DoD SBIR FY02.1 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Navy - Air Force - DARPA - MDA - DTRA - SOCOM - CBD - NIMA

---------- NAVY ----------

230 Phase I Selections from the 02.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
GS ENGINEERING, INC.
22015 Coal Dock Rd.
Hancock, MI 49930
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 370-6832
Dr. Glen Simula
NAVY 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Durability Improvement of Lightweight Track and Suspension Components for Armored Vehicles
Abstract:GS Engineering, Inc. will develop several concepts of lightweight road wheels for the AAAV along with exploring wear options. The casting will include high pressure lost foam aluminum wheel castings, permanent mold castings, and aluminum forging for the structural road wheel. Advanced wear techniques including High Velocity Particle Compaction, Selectively Reinforced Silicon Carbide Whiskers, Titanium Composites, and typical Induction Hardened Steel will be placed as inserts on the wheel. This will allow for refurbishment of the road wheels when the elastomer wears out. The road wheel elastomer will be polyurethane. This Phase I investigation will allow concept weights, wear mechanisms, cost and risk to be evaluated. A secondary issue will be a preliminary investigation into selectively reinforced aluminum silicon carbide whiskers of the current AAAV forged aluminum track block using stronger alloys. The composite wear characteristics will allow the current shoe design to last longer at the current weight. A high pressure lost foam aluminum road wheel with high wear resistant inserts at the center guide wear location will result in a longer lasting, lower cost wheel than the current production wheel, at the same weight. This is desirable for the AAAV program to reduce O&S costs of the road wheels. Also, a selectively reinforced aluminum shoe body will last longer than the current track shoe at a higher initial cost, but a lower life cycle cost. Both of these technologies have direct applications to commercial off-road construction equipment, forestry, and automotive applications along with FCS applications.

MATERIAL SOLUTIONS INC.
826 Harold St.
Moscow, ID 83843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 885-6743
Dr. Keith Prisbrey
NAVY 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Durability Improvement of Lightweight Track and Suspension Components for Armored Vehicles by Using Ti-6Al-4V
Abstract:The objective is to replace AAAV aluminum idler wheels with titanium to allow better wheel and spoke designs for mud-clogging prevention. Cost and weight limitations are the main constraint. The weight limitations will be met by designing the wheel using finite element calculations. Titanium is heavier, but since it is stronger, less is necessary, thus producing a wheel close to the current aluminum wheel's weight (perhaps lighter). The cost limitations will be met by using low- cost nanocrystalline Ti-6Al-4V powders produced from a recently patented mechanochemical process. The nanocrystalline quality of the titanium powders enables an advanced metal injection molding plus super plastic forming manufacturing method. 1)Advanced mechanochemical processing insures a domestic source of low cost titanium powder. The only other low cost titanium powders come from strategically vulnerable foreign sources (China, Ukraine). Some of these low cost sources have quality risks because they depend on secondary processing such as hydriding-dehydriding titanium scrap. By contrast our Ti-6Al-4V powder comes from a primary process through the direct mechanochemical reduction of TiCl4 + AlCl3 + VCl3 for quality control. 2) The idler wheel microstructure is nanocrystalline. This increases fatigue, strength, modulus, impact resistance, Poisson's ratio and lowers metal injection molding costs when compared to conventional titanium powders. 3) The manufacturing process of metal injection molding combined with low cost titanium powders has wide commercial application. For example, these titanium powders could replace much of the expanding stainless steel powder metallurgy market because the costs are almost equal.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Roger Storm
NAVY 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Durability Improvement of Lightweight Track and Suspension Components for Armored Vehicles
Abstract:x x

OPTRA, INC
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Ms. Julia H. Rentz
NAVY 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Compact Two-Band Thermographer for Remote Measurement of Skin Temperature
Abstract:OPTRA proposes the development of a novel two-color imaging remote thermographer for skin temperature measurements at large standoffs. This system employs a unique optical layout that separates an infrared image into two spectral channels registered laterally on a single uncooled microbolometer focal plane array. The difference between corresponding pixels of the two images effectively quantifies the location of the center wavelength of the Planck profile associated with the temperature of the target. The sensor response is continuous and monotonic with temperature. We have carefully constructed the two infrared channels to minimize the effects of atmospheric water vapor in the measurement path and eliminate the effects of carbon dioxide. The difference technique also allows for the rejection of stray radiation common to both channels. This system offers spatial resolution of 10 cm at a standoff of 200 m with a projected 1C accuracy The anticipated benefits of the proposed system is the capability to accurately measure skin temperature at large standoffs in the presence of high humidity and ultimately rain and fog. Applications of the proposed system include skin temperature measurement within the military as well as for emergency response and medical use. Other applications include machine monitoring, perimeter surveillance, and remote monitoring of industrial equipment and chemical processes.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. William J. Marinelli
NAVY 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Remote Thermographer to Measure Skin Temperatures
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in conjunction with Spectral Sciences Inc. (SSI), proposes to develop a multispectral thermal imaging system, operating in the wavelength range from 7.6 to 10.5 mm, for the measurement of skin temperature to within 1 deg C at ranges to 1 km. The multispectral imaging sensor is based on PSI's Adaptive Infrared Imaging Spectroradiometer system, now in development as part of the U.S. Army's Chemical Imaging Sensor. Critical to the achievement of the temperature measurement requirement is the need to accurately determine atmospheric attenuation of infrared radiation from the subject. In our concept multispectral infrared measurements in this wavelength region are used to measure water vapor absorption band intensities that, in conjunction with well-established models of atmospheric radiative transfer, can be used to estimate atmospheric attenuation to within 1 percent. Radiative transport modeling, used to provide real-time correction to the infrared imagery, is provided by SSI, this country's leader in such modeling and developers of the widely used MODTRAN code. The team will experimentally demonstrate the ability to acquire infrared imagery, with high spatial resolution, and to correct the imagery for atmospheric effects so as to provide a measure of skin temperature with an accuracy of 1 deg C. If successful the proposed effort will lead to the development of a long range dermal imaging system for use with active denial systems and in combat care applications. The primary commercial customer will be the U.S. Defense Department, with secondary commercial markets in emergency management and medical thermal imaging.

VOXTEL INC.
2640 SW Georgian Place
Portland, OR 97201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 421-4389
Mr. George M. Williams
NAVY 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:DUAL BAND INFRARED RADIOMETER FOR PRECISE BATTLEFIELD SKIN TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS
Abstract:Voxtel Inc. proposes in this Phase I effort to develop and optimize for the battlefield environment, a miniature, robust, and reliable multi-band infrared radiometer that will remotely monitor vital physiological parameters and provide accurate measures of millimeter wave induced hyperthermia. Thermography is a well-established discipline, but in real world situations, the parameters governing heat transfer are variable and uncontrollable; variations in ambient conditions such as temperature, wind, rain, fog, background noise, etc., as well as the physiological state of the human subject, all reduce the accuracy of conventional thermography methods. To solve these problems, Voxtel will develop and integrate precise models of the temporal and spatial heat transfer mechanisms of the human body with and without EM induced hyperthermia, emissivity models of various obscurants, environmental and atmospheric models, and sensor and signal processing models. The result of this effort will be an optimize design of a precision, multi-band, infrared, imaging (BMI2R) radiometric instrument capable of high accuracy at a 200-meter or longer battlefield range. Our trade studies will include: 1) a baseline handheld, dual band, QWIP camera design contrasted with the performance of: 2) single and dual band HgCdTe and 3) a split window, uncooled LWIR microbolometer. A novel infrared face detection and tracking will augment the system. In addition to the mature applications of thermography such as industrial control, insulation test, the innovation is expected to improve the research, diagnostic, and clinical tools necessary for dosimetry, optical and cancer detection and RF induced thermal cancer therapy, bioeffects research and compliance measures for RF communications devices, skin welding, veterinary studies, and a variety of other medical, scientific, and industrial applications.

EUREKA AEROSPACE, LLC
400 Continental Blvd, 6th Floo
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 426-2160
Dr. James Tatoian
NAVY 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Non-Lethal Area Denial to Vehicles
Abstract:Eureka Aerospace proposes a novel approach for denying ground vehicles the entrance to selected area by stopping them using a microwave system for stopping vehicles(MSSV). The proposed system consists of high power source, such as magnetron and suitable antenna to direct the microwave energy towards the vehicle and bring the vehicle to rest, without causing permanent damage to the vehicle or pose any danger to humans. The MSSV can be deployed in a variety of places including (1) an airborne platform such as helicopter, or fixed-wing plane including the UAVs, (2) ground vehicle, such as a car, van or a truck or (3) ground-based utility pole or a tree. The proposed effort will focus on the parameter trade-off analysis to arrive to an optimal and practical operational HPMS, whose prototype will be tested in Phase II. The benefits include nonlethal approach to quickly and safely stop cars on roads and highways for law enforcement. In addition MSSV can effectively protect high priority state,local and commercial assets.

MISSION RESEARCH CORPORATION
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 339-6500
Dr. John A. Pasour
NAVY 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Electromagnetic System for Non-Lethal Area Denial to Vehicles
Abstract:The goal of this program is to develop a robust, practical system that uses electromagnetic energy to disable vehicles. Critical electronic components in most modern military and civilian vehicles can be damaged or disrupted by illuminating them with high power electromagnetic radiation. In this program, the emphasis is on dramatically reducing the size, weight, and power requirements of the system needed to generate and transmit sufficient electromagnetic energy to disable the targeted vehicle. During Phase I, analyses, computer simulations, design studies, and limited laboratory testing will be performed to study energy transmission and coupling details, optimize system configurations, and determine operational limitations of a practical device. A prototype system will be developed and field tested in Phase II. The system will provide an effective means of disabling vehicles. It can be installed in a semi-permanent configuration (e.g., for perimeter defense) or on mobile platforms (e.g., for pursuit or fast-response applications). Compared to conventional electromagnetic systems that have been studied for this application, the proposed system is much more compact, requires much less power, reduces the risk of fratricide, and allows increased stand-off distances. The system can be used for a broad range of other non-lethal military applications, including mine clearing, disabling small boats, and interrupting communications, command, and control facilities. It also can be used by civilian law enforcement agencies.

AQUA-DYNE, INC.
3620 W. 11th Street
Houston, TX 77008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 864-6929
Mr. Mark Naedler
NAVY 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Dual Sander/High-Pressure Water Cleaning (HP WC) Unit for Recoat Surface Preparation
Abstract:The surface preparation industry has always had a need for selectively removing areas of coatings, which have lost their adhesion while maintaining the areas of soundly adhered coatings. Most recently, carefully blasting with grit or ultra-high pressure water have been the primary means to perform this procedure, although blasting can impair the integrity of sound coatings by fracturing their structure. New environmentally preferred water based coatings have increased the demand for surface preparation that don't remove the sound coatings since these new coatings don't adhere as well to bare surfaces as their solvent based predecessors. The proposed devise is a remotely controlled vertical wall climbing unit that uses a three-step method to prepare surfaces for recoat without damaging the areas of sound coatings. First, the surface is cleaned with 4,000psi (275 bar) water spray-jets to remove the bulk dirt and grim. Second, grit sanders scuff the areas of sound coating. Finally, 8,000psi (550 bar) water-jets thoroughly remove any dislodged coating or dirt. The All waste is captured beneath a vacuum shroud. The wall climber uses pneumatic winches to maneuver over large surfaces. This process will provide a better surface for recoat at a lower cost than equivalent existing methods. A dual sander/high-pressure water-cleaning unit can be used in commercial and military applications where sound coatings do not need to be stripped completely from the surface. It is a functional improvement over present blasting methods because there is no impact to fracture the coating's structure. The anticipated cleaning rate greatly exceeds current methods used on ship hulls, storage tanks, steel and concrete structures. It is expected that the unit's cost effectiveness and its environmental and ergonomic friendliness will make it a valuable tool for those preparing large surfaces for recoat. Shipyards, storage tank facilities and other large vessels requiring coatings are potential purchasers of the proposed unit. New coating technology is increasing the need for an alternative to blasting to the bare surface, further expanding the proposed unit's potential market.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2317
Dr. Silvia Luebben
NAVY 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Premixed Non-skid Media for Aviation Facility Flooring
Abstract:Today's anti-slip coatings for industrial flooring consist of a multi-layer coating system with a surface-broadcasted grit element. The installation of such a coating is expensive and time-consuming, and broadcasting is the most labor-intensive part of the installation. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain a floor with homogeneous non-skid properties by broadcasting because of the uneven distribution of the grit. Inorganic grits such as aluminum oxide are not covalently bonded into the coating matrix and, therefore, they tend to chip off easily; the coating system wears out quickly and must be replaced or repaired every few months. To address these problems, reduce the cost and time of the installation and increase the lifetime of the applied flooring system, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) will develop a new non-skid urethane coating with pre-mixed grit. The use of TDA's non-skid coating with pre-mixed grit will eliminate the need for broadcasting while reducing the floor installation time and cost. TDA's grit will be covalently cross-linked within the urethane matrix, considerably increasing the wear resistance and durability of the coating compared to the current system. This in turn will reduce the number of required repairs and re-applications. TDA's material will have immediate application as a non-skid coating for the Navy aviation hangers. The new non-skid coatings may find numerous other applications in civil aviation and as flooring system for chemical manufacturers, petrochemical plants, paper mills, wastewater plants, and other industrial applications. Other uses of non-skid coatings in the civil market include ship decks, ramps, aisles, walkways, steps, garages, swimming pools, and handicap zones.

POLYMERIGHT, INC.
4404-C Enterprise Place,
Fremont, CA 94538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 252-9090
Dr. Leonid Rappoport
NAVY 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Polysulfide Modified Epoxy Novolac Cladding for Steel Immersion/Splash Zone Service
Abstract:Environmentally-resistant, spray-applied, self-priming, fast-cure, flexible, edge-retentive, impact- and abrasion-resistant, polysulfide-modified epoxy novolac cladding for corrosion control of steel in immersion/splash zones is achieved using formulations containing epoxy novolac, urethane-epoxies and urethane-mercaptan resins with saturated hydrocarbon/polysulfide backbone, which are produced by polycondensation of saturated dimeric fatty acids and di(2-hydroxyethyl)disulfide. The molecular structure of cured cladding includes the following chemical blocks: * Cured epoxy structures, contributing high adhesion to steel; * Urethane groups, providing excellent wear resistance, toughness, oil/gasoline resistance, flexibility and chemical stability; * Multiple disulfide links producing high hydrophobicity, flexibility, oil/gasoline resistance, low glass transition temperature and reduced viscosity of resin; * Multiple ester groups contributing toughness, good UV and chemical resistance * Long saturated chains that contribute UV resistance hydrophobicity and flexibility/hardness of coating. POLYMERight will use technology that produces effective odorless mercaptan curing agents at relatively low cost from commercial precursors. Carefully controlled assembling of the chemical blocks will provide both tough and flexible cured polymers. This approach involves the creation of reactive resins with properties not currently available commercially. We expect these resins, and polymer formulations using them, to permit production by many companies of new castable polyurethanes, adhesives, coatings and sealants with improved properties. In addition to providing the improved cladding desired by the Navy, the technology developed under this SBIR will demonstrate the production and use of novel polymers having properties not now available in the market place. The newly developed resins employed, and the additional new polymers that can be made using them, will enable advantageous applications in fields such as: * Other protective coatings * Encapsulating and potting compounds for electrical and electronic components designed to serve in harsh environments * High dielectric materials for electrical insulation and radar systems * Sealants, barrier coatings, equipment linings, underwater coatings in construction, fuel handling, marine uses, etc. POLYMERight expects to both make polymer formulations for such commercial applications and to offer the resins themselves for sale to other formulators. The resulting broad availability of these resins, with the unique attributes they impart, will permit many formulators to develop better performing materials for their own spheres of activity at modest costs. This will have wide spread importance in many commercial areas of the economy.

POLYSPEC, L.P.
6614 Gant Road
Houston, TX 77066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 397-0033
Mr. Paul H. Anderson
NAVY 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Polysulfide Modified Epoxy Novolac Cladding for Steel Immersion/Splash Zone Service
Abstract:The proposed Phase I research will develop a sprayable, self-priming, fast cure, flexible, edge retentive, impact and abrasion resistant, polysulfide modified epoxy Novolac cladding for steel immersion/splash zone service. Currently the coatings of steel waterfront structures have a life expectancy of 5 years splash zone service. Maintenance applied coatings give an additional 3 years service prior to reapplication. This required regular maintenance and repair cycle is costly. The initial application of a polysulfide modified epoxy novolac will extend the maintenance cycle, thereby reducing repair costs. Potential commercial applications will include bridges, roofing, bilges, bulkheads(sheet pile, pipe pile, H-piles, cranes, in/offshore petrochemical structures, water and waste water structures, industrial facilities, contaiment systems, mooring structures, and marine equipment.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. George Hansen
NAVY 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Polysulfide Modified Epoxy Novolac Cladding for Steel Immersion/Splash Zone Service
Abstract:US Naval piers and offshore drilling platforms are common steel structures located in marine splash zones around the world. To provide adequate use life, these structures must be protected from persistent corrosion, with current coatings considered to be inadequate to meet the end-user's needs for protection and time between maintenance re-coats. TRI/Austin proposes development and production of a novel polysulfide-Novolac epoxy paint designed to be impact and abrasion resistant and have a useful life far in excess of currently used materials. A joint venture team consisting of TRI/Austin and Vickers Industrial Coatings will be assembled to develop this new product platform based on products already on the market. This team of coating engineers, scientists, and NACE professionals is highly motivated to bring this product into its current product line and is committed to demonstrating product scale-ability in manufacturing as a deliverable of the Phase I effort. The proposed work will result in development of an improved corrosion prevention coating for steel structures in the marine splash zone. This market represents significant business potential for members of the joint venture. The product to be developed will also provide a platform from which other markets can be derived such as storage tank and chemical reactor vessel linings, waste water effluent pipe lining, military hardware protective coatings, military and commercial ship exterior coatings, steel bridge coatings, marine-industrial facilities coatings and chemical plant and refinery protective coatings.

ZWEAVE, INC.
98 Greene Street
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 343-3959
Ms. Laura McCann
NAVY 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Three-Dimensional (3-D) Anthropometrie Data; Apparel Application Methods and Tools
Abstract:Use of 3-D scanning systems for capture of human body dimensions is becoming prevalent. Incorporation of 3-D anthropometric data into the design process promises significant breakthroughs and benefits for a wide variety of industries and applications, including the Apparel industry. Despite clear customer satisfaction, quality, and cost benefits, however, the Apparel industry has been slow to adopt 3-D anthropometry in its design and manufacturing processes. This Phase 1 SBIR study will investigate new methods and tools that can help accelerate the incorporation of 3-D anthropometry into the Apparel industry design and manufacturing processes. The study will include an assessment of the typical design and manufacturing practices in use in the Apparel industry today, with emphasis on the use of sizing-related practices, information and tools. Industry research, interviews, "As-Is" business process descriptions, and assessment of the current technology landscape will be used to identify the factors inhibiting use of 3-D anthropometry. The study will identify and develop the conceptual design of new methods and tools to integrate 3-D anthropometry and identify and describe the key technical requirements for developing and integrating these solutions. Business, economic and technical feasibilities will be performed to assess the likelihood of industry adoption. Adoption of 3-D anthropometry will permit an Apparel manufacturer to respond to sophisticated customer expectations and drive more effective product development and supply chain workflows, while fostering a collaborative environment both within the enterprise and in the customer relationship. Those early adopters who have embraced mass customization are already experiencing higher gross profit margins, reduced inventory, fewer returns and increased customer satisfaction and intimacy. Accelerating this adoption rate is critical to the introduction of 3-D anthropometry in the industry.

ADVANCED MATERIALS AND DEVICES
4451 Lynnfield Way
Reno, NV 89509
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 826-8306
Mr. Gregory Hitchcock
NAVY 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:A Fail-Safe Controllable Magneto-Rheological Fluid Smart Pad/Damper System for Submarine Based Weapon Shock and Vibration Mitigation
Abstract:The goal of the proposed Phase I effort is a feasibility study on the design and development of an innovative, fail-safe, controllable magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) smart pad for shock and vibration mitigation of Trident submarine based vertical launch weapon systems. The objective of this project is to explore the design feasibility of the proposed MRF shock absorber system which consists of a MRF material, a fail-safe MRF damper, and a control system. The effort includes preparation of a MRF material system suitable for this particular application. The properties of the base fluid and magnetic particles will be studied. In addition, a feasibility study of a novel MRF damper will be conducted in which the magnetic circuit and orifices will be designed to meet the shock pad requirements. Moreover, a robust control system that can provide accurate and fast response will be developed. Numerical simulations will be performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the MRF damper's dynamic force range and control design. The MRF shock pad design will be extensively evaluated against current elastomeric pad technology. Emphasis will also be placed on applicability to other emerging sectors especially automotive industry. Advanced weapon shock and vibration mitigation systems require reliable, fast responding, controllable devices with a broad range of damping forces to effectively reduce vibration during possible impacts. Modified versions of the new proposed MRF smart pad for Navy's Trident submarine based vertical launch weapon systems can potentially be used for other DoD applications, such as, vibration suppression of the U.S. Army's high mobility multi-purposed wheeled vehicles (HMMWV) and tanks in rough terrains, as well as helicopters' rotor systems, artillery and weapon recoil systems. In addition, the off-road application can be commercially pursued for sport utility vehicles, racing motorcycles and mountain bicycles in the public sector. The same technology can be extended to vibration mitigation in engine and transmission mounts, automotive shock absorbers, stabilizers for camera systems of new commercial satellites, automation and motion control for industrial manufacturing systems, and protective smart systems for building and bridges.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Mr. Jason E. Lindler
NAVY 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:System for Reconfigurable Shock and Vibration Mitigation
Abstract:Current attempts to enhance the ability of SSBNs to deploy guided missiles has created the opportunity to replace the existing pad-based missile shock isolation systems with those based on smart material technologies. The utilization of these advanced materials promises to deploy more modular, adaptable isolation systems that may be tuned to a broad class of current and future missiles. Working closely with our Naval contacts, CSA will develop a system requirements trade space that incorporates the isolation needs of several strategic and guided missiles. From these requirements we will then investigate the feasibility of various isolation technologies. These disciplines will range from passive VEM based solutions to fully "active" technologies that employ sensors, actuators and intelligent control. From these studies we will develop detailed component level and material-specific requirements that dictate device design and test. Out of these component requirements will come an assessment as to the best technology to employ in the real system. Our goal is to develop a shock isolation system whose shock attenuation exceeds that of the existing systems and yet can be easily tuned and reconfigured to several classes of ballistic and guided missiles. Beyond the stated application, the proposed system would be an invaluable tool for the transportation of high dollar items in air-borne, land or sea-borne platforms for both military and commercial applications.

