---------- DARPA ----------

49 Phase I Selections from the 02.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
TIME DOMAIN CORPORATION
7057 Old Madison Pike
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9229
Dr. Neshet Akozbek
DARPA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Continous Wave Terahertz Source
Abstract:The electromagnetic spectrum in the band between 100 GHz and 20 THz is the terahertz regime, which lies between the microwave and infrared spectral regions. In the past the terahertz regime was too high for affordable devices, dueto the technological limits in reducing the size of components as frequency increases, so researchers have applied photonic techniques to generate radiation in this regime. We propose to use multiple layer semiconductor photonic band gap structures (PBG) to efficiently generate THz radiation via frequency down conversion by the nonlinear mixing process of two nearly degenerate laser beams. By tuning the two input frequencies close the band edge resonance frequencies the two field are significantly enhanced. We expect a significant enhanced THz conversion efficiency. The success of the project will give the ability to generate THz radiation with low power compact devices, which then can be utilized for many practical commercial applications.

MORGAN RESEARCH CORPORATION
4811A Bradford Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 533-3233
Mr. Michael Kranz
DARPA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:LCP-Based Packaging of Exposed MEMS Sensors
Abstract:Over many years of development, the microelectronics industry yielded a broad set of advanced microelectronics packaging techniques. These techniques have been designed to increase the reliability of microelectronic devices under harsh operating conditions by isolating the devices from the environment. However, these techniques are unsuitable for environmental MEMS sensors that require exposure to the environment. Humidity sensors and chemical sensors are two examples of MEMS sensors requiring this exposure. To meet the packaging needs of these devices, new package designs, packaging materials, and packaging techniques will be required. This Phase I effort will create package designs based on new materials and packaging techniques that will enhance the reliability of exposed MEMS sensors. Phase I will consist of materials compatibility studies, the development of package designs and concepts, and performance of prototype experiments to verify aspects of concept feasibility. A successful Phase I will lead to a Phase II effort that will develop prototype packages suitable for environmental testing and screening, as well as result in packaged MEMS sensors exposed to the environment. The packaging technologies developed under this effort will find application to a broad range of DoD and commercial applications that require exposed MEMS sensors. DoD applications include environmental monitoring suites, missile health monitoring devices, and chemical warfare detection for unmanned ground vehicles and other antiterrorism systems. Commercial applications would include automotive and engine health monitoring, industrial process control, and manufacturing facility monitoring. In addition, these packaging techniques would aid in the insertion of chemical and biological sensors into security systems in airlines, arenas, and other public areas.

EUREKA AEROSPACE, LLC
400 Continental Blvd, 6th Floo
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 426-2160
Dr. James Tatoian
DARPA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Bistatic Terrain Scattering Model for Microwave SAR Simulation
Abstract:Eureka Aerospace proposes to develop bistatic terrain scattering models to be later implemented into bistatic SAR simulator. The models will describe scattering from bare earth and from foliage. All models will cover L-band through Ku-band scattering at arbitrary polarization. The bare earth model will be based on fractal geometry, while the foliage model will be based on scattering from collection of the objects having canonical shapes such as discs, needles representing different parts of foliage, both superimposed on facets, where the orientation of facets is determined by the earth surface local topography. The models will be capable of assigning a surface roughness with prescribed probability density function, where the standard deviation of terrain height profiles and correlation length of the terrain are used as input parameters. The small and large-scale characterization of the scattering will result in the inclusion of the speckle phenomenon in the image. Ultimately, the simulator, which will be based on the developed models, will be capable of using the available DTEDs as an input file along with land cover databases. Bistatic models and simulator have the potential of enhancing Eureka Aerospace's performance prediction capabilities in various commercial and governmental/military applications, topomap and image generation, detection and localization of landmines/UXO,dry wells and and other subsurface targets.

POLATIN CORPORATION
57 Janet Terrace
New Hartford, NY 13413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 731-9433
Dr. Paul F. Polatin
DARPA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Physics-Based Bistatic Radar Simulation of Terrain
Abstract:The research described in this proposal is intended to provide the basis for the development of an accurate bistatic radar scene simulator for terrain. The specific purpose of the proposed work is to formulate reliable and computationally efficient scattering models, and the general structure of a database interface, for use in a bistatic SAR terrain mapper. Using the formulation and physics-based models that are the intended product of the work outlined in this proposal it should be possible to synthesize realistic bistatic terrain signatures. The ultimate objective of the proposed work is the development of a comprehensive set of computational models and database inputs that would be developed into a commercial software package for use in the prediction and analysis of SAR terrain map data. The overall commercialization plan may include integration of the advanced scene modeling capability into a suite of software tools currently being developed for use in remote sensing, targeting and RF/wireless layout applications.

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Dr. James Menders
DARPA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Spectrally Efficient mm-wave Radio-on-Fiber (PR02-431)
Abstract:We propose to demonstrate the key components for 38 GHz mm-wave digital radio-on-fiber optical link with high spectral efficiency: photonic mm-wave modulators and demodulators. Such links show promise as a means to remote large numbers of inexpensive antennas needed for micro- and pico-cell wireless networks. Our modulator concept is based on the IPITEK photonic mm-wave generator whose low frequency noise and low phase noise characteristics will increase spectral efficiency by allowing tight spacing of channels in allocated bands and high M-ary phase modulation. Mm-wave RoF systems are especially useful to military communications systems developers who seek to achieve a low probability-of-intercept (LPI) characteristic by exploiting the propagation characteristics of mm-wave signals. The low diffraction and/or attenuation of mm-waves during atmospheric transmission allows the establishment of well defined cells. RoF links are a natural means for establishing LPI links between well defined but separated cells and antenna remoting. There is an expanding need for short-range cellular communications networks, like the picocell configuration popular in Japan and Europe. It is estimated that by the beginning of 2005, there will be 1 billion mobile phone users, with the vast majority also using the Internet. Mobile and Internet services will converge as people depend on both technologies. To enable such, a vast increase in system capacity is needed. To meet this need, the industry trend is to provide a solution in base stations that serve smaller regions, called micro- and picocells. These base stations are used to provide increased capacity in cell sizes ranging from a few hundred meters to a kilometer. Our radio-on-fiber central station equipment will sharply reduce the cost of deploying large numbers of base stations for picocell networks. The large numbers of base stations needed by a picocell network provides a strong impetus for minimizing their cost. One architecture minimizing base station cost uses radio-on-fiber to remote the picocell antennas. Here, fiberoptic cable is used to transmit an optical signal originated at a central station bearing a ready-to-broadcast mm-wave signal. (Electrical transmission of such a ready-to-broadcast signal is impractical because of high cable attenuation at mm-wave frequencies.) Then, the base station consists of little more than a photodetector, amplifier and antenna.

PHOTERA TECHNOLOGIES
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 755-8855
Mr. Eric Takeuchi
DARPA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Millimeter-wave Optical Dense Multiplexing (MODM)
Abstract:The demand for broadband communications continues to proliferate throughout both the military and commercial sectors. Configurations employing wireless links between platforms represent one subset of the communications space, and fill the need where hardwired connections are impractical. Because of the spectral congestion within the lower frequency bands, exploitation of the millimeter wave (mm-wave) band is of great interest. At the same time, the use of mm-wave carriers enables the transmission of high-data-rate information. Photera Technologies, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego, proposes a photonic mm-wave modulator/demodulator system which promises to meet these demands. Aptly named, Millimeter-wave Optical Dense Multiplexing (MODM), this technology marries a low-phase-noise photonic mm-wave generator with an opto-electronic mixer to provide the backbone of a broadband wireless communications network. The resulting high-purity generation of mm-wave signals will yield efficient modulation formats and encoding techniques while simultaneously providing densely multiplexed configurations in a spectrally efficient architecture. The development of the MODM technology will have a profound impact on the military and commercial marketplaces. This technology will result in the union of several advantageous technologies; namely, WDM, low-noise photonic mm-wave generation, spectrally-efficient modulation (eg. PSK), secure encoding (eg. CDMA) and efficient optical-to-electronic conversion. Potential applications of the MODM technology lie within future photonic wireless networks, including residential/industrial last mile solutions (FTTC/FTTH), Local Multipoint Distribution Service, and military theater-wide communications.

COGNITECH, INC.
225 South Lake Avenue, Suite 601
Pasadena, CA 91101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 796-0326
Dr. Lenny Rudin
DARPA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Mathematical Methods for Video Registration in Autonomous Navigation Applications
Abstract:A system and the computational framework is proposed for the real-time video processing of single or multiple video camera feeds from the UAV platform, for the purpose of a computer aided ("pilot assistant") or the fully autonomous planning and execution of aircraft approach and landing procedures. While the system does not require any additional positioning instrumentation on board (e.g. GPS, IMU, etc.), the availibility of such data can be utilized effectively to increase the geometrical accuracy and the speed of computation. The critical components of the system are Cognitech's fast contrast-invariant projective registration, a runway and the horizon extraction based on the recently developed theory of meaningful alignments, fully automatic camera calibration in the presence of strong distortions, the non-linear multi-frame photogrammetry (videogrammetry) for an accurate geometrical estimation of runway vs. aircraft positioning and flight-path planning. The validation and calibration procedures are specified for experimental verification of the accuracy of the geometric parameters estimation. Advanced automation for aircraft landing, collison avoidance, aerial traffic management systems, utilization of refurbished military aircraft for unmanned tasks. Surveying automation for geographical information systems.

