antenna no bigger than a sun-roof. Satellite broadcast remains the only viable means of providing a multi-channel video package to the car, combined with delivery of games, popular web sites, local news, weather and sports. There are 140 million vehicles on the road just in the US, with over 25M "family" vehicles (SUV's and mini-vans). This segment of the auto market represents the fastest growing one, with buyers in the high end of the disposable income range, typically eager to install entertainment, safety, and information technology in the car. Currently over half of the new car buyers surveyed say they intend to buy a new video system with their next car purchase - the size of the antenna representing the greatest technical challenge to meeting this demand from the market place. The market for these systems in the automobile could be much larger than satellite TV in terms of number of subscribers (service revenue) and revenue from equipment sales (hardware).  PSEUDONOISE COMMUNICATIONS 1021 Harlan Dr San Jose, CA 95129 Phone: PI: Topic#: (408) 255-4529 Dr. Vijaya Gallagher AF 02-093 Selected for Award Title: Lightweight, Highly Deployable, Jam-resistant Satellite Communications Modem Abstract: Pseudonoise Communications proposes to develop a low cost ground terminal modem for MILSATCOM, using direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS)techniques. Cost reduction in satcom terminal devlopment will be explored by reusing emerging commercial technology for wireless data transmission based on DSSS techniques. During Phase I, analysis and simulations will be used to define parameter specifications for the physical and medium access control (MAC) layer for the air interface to be used for communication between the ground terminal and a network control center via a bent pipe satellite. It is expected that some of the same techniques that are developed here will be applicable for high rate data communications via commercial satellite systems, both current generation ones like Globalstar, and follow-on systems using geostationary satellites. It is very important that existing satellite systems' capacity be used in different ways than just to provide only voice services, in order to maximize revenues for the operators, or else follow-on systems will not be built for a long time.  MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICES CORPORATION 18221 Flower Hill Way #A Gaithersburg, MD 20879 Phone: PI: Topic#: (240) 631-1111 Mr. Alain Zarembowitch AF 02-094 Selected for Award Title: Signal Diversity Combining for Improved Satellite Communications Abstract: Signal diversity combining is a method whereby a signal is transmitted over multiple satellites to increase the transmitted power. At the receiver, the signals are combined coherently to improve signal to noise ratio. MSS is proposing to apply a novel concept of rapid prototyping to simulate various spatial signal diversity combining algorithms in real-time. This approach will yield a much higher level of accuracy than computer-based simulations, due to the shear number of samples processed. The simulation model representativity will also be increased by the use of real modulators and demodulators, instead of often over-simplified mathematical models. Unlike maximal ratio combiners which rely almost exclusively on signal-to-noise ratios to compute the combiner weights, MSS is proposing to use additional signal quality sensors, such as unique word lock status, bit error rate, interference detection and receiver lock status. The expected product of this Phase I activity is a combiner hardware module which can be commercialized through MSS's comblock family of rapid prototyping modules.  SOLIPSYS CORPORATION 6100 Chevy Chase Drive Laurel, MD 20707 Phone: PI: Topic#: (301) 483-8900 Mr. Eric Conn AF 02-096 Selected for Award Title: JAVA-Based, Performance Oriented Visualization System Abstract: Solipsys has developed a modular, standards-based, open-architecture visualization product called the Tactical Display Framework (TDF) that has been certified by Sun Microsystems as "100% Pure Java" and meets or exceeds the performance and loading characteristics required for the Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS). TDF poses little technical risk, as it is currently being employed as the core graphics system for an AWACS 40/45 risk reduction effort known as the Prototype AWACS Display (PAD). The PAD is being jointly developed by the USAF, the Boeing Company, and Solipsys and has been demonstrated to operators and warfighters through complex simulation and operator-in-the-loop exercises at various locations. Under development for over a year, the PAD has leveraged the sophisticated and mature Application Programming Interface (API) exposed within TDF to rapidly develop, test, and deliver new features. The kernel capabilities of the TDF API have also proven to be a flexible and modifiable platform upon which to explore and spiral advanced GUI concepts specific to the AWACS 40/45 program. The availability of the PAD during Phase I of this SBIR provides an excellent opportunity for significant progress toward a robust implementation of AWACS functionality and a smooth transition to Phase II and beyond. The proposed approach will prove the efficacy of TDF to develop significant visualization improvements for AWACS using the modern Java-based object development paradigm. A significant AWACS test case will measure how efficient the development process can be using the TDF infrastructure and coupling users into the process will validate the build and test approach of the USAF spiral process. The USAF will be able to understand the process from within, by being a significant part of the development effort, and will be able to extrapolate this experience into other on-going AWACS visualization and research and development efforts. Most importantly, the USAF will be able to validate the performance and usability of the new features in operationally based scenarios. The product will be validated through actual experimentation prior to going into Phase II. The success of TDF in the marketplace has shown that others can adapt the Java-based plug-in technology to a variety of applications. This SBIR effort will expand on this technology by packaging the development tools in a more customer-friendly form and establish a more commercial look and feel to a web-based resource for plug-in development and training. This will allow Solipsys to more efficiently disseminate documentation and product updates and permit existing customers to stay abreast of product improvements in near-real-time. A state-of-the-art, web-based development environment will also provide a means for remote software configuration management and seamless integration support. Our target markets for the future include: ú Domestic and foreign sales to all military services ú Homeland protection sales ú Federal Aviation Agency ú Disaster and Crisis Management for Local Governments and Emergency Services  TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORPORATION 11400 West Olympic Blvd., Suite 300 Los Angeles, CA 90064 Phone: PI: Topic#: (203) 268-1249 Mr. Steven Jaroszewski AF 02-099 Selected for Award Title: Data Mining of GMTI Databases Abstract: GMTI radars including Joint STARS, U-2S and Global Hawk provide abundant data on ground vehicles that can be exploited for military traffic analysis. AFRL/Rome has developed the web-based MTI exploitation (MTIX) system to catalog GMTI data, kinematic tracks, SAR imagery and provide broad functionality that includes target displays, user-specified sentinel alerts and mission planning tools. MTIX can be further improved through data mining. TSC is teamed with traffic engineers from the Washington Transportation Center to apply the innovative methods and automated analysis tools that they have developed for civilian applications to such GMTI database mining. In Phase 1, our team will review current MTIX capabilities and recommend additional data collection, analysis and display functionality that can benefit military users. TSC will develop enhancements to improve military target tracking in dense vehicle and urban environments and to support intelligent preparation of the battlefield in such areas. To commercialize the enhanced MTIX product in Phase 2, new functionality can be developed including passenger car versus truck discrimination, extraction of traffic statistics to support FHWA reporting requirements and road corridor analyses performed by DOT agencies. Our team will expand the data mining capabilities and implement them in MTIX client software for use in Air Force/Army radar ground stations. Applying civilian traffic analysis approaches to GMTI database mining can benefit military tracking applications, especially in dense vehicle and urban traffic environments. Enhancing the MTIX software tool to provide traffic statistics and displays of use to DOT agencies will provide a commercial product that can directly meet the needs of federal, state and local governments.  ALPHATECH, INC. 50 Mall Road Burlington, MA 01803 Phone: PI: Topic#: (703) 284-8411 Dr. Andrew J. Newman AF 02-100 Selected for Award Title: Coordinated Multi-Asset Replanning: Decision Support Tool Enabling High Accuracy Time Critical Targeting Abstract: It is widely recognized that improved real-time dynamic replanning of airborne Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR) assets is needed to enable rapid information gathering in support of tactical battlefield operations. Moreover, the problem of real-time ISR resource management is magnified in the context of attaining high targeting accuracy on high priority time critical targets (TCTs), where coordination of multiple assets is crucial to enable fusion processes for timely, geo-registered information from a variety of sources. In this effort, ALPHATECH will develop an automated decision support tool that will enable high accuracy time critical targeting through agile, coordinated, operator-supervised replanning control of multiple ISR assets. This tool will rapidly generate, evaluate, and assist operator down-selection of replanning alternatives in response to new information regarding the presence of high priority TCTs. Performance prediction models will be developed to evaluate the impact of integrated cross-INT / synchronized multi-sensor collection plans on targeting accuracy and timelines. Core contributions in optimization-based algorithms for resource allocation and sensor collection scheduling will be extended to anticipate and generate replan contingencies against expected cross-cueing and information requests typical of tactical ISR battlefield operations. Proof-of-concept will be demonstrated against low-complexity scenarios. ALPHATECH recognizes the high commercial value of coordinating collection of imagery by commercial aircraft and satellites, and of co-registering commercial EO imagery with existing precision map databases, for site surveys and other related applications. ALPHATECH is developing operations planning and management tools for surveillance systems that enable new capabilities in response to increasingly demanding requirements for military ISR operations, border, perimeter and site surveillance and security systems. These products complement ALPHATECH's expanding line of sensor exploitation products for surveillance systems by enabling active surveillance operations that can be readily adapted to evolving customer requirements. The commercial market for site surveillance and monitoring is increasingly demanding improved efficiency and effectiveness in monitoring and identification of vehicles, persons, and activities. The proposed effort will build upon our commercial successes in this market by providing cost effective surveillance system components that utilize low cost PC-based implementations.  MRLETS TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 616 Brookmeade Ct. Beavercreek, OH 45434 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 902-1434 Dr. Lang Hong AF 02-101 Selected for Award Title: Robust Feature-Aided Tracking and Identification by Exploiting Joint Target Kinematics and Identification Information Abstract: MRLets Technologies, Inc. proposes an innovative approach for robust feature-aided tracking (FAT) and identification by effectively exploiting joint target kinematics and identification (ID) information. It has been proposed and proven by the PI that {\it moving target} ID information which is reflected in features" is tightly coupled with target kinematics information. To design an effective and robust feature-aided tracker, one should jointly explore both target kinematics and ID information spaces. This proposal aims at: (1) effective information exploitation of target kinematics and ID spaces at a level that has never been explored before; (2) novel feature extraction based on local motion; and (3) design of a robust feature-aided tracker -- joint multiple hypothesis tracking and identification (JMHTI). The proposed research embarks upon the first research of this kind in discovering the information coupling mechanism between target kinematics and ID spaces, and the key is the introduction of global motion and local motion. Local motion carries certain kinematics information and rich ID information and therefore, naturally serves as an information coupling mechanism. One of the challenges is the separation of local motion from composite motion information delivered by GMTI, HRR and range/Doppler sensors. We proposed to use a wavelets domain statistic processing technique based on the hidden Markov trees (HMT) and structure invariants approaches for local motion information decomposition. A new and powerful feature-aided tracking algorithm -- joint multiple hypothesis tracking and identification (JMHTI) -- is proposed as a main processing engine. The JMHTI algorithm produces not only robust tracks but also target IDs as a side product, which is very desirable in many applications. One of the main advantages of JMHTI is the multiscan information accrual in both kinematics and ID spaces which effectively alleviates the impact of noisy aspect angles. This proposal is packed with several innovations. If fully developed, the proposed research could totally change the way that target tracking and identification is performed. The proposed robust feature-aided tracking and identification system will primarily benefit military and aerospace applications, including surveillance/reconnaissance systems for battlefield command and control. It also has great potential in commercial applications, such as highway traffic control and safety systems.  THE ATHENA GROUP, INC. 3424 N.W. 31 Street Gainesville, FL 32605 Phone: PI: Topic#: (352) 371-2567 Dr. Jonathan Mellott AF 02-102 Selected for Award Title: ADEPT: Athena Digital Excision Processor Technology Abstract: The Athena Group, Inc. will develop an innovative, low-power, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse FFT (IFFT) processor for use in mitigating both intentional and unintentional narrowband jamming and interference in handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers. Athena's advanced digital signal processing (DSP) technology is capable of performance levels well beyond those of conventional DSP processing technologies. Athena will analyze the processing requirements for the GPS receiver application, select an FFT/IFFT processor configuration along with supervisory processing elements, and analyze the resulting design for speed, power, and hardware requirements. The proposer will optimize a solution that will lead to a commercial system-on-chip (SoC) anti-jam GPS application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) implementation. The commercial value of the developed technology is substantial since it will significantly improve the reliability and quality of GPS service. GPS applications are proliferating, especially in the land-based market segment. Numerous other mass-market FFT ASIC applications, such as asymmetric digital subscriber loop (ADSL) modems, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless communications, and co-channel interference (CCI) rejection for wireless communications also indicate a high commercial potential for the proposed technology.  ALPHATECH, INC. 50 Mall Road Burlington, MA 01803 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 273-3388 Dr. Daniel B. Hunter AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Machine Reasoning for Effects-Based Operations: A Generic Architecture for Multi-Domain Workarounds Reasoning Abstract: Effects-based operations must determine how the enemy might respond to air strikes. Current approaches to predicting enemy response to target damage suffer from serious limitations: they typically do not consider how the enemy might repair or modify the structure of a target system, they typically reason only about a single type of target system, they cannot adequately represent delayed effects, concurrent actions, and uncertainty, and their models are difficult for analysts to construct and maintain. To address these deficiencies, we propose to develop innovative machine reasoning technology to predict enemy workarounds in target systems that are well modeled as networks. We exploit emerging knowledge acquisition technology to enable analysts to readily build and maintain models of target systems and associated workarounds procedures. We also develop technology to automatically compile these models into a form amenable to efficient reasoning. Finally, we develop efficient algorithms to compute workaround options and to predict enemy allocation of workaround resources. Phase I develops a suitable machine reasoning architecture and algorithms, and implements a prototype to validate the approach. Phase II scales this prototype to more target systems, demonstrates the benefits of analyzing multiple target systems simultaneously, and extends the approach to accommodate uncertainty. The technology developed under this program will be of immediate use in target systems analysis for air campaign planning, and will provide important functionality for AFRL's EBO program. US TRANSCOM could also use this technology to help develop options for reconstituting damaged adversary infrastructure in support of entry operations. Government agencies or NGOs could also use the technology in crisis response, to help allocate repair resources to mitigate the effects of natural disasters or terrorist attacks.  BORRIES DESIGN & CONSULTING 4007 Elfin Ave Louisville, KY 40207 Phone: PI: Topic#: (502) 896-0136 Mr. Vance von Borries AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Innovative Information Technologies Abstract: The USAF has long needed a tool that facilitates training of strategic/tactical and logistical decision-making for the synchronization of large-scale air missions by coalition forces. To accomplish this, we propose a simulation that models an air commander's ability to view, understand, and analyze information available and then to rapidly exploit knowledge of the battle space. The simulation will employ many considerations for all members of a coalition air force including (but not limited to) command, control, communications, and intelligence. The proposed topic for the simulation is the Tunisian campaign of WW II from shortly after the historical Allied army landings of 8 November 1942 to the final total surrender of Axis forces in Tunisia on 13 May 1943. This Phase I simulation can be played as one player against one other player or as one team against another team. Each player (or team) would sit generally in the position of supreme commander (or staff) for the campaign. The simulation design will allow for the input of Air Force personnel for the final Phase I and subsequent Phase II designs. The types and number of stations that would best fit the instruction goals will be determined during this process. There are three anticipated results from this project. First, the Air Force will receive at the end of Phase I paper simulation of the above-cited training tool. Second, movement to Phase II will result in the conversion of the paper version to a more robust and dynamic computerized version. The third is the commercialization of the Phase I and Phase II products. The Phase I product market is not a large market, but is large enough to pursue its commercialization. The simulation provided with Phase I of the project will be consistent with products currently found and available commercially to the general public. The initial Phase II product commercialization will target the computer war game and loyal strategy and history enthusiasts market. Military bookstores in the Army Air Force Exchange Stores (AAFES), Navy Exchange, and private military equipment chains will also be targeted as market for military personnel of all branches interested in air warfare. Distribution of the product can be conducted through conventional box-software channels or through the Internet via on-line gaming. Additional features for later versions include network able versions that would allow Internet one-on-one play and increased scenarios.  CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORPORATION 727 Airport Boulevard Ann Arbor, MI 48108 Phone: PI: Topic#: (734) 668-2567 Dr. Charles J. Cohen AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Design of a Graphical Interface for Managing Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Abstract: This proposal describes the design of an interface for controlling multiple UAVs in a real-time situation. Named the Uninhabited Air Vehicle Management Interface (UAVMI), it is centered on a 3-dimensional graphical representation of the operational geographic area. The operator is able to move a 3D cursor around within this geographic volume, selecting groups, paths, and targets in 3D space. Cybernet System's extensive experience in force-feedback input devices allows us to easily incorporate this aspect into the UAVMI system. Coupled with an off-the-shelf 3D Stereoscopic glasses or a Head-Mounted Display (HMD), the interface will allow the user to essentially reach into the virtual battlefield/airspace to control swarms of UAV entities while "feeling" aspects of the virtual representation. As a testbed for the UAVMI, we will use the OpenSkies simulation software developed by Cybernet Systems. The OpenSkies system is a state-of-the-art PC-Based simulation software package designed from the ground up as a general-purpose simulation tool kit. The UAVMI enhancement to OpenSkies will be used to evolve OpenSkies into a real-time 3D combat strategy game (As of this writing we are aware of no such game that allows the user to direct combat strategy missions in 3 dimensions in real-time). Other potential application areas include air traffic control, both military and commercial, control of uninhabited vehicles in other domains (e.g. underwater, space).  CYMFONY, INC. 600 Essjay Road Buffalo, NY 14221 Phone: PI: Topic#: (716) 565-9114 Dr. Rohini K. Srihari AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: An Automated Domain Porting Toolkit for Information Extraction Abstract: Information extraction (IE) systems assist analysts to assimilate information from electronic documents. This task will develop an automated, domain porting toolkit for customizing a generic IE system for a specific domain. Customization is required at various levels: (i) lexicon, (ii) glossaries of names of people, organizations, locations, (iii) relationships between key entities, e.g. an organization's headquarters, and (iv) significant events, e.g. transportation of chemicals. Due to performance gained through customization, many have developed handcrafted IE systems applicable to a single domain, e.g. insurance and medical. The approach proposed builds on a robust, domain-independent IE engine that can continue to be enhanced. Using this as a core, we propose to develop a platform for automated domain or corpus customization. This approach facilitates rapid domain porting and cost savings since linguists are not required. The domain porting toolkit requires research in unsupervised machine learning. Structure-based training leverages output from the core IE engine. A bootstrap approach using seeds is proposed. Lexicons and templates are learned to customize all levels of IE. Deliverables include: (i) algorithms for structure-based bootstrap learning, (ii) prototype for domain porting of lexicons and rule templates for the intelligence domain, and (iii) an automated domain porting toolkit, including graphical interfaces. This work could impact facilitating information discovery in new domains with applications such as business intelligence and decision support tools. For military/intelligence applications, this effort supports the global awareness requirement. In order to assess situations, identify current and potential threats, it is necessary to perform IE and consolidate the available content. Changing circumstances and new threats require rapid adaptation to new corpora and domains. Automating the process of rapid domain porting is especially useful when data is classified, and hence requires porting to be performed by groups other than the developers of the original IE system.  CYMFONY, INC. 600 Essjay Road Buffalo, NY 14221 Phone: PI: Topic#: (716) 565-9114 Dr. Rohini K. Srihari AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Fusion of Information from Diverse, Textual Media: A Case Restoration Approach Abstract: Fusing information in diverse text media containing case-sensitive information is explored. It is based on a core Information Extraction (IE) system capable of processing case-sensitive text. The core engine is adapted to handle diverse, case-insensitive information e.g. e-mail, chat, newsgroups, broadcast transcripts, HUMINT intelligence documents. The fusion system assimilates information extracted from text with that in structured knowledge bases. Traditional IE for case-insensitive text is limited to the named entity (NE) stage, e.g. retraining an NE tagger on case insensitive text. We explore case restoration, whereby statistical models and rules are used to recover case-sensitive form. Thus, the core IE system is not modified. IE systems are fully exploited if their output is consolidated with knowledge in relational databases. This calls for natural language processing and reasoning, including entity co-reference and event co-reference. Consolidation permits database change detection and alerts. Feedback to the core IE system exploits information in knowledge bases thereby fusing information. Final deliverables include: (i) a prototype system for case restoration for broadcast transcripts, (ii) benchmarks for NE tagging on case-restored text, and (iii) a blueprint for an information fusion system, including criteria for merging extracted information with knowledge in databases. Information analysts and decision makers will benefit since it extends the utility of IE. A commercially viable solution has many applications. Business intelligence systems use large knowledge-bases on companies, products, people and projects. Updating these knowledge-bases from chat, newsgroups and multimedia broadcast transcripts would be valuable. One commercial application focused on brand perception and monitoring will benefit. Knowledge management systems would benefit from the ability to assimilate information in web documents and newsgroups with structured information. Military applications stem from the fact that analysts need to consolidate an abundance of information.  DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOCIATES, INCORPORATED 40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200 Malvern, PA 19355 Phone: PI: Topic#: (757) 727-7700 Dr. W. Reynolds Monach AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Ground Attack Data Fusion and Optimization System (GADFOS) Abstract: Daniel H. Wagner Associates, Inc. will develop a prototype Ground Attack Data Fusion and Optimization System (GADFOS) that will accurately fuse all of the information available from large numbers of sensors using non-Gaussian and multiple hypothesis techniques along with computer resource optimization algorithms and high-performance, inexpensive hardware to allow this computationally intensive data fusion process to take place in near-real-time. GADFOS will utilize the non-Gaussian tracking information when determining the likelihood that a contact is associated with a particular target, will produce target tracks that are as high quality as possible given the available data, and will also optimize the placement and operation of surveillance sensors. We will quantitatively analyze the performance of GADFOS in our Decision Support System Testbed (DSST), using hundreds of simulated targets and hundreds of simulated sensors. This analysis will measure the distance between the GADFOS Situation Awareness (SA) picture and ground truth using operationally oriented and honesty inducing metrics. It will also quantify the performance difference between GADFOS generated surveillance plans and a surveillance plans generated using current operating procedures. The prototype GADFOS will allow us to demonstrate how advanced data fusion and optimization techniques can significantly improve the ability of United States forces to conduct search and surveillance and targeting against ground targets. Improved correlation and tracking technologies such as these are particularly necessary at a time when the United States is facing sophisticated ground threats such as terrorists in a difficult environment with reduced resources.  GLOLINUEAR COMPUTER SYSTEMS INC. 123 Central Avenue Albuquerque, NM 87102 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 247-1238 Mr. Greg Frost AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: NEW CONCEPT IN C4I OPERATIONS CENTER SYSTEMS Abstract: This SBIR project will develop DMIMS, an innovative concept for C4I operations centers featuring our innovative technology for information capture, presentation and instant replay in real-time, near-real-time or from archives. It answers the need for a versatile high performance information processing capability in response to the ever-increasing supply of C4I information that must be processed. Phase I will prove the value to the Air Force and feasibility of our concept. We will extend our patented Digital Surveillance Network System to mixed image/video/text data-handling for C4I operations. The system features COTS components and will support legacy C4I software. First, we establish needs and requirements based on realistic data mixes and volumes. Then, via a proven design process and accompanying trade studies, we will produce the architecture and design, including software design, for DMIMS as the central element of a C4I Operations Center. And by analysis we validate the design not only meets the stated requirements but also fully supports the Air Force C4I missions. We offer the expertise in both C4I, computer and data handling system development to assure that the system meets Air Force needs. DMIMS promises a major step toward Air Force' global awareness. This innovation will greatly improve the ability of C4I operations centers to handle very large volumes of mixed media information (recon video, gun cameras, maps, satellite images, data bases, etc.) in support of the mission. It will allow operators to have real time observation and near-real-time replay without disrupting other functions. DMIMS will enable C4I operations to assimilate and manage image/video/text into more usable, accurate and verifiable form to process and handle large amounts of multi-media information. Its modularity will allow custom versions tailored to the type of operations. Our concept allows the Air Force to reuse existing look and feel of the applications software or to enhance it to take advantage of features like the multi-window capability of DMIMS.  GRAMMATECH, INC 317 N. Aurora Street Ithaca, NY 14850 Phone: PI: Topic#: (607) 273-7340 Dr. Paul Anderson AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Source-Code Vulnerability Detection Abstract: The problem of information security has become critical because of the growing dependence of the economy and the armed forces on complex networked information systems. Of particular concern are security vulnerabilities that are caused by programming errors. We plan to study the feasibility and plan the development of a security vulnerability detection toolkit based on advanced static analyses. Our plan is targeted at semi-automatic detection of security vulnerabilities in C and C++ source code. This work will build on our own dependence-graph based COTS product for program understanding named CodeSurfer. We will focus our efforts on addressing technologies to detect vulnerabilities caused by buffer overflows, race conditions, and memory access errors. We will investigate the application of constraint analysis, dependence analysis, constant propagation, array subscript analysis, and other static analyses to the problem of vulnerability detection. We will develop a plan to integrate these analyses with CodeSurfer, in order to produce a commercial vulnerability detection toolkit. The proposed system will help eliminate vulnerabilities in open- and closed-source software systems. In doing so it will meet an emerging market need for security code-audit tools.  INTEGRATED WAVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 4042 Clipper Court Fremont, CA 94538 Phone: PI: Topic#: (510) 490-9160 Mr. John H. Hall AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Precision Remote Speech Input Abstract: This system will provide a speech-commanded, highly effective, eyes-free, hands-free command/control/data input means for forward observers, target designators working behind enemy lines, UAV operators and others. Compared with other attempts to develop this capability, this device will have superior background noise rejection, higher accuracy, smaller size, lower power consumption and greater ruggedness. This capability is based on Integrated Wave Technology, Inc.'s unique robust, miniaturized, language-independent speech recognition that allows for near-100 percent accurate command/control/information input in noise environments ranging from 0 to 100dB. IWT designs and produces integrated hardware/software modules that filter and process sound energy, match samples with stored templates using a 17-band analysis, and direct actions based upon accurate recognitions. The one-ounce integrated hardware/software modules remove large amounts of in-band and out-of-band background noise. The modules are also have ultra-low internal noise, allowing them to recognize sound more effectively than other systems. The effectiveness has been demonstrated in a series of US Government-sponsored tests. The device will be highly rugged, capable of surviving and performing in duty with combat forces and recognizing speech made under duress. IWT has developed both speaker dependent and speaker independent systems and will build representative articles of each technology for this effort. This system will enhance significantly the performance of C4I systems and subsystems by enabling real-time, eyes-free, hands-free data input and command/control from observers/designators in any selected language. This will provide a more effective interface between a forward observer and communications/data input devices. Further, by enabling forward observers or other personnel to maintain their visual surveillance, this system will provide several benefits. First, the observer will be able to input information much more quickly than by using other interfaces. Second, the observer/designator will be able to maintain eye contact with surveillance subjects and targets, reducing the chance that contact will be lost. Third, the observer/designator will be able to see threats to himself more easily and increase his survivability because he is not breaking eye contact. In the case of a UAV operator, this system will allow the user to control simultaneously core aircraft operations using traditional hand controls while operating surveillance, weapons and other systems using highly precise and reliable voice control. IWT's unique, proven capability to achieve high noise immunity, near-100 percent accuracy, very low power consumption and miniaturization form the basis for this new capability.  LSA 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1300 Arlington, VA 22202 Phone: PI: Topic#: (610) 363-5808 Mr. Dale R. Tyczka AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Innovative Information Technologies - Theater-Deployable Self-Healing Free-Space Optical Networks for Mobile Security and Command and Control Operatio Abstract: Free-space optical communication's inherently low probability of intercept, resistance to jamming, lack of licensing requirements, ease of use, high-speed capability, and compact size make it an ideal addition to the array of equipment that can be used to form a battlefield network backbone. We propose to develop a field-transportable, mobile free-space-optical auto-reconfiguring self-healing tactical communication (FASTCOM) network to meet the needs of robust, theater-deployable communications. We will accomplish this by integrating sophisticated optical tracking techniques, GPS equipment, and COTS switches and routers with our considerable equipment experience and proven expertise in free-space optical communication systems. The system will operate in a mobile-mesh topology and will consist of multiple communication nodes, each containing several individual eye-safe and covert optical transceiver subsystems. The communication nodes will be low-profile units that take advantage of GPS data to determine and relay their own positions to the rest of the network, along with the positions and identifications of all nodes to which they are connected. This will ensure that even if one node or communication pathway is lost, the network can quickly and efficiently heal itself to handle heavy, continuous network traffic at speeds exceeding 1 Gbps. Reconfigurable, high-speed wireless computer networks have numerous applications in military, commercial and industrial settings. They are characterized by fast setup, upgrade and reconfiguration, and thus can benefit mobile tactical operations that are heavily dependent on information access. In military scenarios, the ability to automatically reconfigure the network and heal the network mesh will prevent any segments of the battle group from being cut off in the event that one or more nodes are lost. Extensions of the FASTCOM technology will enable individual warfighters to have access to the entire information content of the battlefield network for the ultimate in situational awareness. The telecommunications industry, and in fact the population as a whole, will benefit greatly through the addition of reconfigurable high-speed wireless networks in business campuses and neighborhoods. Farming and land maintenance will become more automated and self-coordinating. FASTCOM will aid in improving homeland, harbor and military base security through enhanced surveillance data transmission capabilities. Disaster relief and recovery crews will be able to quickly set up emergency networks and more-effectively communicate throughout rescue operations, enabling them to quickly reunite missing persons with their families. Analogous applications can be found throughout the Government, commercial and industrial markets.  PHOTERA TECHNOLOGIES 12777 High Bluff Drive San Diego, CA 92130 Phone: PI: Topic#: (858) 755-8855 Mr. Robert Bergstedt AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Compact Portable Data Wall for Command and Control Applications Abstract: The modern battlefield can encompass a vast area of terrain and involve land, naval, and air forces. Managing this complex environment requires that situational awareness displays portray the battle space in a way that quickly and effectively conveys knowledge to the user. Providing such information in an appropriate format typically calls for a fully-interactive multi-projector display which meets exacting standards. In addressing these standards, careful attention must be paid to the spatial alignment and registration of multiple projectors and to the balancing of image brightness over a large viewing volume. Meanwhile, the size and weight of the display must be consistent with ease of transport. Responding to this need, we have devised a panoramic Command and Control display that is both compact and portable. Supplemental features of the display include a means for implementing multiple laser pointers, together with a wireless control that is based upon Bluetooth technology. We also have identified a rear-projection screen structure that offers to eliminate many of the disadvantages associated with multi-projector displays. Our phase I program includes a detailed review of Air Force display requirements, the evaluation / test of all critical components and the preliminary design of a Phase II prototypical system. Successful development of the proposed multi-projector panoramic display will involve significant advances in the fields of display interactivity and video-wall image matching. As such, the program is expected to provide the solutions to problems that have long plagued an important sector of the commercial display arena. In addition, the proposed projection screen may enable a wide range of architectural and interior lighting products.  RAM LABORATORIES, INC. 6540 Lusk Blvd, Suite C200 San Diego, CA 92121 Phone: PI: Topic#: (858) 677-9074 Dr. Robert McGraw AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: DataMining Implementations for High Performance Computing Abstract: Collaborative applications involve the acquisition, processing, and delivery of very large volumes of remote sensing and related data for a variety of applications. In order to handle this data, collaborative environments must manage, store, search for and retrieve data across highly distributed and networked topologies. This effort will provide a technology that supports distributed data management by developing software libraries that consists of data access interfaces and search algorithms that facilitate parallel data analysis and mining. These libraries will be integrated with existing simulation technologies such as SPEEDES and RAM Laboratories WarpIV simulation engine to provide a parallel and distributed data mining capability. This effort will take advantage of existing persistence and save/restore mechanisms to support basic storage and retrieval of data. More complex search mechanisms that traverse a parallel hierarchical grid data structure will then be employed to coordinate searches using massively parallel high-performance interest management. The resultant technology can be applied to both government-based and commercial collaborative applications. This SBIR is viewed as having excellent commercial potential. Naturally, this SBIR and the distributed data mining technology it will develop have far reaching implications for the Air Force. The data access interface and algorithm libraries will allow for better performance and data management for all collaborative environments. This technology will augment an existing technology that already inherently supports parallel and distributed computing. While improving collaborative applications, this technology will also greatly improve the state of the art with respect to performance for simulation and collaborative environments concerning applications using high volumes of data. While improving support for collaborative applications in many areas addressed by the Air Force, this technology also has far reaching applications to commercial industry. The electrical, computer, telecommunications, medical and transportation industries will benefit from this advancement in technology. Specifc commercial uses include the banking and financial communities where the data mining technology can be used to predict trends and detect patterns in both the marketplace and user characteristics. This technology can also be applied to commercial search enterprise to implement linguistic based approaches and other AI based searches.  SCENPRO, INC. 101 W. Renner Rd., Suite 130 Richardson, TX 75082 Phone: PI: Topic#: (972) 437-5001 Mr. Mark Swenholt AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Innovative Information Technologies Abstract: ScenPro proposes to develop an Incident Response Information Support System (IRISS) application that will greatly improve on-site information management for large-scale incident response efforts. The improvement will be most measurable in Homeland Security incidents with mass casualties that involve multiple responders from different organizations. The IRISS will provide these improvements by combining information management technology from three areas: ú A communications network that can be scaled and configured on demand to provide a communications resource to both expected and ad hoc responders ú A set of role-specific user interfaces that provide appropriate, intuitive, and effective formats for data entry and information push given limited display capabilities and unfamiliar users ú Advanced techniques for information retrieval, aggregation, and display for the following: o situational awareness o critical resource management o incident command decision support aids ScenPro will use its extensive expertise in incident response and the Scenario-based Engineering Process (SEP) to develop the IRISS application. SEP features a Knowledge Acquisition process to obtain and utilize information from subject matter experts. SEP also will provide a preliminary system architecture, which will be the basis for development of a fully functional prototype IRISS tool in a Phase II SBIR program. The proposed IRISS provides the ability for an incident response commander to more effectively manage a large-scale response effort with diverse responding organizations. Improved performance in these situations is of significant value for Homeland Security. To realize this improved performance, the IRISS provides a greatly improved communications capability designed to support on-site information management given a wide variety in the number, type, and role of incident responders. This capability improves the incident response commander's situation awareness, enables critical resource management, and supports use of other "Predict-and Advise" and decision support tools. ScenPro believes that the primary benefit of the proposed IRISS is in situations with civilian and joint military/civilian responders. Military installations are tasked to have the infrastructure, contingency plans, and resources to deal with incidents that occur on-base. Civilian organizations are usually not capable of handling a large-scale response effort without support from a variety of other organizations, which will likely include military ones if Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) are involved. The on-site communications and information management support provided by the IRISS will support an effective response effort in just this sort of situation.  SCS ENGINEERING, INC. 23430 Hawthorne Blvd., STE 240 Torrance, CA 90505 Phone: PI: Topic#: (310) 373-4243 Mr. Jerry F. Shaw AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Rapid Visual Database Generation and Real-Time Presentation System Abstract: SCS proposes to develop a Rapid Visual Database Generation and Real-Time Presentation System (RVDG/RPS) for Mission Rehearsal Systems and Crew-In-The-Loop Simulators. This project will develop a tool suite with the capability to take multi-source data (e.g., CADRG, CIB, JFIF/JPEG, DTED, feature data, mission data, weather data...) and rapidly produce a coherent real-time 3-Dimensional color and/or monochrome visual image that can be used by mission rehearsal systems and crew-in-the-loop simulators, with a specifiable field of view. These tools will include an OpenGL runtime engine that will be capable of displaying the data on any workstation or PC, and run real-time given the appropriate graphic accelerator. Develop a deployable tool that will take 1600 square mile high-resolution sample CIB, feature data and DTED data and merge it into a common database within 30 minutes. Develop a production visual node that will display the database in real-time. This node will be capable of being networked with an infinite number of nodes, each capable of displaying a segment of a scene. Networked nodes will be capable of producing a 360ø by 360ø display system. Develop an embedded Rendering Engine that will allow Handheld and/or Pocket PC based systems to view the visual database. The anticipated results of RVDG/RPS will be a suite of tools for developing turnkey systems that will allow a crewmember to rehearse in real-time and non-real-time most if not all facets of a Sensor-to-Shooter Operations mission. The RVDG/RPS system will be a highly deployable system based on commercial computer technologies. Core RVDG/RPS technologies will be demonstrated to be applicable to all DoD user communities (e.g., USAF, USA, USN, SOF, USMC, USCG).  SEMANDEX NETWORKS, INC 201 Washington Road Princeton, NJ 08540 Phone: PI: Topic#: (609) 720-4916 Dr. Leslie French AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: High-Performance Content-based Routing Network for Joint Battlespace Infosphere Applications Abstract: All DoD organizations handling mission-critical information are facing intense pressures to avoid costly, dangerous and potentially fatal "information breaks". Semandex Networks has assembled a team of experts in distributed computing and network software to pioneer a new category of information-distribution infrastructure based on the extensible Markup Language (XML) standard. The system automatically knows where content is and to which decision-makers it needs to be delivered, dramatically reducing the occurrence of information breaks. A hierarchy of edge and core routers can be interconnected to ensure scalable, accurate, and timely information delivery, in a manner that could not otherwise be economically or technically realized. Semandex has completed the development of its edge router, and is now considering the challenges of building a high-speed core router capable of handling the aggregated traffic volume of several edge routers and high-speed data feeds. It is the objective of this Phase I SBIR to determine the feasibility of constructing a high-speed content router for time-critical C2 data and to demonstrate its architectural suitability to handle global information-intensive applications within the Air Force's Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI). Real-time content delivery is a requirement for applications in the financial, manufacturing, energy, corporate enterprise, government and military sectors. In all these segments, although there is a vast mass of data being generated, too little information arrives at the right place at the right time. Applications of Semandex content routing include targeted distribution of relevant content from news, market and operational data feeds, file and data sharing by content, and content-based instant messaging. Taken together, these applications create a new Intranet/Internet service category, which we call the "Virtual Content Network (VCN)". Market analysts predict that within the next five years more than 80% of enterprises will have implemented content-aware services for business networks to integrate information assets inside and outside the enterprise. However, the key to the success of these networks will be their ability to handle large volumes of traffic in a robust, scalable architecture, for which further research must be undertaken. Because of its single, non-proprietary representation, XML offers a unique opportunity to integrate and fuse information from different sources. Military standards for XML data are already being developed, and XML-based delivery systems will become the means to collect and disseminate mission-critical information. A worldwide, federated XML-based content routing network will not only reduce the deployment time and cost of ownership of JBI systems, but will also provide opportunities to enhance strategic mission-critical applications and will enable the vision of a Common Relevant Operation Picture (CROP) to be realized.  SPLASHNOTE SYSTEMS, INC. 1650 Zanker Road, Suite 244 San Jose, CA 95112 Phone: PI: Topic#: (408) 398-7065 Mr. Scott Tse AF 02-103 Selected for Award Title: Low-cost, Versatile Collaboration System for Distributed Decision-Making & Information Exchange Abstract: The U.S. Air Force has several requirements for information systems to provide Global Awareness, Dynamic Planning and Execution, and Global Information Exchange. A key common underlying issue is the need to link remotely located people or groups of people together, share information or data in a meaningful context, such that they can interact, collaborate, or take action in some fashion. While several distinct solutions can be developed to address these requirements, a more innovative approach would be to attack the two key needs of a flexible, customizable interactive interface and an information delivery system with a broad reach. Such a solution can even be more affordable than dedicated solutions if advantage is taken of trends in commercial practices. SplashNote Systems is developing an innovative collaboration system with these objectives in mind. It has an application platform, which allows a project manager to quickly develop and deploy collaborative applications without worrying about the underlying technology. And it provides a broad reach by leveraging common messaging channels such as email. The key is that the message inbox is converted into an interactive and dynamic interface that essentially links all participants together in a shared data environment. Such a system would allow Air Force personnel to stay apprised of the latest information and to interact with each other with no more than a message address. SplashNote will be compatible with most email client in the marketplace, with further plans for other messaging devices such as PDA and wireless WAP phones. What the U.S. military faces in trying to link people together in a meaningful data environment is exactly what most businesses face with their suppliers and their customers in the value chain. A system that provides a broad reach inside or outside of the enterprise, and yet can accommodate shifting supply networks would be valuable to the commercial world. The market opportunity is significant. The worldwide value chain market, comprising of Supply Chain Management and Customer Relationship Management software, is still relatively untapped and is projected to grow at a torrid pace to over40 billion in software sale alone by 2004.