ADVANCED ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
27 Industrial Blvd, Unit E
Medford, NY 11763
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 514-0315
Dr. Hans Bluem
NAVY 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Improved High-Current Injector Design
Abstract:With the achievement of 2.1 kW CW I R operation and an upgrade to10 kW in progress, free-electron lasers (FEL) are now a serious option for high-power, military and commercial applications. As specifically identified in the recent "Department of Defense Laser Master Plan", the key technology issue on the path to high-power FEL deployment is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, photocathode injector operation. A DC gun/superconducting accelerator combination provides the most promising and most mature path to efficient, weapon-level electron beam power. One of the primary issues identified with this type of gun is beam quality degradation for operation at weapon system charge levels that approach 1 nC per bunch or higher. Longitudinal phase space aberrations set in that can significantly reduce the lasing efficiency of the FEL. We are proposing to design a doubly resonant first accelerating cavity to both correct the development of this aberration and accelerate the electron beam for current levels that approach one ampere. The proposed design will represent a proof-of-principle demonstration. The discriminating attributes of FELs are their wide-band tunability, their implicit potential for very high-power operation and the intrinsic picosecond pulse structure that promises superior performance for certain applications. Significant military FEL directed energy weapon (DEW), countermeasure and communication applications exist at various power levels, which will benefit from the proposed SBIR project. Commercial applications spanning high-value-added micro-machining to low-value-added, high-throughput surface processing of metals and polymers have also been demonstrated and patented. Their immediate deployment is prevented only by the availability of a suitable, economic, high-power light source, to which development the present project contributes. The development of the proposed high-brightness, electron injector would provide a significant benefit in terms of improved efficiency and thus cost reduction for both the military and commercial FEL applications. In addition, the applications identified for material processing with radiation could lead to the development of new, on-shore, high-technology, environmentally-friendly manufacturing opportunities.

ENERGEN, INC.
17 D Sterling Road
Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 671-5400
Dr. Chad H. Joshi
NAVY 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Active Vibration Control for Free Electron Laser Systems
Abstract:The Navy is exploring the use of Free Electron Lasers (FEL) on ships for use in directed energy weapons. The potency of the laser based weaponry is directly related to vibration isolation from the floor and other sources. Active vibration control is preferred because of the stringent requirements on alignment and isolation over a broad range of frequencies. Energen, Inc. proposes to develop a high force support that provides active vibration damping based on magnetic `smart" material actuators The system consists of motion sensors that measures motion due to vibration, a high speed digital signal processor and high force actuators based on magnetic smart materials and capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures. In Phase I, Energen, Inc. will develop a prototype actuator and measure its performance characteristics and sensitivity, and develop a design for an optimal control system. The developed control systems will be able to actively damp vibrations in one dimension. In Phase I option, Energen, Inc. will investigate and develop low frequency velocity sensors operating at cryogenic temperatures. The control systems design for a 3-dimensional active vibration isolation platform will be developed. Active vibration control technology has a wide range of applications. The low frequency damping capability that will be developed under this program will be valuable for semiconductor processing equipment, sensitive instrumentation such as electron or tunneling microscopes, etc.

MISSION RESEARCH CORPORATION
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 339-6500
Dr. John A. Pasour
NAVY 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:FEL Efficiency Enhancement via Concurrent RF Acceleration
Abstract:The goal of this program is to analyze, design, and develop an efficiency enhancement scheme for free-electron lasers (FELs). In the proposed technique, a radio-frequency (RF) electric field is superimposed on the FEL wiggler field to reaccelerate the electron beam as it loses energy. This reacceleration allows the electrons to remain in resonance with the wiggler and radiation fields over a longer distance, much as tapering the wiggler does in typical FEL enhancement schemes. The advantage to be gained by the RF acceleration technique is improved control of the longitudinal electron beam dynamics (minimization of beam energy spread). During Phase I, the primary focus will be on use of the lower frequency FEL resonance to accelerate the electrons in an applied RF field (inverse FEL mechanism). This approach will be contrasted with an alternative design in which an RF accelerating structure is added to the FEL interaction region. In Phase II, a preferred approach will be selected for detailed design, fabrication, and testing. Efficiency enhancement is crucial in high-average-power FELs, such as are being suggested for antiship cruise missile defense and other defense applications, as well as for industrial processing and other commercial uses. An important drawback of conventional tapered-wiggler efficiency enhancement is the large energy spread it imposes on the electrons, making subsequent acceleration or energy recovery very difficult. The concurrent RF acceleration approach proposed here can overcome this disadvantage, making the application of high-average-power FELs much more practical for both military and civilian uses.

RELIABILITY TOOLS & ANALYSES, INC.
PMB 5029, 2231 Crystal Drive, Suite 500
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 780-6017
Mr. Reid Willis
NAVY 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Battle Force Reliability Modeling and Simulation
Abstract:This project consists of three related efforts. The first is to conduct research into the requirements, procedures, and algorithms needed to model the reliability aspects of a battle force of ships operating over a multiphase mission timeline. The second effort is to incorporate these results into the design of the Navy TIGER computer program for mission reliability prediction and analyses. The final effort is the implementation of the design to produce TIGER Force, a battle force-capable program with an intuitive user interface that will run on desktop host computers. The battle force-capable TIGER program will support engineering for reliability assurance of complex commercial systems. Examples of other applications are commercial airlines, electric utilities, and package delivery systems.

SOHAR INCORPORATED
8421 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 201
Beverly Hills, CA 90211
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(323) 653-4717
Dr. Herbert Hecht
NAVY 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Battle Force Reliability Modeling and Simulation
Abstract:This research will define and implement enhancements to TIGER, the standard assessment tool used by the Navy to measure readiness in terms of operational availability. The current version can handle the thousands of components aboard a ship. However, it is not suited to modeling the massive task of Battle Force simulation and tradeoffs. In this research, we will identify the functional, user interface, and structural requirements to extend TIGER to modeling Battle Forces. The innovations in this research are algorithms for the aggregation of individual ship functions into group-level services. In addition, we will define user interface enhancements to reduce training and provide higher quality output. The result of the Phase I effort will be the definition of SuperTIGER, a tool to provide battle force level availability and reliability assessments, spare allowances, and related functions. The benefits of this research will be to update one of the most significant tools used by the Navy to predict operational availability, perform tradeoff analyses, and evaluate cost-effective sparing strategies. TIGER PLUS will be of value not only to the U.S. Navy but also to many Federal, State, and Local Government authorities responsible for maintenance planning, logistics support and sparing. In addition, TIGER PLUS will be of use to private entities with large investments in complex maintainable assets.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, #500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Jason Geng
NAVY 02-012      Selected for Award
Title:An Intelligent Omnidirectional Digital Video System for Shipboard Machinery Condition and Personnel Assessments
Abstract:The primary objective of this SBIR is to develop and demonstrate an advanced omnidirectional digital video system that overcomes the shortcomings of existing technology for machinery condition and personnel assessments in a harsh shipboard environment. The proposed Omni-Guide system consists of a novel omnidirectional IR sensor for temperature measurement and human activity detection, a low-light visible PTZ camera for tracking human activity and for acquire facial image for face ID, an intelligent controller to coordinate actions of these two sensors, and a host computer to perform digital recording of both IR and visible imagery, event trigger actions, facial identification, database management, and alarm settings. Five major innovations in the proposed Omni-Guide system include (1) The highly sensitive omnidirectional IR sensor (2) Intelligently controlled PTZ low-light camera (3) 3D Facial Identification scheme (4) Registered 3D-IR-visible modalities (5) Intelligent Watchdog for Machinery Condition Assessment. The commercial market for the technologies to be developed under this SBIR is obviously sizable. The proposed Omni-Guide systems can be used in machinery condition and personnel activity assessment in factory or environmentally harsh areas. It also could be used in physically unacceptable or dangerous areas where direct human interaction is prohibited. In general, the technologies of omnidirectional imaging, low-light PTZ, 3D face ID and 3D-IR model can lead to significant advances in security enhancement for any types of military and civilian applications. These technologies can be used in other security applications, ranging from warehouse, train-stations, airports, Government facilities, corporations, sport events, to public and private schools in US, from elementary to university. The tragic event of 9/11 triggers tremendous interests in the security enhancement for all private sectors. We see great potentials for the commercial applications of the technologies developed under this SBIR project.

PHOTON-X, INC
102A Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-3416
Mr. Blair Barbour
NAVY 02-012      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Video System for Condition Based Maintenance
Abstract:The U.S. Navy has aggressively pursued the implementation of Smart Ship technology initiatives to achieve Total Ownership Cost (TOC) savings primarily through reduced manpower requirements. These reductions are enabled by innovative adaptation of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies, substantial changes in Policy and Procedures and new Maintenance methods such as Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). The team also brings a wealth of technical experience in state of the art spatial phase video development, passive 3D reconstruction, shadow penetration, hardware prototyping, and other applicable video sensing technologies. Photon-X team offers a new innovative video technology, which is capable of breaking down and recording the phase elements of the light in a revolutionary manner. Photon-X has developed a patented imaging process, which has demonstrated initial proof of concept for passive shadow/fog/haze penetration, passive 3D video processing/reconstruction, measurement of the structural changes in materials and enhanced biometric recognition and tracking. The Photon-X's innovations are: (1) Passive real-time personnel identification (Biometrics) and tracking using invisible passive tagging techniques. (2) Enhanced vision through rough environmental conditions, such as fog, haze and shadowed low light areas. (3) Visually detect structural changes in materials and automation of the machinery conditions using Photon-Xs intelligent phase based processing. The photon-X technology has multiple commercial markets, such as passive tracking with invisible barcodes and the intelligent 3D shape based video. Both of these technology directions offer tremendous market potential. Photon-X has patents pending for this technology and has formed a commercial spin-off company called Sport-X to rapidly develop the tagging technology for Sports tracking/broadcasting and enhanced interactive computer animation. The ability to non-obtrusively tag someone or something and both tracking it real-time and to identify each tag has been a long-term goal of researchers and commercial developers. Photon-X has spun-off a commercial venture dedicated to developing a tagging, tracking and identification optical bar code system to be used in the Sports and interactive gaming markets. The Sport-X mission is to develop non-intrusive tags that can be easily placed on athletes and other sports gear to track these elements for real-time analysis of the players performance, fatigue, weaknesses, etc., this can be used by coaches or by broadcasters as sports commentary. Shape based video or 3D vision has a desire by technologist as well as consumers around the world. And the fact that these cameras are intelligent and can develop object signatures, which are invariant to its look angle, will revolutionize the robotic vision market.

KAZAK COMPOSITES INCORPORATED
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Jerome Fanucci
NAVY 02-014      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, Pultrusion-Based Composite Joiner Panel System with Simplified Installation
Abstract:KaZaK Composites proposes, with Bath Iron Works and Newport News Shipbuilding, to develop and demonstrate a new joiner panel system that makes substantial material, configuration, manufacturing and installation process changes to the system currently in use on Naval vessels. At least two of the primary components, the joiner panel itself and the coaming, will be made from pultruded composites. Significant, cost-saving changes to techniques for attaching the coaming to the deck and the joiner panel to the coaming will be investigated. Alternatives to the current cut-and-fit technology for patching the curtain plate around many overhead obstructions will be studied. A key component of the Phase I work will be a demonstration of joiner panel pultrusion using KCI's 10-foot wide pultrusion machine. Advantages of pultrusion will include lower fabrication cost and the ability to make panels in arbitrarily long lengths. This will create a new installation cost and weight paradigm by reducing the number of joints. Phase I will terminate with a prototype demonstration, including a pultruded joiner panel, a new composite coaming, possibly a variation of the curtain plate, plus evaluation of new installation concepts. In the Option Phase we will perform FST and other key property tests. Successful completion of the proposed work will result in a light weight, low cost joiner panel system with a widespread market in both the commercial and military shipbuilding industry. KCI will work to adapt and apply the developed system to both new installations aboard CG-47, LPD-17, DDG-51, CVN-X and other platforms, as well for service life extension programs in the military and commercial world. More importantly for KCI and the Navy, use of large pultruded joiner panels on Naval vessels in a low risk application will provide an opportunity to demonstrate the significant cost saving potential of pultruding very large ship structure, compared to making similar structure by VARTM technology, without requiring the Navy to commit to installation of experimental composite parts in some difficult to replace mission-critical location of ship's structure. Success with the joiner panel product could represent the first step in the path to acceptance of a new material and process technology combination that will have a broad reaching effect on the future use of composites in shipbuilding.

WEBCORE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
591 Congress Park Drive
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-5034
Dr. Donald Klosterman
NAVY 02-014      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Lightweight, Fireproof Composite Joiner Panel for Navy Ship
Abstract:This phase I SBIR project is focused on the development of lightweight, fireproof, damage-tolerant and affordable composite joiner panels for Navy ship. The Phase I work will demonstrate the feasibility of using WebCore's patented TYCOR fiber reinforced foam (FRF) core sandwich panel to meet the structural, fire and cost targets for this application. Phase I work will include composite joiner panel design requirements definition; design and fabrication of TYCOR composite panels; physical, mechanical and fire testing; design of attachments; and an optional task to design and fabricate a prototype joiner panel. WebCore will team up with Newport News Shipbuilding (now part of Northrop Grumman Ship Systems) to obtain the necesary design requirements and also to implement the technology in the Navy fleet. The proposed research will provide an affordable solution to the Navy by replacing heavy metal joiner panels with lightweight, fireproof composite panels. Fireproof and damage-tolerant composite panel can be used extensively in Navy ships to reduce the weight and cost of maintenance in many parts such as doors, scuttles and hatches as well as topside structures. The technology developed in this program has broad applications in marine, transportation, construction, industrial and aerospace market.

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-1192
Dr. Y. Joon Lee
NAVY 02-015      Selected for Award
Title:Development of High Temperature Barrier Coating
Abstract:The object of this proposal is a cost-effective coating to be used to guard bulkheads and other naval structures from exposure to high-temperatures during a fire event. Material is to be capable of withstanding the action of a flame while preventing the covered surface from reaching a temperature of 225-250F above ambient temperature, meeting the requirements of UL 1709. The approach is to provide a high temperature coating with novel fillers and additives in a variety of paint compositions. Commercially available thermosetting resins, such as cyanate resin and aromatic epoxy resin, are good candidates as the resin matrix material. We propose to use a proprietary filler in the resin coating mix for thermal insulation. During a fire event, the filler will expand, resulting in a foamed resin composite structure. Ease of reparability of the coating is targeted as well as low maintenance and long service life. Feasibility demonstration shall include ease of installation, ease of removal, cost and anticipated service life expectancy. The paint will be especially tailored for use on new types of lightweight naval structural materials that require barrier coatings to prevent them from reaching elevated temperatures during a fire situation, which will significantly reduce their strength. One of the primary markets for this product is for the protection of bulkheads and various structures in naval vessels. Another somewhat smaller market is barrier coatings for fire insulation in power plants, chemical plants, and other industrial facilities.

METSS CORPORATION
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Donald Bigg
NAVY 02-015      Selected for Award
Title:Development of High Temperature Barrier Coating
Abstract:METSS plans to develop an intumescent coating that can be applied and bonded to a steel structure that provides sufficient protection to keep the temperature of the steel below 325F for at least 30 minutes. Two similar approaches will be examined for maximum cost and performance effectiveness. The first approach consists of a complex coating based on a polymeric binder. This coating will adhere strongly to steel, intumesce to form a strong, flake-resistant char foam that evolves heat absorbing water vapor and contains an infrared reflecting additive. This composition will contain hollow microspheres to reduce the density of the coating. Exfoliated nanoclays will be incorporated into the matrix polymer to strengthen the char foam. The second approach is a similarly complex ceramic-based coating. Ceramics do not burn, and therefore offer excellent fire resistance. Intumescent ceramic based coatings also release water, form an insulating foam, contain density reducing hollow microspheres, and IR reflecting additives. The most significant potential difference and the focus of the research relates to adhesion to the steel and the stability of the intumescent foam. The addition of IR reflecting additives represents a unique and significant addition to intumescent formulations. METSS proposal also addresses the critical issues of modifying both coatings systems to maximize adhesion to the steel, and the stability of the foam in order to meet the Navy's cost and performance goals. There are considerable benefits to developing a barrier coating system that prevents weakening of structural steel members during an intense fire. Fires, particularly those from petrochemical sources, produce very high temperatures and are similarly energetic. As such, they cannot only destroy combustible materials and structures, but also weaken nonflammable support structures such as steel. There are very significant material, structure, and life savings that can be realized by limiting the damage to structural members during an intense fire. The longer a structure can survive the greater the possibility of saving life and the structure. The Navy is not the only potential beneficiary of the development of high temperature barrier coatings. Commercial ships, cruise ships, oil platforms, petroleum processing facilities, chemical processing plants, commercial buildings, and hotels are among the structures that can benefit from improved fire barriers.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORPORATION
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Lawrence R. Grzyll
NAVY 02-016      Selected for Award
Title:Demonstration of an Autocascade Cryocooler for Rapid Cooldown of OASIS Towed Bodies
Abstract:The goal of the Phase I effort is to demonstrate Mainstream's innovative multi-stage autocascade refrigeration technology as a portable, temporary cooling system that could interface with an Organic Airborne and Surface Influence Sweep (OASIS) towed body to quickly cool the system and decrease the preparation time required to deploy it. Mainstream's autocascade refrigeration system incorporates several innovative technologies to provide high reliability and high efficiency in a shipboard and flightdeck environment. Previous demonstration experiments have shown that this technology has efficiencies as high as 20% of Carnot. The military application for this technology is of great importance to the Navy. There are also significant commercial applications for this technology. The immediate market for these systems are medical and biological laboratories and test facilities where the 1997 sales are between 20 and 40 million dollars. The semi-conductor industry, which uses cryocoolers for condensing impurities from gas streams used in wafer manufacture, is also very attractive.

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd., Suite 300
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-5433
Dr. Enson Chang
NAVY 02-017      Selected for Award
Title:Classification Enhanced Target Tracking
Abstract:Anti-submarine warfare in shallow water is notoriously difficult, especially against low/no-doppler targets. Tracking is a useful means for differentiating a candidate contact from clutter tracks. However, weak target returns and high false alarm rates in the littoral often result in large number of false tracks and operator saturation. Current tracker-classifiers such as the ETC operate in a sequential mode with tracking preceding classification. A feedback loop that passes contact classification information back to the tracker can prune the number of false alarms significantly. Furthermore, certain contact features (e.g., its orientation) can be incorporated into the tracker's state vector to improve tracking performance. These and other potentially viable architectures are obviously more effective if the system has sufficient spatial resolution to resolve contact features. We propose to use our high-fidelity target and environmental simulations to assess the feasibility of several classification-enhanced tracking architectures based on the high azimuthal resolution offered by synthetic aperture processing. The enhanced tracking and classification techniques will find direct applications in any government and commercial activities that require active sonar, e.g., harbor surveillance and security, rapid coastal bathymetric mapping, location and characterization of environmental dumping in both U.S. and international waters, petrochemical and mineral exploration, harbor surveys for industrial and municipal outfall installation, and underwater search and recovery operations.

ORINCON CORPORATION
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Mr. Mike Kurnow
NAVY 02-018      Selected for Award
Title:Statistical Operator Workload Allocation to Maintain USW Performance
Abstract:A major driver in total cost of ownership of Navy's surface combatants is the cost of manning the platforms. Reducing USW manning is an exceptionally difficult area ORINCON is already working under IUSW 21 automation. However, workstation automation addressed by that program provides no systematic methodology to allocate available operator workload to tasks both tactically significant and necessary to maintain acceptable performance. Additionally, all focus is on single manned USW operations without consideration for operators to flex and perform as a team. This SBIR will investigate and add innovative techniques for directing operator attention to high probability of importance actions which increase total performance of the USW system. Specifically, we will draw the operator's attention to areas having higher likelihood of a threat, insure his awareness of how well the underlying automated DCL is operating, and direct his attention to areas needing assistance. Methods for insitu grouping of automated DCL outputs into families will be investigated. Initial focus will be on the DCL problem, leaving work on other aspects of the USW workload until Phase II. We will also look at methods and rationale for distributing work across multiple operators with differing proficiency levels by extending workstation automation capabilities and doctrine already developed by ORINCON and TecFocus for IUSW-21. By using the existing IUSW-21 workstation automation as a starting point for this effort, the risk in accomplishing program objectives is reduced while the immediate benefit to the Navy is maximized. This Phase I SBIR effort will provide a demonstrable foundation for Phase II effort that will result in a comprehensive, automated, distributed, statistical USW workload capability integrated into IUSW-21 workstations and available for integration into continuing IUSW-21 ADM developments. The development and integration of statistical workload management techniques within the TAIPE technology intelligent user interface framework can be applied to numerous military and commercial domains that require an intelligent interactive control of complex systems by human operators, such as, power plant operations, space station operations, and advanced military C4ISR systems.

DESKIN RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
555 E. Weddell Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 400-8036
Dr. James M. Marshall
NAVY 02-019      Selected for Award
Title:Robust Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Satellite Communications Protocol for UUVs
Abstract:A program is proposed that is intended to develop recommended signaling technique(s), protocols and a system architecture that will permit robust UHF SATCOM communications to UUV platforms under adverse sea state conditions as high as sea state 4. The outage problems encountered on UUVs are similar in nature to outages encountered on UHF MSS Satellite links. This effort will apply the design and protocol development experience from a commercial UHF packet communications MSS satellite program to the UUV problem. Message delivery reliability and messaging services requirements are similar in nature to the UUV problem. It is anticipated that the results of this program in developing a robust link protocol will be mutually beneficial to the Navy as well as commercial MSS SATCOM. A second phase of this program will provide a technology demonstration under controlled laboratory conditions. A third phase will provide a prototype system for integration and testing into a UUV test vehicle. The proposed program affords the Navy the opportunity to solve both the washover problem and the robust link reliability problem of the UUV environment. The UUV environment while unique, does offer an opportunity to solve similar communication link problems that are encountered on mobile satellite networks. For example, the washover outage is similar to underpass outages of terrestrial ground mobile satellite links. This is not an area most commercial satellite developers would be focused on, but it is relevant to the class of MSS Satellites that DRG has developed. It is anticipated that the results of this program in developing a robust link protocol will be mutually beneficial to the Navy as well as commercial MSS SATCOM.

WAVIX, INCORPORATED
8100 Professional Place, Suite 205
Landover, MD 20785
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 459-6682
Dr. Jeffrey N. Shaumeyer
NAVY 02-019      Selected for Award
Title:Robust Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Satellite Communications Protocol for UUVs
Abstract:Wavix proposes to capitalize on its unique combination of expertise in satellite communications and oceanographic systems to develop an optimized-protocol solution to the problem of RF satellite communications in disadvantaged marine environments. Our solution will invoke a diverse but coordinated array of noise-mitigation techniques that function at the lowest levels of the 7-layer OSI Model, namely, the Physical Layer and the Link Layer of the protocol. In this Phase-I effort we will characterize the physical marine environment for the requirements it places on RF systems. Working from those requirements, we will develop a parameterized conceptual model for low-level protocols that addresses the degraded performance faced by maritime users. We will also consider compatible error-reduction strategies and approaches to embedding higher-level protocols that can further increase data-transmission efficiency. In modeling the low-level protocol, our requirements analysis will go beyond just noise characteristics. We also will consider constraints imposed by the physical limitations of the application, e.g., small UUVs or profiling buoys of limited power, weight, and size, as well as compatibility with existing UHF SATCOM systems. Wavix has an ongoing business in satellite communications, with our current major customer being users of e-mail services in developing countries. Our intention from the start was, and remains, to serve the oceanographic community with a system that can retrieve data from buoys. The system we currently have in place is achieving this goal but with some serious limitations. The protocol envisioned for this effort will increase our link margins somewhat allowing us to decrease antenna size enough to serve a larger customer base. In addition, it will allow us to increase our current system capacity as well as the density of users in any particular location. There are other niche markets that such a system can serve that, when aggregated, become a significant opportunity. There is a high demand world-wide for inexpensive data transmission services. By dropping the price for such services, many new markets will open, such as providing inexpensive e-mail and data services on ships for crew and passengers and supporting Arctic, Antarctic, and other scientific research in remote areas. A satellite system designed to serve oceanographic research can easily accommodate these other niche markets.