IMAGECORP, INC
6411 Ivy Lane #106
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 220-2123
Dr. Chandra Shekhar
DARPA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Mathematical Methods for Video Registration in Autonomous Navigation Applications
Abstract:Conventional methods for image registration tend to be restrictive, fragile, and computationally intractable, and not easily applicable to real-time video-to-reference registration. ImageCorp, Inc. proposes a novel approach to this problem, based on the present and past work of Prof. Rama Chellappa's group at the University of Maryland and at ImageCorp, Inc. First, an initial alignment is computed using platform and sensor parameters, if available. This is followed by two complementary feature-based methods, the first relying on point correspondence, and the second on global feature attributes. Methods are proposed for real-time performance self-evaluation. Phase I work will involve design of the overall system, and implementation of candidate registration algorithms. In Phase II, a prototype version of the system, capable of robust, autonomous and real-time sub-pixel registration of video to reference imagery will be developed. Potential military applications of this project are in autonomous navigation, UAVs, MAVs, UUVs, battlefield damage assessment, surveillance and security. Commercial applications include search and rescue missions, environmental monitoring, disaster relief, archeological studies and exploration etc.

MD BIOTECH, INC.
511 Burroughs Street
Morgantown, WV 26505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 598-1101
Dr. Chris Kolanko
DARPA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Concepts for Soldier Centric Technology in Non-Traditional Combat Casualty Care
Abstract:Non-Invasive Ocular Toxicity Assessment Instrumentation (NOTAI) is an automated diagnostic approach to medical testing and treatment that merges decades of ocular research into a single machine, bringing the expertise of the ophthalmologist to any locations. The development of this technology will usher in a new age of treatment, reducing time, safety, and the expense normally associated with a blood test or other invasive testing protocol. These instruments, in a variety of simplified forms, can be developed to look for specific conditional anomalies, or in a more complex form, NOTAI instruments can be used to detect and diagnose a broad range of health affecting conditions, including those associated with neurotoxins or other chemical agents. The invention will most likely exist as a stable diagnostic unit similar to a setup found in ophthalmology. The sensor element would preferably exist as a digital camera, but the options of video CCD cameras, CMOS devices, simple arrays of photo-detectors, film, or others also apply. The sensor element can be selected to be sensitive to target portions of the light spectrum and should provide adequate to the task. Filters can be utilized to further vary light spectrum selectivity. A means for analyzing images would preferably exist as a computer, but could also including custom designed circuits for smaller, more portable, versions of the technology. Instruments, in a variety of simplified forms, can be developed to look for specific agents: such as lead in school-aged children, changes in a cancer patients medicine to include a vast range of chemical exposure, biological agents, and other water.

STERICON, INC
1725 Claiborne Ave
Shreveport, LA 71103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(318) 425-2515
Dr. John R. Dankert
DARPA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Concepts for Soldier-Centric Technology in Non-Traditional Combat Casualty Care
Abstract:A wound to a warfighter presents problems in terms of immediate combat effectiveness and possible incapacitation due to loss of fluids, or contamination of the wound by pathogens, toxins, or other incapacitating agents. Wound management and combat effectiveness benefits when the healing process can begin immediately. A system that would allow the warfighter to self-treat the wound in isolation or austere environments, without fear of doing additional harm, would provide the most rapid means maintain persistence in combat and better long term recovery. Stericon, Inc has a system that could provide the warfighter with such a system through the use of a wound care solution that we have established is antimicrobial, and is expected to be effective, safe, and easy to use by non-medical personnel to serve as a wound healing accelerant. Stericon, Inc seeks to develop and commercialize a wound healing accelerant for use by soldiers that is safe and easy to use, low cost, and effective at maintaining the combat effectiveness of the individual. This system could be used in households and hospitals to inhibit the spread of infection while promoting the healing of acute and chronic wounds. The safety of the system is attractive for these markets in that no special or medical training is required to use the product, and the product is not dangerous even if misused.

THE TECHNICAL BASIS LLC
24769 Redlands Blvd., Suite F
Loma Linda, CA 92354
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 478-9939
Dr. Robert J. Fitzsimmons
DARPA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Concepts for Soldier-Centric Technology in Non-Traditional Combat Casualty Care
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to determine whether a low-energy electromagnetic field (EMF) can be designed to stimulate cells involved in wound healing (fibroblasts) or the immune system (monocytes). Preliminary data indicates growth factor receptors on bone cells can be selectively activated with custom designed EMF signals. Using this same technology, customized EMF signals will be designed to activate basic fibroblast growth factor receptors for stimulation of fibroblasts. A second EMF signal will be designed to activate interleukin 1 receptors for stimulation of monocytes. A method for activating specific growth factor receptors using an applied low-energy electromagnetic field (EMF) has numerous commercial applications. An EMF-based device for stimulating wound healing can be used for acute injuries such as those a soldier may experience in the field or chronic injuries as occurs in elderly patients or in diabetic patients. An EMF-based device for stimulating the immune system can be used in any situation that poses a challenge to the immune system such as infectious diseases, surgery, bullet wounds and extreme conditions.

MOHAWK INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Dr. Hooshang Heshmat
DARPA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Quality Water Lubrication of Special Triboceramics, Alloys and Self-Lubricating Composites
Abstract:Steam technology dating back to the 19th century has been shown to be effective in both propulsion and power generating systems, but was of low efficiency. As newer materials are being developed, higher performing, smaller systems or even novel machines that break current molds such as microscale space propulsion systems or portable power generating systems are possible. Combining a 19th century technology with the advanced materials, design tools and manufacturing processes of the 21st century could truly result in revolutionary new steam applications. A sound understanding and tribological data base is needed to ensure the success of these machines. The overall objective of this program is to establish the tribological foundations for advanced water lubricated meso/macroscale steam engines. This goal will be achieved by determining the load, speed, temperature dependent friction and wear of triboceramics, b) metal alloys resistant to gross water-induced corrosion, and c) other self-lubricating materials such as certain forms of carbons, graphites and polymeric composites. One of MiTi's specialized, high-speed, in-house tribometers will be modified to accommodate Phase I and Phase II friction and wear testing under 100C steam. Tribological characterization of ceramic/metal/composite materials is essential to the development of durable steam engines. Besides military applications, commercial steam engines will have worldwide potential, especially in emerging nations due to the multi-fuel capability of the external combustion systems. The established tribometers also represent a commercial opportunity for others to characterize the materials as well. Materials tribological testing services also represent an opportunity.

YANKEE SCIENTIFIC, INC.
93 West St.
Medfield, MA 02052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 359-7999
Dr. Eric C. Guyer
DARPA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Quality Water Lubrication of Special Triboceramics, Alloys and Self-Lubricating Composites
Abstract:A program of materials identification and testing is proposed to support the development of advanced water-lubricated steam engine systems. Yankee Scientific is the leading US developer of advanced small-scale water/steam power technology. Yankee Scientific's work in this area is supported by the DOD for self-powered portable field kitchens and by a consortium of companies that have a large share of current US market for residential heating appliances. Yankee Scientific's advances are in the miniaturization, simplification, and cost reduction of system components through the use of a two-phase working fluid and an oil-free positive-displacement scroll expander. The proposed project directly addresses existing needs to characterize the wear performance of seal and bearing materials in the environment of high temperature and pressure water/steam mixtures, where the use of traditional lubricants is impractical. The data and instruments developed in this program will provide important technical support to the development of a wide range of engines and energy systems using water as the working fluid. Design of seals and bearings without complications of traditional lubricants is critical and little data currently exists for appropriate materials operating in a high temperature and pressure water environment.