 SYNERGIA LLC 2400 Broadway, Suite 203 Redwood City, CA 94063 Phone: PI: Topic#: (650) 569-4999 Dr. Michael Fehling AF 02-103      Selected for Award Title: Innovative Information Technologies: Risk-Advised Information Management Abstract: We will develop a comprehensive methodology, "Risk-Advised Information Management," to support multi-actor (social) choice applications. Well-founded principles from decision theory will be introduced to improve and coordinate decisions among decision-makers. We will show how the support offered by this methodology can be realized in technology, as an enhancement of K2 ("Knowledge Kinetics"), a very powerful information management and collaboration technology. Decision-makers will be able to quantify the value of differing kinds of information, and so sort through the vast available information resources. Decision-makers will also be able to advise, be advised by, and coordinate their decisions with other decision-makers. They will discover opportunities and conflicts among their decisions through analytic calculations on those decisions. By quantifying the rewards and risks associated with these, they will receive support for choices about who to coordinate with, when, and over what topics. Hence two critical challenges to decision-making, information overload and coordination management, are addressed by creating formally-grounded tools to improve choice processes and decision contents. This is the basis for a major improvement in decision quality, especially, for joint and combined/coalition operations. Defense, public-sector, and private-sector activities are becoming more complex, and increasingly inter-dependent in their execution. Information resources will continue to grow in size and complexity. The proposed technology creates a new information management discipline for complex multi-actor decision-making in any venue: overseas military operations, homeland defense, and private-sector management. As the difficulty and stakes of decisions rises, so too will the value of this technology.

 TRIDENT SYSTEMS INC. 10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300 Fairfax, VA 22030 Phone: PI: Topic#: (919) 847-9123 Mr. Scott Thomas AF 02-103      Selected for Award Title: Multimedia Collaboration Guard Abstract: Recent events, including the horrific terrorist attacks on the United States, serve to highlight the need for improved intelligence and collection management. Collaboration tools are becoming increasingly important to the DoD, Intelligence Community (IC), law enforcement agencies and others that are involved with our national security. Many agencies and services each have their own private, secure networks, which creates barriers to sharing information. Mechanisms are needed to enable MLS multimedia collaboration and to facilitate easy security policy administration. The Air Force ISSE Guard application provides multi-level secure communications between different networks, but currently only supports email and file transfer mechanisms. These transports do not support real-time, multimedia traffic that is generated by collaborative applications. Efforts are underway to look at MLS text chat capabilities, but no initiatives are addressing multimedia collaboration, including audio, video, and shared whiteboard. New transport mechanisms and protocols are needed to enable IC users and others to effectively collaborate. Trident Systems proposes to design and develop the Multimedia Collaboration Guard (MCG) to provide multi-level secure multimedia collaboration. The MCG is based up the ISSE Guard platform. The MCG implementation will leverage the planned ISSE Guard socket-based communication enhancements, and incorporate commercial security policy server technology. The Multimedia Collaboration Guard will enable IC users to collaborate across dissimilarly classified networks in real-time. The MCG architecture supports text chat/instant messaging, audio and video teleconferencing and share whiteboard collaboration tools. By improving IC users' ability to effectively collaborate and share intelligence information, most notably HUMINT, the IC analysis and dissemination capabilities significantly improve.

 8BY8 1883 Orangetree Mountain View, CA 94040 Phone: PI: Topic#: (415) 531-6207 Dr. Nina Zumel AF 02-104      Selected for Award Title: A Computational Model of Information Fusion for Situation Assessment Abstract: The overall objectives of this proposal are: to develop computational techniques for the information fusion problem as it relates to Situation Monitoring and Assessment. We decompose the Situation Assessment problem into two parts. The first part is the mapping of the raw state of the world (the structural description of the world) to semantic situational features which are relevant to the target situations of interest. The second part is to derive or express the relationships among the situational features with respect to the situation of interest. The second part is the information fusion problem. This decomposition decouples the domain specific problem of situation assessment from the domain independent, and possibly interchangeable, sensor and information processing technologies which extract the semantic features from the raw data. We propose to develop and evaluate algorithms for learning situation-specific relationships among situational features. To this end, we also present a normalized evaluation measure for the reliability of the information processors which extract the semantic features. This normalized measure facilitates the interchangeability of underlying information processing technologies. The research described in this proposal will contribute to development of a knowledge refinery platform which allows domain experts to discover and extract actionable intelligence from massive raw data repositories. Such a platform will have a significant and positive impact in shortening the data-to-action cycle in many disciplines such as marketing, genomics and bioinformatics, national security, financial services, and business intelligence. The shorter decision cycle will yield significant cost savings as well as revenue generation opportunities for commercial users. In some cases, such as bioinformatics, where research-to-shelf product development cycle often spans ten to twelve years, even a one-year advantage could have multi-billion dollar market implications. In other cases, such as national security analysis, shortening the analysis cycle could in fact save numerous lives.

 EXPERT DECISIONS 6012 Jewell Court Alexandria, VA 22312 Phone: PI: Topic#: (703) 916-0474 Dr. Lucian Russell AF 02-104      Selected for Award Title: Innovative Approaches for Information Fusion Abstract: Expert Decisions proposes to develop a rigorous mathematical basis for information fusion by extending a processing for inducing Fuzzy measures from a simple object space to a complex object space. The Level 1 objects will be in classes of concrete objects and terrain, with their locations and movements. Situation Assessment will proceed by creating abstract objects in two classes, Opportunities and Vulnerabilities. The new mathematical paradigm will be demonstrated on a testbed of Level 1 objects located on a terrain. The ability to assess complex situations represented by objects will greatly expand the capabilities of decision support systems in computer security, finance, and pharmaceutical research.

 VERSATILE INFORMATION SYSTEMS, INC. 5 Mountainview Drive Framingham, MA 01701 Phone: PI: Topic#: (508) 277-0242 Dr. Rajat K. Saha AF 02-104      Selected for Award Title: A Formal Framework for Situation Awareness Abstract: This project will develop a formal framework for Situation Awareness (SAW). A rigorous mathematical formalization of the SAW problem will be developed. An infrastructure for Situation Analysis compatible with the formalization will be proposed. The infrastructure will be organized around an ontology for the domain of Situation Awareness. The functionality of the infrastructure will include: collection of information from various sources, like JDL's Level 1 sources, intelligence channels, humans; representation of the information in a formal language; reasoning about and update of the relations among the objects in the SAW domain; Level 2 fusion of the various kinds of information and derivation of the uncertainty and the ambiguity of decisions; ability to reason about current and future threats and impacts of particular decisions. An ontology for the SAW domain and SAW scenarios will be developed and used for evaluation of the proposed approach. The results of this project are expected to be useful in both military and commercial domains. Military Situation Awareness systems can be built based upon the approach investigated in this project. Systems to support situation awareness in the commercial world may include fraud detection, enterprise knowledge management and detection of unexpected or unusual behaviors.

 CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORPORATION 727 Airport Boulevard Ann Arbor, MI 48108 Phone: PI: Topic#: (734) 668-2567 Mr. Glenn Beach AF 02-106      Selected for Award Title: Quantum Information Science Abstract: Abstract not available...

 LAWRENCE TECHNOLOGIES, LLC 5485 Beltline Rd, Suite 200 Dallas, TX 75254 Phone: PI: Topic#: (972) 852-0493 Mr. Douglas J. Matzke AF 02-106      Selected for Award Title: A High Dimensional Approach to Quantum Computing Abstract: It has proved difficult to code arbitrary algorithms in the quantum computing paradigm. We have noticed that our patented corob Technology shares a common high dimensional mathematical basis with entangled qubits. Corob Technology is a computationally complete alternative computing paradigm in its own right. The common mathematical basis provides a means for us to map the known properties and programming paradigm of corob Technology-particularly CAM capabilities-into the quantum computing domain. We expect this to result in a generic corob-inspired quantum CAM compiler system. We have engaged Dr. Tommaso Toffoli of "reversible Toffoli gate" fame as a consultant for this project. In Phase I we will show mathematically that the known corob properties of high dimensional spaces apply to the spinor constrained high-dimensional spaces formed by entangled qubits. We have Fast Track investors available, and we will submit a Phase II proposal, as early in Phase I as possible, to design and implement the product needs of the Air Force and the commercial product interests of our chosen Fast Track partner. We expect to begin marketing initial quantum computing tools before the end of Phase II. This technology will form the basis of a new direction and product line in quantum computing. It has strong dual use capabilities wherever massive speedup is important. It provides both near term commercial tools and future products.

 SECURBORATION INC 695 Sanderling Dr Indialantic, FL 32903 Phone: PI: Topic#: (321) 432-5701 Mr. Lee Krause AF 02-107      Selected for Award Title: EBO-Scenario Generation Abstract: Securboration is pleased to propose an innovative approach to linking Effect Based Operation (EBO) Center Of Gravity analysis with simulation tools to determine the most effective Course Of Action (COA) to achieve the desired effects, entitled EBO- Scenario-Generation. EBO- Scenario-Generation concept is based on five years of research in to automated Scenario Generation capabilities. The ability to automate the creation of the most promising COA's and pass them off to wargaming simulations has the potential expand the amount of what-if analysis that can be performed during the simulation activity lending itself to improved COA's that meet the desired effects. The ability to automate the selection of course of actions to achieve a desired effect has the potential to improve the current generation of process improvement and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) tools. For corporations that are trying to improve the performance of their organization, employees and gain potential customers, the EBO Scenario Generation technology has the potential to provide innovative COA that will lead corporation in achieving their desired effect.

 ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 9971 Valley View Road Eden Prairie, MN 55344 Phone: PI: Topic#: (952) 829-5864 Dr. John Wu AF 02-108      Selected for Award Title: An Integrated Publish and Subscribe Arrchitecture Test Harness Abstract: What forms the foundation of the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) system is a Publish and Subscribe (P&S) architecture, which is composed of protocols, processes, and common core functions permitting participating application and organizations to share and exchange mission-critical information in a timely manner. The Air force is examining various P&S standards that have the potential of forming the basis for a comprehensive JBI platform. Leveraging Architecture Technology Corporation's existing technology in reconfigurable test tools, this SBIR research proposes to develop architecture for an Integrated Publish & Subscribe Architecture Test Harness (InPATH) that will provide JBI platform evaluators a powerful tool to test and assess the capability and performance of various Publish & Subscribe architectures. The proposed easy-to-use and cost-efficient test tool will enable distributed simulation of multiple P&S systems on multiple platforms. This integrated solution will enable evaluation of P&S systems both under development and in operation The military and commercial application for this research is a software evaluation tool aimed at enabling DoD and commercial P&S system personnel for evaluation and comparison of various P&S architectures. Potential customers of the commercial product from this research include the military and commercial P&S system developers as well as evaluators. The anticipated benefits include cost saving in test bed development for evaluating P&S systems.

 3 SIGMA RESEARCH, INC. 503 S. River Oaks Dr. Indialantic, FL 32903 Phone: PI: Topic#: (321) 674-9267 Mr. Michael Winburn AF 02-109      Selected for Award Title: Multisensory Assimilation of Complex C2 Information Abstract: 3 Sigma Research proposes an innovative two-part approach that provides both a new information visualization capability called the InfoSlider and a scientifically-based Case Study methodology called the Visualization Evaluation Environment (VEE). The InfoSlider allows users to visualize data through various ranges of object attributes. This assists the user in quickly locating objects that meet specific criteria from within large, complex data sets. VEE provides a quantitative, consistent, and repeatable methodology to evaluate information visualization components and their environments. Our approach to evaluating the visualization of complex data relies on both computer software and an understanding of the human cognitive process. By quantifying the usability of visualization components and systems, the overall value to commanders in the field is that they are presented with information as opposed to raw data. The proposed work will result in 1) A Case Study methodology with the ability to evaluate a wide range of information visualization components and environments, 2) the InfoSlider: A new information visualization component, 3) reuse of the InfoSlider Java class for integration into existing analysis and visualization applications, such as JVIEW, and 4) a proof-of-concept, case study evaluation, of the InfoSlider using VEE. The visualization evaluation methodology and the dynamically configurable display technologies described in this proposal have very broad applicability. Many government and commercial organizations recognize the advantage of tailoring information presentation to aid in the decision making process in areas that are characterized as time critical, high stress, or information intensive. Areas such as military command and control, agencies involved in Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance; air traffic control, market analysis, scientific research, and medical test analysis are examples of applications that can benefit from this technology.

 MAK TECHNOLOGIES 185 Alewife Brook Parkway Cambridge, MA 02138 Phone: PI: Topic#: (617) 876-8085 Mr. Kevin Johnson AF 02-109      Selected for Award Title: Multisensory Display Toolkit for Assimilation of Complex C2 Information Abstract: Under this SBIR effort, MŽK Technologies proposes to develop advanced multi-sensory display management concepts and algorithms that will improve the information flow to the Air Force warfighter on today?s C2ISR displays. Leveraging in-house products and technology, MŽK will implement prototype algorithms for experimentation and test. The Phase I research and prototypes will provide a strong foundation for Phase II development and commercialization of a Multi-Sensory Display Toolkit. MŽK will also leverage its experience in developing powerful, yet easy-to-use toolkits to create a mechanism that will allow the community at large to access the multi-sensory display management technology developed under this effort. The proposed effort will leverage COTS, standards-based, plan view display and 3D visualization software, lowering cost, time, and risk. The proposed MSDT concept has the following benefits: 1. Increased effectiveness of commanders and air controllers due to the more intuitive and readable displays with minimal overlap and occlusion. 2. Reduction of decision times by timely presentation of mission-relevant and mission-critical information. Delivering the proposed capability as a software toolkit aimed at system developers has the following benefit: 1. Increase in the number and capabilities of automated display systems due to the ready availability of the proposed capability in toolkit form, ready for integration. Leveraging MŽK's COTS PVD, Stealth and CGF software and MŽK's extensive experience supporting commercial-grade software toolkits has the following benefits: 1. Increased capability of the proposed multi-sensory display software toolkit due to the 2.3M internal, product funding commitment MŽK has made to these products. 2. Increased viability of the proposed display software toolkit due to MŽK's best-commercial-practices design, implementation, documentation, and support capability. 3. Low cost, time, and risk via extensive leverage of non-developmental software.  NETWORK DISK, INC. 5 Gaslight Lane Framingham, MA 01702 Phone: PI: Topic#: (508) 872-4586 Dr. Ilya Gertner AF 02-110 Selected for Award Title: Secure Peer-to-Peer Object Repository Abstract: The advancement of network and storage technologies has generated rapid growth in the field of distributed storage over the past few years. Strong demands for more and improved storage has developed from a growing economic and cultural need to store and archive as much data as possible. The current client/server architectures of most storage systems are not suitable for large-scale global storage solutions. They have a major drawback: as the number of clients increase, the load and bandwidth demands on the server also increase, eventually preventing the server from handling additional clients. The P2P information-sharing model has significant potential in the design of large-scale repositories due to its inherent scalability, decentralized architecture and low cost of entry [10]. The recent proliferation of P2P technologies, such as Napster, Gnutella, Freenet and Free Haven provide working examples of the power of the P2P model to facilitate global information sharing. This proposal addresses this need for a secure, scalable storage system. We evaluate current peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies for the development of a platform to provide a secure, distributed object repository for an enterprise environment. We describe the characteristics that are needed to make such a storage system feasible and explain why the P2P architecture needs to be considered. We then determine which of these attributes are met by some of the most successful P2P implementations today and point out the characteristics that are lacking. Finally, we introduce ideas for a unique, complete, secure, P2P object repository that borrows from many of the strengths of some of the current popular P2P implementations. We intend to apply P2P secure solutions to Internet Storage in general, and in particular focusing on Internet Backup. We will work with Storage Networks (SSP) and Connected, an Internet Backup Company for Compaq Computers.  ODYSSEY RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC. 33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500 Ithaca, NY 14850 Phone: PI: Topic#: (607) 257-1975 Dr. Matthew Stillerman AF 02-110 Selected for Award Title: Peer-to-Peer Object Repository with Integrated Security Abstract: The Air Force's Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) requires a secure, scalable, object repository to support the vision of a globally accessible, secure, distributed information "space." Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology holds significant promise for these large-scale information repositories because of its demonstrated scalability and robustness. However, development of a P2P object repository poses these tough challenges: distributed query processing and security. ATC-NY envisions a Peer-to-Peer Object Repository that will exploit innovative strategies for security and distributed query without sacrificing scalability. In Phase I, we will design a prototype of the system and develop an assurance argument as well as design a testbed and scalability experiments. Security for the object repository will be based on four concepts: security information encapsulated in JBI objects, capability-based access control, trust management, and k-of-n secret sharing. Our innovation is the proposed synthesis of these techniques, especially in the context of a P2P application. The query function of the object repository will be implemented using a combination of mobile agents and distributed, fragmented, replicated indices. Again, this represents an aggressive advance beyond current practice, attractive because of its inherent scalability in the P2P environment. A secure P2P-based object repository that is also scalable and meets performance requirements will support (or make possible) the JBI goal to provide tailored, "decision-quality" information to personnel at all echelons. The inherent ability of P2P for dynamic discovery will reduce the need for extensive pre-planning of mission information requirements. With heightened awareness of security, corporations are starting to demand information assurance and security comparable to those expected by the DoD. A secure, scalable P2P object repository will also be attractive to large corporations that must respond rapidly to changing business conditions. We believe that P2P technology will play a leading role in the JBI and in future battlefield information systems. Our Phase II prototype and experiments will make a compelling argument for this point of view. Our commercialization strategy for the DoD sector will revolve around joining the team that develops the mature versions of the JBI, contributing the technology that is developed on this effort. P2P applications are already commercially significant and that trend seems set to continue as the technology matures. Our scalable query mechanism and our novel approach to enforcing security will be valuable contributions.  ACOUSTIC IDEAS INC. 25 Eaton Street Wakefield, MA 01880 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 587-1177 Dr. Vincent Lupien AF 02-111 Selected for Award Title: Optimized Phased Array Hard Alpha Inclusion Detection in Castings Abstract: Current manufacturing technology for cast titanium components cannot guarantee the absence of hard alpha inclusions. Under the effect of fatigue, such inclusions become likely sites for structural failure. By performing nondestructive inspections on the manufactured parts using phased array ultrasound, one can eliminate parts with the largest inclusions. Despite such quality control, undetected inclusions can be large enough to decrease the life expectancy of the parts by a factor of 20. To avoid such consequences, structural members can be made thicker but the added weight can decrease aircraft performance. Even a 50% reduction in the size of the smallest detectable inclusion would have significant life and/or weight benefits. Fortunately, the current phased array implementation has not been optimized. We therefore propose to optimally design a phased array for cast titanium inspection. We will explore reductions in beam diameter, changes in the number, size and arrangement of the elements, variations in frequency, and a variety of imaging techniques to improve detection while reducing grain noise. Along with reducing the size of detectable inclusions, we will explore techniques to allow phased arrays to adapt to the complex part geometries of titanium castings. By reducing the size of the smallest detectable inclusion in cast titanium components, the U.S. Air Force will benefit financially through an extension of the initial life span of new aircraft, and/or increases in aircraft performance through weight reduction. Our technology will also allow the use of phased array inspection on a broader class of component geometries. The development of an optimized ultrasonic array for titanium would also benefit the aircraft once they enter the Aging Aircraft phase of their service life. The Air Force is the primary customer for this application. Pending a successful Phase I effort, we will pursue further development of our technology into marketable products for the Air Force and large Aerospace contractors. Developments under this contract will have benefits well beyond titanium casting inspection. In particular, commercial engine and power systems forged disk inspections will benefit.  MATERIALS RESOURCES INTERNATIONAL 811 W. Fifth Street, Unit 2 Lansdale, PA 19446 Phone: PI: Topic#: (215) 631-7111 Dr. Ronald W. Smith AF 02-112 Selected for Award Title: Lightweight Titanium Heat Exchangers Abstract: MRi proposes to develop cost effective braze joining methods for the fabrication of lightweight titanium heat exchangers. Such heat exchangers are targeted by the Air Force for use in advanced aircraft fluids heat exchanger systems in order for the weapons system to meet weight and cooling requirements. Development of joining processes for fabricating such light weight heat exchangers would increase both the fuel economy and aircraft performance. The proposed Phase I effort would investigate three approaches: i) MRi's new active solder alloys including Sn-Ag-Ti (200øC) and Zn-Ag-Al (380øC) and new Cu-Sn-Ag-Ti active filler metals with active metals and rare earth (lanthanides) additions that promise to make them more compatible for joining titanium, ii) higher temperature braze fillers that include Al, Cu, CuAg, InCuAgTi, CuNiTi and Ni-based braze alloys and iii) innovative activated diffusion joining methods. MRi will join with Lytron, Inc, a leading specialty heat exchanger company for heat exchanger concepts and testing. Phase I efforts will develop and characterize joining techniques then selectively test to show the feasibility of fabricating reliable plate-fin titanium liquid cooling heat exchangers for use at temperatures from 200 - 500øF. Titanium fabrications have a wide range of used based on either its high strength to weight ratio and its corrosion resistance. As such, the heat exchanger applications for military aircraft could extend to commercial aircraft or other transportation vehicles where weight reductions would be needed. Additionally, high power computing (main frame/networks), chemical processing, and medical and instrumentation cooling applications also would benefit as titanium joining would become more cost effective and reliable.  TRITON SYSTEMS, INC. 200 TURNPIKE ROAD Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 250-4200 Mr. Paul Rolincik AF 02-112 Selected for Award Title: An Integrated Laser Joining and Direct Fabrication Technique for Lightweight Titanium Heat Exchangers Abstract: Triton Systems proposes to develop and characterize an advanced laser joining technique for titanium heat exchangers to provide lighter weight and lower cost heat exchangers while offering equivalent or better performance. Currently, heat exchangers are fabricated from stainless steel or inconel, which are heavy with a density of 6.6 g/cc (0.24 lb./cu.in.), so that weight-efficient designs are difficult to produce. For that reason, lighter weight materials that operate at high temperature are required for the next generation of weapon systems, such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. The density of titanium is 4.6 g/cc (0.17 lb./cu.in.), which is about 60% the weight of current stainless steel or inconel. However, before titanium can be fabricated into lightweight heat exchangers, a technique needs to be developed for providing reliable joining of thin, 0.004 to 0.020 inch (0.102 to 0.508 mm) thick, titanium for plate-fin heat exchangers. Triton's extensive experience in laser joining and deposition using our patented Laser Free Form Fabrication (LF3TM) technique will be directly applied for obtaining an optimum joining technique for titanium heat exchangers. Triton is teamed with Northrop-Grumman and Hughes-Treitler, to adapt the LF3TM technology for joining titanium materials for heat exchanger components. Triton's proposed joining method using the LF3TM technique for titanium heat exchangers will provide the Air Force with a lighter weight system to meet the weight and cooling requirements for applications typical of advanced military aircraft. In addition to military aircraft applications, the commercial aircraft industry will benefit for their large gas turbine engines and airframes.  LAMBDA RESEARCH 5521 Fair Lane Cincinnati, OH 45227 Phone: PI: Topic#: (513) 561-0883 Mr. Paul S. Prevey AF 02-113 Selected for Award Title: Component Surface Treatments for Engine Fatigue Enhancement Abstract: The 4th stage compressor IBR of the JSF F119 engine is fatigue limited. Surface enhancement, by the introduction of compressive residual stress, is a practical means of improving fatigue performance without changing material or design. Low Plasticity Burnishing (LPB) provides twice the HCF strength and four times the damage tolerance of shot peening in Ti-64 and IN718 laboratory specimens. LPB applied to the leading edge of the F404 Ti-64 1st stage fan blade has been shown to produce sufficient through-thickness compression for complete tolerance of 1.3 mm (0.050 in.) deep FOD. LPB offers rapid, affordable, surface enhancement using conventional CNC machine tools in a manufacturing environment. With the support of Pratt and Whitney, the feasibility of improving damage tolerance of the F119 4th stage compressor IBR blades with LPB processing will be investigated. LPB parameters and control software will be developed using existing tooling and 4-axis CNC facility. The HCF life and damage tolerance achievable with LPB will be documented and compared to the current practice of shot peening. Phase II will thoroughly document HCF performance of LPB processed blades, and address the development of an automated production facility for LPB processing full IBRs in manufacturing and repair. The immediate anticipated benefit of the proposed effort to the Air Force is elimination of the fatigue related performance limitations imposed on the F119 4th stage compressor IBR. Surface enhancement by LPB processing is expected to improve the 4th stage IBR blade HCF life and FOD tolerance sufficiently to allow engine operating restrictions to be relaxed. Long term benefits will be realized from expansion of LPB processing to improve damage tolerance of other IBRs, and as a post process following weld repair. Continuing benefits will be realized in both IBR performance and reduced maintenance and inspection costs. Commercialization will begin with production LPB processing of the F119 4th stage IBR, followed by transition of the technology to other military aviation applications. LPB is well positioned for commercialization due to the low costs of processing and capitalization relative to laser shock peening (LSP), and the improved depth and stability of the compressive layer produced by LPB relative to shot peening. LPB can be applied with conventional CNC machine tools, and can be easily incorporated into existing manufacturing operations. Surface Enhancement Technologies, LLC has been licensed and positioned to provide the LPB technology and support necessary for rapid effective transition into manufacturing. Demand for improved HCF performance and cost reduction from military owner-operators will lead to LPB processing of other critical rotating parts during manufacturing and overhaul. Aging aircraft applications to improve HCF, SCC and corrosion fatigue performance in aluminum airframe alloys and steels will follow. Military applications will be followed in the commercial aviation sector, driven by improved HCF performance and cost reduction. Potential secondary commercial opportunities for LPB to improve HCF and SCC performance in the aerospace, automotive, and power generation turbine industries are vast, and will follow the initial military applications over a period of several years.  LSP TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 6145 Scherers Place Dublin, OH 43016 Phone: PI: Topic#: (614) 718-3000 Mr. David F. Lahrman AF 02-113 Selected for Award Title: Laser Peening: Cost Reduction Abstract: The fatigue life of aircraft engine components such as turbine blades has been significantly increased by the application of laser peening. The cost of laser peening is decreasing as new technological advancements are implemented to the process. These advancements include more robust laser systems that are easier to maintain than the previous generation lasers. New processing methods are being developed such as the RapidCoaterT system that automates the application of processing overlays and thereby increases throughput and decreases processing labor. Additional reductions in processing costs are desired to decrease component cost and to promote widespread application of laser peening to lower cost components. This program will evaluate two specific laser peening effects. These processing effects will be evaluated using specific processing methods that will increase the laser peening rate. These processing methods when applied with a low cost low maintenance laser system will lead to a significant reduction in the processing cost. The benefit of this program will be to provide new processing methods that, when combined with lower cost equipment, will reduce the cost of laser peening substantially. The new processing methods can be applied to all components. This application includes components that are currently in production such as the 1st stage fan blades for the F110 engine for the Air Force. Other low cost parts, such as gears and shafts for automotive applications, will be able to take advantage of the LaserPeenT process.  CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC. 19 Research Road East Falmouth, MA 02536 Phone: PI: Topic#: (508) 540-4400 Mr. Francis L. Keohan AF 02-114 Selected for Award Title: New High Durability Sol-Gel Surface Pretreatments for Aluminum Abstract: Conversion coatings, which both inhibit metallic corrosion and promote coating adhesion have long been a key component in aircraft maintenance. Commercially available conversion coatings and primers contain toxic and corrosive chemicals, most notably, hexavalent chromium compounds. In order to achieve the same type of surface chemistry and morphology necessary for effective corrosion inhibition without chromates, a novel pretreatment method is proposed. The objective of the Phase I program is to identify candidate materials which meet the goals of low toxicity, simple application, removal on command, adhesion promotion, and corrosion inhibition of non-ferrous alloys. This involves synthesizing novel corrosion-inhibiting compounds and formulating new ionic self-assembling monolayer-based coatings. A novel combination of metal surface-active compounds and sol-gel precursors will be used to form self-assembling coatings that possess optimum barrier properties, primer coat adhesion and suppression of electrochemical reactions. These properties will be tested on common aircraft aluminum alloys for salt fog resistance and paint adhesion. Potentiodynamic electrochemical analysis will be used to study the corrosion inhibiting mechanisms. A system will be devised for rapidly removing the protective coatings. The pretreatment systems are designed to be easily applied and removed, chromium-free, and to form long lasting interfaces between metals and coatings. An effective, corrosion inhibiting material or process which excluded chromium compounds would provide the DoD and commercial aviation with a cost-effective process for maintaining an aging aircraft inventory. Potential commercial applications would include corrosion prevention treatments for the aerospace, electronics, automotive and marine industries.  TRITON SYSTEMS, INC. 200 TURNPIKE ROAD Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 250-4200 Dr. Allan Shepp AF 02-114 Selected for Award Title: Nano Metal Oxide - Conductive Polymer Anti-Corrosion Coating for Aluminum Abstract: Triton Systems in collaboration with Prof. Sze Yang of the University of Rhode Island (URI), responds to the Air Force need for a new and innovative non-chromium (environmentally friendly) anti-corrosion coating for Air Force aluminum alloy surfaces. We will develop a new anti-corrosion coating system based on non-chromium nano-metal oxides (NMOs) blended into an integrally doped conductive polymers (CP) matrix. The coating system will be applied to aluminum alloys of interest to the Air Force from an aqueous system using ISAM techniques. The release on command ability of both surface conversion and primer layers will be demonstrated, as well as superior performance against acid pitting corrosion. On Phase I we will show proof of principle of the proposed surface conversion and primer coatings; on Phase II we will address processing and compatibility issues with aircraft manufacturers and the Air Force, and on Phase III we will develop pre-prototype applications to aircraft surfaces with verification by field testing. A highly effective, non-chromated, release on command protective coating system that meets corrosion resistance requirements will greatly reduce the monetary and environmental costs associated with corrosion for the Air Force and other defense department agencies. Such a coating will have similar benefits in large commercial aircraft markets and in other applications where corrosion protection is desired.  EPIR, LTD 590 Territorial Drive, Suite B Bolingbrook, IL 60440 Phone: PI: Topic#: (630) 771-0203 Ms. HyeSon Jung AF 02-115 Selected for Award Title: Superlattice Materials for Very-Long Wavelength Infrared Detectors (VLWIR) Abstract: The fabrication of large format, highly sensitive Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), sensing at very long wavelength in the IR region i.e beyond 15um (VLWIR) is highly desirable for Air Force's space based applications. Currently, only limited types of arrays such as 256 X 256 Si:As (5-20 um) are available in this IR region. However, these extrinsic detectors suffer from some fundamental limitations, such as low quantum efficiency, relatively low detection sensitivity and low operating temperature. Intrinsic detectors made from HgTe/CdTe superlattices (SLs) have several advantages over extrinsic detectors such as low tunneling current, low noise and high quantum efficiencies. Compared to bulk HgCdTe, the cut-off wavelength of HgTe/CdTe SLs can be easily tuned to VLWIR by adjusting the layer thickness of HgTe layers. Strained layer HgTe/CdZnTe SLs can even be band structure engineered in order to suppress Auger recombination and impact ionization, which will lead to lower noise and higher operating temperature. Another important advantage of HgTe/CdTe SLs, compared to HgCdTe, is related to the p-type doping which can be achieved without high temperature annealing through arsenic incorporation in CdTe layers. Furthermore these SLs could be grown on Si substrates which would pave the way for Megapixel hybrid or possibly monolithic VLWIR FPAs/ Through the design of HgTe/CdTe SL's electronic band structure, detectivity computation and in-situ control of layer thickness it is proposed to grow high quality SLs for the fabrication of high performance IR detectors, sensing cut-off wavelengths between 20-25 microns with operating temperature above 40 K. Successful growth of high quality HgTe/CdTe or HgTe/CdZnTe superlattices will provide high performance IR detectors sensing at very long wavelengths between 20-25 microns and beyond with operating temperature above 40 K. Such detectors will satisfy various Air Force space based applications. These high performance IR detectors will also have tremendous commercial potential in various civil markets such as space-based earth and atmospheric conditions imaging, environmental monitoring, and natural resource assessment and management. Therefore, commercialization of these HgTe/CdTe or HgTe/CdZnTe SLs IR detectors will provide substantial benefits in both military and commercial applications.  MP TECHNOLOGIES, LLC 1801 Maple Avenue Evanston, IL 60201 Phone: PI: Topic#: (847) 491-7251 Steven Slivken AF 02-115 Selected for Award Title: Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays in the Very-Long Wavelength Infrared Range Abstract: Photon detectors presently available in the very long wave infrared range (lambda > 15 æm) are based on extrinsic silicon and HgCdTe. Due to excessive dark current, the operating temperature of these detectors is below 20K. At present, the most promising alternative is III-V compound semiconductor superlattices based on arsenides and antimonides, such as type-II InAs/GaSb. It is here proposed to develop improved and innovative epitaxial growth techniques for growing such superlattices with much reduced spitting defect density through, in part, the use of newly available effusion cells for the gallium and indium sources in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices will be grown and characterized. Large area type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice detectors will be grown, fabricated and tested in order to evaluate the technical and commercial viability of the proposed approach. Upon successful achievement of the proposed work, it is anticipated that higher quality and uniformity type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared material will be available. High performance large area single-element detectors based on this material system, operating beyond 15æm and at temperatures above 40K, will be demonstrated. This will in turn enhance the prospect of focal plane arrays exhibiting similar operational characteristics for space-based applications, including long range missile threat warning, pollution monitoring, and astronomy. The developed material technology will also have a far reaching impact on the development of mid to very long wavelength infrared devices, such as uncooled infrared photon detectors and mid-infrared lasers.  APPLIED SCIENCES, INC. 141 W. Xenia Ave., PO Box 579 Cedarville, OH 45314 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 766-2020 Mr. Elliot B. Kennel AF 02-116 Selected for Award Title: Conductive Resin Systems for Aircraft Composite Structures Abstract: Conductive carbon nanocomposites can be created for multiple functions. In addition to structural applications, these materials can have secondary functions which may include lightning strike mitigation; EMI suppression; radar absorption and possibly others. In general the interaction of nanomaterial with high frequency electromagnetic radiation is considerably different than for conventional materials, and thus there are several targets of opportunity which are available to serve Air Force needs. In addition to electrical shielding and lightning strike mitigation for air vehicles, nanofiber additives in polymers offer important attributes for commercial applications such as automotives applications, including reduced production cost, improved stiffness, paintability, creep resistance, reduced shrinkage, lower coefficient of thermal expansion and enhanced impact resistance.  METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES COMPANY P.O. Box 356 Midway, UT 84049 Phone: PI: Topic#: (435) 654-3683 Mr. George Hansen AF 02-116 Selected for Award Title: Metal Nanostrand Additives for Conductive Resin Systems for Aircraft Composite Structures Abstract: Lightning strike protection for composite aircraft components is traditionally provided by application of a secondary surface process, usually consisting of a metal mesh in additional resin. These systems are difficult to apply and repair, are parasitic in weight, and are expensive. An alternate method to provide protection would be to make the composite conductive. Sufficiently conductive fibers exist, but they are still impregnated into the non-conductive resin. The objective of the proposed research is to provide a conductive resin. There is no currently available resin additive which is small enough, long enough or conductive enough for the application. This proposal will investigate the use of a new "metal nanostrand" material; strands of very high aspect ratio metal which are small enough to fit into the inter-fiber region of the composite, long enough to provide interconnectivity, and exhibit high conductivity. If the metal nanostrands are proven successful, they will become an integral part of conductive composite systems, thus decreasing the need for secondary lightning protection. Additional commercial uses of the metal nanostrands will include conductive paints and coatings for ESD/EMI protection of electronic components and facilities, and as an additive to create conductive plastics. The etal nanostrands will become a staple additive to paints, resins, plastics, papers, textiles, etc., as a preffered mthod to achieve ESD/EMI protection. THe low concentrations needed will dramatically reduce cost and preserve the bulk properties of the polymer system.  FOSTER-MILLER, INC. 350 Second Ave. Waltham, MA 02451 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 684-4114 Dr. Robert Kovar AF 02-117 Selected for Award Title: Tamper Resistant Coating Development Abstract: Current thermal spray ceramic tamper-resistant coatings (TRCs) for electronic components are expensive, unreliable and can cause significant thermal damage to underlying circuitry during application at high temperatures. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a secure and reliable, environmentally-compliant tamper-resistant coating that is sprayable without using VOCs and cures at low temperatures in air to a hard, tough, adherent coating. The proposed coating is opaque to light, x-rays and infrared radiation. It bonds strongly to both electronic components and substrate and is so durable that removal of the cured coating via chemical or mechanical means obliterates all evidence of underlying interconnects, traces and dies. In Phase I, we will formulate the coating, prepare coated electronic component test specimens and demonstrate their resistance to tampering. In Phase II, we will refine and scale-up the TRC and conduct tests using coated electronic components leading to early commercialization. (P-020173) A tamper-proof zero VOC coating for electronic components, will be welcomed by both the military and commercial sectors for its security and reliability. Commercial applications include system from pay-TV, digital entertainment, individual computer chips, information system and financial institutions.  CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC. 2750 Indian Ripple Rd. Dayton, OH 45440 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 320-1877 Mr. Mark Stacy AF 02-118 Selected for Award Title: Secure Polymeric Printed Circuit Board System Abstract: Tamper resistant coatings and encapsulation methods are currently employed to deter any attempt at stealing defense electronics technology. However, these coatings are difficult to apply and add weight to the final assembly. Cornerstone Research Group proposes to develop and apply novel polymer materials for manufacturing improved tamper-resistant electronic circuit boards. The Secure Polymeric Circuit Board System is a system designed to improve performance and weight of the final assembly while maintaining security. Also, this system will be easy to manufacture in comparison with current techniques. The system is a three-part design involving the development of a new substrate, interconnection layer, and hard encapsulation covering. Each one of these developments has applications in current circuit board manufacturing methods as a complete system or as an individual component. New circuit board materials and manufacturing techniques to integrate tamper resistance, improve performance and increase reliability are essential to the next generation of Air Force communications and electronic equipment. This system will be used to increase the flexibility and security of circuit boards used in Air Force equipment. The success of this technology in the Air Force could be used as leverage for applications in other military and aerospace platforms. This technology could also be used in the commercial electronics field to ensure security and reliability.  SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP. 4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210 Dayton, OH 45431 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 429-9008 Dr. V. ("Nagu") Nagarajan AF 02-118 Selected for Award Title: Secure Circuit Board Materials and Processes Abstract: Systran Federal Corporation (SFC), the sister-company of Systran Corp., which is a Products Development and Marketing Company specializing in high-performance electronic and networking products, is proposing to novel approaches to developing tamper resistant circuit boards. SFC proposes to use a combined "coatings + circuits" approach to provide tamper resistance. Various sol-gel based multiplayer coatings that provide tamper resistance will be developed. In addition, various circuits that provide tamper resistance will also be developed. Both will be combined in an "intelligent" manner to provide highly sophisticated approaches to conferring tamper resistance. Both SFC and Systran Corp., have strong expertise in the development of complex high-performance electronic products, and have a good track record of commercializing government-funded research. SFC has a well-defined commercialization plan, which permits prototypes developed under SBIR programs to be commercialized either through Systran Corp., or any other commercial company. Hence, SFC feels that it can successfully commercialize the "tamper resistant circuit board design solutions" that will be developed in this proposed SBIR program. These "tamper resistant design solutions" may be commercialized through Systran Corporation, the sister-company of SFC, which sells electronic and networking products to the Defense Industry. This SBIR program has been designed with the innovative idea of providing tamper resistance using the combined approach of utilizing both surface coatings and various circuit element additions (at the board level and the chip level). Hence, it is strongly felt that practical and highly effective solutions will be developed. These will be marketed to circuit board manufacturers so that tamper resistant boards can be developed for the DoD.  CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC. 2750 Indian Ripple Road Dayton, OH 45440 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 320-1877 Ms. Chrysa Theodore AF 02-119 Selected for Award Title: Oriented Nanofiber Film Adhesive Abstract: Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to design, develop and characterize a novel, toughened adhesive system for damage tolerant joints. Joint bonding material must meet stringent mechanical and physical property standards to achieve the necessary level of performance for aircraft structures. The bonds will experience a variety of environmental and loading stresses, and appropriate toughening of these bonds must be addressed. Current approaches utilize z-axis pinning of joint, which tend to damage the composite panels. Scrim materials have also shown toughening of the bond, but have not achieved the exclusive z-direction strength that is needed. CRG's approach is based on next-generation materials that are focused on increased bond durability and toughness. This research effort focuses on the orientation of nanofibers in a film adhesive. The nanofibers would be oriented during the film adhesive manufacturing process, not at joint bonding. Therefore, implementation of this technology will be transparent to the joint bonding process. We are partnered with Loctite Aerospace, a leading manufacturer of high-performance adhesive, on this research effort. The toughen adhesives developed in this program opens up a new market for film adhesives. In metal and composite panel fabrication in aerospace, automotive and multiple structural applications, film adhesives are the preferred form of adhesive due their ease of use and high performance. This research would significantly raise the performance level of these adhesives. It would open new opportunities for film adhesive use in situations where fasteners are currently being utilized because current adhesives are not tough enough.  UTILITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION 112 Naylon Avenue Livingston, NJ 07039 Phone: PI: Topic#: (973) 994-4334 Mr. Harry S. Katz AF 02-119 Selected for Award Title: Tailored Adhesives for Damage Tolerant Joints Abstract: Our main objective will be to develop and improve the integrity and reliability of aerospace- grade adhesives in bonded joints. This will increase ballistic survivability and allow reduction of fasteners with subsequent savings in cost and weight. UDC will develop methods to align short fibers in a perpendicular direction on an adhesive layer. These aligned short fibers will provide superior strength joints when we develop methods for the reliable application and controlled orientation of this reinforced adhesive layer for various joint configurations. UDC will prove the feasibility and potential advantages of the new reinforced adhesives and processing methods during this Phase I program. UDC will fabricate and test mechanical properties and demonstrate the concepts and fabrication of cost and weight efficient quality joints. The concept will be demonstrated by the fabrication and testing of small structural parts. At the end of Phase I, we will provide a report with results and conclusions, and a Phase II plan, schedule and cost estimate. This program will provide adhesives to improve the integrity and reliability of bonded joints. This will increase ballistic survivability and allow reduction of fasteners with subsequent savings in cost and weight. Adhesives are in widespread use throughout the commercial sector as well as in defense. Examples are: automobile components, medical devices, electronic devices, as well as military and commercial aircraft components. This technology will provide lower cost and higher quality adhesives for all these applications.  FREDERICK T. ELDER & ASSOCIATES P. O. Box 44291 Madison, WI 53744 Phone: PI: Topic#: (608) 257-6661 Dr. Frederick T. Elder AF 02-120 Selected for Award Title: Qualifying Light, High-Performance Materials for Airborne Expeditionary Forces (AEF) Abstract: Develop a rapid materials-selection strategy and demonstrate efficiency on critical high-energy laser components and vehicle structures. The chemicals used in chemically-driven laser systems are incompatible with many materials used in aircraft and spacecraft. In addition, materials that have been used for ground-based chemical laser systems pose extreme weight penalties for aircraft and space applications. Conventional material evaluation techniques require long test periods and are labor intensive. The objective of this project is to develop rapid, high-confidence materials selection/evaluation techniques to predict material performance for critical aircraft/spacecraft laser systems, in a compressed amount of time.  NANOPOWDER ENTERPRISES INC. Suite 106, 120 Centennial Ave. Piscataway, NJ 08854 Phone: PI: Topic#: (732) 885-1088 Dr. Mohit Jain AF 02-121 Selected for Award Title: Fabrication of polycrystalline IR-transparent ceramics: A potential substitute for Sapphire Abstract: Sapphire has been the dominant infrared transparent material for quite some time, and polycrystalline materials such as, magnesium fluoride, aluminum oxynitride and yttrium oxide, have been used to a limited extent when the performance criteria have been less stringent. Polycrystalline and transparent oxide ceramics that have a cubic crystal structure offer an opportunity as a replacement for sapphire, provided a fine grain size is maintained in the fully sintered state. Starting from high quality nanopowders and using a relatively new near net shape consolidation technique, we have sintered a variety of oxide ceramics to full density with a fine grain size. Building upon this work, in Phase I of the program, we propose to fabricate a fully sintered and transparent oxide ceramic, and characterize the mechanical and optical properties. Prototype windows and domes will be fabricated in Phase II and provided for field testing. Working with our collaborators in the industry and a federal laboratory, both of whom have offered support for the proposed program, we anticipate transitioning the technology into military and commercial applications by the end of Phase II. Transparent ceramics offer a number of different opportunities in both military and civilian applications, including infrared windows in heat seeking missiles and optical systems. A powder consolidation approach, which is the subject of this proposal, is an attractive low cost alternative to melt processing and vapor deposition processes that are used to produce single crystals.  PRECISE SURFACE FINISHING 39533 Via Temprano Murrieta, CA 92563 Phone: PI: Topic#: (909) 677-3619 Mr. Charles T. Warner AF 02-121 Selected for Award Title: Use of Alternate Materials for Infrared (IR) Missile Domes Abstract: The objective of this proposal is to illustrate the significance of ALONTM as the alternative to sapphire and other hard materials for use in the construction of low-cost high-speed missile domes due to the versatility of the highly developed ALONTM material processing capability. Through the application of high-speed optical fabrication processes and hard-material processing technologies the intention is to demonstrate that ALONTM is significantly less costly to fabricate into high-speed missile domes than that of other hard materials. The ideal replacement for sapphire would be inexpensive to procure, easy and inexpensive to fabricate and still retain the excellent combination of optical and mechanical properties exhibited by sapphire. Of all available candidate materials, ALONTM comes closest to this ideal. ALONTM 's properties are very similar to those of sapphire, yet ALONTM is transparent in its polycrystalline form. Therefore, ALONTM can be made by powder processing techniques, in larger sizes, more complex shapes, and at lower costs than are possible with sapphire. Furthermore, ALONTM's isotropic mechanical properties make it much easier and less expensive to polish using high-speed optical fabrication techniques than the an-isotropic sapphire. ALONTM is also in the process of being commercialized on a large scale, unlike other candidate materials, such as spinel. The economics and availability of these materials is a crucial consideration. Lower cost high-speed missile dome material and fabrication processes. Lower cost missile dome.  POLYCOMP TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 13963 Recuerdo Drive Del Mar, CA 92014 Phone: PI: Topic#: (858) 530-2151 Dr. Chuk L Leung AF 02-122 Selected for Award Title: Organoclay Moisture Barrier for Moisture Protection of Plastic Microcircuit Components Abstract: Plastic encapsulated microcircuits use organic packaging material to protect integrated circuit dies and interconnects from environmental hazards. However because PEMs are non-hermetic its reliability in some harsh environments suffer from rapid moisture outgassing, called popcorning. PolyComo Technologies proposes to use low moisture resins reinforced with organoclay to form nanocomposites that hinders the total moisture sensitivities of these PEM packages. Commercial and military PEM will benefit from this research because the development of a moisture insensitive coating will enable the long term storage of microelectronic components without expensive dessicant or enclosures and enabling the use of these components where ambient pressure is low.  UTILITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION 112 Naylon Avenue Livingston, NJ 07039 Phone: PI: Topic#: (973) 994-4334 Mr. Harry S. Katz AF 02-122 Selected for Award Title: Individual Plastic Component Water Sealing Abstract: Our main objective will be to develop and evaluate material and process to prevent moisture absorption by plastic parts at the component level during storage prior to use in building next-level assembly, during storage as spares, storage of higher level assemblies, and while in operational use. The new coatings/sealants will have excellent moisture barrier properties, improved fire retardance and controlled coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Nanofillers will be used to improve permeation barrier and reduce the thermal expansion coefficient. Additives will be used to improve the adhesion and fire retardance. The developed coating/sealant will be tested by the coating of small parts by UDC. The results will be verified by an independent test facility/subcontractor. At the end of Phase I, we will provide a report with results and conclusions, and a Phase II plan, schedule and cost estimate. This program will provide a new coating to prevent moisture absorption. The developed coating will improve the performance, lower the cost, and improve reliability of all electronic components used in Air Force systems. These coatings/sealants for microcircuits are urgently needed throughout the commercial sector as well as in defense.  RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS 4325-B Forbes Blvd Lanham, MD 20706 Phone: PI: Topic#: (609) 580-0080 Dr. Jon R. Fox AF 02-123 Selected for Award Title: Embedded Microexplosives for Secure Hardware (EMESH) Abstract: The EMESH program will deliver hard, epoxy based materials embedded with microscale quantities of micro explosives (mu X) for tamper-reactivity. Using the same high aspect MEMS photosensitive epoxies the EMESH project will produce demonstration circuit traces which use all three dimensions above the substrate (or circuit board). Using "thick" resists as a material to embed both complex three dimensional circuit traces and microexplosive mine fields, it is now possible to construct secure hardware using UV photolithography and electroless metal deposition. Because of technological advances in the world of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS), the same techniques used to assemble micro-sized components to replace macro systems can now be applied to the problem of infrastructure protection and tamper-resistant and reactive hardware. A tamper reactive material would deny attackers the ability to dissect components by imparting damage to critical areas -- rendering the device inoperative. Additionally, EMESH architecture is also inherently difficult to reverse engineer. MEMS techniques can produce circuit traces with a cross-sectional profile only microns in dimension. Furthermore, tamper-proof circuit traces using MEMS electroforming techniques can use all three dimensions to bewilder an attacker attempting to understand the device's design.  ASTRALUX, INC. 2500 Central Ave. Boulder, CO 80301 Phone: PI: Topic#: (303) 413-1440 Dr. John T. Torvik AF 02-124 Selected for Award Title: Hybrid semi-insulating SIC wafers Abstract: Researchers at Astralux, Inc. propose to develop hybrid semi-insulating SiC wafers using a novel technique. Specifically, our overall goal is to commercialize epi-ready 3-inch and 4-inch 4H and 6H SiC wafers for the emerging wide bandgap microwave device market. The hybrid SiC wafers are deemed complementary to the existing bulk SiC wafers, and the value added is to increase the production volume and significantly reduce the cost of larger-area semi-insulating SiC substrates with a minimum of defects. During Phase I, researchers at Astralux will demonstrate 35-50 mm hybrid SiC prototypes with an application demonstration. An important feature of this program is to work closely with an AlGaN HEMT manufacturer who in Phase I will test our substrates by growing and characterizing III-V nitride epitaxial layers and later provide device correlation efforts in Phase II. The epitaxy and devices will be benchmarked and compared to equivalent epitaxy and devices on conventional substrates. The availability of affordable and high quality 3 and 4-inch semi-insulating SiC wafers is crucial for SiC and III-V nitride power transistor manufacturing.  TITECH INTERNATIONAL, INC. 4000 West Valley Boulevard Pomona, CA 91769 Phone: PI: Topic#: (909) 595-7455 Dr. Edward Chen AF 02-125 Selected for Award Title: Predictive Tool for Inclusion Crack Initiation and Growth in Titanium Castings Abstract: This study will examine the current understanding on hard alpha inclusion crack initiation and growth in titanium investment castings to determine the required information needed to predict their effects on component durability. Specific focus will be made on the small crack growth regime for defects of various sizes and locations since it can encompass a majority of the fatigue life. This information will be used to develop an innovative predictive tool that complements current lifing models based on long crack growth behavior. This study will also generate an accept/reject criteria that will assist in qualifying fracture-critical titanium castings (and improving the manufacturing process) by identifying the most critical inclusions that must be found/removed, thus providing airframe designers with the necessary confidence to expand the use of titanium castings. This project will develop an accept-reject criteria for qualifying fracture-critical titanium castings to allow their expanded use in airframe applications. It will also construct an innovative crack physics-based predictive tool for analyzing the effects of hard alpha inclusions on durability of titanium airframe castings. The tool will allow engineers to account for the potential impact of the inclusion failure mode to more confidently assess component durability. It can also be used to intelligently conduct in-service inspection schedules.  NASCENT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, LLC P. O. Box 1470 Yorktown, VA 23692 Phone: PI: Topic#: (757) 224-0687 Dr. Joesph S. Heyman AF 02-126 Selected for Award Title: Verification of Composite Bonded Joint Integrity Abstract: Quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of adhesively bonded joints has been an elusive goal for decades. In this Phase I SBIR effort, Nascent will explore the development of Differential Nonlinear Elastography (DNE), linking quantitative physical measurements to practical engineering properties. The only way to fully characterize bond strength today is to fail the bond. Inspection limitations coupled with fault tolerant design philosophy often require mechanical fasteners, adding weight and may actually weaken the structure and introduce paths for water intrusion. Because of these limitations, advanced structures are currently unable take full advantage of adhesive bonding. This proposal brings a robust area of physics to focus on this problem, building on advances from both medical and geophysical systems. DNE will topographically assess higher-order elastic properties that are missed by conventional ultrasonic measurements. These properties are directly tied to the local state of the material and are especially influenced by strain. DNE creates a differential strain state that is used to assess the strength of the insonified bond. The work will progress along two paths: the first to quickly verify aspects of the concept, the second leading to a fieldable instrument. Success in these efforts would represent a genuine breakthrough in quantitative NDE. The successful development of Differential Nonlinear Elastography (DNE) will increase confidence in structural adhesive bond strength inspection sufficiently to permit bonded structures to be treated as primary, standalone elements eliminating many inspection-prone fasteners. The cost savings derived from the successful development of DNE could be significant, resulting from both new structural design and fabrication allowables and reduced inspection requirements. Enhanced safety and mission assurance are key drivers for this research application. Anticipated life-cycle cost savings on the order of100 million dollars for the DOD alone is likely. Broad commercial applications are also envisioned, including industries such as aerospace, automotive, construction, sports equipment manufacturing, electronics and medicine.

 ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION 650 Nuttman Road, Suite 114 Santa Clara, CA 95054 Phone: PI: Topic#: (408) 982-2303 Dr. Mehdi Namazian AF 02-128      Selected for Award Title: Logistic Fuel Organic Sulfur Trap for Fuel Cell Use by Air Expeditionary Forces Abstract: Effective, low cost and compact sulfur removal technologies are required for military and commercial fuel cell applications. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex) and Pennsylvania State University (PSU) have identified the Logistic Fuel Organic Sulfur Trap (LFOST) concept that can remove sulfur compounds from logistic fuels at ambient temperatures and pressures without using hydrogen or any other chemical reactant. The hydrocarbon components in logistic fuels remain intact after passing through LFOST, but the sulfur compounds are retained by selective chemical adsorption on the surface of solid adsorbent materials. The concept has been demonstrated at PSU on gasoline fuels. During this program, the technology will be extended to logistic fuels. The design and screening of the adsorbent materials will be carried out at PSU, and the long-term sulfur capture and regeneration testing of an LFOST module will be carried out at Altex. Based on these tests, an LFOST system will be designed for integration into the Air Expeditionary Force (AEF) fuel cell system and the LFOST performance and cost will be projected. These activities will provide the basis for the Phase II efforts to fabricate, demonstrate and deliver the LFOST for integration into the AEF fuel cell reformer A successful development of LFOST will provide a compact and low cost deep desulfurization technology that has extensive military and multiple commercial applications. In the military market, LFOST makes it possible to use PEM fuel cells with logistic fuels. In the commercial market, it allows the use of fuel cells with commercially available gasoline and distillate fuels. In addition to fuel cell applications, LFOST will also have extensive applications in the refinery industry, particularly related to the need to meet the new EPA super-low sulfur fuel requirements by 2006. Considering these applications, it is projected that LFOST could ultimately capture over a billion dollar market.

 ASPEN PRODUCTS GROUP, INC. 184 CEDAR HILL STREET MARLBOROUGH, MA 01752 Phone: PI: Topic#: (508) 481-5058 Dr. Mark Fokema AF 02-128      Selected for Award Title: Novel Absorbent for the Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels Abstract: In order to employ logistic fuels in fuel cell applications, fuel sulfur content must be reduced to below 10 ppm. We propose a new sulfur removal technology that will remove greater than 99% of the sulfur present in conventionally processed fuels. The proposed absorption-based technology requires no hydrogen feed, is very efficient, and can be regenerated without disrupting performance. Absorbent synthesis, characterization and testing will be performed in the Phase I effort. Significant reduction of logistic fuel sulfur content will enable widespread application of fuel cell power generation devices within military and civilian markets. These devices will offer reduced noise, increased reliability and improved fuel efficiency over conventional power generators. Use of thoroughly desulfurized fuel in conventional applications will also reduce harmful exhaust emission, as current exhaust remediation catalysts operate better in low sulfur content exhaust. The proposed technology will work well in small mobile desulfurization applications as well as large stationary applications.

 CERACOM INC 200 Turnpike Road, Suite 4 Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 250-4200 Dr. Frederick Lauten AF 02-129      Selected for Award Title: Elimination of Print-Through in Adaptively Controlled, Ultra-lightweight CMC Mirror Materials Abstract: Ceracom, Inc. and our industrial team members will demonstrate a revolutionary method for manufacturing reduced cost and light weight (<8 kg/m2) primary mirror structural materials which will not exhibit beam quality degrading print-through. Using a sub-scale model we have obtained very promising results, demonstrating the feasibility of using non-mechanical adaptive control to rapidly focus ceramic matrix composite (CMC) mirrors. Ceracom's proposed Phase I and II programs will build upon these results, specifically addressing one of the most important technical issues: development and scale-up of processing approaches producing mirrors which maintain figure while eliminating performance limiting print-through. In Phase I we will develop, evaluate and demonstrate processing methods that will eliminate the occurrence of print-through in our micro-engineered CMC materials. In Phase II we will scale-up the CMC processing technology and fabricate a 1 to 1.5 meter primary mirror demonstrator to show the feasibility of the Ceracom deployable mirror and control concepts to meet weight, cost and operational requirements. While the technology scales to the sizes (4 meter and larger petal structures) needed for SBL, at the 1.5-meter Phase II stage, this "breakthrough" affordable CMC mirror technology will offer improved cost and performance to other systems, like ABL and THEL. Offering vastly reduced manufacturing cycle times and costs, we will commercialize this technology for both defense applications, such as surveillance optics or high energy ABL and SBL systems, and non defense commercial applications. Two such US market segments are high speed telecommunications discs at $100 million per annum; and, advanced directed energy deployable mirror and optical mirror dishes at over$50 million per annum.

 CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC. 2750 Indian Ripple Rd. Dayton, OH 45440 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 320-1877 Dr. Tat H. Tong AF 02-129      Selected for Award Title: Multi-Component Composites for Lightweight Space-Based Mirrors Abstract: Cornerstone Research Group, Inc., proposes to develop a multi-component composite material system which will address the drawbacks of conventional materials and current fabrication processes for space-based mirrors. Going beyond a simple two-component composite (resin plus woven fabric), this program will develop a new multi-component composite material system and demonstrate its practical application for fabricating lightweight mirrors for space-based optical systems. The resulting material will provide major reduction in mirror areal density (compared with current operational mirrors) while achieving strength, stiffness, and thermal properties optimized for space applications. This novel composite material will also enable fabrication techniques that are faster and cheaper than current practice for space-based mirrors. Operational Benefits: (1) Material with lower mass density will enable larger mirrors by both reducing the areal density of the mirror itself and reducing the mass of support structure that essentially becomes non-performing "scar" mass after orbital deployment; (2) Mirror material with low CTE will improve performance while simplifying the system design challenge; (3) Mirror material enabling simpler, faster fabrication processes with less expensive facility requirements will dramatically reduce mirror costs. Commercial Applications: (1) Government, quasi-governmental, and commercial orbital imaging enterprises (e. g., LANDSAT and SPOT); (2) Large high-end research observatories; (3) Lightweight inexpensive consumer-level telescopes.

 METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC. 101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1 Waltham, MA 02453 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 893-4449 Dr. James A. Cornie AF 02-129      Selected for Award Title: Low Cost Light Weight Graphite Fiber Reinforced Mg Space Mirrors Abstract: MMCC will develop an isotropic graphite fiber reinforced magnesium rigid mirror material that will result in an areal density of 5 kg/m2, reduce lead times for paraboloid blanks by two-thirds, and cut mirror costs by at least 50% over Be mirror systems. Phase I will design, build, and test graphite magnesium composite variants and mechanical, thermophysical, and optical surface evaluations will be performed on flat graphite magnesium blanks, while a near net shape cast ROTF (rough oversize to finish) sub-scale component will be cast simultaneously to demonstrate efficiencies in manufacturing. Moreover, it will be shown, that an isotropic and dimensionally stable mirror can be produced through novel preforming methods, proper alloy selection, and heat treatment. An ultra-lightweight graphite magnesium mirror blank will be near net shape manufactured with a thermal expansion coefficient as low as 1 ppm/K, a thermal conductivity of 200-300 W/mK, stiffness approaching steel, and a density near that of beryllium. Furthermore, the graphite fiber reinforced alloy will be engineered with isotropic mechanical and thermophysical properties, resulting in dimensionally stable optics for space. A 5 kg/m2 areal density space mirror material will become readily available to the space community with short lead times. Cost of fabricating mirrors will be a fraction of that of beryllium or other competitive materials. Innovative control of fiber architecture will result low thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity and high stiffness and hence in a highly stable mirror with high vibration dampening capacity. Economic benefits will be measured in launch weight reductions and increased system performance as well as system procurement savings. Alternative applications in the electronic thermal management heat sink industry will also benefit from the concurrent development of the preforming technology needed to produce isotropic composites.

 XINETICS INC. 2 Buena Vista Devens, MA 01432 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 772-0352 Mr. Jerry Weaver AF 02-129      Selected for Award Title: Advanced Materials for Lightweight Space-Based Mirrors Abstract: This program will provide meter class CERAFORM Silicon Carbide mirrors with an areal density of < 2 kg/mm2 for use in space based laser and surveillance systems. Providing larger, stiffer structures, CERAFORM SiC provides optical, structural and thermal properties which exceed that of the glasses such as Zerodur and ULE, the composites such as graphite epoxy, and the metals such as aluminum and beryllium. Recent developments in SiC forming have produced SiC mirrors with areal density of < 7.5 kg/mm2 with the potential to achieve an areal density of < 2 kg/mm2. These will provide the needed optical material for the next generation of flight based optical systems providing significant technical advantage over current material and fabrication techniques. Phase I will provide a representative-scale demonstration article, a set of designs, performance predictions and manufacturing plans for the meter class SiC mirror. Phase II will fabricate a 1 meter scale demonstration article, designed to have wall and facesheet thickness commensurate with the 2 kg/mm2. Critical performance requirements of low temperature thermal response and structural response to launch loads and low level dynamic environment will be among the properties of the test article to be demonstrated. . Mirrors for NASA based missions such as Next Generation Space Systems (NGSS) and Space Infra Red Telescope Facility (SIRTF) . Lightweight stiff mirror applications, including high speed tip-tilt mirrors and secondary mirrors for ground based telescope systems, particularly those in a stressing thermal environment.

 GLOBAL BUSINESS SYSTEMS 23520 Telo Avenue, #4 Torrance, CA 90505 Phone: PI: Topic#: (310) 408-3225 Dr. William S. Chan AF 02-130      Selected for Award Title: Dynamic Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter for MWIR Abstract: We propose to develop a dynamic Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter (FPTF) capable of being tuned rapidly over the MWIR (medium wave infrared, 2-5 micron) spectral region for multi-spectral imaging and infrared detection. Micromachined out of a silicon wafer, using the so-called MEMS (micro electro-optical mechanical system) technology, the FPTF is a microchip containing an airgap cavity spacing between two partially-reflecting mirrors, one of which is made movable relative to the other, so that the spacing can be changed when a voltage is applied across a series of capacitors disposed around the periphery of the cavity. This spacing will cause an interference between the incident and reflected IR beams within the cavity, resulting in an emerging narrow passband centered at a specific wavelength dependent on the spacing and a bandwidth dependent on the reflectivity of the mirrors. By changing this spacing, the tuning of the cavity can be made to pass any passband within the MWIR in microseconds. When this FPTF is placed in front of an MWIR focal plane array and arranged with suitable IR optics, multi-spectral images will be obtained in the MWIR rapidly. Phase 1 will define the requirements of the FPTF device, design its structure, analyze its dynamic tunability in the MWIR and delineate its fabrication process by micromachining using the MEMS technology. Phase 2 will fabricate and test a breadboard version the FPTF device. Multi-spectral imaging, medical and industrial imaging and sensing.

 MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd Atlanta, GA 30341 Phone: PI: Topic#: (678) 287-2477 Dr. Yongdong Jiang AF 02-130      Selected for Award Title: Epitaxial ferroelectric thin films for electrooptic devices in the MWIR region via CCVD Abstract: The rapid pace of development in the fields of optical telecommunications and networks over the past decade has led to an increasing demand for integrated-optic devices that are capable of processing large quantities of information more rapidly than could be done with conventional electronics. In the meantime, the rapid and continued growth of optical applications and devices outside the visible and communication wavelengths for both military and civil applications has also resulted in a need for optical control elements in these wavelength regions, such as in the MidWave InfraRed (MWIR) spectral region. To meet these requirements, ferroelectric thin films are being used to develop new classes of electrooptic components and devices with high optical quality and high electrooptic coefficient. Using its innovative, high volume, low cost and open-air Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) technique, MCT's proposed Phase I program is to deposit dense, epitaxial ferroelectric thin films on single crystal substrates for the applications of dynamic filtering of infrared lights for both military and civil purposes, and to evaluate the chemical, optical and electrooptic properties of these films. An industrial support letter is included. Tunable filters for MidWave InfraRed Radiation are required for industrial, medical and environmental applications for materials processing, inspection, diagnostics and chemical sensing. Successful development of films and devices proposed in this Phase I and a follow-on Phase II effort will result in meeting the market need. Industrial partner has been identified and recruited for this effort. If MicroCoating Technologies triumphs in its product plan, both military and commercial segments would benefit immensely with the availability of a commercially viable production technique.

 FOSTER-MILLER, INC. 350 Second Ave. Waltham, MA 02451 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 684-4139 Dr. William Dorogy Jr. AF 02-131      Selected for Award Title: Active Thermal Management System (ATMS) for Spacecraft in a MEO and GEO Space Abstract: Foster-Miller proposes a highly innovative concept for an Active Thermal Management System (ATMS) that is sufficiently robust to allow operation in a space environment for between 15 to 20 years. ATMS is designed to generate a surface exhibiting a constant low absorptance value throughout the solar spectrum and variable emissivity values over the thermal IR region. Impinging sunlight will be efficiently reflected off the surface and thus contribute little or no additional heat to the spacecraft interior. High emissivity values will allow spacecraft heat to be radiated into space, cooling the spacecraft interior. Low emissivity values will reduce or prevent radiative cooling, allowing heat to build up within the spacecraft. Spacecraft internal temperatures can be maintained at a constant level by selecting appropriate intermediate emissivity values. ATMS robustness results because it relies on no moving parts or changes in polymer oxidation states to generate variable emissivity values. Our concept takes proven terrestrial bound technology, modifies it for this application, and hardens it for use in the space environment. We are teamed with a supplier of key thermal materials, a thermal coatings manufacturer, and a spacecraft manufacturer, which will permit rapid demonstration, qualification, and production of products from this program. (P-020201) ATMS can be used as thermal management system for a variety of applications such as external surfaces of buildings, structures, automobiles, trains, planes, etc. ATMS can be used to prevent excessive heat build up during the day, allow radiative cooling at night, and provide heat during cool/cold days. This will significantly reduce the air conditioning and heating requirements of structures to which it is attached. Savings due to these reduced requirements will be realized in the form of lower heating/cooling costs, reduction in energy consumption and dependence.

 PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC. 20 New England Business Center Andover, MA 01810 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 689-0003 Dr. Prakash B. Joshi AF 02-131      Selected for Award Title: Novel Materials for Spacecraft Thermal Control Coatings Technologies Abstract: Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop innovative variable-reflectance polymeric devices with on-demand controllable solar absorptivity (alpha) and IR emissivity (epsilon). The goal of the program (Phase I and II) is to design and demonstrate a prototype device with broadly variable (alpha/epsilon). While there are many potential applications, we will focus on spacecraft thermal control. During the Phase I program we will develop concepts and a model of utility for assessing the electro-optical properties of the concepts. Several devices will be fabricated and utilized for proof-of-concept experiments. A detailed Phase II program plan will also be developed. Successful demonstration of advanced thermal control devices will have a very significant impact on space systems designs. The system we envision will reduce the thermal cycling of the interior of spacecraft. This will significantly extend the life of components and allow a broader range of COTS components to be used. The end result will be more cost effective, longer life satellites.

 MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd Atlanta, GA 30341 Phone: PI: Topic#: (678) 287-3919 Dr. Robert E. Schwerzel AF 02-132      Selected for Award Title: A NOVEL APPROACH TO THE FABRICATION OF POLYMER-BASED ELECTROOPTIC DEVICES AND SUBSYSTEMS-ON-A-CHIP Abstract: The proposed research program seeks to develop a totally new methodology for the fabrication of polymer-based electrooptic waveguide devices and subsystems-on-a-chip. These devices are currently produced using conventional spin-coating or dip-coating technology. However, these techniques constrain the selection of polymers for the electrooptic waveguide layer and for the upper and lower cladding layers because of the need to use solvent systems that will not disrupt the previously deposited layers. To avoid having to expose the polymer layers to potentially harmful solvents, we propose to adapt MicroCoating Technologies' (MCT's) patented NanomizerT spray deposition technology for the fabrication of optically clear polymer cladding films. The key feature of the proposed approach is MCT's unique nozzle design that disperses a liquid solution of the polymer (or reactive oligomers) into sub-micron droplets. This allows the solvent to flash-evaporate as the droplets travel toward the substrate, and results in the deposition of a pinhole-free film with minimal solvent exposure to the substrate. In addition, it enables the fabrication of mode-matched waveguides having adiabatic tapers, with graduated thickness and refractive index profiles. To ensure that we will be working with state-of-the-art materials, MCT has established a teaming relationship with the research group of Professor Larry Dalton, a world leader in electrooptic polymer development, for the proposed project. If successful, the proposed project will greatly enhance the selection of polymer materials for each layer of an electrooptic polymer device, and will allow device designers to focus on the key properties of refractive index, conductivity, thermal expansion, and optical quality without having to be concerned with solvent compatibility issues. MCT expects that the successful completion of the proposed Phase I program, together with an anticipated Phase II development program and a subsequent Phase III commercialization program, will enable the development of a variety of polymer-based electrooptic subsystems-on-a-chip. Because these electrooptic polymer materials can be tailored to provide frequency response in excess of 100 GHz with drive voltages below 1V, the resulting polymer-based subsystems-on-a-chip will offer extremely high bandwidth with very low power requirements. They will therefore be well positioned to meet the growing demand for greater bandwidth, lower power, and smaller size for both military and commercial telecommunications and signal processing applications. The resulting products will be able to combine multiple optical and electronic functions on a single chip or wafer, and will have greatly increased robustness as compared to comparable subsystems today, which must be assembled from a number of discrete components. Because MCT's deposition technology provides a unique capability for fabricating the chips we envision, based on the state-of-the art electrooptic polymers developed by Professor Dalton's research group, the proposed project represents a major opportunity for MCT. MCT expects to license its deposition technology to companies that are commercializing Professor Dalton's electrooptic polymers for integrated-optic devices. In 2005, the targeted marketplace is estimated at $23 billion/year. Capturing even a tiny percentage of this market represents a significant opportunity for MCT.  PACIFIC WAVE INDUSTRIES, INC. 10390 Santa Monica Blvd.,, Suite 100 Los Angeles, CA 90025 Phone: PI: Topic#: (310) 229-0099 Dr. Cheng Zhang AF 02-132 Selected for Award Title: Optimization of Polymer Cladding Materials for Polymer-Based Electro-Optic Devices Abstract: We propose to design and synthesize new polymers that are more conductive than currently used UV-curable polymer at both low and high temperatures (~200 oC ). Low loss, non-UV curable host polymers will also be identified and developed. The more conductive polymers and the host polymers will be blended or covalently incorporated. Thin films and waveguides will be prepared to examine film quality, film resistivity at different temperatures and voltages, as well as dielectric constant and optical loss. During Phase I, the goal is to increase conductivity of cladding materials to a level that is two orders of magnitude higher than that of EO polymers made from PWC proprietary highly active chromophores. At the end of Phase I, working devices will be fabricated using the more conductive polymer blends to demonstrate the enhancement in EO performance. The use of proposed cladding polymer materials with increased conductivity in polymer modulators is expected to enhance a poling efficiency by 35%. That will translate into cost-effective, broadband devices with driving voltages under 3 V that satisfy reliability requirements of telecommunication industry.  APPLIED SCIENCES, INC. 141 W. Xenia Ave., PO Box 579 Cedarville, OH 45314 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 766-2020 Dr. Ronald L. Jacobsen AF 02-133 Selected for Award Title: Improved Carbon Nanofiber/Polymer Composites by Low Shear Compounding Abstract: Carbon nanofiber reinforced polymer composites are anticipated to offer a suite of physical property advantages similar to conventional carbon fiber composites reinforced with PAN- or pitch-based carbon fiber. Early results show high promise for use of carbon nanofibers to enhance the physical properties, including electrical conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, strength, and modulus, of polymer composites. An artifact of high volume methods of production for carbon nanofibers and nanotubes is that fibers are generated in a birdnested form, and are difficult to separate in compounding into a uniform dispersion throughout the matrix polymer. In order to disperse other nanoparticle additives such as carbon black or nanoclays, high shear mixing is frequently used; however, when applied to nanotubes and nanofibers, the aspect ratio of the fibers may be seriously compromised, reducing the reinforcement value of the nanofiber. As a result, the observed physical properties for carbon nanofiber reinforced polymers represent only a small fraction of the values predicted by theory. It is proposed to use methods of low shear processing, low viscosity resins and in situ polymerization to create masterbatch compounds of uniformly dispersed carbon nanofibers where the high aspect ratio of the as-grown carbon nanofiber is preserved. The Air Force has a variety of aircraft and satellite applications that a successfully developed material would find use in. Commercial applications include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and enhanced thermal management for electronics packages  MATERIALS RESEARCH INSTITUTE, LLC 1961 N Springcrest Court Beavercreek, OH 45432 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 426-4398 Dr. Chung-tse Chu AF 02-133 Selected for Award Title: Conductive Multifunctional Polymer-Nanotube Hybrids Abstract: This SBIR Phase I research program will develop a processing scheme for producing polymer-nanotube hybrids with significant electrical and thermal conductivity for multifunctional applications. Using carbon nanotubes to impart transport properties to organic polymers requires the nanotubes to form a conductive network in the polymer matrix. To obtain high electrical and thermal conductivity, the Phase I research will focus on achieving uniform dispersion of the choice carbon nanotubes, maintaining their large aspect ratio during processing, and enhancing inter-tube charge transport properties. The processing scheme will be applicable to a wide range of polymers, including thermoplstic, thermosetting, and high-temperature aromatic heterocyclic polymers. The resulting conductive polymer-nanotube hybrid material will have applications in shielding, thermal management, electrostatic discharge, corrosion protection, and electro-optical devices such as photovoltaics. The polymer-nanotube hybrids can be tailored with a wide range of thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties for multifunctional applications in coatings, caulks, sealant, adhesives, fibers, films, sheets, tubes, and large structural components. Potential commercial applications for the conductive nanocomposite material include shielding, charge dissipation, electrostatic painting, corrosion prevention, thermal management, mechanical reinforcement, and electro-optical devices such as photovoltaic solar cells.  TRITON SYSTEMS, INC. 200 TURNPIKE ROAD Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 250-4200 Dr. Bryan Koene AF 02-133 Selected for Award Title: Multifunctional Thermally and Electrically Conductive Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Hybrid Material Abstract: Triton addresses the US Air Force need to develop multifunctional polymer nanotube composites and adhesives for aerospace applications requiring high electrical conductivity (EMI shielding for electronic packaging, stealth), thermal conductivity (thermal management), and high strength (structural applications). Nanotube composite research has demonstrated that these materials can theoretically achieve high levels of thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as high strength providing huge reductions in weight over conventional composite systems. Difficulties in achieving substantial nanoparticle dispersion have prevented these materials from achieving these enhanced properties. Triton's nanotube composite research team has developed enabling chemistries and processing methods in which to homogeneously disperse these nanotubes to achieve significant improvements in the properties required to validate them for these applications. These techniques are truly cross platform, and will allow their use over a wide variety of polymer matrices and will result in materials that can be processed by traditional methods such as melt extrusion and spray coating. For the Phase I program, Triton will demonstrate the fabrication of well dispersed carbon nanotube polymer composites, which will exhibit isotropic electrical conductivity greater than 25 S/cm and thermal conductivity greater than 50 W/mK The carbon nanotube composite technology developed by Triton Systems will open the opportunity for applications in many areas. The benefit of electrical conductivity to traditionally poorly conducting or insulating matrices lends their use in many applications such as EMI shielding and thermal management of structural materials. The conductivity may also provide static discharge for fuel system components in the automotive and aerospace industries  AUSTRAL ENGINEERING & SOFTWARE, INC. 408 Richland Avenue, Suite 102 Athens, OH 45701 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 431-8500 Mr. Enrique A. Medina AF 02-134 Selected for Award Title: Strategy and Software Environment for Virtual Design and Nondestructive Evaluation Prototyping Abstract: Austral Engineering and Software, Inc. proposes to develop a strategy and corresponding software for integrating nondestructive evaluation models and simulations through a systems-based approach incorporating optimization-based, computer-aided design tools. Design objectives to be modeled and optimized include damage tolerance, service life, performance and cost. In Phase I, AES will study existing NDE modeling approaches, and will establish methodologies for integrating NDE models with manufacturing process models, design space exploration and optimization algorithms, and multidimensional visualization methods. AES will then define a strategy for virtual design and NDE prototyping that considers product, process, and inspection requirements at all life cycle stages. Phase I will result in a limited proof-of-concept demonstration, and a complete strategy for execution in Phase II and beyond. The integrated design capability expected from Phase II will enable optimal design space exploration for products, manufacturing processes, and NDE methods, to be applied at various stages of a product's life cycle, from conceptual design through economic service life management. This system will allow rapid evaluation and optimization of tradeoffs among multiple, competing design, inspection, maintenance, damage tolerance, and life-extension objectives and alternatives. This approach will reduce development costs by minimizing the need for expensive empirical studies. AES anticipates that the U.S. Air Force, other defense organizations, and their OEMs will benefit from using the products of this effort for optimized life-cycle design of military and commercial products. Results will be commercialized in the form of software applications and related consulting services for NDE and product and process design.  NDE TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 1785 Sourwood Place Charlottesville, VA 22911 Phone: PI: Topic#: (434) 973-0299 Irving J. Gray AF 02-134 Selected for Award Title: AF02-134 Virtual Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE): Computational Methods for Virtual Prototyping Abstract: Assessment of the Requirements for a Virtual NDE Environment and its Integration into a Virtual Design Process The recent advances in NDE modeling provide an opportunity to begin developing a Virtual NDE Environment. There are a number of issue, such as robustness of the NDE models, the availability of appropriate input to the models and the integration of expert knowledge systems that must be at a sufficient level to be used. Similarly the NDE Virtual Environment must have the ability to integrate into the larger Design Environment. We propose to build of significant past experience in NDE model development, Virtual Design Environment development. In this work we propose to complete an assessment of the needs and provide a development framework for realizing the significant potential improvements in productivity, safety, and optimization that these Virtual environments promise. The market applications for Virtual NDE applications is in the millions of dollars annually. All manufacturing processes could benefit from the use of these simulation technologies--minimally anyone currently using CAD/CAM would be a likely customer. With Six Sigma reaching cult status Virtual NDE simulation applications would offer a real world opportunity to dramatically improve the design / manufacturing cycle. Our current experience marketing XRSIM, an X-ray simulation program and our associations with the Center for Non-Destructive Evaluation and other simulation companies uniquely qualifies us to commercialize these sorts of applications.  WINTEC, INCORPORATED 220 Eglin Parkway SE, Suite 4 Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548 Phone: PI: Topic#: (850) 664-6203 Mr. Fred Benedick AF 02-138 Selected for Award Title: Distributive Processing Techniques For Interconnected Embedded Systems Abstract: Evolving smart miniature munitions will be carried in large numbers on combat aircraft to enhance operational effectiveness and reduce required missions. Near term carriage and control of these munitions will be primarily via advanced carriage devices (captive dispensers) which adapt multiple munitions to a single MIL-STD-1760 aircraft electrical interface. Maintaining all operational flight program (OFP) functionality for initialization and employment of these stores within the aircraft processing suite is expected to exceed the processing and data bus throughput capacity of some existing platforms, without costly upgrades. By moving some control functionality (within applicable safety and timing constraints) to the dispenser level via either preprogrammed or dynamic distributive processing techniques, such upgrades can be delayed or avoided entirely. WINTEC has already developed a set of "store macro commands" under ongoing programs which execute in the dispenser to reduce aircraft processor and communication bus loading associated with store employment. The proposed effort would build on this previous work to provide a more comprehensive solution to the problem. Specifically, it would investigate store control requirements, develop a model system architecture, define appropriate distributive processing functions, and develop a demonstration system concept and associated plan for a follow-on prototyping/ demonstration program. The technology provided by this program will help eliminate or significantly delay required upgrades for some existing aircraft platforms to effectively employ large loadouts of miniature stores. It also has significant commercial applicability to robotic vehicle, factory automation, and intelligent vehicle/highway systems.  SYSTEM DYNAMICS 5346 SW 91st Terrace Gainesville, FL 32608 Phone: PI: Topic#: (352) 371-8035 Mr. Kevin J. Shortelle AF 02-141 Selected for Award Title: Micro Air Vehicles for Munition Bomb Damage Indication Abstract: The U. S. Air Force has identified a need to develop innovative concepts for gathering timely and accurate bomb damage assessment (BDA) information. This information is used by mission planners to quantify the success of an airborne attack, determine the extent of any collateral damage, and ultimately provide information as to whether additional attacks are necessary. One particularly attractive BDA concept involves the use of low-value assets such as micro air vehicles (MAVs) to gather BDA information and transmit this information to applicable ground or airborne platforms. The sensor-equipped MAV would be attached to an air-launched munition and deployed at a pre-determined point along the munition's descent trajectory. Following deployment, the air vehicle would achieve stable flight and proceed to the target area to record the impact event and gather post-impact BDA imagery. The MAV would continue to loiter in the target area and transmit real-time imagery until its on-board power source was exhausted. The focus of this research is to develop implementable hardware and software solutions that enable the use of low-cost, expendable MAVs for BDA missions. Specifically, the research will address: (1) the design, fabrication, and packaging of the munition-deployed MAV, (2) the stability and autonomous guidance and navigation capability of the air vehicle, and (3) the collection and transmission of real-time video imagery from the MAV's on-board sensor. Camera-equipped MAVs have great potential for surveillance and monitoring tasks in areas either too remote or too dangerous to send human scouts. Opera-tional MAVs will enable a number of important missions, including chemical/radiation spill monitoring, forest-fire reconnaissance, visual monitoring of volcanic activity, surveys of natural disaster areas, and even inexpensive traffic and accident monitoring. Additional on-board sensors can further augment MAV mission profiles to include, for example, airborne chemical analysis. As other examples of MAV benefits, consider the following scenarios. The forestry service is interested in tracking wildlife migration patterns within its park; a hiker is lost in the wilderness; people are trapped in trees or on rooftops during flooding, following a major hurricane. In each instance, small UAVs or MAVs, capable of self-stabilized flight, could be deployed to actively search and track motion and/or targets of interest on the ground.  FOSTER-MILLER, INC. 350 Second Ave. Waltham, MA 02451 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 684-3949 Mr. Ben Dobson AF 02-142 Selected for Award Title: Detachable Bomb Pursuit Vehicle (DBPV) for Bomb Damage Assessment Abstract: The development of low-cost guided munitions has given mission planners a new set of tools to achieve their objectives. These weapons have much greater accuracy than "dumb" iron bombs, but they can still be delivered from aircraft flying safely at high altitudes, and are effective in all weather conditions. Although the munitions are usually successful in such situations, often the methods used to measure their effectiveness are not. Imagery for bomb damage assessment (BDA) is difficult to obtain from high flying aircraft or satellites during bad weather, so additional strikes may be ordered when they are not necessary, reducing the overall efficiency of the weapon system. Foster-Miller proposes an innovative solution to this problem of collecting BDA information for guided weapons. The Detachable Bomb Pursuit Vehicle (DBPV) will provide a low-cost method for the collection of high-resolution pre- and post-impact imagery, gathered from close proximity to the target. The DBPV will ride a host munition toward its target, detach shortly before impact, and follow the bomb into the impact area while collecting and transmitting digital images. In Phase I, Foster-Miller will produce a preliminary design for the DBPV and demonstrate the validity of the flight control concept. (P-020171) At the successful completion of this multi-phase program, the Department of Defense will be able to procure a low-cost modular device, called the Detachable Bomb Pursuit Vehicle (DBPV), that will be used to upgrade existing guided munitions, which will be used in large numbers in future air campaigns. The use of the DBPV will provide high-resolution bomb damage assessment (BDA) images, and data from a variety of other sensors used to characterize targets. This information will prevent the occurrence of unnecessary follow-up strikes, thereby reducing overall costs and risks to aircraft and their crews. The technology developed under this program will also find other applications where low-cost, disposable, self-guided air vehicles are required. Examples include the surveillance of wildlife and habitat in remote areas, the delivery of humanitarian aid to isolated populations, and the resupply of ocean-going vessels from high-flying aircraft.  FULL SPECTRUM TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 503 Golfview Dr., Suite 200 San Jose, CA 95127 Phone: PI: Topic#: (408) 756-1055 Mr. Duane Jensen AF 02-143 Selected for Award Title: Effects of Internal Weapons Bays on Advanced Munitions Abstract: The F-22 main internal weapons bay is selected to evaluate its effects on advanced munitions. The Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (LOCAAS) is selected as the "advanced munition", since it contains a seeker, warhead, autonomous target acquitision, antenna , transceiver, signal processor, turbojet engine, and commercial electronics. The Phase I program has three objectives: (1) obtain the F-22 internal weapons bay flow field and acoustic environments over a wide range of Mach/flight conditions, (2) identify LOCAAS critical components, compare to the F-22 acoustic spectra, and provide ROM costs to harden critical components that may fail in the F-22 environment, and (3) complete the conceptual design of a flexible composite flow field/acoustic supressor as an improvement over existing methods. In Phase II, critical LOCAAS components that fail F-22 environments will be tested to failure to understand their capability. Then, the evaluation of safely separating LOCAAS from the F-22 will begin. Advanced munitions, including LOCAAS, are becoming lighter and more complex. These weapons do not have the inertia to simply drop clear of the aircraft. Nor, can the weapons be ejected with more force because the weapon's electronics cannot with stand excessive accelerations. Flexible composites offer substantial volume, weight and cost savings over current designs. These advanced technologies are applicable to air-launched munitions as well unmanned aerial vehicles used for either millitary or civilian purposes, aircraft and underwater vehicles. Application of of flexible composites technology to commercial commuter or private civilian aircraft would provide significant range improvements because the smaller volume that the flexible composite control surfaces provides for a larger fuel tank within existing wing configurations. Race cars and the commercial trucking industry could also use the technology to reduce drag and increase the race car or truck's performance.  STAR BRIDGE SYSTEMS, INC. 7651 South Main Street Midvale, UT 84047 Phone: PI: Topic#: (801) 984-4444 Mr. Jim Yardley AF 02-144 Selected for Award Title: Reconfigurable Computing Applications for Aircraft, Munitions and Dispensers Abstract: Specialized digital circuitry in weapon systems can be replaced with general purpose chips, FPGAs, whose circuitry is configured and reconfigured through software. This facilitates continual improvement throughout the lifecycle of the weapon system, reduces the range of spare parts required, reduces parts obsolescensce and improves the long-term supportability of the weapon system. There are many requirements for long term support for high tech systems without having to change microprocessors or other circuitry that becomes obsolete within a few years of life. With the advent of reconfigurable logic through the use of field programmable gate arrays, funtions of previous and current design microprocessors and support circuitry can be programmed into the FPGA chips. The problem to date has been the ability to cost effectively program the FPGA chips and utilize the reconfigurability of the chips. Star Bridge Systems has solved this problem by developing a software compiler and FPGA program development tool which makes complete integration of reconfigurable FPGAs into existing and new logic functions a cost effective reality. This technology is applicable to devices ranging from cell phones to supercomputers.  CFD RESEARCH CORPORATION 215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor Huntsville, AL 35805 Phone: PI: Topic#: (256) 726-4812 Dr. D. Scott Crocker AF 02-145 Selected for Award Title: High Resolution Simulation of Liquid Jet Ejection and Aerosolization for Chemical/Biological Defense Abstract: High resolution modeling of the ejection of liquid payloads is needed to compliment and improve the design of weapons that will inject neutralization agents into clouds of hazardous chemical or biological agents. A high fidelity model, which currently does not exist (especially for relatively large diameter jets), is needed to provide accurate prediction of droplet location, size, and velocity distributions near the injection location which will usually have a first order effect on the larger scale distribution of the aerosolized neutralization agent. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) will develop such a model through the innovative coupling of several advanced modeling capabilities including: 1) Volume of Fluid (VOF), two-phase enthalpy method, and mesh-embedding technique for modeling the dynamic and turbulent formation of the liquid jet core will be evaluated, 2) aerosolization modeling correlated to the liquid jet turbulence, 3) secondary breakup of the initial droplets, 4) dispersion of the droplet field using Large Eddy Simulation (LES). In Phase I, existing models will be coupled in CFDRC's commercial CFD software, CFD?ACE+, and preliminary validation will be performed. In Phase II, the model will be enhanced by implementing a two-phase LES capability and an innovative two-phase enthalpy model. Experimental data will be collected as necessary to enable much more extensive validation of the model. The final product of this SBIR project will be a commercial quality, high resolution CFD model for the ejection of liquid jets, including liquid jets up to 50 mm or more in diameter. The model will be of benefit to designers of weapons that must inject liquid payloads such as chemical/biological neutralization agents. Another weapons application is the distribution of fuel for thermobaric weapons. The capability is also important for predicting dispersion of hazardous materials released on the ground from either acts of war/terrorism or accidentally. The capability will be coupled with CFDRC's Urban Dispersion Simulator (UDS) software which is of interest to a wide variety of military, civil government, and private organizations.  ALPHATECH, INC. 50 Mall Road Burlington, MA 01803 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 273-3388 Dr. William C. Snyder AF 02-146 Selected for Award Title: Feature Extraction and Shape Reconstruction for SAR to LADAR Target Transfer Abstract: Laser radar (LADAR) has emerged as one of the key technology candidates for application as a precision weapon terminal seeker. Targets of interest include unplanned targets of opportunity, such as fixed buildings and bunkers, and relocatable and moving targets. To discriminate such targets, a seeker requires a template, based on the target surface shape, that must be constructed from the available information. LADAR can provide an image with three channels of target information, namely a map of range, active reflectance, and passive reflectance and emission. The RF frequency for SAR doesn't provide information about active or passive target emission in the visible, but it can be applied to construct the target surface shape. Accordingly, we investigate how best to construct the 3D target shape from standoff SAR to support LADAR terminal seeker autonomous target acquisition and track. We leverage our experience from the model-based SAR ATR MSTAR program in deriving features from the SAR data and converting these features to suitable 3D surface representations, but the proposed system here will not be an ATR. In particular, we propose to investigate a direct shape reconstruction approach and a shape matching approach. In order to analyze the performance tradeoffs of the different approaches and understand their benefits and limitations, we will perform extensive analysis on available in-house SAR imagery covering a broad range of operating conditions. The technology developed under this program will contribute directly to the overall military objective of improving real time target designation and track for a variety of weapons and targets, and under a variety of conditions. Specifically, extracting 3D information from the SAR signatures will improve rapid targeting of known, unknown, and variable target types in a combat scenario. We anticipate that the signature extraction could be used to automate SAR and LADAR peacetime applications such as treaty compliance assessment and monitoring.  MALLTECH, LLC 3733 S. Telegraph Rd. Dearborn, MI 48124 Phone: PI: Topic#: (248) 788-3900 Mr. V. Fedchun, PhD AF 02-147 Selected for Award Title: Improvement of Penetrator Performance by Increasing/Engineering Case Mechanical Properties Abstract: The proposal submitted herein is based on prior research into effects of various groups of alloying elements on structure and properties of alpha- and gamma-iron based steels. Developed theory and previously obtained test results indicate that a complex of excellent mechanical characteristics (strength, ductility and fracture toughness) can be achieved in low alloy steels without the need for expensive purification processes (reduction in the level of S, P and other undesirable elements) and / or high levels of Co, Ni, Mo. These properties can be obtained through proper selection of relatively inexpensive alloying elements based, among other factors, on the element's atomic structure, their solubility in iron and their inter-crystalline and inter-phase adsorption activity. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate that our alloying methodology allows production of relatively inexpensive steel alloys with excellent combination of mechanical properties - tensile strength, ductility, impact strength and fracture toughness, with yield strength and impact strength values within the target ranges of 235-325 ksi and 30-34 Ft-lbs respectively. It is expected that processing characteristics of these alloys will be comparable to common medium-carbon steel grades. Having also low cost, proposed alloys could potentially find wide military and commercial applications. Having low cost and excellent combination of mechanical and processing characteristics, proposed steel alloys could find use in various industries, potentially replacing some of the more expensive grades currently on the market.  AUBURN CHEMICAL COMPANY INCORPORATED 2058 Fieldview Drive Auburn, AL 36830 Phone: PI: Topic#: (334) 826-6500 Mrs. B. T. Neely AF 02-149 Selected for Award Title: Agent Defeat Short Time Neutralization Data Collection and Modeling Abstract: This research will provide ability to predict the effectiveness of thermal-based Agent Defeat weapons. Tasks are compilation of previous experimental data, modeling to estimate the time-temperature conditions produced by selected Agent Defeat weapons, the design and evaluation of a test system to determine the extent of spore killing by high temperatures for various short times. The military benefit will be the ability to accurately predict the effectiveness of new thermal Agent Defeat weapons. The commercial benefit will be added ability to design rapid high temperature medical sterilization equipment.  Q-DOT, INC. 1069 Elkton Drive Colorado Springs, CO 80907 Phone: PI: Topic#: (719) 590-1112 Mr. Michael E. Harrell AF 02-150 Selected for Award Title: Flight Test Receiver and Decoder (FTRD) for Universal Flight Termination System (FTS) (9610) Abstract: Abstract: Q-DOT proposes to develop a low-cost standard Flight Test Receiver and Decoder (FTRD). The FTRD will fully support RCC 319-99 plus additional range-specific requirements. It will be easy to install and interface to a wide range of munitions. High performance will be attained at low cost by realizing the FTRD as a single integrated circuit in advanced, SiGe BiCMOS technology. Development cost will be minimized by working closely with Q-DOT's Fast Track commercialization partner, The Raymond Engineering Operation of Kaman Aerospace Corporation (Kaman). Kaman is currently developing a Flight Termination Safe and Arm (FTSA) for FTS. Q-DOT will leverage Kaman's FTSA experience while assuring that the FTRD and FTSA are compatible and optimized to complement each other. Together, the FTRD and FTSA form the core of a complete FTS. In Phase I, the FTRD will be conceptually designed to accommodate a broad range of munitions and range-specific requirements while fully complying with RCC 319-99. Since Kaman plans to support our Fast Track application, the FTRD will be substantially developed in Phase II toward certification into production in Phase III. Safety is paramount when handling explosives anywhere. The FTRA (and FTSA) can be employed for safe, remote detonation in mining, blasting and demolition. Police and special forces can safely detonate terrorist bombs. Commercial rocket launches can use the FTRD and FTSA to abort errant launches.  SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS COMPANY, INC 500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000 Woburn, MA 01801 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 933-5355 Dr. Constantino Rago AF 02-151 Selected for Award Title: Use of Single and Multiple Model Kalman Filter for Independent Fuze Safeing Abstract: Some of the general purpose bombs in use by the Air Force and Navy (for example the MK80 and M117), are equipped with an air-driven turbine alternator (the FZU-48 produced by Alliant Techsystems). This air-driven turbine alternator has a double function: it provides the electric power to the fuze(s), and also is used as a way to activate the fuze. The air turbine provides power to the fuze only when the bomb is detached from the airplane (lanyard activation) and is traveling at a speed above a given threshold. Nowadays, most general purpose bombs are equipped with a battery that supplies power to all the on-board electronics. Elimininating the air-driven turbine alternator will decrease the bomb drag, as well as reduce the cost, but will require a new system to activate the fuze. The goal of this Phase I effort is to develop a low-cost, reliable fuze activation systems that relies only on pre-existing on-board hardware, and to investigate, via simulation, the performance of such system. The fuze activation system will use information provided by the bomb's navigation system (IMU and GPS) and other existing on-board information, including the lanyard and the number of GPS satellites in-view by the bomb. An Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) Kalman filter, will be used to detect the bomb's free-falling condition from other dynamic situations, including aircraft maneuvers. The following tasks will be performed under the Phase I effort: 1) Obtain dynamic models for the bomb 2) Implement an IMM filtering scheme 3) Compare IMM performance with single Kalman filter decision based schem 4) Develop the necessary logic to include lanyard release and GPS shadowing 5) Simulate the fuze activation system under different conditions 6) Final report and Phase II recommendations For this effort, SSCI has teamed up with Alliant Precision Fuze Company (ATK), a leading company in the manufacturing of electromechanical and proximity fuzes, and the actual manufacturers of the FZU-48 air-driven turbine generator to be replaced by the system here proposed. ATK will provide technical support, data, and evaluation of results during Phase I and II. It will also be an excellent partner for a Phase III commercialization effort. The proposed system will decrease the cost of the bombs, by eliminating the air-driven turbine generator, and it will also reduce the drag of the bomb. By eliminating the dependency of the fuze-activation process on moving parts (air turbine) it has the potential to increase the ruggedness of the whole system.  SYSTEM DYNAMICS 5346 SW 91st Terrace Gainesville, FL 32608 Phone: PI: Topic#: (352) 371-8035 Mr. William R. Graham AF 02-151 Selected for Award Title: Use of Kalman Filter Residuals for Independent Fuze Safeing Abstract: The Air Force has long been aware of the importance of safety devices for the warheads of their air-launched weapons. In fact, all modern air-launched weapons include safety and arming (S&A) subsystems which are designed to prevent the weapon from unintentionally arming itself. The FZU-48 air turbine is a critical component of the S&A subsystems currently installed in the Air Force's Mark 80 series of glide bombs. Although the air-turbine has proven itself to be extremely reliable, it suffers from several shortcomings. First, the turbine adds weight and drag to the weapon. Second, the size of the turbine may preclude its use on smaller guided weapons under development by the Air Force (e.g., the small diameter bomb, SDB). In an effort to redress these shortcomings, the Air Force has expressed a desire to develop alternative S&A subsystems which do not include an air turbine. The objective of this proposed research, therefore, is to investigate the feasibility of replacing the air-turbine S&A subsystem with a battery and a novel algorithm designed to exploit information provided by the weapon's GPS, IMU, and Kalman integration filter. The results of this research may lead to the adoption of lower-cost, less-intrusive S&A subsystems. Significant benefits will result from the successful completion of this research. If it can be demonstrated that the air turbine can be replaced with the proposed novel S&A subsystem without sacrificing system reliability, then a significant cost/weight/size savings would be realized for a broad family of air-launched weapons. Potential Phase III users include the Air Force's Small Diameter Bomb (SDB), Joint Advanced Air to Surface Missile (JAASM), Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), and the Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD).  NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.) 11409 Valley View Road Eden Prairie, MN 55344 Phone: PI: Topic#: (952) 829-9217 Mr. Robert A. Sinclair AF 02-152 Selected for Award Title: Intraweapon Wireless Communication Abstract: A novel method of intraweapon communications using magnetic field transmissions along with new very low power Spin Dependent Tunneling (SDT) magnetic sensor receivers will be developed under this program. Normal physical wire communication links cannot be expected to survive during and after target penetration. Therefore, wireless methods of communications must be developed. THE PROMISING methods of communication within the munitions will be studied and evaluated. This includes RF, magnetic and any other method that can be determined feasible during this study. A new technique called Magnet Induction holds promise for small, confined areas in metal canisters AND PENETRATOR BOMB BODIES. NVE Corporation will team with Alliant Techsystems (ATK) as a subcontractor to combine their knowledge in munitions and fuzing systems with NVE's expertise in magnetic sensors, wireless networks (LAN) and high shock recorders to design, model and construct a breadboard model of the most promising technology. Magnet Induction technology will be closely investigated since it is effective over distances up to 3 meters, is low power, uses very small antenna coils/magnetic sensors and can be commercialized for the Personal Area Network (PAN). Both the Military and commercial industry will benefit from this product by being able to comunicate inside munitions during and after impact. Synchronized measurements of events will allow distributed control not possible presently in metalic cylinders. The aerospace, utilities, telecommunications, petrochemical, NRC, EPA, and NASA organizations will benefit from this technology as well as internet appliance producers, automobile and aircraft and cargo monitoring.  