CONTINENTAL CONTROLS AND DESIGN, INC.
1921 N. Gaffey Suite J
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 831-8669
Mr. James P. Hynes
NAVY 02-020      Selected for Award
Title:Remote Controlled Non-Gasoline Burning Water Craft
Abstract:In this project we investigate non-gasoline burning, remote controlled, high speed surface craft. The possibilities include an improved Roboski, modified for heavy fuel. Orbital Engines designs and oversees the manufacture of direct injection fuel management systems for many of the current PWC manufacturers. They will help us modify the injection and ignition maps, and recommend compression changes for jp5 and DFM fuel. We also consider slightly smaller (<200lb) craft, powered by 50-100cc stochiometric homogeneous charge combustion ignition engines. That's a fancy name for the `model airplane diesel' that was developed almost 50 years ago. As a third option, we investigate a 16' target based on a COTS diesel stern drive or outboard. Working as much as possible with existing technology, and teaming with good people, we should be able to demonstrate multiple solutions in Phase 1 Everybody in the defense field is looking for non-gasoline burning engines. Both the air-assisted direct injection, and the stochiometric HCCI approaches are promising approaches.

GSE, INC.
219 East Enterprise St., P.O. Box 7743
Incline Village, NV 89450
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 831-3917
Mr. Greg Stevenson
NAVY 02-020      Selected for Award
Title:Remote Controlled Non-Gasoline Burning Water Craft
Abstract:Current DoD policy prohibits the procurement of future combat systems dependent on gasoline type fuels, while simultaneously Congress strongly supports DoD acquisitions that are based on Commercial off-the-shelf solutions. Commercial recreational equipment such as Personal Watercraft and outboard motors have high-speed performance, fitted with optimum lightweight, compact, efficient transmission and propeller designs. Near term federal regulations mandated by the EPA have influenced PWC and outboard manufactures to convert high-end 2-cycle gasoline powerplants to Direct Cylinder Fuel Injection. (i.e.: OMC-FICHT or Mercury orbital). These spark injection (SI) technologies have greatly reduced the emissions of 2-cycle engines operating on gasoline, but are limited in performance on kerosene based fuels such as Diesel #2. This proposal outlines a true multi-fuel compression ignition (CI) technology that operates at speeds comparable to existing gasoline SI engines up to 8,000 RPM. The brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of the CI cycle is 75-80% of the SI cycle at the same RPM. Therefore the proposed approach operates at high speed on multi-fuels enabling direct injection with a comparable specific output. Since the CI cycle is immune to detonation of low octane kerosene fuel, higher power is immediately available through the adoption of some form of supercharge. Both military and commercial applications will benefit directly with a high-speed diesel technology yielding a specific weight ratio comparable to current gasoline engines. The ability to operate a small diesel at high speed represents the potential for a paradigm shift in commercial applications that are to vast to list.

AIR CYCLE CORPORATION
2000 S. 25th Avenue, Suite C
Broadview, IL 60155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#: DoD SBIR FY02.1 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
DoD SBIR FY02.1 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Navy - Air Force - DARPA - MDA - DTRA - SOCOM - CBD - NIMA

---------- NAVY ----------

230 Phase I Selections from the 02.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
GS ENGINEERING, INC.
22015 Coal Dock Rd.
Hancock, MI 49930
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 370-6832
Dr. Glen Simula
NAVY 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Durability Improvement of Lightweight Track and Suspension Components for Armored Vehicles
Abstract:GS Engineering, Inc. will develop several concepts of lightweight road wheels for the AAAV along with exploring wear options. The casting will include high pressure lost foam aluminum wheel castings, permanent mold castings, and aluminum forging for the structural road wheel. Advanced wear techniques including High Velocity Particle Compaction, Selectively Reinforced Silicon Carbide Whiskers, Titanium Composites, and typical Induction Hardened Steel will be placed as inserts on the wheel. This will allow for refurbishment of the road wheels when the elastomer wears out. The road wheel elastomer will be polyurethane. This Phase I investigation will allow concept weights, wear mechanisms, cost and risk to be evaluated. A secondary issue will be a preliminary investigation into selectively reinforced aluminum silicon carbide whiskers of the current AAAV forged aluminum track block using stronger alloys. The composite wear characteristics will allow the current shoe design to last longer at the current weight. A high pressure lost foam aluminum road wheel with high wear resistant inserts at the center guide wear location will result in a longer lasting, lower cost wheel than the current production wheel, at the same weight. This is desirable for the AAAV program to reduce O&S costs of the road wheels. Also, a selectively reinforced aluminum shoe body will last longer than the current track shoe at a higher initial cost, but a lower life cycle cost. Both of these technologies have direct applications to commercial off-road construction equipment, forestry, and automotive applications along with FCS applications.

MATERIAL SOLUTIONS INC.
826 Harold St.
Moscow, ID 83843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 885-6743
Dr. Keith Prisbrey
NAVY 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Durability Improvement of Lightweight Track and Suspension Components for Armored Vehicles by Using Ti-6Al-4V
Abstract:The objective is to replace AAAV aluminum idler wheels with titanium to allow better wheel and spoke designs for mud-clogging prevention. Cost and weight limitations are the main constraint. The weight limitations will be met by designing the wheel using finite element calculations. Titanium is heavier, but since it is stronger, less is necessary, thus producing a wheel close to the current aluminum wheel's weight (perhaps lighter). The cost limitations will be met by using low- cost nanocrystalline Ti-6Al-4V powders produced from a recently patented mechanochemical process. The nanocrystalline quality of the titanium powders enables an advanced metal injection molding plus super plastic forming manufacturing method. 1)Advanced mechanochemical processing insures a domestic source of low cost titanium powder. The only other low cost titanium powders come from strategically vulnerable foreign sources (China, Ukraine). Some of these low cost sources have quality risks because they depend on secondary processing such as hydriding-dehydriding titanium scrap. By contrast our Ti-6Al-4V powder comes from a primary process through the direct mechanochemical reduction of TiCl4 + AlCl3 + VCl3 for quality control. 2) The idler wheel microstructure is nanocrystalline. This increases fatigue, strength, modulus, impact resistance, Poisson's ratio and lowers metal injection molding costs when compared to conventional titanium powders. 3) The manufacturing process of metal injection molding combined with low cost titanium powders has wide commercial application. For example, these titanium powders could replace much of the expanding stainless steel powder metallurgy market because the costs are almost equal.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Roger Storm
NAVY 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Durability Improvement of Lightweight Track and Suspension Components for Armored Vehicles
Abstract:x x

OPTRA, INC
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Ms. Julia H. Rentz
NAVY 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Compact Two-Band Thermographer for Remote Measurement of Skin Temperature
Abstract:OPTRA proposes the development of a novel two-color imaging remote thermographer for skin temperature measurements at large standoffs. This system employs a unique optical layout that separates an infrared image into two spectral channels registered laterally on a single uncooled microbolometer focal plane array. The difference between corresponding pixels of the two images effectively quantifies the location of the center wavelength of the Planck profile associated with the temperature of the target. The sensor response is continuous and monotonic with temperature. We have carefully constructed the two infrared channels to minimize the effects of atmospheric water vapor in the measurement path and eliminate the effects of carbon dioxide. The difference technique also allows for the rejection of stray radiation common to both channels. This system offers spatial resolution of 10 cm at a standoff of 200 m with a projected 1C accuracy The anticipated benefits of the proposed system is the capability to accurately measure skin temperature at large standoffs in the presence of high humidity and ultimately rain and fog. Applications of the proposed system include skin temperature measurement within the military as well as for emergency response and medical use. Other applications include machine monitoring, perimeter surveillance, and remote monitoring of industrial equipment and chemical processes.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. William J. Marinelli
NAVY 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Remote Thermographer to Measure Skin Temperatures
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in conjunction with Spectral Sciences Inc. (SSI), proposes to develop a multispectral thermal imaging system, operating in the wavelength range from 7.6 to 10.5 mm, for the measurement of skin temperature to within 1 deg C at ranges to 1 km. The multispectral imaging sensor is based on PSI's Adaptive Infrared Imaging Spectroradiometer system, now in development as part of the U.S. Army's Chemical Imaging Sensor. Critical to the achievement of the temperature measurement requirement is the need to accurately determine atmospheric attenuation of infrared radiation from the subject. In our concept multispectral infrared measurements in this wavelength region are used to measure water vapor absorption band intensities that, in conjunction with well-established models of atmospheric radiative transfer, can be used to estimate atmospheric attenuation to within 1 percent. Radiative transport modeling, used to provide real-time correction to the infrared imagery, is provided by SSI, this country's leader in such modeling and developers of the widely used MODTRAN code. The team will experimentally demonstrate the ability to acquire infrared imagery, with high spatial resolution, and to correct the imagery for atmospheric effects so as to provide a measure of skin temperature with an accuracy of 1 deg C. If successful the proposed effort will lead to the development of a long range dermal imaging system for use with active denial systems and in combat care applications. The primary commercial customer will be the U.S. Defense Department, with secondary commercial markets in emergency management and medical thermal imaging.

VOXTEL INC.
2640 SW Georgian Place
Portland, OR 97201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 421-4389
Mr. George M. Williams
NAVY 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:DUAL BAND INFRARED RADIOMETER FOR PRECISE BATTLEFIELD SKIN TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS
Abstract:Voxtel Inc. proposes in this Phase I effort to develop and optimize for the battlefield environment, a miniature, robust, and reliable multi-band infrared radiometer that will remotely monitor vital physiological parameters and provide accurate measures of millimeter wave induced hyperthermia. Thermography is a well-established discipline, but in real world situations, the parameters governing heat transfer are variable and uncontrollable; variations in ambient conditions such as temperature, wind, rain, fog, background noise, etc., as well as the physiological state of the human subject, all reduce the accuracy of conventional thermography methods. To solve these problems, Voxtel will develop and integrate precise models of the temporal and spatial heat transfer mechanisms of the human body with and without EM induced hyperthermia, emissivity models of various obscurants, environmental and atmospheric models, and sensor and signal processing models. The result of this effort will be an optimize design of a precision, multi-band, infrared, imaging (BMI2R) radiometric instrument capable of high accuracy at a 200-meter or longer battlefield range. Our trade studies will include: 1) a baseline handheld, dual band, QWIP camera design contrasted with the performance of: 2) single and dual band HgCdTe and 3) a split window, uncooled LWIR microbolometer. A novel infrared face detection and tracking will augment the system. In addition to the mature applications of thermography such as industrial control, insulation test, the innovation is expected to improve the research, diagnostic, and clinical tools necessary for dosimetry, optical and cancer detection and RF induced thermal cancer therapy, bioeffects research and compliance measures for RF communications devices, skin welding, veterinary studies, and a variety of other medical, scientific, and industrial applications.

EUREKA AEROSPACE, LLC
400 Continental Blvd, 6th Floo
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 426-2160
Dr. James Tatoian
NAVY 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Non-Lethal Area Denial to Vehicles
Abstract:Eureka Aerospace proposes a novel approach for denying ground vehicles the entrance to selected area by stopping them using a microwave system for stopping vehicles(MSSV). The proposed system consists of high power source, such as magnetron and suitable antenna to direct the microwave energy towards the vehicle and bring the vehicle to rest, without causing permanent damage to the vehicle or pose any danger to humans. The MSSV can be deployed in a variety of places including (1) an airborne platform such as helicopter, or fixed-wing plane including the UAVs, (2) ground vehicle, such as a car, van or a truck or (3) ground-based utility pole or a tree. The proposed effort will focus on the parameter trade-off analysis to arrive to an optimal and practical operational HPMS, whose prototype will be tested in Phase II. The benefits include nonlethal approach to quickly and safely stop cars on roads and highways for law enforcement. In addition MSSV can effectively protect high priority state,local and commercial assets.

MISSION RESEARCH CORPORATION
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 339-6500
Dr. John A. Pasour
NAVY 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Electromagnetic System for Non-Lethal Area Denial to Vehicles
Abstract:The goal of this program is to develop a robust, practical system that uses electromagnetic energy to disable vehicles. Critical electronic components in most modern military and civilian vehicles can be damaged or disrupted by illuminating them with high power electromagnetic radiation. In this program, the emphasis is on dramatically reducing the size, weight, and power requirements of the system needed to generate and transmit sufficient electromagnetic energy to disable the targeted vehicle. During Phase I, analyses, computer simulations, design studies, and limited laboratory testing will be performed to study energy transmission and coupling details, optimize system configurations, and determine operational limitations of a practical device. A prototype system will be developed and field tested in Phase II. The system will provide an effective means of disabling vehicles. It can be installed in a semi-permanent configuration (e.g., for perimeter defense) or on mobile platforms (e.g., for pursuit or fast-response applications). Compared to conventional electromagnetic systems that have been studied for this application, the proposed system is much more compact, requires much less power, reduces the risk of fratricide, and allows increased stand-off distances. The system can be used for a broad range of other non-lethal military applications, including mine clearing, disabling small boats, and interrupting communications, command, and control facilities. It also can be used by civilian law enforcement agencies.

AQUA-DYNE, INC.
3620 W. 11th Street
Houston, TX 77008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 864-6929
Mr. Mark Naedler
NAVY 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Dual Sander/High-Pressure Water Cleaning (HP WC) Unit for Recoat Surface Preparation
Abstract:The surface preparation industry has always had a need for selectively removing areas of coatings, which have lost their adhesion while maintaining the areas of soundly adhered coatings. Most recently, carefully blasting with grit or ultra-high pressure water have been the primary means to perform this procedure, although blasting can impair the integrity of sound coatings by fracturing their structure. New environmentally preferred water based coatings have increased the demand for surface preparation that don't remove the sound coatings since these new coatings don't adhere as well to bare surfaces as their solvent based predecessors. The proposed devise is a remotely controlled vertical wall climbing unit that uses a three-step method to prepare surfaces for recoat without damaging the areas of sound coatings. First, the surface is cleaned with 4,000psi (275 bar) water spray-jets to remove the bulk dirt and grim. Second, grit sanders scuff the areas of sound coating. Finally, 8,000psi (550 bar) water-jets thoroughly remove any dislodged coating or dirt. The All waste is captured beneath a vacuum shroud. The wall climber uses pneumatic winches to maneuver over large surfaces. This process will provide a better surface for recoat at a lower cost than equivalent existing methods. A dual sander/high-pressure water-cleaning unit can be used in commercial and military applications where sound coatings do not need to be stripped completely from the surface. It is a functional improvement over present blasting methods because there is no impact to fracture the coating's structure. The anticipated cleaning rate greatly exceeds current methods used on ship hulls, storage tanks, steel and concrete structures. It is expected that the unit's cost effectiveness and its environmental and ergonomic friendliness will make it a valuable tool for those preparing large surfaces for recoat. Shipyards, storage tank facilities and other large vessels requiring coatings are potential purchasers of the proposed unit. New coating technology is increasing the need for an alternative to blasting to the bare surface, further expanding the proposed unit's potential market.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2317
Dr. Silvia Luebben
NAVY 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Premixed Non-skid Media for Aviation Facility Flooring
Abstract:Today's anti-slip coatings for industrial flooring consist of a multi-layer coating system with a surface-broadcasted grit element. The installation of such a coating is expensive and time-consuming, and broadcasting is the most labor-intensive part of the installation. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain a floor with homogeneous non-skid properties by broadcasting because of the uneven distribution of the grit. Inorganic grits such as aluminum oxide are not covalently bonded into the coating matrix and, therefore, they tend to chip off easily; the coating system wears out quickly and must be replaced or repaired every few months. To address these problems, reduce the cost and time of the installation and increase the lifetime of the applied flooring system, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) will develop a new non-skid urethane coating with pre-mixed grit. The use of TDA's non-skid coating with pre-mixed grit will eliminate the need for broadcasting while reducing the floor installation time and cost. TDA's grit will be covalently cross-linked within the urethane matrix, considerably increasing the wear resistance and durability of the coating compared to the current system. This in turn will reduce the number of required repairs and re-applications. TDA's material will have immediate application as a non-skid coating for the Navy aviation hangers. The new non-skid coatings may find numerous other applications in civil aviation and as flooring system for chemical manufacturers, petrochemical plants, paper mills, wastewater plants, and other industrial applications. Other uses of non-skid coatings in the civil market include ship decks, ramps, aisles, walkways, steps, garages, swimming pools, and handicap zones.

POLYMERIGHT, INC.
4404-C Enterprise Place,
Fremont, CA 94538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 252-9090
Dr. Leonid Rappoport
NAVY 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Polysulfide Modified Epoxy Novolac Cladding for Steel Immersion/Splash Zone Service
Abstract:Environmentally-resistant, spray-applied, self-priming, fast-cure, flexible, edge-retentive, impact- and abrasion-resistant, polysulfide-modified epoxy novolac cladding for corrosion control of steel in immersion/splash zones is achieved using formulations containing epoxy novolac, urethane-epoxies and urethane-mercaptan resins with saturated hydrocarbon/polysulfide backbone, which are produced by polycondensation of saturated dimeric fatty acids and di(2-hydroxyethyl)disulfide. The molecular structure of cured cladding includes the following chemical blocks: * Cured epoxy structures, contributing high adhesion to steel; * Urethane groups, providing excellent wear resistance, toughness, oil/gasoline resistance, flexibility and chemical stability; * Multiple disulfide links producing high hydrophobicity, flexibility, oil/gasoline resistance, low glass transition temperature and reduced viscosity of resin; * Multiple ester groups contributing toughness, good UV and chemical resistance * Long saturated chains that contribute UV resistance hydrophobicity and flexibility/hardness of coating. POLYMERight will use technology that produces effective odorless mercaptan curing agents at relatively low cost from commercial precursors. Carefully controlled assembling of the chemical blocks will provide both tough and flexible cured polymers. This approach involves the creation of reactive resins with properties not currently available commercially. We expect these resins, and polymer formulations using them, to permit production by many companies of new castable polyurethanes, adhesives, coatings and sealants with improved properties. In addition to providing the improved cladding desired by the Navy, the technology developed under this SBIR will demonstrate the production and use of novel polymers having properties not now available in the market place. The newly developed resins employed, and the additional new polymers that can be made using them, will enable advantageous applications in fields such as: * Other protective coatings * Encapsulating and potting compounds for electrical and electronic components designed to serve in harsh environments * High dielectric materials for electrical insulation and radar systems * Sealants, barrier coatings, equipment linings, underwater coatings in construction, fuel handling, marine uses, etc. POLYMERight expects to both make polymer formulations for such commercial applications and to offer the resins themselves for sale to other formulators. The resulting broad availability of these resins, with the unique attributes they impart, will permit many formulators to develop better performing materials for their own spheres of activity at modest costs. This will have wide spread importance in many commercial areas of the economy.

POLYSPEC, L.P.
6614 Gant Road
Houston, TX 77066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 397-0033
Mr. Paul H. Anderson
NAVY 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Polysulfide Modified Epoxy Novolac Cladding for Steel Immersion/Splash Zone Service
Abstract:The proposed Phase I research will develop a sprayable, self-priming, fast cure, flexible, edge retentive, impact and abrasion resistant, polysulfide modified epoxy Novolac cladding for steel immersion/splash zone service. Currently the coatings of steel waterfront structures have a life expectancy of 5 years splash zone service. Maintenance applied coatings give an additional 3 years service prior to reapplication. This required regular maintenance and repair cycle is costly. The initial application of a polysulfide modified epoxy novolac will extend the maintenance cycle, thereby reducing repair costs. Potential commercial applications will include bridges, roofing, bilges, bulkheads(sheet pile, pipe pile, H-piles, cranes, in/offshore petrochemical structures, water and waste water structures, industrial facilities, contaiment systems, mooring structures, and marine equipment.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. George Hansen
NAVY 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Polysulfide Modified Epoxy Novolac Cladding for Steel Immersion/Splash Zone Service
Abstract:US Naval piers and offshore drilling platforms are common steel structures located in marine splash zones around the world. To provide adequate use life, these structures must be protected from persistent corrosion, with current coatings considered to be inadequate to meet the end-user's needs for protection and time between maintenance re-coats. TRI/Austin proposes development and production of a novel polysulfide-Novolac epoxy paint designed to be impact and abrasion resistant and have a useful life far in excess of currently used materials. A joint venture team consisting of TRI/Austin and Vickers Industrial Coatings will be assembled to develop this new product platform based on products already on the market. This team of coating engineers, scientists, and NACE professionals is highly motivated to bring this product into its current product line and is committed to demonstrating product scale-ability in manufacturing as a deliverable of the Phase I effort. The proposed work will result in development of an improved corrosion prevention coating for steel structures in the marine splash zone. This market represents significant business potential for members of the joint venture. The product to be developed will also provide a platform from which other markets can be derived such as storage tank and chemical reactor vessel linings, waste water effluent pipe lining, military hardware protective coatings, military and commercial ship exterior coatings, steel bridge coatings, marine-industrial facilities coatings and chemical plant and refinery protective coatings.

ZWEAVE, INC.
98 Greene Street
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 343-3959
Ms. Laura McCann
NAVY 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Three-Dimensional (3-D) Anthropometrie Data; Apparel Application Methods and Tools
Abstract:Use of 3-D scanning systems for capture of human body dimensions is becoming prevalent. Incorporation of 3-D anthropometric data into the design process promises significant breakthroughs and benefits for a wide variety of industries and applications, including the Apparel industry. Despite clear customer satisfaction, quality, and cost benefits, however, the Apparel industry has been slow to adopt 3-D anthropometry in its design and manufacturing processes. This Phase 1 SBIR study will investigate new methods and tools that can help accelerate the incorporation of 3-D anthropometry into the Apparel industry design and manufacturing processes. The study will include an assessment of the typical design and manufacturing practices in use in the Apparel industry today, with emphasis on the use of sizing-related practices, information and tools. Industry research, interviews, "As-Is" business process descriptions, and assessment of the current technology landscape will be used to identify the factors inhibiting use of 3-D anthropometry. The study will identify and develop the conceptual design of new methods and tools to integrate 3-D anthropometry and identify and describe the key technical requirements for developing and integrating these solutions. Business, economic and technical feasibilities will be performed to assess the likelihood of industry adoption. Adoption of 3-D anthropometry will permit an Apparel manufacturer to respond to sophisticated customer expectations and drive more effective product development and supply chain workflows, while fostering a collaborative environment both within the enterprise and in the customer relationship. Those early adopters who have embraced mass customization are already experiencing higher gross profit margins, reduced inventory, fewer returns and increased customer satisfaction and intimacy. Accelerating this adoption rate is critical to the introduction of 3-D anthropometry in the industry.