CRYSTALIZ, INC.
9 Damon Mill Square, Suite 4D
Concord, MA 01742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 371-0404
Mr. Gordon Dakin
DARPA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:A Web Site Misinformation Detection System
Abstract:The proposed project concerns the design and development of a Web Site Misinformation Detection System for automatically reviewing web sites to identify intentionally misleading information. In the proposed approach, a relational ontology of web site categories and semantic entities is populated by autonomous agents capable of searching the web for documents of preselected domains and extracting semantic information from their content. Supervised learning techniques are employed to classify and differentiate web sites and document entities by their statistical and relational charecteristics. The system's acquired knowledge of domain-specific web site characteristics and patterns is then used to identify anomalies and inconcistencies in novel web sites. Web sites exhibiting a high degree of deviation from characteristics more typical of their category are further subjected to temporal monitoring, to identify temporal inconsistencies and confirm the presence of fraudulent information. Fraud detection; Supply chain; Supplier Qualifications

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-3500
Mr. Josh Powers
DARPA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Detecting Misleading Information
Abstract:The problem of detecting intentionally misleading information in open sources requires accurate classification of the consistency of that information. Consistency can be measured internally to the information as well as by reference to background knowledge. IET proposes a combination of natural language processing techniques and Bayesian classification to identify the fundamental characteristics of consistency for a selected domain. Assertions will be extracted from each piece of source information. These assertions will be compared to each other to assess their mutual consistency. Then, queries which can be issued against open sources of background knowledge will be created for each assertion. These queries will be run, and their results analyzed to provide external consistency measures. The combinations of assertions, queries and answers will then be used to construct a Bayesian Network which will be trained to correctly classify the source information with respect to misleading content. The nodes of this network will identify the characteristics that will reliably predict consistency. The proliferation of open sources and the Internet for every commercial market provides conveniences for consumers as well as opportunities for criminals. It also provides unprecedented opportunities for law enforcement, regulatory and other oversight agencies to review, analyze, identify, and prosecute such fraudulent behavior. Examples of markets that IET has identified for our technology include insurance fraud, resume/background claims, healthcare fraud, and Internet fraud in general as well as securities fraud via the Internet.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION (DBA KTS)
3260 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 320-8888
Dr. Stephen Westfold
DARPA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:DANDE: deductive anomaly detection with program synthesis
Abstract:Deductive methods are applied to detect qualitative anomalies that may act as predictors of terrorist attacks. Diverse online information sources are coordinated by specifying their capabilities in a logical theory. Symbols in the theory are linked to procedures that can consult the appropriate sources. Norms of expected behavior are also expressed in the logical theory. An automatic inference system continuously seeks contradictions in the theory, each of which corresponds to an anomaly. A witness-finding mechanism allows an explanation of each anomaly to be presented to the human analyst. The same apparatus can be used to answer queries. The negation of the query is asserted as a fact. If a contradiction to that fact is inferred, that can be used to answer the original question. If a norm is expressed too loosely, an abundance of false positives will suggest that it be phrased more precisely, which can be done without reprogramming the system. If detecting an anomaly requires a significant amount of database operations, an SQL program will be synthesized that performs those operations. The proposed system combines software for theory composition, deductive inference, and agent brokering, unified by the Specware system. Commercial applications exist for fraud detection and corporate security. A group of proven and nascent technologies will be integrated to build the framework for constructing a family of highly automated anomaly detection systems both for national homeland defense and for commercial security. The research in Phase I will already produce a small demonstration prototype for a government agency. The research will be highly leverageable into a wide range of application cores and a service industry to help both government and industry to customize them to specific needs.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOCIATES, INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Mr. Terrance Goan
DARPA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Automating the Application of Deception Detection Heuristics to Open Sources
Abstract:We propose to construct an intelligent software agent system for identifying misleading information, called Skeptic, atop a foundation of domain-independent heuristics collected and refined during decades of study of successful human detectors of deception. The heuristics will provide our Skeptic system with a significant advantage over purely inductive methods by allowing it to exploit the adversarial nature of this problem to effectively anticipate actions of the adversary and inform an evidential reasoning system. Skeptic will be the first deception detection system to employ information extraction to allow the detection of misleading information from Web sites and other open sources. Further, Skeptic's ability to adapt over time (in the presence of its domain independent heuristics) means it can be deployed early, and mature as the understanding of the problem matures. SHAI presents the opportunity for quick progress due to our existing set of applicable technologies in the areas of information extraction, evidential reasoning, and data/text mining. Phase I research and development of a research prototype will allow us to verify the feasibility of our approach to identifying misleading information and will lay the groundwork for the Phase II implementation of a complete prototype of Skeptic. The proposed technology could be applied to the problem of detecting Medicare or stock fraud, as well as competitive intelligence gathering and decision support for financial auditors and human resource managers.

TERAGRAM CORPORATION
236 Huntington Avenue #302
Boston, MA 02115
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 369-0124
Dr. Yves Schabes
DARPA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Detecting Misleading Information
Abstract:The purpose of this Phase I SBIR project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a complete workbench for detecting misleading information in vast amount of open sources including large amounts of textual information as found on the web. The workbench will demonstrate the ability to detect information that is inaccurate, implausible or inconsistent, especially when such inaccuracy has been stated intentionally. The novelty of the approach consists of applying numerical fraud detection techniques to linguistic and semantic features automatically extracted from unstructured text using the state-of-the-art and scalable linguistic technologies designed by Teragram Corporation. These include concepts and event extraction, parsing, categorization and semantic interpretation technologies, all of which have been deployed by Teragram customers at the size of the Internet. The techniques for detecting intentionally misleading information from textual documents as found in open sources such as the Internet are useful not only for military intelligence but also for commercial applications. Military intelligence need to identify potential threats of groups and individuals which communicate or publish information via open sources. Knowledge extraction applications using the information found on the Internet all assume that the information is accurate and does not contain incorrect or misleading information. Such applications include, among many others, corporate data collection, corporate intelligence gathering, question-answering systems, search engine which include meta-tags stated on web pages as part of their ranking mechanism, alert systems, web site which collect resumes and job openings from the Internet. Since those applications assume that the information collected is corrected, there is therefore a critical need to validate information the quality and soundness of the information gathered from public sources.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Satheesh Ramachandran
DARPA 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:Technology Vulnerability Analysis and Prediction System (TVAPS)
Abstract:The aim of this proposal is to develop, build and validate a Technology Vulnerability Analysis and Prediction System (TVAPS) that integrates intelligent knowledge discovery techniques (for detecting technology vulnerability dimensions), predictive models (for predicting technology trends), model fusion (to merge multiple predictions), and an optimization framework (for optimal response evaluation) to facilitate robust and cost-effective detection of vulnerable technologies. The developed toolkit will provide a comprehensive decision support system that facilitates the automated generation of useful knowledge from disparate and distributed information sources to support early detection of emerging vulnerability threats. The Phase I effort will (i) establish TVAPS requirements, (ii) design the TVAPS architecture, (iii) develop and demonstrate prototype TVAPS software. The principal project benefits are (i) Innovative new capability to rapidly, reliably, and accurately detect and predict vulnerable technologies, (ii) Significant reductions in time and effort needed to convert distributed data to action enabling decision information, and (iii) The ability to explore a significantly larger number of information sources and decision alternatives at the same cost and time. The most significant benefit of TVAPS is that it will provide access to sophisticated technology to a wide audience of potential users in the military intelligence community so that the the power of these technologies will be rapidly exploited/realized for enhanced national security against technology espionage. TVAPS will have a wide range of important defense and commercial applications including terrorist threat detection, industrial espionage detection, financial fraud detection, and business intelligence.

PSYNAPSE TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1000 Thomas Jefferson St. N.W.
Washington, DC 20007
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 342-5019
Dr. Gary M. Jackson
DARPA 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING THREAT AND RISK OF CORPORATE ESPIONAGE
Abstract:Proprietary theft and subsequent economic loss is a serious and growing problem with U.S. corporations and organizations. The purpose of the proposed Phase I project is to further develop and refine an experimental threat and risk assessment model and to determine user requirements and system specifications required to fully develop and market a reliable and valid corporate espionage assessment system. The system will determine the threat of theft of proprietary information (e.g. invention, copyright, trade secrets, marketing strategies, prototypes, R&D plans) posed by others (e.g. contractors, employees, foreign companies, competitors) and determine the degree of risk of theft based on assessed vulnerabilities of participating companies/organizations. Economic loss as a result of theft of proprietary information is a growing concern. The loss of actual revenue or competitive edge is a function of how effectively corporations and organizations protect proprietary information. A behaviorally-based assessment system capable of determining the degree of threat posed by those who would steal proprietary information and determining a company's or organization's risk of loss based on assessed vulnerabilities could decrease significant economic losses, both within the government and corporate sectors. The dual assessment of threat and risk may result in an improved ability to design specific counter-measures and security practices to result in improved protection against proprietary/economic loss.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2411
Mr. Daniel Serfaty
DARPA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Complex Organizational REasoning System (CORES)
Abstract:For OOTW there is a need to work with, respond to, understand, and predict the behavior of a wide range of organizations?ranging from military units to coalition forces, terrorist cells, and civilian populations. Planning for OOTW requires being able to reason about how a diverse range of organizations will respond. Intelligence analysts and mission planners need a tool to understand the behavior of these organizations and predict their possible responses to new events and actions. We propose to draw on computational organizational modeling theory to design the Complex Organizational REasoning System (CORES) tool in Phase I, and to develop CORES in Phase II. We will begin by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of existing computational organizational models for meeting the needs identified in two OOTW scenarios. We will identify core organizational characteristics that differentiate how the organization will respond to new events and a core set of behaviors, actions, and decision parameters that need to be included if we are to significantly improve planning and rehearsal capabilities. Finally we will develop a conceptual framework for the CORES computational model, storyboards based on a concept use that demonstrate the value of CORES, and a plan for validating the CORES models. CORES will be a flexible tool composed of a suite of organizational models, each of which can be tailored for new populations and cultures and new rules of interaction. When used in response mode, CORES will be able to evaluate recommended courses of action to increase the likelihood that the organizations of interest will respond as desired. This tool will greatly aid analysts in predicting how various organizations will respond in OOTW situations and will aid planners in deciding how to respond to these organizations. Beyond military operations, this tool will have application across a broad spectrum of uses including better planning by multinational crisis response and humanitarian assistance organizations such as the Red Cross and to the organizers of responses to large scale industrial accidents in international settings (such as the Exxon Valdez incident and Union Carbide gas leak in Bhopal).