US POSITIONING GROUP, LLC Arrowhead Research Park, Box 5040 Las Cruces, NM 88003 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 646-2221 Dr. Steven M. Shope AF 02-152 Selected for Award Title: Intraweapon Wireless Communication Abstract: We propose an intra-weapon wireless communications technique for use within hard-target, penetrating weapon systems. Our hardened and robust technique will eliminate the hardwired physical links that are often severed by the tremendous shock loads experienced by these weapons upon impact. We describe a communications system that is based on resonant electromagnetic fields for communications between the weapon sensor suite, attached to the nose of the munition, and the explosive fuzing section, located in tail of the munition. The overall objective of the effort described in this Phase I proposal is to analyze feasibility using finite-element analysis, measurement of explosive electrical properties, development of field couplers for the cavity, development of a communications protocol, and preliminary shock engineering analyses of our design. We foresee markets in safety related applications where high reliability data links are required including automotive crash detection and airbag activation. Additionally, robust links to "black-box" on-board data recorders in a variety of transportation modes will be a valuable use of this technology. Government markets include smart munitions and artillery projectiles. A robust link between aircraft and air-launched weapons will also have market potential.  ALPHATECH, INC. 50 Mall Road Burlington, MA 01803 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 273-3388 Dr. Joel S. Douglas AF 02-155 Selected for Award Title: Multi-Hypothesis Automated Wireframe Generation Abstract: Accurate targeting using standoff missiles, such as JASSM, requires automatic target correlation algorithms using significant target features. Wireframe models that describe the significant edges and corners of fixed targets are well suited for this task. Great advances in wireframe construction from stereoscopic imagery have been achieved through the last twenty years of research in computer vision, but significant limitations still exist. Current model construction procedures are human-intensive and time consuming. Existing automated systems create too many spurious objects and incorrect hypotheses that lead to incorrect scene surface topologies, caused by physical phenomena such as surface reflectance, ambient lighting, shadows and occlusions generated by complex scenes. We will make automated wireframe model algorithms truly useful for mission planning platforms by rigorously applying physical and probabilistic models to a wider set of image features. First, we will use a rigorous mathematical treatment of uncertainties to better characterize the data and avoid sensitive heuristics. Second, we will develop new probabilistic, phenomenologically motivated cueing algorithms to distinguish false alarms from targets. Finally, we will enhance algorithms to consider multiple target hypotheses, with a model-based predict and match algorithm to robustly choose among competing hypotheses using predictions of edge, area, and texture features. Our approach will greatly enhance existing algorithms to be robust to confusers such as trees, occluded buildings, shadows, and nearby structures such as roads and parking lots. The resulting system will enable integration with JASSM mission planning platform, and also have clear application to other military systems. For example, NIMA has a great need for automatically generating 3D site models. There are also clear civilian applications, such as robotics, law enforcement, urban planning, and updating the huge geospatial databases built by the Census Department.  INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC. 7519 Standish Place, Suite 200 Rockville, MD 20855 Phone: PI: Topic#: (301) 222-0444 Dr. Chujen Lin AF 02-157 Selected for Award Title: UWB Synthetic Aperture Radar for All-Weather Target Sensor Abstract: We propose to develop an algorithm to use the Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for air-to-ground target sensors. The only signals transmitted by UWB radars are very narrow pulses generated pseudo-randomly in time. The pulses we are currently using are « nanosecond in duration and the energy extends approximately from roughly .8 to 3 gigahertz. This broad bandwidth provides a UWB radar huge processing gain, so it is very difficult to jam. Using the motion of the air-to-ground munitions we can combine successive radar scans to form a high-resolution synthetic aperture radar that can image the target area. Because of the low frequency content of TM-UWB signals, they are able to penetrate rain, clouds, smoke, fogs, dust, even foliage and concrete. With UWB there is no carrier frequency, no up-conversion and no down-conversion, and the output stage can be a single transistor which creates a binary pulse, all resulting in decreased radio size, cost, and complexity. The duty cycle of the pulse generated by our current hardware is approximately 1/200, resulting in low power consumption. During Phase I, we will develop, simulate, and test the proposed algorithm for zero-ceiling, zero-visibility target sensor. The primary potential military application for this technology is the all-weather target sensors and detection and identification of obscured objects. Civilian applications include airborne mapping of buried cables, pipelines, and mine shafts. Intelligent Automation, Inc. and our partner, Time Domain Corp., are aggressively working to develop UWB terrain mapping sensors for mine-breaching vehicles, and UWB through-the-wall imaging radar for use by polices, fire fighters, and for use by the military for MOUT operations. The same technology can also be applied to automatic landing and guidance systems for commercial airlines and NASA.  MS TECHNOLOGY 7922 Avenida Kirjah La Jolla, CA 92037 Phone: PI: Topic#: (858) 558-6363 Dr. Saeid Ghamaty AF 02-159 Selected for Award Title: Heat Removal Device for Munition Abstract: Advanced Future Munition (FM) as well as chip and board level electronics or optoelectronics will require innovative heat removal solutions to enable them to meet size, weight, power, high reliability, and low cost. Commonly, these approaches are based on efficient 2-D and 3-D arrangements of electronics, often involving "multi-chip modules" (MCMs). As chips are brought closer together, the area/volume power densities and, therefore, heat increases. MS Technology (MST) proposes a new type of heat removal modular device, which could solve electronic packaging problems of the FM and large scale electronic and optoelectronics systems. This new approach removes the generated heat by first converting it to electricity which could be dissipated in a shunt resistor far from the device or supplement the main system power supply. This supplementary power source further increases reliability, reduces cost and weight of the entire system. MST will evaluate and develop conceptual designs for this new device that should provide significant thermal management improvements compared to the thermal management techniques used in heat removal approaches now. MST will conduct proof of concept demonstrations to indicate the practicality of such techniques for use in device electronic systems. A low cost high performance heat removal modular device, will find commercial application in projects of interest to government, industry and academia, especially with respect to commercial applications. It is also possible in certain circumstances to find applications in other domains, where large amounts of dense circuitry can be confined with limited air flow boundary conditions. In view of general smaller satellite requirements (for cooling more high-power, more dense electronics with less costly, lighter weight, and more reliable systems) the potential market for a successful thermal management system is quite large for both the military (DoD), civilian (NASA) and commercial satellite industries. Potential commercial applications of the thermal management component(s)/system and associated technologies developed by this effort include communications and weather satellites and terrestrial thermal management systems, including co-generation applications, and residential, commercial and industrial heating and air conditioning.  KAZAK COMPOSITES INCORPORATED 32 Cummings Park Woburn, MA 01801 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 932-5667 Dr. Jerome P. Fanucci AF 02-160 Selected for Award Title: Low Cost Pultruded Composite Extendable Joined Wing Range Extension Kit with Advanced Aerodynamic Control Technology Abstract: Joined, extendable wings provide attractive aerodynamic, structural and packaging characteristics that increase weapon standoff range while requiring comparatively little pre-launch volume. Cost of current joined wing kits is high. Future designs could benefit from more highly automated manufacturing technology and more sophisticated control concepts. The proposed pultrusion process is ideally suited for making low cost, high strength, low signature, high aspect ratio composite wings that will not corrode during storage. Simple modifications to deployment linkage geometry of the joined wing will take advantage of underutilized storage space on the weapon, allowing increased wing span and aspect ratio compared to current technology, resulting in improved aerodynamic efficiency (L/D) and greater standoff range. Differential motion of wing deployment mechanisms can be used to provide vehicle pitch and roll control, eliminating two separate actuators and flight surfaces, enhancing reliability while reducing cost and weight. In Phase I, KaZaK will develop and demonstrate a pultrusion-based technique for making low cost twisted composite airfoils. We have teamed with Dynetics, a firm having considerable experience in design and testing of deployable wings, to perform the aerodynamic modeling of this concept. In Phase II we anticipate preforming full scale wind tunnel and flight testing of the system. Upon completion of Phase I and II, KCI will have designed, demonstrated and flight tested a next generation extendable wing kit that includes low cost pultruded composite twisted airfoils and differential wing motion for pitch and roll control. The resulting system should be considerably smaller, lighter, more reliable and less expensive than the current generation of deployable wings for extended range weapons. Increasing emphasis on use of smart weapons to reduce crew exposure in the high risk environment in the area immediately surrounding targets suggests that the demand for kits of the proposed type will represent an increasingly large market in the future. The enhanced performance derived from the proposed system improvements should position KCI as a leading supplier of next generation kits to weapons system primes and directly to the military.  TRITON SYSTEMS, INC. 200 TURNPIKE ROAD Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 250-4200 Mr. Guy Rossi AF 02-160 Selected for Award Title: Cost Effective Materials and Manufacturing for Range Extension Wing Kits Abstract: Triton Systems, Inc. proposes to design, fabricate, test, and demonstrate low cost through technical cost modeling, the feasibility of an Advanced Thermoforming Technology AT2 manufacturing method for the production of range extension wing kits. The AT2 approach is expected to provide a factor of two reduction in cost for these wing kits through the application of low cost tooling, high performance/cost ratio materials and the sophisticated application of cost modeling tools. Triton Systems has teamed with Leigh Aerosystems, a leading supplier of range extension wing kits, and Ibis Associates, the leading cost analysts for composite production. The proposed Phase I program will trade-study the candidate composite materials and processes, demonstrate the fabrication of a Leigh Aerosystems "Longshot" composite wing, and validate the structural performance of the prototype wing. The U.S. Air Force needs to develop lower cost materials and manufacturing methods for winged autonomous munitions to allow broader fielding of the range extension kits, and to improve maneuverability, impact accuracy, standoff distance and pilot safety. To reach cost ratios that support extensive fielding, the program goal is for production costs to be reduced by as much as a factor of two. The successful completion of the Phase I program will result in the identification of the optimum manufacturing approach (materials, molding processes and assembly) for the production of range extension wing kits. The trade study will evaluate the sensitivity of the cost of selected manufacturing approaches to mass reduction, production volume and airframe weight. The total cost model results will include predicted total unit production, and a breakdown of contributing cost elements. The prototype wing will be validation tested to show structural feasibility. Leigh Aerosystems has indicated interest in commercializing the composite wing that results from this program. Several other producers of standoff weapons will be approached with successful results from Phase I seeking interest in composite wings produced by the AT2 low-cost method. Triton envisions licensing the AT2 technology to composite fabricators or spinning-off a company to provide AT2-produced wings and other composite parts for the munitions markets. The successful completion of the Phase I program will result in the identification of the optimum manufacturing approach (materials, molding processes and assembly) for the production of range extension wing kits. The trade study will evaluate the sensitivity of the cost of selected manufacturing approaches to mass reduction, production volume and airframe weight. The total cost model results will include predicted total unit production, and a breakdown of contributing cost elements. The prototype wing will be validation tested to show structural feasibility. Leigh Aerosystems has indicated interest in commercializing the composite wing that results from this program. Several other producers of standoff weapons will be approached with successful results from Phase I seeking interest in composite wings produced by the AT2 low-cost method. Triton envisions licensing the AT2 technology to composite fabricators or spinning-off a company to provide AT2-produced wings and other composite parts for the munitions markets. The successful completion of the Phase I program will result in the identification of the optimum manufacturing approach (materials, molding processes and assembly) for the production of range extension wing kits. The trade study will evaluate the sensitivity of the cost of selected manufacturing approaches to mass reduction, production volume and airframe weight. The total cost model results will include predicted total unit production, and a breakdown of contributing cost elements. The prototype wing will be validation tested to show structural feasibility. Leigh Aerosystems has indicated interest in commercializing the composite wing that results from this program. Several other producers of standoff weapons will be approached with successful results from Phase I seeking interest in composite wings produced by the AT2 low-cost method. Triton envisions licensing the AT2 technology to composite fabricators or spinning-off a company to provide AT2-produced wings and other composite parts for the munitions markets.  SURFACE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC. P.O. Box 1027 Glen Burnie, MD 21060 Phone: PI: Topic#: (410) 332-0633 Dr. Timothy J. Langan AF 02-163 Selected for Award Title: Development of Structural Explosives for Low Collateral Damage (LCD) Warheads Abstract: Surface Treatment Technologies (ST2) proposes development of innovative structural explosive material systems based upon formation of structural nano-grained reactive alloys formed via electron-beam physical vapor deposition and magnetron sputtering (EB-PVD/MS). EB-PVD/MS has been developed as a method of rapidly forming nano-grained structures with a high degree of functional gradations throughout a structure. These include the ability to form a structural component comprised on repeating layers of reactive metals. Using the precise control of EB-PVD/MS, ST2 will develop a family of reactive metal systems with varying degrees of thermal reactivity, density, structural properties, and ignition requirements. This new family of structural reactive materials will expand the customer capabilities to address the wide range of threat targets currently available. Phase I will verify that EB-PVD/MS structures will function in this manner, while Phase II will generate specific shapes/configuration for customer demonstration and end-use applications. Specific Phase I activities include: 1) determining the optimum deposition conditions for multi-layered reactive alloy, 2) developing data for thermal reactive capabilities of multi-layered reactive alloy, 3) evaluating shock initiation capabilities of the multi-layered reactive alloy, 4) developing basic structural/mechanical property data for multi-layered reactive alloy, and 5) identify concepts for producing prototype fuze wells and warhead cases. Controlled energy release through combination of explosive and thermal energy with a high degree of tailorability. Commercial application include demolition/construction, rapid cutting for field repair, oil/gas drilling, environmental site remediation.  NOVA RESEARCH, INC. 320 Alisal Road, Suite 104 Solvang, CA 93463 Phone: PI: Topic#: (805) 693-9600 Mr. Mark A. Massie AF 02-166 Selected for Award Title: Conversion of the FGA "Variable Acuity" Array from Visible to Infrared Abstract: Perhaps the most computationally-advanced focal plane array (FPA) that has ever been designed for Air Force applications has been developed and is in the testing phase at Nova Research, Inc. The "Variable Acuity" imaging portion of Nova's "Focal Geometric Array" (FGA) is a two-dimensional superpixel-based imaging array that incorporates real-time programmability of the spatial configuration of the visible imager. This Phase I effort will produce design modifications to the existing variable acuity imaging chip design to operate cryogenically as a high speed, high resolution, large format infrared FPA. Two ROIC designs will be produced from this Phase I effort: (a) A ROIC that will support a commercially available single-color 320 x 256 MWIR InSb detector array, and (b) A second ROIC that will accommodate an available dual color MWIR/LWIR detector array to be identified. The following Phase II program will concentrate on the fabrication, testing and integration of the fully functional Infrared Variable Acuity device. The resulting infrared device will be used in a variety of applications requiring wide fields of view and extremely high frame rates without loss of spatial resolution on targets. In so doing, Nova will continue to advance the state-of-the-art in biomimetic infrared sensing technology. The resulting device will provide capabilities heretofore unavailable with infrared imaging devices that are uniquely suited to missile seeker applications.  VERITAY TECHNOLOGY, INC. 4845 Millersport Highway, P.O. Box 305 East Amherst, NY 14051 Phone: PI: Topic#: (716) 689-0177 Mr. Randy Salizzoni AF 02-166 Selected for Award Title: Payload Expulsion for Hardened-Target Penetrators Abstract: Hardened targets such as tunnels, underground facilities and bunkers are among the highest priority targets in certain countries that have adversarial relationships with the United States. A goal for future munitions is to either destroy the facilities and their contents or to deny access and routine use of the facilities while minimizing collateral damage. Rather than using an overwhelming high explosive payload, future munitions will use sophisticated fusing and payload concepts to systematically and surgically accomplish agent defeat and/or facility denial objectives. Future munitions will consist of a payload contained in a casing strong enough to penetrate a hardened facility. After entry, the payload elements must be expelled from the casing and the defeat or denial mechanisms activated. The proposed Phase I program will be devoted to formulation and feasibility demonstration of a concept for expelling payload from a hard target munition based on fuze-generated information. The primary goal of payload expulsion is to minimize the residual payload velocity relative to the targeted void space within the fixed hardened facility. The proposed effort will involve computer code development, simulation and experimental development work. The concepts formulated and developed during the proposed program may be incorporated into ammunition designed to attack hardened targets with minimal collateral damage. Potential commercial uses include cro wd or criminal control devices.  SILICON DESIGNS, INC. 1445 NW Mall Street Issaquah, WA 98027 Phone: PI: Topic#: (425) 391-8329 Mr. John C. Cole AF 02-167 Selected for Award Title: Miniature Initiation System Technology (MIST) Abstract: Abstract not available...  VOXTEL INC. 2640 SW Georgian Place Portland, OR 97201 Phone: PI: Topic#: (503) 421-4389 Mr. George M. Williams AF 02-168 Selected for Award Title: Single-pulse, Infrared Imaging Spectropolarimic Ladar Seeker Abstract: Voxtel Inc. proposes to optimize a novel and robust real-time, single-pulse, computed tomographic imaging infrared spectropolarimic ladar (CTIIRSPL) that acquires full multispectral and polarization information for all points within the FOV with high-resolution range and range resolved intensity images for detection and identification of difficult targets. The Voxtel CTIIRSPL system is integrated with a tunable, multispectral and polarimetry capability, operating in the eyesafe SWIR & MWIR (1 to 5 micron)spectral bands, which is less susceptible than the NIR to battlefield obscurants and more responsive to target reflections than the LWIR. A powerful, yet flexible, signal processor and target classifier, using newly available signal processing architectures, will be integrated with the system. Demonstration and validation in the FastTrack Phase II effort will lead to a miniaturized, monolithic architecture, which will be optimized for a variety of military and commercial applications. This work is applicable in target recognition and navigation in civil and industrial applications. Other applications benefiting from the innovation includes: intelligent robots, medical imaging, surveillance, remote sensing, mapping synthetic structures, and other active imaging applications.  ATHENA TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 9950 Wakeman Drive Manassas, VA 20110 Phone: PI: Topic#: (703) 331-1068 Dr. Ben Motazed AF 02-169 Selected for Award Title: Navigation Solutions by Terrain Imaging Abstract: Athena Technologies, Incorporated (Athena) and Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute (CMU) propose to exploit use of visual odometry capabilities via real-time computer vision, to augment inertial sensors, 3D magnetometer and GPS to determine the velocity, position and attitude of a missile or unmanned air vehicle. The proposed architecture exploits the excellent performance Athena has demonstrated to date with the GuideStar system, which provides a full navigation and attitude solution from a 16 state nonlinear extended Kalman filter, using low grade MEMS technology inertial sensors. This proposal will explore augmenting of this navigation/attitude solution by incorporating CMU's visual odometry signals that are the processed output from digital imaging of local terrain video. With this additional sensing modality, the navigation and attitude solution stands a good chance of improved performance under GPS outage conditions. Athena foresees a large potential market in the application of vision-based flight control systems to both military unmanned and general aviation air vehicles. Vision-based FCS will enable autonomous obstacle managment for autonomous docking, perching and landing on runways in visible, IR or active SAR spectrum.  MTL SYSTEMS, INC. 3481 Dayton-Xenia Rd. Dayton, OH 45432 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 426-3111 Mr. R. K. Hill AF 02-169 Selected for Award Title: Navigation Solutions by Terrain Imaging Abstract: MTL and Ball Aerospace present a revolutionary method of processing image sensor information, to aid an inertial measurement unit's stability and navigation functions. SPREE fuses optical flow techniques with an extremely rapid, accurate image registration process developed under National Reconnaissance Office and AFRL/IF programs. The rapid registration process transforms the image-processing problem into a signal-processing domain, where real-time image registration techniques reveal egomotion states. The innovative optical flow algorithms optimize the egomotion estimation accuracy. The Phase I Objectives are (1) Define requirements, to lay the groundwork for testing feasibility and to produce a preliminary requirements specification, (2) Implement, test, and assess SPREE Concepts, to build, evaluate and demonstrate a SPREE prototype and determine functional and performance feasibility, (3) Produce a preliminary proof-of-principals (POP) design for Phase II, by refining and supplementing the prototype, and (4) Assess commercialization potential, to determine SPREE market potential and produce a preliminary commercialization (product) plan. The Phase I results will be (a) experimental test and analysis results forming the feasibility assessment, (b) a Phase II preliminary POP design, (c) an initial product plan, and (d) a prototype and its demonstration, to explicitly prove SPREE feasibility to AFRL, users they support, and commercial interests. SPREE can process vehicle-based imaging sensor output to support military navigation, reconnaissance, tactical and strategic operations, and real-time targeting, as well as commercial navigation, environment monitoring, geological exploration, and weather monitoring, to name but a few applications. By solving the real-time image registration problem as well as the navigational/stability update problem, SPREE will provide an ability to automatically and accurately track location in a surrounding environment, independent of the particular environment features, is of great importance to government and commercial enterprises alike. SPREE can provide the ability to navigate locally in GPS "dead zones," to benefit military, commercial or private navigation alike. A strong commercial opportunity is a completely passive, undetectable vehicle speed detector, which could replace expensive and detectable radar or laser traffic speed sensors with a low-cost alternative to expensive, current systems.  POSITRONICS RESEARCH LLC 127 East Gate Dr., Suite 203 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Phone: PI: Topic#: (505) 661-4949 Dr. Lester E. Thode AF 02-170 Selected for Award Title: Virtual Positron Experiment Abstract: The objective of this proposal is to establish the feasibility of a virtual-positron experiment by demonstrating the viability of large-scale, three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation to understand antimatter confinement experiments. The virtual positron experiment is a numerical approximation of an antimatter experiment, including the experimental diagnostics. The success of such a systematic computational approach towards understanding experiments has been previously demonstrated. Three-dimensional thermal plasma simulation is extremely computer intensive, but feasible with parallel computation. Fortunately, extraordinary improvements in microprocessors, memory, buses, networks, and software now make it possible to group inexpensive personal computers together to form a distributed parallel cluster. To date, three-dimensional PIC simulation running on a Linux cluster has not been applied to the antimatter confinement problem. The opportunity to incorporate such large-scale simulation technology into the antimatter confinement program will increase the ability to understand the physics of first-generation high-energy-density experiments, which will ultimately lead to successful design of more complex experiments. More importantly, such simulation technology could lead the way to potential breakthroughs in antimatter confinement. The deliverable will be a final report that includes a description of the cluster design, the PIC model, and the verfication simulation results. A low mass system containing hundred's of MJ's of energy for long periods of time has many potential commercial applications. Advanced computational technology combined with distributed parallel clusters will provide the basic design capability for such commercial applications. For example, a Positron Energy Conversion (PEC) ramjet or turbojet, with up to a 30 day flight time, would impact weather surveys, population, fire, agriculture and pollution studies, as well as land and marine assays.  ALPHATECH, INC. 50 Mall Road Burlington, MA 01803 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 273-3388 Dr. Erik C. Sobel AF 02-171 Selected for Award Title: A Biomimetic Range Sensor for Autonomous Air Vehicles Abstract: A novel biomimetic range sensor is described which offers improved guidance, navigation and control capabilities and enhanced situational awareness for autonomous air vehicles. Inspired by the motion detection algorithm found in the visual systems of flying insects, the sensor images the surrounding environment and extracts motion parallax which can be used to compute the range to nearby surfaces, targets and obstacles. The sensor is well suited to deployment on an autonomous air vehicle such as a tactical unmanned air vehicle, TUAV or autonomous munitions. By providing fast high resolution range information the sensor can be used to provide targeting or obstacle avoidance capability or used to direct sensor resources to regions of interest for high resolution, foveal inspection. In addition to improving guidance, navigation, and obstacle avoidance for autonomous air vehicles and smart munitions, the biomimetic range sensor described below can be applied to both manned and unmanned ground vehicles. It can be used to provide 3D vision capability for industrial robots in manufacturing and to monitor sensitive facilities in security applications. In consumer automobiles. The sensor can be used to rapidly measure the range to obstacles and other vehicles, for example, it could warn of insufficient braking distance to a car ahead. In this capacity it would be useful for the Department of Transportation's Intelligent Highway Project. It could also be used to warn of children or obstacles behind a car or truck which is backing up. Unlike sonar based detectors for these applications it is not sensitive to jamming and unlike laser radar systems it poses no eye-safety hazards. For autonomous ground based vehicles the sensor can provide the same guidance and navigation capability as proposed for autonomous air vehicles. The sensor can also be used in stationary applications such as providing 3D vision for industrial robots or used to monitor and track approaching vehicles or people in automated security applications for airports and other sensitive facilities.  BUSEK CO. INC. 11 Tech Circle Natick, MA 01760 Phone: PI: Topic#: (508) 655-5565 Dr. V. Hruby AF 02-175 Selected for Award Title: Air Breathing Electric Propulsion for Aerospace Vehicles Abstract: All aerospace vehicles, aircraft and spacecraft, are designed to function at an altitude below 30 km or above 150 km respectively. Above 30 km, an aircraft's propulsion system encounters combustion limits and below 150 km a spacecraft encounters atmospheric drag that leads to rapid reentry. A propulsion system that could function adequately in at least a portion of the intervening altitudes would enable new type of aerospace vehicles capable of performing missions inaccessible with the present state of the art technology. To avoid the combustion limit and the need to carry propellant we propose the development of an air-breathing, electric thruster (ABET). Proof of concept experiments performed under conditions that approximate upper edges of the atmosphere, have confirmed that the ABET propulsion is feasible. In Phase I we propose to establish performance and operating requirements for such propulsion system and a thruster, based on representative aerospace vehicle requirements. These requirements and data, from additional experiments, will be used to design a new ABET to be built and tested in Phase II in our existing facilities. Aerospace Corporation will support Busek by developing the ABET performance requirements based on hypothetical mission scenarios. Successful development of a propulsion system that can maintain an aerospace vehicle at an altitude of 100 km for extended period of time would revolutionize, communications and earth observation/military surveillance. Such vehicles, or those at lower altitude and lower speed, would take over many roles currently filled by spacecraft or aircraft, and have the potential for much lower cost.  ELECTRO ENERGY, INC. 30 Shelter Rock Road Danbury, CT 06810 Phone: PI: Topic#: (203) 797-2699 Mr. MARTIN KLEIN AF 02-175 Selected for Award Title: Aero Propulsion and Power Technology, New Hydrogen Storage Electrodes Abstract: This proposal is directed at research and development of an advanced battery based on nickel-metal hydride chemistry with an improved hydrogen storage material for the battery anode in place of the usual metal hydride alloy. The goals for the new material will be to store large amounts of hydrogen, and operate at high rates and low temperature. Implication is for a reduction of the weight of the anode electrode by up to 50%, which presently use materials including the LaNi5-type hydrogen storage anode alloy and yields a theoretical upper bound energy density of 215 Watt hours per kilogram. The EEI project would include evaluating the new material as a plastic-bonded electrode made by an EEI patented process and testing it in EEI's patented bipolar wafer cell design. Test cells of a 3" x 3" size will be used for the initial screening. CONSUMER BATTERIES; ELECTRIC & HYBRID VEHICLES; AIRCRAFT BATTERIES; STARTING, LIGHTING AND IGNITION (SLI) BATTERIES  HYPER TECH RESEARCH INC. 110 E. Canal St. Troy, OH 45373 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 332-0348 Mr. Michael Tomsic AF 02-175 Selected for Award Title: Development of Low AC Loss Coils for Superconducting Generators and Transformers Abstract: New high power airborne and mobile military systems will require megawatts of electrical power produced by very lightweight power sources. The majority of these new systems will require multi-megawatts of power and require very high load voltages. Superconducting technology can allow generators that weigh as little as 20% of room temperature generators, and very light high voltage transformers. While BSCCO and YBCO coated conductors are being considered for generators and transformers at 20K, the AC loss characteristics of these conductors are not ideal. In January 2000 it was announced that magnesium diboride compound is superconducting up to 39 K. Our present properties of magnesium diboride wires in the 20-30 K range in magnetic fields up to 2 tesla appear ideal for superconducting generators and transformers. We have also demonstrated a magnetic shielding approach that can result in a significant reduction of AC losses. This proposal explores the optimizing of multifilament magnesium diboride wire with regard to AC losses, and demonstrating that the wire can be made into the types of coils that would be used in superconducting generators and transformers By accelerating the development of a low cost, low AC loss magnesium diboride wire, commercial applications for superconducting transformers, open MRI, generators, and motors will implemented sooner in the marketplace.  INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC. 2766 Indian Ripple Rd Dayton, OH 45440 Phone: PI: Topic#: (937) 429-4980 Dr. Larry P. Goss AF 02-175 Selected for Award Title: High Framing Rate Flow Imaging System Abstract: The proposed program is directed toward the development of a high-framing rate quantitative flow imaging system, with potential application to a wide variety of optical diagnostic techniques for reacting and nonreacting flows. The system is based around a novel "burst-mode" laser and a companion MHz frame rate CCD camera. The particular emphasis of the proposed Phase I program is to 1) extend the flexibility of the MHz imaging system by building an optimized optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to be pumped by the burst-mode laser, and 2) to demonstrate the utility of this OPO for MHz rate Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of the CH radical, an important combustion intermediate species. The Phase II program would build upon this demonstration and design novel ways of attaining high-framing rate measurements of the 2D velocity field, using techniques such as Planar Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) and Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), as well concentration measurements of other transient combustion species (e.g., OH, C2, etc.). The proposed quantitative high-framing-rate flow imaging system will provide unique capability for multidimensional scalar and velocity measurements in high speed, reacting flows. The proposed system has the potential to perform modern optical diagnostic measurements at Mhz rates.  ORMOND, LLC 1505 Central Avenue, South Kent, WA 98032 Phone: PI: Topic#: (253) 854-0796 Mr. Daniel G. Alberts AF 02-175 Selected for Award Title: Low Cost Flexible Method of Manufacturing Scramjet Engine Panels Abstract: This Phase I program will result in the availability of a reduced cost interim SCRAMJET engine panel manufacturing method to support current test/demonstration engine manufacturing phases of the HyTECH (Hypersonic Technology) Program. It will increase engine design options, provide a demonstration of the technical and economic feasibility, and lay the groundwork for implementing a needed new and novel manufacturing process to support future production engine orders. It is anticipated that the successful completion of the proposed Phase I and Phase II programs will result in a 90% panel production cost reduction from the current$76,000 per engine set. Ormond, LLC utilizes novel experimental abrasive waterjet tooling and processes to manufacture SCRAMJET ground demonstration engine cases with integral heat exchanger grooves. The proposed program addresses the advancement of the technology to make it feasible for economical machining of SCRAMJET panels. Although Ormond is currently capable of manufacturing acceptable engine case components in the laboratory, additional development work is required to advance current capabilities to derive a reliable, low cost manufacturing method and to increase the engineering design options that are available to advance the SCRAMJET engine technology in general. It is anticipated that the successful completion of the proposed Phase I and Phase II programs will result in a 90% panel production cost reduction from the current \$76,000 per engine set. Commercialization success is a high probability due to current support from the Pratt & Whitney Propulsion Group. The currently available manufacturing methods are economically and technically limited to the point of destroying the feasibility of the SCRAMJET concept. The proposed technology overcomes these limitations. A second aerospace application that has been successfully demonstrated using the technology is the machining of Channel Wall Combustors in commercial and defense rocket engines. Next generation Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) technology requires a cost effective method of machining a complex pattern of grooves in combustor liners. This application is a good fit for the ABMACH technology developed in the proposed program, but requires different adaptations of the tooling and process concepts. The development of ABMACH SCRAMJET and channel wall combustor machining technology adaptations in parallel is an excellent example of technology cross-cutting, where although each application has discrete requirements, the individual development of each supports the other. This is a dual use technology that will be commercialized in commercial and defense industries to support PEM fuel cell, heat exchanger and many others that depend on the availability of an economic method of creating grooves in difficult to machine materials.