ADVANCED MATERIALS AND DEVICES
4451 Lynnfield Way
Reno, NV 89509
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 826-8306
Mr. Gregory Hitchcock
NAVY 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:A Fail-Safe Controllable Magneto-Rheological Fluid Smart Pad/Damper System for Submarine Based Weapon Shock and Vibration Mitigation
Abstract:The goal of the proposed Phase I effort is a feasibility study on the design and development of an innovative, fail-safe, controllable magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) smart pad for shock and vibration mitigation of Trident submarine based vertical launch weapon systems. The objective of this project is to explore the design feasibility of the proposed MRF shock absorber system which consists of a MRF material, a fail-safe MRF damper, and a control system. The effort includes preparation of a MRF material system suitable for this particular application. The properties of the base fluid and magnetic particles will be studied. In addition, a feasibility study of a novel MRF damper will be conducted in which the magnetic circuit and orifices will be designed to meet the shock pad requirements. Moreover, a robust control system that can provide accurate and fast response will be developed. Numerical simulations will be performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the MRF damper's dynamic force range and control design. The MRF shock pad design will be extensively evaluated against current elastomeric pad technology. Emphasis will also be placed on applicability to other emerging sectors especially automotive industry. Advanced weapon shock and vibration mitigation systems require reliable, fast responding, controllable devices with a broad range of damping forces to effectively reduce vibration during possible impacts. Modified versions of the new proposed MRF smart pad for Navy's Trident submarine based vertical launch weapon systems can potentially be used for other DoD applications, such as, vibration suppression of the U.S. Army's high mobility multi-purposed wheeled vehicles (HMMWV) and tanks in rough terrains, as well as helicopters' rotor systems, artillery and weapon recoil systems. In addition, the off-road application can be commercially pursued for sport utility vehicles, racing motorcycles and mountain bicycles in the public sector. The same technology can be extended to vibration mitigation in engine and transmission mounts, automotive shock absorbers, stabilizers for camera systems of new commercial satellites, automation and motion control for industrial manufacturing systems, and protective smart systems for building and bridges.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Mr. Jason E. Lindler
NAVY 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:System for Reconfigurable Shock and Vibration Mitigation
Abstract:Current attempts to enhance the ability of SSBNs to deploy guided missiles has created the opportunity to replace the existing pad-based missile shock isolation systems with those based on smart material technologies. The utilization of these advanced materials promises to deploy more modular, adaptable isolation systems that may be tuned to a broad class of current and future missiles. Working closely with our Naval contacts, CSA will develop a system requirements trade space that incorporates the isolation needs of several strategic and guided missiles. From these requirements we will then investigate the feasibility of various isolation technologies. These disciplines will range from passive VEM based solutions to fully "active" technologies that employ sensors, actuators and intelligent control. From these studies we will develop detailed component level and material-specific requirements that dictate device design and test. Out of these component requirements will come an assessment as to the best technology to employ in the real system. Our goal is to develop a shock isolation system whose shock attenuation exceeds that of the existing systems and yet can be easily tuned and reconfigured to several classes of ballistic and guided missiles. Beyond the stated application, the proposed system would be an invaluable tool for the transportation of high dollar items in air-borne, land or sea-borne platforms for both military and commercial applications.

ADVANCED ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
27 Industrial Blvd, Unit E
Medford, NY 11763
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 514-0315
Dr. Hans Bluem
NAVY 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Improved High-Current Injector Design
Abstract:With the achievement of 2.1 kW CW I R operation and an upgrade to10 kW in progress, free-electron lasers (FEL) are now a serious option for high-power, military and commercial applications. As specifically identified in the recent "Department of Defense Laser Master Plan", the key technology issue on the path to high-power FEL deployment is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, photocathode injector operation. A DC gun/superconducting accelerator combination provides the most promising and most mature path to efficient, weapon-level electron beam power. One of the primary issues identified with this type of gun is beam quality degradation for operation at weapon system charge levels that approach 1 nC per bunch or higher. Longitudinal phase space aberrations set in that can significantly reduce the lasing efficiency of the FEL. We are proposing to design a doubly resonant first accelerating cavity to both correct the development of this aberration and accelerate the electron beam for current levels that approach one ampere. The proposed design will represent a proof-of-principle demonstration. The discriminating attributes of FELs are their wide-band tunability, their implicit potential for very high-power operation and the intrinsic picosecond pulse structure that promises superior performance for certain applications. Significant military FEL directed energy weapon (DEW), countermeasure and communication applications exist at various power levels, which will benefit from the proposed SBIR project. Commercial applications spanning high-value-added micro-machining to low-value-added, high-throughput surface processing of metals and polymers have also been demonstrated and patented. Their immediate deployment is prevented only by the availability of a suitable, economic, high-power light source, to which development the present project contributes. The development of the proposed high-brightness, electron injector would provide a significant benefit in terms of improved efficiency and thus cost reduction for both the military and commercial FEL applications. In addition, the applications identified for material processing with radiation could lead to the development of new, on-shore, high-technology, environmentally-friendly manufacturing opportunities.

ENERGEN, INC.
17 D Sterling Road
Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 671-5400
Dr. Chad H. Joshi
NAVY 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Active Vibration Control for Free Electron Laser Systems
Abstract:The Navy is exploring the use of Free Electron Lasers (FEL) on ships for use in directed energy weapons. The potency of the laser based weaponry is directly related to vibration isolation from the floor and other sources. Active vibration control is preferred because of the stringent requirements on alignment and isolation over a broad range of frequencies. Energen, Inc. proposes to develop a high force support that provides active vibration damping based on magnetic `smart" material actuators The system consists of motion sensors that measures motion due to vibration, a high speed digital signal processor and high force actuators based on magnetic smart materials and capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures. In Phase I, Energen, Inc. will develop a prototype actuator and measure its performance characteristics and sensitivity, and develop a design for an optimal control system. The developed control systems will be able to actively damp vibrations in one dimension. In Phase I option, Energen, Inc. will investigate and develop low frequency velocity sensors operating at cryogenic temperatures. The control systems design for a 3-dimensional active vibration isolation platform will be developed. Active vibration control technology has a wide range of applications. The low frequency damping capability that will be developed under this program will be valuable for semiconductor processing equipment, sensitive instrumentation such as electron or tunneling microscopes, etc.

MISSION RESEARCH CORPORATION
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 339-6500
Dr. John A. Pasour
NAVY 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:FEL Efficiency Enhancement via Concurrent RF Acceleration
Abstract:The goal of this program is to analyze, design, and develop an efficiency enhancement scheme for free-electron lasers (FELs). In the proposed technique, a radio-frequency (RF) electric field is superimposed on the FEL wiggler field to reaccelerate the electron beam as it loses energy. This reacceleration allows the electrons to remain in resonance with the wiggler and radiation fields over a longer distance, much as tapering the wiggler does in typical FEL enhancement schemes. The advantage to be gained by the RF acceleration technique is improved control of the longitudinal electron beam dynamics (minimization of beam energy spread). During Phase I, the primary focus will be on use of the lower frequency FEL resonance to accelerate the electrons in an applied RF field (inverse FEL mechanism). This approach will be contrasted with an alternative design in which an RF accelerating structure is added to the FEL interaction region. In Phase II, a preferred approach will be selected for detailed design, fabrication, and testing. Efficiency enhancement is crucial in high-average-power FELs, such as are being suggested for antiship cruise missile defense and other defense applications, as well as for industrial processing and other commercial uses. An important drawback of conventional tapered-wiggler efficiency enhancement is the large energy spread it imposes on the electrons, making subsequent acceleration or energy recovery very difficult. The concurrent RF acceleration approach proposed here can overcome this disadvantage, making the application of high-average-power FELs much more practical for both military and civilian uses.

RELIABILITY TOOLS & ANALYSES, INC.
PMB 5029, 2231 Crystal Drive, Suite 500
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 780-6017
Mr. Reid Willis
NAVY 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Battle Force Reliability Modeling and Simulation
Abstract:This project consists of three related efforts. The first is to conduct research into the requirements, procedures, and algorithms needed to model the reliability aspects of a battle force of ships operating over a multiphase mission timeline. The second effort is to incorporate these results into the design of the Navy TIGER computer program for mission reliability prediction and analyses. The final effort is the implementation of the design to produce TIGER Force, a battle force-capable program with an intuitive user interface that will run on desktop host computers. The battle force-capable TIGER program will support engineering for reliability assurance of complex commercial systems. Examples of other applications are commercial airlines, electric utilities, and package delivery systems.

SOHAR INCORPORATED
8421 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 201
Beverly Hills, CA 90211
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(323) 653-4717
Dr. Herbert Hecht
NAVY 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Battle Force Reliability Modeling and Simulation
Abstract:This research will define and implement enhancements to TIGER, the standard assessment tool used by the Navy to measure readiness in terms of operational availability. The current version can handle the thousands of components aboard a ship. However, it is not suited to modeling the massive task of Battle Force simulation and tradeoffs. In this research, we will identify the functional, user interface, and structural requirements to extend TIGER to modeling Battle Forces. The innovations in this research are algorithms for the aggregation of individual ship functions into group-level services. In addition, we will define user interface enhancements to reduce training and provide higher quality output. The result of the Phase I effort will be the definition of SuperTIGER, a tool to provide battle force level availability and reliability assessments, spare allowances, and related functions. The benefits of this research will be to update one of the most significant tools used by the Navy to predict operational availability, perform tradeoff analyses, and evaluate cost-effective sparing strategies. TIGER PLUS will be of value not only to the U.S. Navy but also to many Federal, State, and Local Government authorities responsible for maintenance planning, logistics support and sparing. In addition, TIGER PLUS will be of use to private entities with large investments in complex maintainable assets.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, #500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Jason Geng
NAVY 02-012      Selected for Award
Title:An Intelligent Omnidirectional Digital Video System for Shipboard Machinery Condition and Personnel Assessments
Abstract:The primary objective of this SBIR is to develop and demonstrate an advanced omnidirectional digital video system that overcomes the shortcomings of existing technology for machinery condition and personnel assessments in a harsh shipboard environment. The proposed Omni-Guide system consists of a novel omnidirectional IR sensor for temperature measurement and human activity detection, a low-light visible PTZ camera for tracking human activity and for acquire facial image for face ID, an intelligent controller to coordinate actions of these two sensors, and a host computer to perform digital recording of both IR and visible imagery, event trigger actions, facial identification, database management, and alarm settings. Five major innovations in the proposed Omni-Guide system include (1) The highly sensitive omnidirectional IR sensor (2) Intelligently controlled PTZ low-light camera (3) 3D Facial Identification scheme (4) Registered 3D-IR-visible modalities (5) Intelligent Watchdog for Machinery Condition Assessment. The commercial market for the technologies to be developed under this SBIR is obviously sizable. The proposed Omni-Guide systems can be used in machinery condition and personnel activity assessment in factory or environmentally harsh areas. It also could be used in physically unacceptable or dangerous areas where direct human interaction is prohibited. In general, the technologies of omnidirectional imaging, low-light PTZ, 3D face ID and 3D-IR model can lead to significant advances in security enhancement for any types of military and civilian applications. These technologies can be used in other security applications, ranging from warehouse, train-stations, airports, Government facilities, corporations, sport events, to public and private schools in US, from elementary to university. The tragic event of 9/11 triggers tremendous interests in the security enhancement for all private sectors. We see great potentials for the commercial applications of the technologies developed under this SBIR project.

PHOTON-X, INC
102A Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-3416
Mr. Blair Barbour
NAVY 02-012      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Video System for Condition Based Maintenance
Abstract:The U.S. Navy has aggressively pursued the implementation of Smart Ship technology initiatives to achieve Total Ownership Cost (TOC) savings primarily through reduced manpower requirements. These reductions are enabled by innovative adaptation of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies, substantial changes in Policy and Procedures and new Maintenance methods such as Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). The team also brings a wealth of technical experience in state of the art spatial phase video development, passive 3D reconstruction, shadow penetration, hardware prototyping, and other applicable video sensing technologies. Photon-X team offers a new innovative video technology, which is capable of breaking down and recording the phase elements of the light in a revolutionary manner. Photon-X has developed a patented imaging process, which has demonstrated initial proof of concept for passive shadow/fog/haze penetration, passive 3D video processing/reconstruction, measurement of the structural changes in materials and enhanced biometric recognition and tracking. The Photon-X's innovations are: (1) Passive real-time personnel identification (Biometrics) and tracking using invisible passive tagging techniques. (2) Enhanced vision through rough environmental conditions, such as fog, haze and shadowed low light areas. (3) Visually detect structural changes in materials and automation of the machinery conditions using Photon-Xs intelligent phase based processing. The photon-X technology has multiple commercial markets, such as passive tracking with invisible barcodes and the intelligent 3D shape based video. Both of these technology directions offer tremendous market potential. Photon-X has patents pending for this technology and has formed a commercial spin-off company called Sport-X to rapidly develop the tagging technology for Sports tracking/broadcasting and enhanced interactive computer animation. The ability to non-obtrusively tag someone or something and both tracking it real-time and to identify each tag has been a long-term goal of researchers and commercial developers. Photon-X has spun-off a commercial venture dedicated to developing a tagging, tracking and identification optical bar code system to be used in the Sports and interactive gaming markets. The Sport-X mission is to develop non-intrusive tags that can be easily placed on athletes and other sports gear to track these elements for real-time analysis of the players performance, fatigue, weaknesses, etc., this can be used by coaches or by broadcasters as sports commentary. Shape based video or 3D vision has a desire by technologist as well as consumers around the world. And the fact that these cameras are intelligent and can develop object signatures, which are invariant to its look angle, will revolutionize the robotic vision market.

KAZAK COMPOSITES INCORPORATED
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Jerome Fanucci
NAVY 02-014      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, Pultrusion-Based Composite Joiner Panel System with Simplified Installation
Abstract:KaZaK Composites proposes, with Bath Iron Works and Newport News Shipbuilding, to develop and demonstrate a new joiner panel system that makes substantial material, configuration, manufacturing and installation process changes to the system currently in use on Naval vessels. At least two of the primary components, the joiner panel itself and the coaming, will be made from pultruded composites. Significant, cost-saving changes to techniques for attaching the coaming to the deck and the joiner panel to the coaming will be investigated. Alternatives to the current cut-and-fit technology for patching the curtain plate around many overhead obstructions will be studied. A key component of the Phase I work will be a demonstration of joiner panel pultrusion using KCI's 10-foot wide pultrusion machine. Advantages of pultrusion will include lower fabrication cost and the ability to make panels in arbitrarily long lengths. This will create a new installation cost and weight paradigm by reducing the number of joints. Phase I will terminate with a prototype demonstration, including a pultruded joiner panel, a new composite coaming, possibly a variation of the curtain plate, plus evaluation of new installation concepts. In the Option Phase we will perform FST and other key property tests. Successful completion of the proposed work will result in a light weight, low cost joiner panel system with a widespread market in both the commercial and military shipbuilding industry. KCI will work to adapt and apply the developed system to both new installations aboard CG-47, LPD-17, DDG-51, CVN-X and other platforms, as well for service life extension programs in the military and commercial world. More importantly for KCI and the Navy, use of large pultruded joiner panels on Naval vessels in a low risk application will provide an opportunity to demonstrate the significant cost saving potential of pultruding very large ship structure, compared to making similar structure by VARTM technology, without requiring the Navy to commit to installation of experimental composite parts in some difficult to replace mission-critical location of ship's structure. Success with the joiner panel product could represent the first step in the path to acceptance of a new material and process technology combination that will have a broad reaching effect on the future use of composites in shipbuilding.

WEBCORE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
591 Congress Park Drive
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-5034
Dr. Donald Klosterman
NAVY 02-014      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Lightweight, Fireproof Composite Joiner Panel for Navy Ship
Abstract:This phase I SBIR project is focused on the development of lightweight, fireproof, damage-tolerant and affordable composite joiner panels for Navy ship. The Phase I work will demonstrate the feasibility of using WebCore's patented TYCOR fiber reinforced foam (FRF) core sandwich panel to meet the structural, fire and cost targets for this application. Phase I work will include composite joiner panel design requirements definition; design and fabrication of TYCOR composite panels; physical, mechanical and fire testing; design of attachments; and an optional task to design and fabricate a prototype joiner panel. WebCore will team up with Newport News Shipbuilding (now part of Northrop Grumman Ship Systems) to obtain the necesary design requirements and also to implement the technology in the Navy fleet. The proposed research will provide an affordable solution to the Navy by replacing heavy metal joiner panels with lightweight, fireproof composite panels. Fireproof and damage-tolerant composite panel can be used extensively in Navy ships to reduce the weight and cost of maintenance in many parts such as doors, scuttles and hatches as well as topside structures. The technology developed in this program has broad applications in marine, transportation, construction, industrial and aerospace market.

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-1192
Dr. Y. Joon Lee
NAVY 02-015      Selected for Award
Title:Development of High Temperature Barrier Coating
Abstract:The object of this proposal is a cost-effective coating to be used to guard bulkheads and other naval structures from exposure to high-temperatures during a fire event. Material is to be capable of withstanding the action of a flame while preventing the covered surface from reaching a temperature of 225-250F above ambient temperature, meeting the requirements of UL 1709. The approach is to provide a high temperature coating with novel fillers and additives in a variety of paint compositions. Commercially available thermosetting resins, such as cyanate resin and aromatic epoxy resin, are good candidates as the resin matrix material. We propose to use a proprietary filler in the resin coating mix for thermal insulation. During a fire event, the filler will expand, resulting in a foamed resin composite structure. Ease of reparability of the coating is targeted as well as low maintenance and long service life. Feasibility demonstration shall include ease of installation, ease of removal, cost and anticipated service life expectancy. The paint will be especially tailored for use on new types of lightweight naval structural materials that require barrier coatings to prevent them from reaching elevated temperatures during a fire situation, which will significantly reduce their strength. One of the primary markets for this product is for the protection of bulkheads and various structures in naval vessels. Another somewhat smaller market is barrier coatings for fire insulation in power plants, chemical plants, and other industrial facilities.

METSS CORPORATION
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Donald Bigg
NAVY 02-015      Selected for Award
Title:Development of High Temperature Barrier Coating
Abstract:METSS plans to develop an intumescent coating that can be applied and bonded to a steel structure that provides sufficient protection to keep the temperature of the steel below 325F for at least 30 minutes. Two similar approaches will be examined for maximum cost and performance effectiveness. The first approach consists of a complex coating based on a polymeric binder. This coating will adhere strongly to steel, intumesce to form a strong, flake-resistant char foam that evolves heat absorbing water vapor and contains an infrared reflecting additive. This composition will contain hollow microspheres to reduce the density of the coating. Exfoliated nanoclays will be incorporated into the matrix polymer to strengthen the char foam. The second approach is a similarly complex ceramic-based coating. Ceramics do not burn, and therefore offer excellent fire resistance. Intumescent ceramic based coatings also release water, form an insulating foam, contain density reducing hollow microspheres, and IR reflecting additives. The most significant potential difference and the focus of the research relates to adhesion to the steel and the stability of the intumescent foam. The addition of IR reflecting additives represents a unique and significant addition to intumescent formulations. METSS proposal also addresses the critical issues of modifying both coatings systems to maximize adhesion to the steel, and the stability of the foam in order to meet the Navy's cost and performance goals. There are considerable benefits to developing a barrier coating system that prevents weakening of structural steel members during an intense fire. Fires, particularly those from petrochemical sources, produce very high temperatures and are similarly energetic. As such, they cannot only destroy combustible materials and structures, but also weaken nonflammable support structures such as steel. There are very significant material, structure, and life savings that can be realized by limiting the damage to structural members during an intense fire. The longer a structure can survive the greater the possibility of saving life and the structure. The Navy is not the only potential beneficiary of the development of high temperature barrier coatings. Commercial ships, cruise ships, oil platforms, petroleum processing facilities, chemical processing plants, commercial buildings, and hotels are among the structures that can benefit from improved fire barriers.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORPORATION
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Lawrence R. Grzyll
NAVY 02-016      Selected for Award
Title:Demonstration of an Autocascade Cryocooler for Rapid Cooldown of OASIS Towed Bodies
Abstract:The goal of the Phase I effort is to demonstrate Mainstream's innovative multi-stage autocascade refrigeration technology as a portable, temporary cooling system that could interface with an Organic Airborne and Surface Influence Sweep (OASIS) towed body to quickly cool the system and decrease the preparation time required to deploy it. Mainstream's autocascade refrigeration system incorporates several innovative technologies to provide high reliability and high efficiency in a shipboard and flightdeck environment. Previous demonstration experiments have shown that this technology has efficiencies as high as 20% of Carnot. The military application for this technology is of great importance to the Navy. There are also significant commercial applications for this technology. The immediate market for these systems are medical and biological laboratories and test facilities where the 1997 sales are between 20 and 40 million dollars. The semi-conductor industry, which uses cryocoolers for condensing impurities from gas streams used in wafer manufacture, is also very attractive.

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd., Suite 300
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-5433
Dr. Enson Chang
NAVY 02-017      Selected for Award
Title:Classification Enhanced Target Tracking
Abstract:Anti-submarine warfare in shallow water is notoriously difficult, especially against low/no-doppler targets. Tracking is a useful means for differentiating a candidate contact from clutter tracks. However, weak target returns and high false alarm rates in the littoral often result in large number of false tracks and operator saturation. Current tracker-classifiers such as the ETC operate in a sequential mode with tracking preceding classification. A feedback loop that passes contact classification information back to the tracker can prune the number of false alarms significantly. Furthermore, certain contact features (e.g., its orientation) can be incorporated into the tracker's state vector to improve tracking performance. These and other potentially viable architectures are obviously more effective if the system has sufficient spatial resolution to resolve contact features. We propose to use our high-fidelity target and environmental simulations to assess the feasibility of several classification-enhanced tracking architectures based on the high azimuthal resolution offered by synthetic aperture processing. The enhanced tracking and classification techniques will find direct applications in any government and commercial activities that require active sonar, e.g., harbor surveillance and security, rapid coastal bathymetric mapping, location and characterization of environmental dumping in both U.S. and international waters, petrochemical and mineral exploration, harbor surveys for industrial and municipal outfall installation, and underwater search and recovery operations.

ORINCON CORPORATION
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Mr. Mike Kurnow
NAVY 02-018      Selected for Award
Title:Statistical Operator Workload Allocation to Maintain USW Performance
Abstract:A major driver in total cost of ownership of Navy's surface combatants is the cost of manning the platforms. Reducing USW manning is an exceptionally difficult area ORINCON is already working under IUSW 21 automation. However, workstation automation addressed by that program provides no systematic methodology to allocate available operator workload to tasks both tactically significant and necessary to maintain acceptable performance. Additionally, all focus is on single manned USW operations without consideration for operators to flex and perform as a team. This SBIR will investigate and add innovative techniques for directing operator attention to high probability of importance actions which increase total performance of the USW system. Specifically, we will draw the operator's attention to areas having higher likelihood of a threat, insure his awareness of how well the underlying automated DCL is operating, and direct his attention to areas needing assistance. Methods for insitu grouping of automated DCL outputs into families will be investigated. Initial focus will be on the DCL problem, leaving work on other aspects of the USW workload until Phase II. We will also look at methods and rationale for distributing work across multiple operators with differing proficiency levels by extending workstation automation capabilities and doctrine already developed by ORINCON and TecFocus for IUSW-21. By using the existing IUSW-21 workstation automation as a starting point for this effort, the risk in accomplishing program objectives is reduced while the immediate benefit to the Navy is maximized. This Phase I SBIR effort will provide a demonstrable foundation for Phase II effort that will result in a comprehensive, automated, distributed, statistical USW workload capability integrated into IUSW-21 workstations and available for integration into continuing IUSW-21 ADM developments. The development and integration of statistical workload management techniques within the TAIPE technology intelligent user interface framework can be applied to numerous military and commercial domains that require an intelligent interactive control of complex systems by human operators, such as, power plant operations, space station operations, and advanced military C4ISR systems.