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Mr. John Morrison
DARPA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Modeling Organizational Behavior within Operations Other than War
Abstract:Human behavioral modeling techniques for Operations Other Than War (OOTW) simulation need to be improved to more accurately represent the rich set of potential players (refugees, civilians, terrorist groups, criminal groups, questionable allies.) and of potential inputs to influence behavioral outcomes (psyops, weather, hunger, accidents, alarming news, political negotiations.). Going forward, the DoD will rely more heavily on course of action analysis tools that represent the asymmetrical environment, as opposed to the classic, Soviet-era, rigid doctrinal warfare models. There are few wargaming tools in the operational inventory that provide this necessary predictive capability. MK proposes to integrate a neural network controller, trained with scenario data from the Pristina Air Base Scenario, with MAK's COTS, VR-Forces CGF product. The VR-Forces internal radio network architecture will be expanded with the capability to pass human communication interactions between simulation objects (speech, propaganda, external noises, etc.). A basic set of behavioral state variables will be implemented in the neural network controller, representing the commander of each force. At the end of Phase II, a new VR-Forces release will contain a neural network controller toolkit (perhaps as an add-on module) that will provide reconfigurable modeling of non-doctrinal combatants for OOTW simulation. At the end of Phase I, MK will have a strong foundation for Phase II development and commercialization. The Phase I work effort would be accomplished within an existing, robust, commercial-grade CGF environment, minimizing risk. In addition, by building on top of a commercially available CGF, MK has a head start in commercializing the end products. During Phase II, MK will build upon the Phase I research and development to provide both a commercial CGF that provides more realistic behaviors, and commercial tools that provide the ability to easily create, view, and modify an entity's behavior. The resulting system will be HLA compliant and will support both individual and aggregate behavior. To reach this goal, MK will 1. Develop a commercial-grade Behavior Builder that will enable users to easily create complex behaviors via editing of the neural network inputs/outputs. 2. Develop a neural network controller module, and repository of neural network behaviors to be re-used and composed by the user to create complex, higher-order entity tasks. 3. Develop a commercial-grade Behavior Inspector that will enable users to view and modify an entity's behavior during runtime (for neural networks, probably only useful for debugging).

PSYNAPSE TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1000 Thomas Jefferson St. N.W.
Washington, DC 20007
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 342-5019
Dr. Gary M. Jackson
DARPA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:A HYBRID NEURAL NETWORK AND RULE-BASED SYSTEM FOR BEHAVIORAL CBRN (BCBRN) REAL-TIME ASSESSMENT
Abstract:The objective of this research is to develop a behaviorally-based risk/threat assessment system that can determine the validity of threats directed against American assets and ultimately suggest likely scenarios of attack based on assessed vulnerabilities. This counter-terrorism system is proposed to be an intelligence-based behavioral system based on a well-tested behavioral model. Previous research has exhibited both reliable and valid results. It is proposed that the technology underlying the model be extended to the public and corporate sectors as a commercial product. It is important for corporations and organizations that are faced with an actual attack or threat of an attack to first ascertain whether the apparent or impending threat is real or a hoax. Once this determination is made, a viable system would suggest attack scenarios and subsequent security recommendations. The focus of this proposed system will be on the behavior displayed by those who have attacked, either by launching a real attack or creating a hoax or false attack. Corporations and organizations also display behavioral characteristics, which may identify them as being more or less vulnerable as a target. The system is termed, BCBRN, to include behavioral, chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear incidents of asymmetric activity. U.S. based corporations and organizations face an increased likelihood of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear attack (CBRN) following the events of September 11, 2001. There is increasing evidence that asymmetric organizations have either developed plans for CBRN capability, or already maintain some level of capability in this area. A behaviorally based assessment system that is reliable and valid and capable of determining the degree of CBRN threat posed by others and the degree of risk associated with company-specific vulnerabilities is a first step toward preparedness and prevention. An accurate system has the benefit of increasing awareness of CBRN.

AUTONOMOUS SOLUTIONS, INC.
1946 South 1600 West
Youngward, UT 84339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 755-2980
Mr. Don Cripps
DARPA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Modal Control for Automatic Vehicle Management Systems
Abstract:The proposed research approches the problems of stability, operation mode transfer, and syatem monitoring for multi-modal ground vehicles. The research seeks to provide simple criteria and design frameworks that are applicable to the design of many multimodal and autonomous vehicle designs. The development of design criteria and baseline methods for the design of multimodal autonomous vehicles. The methods developed will address the isssues of user interface, vehicle stability, safety, and reliability.

GENEVA AEROSPACE, INC.
4318 Sunbelt Dr.
Addison, TX 75001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 420-2376
Mr. David S. Duggan
DARPA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Variable Autonomy Control for Automatic Vehicle Management Systems
Abstract:Geneva Aerospace offers provably safe and certifiable control technologies for automatic and seamless mode transitions involving manual and automatic controls for a spectrum of piloted, optionally piloted, remotely operated, and autonomous air, land, and sea vehicles. The emphasis of the proposed effort is in the adaptation of our Variable Autonomy Control System to the optionally piloted air vehicle application to address the many technical and human factors issues surrounding cockpit automation. We will demonstrate that our approach is robust, reliable, and predictable. The proposed effort will further demonstrate that our common variable autonomy control architecture supports an entire gamut of moving platforms from piloted to autonomous with minimal changes required to support each specific platform. We will perform a dutiful survey of the existing human factors and taxonomy data associated with vehicle automation. Leveraging from our existing research in vehicle variable autonomy control, we will conduct a subsequent human effectiveness study to identify the appropriate human-system interface that maximizes operator situation awareness. Further, we will investigate the latest advancements in autonomous fault detection algorithms and select and incorporate those algorithms that show the most promise/feasibility and conduct trade studies on the effectiveness of these algorithms operating within our core architecture. The proposed research offers large commercialization potential, both within the DoD as well as the commercial UAV and civil aviation markets. The variable autonomy, fault tolerant control solutions have direct application to many DoD programs and initiatives such as the Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) program, the Navy's Autonomous Operations initiative, and the Army's Future Combat Systems program. Additionally, the resulting control technologies will impact future commercial UAV applications within the US Forestry Service, the Coast Guard, the gas and oil industry, the power industry, and many others. Beyond the UAV industry, the technology resulting from the proposed effort affords the opportunity to make a profound impact in civil aviation safety by offering a safe, reliable, and certifiable control architecture enabling cockpit automation.

SMA INFORMATION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES, D/B/A SIFT
2119 Oliver Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 716-4015
Dr. Christopher A. Miller
DARPA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Modal Control for Automatic Vehicle Management Systems
Abstract:"Optionally Piloted Vehicles" contain a human operator but enable him/her to decide when and whether to take control any given function. The transfer of control problem is the central challenge for OPVs, but we see this as a delegation issue which can be addressed by the methods that succeed in human-human task delegation and coordination. Together with Honeywell, SIFT has pioneered a flexible architecture for delegation between hu-mans and automation-a "tasking interface" based on a sports Playbook metaphor. To date, however, no work has addressed real-time, human immersive control, or machine-to-human task transfers with the Playbook. Cur-rent Playbook approaches to ensure provably correct plans (e.g. MACBeth) are geared toward ground-based mission planning and are not suitable for OPVs. Hence, our objective will be to adapt the Playbook architecture to provide (1) a protocol for variable initiative task delegation, and (2) an approach to ensuring provable stability from any mix of human and machine actions, including transfer actions themselves, which takes into account human workload and situation awareness. In Phase I, together with support from Honeywell, we will develop our approach and test it by hand walkthroughs of a small number of representative, but stressful, Challenge Cases. Applicability to any variable initiative control environment where human involvement is resource constrained including-- manned and unmanned aviation, space exploration, manned and unmanned vehicle control. But also long term process control operation, enterprise management. Honeywell's ongoing work toward variable initiative control of unmanned vehicles offers one commercialization target, but we are also excited about opportunities in the oil refining industry and in data management on large system development projects.