 POWDERMET INC. 9960 Glenoaks Blvd, Unit A Sun Valley, CA 91352 Phone: PI: Topic#: (818) 768-6420 Mr. Andrew Sherman AF 02-175      Selected for Award Title: Aero Propulsion and Power Technology Abstract: This Phase I SBIR program will demonstrate the production of high temperature, high saturation inductance magnet materials and power converter circuit designs for directed energy laser power supplies. Powdermet will manufacture and characterize a series of articicially structured metallic magnets with controllable permeabilities and low losses at 300 C. These insulating ferromagnetic heterostructures resolve temperature limitations of ferrites enabling high efficiency directed energy power supplies to be produced and used without excessive cooling requirements. The proposed high temperature, tailorable permeability magnet materials will resolve performance limitations in directed energy power supplies. Commercial applications in induction motors, switch-mode power supplies,and fast selenoids will benefit from the technology.

 RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS 4325-B Forbes Blvd Lanham, MD 20706 Phone: PI: Topic#: (609) 580-0080 Mr. John Kline AF 02-175      Selected for Award Title: Magnetohydrodynamic Power Extraction in High Speed Flows using Nonequilibrium Ionization Abstract: Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI), with the aid of Princeton University, proposes to use non-thermal ionization of high-speed flows to achieve the first-ever demonstration of nonequlibrium magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power extraction for use onboard an aircraft. MHD power generation has been identified as a method of increasing the electrical power available for onboard systems, including directed energy weapons. Conventional high temperature seeded MHD methods are very problematic for flight speeds of less than Mach 12, because the temperature is simply insufficient at those Mach numbers, but non-thermal ionization is an attractive alternative. Electron beams are much more efficient at generating ionization than other conventional (electric field-generated) approaches. RSI will use highly innovative large area electron beam window arrays to provide a conduction path in a wind tunnel MHD channel as a Phase I proof of principle, while Princeton will provide modeling capabilities, as well as a Mach 5 wind tunnel facility equipped with a 6 Tesla superconducting magnet. Together, RSI and Princeton can provide the unique opportunity to model aerothermodynamic performance, vehicle scaling, and external flowpath, while also immediately demonstrating proof-of-principle of the concept of non-thermal ionization in high speed MHD power extraction. Non-thermal ionization in MHD flows provides a promising solution for aircraft applications, but a rapid proof-of-principal program is needed to move the technology forwards towards maturity. The target market will be strike and space access vehicles with high-power systems like directed energy weapons or plasma augmentation technologies. In addition, large area, low energy electron beams will provide solutions for safe, portable chemical and biological decontamination.

 CONVERGENCE ENGINEERING CORP. 1638 Finch Drive Gardnerville, NV 89410 Phone: PI: Topic#: (775) 782-7227 Dr. Rory R. Davis AF 02-176      Selected for Award Title: Improved Composite Duct Design for Increased Safety Margin or Weight Reduction Abstract: Practical methodologies will be developed to efficiently design nonlinear composite ducts and panels with large anomalies and cutouts for buckling. The analysis system to be devised will be automated and integrated into the ANSYS finite element code using its macro language capabilities, including optimization with parameterized shell and solid models of subject composite duct systems. Important features to be included in the analysis system are 1) geometric nonlinearity of panels due to initial or load induced curvature, and 2) buckling and snap-through. There is an opportunity here to improve the tools to expedite such design, to encourage the use of modern tools in general, and to greatly improve accuracy compared to commonly used approaches. Improved accuracy is absolutely critical to more optimized and lighter weight designs of composite structures being implemented for the good of the military and the nation. The tools to be developed under this project will also be useful for non military and non government applications, wherever composite structural optimization (and not just panels) is desired to minimize cost in concert with maximizing robustness. After the initial development, the analysis system will be readily adaptable to additional finite element codes besides ANSYS.

 AMERICAN TECHNOLOGY & SERVICES INC. 11311 Cornell Park Drive, Suite #124 Cincinnati, OH 45242 Phone: PI: Topic#: (513) 469-6789 Dr. Eike Richter AF 02-177      Selected for Award Title: Innovative Onboard Power and Cooling Solutions Abstract: The proposed effort will research development of an onboard 1 MW auxiliary power unit (APU) and cooling capability for installation on heavy aircraft. One important objective is that the total package that includes a generator, a prime mover, and an auxiliary compressor to weigh no more than 1400 lb. Such a solution does not currently exist. Development of technical objective is to be carried out employing a systems approach, keeping a focus on complete integration of all components, and balancing the impact of the APU on the current propulsion system. This innovation, once developed, could provide a lightweight, scaleable enabling power supply and cooling capability for special applications including countermeasures and directed energy weapons (DEW). All four major turbine engine companies have endorsed the effort (pp. 18-19) and are a part of the team. A direct benefit of this research will be development of a lightweight, optimized APU for the Air Force DEW activities. USAF has focused much of its attention on high-energy lasers (HEL) and high power microwave technologies (HPM), and regards the two as complementary to each other. In addition to destroying missiles, infrared countermeasures is another near term application for HEL. The development of sophisticated missile seekers able to discern between flares and target aircraft has prompted the Air Force to seek solutions that damage the missile seeker rather than simply jamming it. Similar DEW efforts are underway with the US Navy's mid-infrared advanced chemical laser (MIRACL) and the Army's nautilus/tactical HEL system. The approach for this research effort is to develop a lightweight and modular APU design that can be readily scaled up or down. It is likely that the turbine powered APU could provide a modularized power source for DOD's DEW and countermeasures activities, be it airborne, sea, or land based. As these first generation weapons yield to more compact, powerful and affordable 2nd and 3rd generation systems, we replace bullets/missiles with microwave and photon.

 INNOVATIVE POWER SOLUTIONS, LLC 22 Meridian Road, Suite 3 Eatontown, NJ 07724 Phone: PI: Topic#: (732) 544-1075 Mr. Scott Jacobs AF 02-177      Selected for Award Title: Innovative Onboard Power and Cooling Solutions Abstract: A power and cooling system, that could be installed on heavy aircrafts to support special applications including countermeasures and directed energy weapons is desirable. A continuous electrical output of one megawatt of 3 phase, 110 VAC at 400 Hz, in addition to 800 lbs/min of pressurized air at 50 psia, are required. An added benefit of this system is that it could serve as an auxiliary power unit on the ground, making the aircraft independent of any ground support equipment or generators driven by the main engine. The requirement to supply electrical power and cooling air on the ground and in the air, dictates that the system needs to perform from sea level to 40,000 ft altitude. Since this system is airborne, size and weight should be minimized to 1400 lbs. Innovative Power Solutions is proposing to explore among other options, a megawatt generator which is driven by a power turbine. The turbine can supply compressed air required for cooling in addition to driving the generator. A power system that will meet the requirements of this solicitation will enable heavy large aircrafts to operate out of remote fields, carry directed energy weapons and serve in both transportation and offensive roles. The effort described in this proposal has a significant opportunity for commercialization in both the commercial and military markets. The anticipated military application of these technologies is future insertion into heavy aircrafts with large cooling and power demands, or as a mobile electric power station that could power temporary bases away from home. The commercial market includes standby and mobile electrical power generation sources that could also supply cooling capabilities.

 STEWARD DAVIS INTERNATIONAL INC. 14705 Aetna Street Van Nuys, CA 91411 Phone: PI: Topic#: (818) 787-0146 Mr. Stanley W. Epstein AF 02-177      Selected for Award Title: Innovative Onboard Power and Cooling Solutions Abstract: Problem: Provide lightweight on board capability installed in heavy aircraft to generate 1000KVA electricity and 800lbsm/min of pressurized air at 50psia. Fuel cell technology is insufficiently mature for this purpose. System options: 1). Single turbo shaft engine/generator(s) combined with load compressor(s) sized to requirements. 2). Multiple turbo shaft engines (2 or more) driving synchronized generators and load compressors sized to requirements. 3). Multiple light weight (2 or more) turbo shaft engines with supplemented airflow at altitude (supercharged) driving synchronized generators and load compressors sized to requirements. 4). Integrated single shaft engine generator(s) as represented by SAE Paper 981281coupled with single or multiple load compressor(s). Each option includes: 1). Analysis and selection of optimum generators matched to available shaft power. 2). Develop methodologies for mating generator(s) and load compressor(s) to selected engines. 3). System integration and packaging i.e. enclosures, ducting, control system, fire suppression etc. and provision for delivering electrical power and pressurized air to the aircraft systems. 4). Weight reduction by modifying aircraft system components. Best value candidate(s) will be identified during first month. Research activity at SDII is underway. Best value candidate(s) concepts refined and developed during balance of Phase I. Anticipated Benefits: The technologies developed will provide an independent dedicated source of electric power and pressurized air for aircraft systems whether the aircraft itself is on the ground or airborne. The components of the system to be developed for continuous operation can be optimized for maximum efficiency. A separate system for electric power and pressurized air adds to overall aircraft system redundancy-enhancing safety. Aircraft performance increases, if only minimally, when main engines are utilized only for flight propulsion. No power drain for electricity and pressurized air. Certain military aircraft have requirements for electricity and pressurized air, which cannot be reasonably met by adding generators to main engines or allocating engine power to "bleed air". The proliferation of equipment and appliances added to aircraft require dedicated sources of electricity and pressurized air for safety and reliability, particularly in twin-engine airplanes. Potential Commercial Applications: Certain military aircraft with extraordinary requirements for electricity and pressurized air will use this technology. Commercial and military aircraft in development with their increasing needs for electric power and pressurized air to operate installed, on board, equipment can effectively utilize dedicated source for electricity and pressurized air independent of main engines. The equipment being developed by this program can be scaled up or down to provide an efficient supply of electric power and pressurized air to fit a variety of aircraft. As discussed elsewhere herein, SDII views the commercial requirements for this technology to be an emerging market, which SDII, with its past history, is particularly well equipped to exploit.

 REACTION ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL 77 West 200 South, Suite 210 Salt Lake City, UT 84101 Phone: PI: Topic#: (801) 364-6925 Dr. Christopher J. Montgomery AF 02-178      Selected for Award Title: Fuel Additives For Reduced Engine Emissions Abstract: Reaction Engineering International (REI) has assembled a team to develop fuel additives for reducing particulate emissions from gas-turbine engines. The primary focus is on military engines fueled by JP8 and JP5 but the additives would also be applicable to the commercial fleet of aircraft. The additives will have multiple functions: 1) to delay ignition thus providing greater premixing prior to combustion, 2) to suppress soot precursor formation, and 3) to enhance soot burnout kinetics. In Phase I, additives capable of providing these separate functions will be nominated by consultants to REI, Drs E.M.Eyring and B. Dunn of the University of Utah and Dan Dailey and David Forester of Lubrizol. These additives will be screened experimentally in a laboratory droplet-stream combustor at the University of Utah, and theoretically using well-stirred/plug-flow reactor networks of gas turbine engines including detailed chemical models of soot formation. A multi-functional additive combining the characteristics of the best of each class of additives, and satisfying the constraints imposed by cost and performance, will be nominated for synthesis and critical evaluation in Phase II of the program, including testing on a T-63 engine at Wright Patterson and CFD modeling of realistic engine configurations using a reduced chemical mechanism. The anticipated benefits of the proposed program include: 1) the development of low cost fuel additives for reducing emissions of fine particulates from gas turbine engines, and 2) development of a more fundamentally based numerical capability for prediction of soot emissions from gas turbines as well as for evaluation of the impacts of fuel additives on soot emissions The potential commercial applications include: 1) use of fuel additives developed under this program for suppressing soot emissions from both military and commercial aircraft engines, 2) application of commercially available and in-house CFD based software for gas turbine and diesel combustion for prediction of soot emissions utilizing reduced mechanisms for soot developed under this program, and 3) utilization of CFD based software for evaluating impacts of operational and equipment modifications on soot emissions from utility and industrial boilers.

 OCEAN OPTICS, INC. 380 Main Street Dunedin, FL 34698 Phone: PI: Topic#: (727) 733-2447 Dr. Mahmoud R. Shahriari AF 02-179      Selected for Award Title: Fiber Optic Oxygen Sensor for Fuel Tank Monitoring Abstract: Ocean Optics will determine the feasibility of using Plasma Assisted Surface Modification (PLASM) to add chemical resistance to its current fluorescence based oxygen sensor to meet the requirements of the fuel tank monitoring environment. The effort will focus on: Modifying our existing sol-gel formulation to eliminate the leaching of fluorescence material; Developing high performance overcoats of Teflon or other candidate materials to block armomatic hydrocarbon vapors; Perfecting fabrication techniques, materials and designs that provide a mechanically stable probe over the extremes of temperature and pressure encountered by aircraft. The results of Phase I studies will be used in Phase II to develop a flight worthy oxygen sensor that can be used with Onboard Inerting Systems to protect fuel tanks from explosions caused by ballistics, lightning or other sources of ignition. Successful development of an oxygen optical sensor that meets the fuel tank environment requirements will have direct impact on the safety of fuel tanks against explosions in both military as well as commercial jets. Ocean Optics and its commercial partners intend to develop an Onboard Fuel Tank Inerting System for commercial aircraft, to prevent accidents such as TWA 800 and ValueJet. The oxygen sensor is a critical component of this system. Military applications include combat aircraft, in-flight refueling tankers, and the M1 tank. The sensor will also be sold for polymer process control, modified air packaging for pharmaceuticals and foods and in-vivo medical use.

 POLESTAR TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 220 Reservoir Street, Suite 32 Needham Hgts, MA 02494 Phone: PI: Topic#: (781) 449-2284 Dr. James A. Kane AF 02-181      Selected for Award Title: Fuel Tank Ullage Oxygen Sensor for Live-Fire Ballistic Testing Abstract: The proposed research will investigate the development of a new optical oxygen monitor for aircraft fuel tanks. A new chemically resistant sensing membrane is described which, when the used with fluorescence lifetime quenching, is expected to provide a robust, lightweight system capable of inherently stable oxygen readings within the tank ullage. The feasibility of the new monitor will be demonstrated during the Phase I effort which will conclude with a field test of a prototype system at the Fire Safety Research and Development center of the Federal Aviation Administration. Stable oxygen sensing systems, like that proposed for the fuel tank ullage application, have considerable commercial potential in several areas including industrial-, bioprocess- and environmental-monitoring, as well as biotechnological research, and drug development. The proposed oxygen sensor is particularly well suited for application in these areas where the need exists for monitoring equipment that is easy to use, reliable and readily adaptable to the particular requirements of the application.

 IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC 125 Tech Park Drive Rochester, NY 14623 Phone: PI: Topic#: (814) 861-6273 Mr. Carl S. Byington AF 02-182      Selected for Award Title: Advanced Ultra-High Frequency Vibration Monitoring for Improved Turbine Engine Diagnostics and Prognostics Abstract: Impact Technologies, in cooperation with Epoch Engineering, Rolls Royce, and Honeywell propose to develop and demonstrate a unique vibration monitoring system that integrates high fidelity, acoustic emissions data from a laser interferometer with intelligent feature extraction and fault isolation algorithms to effectively manage fleet-wide turbine engine vibration. The system will be capable of reporting on the early detection and progression of faults by utilizing the laser-based, acoustic frequency measurements for improved, incipient anomaly detection and the traditional bearing frequencies and higher-order harmonics for tracking fault progression as it transitions from low to higher severity levels. The system will focus on utilizing and fusing data from test cells during engine pass-off, initial airframe installation and problem investigations from installed engines to compile a comprehensive database for robust fault identification that continually improves as engines in the fleet are tested. The utilization of wideband, spectral vibration information can provide improved up-to-date assessments of engine health and predictions of component damage for use in automated maintenance and logistics systems. The gas turbine engine vibration monitoring technologies proposed herein will address the existing O&M goals for current USAF engines, as well as those set forth by the USAF's VAATE Intelligent Engines initiative, specifically to reduce engine removal rates by 50% and the time to diagnose faults by 75%. The high bandwidth strategies and specific algorithms to be implemented are based on comprehensive knowledge of how military engines are operated and maintained, as well as how rotordynamic faults develop and propagate over the life of an engine. With the team's knowledge of rotordynamic engine faults, the optimal set of ultra high frequency features and conventional bearing fault frequency features will be determined. These features will be integrated in a state-of-the-art vibration monitoring system that will not only identify faults more confidently and at an earlier stage, but also predicts the time to failure or a degraded condition worthy of maintenance action. The Ultra High Frequency Prognostic System will enable critical engine component health management in military and commercial applications. Using high frequency techniques will allow diagnoses and prognoses to be made more confidently and at an earlier stage. Costly inspection routines and premature component replacements can also be avoided using the prognostic technologies developed under this program. The proposed system shall improve the understanding of engine health, extend time on wing, help maintain engine performance and provide a comprehensive vibration database so crucial to advancing the state of engine health management. Commercial applications for the measurement, processing, and predictive techniques developed can be realized on any machinery health monitoring application in the electrical generation industries, chemical processing industries, commercial aviation as well as gas transmission and oil industries.

 WILLIAMS-PYRO,INC. 2721 White Settlement Rd Fort Worth, TX 76107 Phone: PI: Topic#: (817) 335-1147 Dr. James Kim AF 02-182      Selected for Award Title: Advanced Vibration Monitoring Diagnostics and Prognostics Techniques Abstract: The objective of this proposal is to revolutionize turbine engine vibration monitoring and health assessment by developing a system to perform accurate, reliable, vibration-based, real-time monitoring while recording at least 20 hours of health signatures for further analysis. This proposed system will use a combination of several technologies: (1) turbine engine computer models such as Finite Element Models, (2) a micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) accelerometer, (3) digital signal processing using Wavelet transform and decomposition, (4) Artificial Neural Networks to categorize turbine component faults, (5) wireless technology for sensor network and data communication, and (6) user friendly graphic user interfacing (GUI) technology. To provide diagnostic and prognostic capabilities and reduce the false alarm rate to zero, Williams-Pyro. Inc. will apply the latest technologies such as (1) Phase-Locked Loop for Transient Speed, (2) Wavelet Analysis, (3) a Neural Network reasoning system, (4) Fracture Mechanics based on a Finite Element Model, and (5) Wideband Micro Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS). Using recent technologies, WPI's proposed system can greatly reduce the time and monetary investments necessary to perform aircraft maintenance and ensure that turbine engine components do not fail during flight and/or operation. Commercialization at WPI is generally a 5-part process. The first step is to host a product demonstration at WPI's in-house laboratory for the U.S. Air Force. The feedback from this demonstration will be a great benefit for commercialization, as the advanced vibration monitoring system can be updated and improved early in the commercialization process. Second, our system will undergo a field and flight test on suggested engine systems such as JSF, P&W F117 for the C17. The third step is a trial production to supply a test market. The Air Force test market using the advanced vibration monitoring system will provide invaluable feedback regarding performance of the system under the conditions for which it was designed. Fourth, WPI's marketing department will investigate alternative product applications. The final commercialization step is full production and product launch. Once full production is underway, we will pursue partnerships with aircraft equipment manufacturers such as Lockheed Martin to allow their products to reach end-users pre-equipped with our vibration monitoring system. With more than 200 products on the market, WPI possesses the experience, expertise, and resources to drive this solution from the concept level to a commercialized product.

 M-DOT AEROSPACE 3418 South 48th Street, Ste. 3 Phoenix, AZ 85040 Phone: PI: Topic#: (480) 752-1911 Mr. Frank Holman AF 02-183      Selected for Award Title: Small, Low Cost, High Performance Engines for Miniature Munitions Abstract: We propose to design and develop a turbine-driven fan module that will attach to the exhaust duct of an expendable turbojet converting it into an aft-fan turbofan. Depending upon selected bypass ratio, thrust can be increased as much as 70% and TSFC can be reduced more than 50%. The complete fan unit would weigh roughly 4-5 lbs and provide significant increase in range and/or mission duration. Design will be similar to the GE CF-700 and to an aft-fan module that M-DOT designed for the Army for the Allison-Rolls Model 150 turbojet. The Army augmenter design is scalable to roughly 44% of its current size to be under 6 inches diameter. In Phase I, mission requirements and core engine data will be obtained. Trade studies of throttle settings, bypass ratios and fan pressure ratios will be conducted and a design point selected. Flowpath geometry will be created. The existing Army augmentor will be used as a baseline for preliminary hardware design and creation of a cross-sectional layout. Weight and production cost will be estimated. At Phase I conclusion, a preliminary design will exist that can be structurally analyzed in detail, fabricated and tested in Phase II. This program will yield a heavy-fueled propulsion system with a significant improvement in TSFC over existing turbojets. This system will have application on any small powered UAV or munition and could improve performance of MALD, LOCAAS, Bird-Dog and other small UAVs and munitions. The USAF Miniature Munition (MM) Phase III program could utilize up to 12,000 of these powerplants over a period of 9 years.

 MOHAWK INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC. 1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road Albany, NY 12205 Phone: PI: Topic#: (518) 860-4290 Dr. Hooshang Heshmat AF 02-183      Selected for Award Title: Small, Low Cost, High Performance Engines for Miniature Munitions Abstract: One of the weapons systems currently in development for the F-22 Air Superiority Fighter and the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), is the Powered Low Cost Autonomous Attack System(P-LOCAAS). This small, smart munition, will be carried internally in weapon bays to maintain A/C low observability, and will incorporate standoff capabilities, allowing the aircraft to launch the weapon at a target from a distance to avoid risk. A critical component of this weapon system is the 30 - 50 pound thrust class turbojet engine used to power it to the target. This same thrust class turbojet engine is also utilized in the Miniature Air Launched Decoy (MALD). The objective of this SBIR proposal is to begin development of a totally oil-free turbojet incorporating Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc. (MiTir) Oil-Free Compliant Foil Hydrodynamic journal and thrust bearings. Advances in the capabilities of these bearings have now made it possible to totally eliminate the engine lubrication system, reducing engine weight, complexity, and bearing power loss, while increasing range, loiter time, efficiency, maintainability and reliability, as well as greatly simplifying and enhancing storability. Rarely does an opportunity present itself that has this same potential to advance the state-of-the-art of propulsion systems. Incorporation of oil-free air bearings into a turbine engine will eliminate weight, cost and complexity of both commercial and military aircraft turbine engines in various thrust classes, while greatly improving reliability. Other applications that will benefit from this technology include power generation of micro-turbines, high speed compressors, pumps, turbo-expanders, turbochargers and other turbo-machinery.

 HYPERCOMP, INC. 31255 Cedar Valley Drive, Suite 327 Westlake Village, CA 91362 Phone: PI: Topic#: (818) 865-3718 Dr. Ramakanth Munipalli AF 02-184      Selected for Award Title: A design environment for plasma and magneto-aerodynamics Abstract: HyPerComp, Inc., a leader in physics-based high performance computing proposes to apply advanced numerical tools to enhance understanding of plasma applications in future military and civilian missions. A focussed effort in the development and demonstration of advanced numerical techniques and solutions pertaining to equilibrium as well as nonequilibrium MHD applications is currently underway at HyPerComp under AFOSR sponsorship. The existing capability will serve as the platform upon which the proposed activity in plasma applications will be developed. The need for high fidelity numerical tools for accurate prediction of plasma properties is also prevalent in industries other than aerospace. Plasma interactions with electromagnetic fields, and the propagation of various forms of radiation through plasma layers is of considerable current interest. Code development activities in the present team encompass a range from equilibrium seeded air to unseeded air with basic thermochemical nonequilibrium and then on to integrated Navier-Stokes and Maxwell equation solvers. The additional range of physical phenomena to be investigated in this proposal represents a significant contribution to the present technological readiness. The use of plasma and MHD systems in flow control offers a mechanically and economically more feasible alternative to variable geometry concepts in supersonic propulsion. This is due to the effect of the MHD force on the flow without the movement of control surfaces. The beneficial use of these concepts could extend to all parts of high speed flight, from auxiliary power generation to enhanced mixing, boundary layer transition and thrust vector control, bringing commercial hypersonic flight closer to reality. The development of lighter and cheaper magnets and ionization systems in recent years makes this rejuvenation of interest in MHD particularly exciting.

 ALLCOMP INC. 209 Puente Ave. City of Industry, CA 91746 Phone: PI: Topic#: (626) 369-4572 Mr. Wei Shih AF 02-185      Selected for Award Title: Composite Bearing Cage for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications Abstract: The next-generation of military and commercial turbine engines will operate at higher speeds; higher pressure-ratio and higher cycle temperature to achieve increased power and engine efficiency. As a result, advanced bearings capable of operating above 3.0 MDN under severe loading are required. Carbon-Carbon (C-C) bearing cages were developed jointly by AFRL/PRTM and Mr. Wei Shih of Allcomp (formerly with Goodrich) to address requirements of an advanced supersonic missile engine. The invention was covered by US Patent 5,752,773 and was licensed to Allcomp Inc by the Air Force in September 2001. A lightweight, high-temperature, low-expansion C-C cage holds the key to reducing the heat generation and in improving bearing reliability in high-speed systems, including advanced turbine engines. In addition, a self-lubricating C-C cage provides significant weight and cost reduction to small gas turbine engines by providing critical bearing technology that allows designers to eliminate the conventional liquid lubricant system. In this effort, we propose to conduct a technology development program under SBIR funding in parallel with on-going prototype C-C cage testing programs being funded under various Engine Development, CRADA, and IRAD efforts. The proposed program will focus on design and fabrication related issues that are needed to support successful and enduring insertion of C-C cage into wide range military applications. Specifically, we plan to focus our effort on reducing cost and manufacturing lead-time, while improving product quality and design methodology. This proposed effort will address technical issues systematically and will provide timely technical supports to all on-going and future C-C cage qualification tests. A successful product insertions in the military sector will lead to full product commercialization.

 TECHLAND RESEARCH, INC. 28895 Lorain Road, Suite 201 North Olmsted, OH 44070 Phone: PI: Topic#: (440) 716-9077 Mr. Bobby W. Sanders AF 02-185      Selected for Award Title: Airflow Controller and Isolator for Pulse Detonation Engines Abstract: A revolutionary airflow controller and isolator for application with a high-speed inlet and a pulse detonation engine (PDE) is proposed. This innovation has the potential of providing a solution to the unique airflow matching problem imposed by the integration of a PDE with a high-speed inlet. The cyclic (on/off) characteristic in the PDE airflow demand imposes a severe airflow matching problem for the inlet. The proposed concept will serve to control the airflow to the detonation chambers, provide