DESKIN RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
555 E. Weddell Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 400-8036
Dr. James M. Marshall
NAVY 02-019      Selected for Award
Title:Robust Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Satellite Communications Protocol for UUVs
Abstract:A program is proposed that is intended to develop recommended signaling technique(s), protocols and a system architecture that will permit robust UHF SATCOM communications to UUV platforms under adverse sea state conditions as high as sea state 4. The outage problems encountered on UUVs are similar in nature to outages encountered on UHF MSS Satellite links. This effort will apply the design and protocol development experience from a commercial UHF packet communications MSS satellite program to the UUV problem. Message delivery reliability and messaging services requirements are similar in nature to the UUV problem. It is anticipated that the results of this program in developing a robust link protocol will be mutually beneficial to the Navy as well as commercial MSS SATCOM. A second phase of this program will provide a technology demonstration under controlled laboratory conditions. A third phase will provide a prototype system for integration and testing into a UUV test vehicle. The proposed program affords the Navy the opportunity to solve both the washover problem and the robust link reliability problem of the UUV environment. The UUV environment while unique, does offer an opportunity to solve similar communication link problems that are encountered on mobile satellite networks. For example, the washover outage is similar to underpass outages of terrestrial ground mobile satellite links. This is not an area most commercial satellite developers would be focused on, but it is relevant to the class of MSS Satellites that DRG has developed. It is anticipated that the results of this program in developing a robust link protocol will be mutually beneficial to the Navy as well as commercial MSS SATCOM.

WAVIX, INCORPORATED
8100 Professional Place, Suite 205
Landover, MD 20785
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 459-6682
Dr. Jeffrey N. Shaumeyer
NAVY 02-019      Selected for Award
Title:Robust Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Satellite Communications Protocol for UUVs
Abstract:Wavix proposes to capitalize on its unique combination of expertise in satellite communications and oceanographic systems to develop an optimized-protocol solution to the problem of RF satellite communications in disadvantaged marine environments. Our solution will invoke a diverse but coordinated array of noise-mitigation techniques that function at the lowest levels of the 7-layer OSI Model, namely, the Physical Layer and the Link Layer of the protocol. In this Phase-I effort we will characterize the physical marine environment for the requirements it places on RF systems. Working from those requirements, we will develop a parameterized conceptual model for low-level protocols that addresses the degraded performance faced by maritime users. We will also consider compatible error-reduction strategies and approaches to embedding higher-level protocols that can further increase data-transmission efficiency. In modeling the low-level protocol, our requirements analysis will go beyond just noise characteristics. We also will consider constraints imposed by the physical limitations of the application, e.g., small UUVs or profiling buoys of limited power, weight, and size, as well as compatibility with existing UHF SATCOM systems. Wavix has an ongoing business in satellite communications, with our current major customer being users of e-mail services in developing countries. Our intention from the start was, and remains, to serve the oceanographic community with a system that can retrieve data from buoys. The system we currently have in place is achieving this goal but with some serious limitations. The protocol envisioned for this effort will increase our link margins somewhat allowing us to decrease antenna size enough to serve a larger customer base. In addition, it will allow us to increase our current system capacity as well as the density of users in any particular location. There are other niche markets that such a system can serve that, when aggregated, become a significant opportunity. There is a high demand world-wide for inexpensive data transmission services. By dropping the price for such services, many new markets will open, such as providing inexpensive e-mail and data services on ships for crew and passengers and supporting Arctic, Antarctic, and other scientific research in remote areas. A satellite system designed to serve oceanographic research can easily accommodate these other niche markets.

CONTINENTAL CONTROLS AND DESIGN, INC.
1921 N. Gaffey Suite J
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 831-8669
Mr. James P. Hynes
NAVY 02-020      Selected for Award
Title:Remote Controlled Non-Gasoline Burning Water Craft
Abstract:In this project we investigate non-gasoline burning, remote controlled, high speed surface craft. The possibilities include an improved Roboski, modified for heavy fuel. Orbital Engines designs and oversees the manufacture of direct injection fuel management systems for many of the current PWC manufacturers. They will help us modify the injection and ignition maps, and recommend compression changes for jp5 and DFM fuel. We also consider slightly smaller (<200lb) craft, powered by 50-100cc stochiometric homogeneous charge combustion ignition engines. That's a fancy name for the `model airplane diesel' that was developed almost 50 years ago. As a third option, we investigate a 16' target based on a COTS diesel stern drive or outboard. Working as much as possible with existing technology, and teaming with good people, we should be able to demonstrate multiple solutions in Phase 1 Everybody in the defense field is looking for non-gasoline burning engines. Both the air-assisted direct injection, and the stochiometric HCCI approaches are promising approaches.

GSE, INC.
219 East Enterprise St., P.O. Box 7743
Incline Village, NV 89450
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 831-3917
Mr. Greg Stevenson
NAVY 02-020      Selected for Award
Title:Remote Controlled Non-Gasoline Burning Water Craft
Abstract:Current DoD policy prohibits the procurement of future combat systems dependent on gasoline type fuels, while simultaneously Congress strongly supports DoD acquisitions that are based on Commercial off-the-shelf solutions. Commercial recreational equipment such as Personal Watercraft and outboard motors have high-speed performance, fitted with optimum lightweight, compact, efficient transmission and propeller designs. Near term federal regulations mandated by the EPA have influenced PWC and outboard manufactures to convert high-end 2-cycle gasoline powerplants to Direct Cylinder Fuel Injection. (i.e.: OMC-FICHT or Mercury orbital). These spark injection (SI) technologies have greatly reduced the emissions of 2-cycle engines operating on gasoline, but are limited in performance on kerosene based fuels such as Diesel #2. This proposal outlines a true multi-fuel compression ignition (CI) technology that operates at speeds comparable to existing gasoline SI engines up to 8,000 RPM. The brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of the CI cycle is 75-80% of the SI cycle at the same RPM. Therefore the proposed approach operates at high speed on multi-fuels enabling direct injection with a comparable specific output. Since the CI cycle is immune to detonation of low octane kerosene fuel, higher power is immediately available through the adoption of some form of supercharge. Both military and commercial applications will benefit directly with a high-speed diesel technology yielding a specific weight ratio comparable to current gasoline engines. The ability to operate a small diesel at high speed represents the potential for a paradigm shift in commercial applications that are to vast to list.

AIR CYCLE CORPORATION
2000 S. 25th Avenue, Suite C
Broadview, IL 60155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(708) 344-7860
Mr. Richard Beierwaltes
NAVY 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Fluorescent Light Compression/Containment
Abstract:Disposal of spent fluorescent lamps everywhere, and on ships in particular, is made difficult by the hazardous levels of both liquid and vaporous mercury they contain. Existing practice is storing whole lamps for on-shore disposal, which is both expensive and dangerous - storage space, unnecessary handling, accidental breakage (due to the handling of long tubes of glass in confined areas) with related vapor releases, and higher final disposal cost are common deterrents. We propose a drum-mounted, lamp-crushing machine with powder and mercury vapor capture to allow for safe and clean compacting of spent lamps at sea. The machine will be simple to operate, durable and extremely compact: machine and the waste container combined will be no larger than 24x34x40" high. Having manufactured and sold more than 3000 lamp crushing systems worldwide, we will draw on our ten plus years of experience to optimize a system for the Navy. Air Cycle proposes either a secondary on-ship purifying system designed to remove remaining mercury from the containerized lamp waste or a low cost nationwide recycling program currently offered by Air Cycle to pick up, transport, and recycle the lamp waste at designated, permitted recycling facilities. Because we are already a commercial business manufacturing lamp crushers, we can immediately capitalize on the products that will come out of this effort.

RISSER TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING COMPANY
2724 W. Palomino Dr.
Chandler, AZ 85224
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 755-4554
Mr. Scott J. Risser
NAVY 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Fluorescent Light Compression/Containment
Abstract:A low cost fluorescent light bulb processing system having a very small footprint less than an average students desk has been proposed. The system will render the solid components of the bulb non-hazardous for recycling or disposal in a typical refuse landfill. The system crushes the bulb and removes the mercury contained in them. The processed bulb is disposed in a non-hazardous metal receptacle for recycling or disposal. The mercury is verified to be in the elemental form using an R-TEC proprietary reactor system and fixed on a solid substrate for subsequent recovery or disposal as hazardous material. The system allows the Navy to dispose of spent fluorescent light bulbs in an environmentally and hygienically acceptable method that saves space on-board ship and can be used at land bases as well. Fluorescent light bulbs provide some of the most efficient white light of any electric light source. However, the mechanism producing the light utilizes a hazardous material, mercury. This ingredient requires that the spent bulb be land filled as hazardous waste. An efficient, cost and space effective processing system that can remove and efficiently immobilize the mercury from the bulb material would allow the glass and metal to be disposed as non-hazardous refuse or be recycled. The mercury could be reclaimed or land filled. The danger of breakage and the hassles of storage of large quantities of bulbs before land filling would be eliminated. This is of major benefit to both the environment and the large quantity fluorescent bulb user.

BMH ASSOCIATES, INC.
5365 Robin Hood Road, Suite 100
Norfolk, VA 23513
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 857-5670
Dr. David Cavitt
NAVY 02-022      Selected for Award
Title:Front-end Controller for an Intelligent Synthetic Forces Simulation Engine
Abstract:The Battle Force Tactical Training (BFTT) system provides realistic, high-stress combat team training. Current implementation relies upon pre-scripted simulation in the synthetic battlespace, resulting in rigid and non-interactive behavior. JSAF models have been integrated into BFTT to begin addressing limitations. However, BFTT must be further enhanced to 1) provide an operator interface to facilitate dynamic instantiation, monitoring and tasking ISF entities; and 2) improve representation and reasoning capabilities of ISF entities. This paper proposes developing a "distributed reasoning" architecture to support new behavioral component integration and take advantage of technologies and approaches not supported by JSAF. These "plug-able" behavioral entities will be attached to BFTT via an HLA "bus" and will drive existing JSAF physical models via the SAF Generic Model Interface. Exploring this new architecture and as proof of concept, a well-understood/simple behavioral model will be re-implemented using LISA, an open source platform supporting intelligent software agent development. Finally, to support operator interaction, a dynamic, enhanced representation of entity subsystems will be developed. This capability will allow BFTT to 1) observe or manipulate a synthetic entity's reasoning and behavioral models interactively; and 2) add/remove behaviors during runtime. The proposed architecture will significantly enhance the combat training environment. A distributed reasoning environment that leverages existing JSAF physical models provides an opportunity to develop more powerful and sophisticated behavioral and reasoning components that can take advantage of a wide array of applied AI technologies.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Mr. Kevin Johnson
NAVY 02-022      Selected for Award
Title:Front-end Controller for an Intelligent Synthetic Forces Simulation Engine
Abstract:The Battle Force Tactical Training (BFTT) System is currently being deployed and used aboard US Navy ships to provide realistic combat training. The BFTT instructors provide pre-scripted scenarios to students based on training objectives. The setup of these pre-scripted scenarios is labor intensive, and the execution of the scenario is fairly brittle, requiring significant intervention by instructors to keep the scenario believable. Significant improvement in training value, and significant reduction in instructor time spent crafting, customizing, and running exercises can be enjoyed through the development of more advanced technologies in exercise setup, and computer generated entity intelligence. MAK will develop new versions of its COTS product line to meet the needs of the BFTT program. The underlying VR-Link toolkit will be FOM-mapped for the NTMF, thereby making all MAK products NMTF compliant. A Subsurface Stealth will be derived from the MAK Stealth for underwater 3D visualization, and an Automated Laydown Engine will be developed on the VR-Forces CGF toolkit, to include adaptable behaviors for Naval vessels, and high-level behavioral interface for the user. In addition, MAK will make its current scenario file format generic and propose it as an industry standard in the SISO process. This effort will result in several benefits that will help the BFTT program and the Navy in general going forward. An NTMF compliant product line will exist. A well-known developer?s toolkit (VR-Link) will enable other simulation developers to make NTMF compliant federates. A COTS replacement for JSAF, with a much friendlier user interface, will make the lives of BFTT instructors much easier, and an industry-wide standard for CGF scenario interchange will enable scenarios to be swapped between CGFs. By the end of Phase II, we expect to have the following accomplishments commercialized and institutionalized not only within the BFTT program, but benefiting the entire Navy: 1. NTMF Compliant VR-Link, 2. NTMF Compliant VR-Forces toolkit, 3. NTMF version of Stealth, 4. NTMF version of PVD, 5. NTMF version of Data Logger, 6. Industry standard scenario file format.

DIVERSIFIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
35 Wiggins Ave.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9444
Dr. Ian Roth
NAVY 02-023      Selected for Award
Title:Shipboard Power Conversion
Abstract:Legacy electronics require 400-Hz power, and need a frequency converter to operate with 60-Hz ship power. A converter is specifically needed for submarine weapon systems. This converter should produce low conducted and radiated emission, should be sufficiently cooled, and should deliver a well-regulated output into transient and non-linear loads. DTI will develop a switching frequency converter that meets these specifications. This will be done by using high-frequency switching, well-designed filters, high-gain feedback with a large phase margin, and mounting all power components on a cold plate. The Weapon Power Converter developed under this SBIR will completely meet the specific power-converter specifications, as well as the Navy's overall need for reliable, safe, and maintainable electronics systems. This approach will also provide a cost-effective solution for other frequency converter requirements - in the military, and for commercial applications where frequency conversion is required, such as between 50 and 60 Hz, and various military and commercial aircraft support. Furthermore, the controls developed here, in conjunction with DTI's high-voltage switching technology, are applicable to a wide range of commercial and military power-conditioning and control applications, including power factor correction, VAR compensation, and Flexible AC Transmission Systems.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
161 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0114
Mr. Andrew Barnett
NAVY 02-023      Selected for Award
Title:Shipboard Power Conversion
Abstract:SatCon Technology Corporation proposes to develop a modular, expandable 60 Hz to 400 Hz power converter system for shipboard power conversion applications. The proposal objectives in support of this converter are twofold. The primary objective will be to implement a converter that meets the output power, voltage regulation, transient response, and nonlinear load requirements defined by Navy SBIR # N02-023 and the references given by that SBIR, specifically Reference 2, "Weapon Power Converter Procurement Specification, dated 5/15/01". The second objective will be to implement a modular control topology that will allow for parallel operation of multiple converters into a common load while maintaining independent control and operation of the individual converters. In this manner higher power 400 Hz load requirements can be met by parallel connection of multiple converters into the common load while drawing power from a single common 60 Hz source. The modular, stackable design will allow multiple 60 Hz to 400 Hz converters to be connected in parallel to meet higher power load requirements. Independent control of each converter will minimize unwanted interactions and circulation of power between individual converters and will allow each converter to source an equal portion of the net load. The control topology can be applied to higher power converters as well, increasing system flexibility. The primary commercial use of the resulting converter will be for Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) applications. This will require a change in output frequency from the 400 Hz requirement however this is a minor control issue. SatCon in fact produces an in-line UPS, rated at 100KVA steady state and 150KVA peak, that combines a 480 Volt three phase input with a low voltage dc input from a battery or similar energy storage device to provide uninterruptible 480 Volt three phase 60 Hz power. The control topology that will be developed under this proposal is directly applicable to this and other higher power converters. The ability to independently stack multiple converters in parallel will significantly enhance the market potential of SatCon's in-line UPS product line. The baseline low power 60 Hz to 400 Hz converters could be adapted to UPS applications for critical point loads, with varying power levels met by stacking the proper number of converters in parallel.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORPORATION
8809 Sudley Road, Suite 101
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Mr. Michael W. Redden
NAVY 02-024      Selected for Award
Title:Automated/Simplified Weapons OMI
Abstract:Consistent with the NAVSEA identified need for reducing the timeline from target acquisition to time of fire, Progeny Systems Corporation is pleased to propose the development of streamlined displays, a knowledge based computing tool kit and remote display access for achieving this goal. By approaching this need with a three pronged approach, we feel that we can best meet the needs of NAVSEA and the fleet in enhancing weapon employment.Among the expected favorable characteristics are: (1) De-clutter/Streamline current Combat Control Displays to enhance "user friendliness" and speed weapon employment; (2) Shorten the number of manual steps required by an operator; (3) Integrate disparate data sources into a machine recommended set of tactics that can be approved/modified by an operator; (4) Update current displays into a more modern/adaptable display software language; and (5) Provide remote/wireless access to decision makers both within the attack center as well as at other locations. The results of this SBIR effort are expected to be widely applicable to both commercial facilities that can use or are currently using expert system technology as well as all current U.S. and foreign maritime assets.

MIKEL, INC
2050 W. Warm Springs Rd, #1923
Henderson, NV 89014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 521-4020
Mr. Brian Guimond
NAVY 02-025      Selected for Award
Title:Non-collinear Wave-front Curvature Range Measurement
Abstract:Improvements in wave front curvature (WFC) techniques to account for non-collinear sensor placements will decrease acquisition costs associated with submarine WFC ranging systems. Because the number and placement of sensors is not constrained to be collinear, improved target localization coverage and accuracy is achievable at reduced cost. This work will specifically develop time difference of arrival (TDOA) estimation algorithms using generalized cross correlators, matched filters and leading edge detectors. Target localization algorithms will be developed that estimate the target's range, bearing and depression elevation angle based on the TDOAs measured from non-collinear sensor pairs. The localization algorithms will consider the number of sensor placements as well as varying sound speed profiles and inexact knowledge of the hydrophone postions when processing the TDOAs to determine target range, bearing and depression/elevation angle. A laboratory simulation will be developed to test the performance of the TDOA and target localization estimation algorithms. Finally, a sensitivity analysis will be peformed using monte carlo methods to determine target localization accuracy as a function of target geometry, TDOA accuracy, number of hydrophones and hydrophone spacing/geometry. The use of TDOA estimation for localization of moving objects has been successfully utilized in systems such as GPS and LORAN. It is expected that the successful development of an underwater "GPS like system" for tracking acoustic emissions of stationary and moving underwater objects will have great applicabity in marine mammal as well as oil and gas exploration activities including underwater seismic measurements.

OCEAN ACOUSTICAL SERVICES AND INSTRUMENTATION SYST
5 Militia Drive
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 862-8339
Philip Abbot
NAVY 02-025      Selected for Award
Title:Non-collinear Wave-front Curvature Range Measurement
Abstract:Present submarine passive sonars utilize collinearly located sensors to obtain target range by the method of Wavefront Curvature Ranging (WCR). The requirement for sensor collinearity creates difficult and costly installation problems. Thus, the goal of the proposed effort is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using non-collinear sensors and a WCR method to obtain range, bearing and D/E estimates of incoming threat targets in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 100 kHz. The feasibility will address the following issues: 1) basic physics and geometry, including range, accuracy, sensor number, location; 2) acoustics, signal and noise, including time delay estimation, signal properties, sensor properties, shallow water environments, sensor backing impedance; and 3) advanced signal processing techniques. Also, practical system issues such as optimizing the use of onboard sensors, system architecture and integration, and cost-benefit tradeoffs will be evaluated. A preliminary design for a cost-effective, reliable, and robust acoustic intercept (AI) system will be developed. The system will likely utilize the existing AN/WSQ-9 sensors working in conjunction with other sensors. A plan to demonstrate the system feasibility will be provided for the Phase II effort. The end benefit is a significantly improved Acoustic Intercept System for the protection of submarines.

IDOLON TECHNOLOGIES
72 Stone Place
Melrose, MA 02176
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 665-9200
Mr. George Hovorka
NAVY 02-026      Selected for Award
Title:Sealing Method for Odor Barrier Bags (OBBs)
Abstract:The requirement for an inexpensive portable odor barrier bag sealer arises from the need to reliably close these bags in a variety of Navy shipboard applications. The objective of the Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of a lightweight and portable odor bag sealer that will be highly reliable, lightweight, quiet and low-cost. This device will have a simple user interface and rugged construction. It is a further objective to demonstrate the feasibility of a "smart sealer" system that is able to automatically compensate for variations in the odor barrier bag and the environment in which the bag is sealed. The aim of the proposed program is to build a prototype unit and evaluate it under a variety of realistic operational scenarios. The results of this work are expected to be a odor barrier bag sealing system that can be used in a variety of military situations. The application of this device will also include commercial food service and will have applications in industry where a reliable device with a simple user interface is required.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. M. Dingus/Mr. P. Hall
NAVY 02-026      Selected for Award
Title:Sealing Method for Odor Barrier Bags (OBBs)
Abstract:The U. S. Navy has a requirement to meet the provisions of the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (APPS) before the current exemption for submarines expires. Currently, plastic waste is compacted inside an Odor Barrier Bag (OBB), then placed inside another OBB, heat sealed, and stored or ejected. The OBBs, when sealed properly, have kept noxious odors from being released. The Doboy electric heat sealer currently used to make the seals is difficult to use, inconsistent, expensive, loud, unreliable, and requires too much skill. TRI/Austin proposes to develop a sealing approach especially for submarines and other Naval vessels required to seal plastic waste in OBBs. Naval vessels have a wide array of power sources available. TRI will examine the feasibility of using a submarine specific sealer powered by electricity, compressed air, or other sources. A steam powered sealer will also be examined for applications where steam is available in the galley area such as surface ships. Alternative approaches, such as mechanical seals and enhanced adhesive technology, will be considered as well. The ideal approach will allow Naval vessels to achieve their mission, meet the requirements of APPS, and provide enhanced quality of life for sailors. A shipboard compatible heat sealer will be developed to meet the unique demands of shipboard use. This device will be designed with few moving parts, contributing to greater reliability, and the device will be repairable onboard and require no skill to use effectively. The same benefits will be useful on all Navy and Coast Guard vessels, plus commercial and NATO naval ships around the world.

B&B ENGINEERING
78349 Kistler Way
Palm Desert, CA 92211
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 200-4406
Dr. Robert A. Sielski
NAVY 02-027      Selected for Award
Title:Submarine Rescue Chamber/Hold-down Installation Via Underwater Friction Stud Welding Using Atmospheric Diving Systems
Abstract: Abstract not available...