ODYSSEY RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC.
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. Matthew Stillerman
DARPA 02-012      Selected for Award
Title:A Design Language for Quantum Computing
Abstract:Current techniques for defining and specifying quantum algorithms are imprecise and to some degree informal, which causes a number of problems: informal descriptions can be ambiguous and difficult to understand, cannot be supported by automated tools (for computer algebra, simulation, etc.), and will not scale up as programming tasks become more complex. Formal notations are required, including design techniques familiar from classical programming (modularity, the ability to use different levels of abstraction) and new techniques for dealing with {\em hybrid\/} calculations that have both classical and quantum components. Since quantum algorithms are more like circuits than like software, we propose to define such a notation and base it on the hardware description language VHDL (for which ATC-NY has developed a mathematical semantics and sophisticated automated analysis tools). We call the notation QHDL (Quantum Hardware Description Language). Phase I work will produce a preliminary design for QHDL and an informal semantics for its type system. It will implement a parser and provide a top-level design for other tools, including a typechecker. The tool set will support techniques for developing algorithms by modifying existing algorithms and by synthesizing existing components. QHDL will provide two things that the research and engineering communities in quantum computing currently lack: a shared language of interchange (communication) and a common substrate on which to build quantum computing tools (automation). By combining flexibility and precision with features for scalability, it will be particularly valuable as a "bridge" between current research and future industrial applications. In the foreseeable future, the market for QHDL and associated tools will be the growing research community, which includes private and DoD labs as well as universities. Researchers will find QHDL attractive because it allow concise and unambiguous expression of complex designs, and because the suite of QHDL tools will help analyze and synthesize algorithms. The research community as a whole will benefit from improved communications about quantum algorithms and from shared interoperable tools. The QHDL algorithm archive will provide a ready resource for teaching and research, as well as a means of dissemination of new results. When quantum computing becomes a practical reality, QHDL will be well-positioned as a design language for real systems. ATC-NY, with our long history of involvement in related fields of information system architecture, computer security, formal methods, and mathematics, expects to profit, eventually, as an innovator and consultant on quantum computing architecture.

OPTIMETRICS, INC.
3115 Professional Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-1177
Dr. Brian T. Mitchell
DARPA 02-012      Selected for Award
Title:Tools for Design and Validation of Quantum Algorithms and Protocols
Abstract:Current tools for Quantum Information Science (QIS) are hindered by the need to develop complex simulation environments because functional quantum computers do not exist. Also most tools focus on small parts of a large problem. By altering existing applications and developing an entirely new Integrated Command Environment (ICE) we propose to create a suite of tools, drivers, languages, and protocols that will allow developers to interact with simulated devices in exactly the same way that they would a real device. We intend to develop a standard command protocol that will connect applications (developed with a highly extensible functional quantum programming language) to a standalone quantum simulation server. This creates a foundation for integrated and scalable tool suites, interfaces, and device drivers. We will augment existing tools to utilize the protocol and develop several new tools for heretofore-neglected areas such as error-correction; device control and monitoring; and resource management. The ICE paradigm offers several advantages: Tool developers can access the functionality of other tools to create integrated workspaces. Applications may be distributed on many machines to decrease CPU workloads. Tools developed to control, monitor, and utilize simulated environments can be seamlessly applied to real quantum computational devices that utilize ICE protocols. The benefits to the DoD and to QIS research at large are numerous. The creation of a standard by which quantum devices communicate will allow a level of interoperability heretofore unrealized in this field and will position DARPA to define future QIS standards. Creation of a robust simulator will allow researchers to compare performance of algorithms on different machines, explore issues of scalability, and to explore fringe architectures for which actual device construction may be prohibitively expensive. Integration of separate tools will allow researchers to create custom workspaces and simulate larger problems by distributing computation across many CPUs. By separating the simulation from the control system we propose an architecture that will allow the creation of statistical analysis tools and virtual device drivers that will be capable of running actual machines as soon as they are realized, should those machines conform to the same standards. The overall effect will be an acceleration of research and development and a pre-existing set of tools that will jumpstart the DoD's entry into functional quantum computing when such devices become realizable.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Magnus Snorrason
DARPA 02-013      Selected for Award
Title:Sign Understanding in Support of Autonomous Navigation (SUSAN)
Abstract:Mobile robots currently do not have the ability to detect and read arbitrary signs. Existing work on road sign recognition is template based, limiting the detectable signs to a specific set. This is a major hindrance to mobile robot usability, since they cannot be tasked using directions that are intuitive to humans. It also limits their ability to report their position relative to intuitive landmarks. We propose to develop a system for Sign Understanding in Support of Autonomous Navigation (SUSAN). Phase I will focus on the bottom-up computer vision problem of reliably detecting arbitrary signs; Phase II will focus on understanding these signs. In Phase I, we will design and implement a sign discovery algorithm using sign detection based on color saturation and text detection based on texture discrimination. False alarm rejection will be based on shape analysis and evidence accumulation from tracking potential signs across multiple video frames. We will also integrate commercial optical character recognition software into SUSAN and evaluate the system using video captured for this project. Finally, we will design a sign understanding algorithm that classifies signs according to potential utility to the robot's navigation system and determines semantic content of useful signs. The completed SUSAN system will have significant market potential for developers, both military and civilian, building mobile robots that need autonomous or semi-autonomous navigation in environments designed for human use. The SUSAN system could be added as a plug-in component in many existing and planned autonomous navigation and reasoning systems. Opportunities also exist in the US DoT's Intelligent Vehicle Initiative, and directly with automobile manufacturers developing driver assistance systems.

MINDLORE, INC.
114 Bonita Street
Sausalito, CA 94965
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 506-4624
Ms. Esin Darici Haritaoglu
DARPA 02-013      Selected for Award
Title:Real-Time Scene Sign/Text Detection for Location Awareness and Navigation
Abstract:We have developed an innovative approach to signboard/text detection in scene images. Our approaches has several advantageous over conventional approaches in its ability to provide accurate results for both outdoor and indoor conditions, arbitrary perspective appearance and orientation of the signboard in the scene. In this project, we will develop and demonstrate a pc-based low cost visual sign/text detection and recognition system to provide enhanced information perception for location awareness and navigation for autonomous robot environment. The computational characteristics of our approach also make it amenable to real-time applications, in contrast with conventional approach that often operate only offline and in controlled environment, such as caption text in foreign movies. Our technology will enable autonomous robots to function effectively in environments designed for humans. Especially in hostile environments in the presence of chemical or biological agents harmful to people, such robots will be very useful in rescue and surveillance operations and hazardous material handling. Our technology will also enable vision-impaired people to comfortably interact with the environment, and improve their quality of life.

PERCEPTEK
9903 Titan Court, Unit # 15
Littleton, CO 80125
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 344-1037
Mr. Rosenblum
DARPA 02-013      Selected for Award
Title:Reading Signs in Context to Support Perception-Based Autonomous Navigation
Abstract:DoD has placed high priority on the development of autonomous systems capable of operating in complex human infrastructures (Roadways, depots, buildings, urban areas, etc.). These Infrastructures have evolved to take advantage of the human perceptual capability by providing navigational, safety, and informational data through the use of signs. To be successful, robots developed to operate in these environments must recognize and interpret various textual and graphical content from signs, labels, and plaques and reason about the extracted information to update navigation estimates, modify control behaviors, react to unsafe conditions, and trigger discrete events. Our approach builds upon previous R&D to provide a real-time architecture for detecting, tracking, and recognizing signs from dynamic video imagery. Our approach detects signs by combining visual cues consisting of color, shape, and text. Signs are tracked to improve detection accuracy and provide resiliency to occlusions and environmental effects. The orientation of the sign is determined and the imagery rectified for recognition processing. Text and graphics characters are extracted using a combination of optical character recognition and syntactic/semantic parsing. Feedback loops are provided to resolve ambiguities, improve recognition rates, and reduce false detections. Our Phase I program will result in thorough testing of the algorithms and an end-to-end feasibility demonstration. Our core sign and text detection and recognition technologies will provide enhanced capabilities to a wide variety of application domains where symbolic information is used to convey information. We have established two high potential commercialization threads that will be pursued during phase I. The first is the transfer of the technology to the automotive sector where there is a keen interest in developing driver assistance capabilities. The second is in the development of hand held devices that can be used as a language translation and navigation aid. We have selected industrial partners in both of these areas who have a keen interest in transitioning the technology rapidly to the market place. These partners will identify the commercial requirements, assess market potential, and "pull" the technology toward their own needs. We have applied this transfer model successfully on previous programs.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
115 Airport Street, Quonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Dr. William H. Weedon
DARPA 02-014      Selected for Award
Title:ElectronicTextile Antennas
Abstract:Current man portable antennas are heavy, rigid, telescoping or umbrella like contraptions, which limit the mobility and speed of a deployed unit. We propose to improve the weight, storage size, and ease of deployment of a portable antenna through the use of electronic textiles as described in this proposal. Planar antennas have been manufactured on thin films and rolled into position, however a rigid mounting structure must be used to protect the film and to keep it in place. The unique ability of fabric to drape, and take any form repeatedly without damage, will be the key to enabling next generation conformable antennas. Incorporating conductive fibers into the weave of the cloth without losing the flexibility of the cloth requires non-contact "induced" current interconnects. Such induced interconnects can be created at radio frequencies by wires oriented broadside and spaced < 1/20-th of a wavelength apart. With typical fabric densities of 30 threads-per-inch such interconnects can be created up to 8 GHz in a woven pattern using standard textile manufacturing processes. This proposal will outline a practical approach to designing a woven RF patch antenna array in the 1.5 GHz band using conductive threads. Candidate applications for RF e-textiles are in the areas of large area, flexible, and conformable antennas arrays. While the target application is a portable S-Band Satellite communications antenna, there are a vast number of military and commercial applications in both communications and radar, for space based, airborne or land based users.

LUNA INNOVATIONS INCORPORATED
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 972-9953
Mr. Keith Furrow
DARPA 02-014      Selected for Award
Title:Core/Sheath Cover Yarn Fabrics for Electronic Textiles
Abstract:To develop a revolutionary approach to how textiles and electronics are used and integrated into large area military applications, it is imperative to develop and characterize techniques for incorporating sensors, actuators, logic, and power sources into textile fabrics. With ten years of advanced materials, electronics and fiber optic sensor experience Luna Innovation's is uniquely qualified for this task. Luna's partner -the Institute of Textile Technology-brings 57 years of industrial textile research experience to the team. This proposed project will demonstrate the ability to incorporate fiber optic sensors and fine metallic wire into three types of textile fabrics-Bedford cord, pique weave and double weave. These fabrics are chosen for (1) their ability to protect the conducting fiber (2) their cost effective manufacturing process and (3) the variety of yarns that can be used in the fabric. Electronic textiles are valuable where large area, flexibility, and conformability are of greater importance than high-speed performance or packaging density. Applications of this technology are in carriers for physical sensors, smart clothes, chemical sensing, active surfaces, intelligent living spaces

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Richard W. Lusignea
DARPA 02-014      Selected for Award
Title:Electronic Interconnection for Textiles
Abstract:The main problem facing development of electronic textiles is the difficulty in electrically connecting conductive paths in the textiles with themselves and with devices mounted on and within the textiles. Triton proposes to develop the textile equivalent of solder and copper printed circuitry in conventional rigid interconnection. Triton's proposed approach uses novel conductive fibers and interconnections that can be rendered electrically conducting by thermal or chemical means to make interconnection points. The approach takes advantage of the x-y and z direction capability of textiles and multiple plies of fabric to create interconnected flexible, durable and efficient electronics. Triton's proposal addresses the need for reliable interconnection in flexible electronic textiles. Although many applications exist for e-textiles, including sensors, computers and displays built into clothing, and large area arrays of sensor and display elements, little if any work is being conducted on interconnection for circuits in flexible fabric. The proposed Phase I program will show the feasibility of polymer-based conductive interconnection with a combination of electrical conductivity and mechanical durability. We anticipate that results will point the way to improvements in Phase II and beyond in the areas of insulated fibers that can be woven into fabrics, and interconnections that can be used with the fibers and devices mounted on and in the fabric. Based on successful Phase I demonstrations, we see further development including: Production of demonstration devices in Phase 2. Demonstration ability to increase the density of interconnection Demonstration multilayer interconnection Development of insulated conductive fiber which can be produced commercially and economically These results will be coordinated with developments on parallel programs, such as DARPA's E-Textile program, and other efforts at the DoD agencies. We also expect to apply our results to the growing field of wearable computers, and devices integrated with clothing.

ADVANCED SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
27970 Orchard Lake Rd., Suite 6
Farmington Hills, MI 48334
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 539-0867
Dr. Hal C. Cantor
DARPA 02-015      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Three Dimensional Micro-Fluidics with Pumps, Valves, and Sensors
Abstract:Significant obstacles to the widespread adoption of integrated micro-fluidic devices include their relatively low fluidic circuit density and high cost. To obviate these limitations, Advanced Sensor Technologies, Inc. (AST) proposes to develop the technologies to allow fabrication of three-dimensional micro-fluidic devices with integrated active components that are an order of magnitude less costly than existing, functionally equivalent devices. This will be achieved by augmenting our existing, planar, micro-fluidic systems with molded microstructures to form three-dimensional structures. This project is a natural extension of AST's DARPA funded SBIR project that has resulted in the creation of a two-dimensional, integrated micro-fluidic sensor system. This previously demonstrated, micro-fluidic system combined AST's innovative designs for microscopic pumps, valves, fluid channels, and sensing chambers with sensors and sampling systems to monitor a variety of biological fluids including saliva, perspiration, and urine. Similar sensors will form the core of a myriad of new products whose functions range from monitoring individuals for exposure to environmental toxins or controlling diabetes to controlling power conversion in miniaturized fuel cells. With the currently proposed technology, such products will be migrated from laboratory curios to widely distributed technological tools due to an order of magnitude decrease in cost. AST's proposed three-dimensional micro-fluidic pumping system has extensive applications for both military and civilian use. Product spin-offs include those in the medical, scientific, engineering, and power generation communities. The primary anticipated benefit is a 10 times reduction in cost of production and packaging of micro-fluidic devices. Other advantages include miniaturization, providing the ability to incorporate AST's micro-fluidic systems into existing products in an unobtrusive manner.

CALIBRANT BIOSYSTEMS
5619 Sonoma Road
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 881-3080
Dr. Jun Gao
DARPA 02-015      Selected for Award
Title:Field-Effect Flow Control for 2-D and 3-D Microfluidics
Abstract:The realization of next-generation lab-on-a-chip technology will require flow control in complex fluidic networks interconnecting mixers, reactors, reservoirs, sensors, and related components. With ongoing advances in microfluidic technology, including 3-dimensional microfluidics and nanofluidic systems, the need for advanced flow control technology is becoming increasingly evident. To this end, a novel electrokinetic pumping technology is proposed for use in complex 2-D and 3-D polymer-based microfluidic systems. The technology employs a technique known as field-effect flow control (FEFC), which is based on standard electroosmotic flow (EOF), but with modulation of the flow velocity provided by a secondary gate voltage independent from the lengthwise EOF electric field. The technology allows for direct and independent control of flow within large numbers of interconnected microchannels. The overall goal of this Phase I project is to demonstrate the feasibility of FEFC micropumping in polymer-based 2-D and 3-D microfluidic platforms. FEFC micropumps will be implemented in three specific systems. Initial demonstrations will include simple 2-D micropumps, followed by complex 2-D microfluidic gating systems, and extension of the technology to flow control in 3-D microfluidic systems. The result is a base technology which will impact a broad range of complex microfluidic systems for high-throughput bioanalysis, with significant benefits for DoD applications including compact systems for sample preparation, cell sorting, pathogen detection, and other tasks where complex microfluidic manipulation is required. In addition, the technology is expected to impact microfluidic applications including instruments for genomic and proteomic analysis, combinatorial drug screening and synthesis, and drug delivery. Specifically, FEFC micropumps will be further developed for integration into existing high-throughput DNA and protein separation tools demonstrated by Calibrant Biosystems.

GENOPTIX, INC.
3398 Carmel Mountain Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 523-5008
Mr. Eugene Tu
DARPA 02-015      Selected for Award
Title:Three Dimensional Micro-Fluidics
Abstract:The miniaturization and automation of biochemical assays has had tremendous effect on the pace of scientific discovery, as shown by the human genome project and by high throughput screening in the pharmaceutical development process. The Phase I objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing moving optical gradient forces, OptophoresisT, to provide rapid, multiplexed processing of biological, cellular and environmental samples in a 3D-microfluidic device. We will demonstrate that a cell's Optophoretic constant provides a uniquely identifiable signature for the direct, in-channel detection and compact optical manipulation and sorting of biological particles including different types of cells, bacteria, and spores. Sample preparation will be accomplished using binary and higher order microfluidic channel junctions at which various steps of complexity reduction, buffer exchange, concentration, etc. are performed. In Phase II these devices will be integrated into compact instruments that provide serial and multiplex sample-to-answer capability for biowarfare applications, environmental monitoring, forensics, clinical diagnostics, drug discovery, pharmacogenomics, medical diagnostics, etc. We intend to leverage advances from the telecommunications industry such as improved light sources, e.g., bar lasers and Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers, VCSELs, and improved fiber technology to provide tighter integration of the optics with microfluidic devices. The anticipated benefits/potential commercial applications include novel miniaturized, microfluidic cell analysis and sorting devices, new tools for high throughput screening and pharmaceutical development and novel flow cytometry devices for medical diagnosis and rare cell detection.