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 625
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2889
Dr. Bill Mahood
NAVY 02-028      Selected for Award
Title:Advance Algorithm for Total Ship Monitoring Improvements
Abstract:The Navy has recently exerted a focused management effort TSMS for submarines, resulting in significant progress in several areas. TSMS functionality includes noise detection, noise localization, and extrapolation of measured noise to far field vulnerability. Due to limited research and development funding, none of these functional areas has received concerted attention for algorithmic improvement since the implementation of existing TSMS baselines. In our view TSMS is not primarily an analysis workstation but a tactical tool to identify acoustic vulnerabilities as promptly and quantitatively as possible, and to identify actions required for mitigation. While the current baseline makes it a valuable measurement and diagnostic asset, it has potential to be a prominent tool used establish and maintain tactical control against threat submarines. DSR intends to focus on the goals of making TSMS more tactically useful and less operator intensive. This SBIR topic presents an opportunity to explore and develop significant improvements to the TSMS functional capabilities. The opportunity for transition of any developed improvements is especially good since the modularity of the current TSMS COTS-based software baseline can support a wide range of processing improvements flexibly and without architectural impact. DSR proposes to identify improvements in five specific areas of TSMS performance: More rigorous transient detection and characterization, integrating data from accelerometers and hydrophones; Automated classification and identification of offending steady state and transient signals; More automated localization of offending signals, integrating data from accelerometers and hydrophones; Improved estimation of far field tactical vulnerability from own ship noise; and Identification of simplified and more tactically useful OMI.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Peter B. Weichman
NAVY 02-029      Selected for Award
Title:Non-Gaussian Likelihood Detectors for Broadband Active Sonar
Abstract:In shallow water environments or using broadband processing, sonar signals can exhibit highly non-Gaussian noise statistics due to the discrete nature of the background returns from different clutter elements in different range/bearing resolution cells. Optimal likelihood detectors rely crucially on accurate noise statistics estimation, and poor fits to an assumed Gaussian PDF can lead to increased false alarm rates when the true PDF is heavy tailed. We will implement both empirical and physics-based models of non-Gaussian clutter statistics, in order in improved likelihood detectors. For example, physics-based forms for bottom reverberation statistics may be derived from assumed forms for the scale-dependent surface roughness spectra, which also provide models for statistical correlation between different range cells. SIRV or Gaussian mixture model parameterizations will be used to construct rapidly computable analytic or semi-analytic forms for the PDF. Our approach smoothly interpolates between the low frequency regime (100 Hz to 1000 Hz) to mid and high frequency ranges. This is because our acoustic models have natural low, middle and high frequency implementations, and because of the adaptive nature of our models for the clutter returns. We also propose to develop criteria to optimize active waveforms for improved suppression of clutter interference. The improved detection performance of broadband active sonar systems equipped with algorithms capable of exploiting the non-Gaussian statistics of the shallow water littorals promise to provide great benefits to the government and private sector. Some of the areas where the increased performance of sonars will be of benefit include search and rescue, harbor safety, fish finding and marine resource management, drug interdiction, and a variety of other Coast Guard related activities. The generality of the approach will also allow direct application of our results to high-resolution radar problems.

KAZAK COMPOSITES INCORPORATED
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Jerome Fanucci
NAVY 02-030      Selected for Award
Title:Simplified, Low Cost, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Recovery System
Abstract:The Navy is rapidly committing to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in support of fleet operations. Current systems for recovering these vehicles are difficult and labor intensive to employ. KCI, working with Bath Iron Works, proposes to design and build a new UAV recovery device that serves three purposes: launch, recovery and transport. The concept, essentially a multi-functional wheeled platform incorporating a unique, low cost arresting mechanism to capture and hold the landing UAV, will be made using a combination of stainless steel and pultruded composite structural elements fabricated by KCI for this application. We will draw heavily on experience gained in the design and fabrication of a similar multifunctional system for the Air Force. Our proposed capture system will eliminate the need for the 100 pound device currently carried by the specified baseline vehicle, greatly increasing its effective payload. In Phase I KCI will work directly with BIW to conceive and iterate various system alternatives, compare them with our baseline system, and discuss the best of the alternative with the Navy. We will also develop test methods, fabricate test specimens and perform experimental studies to determine the effectiveness of our proposed vehicle arresting system. KCI's proposed solution for the UAV recovery problem will provide the Navy with a low cost, light weight, corrosion resistant platform that greatly reduces manpower required to launch and recover UAVs. A side benefit of KCI's unique method for capturing the UAV is the elimination of the need for a 100 pound probe on the vehicle, greatly increasing the payload of the UAV. The proposed capture system technology has direct application to other hardware programs currently underway at KCI.

SYSTEMS PLANNING AND ANALYSIS, INC.
7331 Hanover Pkwy, Suite D
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 474-1310
Dr. Jason S. Kiddy
NAVY 02-030      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Ship/UAV Recovery, Securing and Handling Interface
Abstract:Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) proposes to develop a novel shipboard recovery, securing, and handling interface for the VTUAV and other helicopter systems. This system will be designed to effectively recover the landing UAV without human intervention. During the Phase I effort, the effectiveness of the automatic guidance and securing systems will be analyzed and demonstrated. Handling and transportation of the aircraft will also be possible without disengaging the securing mechanism. Furthermore, the proposed system will overcome a major deficiency in current systems by requiring the aircraft to be outfitted with only a securing pin in place of 200 lb grappling hook. Use of a single attachment point will allow for the aircraft to be easily rotated into the wind during takeoffs. Furthermore, the handling system will have a limited logistical burden and can be integrated with little to no modification of the existing ship structure. The proposed system will provide benefits for all shipboard helicopter flight operations. This low-cost, simplistic recovery, securing, and handling system will benefit both military and commercial helicopter operators. The proposed system is especially attractive as a retrofit to current vessels which have limited resources or use of helicopters where a more advanced recovery system is economically prohibitive.

AGILE SYSTEMS, INC
3050 Clover Road
Bethel, OH 45106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 734-7009
Mr. James P. Karlen
NAVY 02-031      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Bin-Picking and Package Delivery System
Abstract:Opportunities exist to use sensor-guided robotic manipulator systems on future surface combatants to automate the process of breaking-out palletized loads into individual packages and items, and to assemble mixed loads of such goods--to order--for delivery to end-users aboard ship. The system envisioned will be capable of handling provisions, consumables, spare parts and similar commodities originally delivered to the ship and stowed in storerooms on pallets or in containers. It will be designed such that the "hand-off" of packages from automation system to sailor assures crew safety and system reliability in high seas, and to be cost-effective. In Phase I, the preliminary design will be developed and its feasibility established through engineering and process analyses. In Phase II, an operational prototype of the bin-picking system will be built using commercial manipulators for laboratory tests and demonstrations, and designs for a shipboard model will be developed. In Phase III, a shipboard system will be built for tests on a Ship Motion Simulator and, ultimately, for sea trials. This automated bin-picking and package delivery system will be designed to be fully compatible with the NAVSTORS automated stowage and retrieval system and the Universal Loading Tray. - Reduced crew workload associated with shipboard palletized load break-out, package distribution and inventory control. - Enhanced crew safety during strike-down operations in high seas. - Robotic bin-picking systems for industrial applications.

BENEDICT ENGINEERING COMPANY, INC.
3660 Hartsfield Road
Tallahassee, FL 32303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 576-1176
Mr. Charles E. Benedict, Ph.D.,P.E.
NAVY 02-031      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Shipboard Provisions and Material Transfer System
Abstract:Automated storage and retrieval systems have proven effective methods of increasing efficiency and lowering overhead costs in many land-based industries. Implementing such systems in Navy Destroyer class ships is the objective of the next generation DDX. Automated or semi-automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) improve the efficiency of and reduce manpower required for storing, retrieving and tracking inventory. An (AS/RS) decreases time needed to re-supply the ship and retrieve supplies on demand, while increasing the stowage capacity of the ship, a direct result from more efficient use of manpower and space in the cargo hold. Before a system concept can be developed to fit (or retrofit) the destroyer or any vessel, a thorough spatial analysis must be performed to assess feasibility. This analysis will allow insight into design content selection, clearly show features most critical for a successful systems operation, and provide information for simulating the entire system. Thus, development time and cost of the scaled model in Phase II will be reduced, allowing for more effective design effort to be spent on creating an evolutionary, cost effective, rugged, user-friendly, and operationally reliable AS/RS, which satisfies shipboard constraints and restrictions. No strike down is required. Development of this automated or semi-automated storage/retrieval system AS/AR as described in this proposal will benefit many existing industries by providing a low cost, reliable system, which will improve inventory tracking and maximize storage density. Currently, billions of dollars are spent annually on the installation, maintenance and management of inventory through the use of existing storage and material retrieval system. The simplicity of the proposal concept, coupled with its multidirectional capability by use of multiple transporters will enable many businesses to automat3e their material handling of inventory, whereas in the past this was cost prohibited. Thus, they will become more cost competitive and profitable. Industries that will benefit include but are not limited to: military logistics commands, distribution warehouses, assembly lines, baggage handling (both airline and cruise ship), and parcel/package services such as FedEx, UPS, and the U.S. Postal Service. This system will also translate into future applications in the medical industry for homebound and handicap patient mobility.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4096
Mr. William Leary
NAVY 02-031      Selected for Award
Title:Automating the Navy's Provision and Material Transfer System
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to develop a plan to automate a portion of the Navy's existing provision and material transfer system. Current methodologies used in material and provision transfer onto and within Navy ships are manpower intensive, sometimes unsafe, and don't utilize the more modern equipment and automation processes found in private industry. Furthermore, the readiness of the Navy is diminished through an inefficient flow of material and provisions through the system. Total asset visibility, through an automated information system, is the enabling technology for an automated PTS. Foster-Miller will explore current DOD and private sector initiatives to develop wireless asset tracking methods. A high-level automation solution will be developed in Phase I that will utilize a state-of-the-art wireless asset tracking system. Simulation modeling will be utilized as a tool for optimizing material flow and processes within the proposed PTS solution. This system will be the basis for a laboratory prototype to be built and demonstrated in a Phase II program. (P-020166) Automation of the Navy's provision and material transfer system will reduce the highly intensive manpower operations currently in place, improve safety, improve planning and logistics, utilize space more efficiently, reduce signature impacts, reduce outfitting requirements, and improve overall readiness. Potential opportunities exist for utilizing asset identification and automation in all material transfer operations within the DOD and commercial sector.

ADVANCED ROTORCRAFT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1685 Plymouth Street, Suite 250
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 968-1464
Dr. Chengjian He
NAVY 02-032      Selected for Award
Title:Modeling Tool for Design, Manning, and Training of Shipboard Aircraft Operations
Abstract:Increased reliance on shipboard deployment of aircraft in modern combat operations has placed increased demands on the efficiency and safety of shipboard aircraft operations. The ability to optimize design parameters early in the development cycle can result in considerable savings. A shipboard aircraft operations modeling and simulation tool is needed to provide early evaluation and modification of design variables to facilitate safe and efficient shipboard aircraft operations with minimal cost. The operational scenarios modeled with this tool will also be valuable training aids for shipboard personnel. ART has developed FLIGHTLAB, the leading commercial modeling and simulation tool for rotorcraft. Under recent Navy SBIRs, specialized capabilities to model the Dynamic Interface phenomena of shipboard landing have been added to FLIGHTLAB, in support of Shipboard flight testing. Operational scenarios using detailed rotorcraft dynamics models and a nonlinear ship dynamics model in FLIGHTLAB are being used to evaluate operating limits. ART's visualization products, PilotStation and FL_PLAYBACK, provide three dimensional rendering, animation and replay of the scenarios modeled in FLIGHTLAB to aid in assessing their safety and efficiency. Under this Phase I SBIR, ART proposes to expand FLIGHTLAB's shipboard modeling and simulation to address the impact of modifications in the ship's design on shipboard aircraft operations. Graphical editing tools can be used to interactively alter the ship's geometry and the revised parameters can be accessed by FLIGHTLAB and PilotStation to explore the effect on the ship's airwake and on the ship's dynamic response to sea state. Under Phase II, combat operations and the modeling and animation of human resources will be added, a training application will be developed, and the ship design capability will be expanded. The proposed effort is a logical extension of FLIGHTLAB's existing ship/aircraft modeling capability and will result in a new product with significant commercial potential. A modeling and simulation tool for the design of ships and shipboard operations to support aviation will allow the design to be optimized early in the life cycle, resulting in significant cost savings. The utilization of the design tool to create training applications will improve safety and operational efficiency. Potential customers for the design tool include research and development organizations, Government acquisition organizations, and commercial organizations involved in the development of new ships to support aircraft operations. The training tool should be of use to all personnel involved in shipboard aircraft operations both individually and networked for collective training. The tool can also support design and training for aircraft operations on offshore platforms and be used to optimize aircraft for shipboard operations.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North, P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3770
Mr. Daniel L. Bowden
NAVY 02-032      Selected for Award
Title:Modeling Tool for Design, Manning, and Training of Shipboard Aircraft Operations
Abstract:Sonalysts, Inc. proposes to develop a networked modeling tool to demonstrate design, manning, and training of shipboard aircraft operations. This project will leverage Sonalysts' commercial naval simulation technology to provide computations, graphics, video capture, and simulation for shipboard aviation operations model. This proof of concept will demonstrate the ability to simulate a variety of fixed wing, rotary, and unmanned aircraft during launch, recovery, and ground handling operations from different types of surface combat ships. This simulation will allow the user access to a 3-D camera view of the aircraft during these aircraft operations to determine structural interference, effects of ship's motion in various sea states, visibility and weather conditions. The Naval combat environment is included in the simulation for own-ship and associated aircraft to experience combat damage from other ships, aircraft, and ground-based objects. The proof of concept will include the ability to create and modify ship's geometry required in this simulation. Finally, this tool will demonstrate that the model development and execution processes can be bundled into a compact package for use during concept design. The application tool will be of a modular design to incorporate modifications and updates with changes in functionality, technology, and missions. Potential benefits derived from this research project will have applications to other military, government and commercial interests involving air operations. This concept design model could prove beneficial to U.S. Coast Guard, National Guard, police departments, federal agencies, and commercial aviation companies operating fixed wing and/or helicopter aircraft from a training perspective. The ability to conduct networked training using a computer-based simulation would benefit both individual and team training. Sonalysts, with a history of commercial military simulations, believes this project has strong potential to market as a software development kit option for a future commercial simulation product.

ALLIED SYSTEMS COMPANY
2300 Oregon St.
Sherwood, OR 97140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 625-2560
Mr. Robert Nourse
NAVY 02-033      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Handling Systems for Launch and Recovery of Offboard Vehicles
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to describe an automated (or semi-automated) lightweight, low-cost handling system for lauch & recovery of offboard vehicles which can be fitted to existing Navy ships or designed into new classes of ships. Many of the systems required for this effort are either in preliminary development of have been developed. It is intended that by combining existing offboard handling techniques and integrating new technologies, a suitable system can be offered and demonstrated in a reasonable amount of time. The non-hydraulic systems to be developed and demonstrated as a result of this using modern Direct Torque Control variable-speed electric drives and Remote-controlled automation control systems. Reduced manning, safer handling and reduced total ownership costs with the proposed electric systems. Constant tension/heave compensation systems and pendulation control impose less shock on handling equipment and offboard vehicles (e.g. RIB's, Remote Minehunting Systems, ORCA semisubmersibles, and oceanographic research & exploration devices. Potential commercial applications include subsea exploration, oceanographic research, undersea mining, oil & gas exploration and multi-mission small boat handling for diving, rescue and related activities).

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 222-0444
Dr. Donald Myers
NAVY 02-033      Selected for Award
Title:"Flying Carpet" Offboard Launch and Recovery System
Abstract:A ship maintenance system, the "Flying Carpet" (FC), is being prototyped at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. FC is a work platform suspended by powered cables from the side of a dry dock to permit rapid placement of personnel and loads at the bow, stern, or sides of a ship. During this proposed SBIR program, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) will adapt the FC mechanism to launch and recovery of offboard vehicles. The FC systems offers several unique advantages, including complete six-degree-of-freedom control of the vehicle and the ability to actively control the stiffness of the vehicle carrier when contacting the vehicle. The FC also ensures stability against wind gusts and high sea states. To automate recover, we propose to investigate the use of a novel communications system that supports both two-way communications and range measurement. In Phase I IAI will produce a realistic dynamic simulation of the device in operational launch and recovery retrofitted to an existing ship. Automated handling systems are in great demand throughout industry; the oil exploration industry in particular employs a large number of off board vehicles and would have a use for such a system.

BEACON INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS
30 Spinelli Place
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 441-9229
Ms. ML Mackey
NAVY 02-034      Selected for Award
Title:Scalability and Reusability Methods for Intelligent Tutors and Job Performance Aids for the Maintenance of Reduced Manning Ships
Abstract:Phase I of this solicitation sets the groundwork for the creation of an integrated intelligent tutoring and JPA solution. The work accomplished here addresses not only the status of the broader technical and business marketplaces, but also the specific needs of a sample system. By taking this multi-path approach, the solution will be on-topic for the Navy as well as for commercial organizations. At the heart of Phase I is the performance of a functional specification, or needs analysis, focused on a sample system. This in-depth analysis provides real-world basis for the development of patterns and methodologies used in creating a broad-based solution, one that can work in any type of environment and to any scale. Using a diverse team of engineers, analysts and scientists, methodologies for reusability, scalability, multi-modal information presentation, and porting will be developed. Phase I also includes a review of current marketplace initiatives such as SCORM in order to ensure compatibility, modularity and reusability. As a final step, Phase I will result in a conceptual design that takes into consideration not only research and methodologies, but also the capabilities of the chosen host application for meeting real-world needs. The anticipated benefits of this Phase I proposal is to take the results and create a commercially viable product for an immense and growing need. Based on a study by IDC, the market for E-learning solutions is growing at over 80% per year. The innovativeness of an integrated approach of learning and JPA in a multi-modal environment makes for a compelling market solution. Today, companies are looking for ways to cut costs, increase efficiency and provide better customer service as a way of increasing sales. By creating a dynamic and flexible system that combines on-demand intelligent tutors with contextual job performance aids, many companies will benefit. Beacon Interactive Systems is in an excellent position to provide this type of solution. Since our founding, we have been developing workflow, content delivery, collaboration and data sharing software systems in a variety of commercial environments. These systems have involved presenting data and information in a multi-modal environment, whether text, graphics, video or audio. Using our development capabilities in both software and hardware, we expect to push the envelope with ADL and SCORM and take it beyond simple training capabilities into the operational aspects of an organization, adding to the feasibility of commercialization.

MICRO ANALYSIS AND DESIGN, INC.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 347-6117
Dr. Thomas Carolan
NAVY 02-034      Selected for Award
Title:Scalability and Reusability Methods for Intelligent Tutors and Job Performance Aids for the Maintenance of Reduced Manning Ships
Abstract:The focus of this Phase I SBIR effort will be to research and develop a conceptual design for an integrated training and job performance aid system to target maintenance tasks aboard the reduced manning ships that are the future of the U.S. Navy. The ultimate tool that will result from this effort will be called the Maintenance Assistance and Training (MAT) package. This tool will include software modules that function, as both on demand training materials as well as real time job performance aids for specific maintenance tasks. The goal of MAT will be to provide an extensible software system composed of multiple levels of maintenance tasks (component to platform level) that can be utilized by maintenance personnel to not only improve their ability to perform required maintenance tasks, but also to function in a real time maintenance situation and provide the information required to perform the maintenance tasks. The final MAT system will be easily extensible to include new systems introduced to the ship, multiple levels of maintenance tasking and be capable of being deployed on reduced manning ships with minimal impact to the ship's computing resources. The research and development effort undertaken in Phase I of this SBIR has many potential benefits to both DoD and commercial organizations. Through the extensive research into creating an on-demand training and job performance aid system that is scalable, with reusable content that combines intelligent tutor methodology with what the latest developments in distance learning architecture and hands free computing the resulting system will represent a leap forward in JPA's and on demand training for maintenance tasks. The methods developed in the creation of MAT will be easily transferable to industrial maintenance environments where training is infrequent and job performance aids are not readily available.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North, P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3760
Mr. John L. Wayne
NAVY 02-034      Selected for Award
Title:Scalability and Reusability Methods for Intelligent Tutors and Job Performance Aids for the Maintenance of Reduced Manning Ships
Abstract:This Phase I effort will include a detailed methodology for the dual-use application of an intelligent tutoring system Domain Expert that supports training, and that also functions as an Intelligent Agent that supports performance in a maintenance setting. Techniques for scaling Domain Expert software to support training from system- to component-level will be examined. The Tactical Readiness Instruction, Authoring, and Delivery (TRIAD) delivery mechanism will be used to provide electronic documentation support in both training and performance support settings. Sonalysts ExpertTrainTM simulation-based intelligent tutoring technology will be leveraged to support design of the Domain Expert/Intelligent Agent and Learner Model. Phase II will include development of a prototype training/performance support system for maintenance tasks. This research will significantly contribute to the cost-effective development of training and performance support applications for a given domain. In other words, if the decision is made to build an Intelligent Agent to provide performance support in a certain domain, then that same software can be used (with minimal modification) to provide training support in the same domain; and vice-versa. We expect that the technology developed under this SBIR topic will be employed in future naval ships (DD (X), CVNX, etc.), and within the Navy's afloat- and shore-based maintenance and training infrastructures.

APPLIED ORDNANCE TECHNOLOGY
103 Paul Mellon Court, Suite A
Waldorf, MD 20602
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 863-0422
Mr. William A. Schroeder
NAVY 02-035      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Ship Environmental Management System (IS-EMS)
Abstract:Phase I will define the requirements and architecture of a shipboard environmental compliance information and tracking system that is web-enabled and supported by a shore side website for information aggregation and dissemination based on extensive prior experience with web and/or GIS-enabled technologies in an environmental analysis and documentation environment. The objective of this research project is to develop a software tool that will facilitate and enable the development and use of a functional Environmental Management System (EMS) for the management and assessment of the operating ship environmental responsibilities. The intended result of the Integrated Ship Environmental Management System (IS-EMS) is to improve ship environmental performance, provide current and updated environmental requirements and regulations, Navy policy, crewmember responsibilities, and reporting features to streamline shipboard environmental workload. The maritime industry is required to implement Safety Management Systems by the International Safety Management Code. These systems must include pollution prevention management, and are very similar to EMS. The maritime industry could benefit from an EMS capability. A Navy generated IS-EMS system would have great benefit to the commercial fleets and an even greater benefit to the environments of the states and ports involved. The potential for future applications of the software/website concepts developed during Phase I include expanded functionality for Navy use, adoption for other government and commercial fleets and cruise line industry, and adoption for the offshore oil industry.

GEOMET TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20251 Century Blvd., Suite 300
Germantown, MD 20874
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 428-9898
Mr. Mark Stunder
NAVY 02-035      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Ship Environmental Management System (IS-EMS)
Abstract:A naval ship in the 21st Century will be faced with increased environmental regulations and sailor environmental burdens, while having to maintain mission readiness. In addition, the advancement of Pollution Prevention (P2) type technology will also help environmental efficiency, yet increase and complicate the overall environmental burden. Thus, the deployment of IS-EMS is focused on reducing the environmental burden through a series of functional modules designed to meet compliance and other goals. In addition, linkages to onboard sensors or alarms will allow the Afloat Environmental Protection Officer (AEPC)and others the ability to monitor the environmental situation. Meeting INSURV or self assessment type requirements on the environmental side will also be a priority. An architecture utilizing Palm/PDAtechnology coupled with server database development should allow IS-EMS maximum flexibility with respect to sailor usage, expansion and fleet deployment. IS-EMS will allow sailors to reduce their environmental work burden through a variety of means including providing an easy way for compliance tracking and paperwork production. IS-EMS will allow for better tracking of maintenance needs including assisting in the inspection process as well as assist in tracking personnel training needs and emergency related items. Commercial applications of IS-EMS clearly point to use by cruise lines who face similar yet sometimes different maritime environmental regulations. Additional users could include the merchant marine fleet worldwide.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North, P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3809
Mr. John Carlson
NAVY 02-035      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Ship Environmental Management System (IS-EMS)
Abstract:The Phase I effort will include a detailed analysis identifying the fundamental requirements needed to effectively develop an Integrated Ship Environmental Management System (IS-EMS). A ship to shore infrastructure will be defined that will accommodate individual, ship-and shore-based environmental policy requirements within a PC-based software system. It will employ a seamless combination of policy compliance, program management, automatic feedback and connectivity. Sonalysts will examine several Sonalysts' technologies as well as EMS technologies during the Phase I study for potential leverage into the Phase II prototype system. These include: TRIADT, wXstationT as well as representative, robust EMS systems. Phase II will include development of a small-scale IS-EMS system focused on a shipboard safety organization. This research will significantly contribute to development of a fully functional IS-EMS system that will support individual and team training and policy compliance within a total ship-to-shore environment. We anticipate that the technology developed under this SBIR topic will be employed in future naval ships (DD-X, CVNX, etc.) as well as back-fitted into current platforms, and within the Navy's shore-based environmental policy monitoring infrastructure.