CFD RESEARCH CORPORATION
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Marek Turowski
DARPA 02-016      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Physical Design Tools for 3-Dimensional Integrated Circuits
Abstract:Three-dimensional (3-D) integrated circuits (ICs) can significantly improve circuit performance and offer the promise of integrating various technologies (memory, logic, RF, mixed-signal, optoelectronics)within a single block. Lack of 3-D design tools and heat dissipation from vertically stacked multiple layers are the crucial problems in their development. To address these issues, CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC), together with UCLA and Irvine Sensors, proposes to: 1) Develop methodologies to analyze and assess coupled electrical and thermal performance of 3-D ICs, including calculation of realistic full-chip thermal distributions and determining from them signal delay/distortion, both by analytical Elmore delay model, and by 3-D electromagnetic simulations. 2) Develop a novel performance-driven and thermal-driven 3-D IC physical design system, which is capable of automatic 3-D IC placement and routing. It will consider key factors in 3-D IC layout, including thermal, performance, congestion, and power control and optimization. 3) Interface the new 3-D design tools with commercial EDA environments in order to validate and demonstrate the methodology. In Phase II, we will add model libraries for 3-D circuit components and sub-blocks/circuits based on coupled thermal/electrical performance characteristics and develop tools for the coupled optimization of parameters such as integration density, cross-talk, interconnect latency, and thermal management. This effort will form the groundwork for advanced CAD tools for routine analysis and design of integrated 3-dimensional electronic circuits. These developments will enable the design of a new generation of integrated circuits with superior interconnect performance, optimized chip areas as well as the ability to integrate mixed technologies in a single block. This will have a significant impact on the design of mixed signal (digital/analog/RF) systems and Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC). Three-dimensional circuit integration will enable novel high performance sensing, communication and processing systems for current and future military requirements. It will also impact commercial applications such as wireless communication systems, optical/optoelectronic devices and systems.

ORORA DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
17371 NE 67th Court, Suite 205
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 702-9196
Dr. Monte F. Mar
DARPA 02-016      Selected for Award
Title:CAD Tools for 3-Dimensional VLSI Circuits
Abstract:Three dimensional integration offers the potential of orders of magnitude improvement by reducing interconnect lengths and delays. With recent breakthroughs in manufacturing technology, 3-D circuits are emerging as a commercially viable solution to enable continued technology development conforming to Moore's Law. However, the exploration of 3-D circuits will be hampered by a lack of design tools for thermal investigation and 3-D place and route. In this SBIR proposal, Orora Design Technologies (ODT) proposes the development of a new generation of CAD tools and a design methodology for three-dimensional integrated circuits. ODT will develop a VHDL-AMS based methodology will be developed and demonstrated for modeling and simulation of the coupled electrical and thermal performances of 3-D circuits. Innovative place-and-route tools will be developed to facilitate exploration and multi-objective optimization of 3-D circuits. The design of an asynchronous FFT processor tailored to the 3-D structure will be chosen to allow demonstration of performance gains in reducing latency, increasing clock speed, and increasing density while still maintaining reasonable power dissipation. Three dimensional integration hold the potential for increasing circuit performance. By stacking circuits, an increase in circuit density and a decrease in the length of critical routes can be achieved. This in turn will alleviate the burdens placed on the large die currently implemented 2 dimensional approaches. Basic results using system-level models show that 3-D technology should provide speed performances that are comparable to 2-D technologies that are 2 to 3 generations ahead. To enable the rapid adoption and proliferation of these technologies and advantages, CAD tools are needed to speed up and automate the design process. Similar to the revolution in digital circuits, CAD tools for 3-D would automate layout and keep design at a high level of abstraction. The results of this project would serve as the basis for the toolset to enable CAD for 3-D integrated circuits.

R3LOGIC, INC.
11 Ward Street, Suite 400
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-2905
Dr. Lisa McIlrath
DARPA 02-016      Selected for Award
Title:Computer-Aided Design Tools for Three-Dimensional Circuit Integration
Abstract:R3 Logic, Incorporated proposes to perform a comprehensive study to develop a full suite of computer-aided design tools for three-dimensional circuit integration. The company will build on its existing tool set that enables 3-D physical layout and verification and will develop recommendations for extending these tools to permit analyses of 3-D circuit performance, including thermal and electromagnetic effects, to perform automated place and route, and to interface with automated tools for top-down design and circuit synthesis from behavioral models. The proposed study will focus on methodology and algorithmic development. In Phase II we will propose to implement the recommendations of this study. The development of a powerful set of 3-D design and modeling tools is critical to promoting the advancement of three-dimensional circuit technology in the semiconductor industry. 3-D circuits cannot be implemented without a 3-D process technology; and 3-D process technologies will not be available until there are overwhelmingly convincing reasons to put them in place. The major benefit of developing modeling tools for 3-D circuit performance will be in providing quantitative demonstrations of the improvements achievable through multi-layer stacking and vertical interconnection. It will also ease the transition of VLSI designers into a 3-D world by providing examples of existing circuits optimized for 3-D.

SYNCRON TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
14500 North Northsight Blvd., Suite 112
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 948-0585
Mr. Phil Calhoun
DARPA 02-016      Selected for Award
Title:Design Tools for Integrated 3-Dimensional Electronic Circuits
Abstract:Major advances in the performance of digital and mixed signal circuits will be achieved with multifunctionality implemented at all levels and using novel circuit architectures to reduce latency. Achieving these goals will require significant advances in electronic design aids. Heterogeneous integration of different technologies (for integrated modules) and the heterogeneous integration of different circuit architectures as with mixed signal and 3D monolithic circuits present numerous challenges to the development of an appropriate design environment. The particular challenge of three-dimensional placement and routing and accurate electro-thermal characterization (including full-wave electromagnetic interconnect modeling) is common to a very large cross-section of electronic problems where optimum performance is a premium. In the proposed project we will demonstrate the feasibility of designing 3D circuit architectures with minimum latency, using uncompromised electro-thermal modeling and full-wave interconnect modeling. We will demonstrate that constraint driven (including electro-thermal constraints) routing can be implemented using established routing software but concentrating on a performance driven routing rule generator. A range of routing tools can use the output of this generator, when appropriately formatted. Thus, the emphasis is on using advanced simulation and modeling technologies to realize predictive planning tools and implement routing constraints that efficiently use available EDA resources. High-performance, mixed signal ICs and modules with reduced latency through constraint driven routing. Most advanced, dynamic electro-thermal modeling available. Commercial implementation of the most important outcomes of DARPAs NeoCAD Program.

VIATRONIX
40 Amherst Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 899-6924
Dr. Phil Lamarre
DARPA 02-017      Selected for Award
Title:Wide Bandgap Semiconductor (eg., SiC, GaN) Front-End Electronics for Wide Dynamic Range Analog/Digital Converters
Abstract:In many military applications, such as defense radar, electronic warfare, communications and other systems could have greatly improved performance if wider dynamic range analog/digital converters were available. Wide bandgap semiconductors including GaN and SiC have proven suitable for high power, microwave devices. Bipolar devices are also attractive for high power electronics due to the inherently greater power density and potentially higher speed. HBTs based on wide bandgap materials have been shown to have superior properties to silicon BJTs. Much of the improvement is due to the high base doping achievable through the use of wide-gap emitters, as well as superior properties of the materials used such as higher mobility in the base (for n-p-n devices), and higher drift velocities for the collector space charge region. [1] Viatronix will outline in this proposal a novel approach to the objective of developing a reliable, high-voltage, wide dynamic range, wide bandgap HBT switch suitable for analog/digital converters. Because of its superior material and electrical properties, silicon carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) is expected to enable vastly improved high-power switching devices with substantial benefits to a wide variety of military and commercial systems. With Viatronix's ability to create useful devices on current material, we believe that there are numerous commercial and military markets for this technology.

MISSION RESEARCH CORPORATION
Post Office Drawer 719, 735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9261
Dr. Jeffery A. Berrie
DARPA 02-018      Selected for Award
Title:VHF/UHF Endo-Clutter SAR Fiducial Marker
Abstract:In this Phase I project, Mission Research Corporation (MRC) will investigate conceptual designs of both passive and active devices that could be deployed in foliated areas to facilitate registration of VHF and UHF SAR images. These devices, known as ground-based fiducial markers, are to be capable of supporting simultaneous VHF and UHF imaging with robust angular and polarization diversity. Passive markers must have radar returns high enough to be reliably detected and located. Active markers may make use of spread spectrum coding, providing high location accuracy when decoded. Without decoding, signals from these active markers remain hidden within the image spectrum, affecting image quality at indescernible levels. Algorithms for performing image registration with the markers shall be developed and registration errors shall be quantified. Advantages and disadvantages of all marker designs shall be determined in regard to such applications as multi-band fusion, change detection, interferometry, and tomography in both open and forested terrain. Concepts for deploying the markers will also be initiated. In a Phase II effort, candidate devices would be fabricated and then tested in an outdoor measurement setting using the FOPEN SAR ATD system. High accuracy, automated image registration for FOPEN sensors. Improved VHF/UHF multi-band fusion, change detection, interferometry, and tomography. Image registration error quantification. Calibration of target and clutter levels.