CARLOW INTERNATIONAL INCORPORATED
20856 Waterbeach Pl
Potomac Falls, VA 20165
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 444-4666
Dr. Thomas B. Malone
NAVY 02-036      Selected for Award
Title:Engineering Control Human Performance Tool to Enhance Situational Awareness
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop and demonstrate an automated tool designated the Engineering Manning, Business processes, interaction with Automation, and Requirements for Knowledge (EMBARK) tool. EMBARK will enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify shipboard engineering operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected, and to develop solutions in the form of prototype displays that will provide needed information and situational awareness while reducing cognitive workload and human error potential. The EMBARK tool will also address the enhancement of situation awareness and human performance achieved through an optimal interaction between the operator and the automation. The objectives of the Phase I effort are to (a) develop requirements and conceptual design for the EMBARK tool; (b) develop prototype user interfaces for the tool; and (c) conduct a limited demonstration of the operation of the tool. This tool will support early HSI analysis to assess workloads, manning and human performance of commercial as well as military systems with significantly reduced time, effort and cost of the analysis. Potential commercial applications include commercial shipping, maritime and offshore systems, manufacturing plants, electrical power plants, chemical and pharmaceutical plants, and any other commercial enterprise where manpower reduction and human performance improvement is a priority.

MICRO ANALYSIS AND DESIGN, INC.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-6947
Ms. Beth Plott
NAVY 02-036      Selected for Award
Title:Engineering Control Human Performance Tool to Enhance Situational Awareness
Abstract:Reductions in crew sizes and the increased use of autonomous machinery control have caused the crewmember to become more of a supervisory controller, where a computer makes complex transformations on system data to produce integrated (chunked) displays for the human, or retransforms crewmember commands to generate detailed control actions. In this environment, it is critical for humans to know how and when to intervene. When humans do not attend to the information display or fail to recognize that status changes shown in the display require intervention, or when cognitive workload is so high that they miss a critical signal, they are not maintaining adequate situational awareness. Therefore, it is imperative to evaluate display/controller interaction to determine whether the human can reasonably maintain adequate situational awareness to prevent omissions and errors. This project will design and prototype a tool that can be used by HSI professionals to identify tasks that have a high potential for human overload and error. The proposed tool can be iteratively used to design and evaluate the interfaces that provide information in shipboard supervisory control systems to maximize the probability that the operator will maintain adequate situational awareness and respond appropriately. The issues that are currently driving the acquisition of military and commercial hardware systems are those that revolve around personnel costs, system performance, and safety. Designers and manufacturers of advanced commercial systems must respond to the pressure to be more cost effective without sacrificing efficiency and safety. The proposed software tool will advance the state of the art in human systems integration technology because information about the ability of sailors to detect, process, and comprehend information presented in complex displays will be used to impact system design. This will result in a more effective force under today's reality of the shift from being an engineer/operator to having supervisory control over multiple autonomous systems.

AMERICAN GNC CORPORATION
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Mr. Harlis Brend
NAVY 02-037      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost Wireless Shipboard Local Area Network Management
Abstract:The object of this project is to develop an integrated approach for automatic configuration management of shipboard physical systems and related information by exploiting shipboard wireless local area networks (WLAN). This innovative approach will facilitate a reduction in total ownership cost by reducing shipboard workload and enable simplified technology and other shipboard upgrades due to streamlined configuration management. Wireless configuration based on the physical layer and network layer will be designed, which takes advantage of the features of the newer IPv6. Shipboard wireless systems offer adaptability for COTS technology refresh over long shipboard lifecycles and are particularly applicable for collecting system data/information from multiple remotely located systems and for mobile access to computer networks. An automatic shipboard wireless configuration management system using WCM tags would find utility in any system with a wireless LAN such as a building for tracking high value equipment, an off-shore oil platform tracking parts and components, an commercial aircraft tracking components and their maintenance records.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Jordan C. Bonney
NAVY 02-037      Selected for Award
Title:Shipboard Wireless Management, Repair, and Tracking System (SWiM-RTS)
Abstract:This proposal presents a new method for tracking large numbers of assets with RFID tags using wireless-LAN technology. An innovative approach to dispersing RFID readers and wireless LAN nodes is presented, as is an approach to a fully-wireless LAN infrastructure. The end user of the proposed system accesses information relating to an RFID tag from a handheld computer. While this handheld computer is not directly connected to an RFID reader, the wireless-LAN infrastructure enables the handheld computer to gather information from nearby readers and in turn fetch associated asset information. An innovative method for providing visual feedback from queried assets is also presented. SWiM-RTS is intended to provide a complete asset tracking and maintenance-information system for shipboard environments. The concept is easily adaptable to any asset-tracking environment, especially those that can benefit from wireless LAN technology. The technology that allows a user with no RFID reader to gather information on assets within close proximity to the user is expected to be marketed through the proposing firm's commercial-software distribution channels. Design and implementation of similar systems is expected to be marketed as a consulting service.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 625
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 338-1647
Mr. Charles Walton
NAVY 02-037      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost Automatic Shipboard Wireless Configuration Management
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR is to demonstrate an inexpensive, open architecture and accurate ship based automated Configuration Management (C/M) System. This system will employ wireless Automatic Identification Technology (AIT) such as passive Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) or Real Time Location System (RTLS). These AIT devices are read/write addressable and will internally store National Stock Number (NSN), Part Number, Model Number, Modification Number and other O&M data as allowed by addressable storage on the device. These devices when interrogated by a fixed array or mobile tag readers are merged into a single cohesive C/M database. The middleware platform serves to universally communicate with different types of RFID technologies and provide for navigational cross-referencing to ship's Operations & Maintenance (O&M) databases. Middleware will be designed using a "customer's based approach for establishing requirements". Middleware allows technology refresh, cost competitiveness and seamless integration with existing C/M databases. This system will simplify current shipboard C/M administration/validation, reduce manual human interaction with numerous databases, forms and documentation. The goal is to reduce manpower, data entry errors, improve integrity of the ship's C/M database(s) and ultimately provide for sustained operational readiness. The proposed Phase I investigation is expected to yield strategies for exploiting the capabilities of a DSR Middleware- (MW) based solution. MW will provide a mechanism for rapidly porting and scaling application software to new hardware platforms. Our approach will demonstrate the feasibility of using an open architecture/middleware to facilitate the most prudent selection of AIT hardware. DSR's open system and middleware-based technical approach enables N-tier software architectures that strongly encourage the use of open source and open specifications for all system interfaces. Published interfaces for components will enable a "plug and work" architecture that allows the middleware to rapidly absorb and adapt new devices and will enable the seamless integration of new technology components as they become commercially available. Vendors will work to isolate individual proprietary technology dependencies and strive to cooperate and share the open source interfaces for applications that have an open source specification, such as Automated Wireless Shipboard Configuration Management.

WILLIAMS-PYRO,INC.
2721 White Settlement Rd
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 335-1147
Mr. Kartik Moorthy
NAVY 02-037      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost Automatic Shipboard Wireless Configuration Management
Abstract:This proposal focuses on decreasing total ownership costs of Naval ships by reducing shipboard workload. Specifically, there is emphasis on the development of an automatic configuration management system for physical shipboard systems, using prevailing wireless location area networks (WLAN) technology. This proposal builds on the extensive experience of Williams-Pyro, Inc. and our ongoing working relationship with Bath Iron Works. The proposed structure consists of passive wireless configuration management (WCM) Tags for rugged and robust shipboard handling and neural networks featuring a new Discrete Event Controller based on matrices designed to dynamically detect the addition/deletion of equipment from the existing setup and perform failure diagnosis and fault prognosis. The system will employ an industry-standard Open Systems Architecture for seamless integration of the WCM Tag information into the WLAN. The Tags will be designed to permit distributed use for ship systems. Commercialization at WPI is generally a five-step process after technology development. The first step is to host a product demonstration at WPI's in-house laboratory for the U.S. Navy and Bath Iron Works. Second, our system will undergo a field test on Navy ships. The third step is a trial production to supply a test market. Because WPI will be manufacturing its own parts throughout the development process, there will be no delay in preparing a suitable manufacturing facility or training technicians. Fourth, WPI's marketing department will investigate alternative product applications. WPI's relationship with companies in these markets will be especially useful in determining a good product fit. The final commercialization step is full production and product launch. As the components of our system are largely inexpensive, initial cost estimates indicate the price of the system should be reasonable for the intended consumer, and may decrease as systems are mass produced. Enabled by our extensive facilities and experienced personnel, WPI will develop, market, and manufacture the WCM Tags and readers in house. With more than 200 products on the market, WPI possesses the experience, expertise, and resources to drive this solution from the concept level to a commercialized product.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Michael E. Harrell
NAVY 02-038      Selected for Award
Title:Bandpass, Delta-Sigma, Analog-to-Digital Converter (BP Delta-Sigma ADC) for advanced Digital Array Radar (DAR) (9611)
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop a BP delta-sigma ADC in 120 GHz SiGe for use in advanced DAR. IBM's 7HP SiGe BiCMOS process enables the integration of a complete ADC modulator plus support circuitry (e.g., laser diode driver) on a single small, inexpensive silicon chip. It's small size, low power dissipation, and low cost permit this high-performance ADC to be included in the T/R module for each array element! Its single-bit digital output supports data transmission via COTS optical fiber components. Together with a single-bit delta-sigma DAC (under development separately by Q-DOT), the entire signal interface to the T/R module comprises two, single-bit streams of digital data. The ADC (and DAC) combined with wide bandwidth, one-bit delta-sigma, true-time-delay, digital beamforming will yield an innovative, high-performance, low-cost, multi-function DAR. The BP delta-sigma ADC will be conceptually designed in Phase I to assess its performance. It will be designed and fabricated in Phase II and integrated into a demonstration system in Phase III. The BP delta-sigma ADC technology will enhance the capability of radar for commercial aviation on aircraft and on the ground. It will enable Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) reception on moving vehicles (e.g., automobiles). Single ADCs will enable highly versatile, software-configured receivers for communications hand-sets and base stations.

SOPHIA WIRELESS, INC.
14225-C Sullyfield Circle
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 961-9573
Dr. Philip Koh
NAVY 02-038      Selected for Award
Title:High Power, High Frequency Amplifiers
Abstract:A new power amplifier architecture is proposed which will give significantly higher power at higher frequencies than is currently available. Wireless base stations for 3 GHz and 5 GHz unlicensed bands, aviation radar.

MIKROS SYSTEMS CORPORATION
707 Alexander Road, Building 2, Suite 208
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 687-2255
Mr. David C. Bryan
NAVY 02-039      Selected for Award
Title:Multiple Function Distributed Test and Analysis Tool
Abstract:This project will focus on developing standardized test equipment and testing processes, using modern software techniques enabled by recent advances in information technology, to provide a foundation for new methods of system maintenance, alignment, fault detection and isolation. The long-term goals for the new testing approach to be developed by this project are: Increased readiness through reduced maintenance downtime Increased system reliability through predictive failure analysis and proactive remediation More efficient and effective use of technical manpower through increased automation, distance support and interactive training. Specifically, this effort will use the AN/SPY-1 AEGIS Radar as the testbed to accomplish the following five things: Develop an automated "smart" capability for troubleshooting and repair Develop a data collection capability for alignment and maintenance efforts Reduce alignment and calibration time Develop an interactive capability for distance support Develop an interactive training capability. The techniques to be investigated could reduce the complexity and time required for calibration and alignment of complex systems as diverse as PCS and cellular communications systems, broadcasting systems, commercial radar and air traffic control, automated assembly lines and remote monitoring systems.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORPORATION
11400 West Olympic Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 336-7576
Mr. Robert C. English
NAVY 02-039      Selected for Award
Title:Multiple Function Distributed Test and Analysis Tool
Abstract:TSC proposes an Active Maintenance and Sustainability Support (AMaSS) system. AMaSS is based on the concept of a Critical Item (CI), defined as "a component or a product whose failure can significantly affect safety, operating success or repair/replacement costs." AMaSS will allow technical personnel to collect complex electronic system characteristics from each CI through remote monitoring, and analyze the data to identify degraded performance and incipient failures. AMaSS provides the following benefits: assists Fleet personnel in identifying problems that threatening Combat System availability, provides Sailors with precise information on impending component failures, augments Sailor's skills with expert shore-based support, increases component life through proactive maintenance strategies, and provides Fleet-wide trending information that can improve system readiness and reduce life cycle costs. Phase I will identify the CIs for the AN/SPY-1 D(V), develop CI performance indicators, i.e., a single signal, or a series of signals that AMaSS can combine, to determine whether a component has failed or needs adjustment, establish the requirements to send AMaSS information over the Navy Remote Support System (NRSS), and develop an assistance package for the Sailor based on the AN/PSM-93 (V)test set and support from shore-based experts via the NRSS. The Active Monitoring and Sustainability Support (AMaSS) system will help users of complex, single-purpose electronic equipment reduce manning costs while maintaining a high level of system availability. AMaSS is directly applicable to critical government systems such as FAA ASRs, and to private companies relying on complex electronic monitoring equipment to ensure continuous high quality production, e.g., semiconductor industry, paper production, and continuous casting facilities. Failures in these complex systems can have catastrophic consequences. Reactive solutions to problems are expensive, requiring unplanned tasking of skilled and expensive personnel. AMaSS offers equipment maintainers a proactive solution to both the criticality issue and the cost issue. AMaSS active monitoring of key components, its provision for feedback to support personnel, and its ability to analyze data over time and across installations will reduce maintenance costs, improve system performance, and raise availability.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2428
Dr. Gavan Lintern
NAVY 02-040      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Function Displays for Warfighter Consolidation
Abstract:The Navy is under pressure to reduce staffing levels on its combat ships. However, current displays are designed to support single-functions, which makes it difficult to reduce manning without limiting the crew's ability to perform the current number of combat functions. New multi-function displays are needed to allow smaller crews to perform a greater number of functions. We propose a revolutionary approach to interface design for multifunctional systems, drawing on the techniques of Cognitive Work Analysis and Ecological Interface Design, to design a multi-function interface tailored for two mission areas within a modern US Navy warship. Tentatively, we propose that these be time-critical targeting and damage control. The interface will be structured on the basis of functional properties identified by application of Cognitive Work Analysis. In Phase I of this project we will demonstrate the integration of Cognitive Work Analysis methods and tools to produce a prototype interface that spans two disparate work functional areas. In Phase II we will extend that analysis and design effort to resolve issues related to the shared, distributed and dynamic nature of the work and we will evaluate the effectiveness of our interface design as it impacts worker effectiveness. There is a virtually unlimited market for methods and tools that can increase the productivity of workers interacting with complex systems of systems. Tools for the creation of computer-based multi-function interfaces will directly benefit, for example, military C2 centers, air traffic control centers, hospitals, virtual manufacturing environments, managers of corporate databases, and both military and commercial maintenance operations.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Mr. Kevin Johnson
NAVY 02-040      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Function Display System for Warfighter Consolidation
Abstract:MK Technologies, along with the Fraunhofer Center for Research in Computer Graphics, propose to develop a display management architecture to manage and display information to support multiple roles on a single display. The Multi-Function Display System (MFDS) design will be based on an open architecture approach, using agent and knowledge base technology to manage the data inputs and information displayed. In Phase I we will design the Multi-Function Display System, which will then be prototyped during Phase II. We propose to base the system architecture on the Fraunhofer CRCG Decision-Centered Visualization (DCV) design. This will be augmented with an internal, HLA-based communications architecture for the data input and information display to facilitate distributed processing and embedded training requirements. The primary Phase II deliverable will be a prototype system, based on the Phase I design, for managing multiple, simultaneous, synchronized, intelligent displays. The proposed effort will leverage COTS, standards-based, visualization software, reducing cost, development time, and risk. Recent research has achieved advances in information and knowledge management, and information display management that can provide a direct benefit toward this effort. MK is currently working with the US Army CECOM to develop a display management toolkit for C4ISR displays. Fraunhofer CRCG has performed research and developed prototypes for advanced displays and agent-based information management. The proposed MFDS has the following benefits: 1. Increased effectiveness of reduced number of watchstanders by enabling consolidation of displays into integrated, intuitive presentations. 2. Reduction of decision times by timely presentation of mission-relevant and mission-critical information. 3. Reduction of role-specific stations via multiple uses of displays based on roles and situation assessment. Leveraging MK?s COTS PVD, Stealth and CGF software, Fraunhofer CRCG?s visualization and DCV architecture work, and MK?s extensive experience supporting commercial-grade software toolkits has the following benefits: 1. Increased capability of the proposed multi-function display system due to the $2M internal, product funding commitment MK has made to these products. 2. Increased viability of the proposed multi-function display system due to MK?s best-commercial-practices design, implementation, documentation, and support capability. 3. Low cost, time, and risk via extensive leverage of non-developmental software.

PATHFINDER SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Union Blvd., Suite 300
Lakewood, CO 80228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 763-8660
Mrs. Sheila Jaszlics
NAVY 02-040      Selected for Award
Title:IMAN - Intelligent Information Management System
Abstract:We will develop an information management system that provides an efficient and fully synthesized picture of the Battlespace to support successful naval operation execution. We call our system the Intelligent Information Management System (IMAN). IMAN will use a distributed architecture of intelligent agents that will assist naval personnel in the execution of their duties. These intelligent agents will execute a variety of user defined data analysis and fusion tasks to reduce manning requirements on US Navy ships. Innovative display technologies will include two-dimensional, three-dimensional and augmented reality displays that will portray the state of the Battlespace to the users. The first application of the technology will be to support CIC operations onboard Arleigh Burke DDG-51 class destroyers. It is anticipated that this effort will result in the development of a set of information management and display technologies that will reduce manning requirements on US Navy ships. The IMAN system will provide an enhanced view of the battlespace that will translate into missions successfully executed with fewer resources and longer lasting results. The technology can be directly applied to transportation systems, command and control systems for other military services as well as the management of large-scale amusement parks and power plants.

NANOENGINEERING CO.
23 Sundown Way
Dawsonville, GA 30534
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(706) 216-4930
Mr. Jerome J. Schmitt
NAVY 02-041      Selected for Award
Title:Radar Technology/Unit Cost Reduction
Abstract:Recent pioneering work in the field of electrically tunable ferroelectric thin-film microwave devices provides compelling motivation to develop low cost manufacturing methods that will enable practical uses of these devices in commercial and defense electronic systems. NanoEngineering is a new company with a focus on engineering improved manufacturing methods for advanced electronic materials and devices. In this Phase I project, we plan to adapt for the purposes of microwave device fabrication a newly available, production-proven large wafer (200-mm) thin film process tool that was originally developed for the silicon integrated circuit industry. This project will be carried out in collaboration with the process tool company. Phase I materials and device will be tested and evaluated by the Naval Research Lab under subcontract. Success in Phase I will provide technical demonstrations that will point the way toward manufacturing process and device performance optimization in Phases II and III. During Phase I we will seek to identify a test vehicle application, in collaboration with a leading defense radar system OEM that will lead to technology insertion early in Phase III. Candidate radar applications include phase shifters and notch filters. There are also significant potential uses in the telecommunications and automotive industries. The work could produce lower cost, higher peformance tunable microwave system devices for applications in phased-array antenna, tunable filters and other components for radar and radio systems for use in defense, automotive and telecommunications systems.

PEREGRINE SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION
6175 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-0660
Dr. Ron Reedy
NAVY 02-041      Selected for Award
Title:Single Chip Phased Array Antenna Elements
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop technology that enables direct integration of power and thermal management functions at the component level of transmit and receive phased array antenna modules (TRAM). The project will enable flexible use of the highest performance active devices such as PHEMT and HBT GaAs or InP by means of a novel chip-on-chip (COC) flip-chip integration technique. The project will include design, manufacture and test of one integrated circuit each for transmit and receive sides, with each chip providing amplification, phase shifting, signal power routing and control logic. The chip will be manufactured in an advanced silicon on sapphire (SOS) technology called Ultra Thin Silicon (UTSi) CMOS. This advanced technology enables integration of RF, IF and base band control functions in a single CMOS chip, a capability which is not possible in any other form of CMOS. Potential system level benefits of this technology would be improvements in antenna performance along with mass, size and cost reduction, These will be accomplished primarily through integration of phase shifters, active RF circuitry, RF switching elements and passive devices for both LNA and PA circuits. By flip-chipping GaAs or InP transistors onto the UTSi device (which will contain all passive matching circuits along with active current and temperature control circuits), the highest available performance can be achieved in a monolithic structure. Choice of CMOS on sapphire is necessary to keep high performance passive devices at the 10-20 GHz frequencies typically used in phased array antennae. Use of a commercially established CMOS on sapphire process ensures that the devices will be highly manufacturable (which is necessary for the large number of antenna elements required for all applications) and that the performance and cost constraints of both commercial and military requirements will be met. The significance of this project is that projected high volume applications of phased array antennae for both commercial and military uses in both satellite and aerospace applications require easy-to-implement systems based on highly integrated TRAM's. High levels of integration have proven value in computing and digital signal processing functions, but RF and IF functions have not previously been integrated because of isolation and substrate issues in most IC technologies. Therefore, this project not only will solve the need for a low cost, miniature phased array transmit/receive antenna module, it will also demonstrate a single chip device capability which could be applied to other high frequency systems and to higher frequency TRAM's when deeper submicron UTSi CMOS is developed.

AEPTEC MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
15800 Crabbs Branch Way, Suite 290
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 670-6779
Mr. Ray Wang
NAVY 02-042      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost Wireless Shipboard Local Area Network
Abstract:As the Navy is expanding its shipboard information networks, information technology systems requiring wireless technologies are being developed to support increased shipboard information gathering for logistical, personnel, and maintenance-related functions. Such wireless systems - like the Wireless LAN (WLAN) - offer simplified adaptability for Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) technology refresh over long shipboard lifecycles. Further, they are particularly applicable for collecting system data/information from remotely located systems as well as for mobile and un-tethered access to shipboard computer networks. In addition to productivity enhancements, WLANs offer the potential to reduce or eliminate expensive shipboard cabling installations and modifications thereby reducing ship impacts and installation/maintenance costs. The cost savings over a ship's lifecycle when compared with "wired" networks can be quite significant. Further, new ship construction benefits will include costs savings from the drastic reduction or elimination of cable installations, and the increase in space availability and weight reductions associated with shipboard cabling. Despite the significant gains that may be achieved from WLANs, their acquisition and installation costs are a major impediment to fleet-wide implementations. The cost for acquiring and installing separate systems to satisfy differing wireless requirements including RF LAN access, infrared data synchronization, and RF voice communications are quite significant. This program will address these challenges with a focused research and development effort. A successful approach will result in a blueprint for development of a low cost and robust wireless local are network that will be capable of being acquired for fleet wide deployment to support applications including voice, data and multi-media communications. It is further expected to have wide application in areas such as DOD operational forces, inter and intra ship communications, hospitals, emergency response centers, space stations, underground command bunkers, nuclear plants, mobile and remote workers, and any high value industrial asset or process.