RDAS, INC.
11003 E.Bradford Circle
Cerritos, CA 90703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 379-4802
Mr. Augustus H. Green, Jr.
DARPA 02-018      Selected for Award
Title:VHF/UHF Endo-Clutter SAR Fiducial Marker
Abstract:Interpretations of a SAR image with respect to locating specific images in that image precisely relies upon having the location of a referenced object(s) accurately defined and identified in an image. The referenced object(s) should appear in the image as a point source or combination of point sources with no blooming or blurring. For purposes of this topic, any referenced object will be called a "fiducial marker". A wide field of regard and wide bandwidth is required due to the system requirement to collect data over multiple passes at unique aircraft altitudes and/or aircraft heading angles. Ultimately the design must lend itself to remote locations under adverse conditions. This places additional challenges to a portable fiducial marker that will have to contend with high foliage, varying terrain geometries, and long unattended operation. The proposed research is focused on a novel fiducial marker development and is expandable to meet the challenges of portability and remote operation. The major objective of the proposed Phase One and Phase Two efforts is the development and design of an innovative, lightweight, deployable SAR Fiducial Marker and fabrication/testing of a prototype fiducial marker, respectively, for use in the registration of multiple SAR images. In the commercial sector, a fiducial marker may have application for remote sensing. The forestry service uses SAR in large aircraft to monitor areas for disease control. Fiducial markers may aid in the identification of specific areas topologically to pinpoint those areas that need to be investigated. This has the potential to maximize the use of both personnel and economic resources. There may be potential to apply this marker technology to commercial aircraft as a landing aid under adverse weather conditions. For DOD, the location of targets may be better identified.

SYSENSE CORPORATION
3801 West Temple Ave., Building 86, Suite 108
Pomona, CA 91768
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 869-3278
Dr. Walton R. Williamson
DARPA 02-019      Selected for Award
Title:Airplane Optimal Periodic Flight Control
Abstract:Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has matured to the point that it is expected that UAVs will perform many military tasks in the near future, with civilian implementation likely shortly thereafter. An important issue associated with UAV implementation is long-range endurance. It is known that properly constructed periodic flight paths can increase both range and loiter time. This proposal describes a research effort that will characterize this increase for a particular aircraft, the F-18, which is sufficiently similar to expected near-term unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) that a successful experiment will be meaningful in the context of UCAVs. In consultation with engineers at Boeing North American, who have access to highly detailed models of the F-18 and extensive experience with the aircraft, the researchers will develop flight paths that will optimize the fuel-efficiency of the F-18 at a chosen subsonic flight point. Interest in this work has been expressed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, and it is anticipated that these results will be demonstrated in piloted flight tests at Dryden using F-18 aircraft that have been extensively instrumented for flight research. The proposed research will greatly extend the mission capability of unmanned aireal vehicles in both military and civilian applications through the extension of range and loiter.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION (ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Dri
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 827-5000
Mr. Christopher St. Clair
DARPA 02-020      Selected for Award
Title:Water-Based Thrusters for Space Propulsion
Abstract:ORBITEC proposes to develop a hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine capable of repeated, sustained operation at stoichiometric conditions. This severe operating point is made possible by utilizing ORBITEC's unique vortex combustion cold-wall (VCCW) technique, which shields the wall of the combustion chamber from the hot combustion gases with a barrier of cool, unreacted oxygen gas, thereby protecting the chamber wall from both high heat flux and the corrosive, oxidizing environment of stoichiometric combustion. The relatively benign environment provided by the VCCW greatly simplifies the design of the combustion chamber, reducing cost and complexity and increasing reliability. The portion of the engine chamber which requires cooling is reduced to the area around the nozzle throat. The Phase I effort will involve (1) a full review of customer specifications for the engine, (2) the design and fabrication of a lab-scale test engine, (3) a program of hot firings to test and characterize the lab-scale engine, (4) the analysis of the hot firing results, and (5) the development of a preliminary design for a flight-type Phase II engine. We anticipate that the Phase II effort will include the full design, fabrication, and testing of a flight-type engine with potential for direct application. This technology could ultimately be a central component of a versatile in-space propulsion system using water as a base propellant and various means of electrical and chemical propulsion to execute orbital maneuvers. Long-life satellites may need to make a number of significant v maneuvers over their service lifetimes to respond to emerging tactical requirements, or to maintain constellations as other satellites fail. This is true both in the military and the commercial world. Beyond the specific area of in-space propulsion, cold-wall vortex combustion offers a myriad of other military and commercial applications, with examples ranging from cruise missile propulsion to industrial air-fired combustors. Additionally, with the discovery of significant quantities of water or hydrogen in the cold traps of the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, the prospect of wide use of water as a propellant or propellant resource for H/O becomes significant. Military and civil Earth/Mars space operations could greatly benefit from the engine developed in this effort.

RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS
4325-B Forbes Blvd
Lanham, MD 20706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 580-0080
Dr. Daniel J. Sullivan
DARPA 02-020      Selected for Award
Title:Water-Based Thrusters for Space Propulsion
Abstract:Research Support Instruments proposes to develop an innovative electric propulsion (EP) system which will utilize water (or its constituent gases) as its working fluid. This device, the MET-100, is an electrothermal thruster design which utilizes microwave energy at a nominal power output of 100 W. The performance of this device is projected to fill the thrust/specific impulse gap between conventional chemical thrusters which obtain thrust through the combustion of a fuel/oxidizer mixture and the high specific impulse electrostatic (ion-thruster) and electromagnetic (Hall-effect) EP thruster systems. One of the most significant goals of Phase I of this program is the collection of accurate thrust, specific impulse, and efficiency data. Also of critical interest for this stage of the program is a demonstration that the MET-100 does not experience any significant erosion problems either during startup or during long periods of operation as is the case with both arcjets and resistojets. Efficient water-based propulsion systems provide a promising solution for space propulsion missions that require storable, non-toxic propellants and are ideal for mission profiles which consider on-station refueling. This EP system fills a required niche in a suite of water based propulsion systems for orbital maneuvering. RSI will sell the MET-100 thruster as a complete propulsion module for station-keeping and orbit-raising onboard a growing number of small commercial communication satellites, as well as specialized science missions at NASA and DoD. A water-based system could also address propellant safety concerns on Shuttle-launched NASA missions.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Brian E. Hodges
DARPA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Regionally Adaptive Precision Tracking
Abstract:While there have been a number of recent advances in track precision and maintenance via the AMSTE program, long-term track maintenance remains an elusive goal. Track breaks are primarily the result of miss-detections due to micro-obscuration from foliage and buildings and or due to the vehicle dropping below Minimum Detectable Velocity (MDV) because of parking or stopping at intersections and yields. These unpredictable areas of miss-detections and the resulting track breaks are a tracking fact of life and have gone largely un-addressed. ALPHATECH's proposes to develop new High Range Resolution (HRR) technologies that connect the resulting track segments. Additionally, ALPHATECH will design innovative target motion models, methods for inferring probability of detection maps and regionally adaptive tracking techniques that are necessary for a system that maintains situational awareness on high priority targets via the stitching of short duration tracklets. Long term tracks on ground moving vehicles from airborne platforms have many application in surveillance, most notably in law enforcement. These techniques can be applied to any sensor with reasonable moving detection measurement errors and the ability to resolve multiple pixels on target. Given this tracking ability one can extrapolate lines of communication, target sources and sinks, along with the intelligence derived thereby.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORPORATION
11400 West Olympic Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Mr. Steven Jaroszewski
DARPA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Tracklet Fusion for strategic GMTI
Abstract:Current methods of tracking high-value, ground-moving targets often fail to provide continuous tracks due to extended periods of missed detections that result from terrain blockage, foliage attenuation, or target line-of-sight velocities that fall below the sensor minimum detectable velocity. When this occurs, the tracks are eventually lost and terminated thus forming short duration track files or tracklets. Terminated tracks adversely affect situational awareness since information that was accumulated on critical targets is lost. Even if automatic track initialization occurs after the target is redetected, no techniques are currently available to provide high-confidence association of the new track with the old tracklet to reestablish the information. TSC proposes to develop innovative techniques that exploit all available information to reliably link all tracklets within an archived database. Methods will also be implemented to fuse the relevant information and reestablish situational awareness. TSC will extend a dynamic programming target tracking technique that exploits contextual information and target features to provide robust linkage of track segments (tracklets) for evidence accumulation. During Phase I, TSC will develop tracklet fusion techniques and evaluate their performance using simulated GMTI data. During Phase II, the techniques will be refined, demonstrated using ground-truth GMTI data and evaluated as a tool for the web-based MTI exploitation MTIX system. Advanced tracking algorithms for GMTI radars offer the potential for enhanced situational awareness in military applications. These tracking algorithms will be a crucial element of surveillance ground stations and MTI exploitation systems for Joint STARS. There are numerous commercial applications including State and US DOT requirements for traffic monitoring, intermodal freight container tracking, law enforcement, emergency response and home front security.