TALKING LIGHTS LLC
28 Constitution Road
Boston, MA 02129
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 242-0050
Mr. Al-Thaddeus Avestruz
NAVY 02-042      Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid Optical Wireless Network
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I program is to provide an optical wireless network based on the use of modulated illumination as the information carrier. Existing Talking Lights technology will be expanded to increase bandwidth and achieve two-way communication. The system is very inexpensive because it creates the communication network using existing lights and lighting fixtures and only requires replacement of fluorescent light ballasts to implement the network. This Phase I program will develop a prototype hybrid optical wireless network (HOWN) transmitters and receivers which will combine optical and RF communications systems to enhance the capabilities of each. The capabilities of HOWN will be evaluated and demonstrated. In Phase II, minaturized HOWN stationary and mobile transceivers will be designed and built , and then the HOWN network demonstrated and evaluated in actual ship-board installations. Phase III will involve the commercial manufacture and sale of HOWN devices for operational use. Transceivers developed in this project will be installed on operational surface vessels to provide enhanced functional communication capability at low cost. The same wireless technologies should also be of commercial value in submarines, aircraft, buses and autos. Hybrid wireless technologies should provide new communication technology and the HOWN transceivers will be commercial products.

TRANS WORLD TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
100 West Main Street, Suite 205
Lansdale, PA 19446
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 855-4002
Mr. Stephen J. Drabouski, Jr.
NAVY 02-042      Selected for Award
Title:Impulse Radio Transceiver Wireless Local Area Networks
Abstract:This research effort explores Impulse Radio as an enabling technology for the implementation of wireless LANs aboard U.S. Navy ships. Impulse radio, a form of ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) spread spectrum signaling, has properties that make it a viable candidate for short range communications in dense multipath environments such as those encountered on steel hull ships. Additionally, current impulse radio technologies exhibit the potential to operate at the sub-milliwatt average power levels required for the efficient use of power harvesting methods that eliminate power cables for sensors and actuators. This research effort identifies, analyzes and evaluates currently available impulse signal technology from the standpoint of developing a cost effective, low power, UWB transceiver with excellent multipath and interference immunity. The development of this transceiver will enable the cost-effective implementation of wireless Local Area Networks aboard U.S. Navy ships. Additionally, this research effort identifies and evaluates previous government and commercial wireless automation research to identify leveraging opportunities. Finally, this proposed effort includes a production, implementation, and life cycle cost analysis for the candidate UWB transceiver that addresses both retrofit and forward fit applications. Recent advances in wireless LAN and power harvesting technologies exhibit the potential to substantially reduce the initial and life cycle cost for ship monitoring and control automation systems. Commercial applications for the proposed system include business applications, industrial process control systems, robotics and various Merchant Marine, Marine Salvage, and Off-Shore drilling applications. Environmentally sensitive vessels involved with hazardous cargoes such as oil, chemicals, are nuclear waste are primary candidates for this technology.

WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS PRODUCTS, LLC
20 Miry Brook Road
Danbury, CT 06810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 798-0755
Mr. James L. Saulnier
NAVY 02-042      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost Wireless Shipboard Local Area Network
Abstract:Wireless Communications Products Mobility and portability for users and equipment, security of wireless information links, modular scalable wireless system, clear channel operations of wireless links in a metal box environment locator functions for personnel and equipment no interference with RF sensitive equipment

ENGENIUM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4220 Eagles Wing Ct., Suite 100
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 908-8003
Dr. Mike Pascale
NAVY 02-043      Selected for Award
Title:Long Range Wireless Network Communication Capability
Abstract:We propose the Flexceiver, an ultra-wideband, spread spectrum modem for long range wireless networks. The basic concept of the Flexceiver is to sweep the carrier frequency of a modulated signal very rapidly across a wide bandwidth. The Flexceiver avoids interfering with other RF systems operating in dedicated bands by dynamically constructing frequency profiles that hop over the frequencies occupied by those systems. RF interference from other systems is avoided in the same manner. All-weather capability is enabled by operating below the 4 GHz band where attenuation due to weather is insignificant. Low latency is afforded by the FPGA based implementation. By eliminating from the link budget a fading allowance, high data rate and range performance are facilitated by multipath tolerance of the system. While the total occupied bandwidth is wide, the instantaneous bandwidth of the waveform is narrow, consistent with that of the rate and type of modulation. The channel fades that occur at specific frequencies can be very deep, but are narrow and low duty cycle compared to the total occupied bandwidth. By sweeping rapidly, individual fades can be limited to single bit duration or less. Forward error correction is employed to recover faded bits. The anticipated benefit of developing a Flexceiver, a flexible Software Defined Radio (SDR) transceiver, targeted for long range wireless networks include: all-weather capability, ElectroMagnetic Compatability (EMC) with other RF devices, resistance to ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI), Low Probability of Detection (LPD), and Low Probability of Jamming (LPJ).

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORPORATION
Information Technologies Div., 20600 Gramercy Place
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Andrew Kostrzewski
NAVY 02-043      Selected for Award
Title:Ultrawide Bandwidth Communication System for Mobile Platforms
Abstract:Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) is seeking a new type of all weather communication system, potentially non-RF, to carry data between mobile platforms. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel Ultra-wide Band Laser Communication (UBLC), as a new full scale laser communication system, which will integrate laser communication, optoelectronics, gimbal mechanics, processing software, hardware, and high speed data interfaces. UBLC uniquely integrates technology that POC has already developed in laser optoelectronics, laser communication hardware, and video/imagery communication. POC's compact multiple LD source and collimator/concentrator have regulated divergence for continuous high bandwidth (more than 1 GHz) communication. UBLC's optical power budget (100 mW of continuous laser power) at an invisible eye-safe wavelength of 1.55 micrometers allows for line?of?sight (LOS) 5 km communication even through fog. All UBLC critical components will be designed, tested, and analyzed in the course of a six month Phase I project. A preliminary feasibility demonstration will also be explored in Phase I, and a full-scale system demonstration on mobile platforms will be ready at the end of Phase II. Key advantages of the UBLC system stem from its compact design, based on a lightweight laser transceiver with a multiple laser diode (LD) source that replaces a bulky Nd:YAG laser source. The UBLC system will open new possibilities for high speed communication between mobile platforms with very low probability of intercept or jamming. This is essential to achieve high-security data exchange, and can also be used for future satellite communication.

CREARE INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Nabil A. Elkouh
NAVY 02-044      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Primary Battery Reliability Via Non-Destructive Evaluation
Abstract:We propose a comprehensive non-destructive evaluation approach to primary battery quality management that takes into account (1) batteries in the weapons stockpile, (2) batteries in production, and (3) next generation batteries. Current evaluation practices are limited to expending batteries and statistical modeling to extend those results. A deterministic evaluation of potential battery performance is not currently possible. In Phase I, we will gather data and information regarding how both production practices and temporal degradation can lead to reduced battery performance in the field. We will consider both thermal and zinc/silver-oxide battery systems. Our investigation will involve interactions with both battery producers and DoD personnel, which will lead to the establishment of evaluation priorities. We will focus much of our effort in Phase I demonstrating powerful extensions to current manual NDE practices already in place that are highly labor intensive and subjective, and as a result do not prevent batteries of inferior quality from entering the stockpile. We will examine the extension of these preferred techniques to field use. Furthermore, we will outline possible redesign of next generation batteries to allow simple and inexpensive monitoring of battery quality in the field. The development program is specifically focused on improving primary battery quality that will lead to high weapons system reliability and lower total ownership costs. The NDE techniques developed under this program will find applications in aerospace, marine, and automotive industries where NDE techniques are relied upon to monitor product quality both during production and in the field.

US NANOCORP, INC.
74 Batterson Park Road
Farmington, CT 06032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 678-7561
Dr. David E. Reisner
NAVY 02-044      Selected for Award
Title:Fuzzy Logic-Based Non-Destructive Testing of Thermal Batteries
Abstract:Primary reserve batteries used in weapons systems are typically not activated until immediately before use. To periodically test the condition of these inactivated batteries, sample batteries are removed from the weapons, activated, tested, and from the tested samples, statistical techniques used to estimate the condition of the stockpile. This takes considerable time and money. In this project non-destructive techniques for determining the condition of these reserve batteries will be considered. Various stimuli to the battery including electrical, mechanical, and thermal together with the batteries' responses to these stimuli will be assessed. Both theoretical analysis of the battery response and experimental verification will be performed to develop a few candidate approaches for non-destructive testing of primary reserve batteries. One of the techniques that will be investigated in more depth is ac impedance measurements at various temperatures for the molten-salt Li-based primary thermal batteries. The present method of monitoring the condition of primary reserve batteries used in weapons systems is to test samples of stockpiled batteries by activating the batteries, and using statistical analysis to estimate the condition of batteries in the stockpile. This method has several drawbacks. It requires that samples be selected for testing, and the selected samples be activated for testing. This means that these particular tested batteries must be replaced and so a procurement process for these replacement batteries must be conducted. Additionally, time and money are spent in performing the statistical analysis to estimate the condition of the batteries in a particular stockpile. Clearly, the development of a non-destructive technique for estimating the condition of a stockpile of reserve batteries can provide considerable savings in time and money. Reducing the cost and time to assess the conditions of primary reserve batteries will be an important result of this project. The same approach developed in this project for non-destructive testing of batteries would be of use in weapons systems across the armed services and therefore benefit the entire Department of Defense (DoD). Furthermore, some of the techniques developed in this program may be applicable to commercial electrochemical systems and for biomedical applications where remote monitoring of implanted defibrillator and pacemaker batteries may benefit from the technology being developed in this project.

K TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 628-8681
Mr. Mark J. Montesano
NAVY 02-045      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced T/R Module Thermal Management and Packaging Development (kTC P206)
Abstract:Radar antenna and T/R module thermal management and cooling technologies are critical for today's high power radars. A significant investment is made each year in the continued development of increasingly robust and sophisticated cooling system technologies, which are applied to the ballistic missile technology program and other major defense acquisition programs. kTC proposes to develop an encapsulated annealed pyrolytic graphite (APG) cold plate with integrated cavities for use as T/R module packages. The encapsulation material will have a CTE value close to the T/R module components to allow for direct mounting. The cavity walls will accommodate the electrical feed-throughs and hermetic metal lid. The conductivity of the cold plate will be greater than 900 W/mK (five times aluminum) and the conductance of the thermal path from the T/R components to the clod plate edges will be 40% better than the current solution (discrete T/R modules attached to an aluminum encapsulated APG cold plate). This proposed effort will develop a material system and packaging configuration that can significantly improve the performance and lower the cost of the thermal management system of current and future phased array radar systems The encapsulated APG material to be demonstrated under this program would have applications in the commercial satellite market, as well as the obvious military and NASA uses. Key potential post application relies heavily on the successful verification and certification of the proposed materials' performance. With increasing acceptance, encapsulated APG will be attractive to automotive and power supply manufacturers. Enabling technologies will allow the increase of production and the realization of the economies of scale. At this level, one can only estimate the potential impact on the personal computer and other high volume heat sensitive products.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Chris Chen
NAVY 02-045      Selected for Award
Title:Thermal Management
Abstract:With both the increasing density of semiconductor devices and the increasing power from these devices, substrates having high thermal conductivity will be needed. This program proposes an innovative materials that has thermal conductivity higher than 500 W/mK, CTE matches to Si or GaAs, and remains cost effective. A common problem in the design of microelectronic packages, however, is that material candidates having high thermal conductivity also have a high CTE. The uniqueness of this composite material is that the carrier substrates can be tailored to match the thermal expansion characteristics of the chip or other heat-generating components attached to the carrier substrate which also providing improved heat transfer. The innovative material in this program is a technology that enables electronics to acheive higher speeds, smaller size and higher reliability. High thermal conductivity heat sink materials are primarily found in fiber optic components in internet related applications which include amplifiers, receivers, transmitters, tunable lasers, modulators. Other areas of application include RF power package components that are used in wireless telecommunication infrastructure for cellular phones, base stations, high definition television (HDTV), and satellite communications.

POWDERMET INC.
9960 Glenoaks Blvd, Unit A
Sun Valley, CA 91352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 768-6420
Mr. Andrew Sherman
NAVY 02-045      Selected for Award
Title:Thermal Management
Abstract:In the proposed phase I SBIR program, Powdermet will demonstrate the production of controlled thermal expansion,high thermla conductivity packaging matreials. Increasing packing densities and power consumption in Transmit/recieve modules require improved, higher thermal conductivity packaging to remove heat from active elements. Current heat spreader materials cannot remove heat fast enough from, or do not match the thermal expansion of, Si, SiC, and/or GaAs substrates using in military electronics. Int he current program, Powdermet will abricate and characterize net shape fabricated graphite-reinforced copper composite packaging materials for discreet, chip-level, and multidie high power electronics packages. The proposed technology enables bottom-up control over composition, bonding, and distribution in highly reinforced composites, extending property ranges by 30-50% (expansion and conductivity)over current state of the art materials systems. The proposed program will result in the availability of higher conductivity materials tailored to electronics packaging. The materials will incease heat dissipation from active elements, increasing reliability, speed, and operating limits in T/R modules. The technooogy is applicable to commercial electronics, including both discreet and multidie packaging.

CREARE INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Joel L. Berg
NAVY 02-046      Selected for Award
Title:Combined Shock and Vibration Isolation Mounts Incorporating Novel Shock Dissipation Mechanisms
Abstract:A critical need exists for improved shock mounts to assure that equipment being developed under the Navy's Advanced Damage Countermeasures (ADC) program are well isolated and shock tolerant. These mounts must minimize shock transmission during extreme catastrophic events while retaining excellent vibration isolation characteristics under normal conditions of operation. Heretofore it has been impossible to optimize performance for both of these requirements in a single isolator component. To address this problem, the innovation proposed by Creare is a highly effective vibration isolator that incorporates a set of novel shock dissipation mechanisms. The primary benefits of Creare's design are that it combines shock mitigation and vibration isolation in a single mount and has the potential to greatly reduce shock loads experienced by critical ADC systems. In addition, the mounts will be highly durable and resistant to environmental effects, be straightforward to install in new or retrograde applications, require no maintenance and exhibit low life-cycle cost. We will demonstrate the feasibility of our innovation during Phase I with laboratory proof-of-concept tests. During Phase II, we will fabricate and test prototype units at Creare and provide several prototype units for a selected ADC equipment application to the Navy for ship trials. The proposed mount concept is capable of providing shock and vibration isolation for critical equipment of all sizes. Although this proposal focuses on the Navy's ADC program, the mount concept is directly applicable for all pipes, machinery, and equipment for which shock and vibration are of concern. There are also many potential non-military applications such as commercial shipping, ground transportation, manufacturing, mining and others in which the environment necessitates isolation and protection to supported equipment and/or people.

ADVANCED OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 410
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-0036
Dr. Richard L. Hartman
NAVY 02-047      Selected for Award
Title:EXTREME COMPUTING WITH LIGHT, LOW POWER, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT (ECLIPSE)
Abstract:Advanced Optical Systems, Inc. (AOS) has developed optical correlators with the world?s highest data throughput, lowest cost, lowest power consumption, and smallest volume. We are currently developing a line of optical processors called the Advanced Optical Correlator (AOC), which are already on the verge of meeting Navy requirements. In this proposal we propose an approach, that will not only meet the near-term goals but also has the potential for dramatically crashing though volume and power goals while dramatically increasing mission performance. The Government will be the early adopter for high throughput, low power, and low volume computing. With the current national thrust on anti-terrorism there is no doubt that markets in the areas of recognizance and security will expand, especially for UAVs and space platforms. During Phase I, at corporate expense we will start market research on these and other potential products.

IRVINE SENSORS CORPORATION
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #4
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8846
Dr. Suresh Subramanian
NAVY 02-047      Selected for Award
Title:Low Volume, Low Power, Real Time Image Processing
Abstract:Irvine Sensors Corporation's (ISC) massively parallel Three-Dimensional Analog Neural Network processor (3DANN) brings near human-level data processing capabilities for applications in open-ended problems like pattern recognition, clutter discrimination, and target tracking and identification. The approach emulates the massive parallelism inherent in the brain to achieve extremely high computational performance at very low power and small volume. The core 3DANN processor is a general-purpose analog convolution engine that can perform over 1 TeraOp inner product calculations per second. It occupies less than 1.5 cm3 volume and consumes < 10W of power. Since convolutions form the basis of most image processing and pattern recognition applications, 3DANN holds orders of magnitude advantage over conventional digital processors in terms of computational throughput, size, weight, and power consumption. 3DANN based systems bear potential to become PetaOp speed pattern/data-fusion processors that can rapidly process multi-megabit data streams from multiple sensors, perform rapid analysis, and tirelessly provide a course of action in environments that are hostile to human operators. The proposed innovation will find application in unmanned robotic ATR systems and embedded biometric scanners and face recognition systems.

SEAKR ENGINEERING, INCORPORATED
6221 S. Racine Circle
Centennial, CO 80111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 790-8499
Mr. Paul L. Murray
NAVY 02-047      Selected for Award
Title:Low Volume, Low Power, Real Time Image Processing
Abstract:A low power, low volume, realtime image processor using a re-configurable FPGA based processor design. The flexibility of general purpose processors are blended with the speed of ASICs to accomplish very high performance image processing using FPGA's. Data compression, Automatic target recognition and tracking, airborne high performance processing, commercial remote sensing data processing.

CREARE INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Nabil A. Elkouh
NAVY 02-048      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Thermal Battery Assembly Techniques
Abstract:We propose to develop new thermal battery assembly techniques that will replace many of the manual assembly techniques currently in place at thermal battery manufacturing facilities. While it is realized that the manual assembly techniques are the cause of most battery quality issues and are thereby less than ideal, the mechanical properties associated with the battery components make automation difficult. Recent attempts to introduce automation into the assembly line have fallen short and introduced similar errors and inconsistencies to the final product. These prior attempts illuminate the difficulties involved in working with thermal battery components and serve as the starting point for our novel assembly concepts tailored specifically to the needs of thermal batteries. Furthermore, these past attempts demonstrate the perils of applying standard automation practices to the fragile thermal battery systems. In Phase I, we will develop our concepts that have the unique possibility of operating both in manual and automated modes to offer battery manufacturers production flexibility. Our concepts will be demonstrated at one of the largest thermal battery manufacturing facilities and form the basis of a prototype system that will be developed in Phase II. The application-specific automation technologies developed under this SBIR program will lead to improved thermal battery quality and lower total ownership costs. Our developed technology will benefit assembly practices involving the stacking of thin fragile components in the electronics manufacturing industries.

ATLANTEC ENTERPRISE SOLUTIONS, INC.
1419 Forest Drive, Suite 205
Annapolis, MD 21403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 990-1100
Mr. Paul Rakow
NAVY 02-049      Selected for Award
Title:Technology for Shipbuilding Affordability
Abstract:The objective of our proposal is to demonstrate that a practical and affordable connector architecture can be developed to provide interoperability between leading CAD and CAM systems used in shipbuilding. The connector architecture will use available open source and Internet technology to create a flexible, efficient, and cost-effective solution. The architecture will include a toolkit that can be made available to software developers and manufacturers of production equipment for integration into their proprietary systems. This project will demonstrate that product-model data from different CAD systems can produce an identical result utilizing a single CAM system. Alternatively, data from a single CAD system can produce the same result in different CAM systems. The architecture will be designed so that each component is readily replaceable with a competing product. Atlantec-es, Inc. will work with Electric Boat (EB) as the participating U.S. shipyard. Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) shipyard of Kiel, Germany, one of the most advanced shipyards in Europe, has joined the team under the foreign firm cooperative research and development agreement provision outlined in this Topic. The new connector architecture will provide U.S. shipyards with greater flexibility and choice in selecting CAD and CAM systems. The technology will also enable collaboration between different shipyards and/or design agents on the same project. It will also reduce the cost and complexity of developing and maintaining inflexible custom production systems. Implementation costs for new CAD or CAM systems will be significantly reduced because improvements in either area can be brought on line with little impact to existing systems. This will enhance U.S. industry competitiveness by enabling shipyards to more easily maintain state of the art design/production systems. These products will also be affordable and easy to use, utilizing open, state-of-the-art technology.

INDUSTRIAL PLANNING TECHNOLOGY, INC.
5095 S. Washington Ave., Suite 105
Titusville, FL 32780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 427-4892
Dr. Patrick Rourke
NAVY 02-049      Selected for Award
Title:Technology for Shipbuilding Affordability
Abstract:Design for producability is the key to reducing ship construction costs. The most direct way to ensure that design for producability goals are met is to automate portions of the design process, enforcing producability requirements in software. Industrial Planning Technology Inc has developed an automated design and planning technology that is based on the use of high fidelity fabrication and assembly simulators. This technology yields lower construction costs than traditional rule-based design for producability, and does not require the development of comprehensive design rules. Distribution systems (piping, cabling, HVAC) represent between 25% and 40% of the construction cost for Naval ships. This proposal will explore the feasibility of developing an automatic design for producability tool which couples an automatic 3D spatial router for ship piping, cabling, and HVAC with IPT's construction planning and simulation tools. The benefits of this approach are lower construction cost through optimized design for producability, and reduced design costs. The technology would be packaged as a plug-in to existing commercial ship design systems. Anticipated savings are $15 million per year in construction costs and $1 million per year in design costs for U.S. shipyards. This assumes that 3% of piping fabrication work is moved from in-dock and in-module on-site fabrication to mechanized shop fabrication as a result of deploying the tools developed in this project.

KAZAK COMPOSITES INCORPORATED
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5668
Mr. James Gorman
NAVY 02-049      Selected for Award
Title:Joining of Very Large, Low Cost Pultruded Advanced Composite Structures in Shipbuilding
Abstract:Composite structures offer the shipbuilding industry the potential to reduce weight and eliminate corrosion, however cost of even "inexpensive" VARTM manufacturing of large composite sections has proven to be too high for designers to consider composites for anything other than special applications. KaZaK Composites and Bath Iron Works have teamed to begin development of a combination of very large scale pultrusion processing and special joints tailored to simplify the integration of these large pultruded panels into ship structures. We project that this new combination of technologies can reduce the cost of very large composite ship structures to less than half the cost of VARTM structure, and begin to approach the cost of steel construction. We propose a two part Phase I effort. First, we will employ our 10-foot wide pultrusion machine to make 1-inch thick solid laminates and also composite sandwich panels. Specimens cut from these pultrusion will be tested to begin establishment of a mechanical property data base containing information derived from the large pultrusions typical of ship structures. Second, we will conceive of, analyze, fabricate and test a set of composite joints specialized for integration of large composite panels and steel ship substructure. KCI believes that the key to achieving the cost reductions necessary to initiate a widespread acceptance of composite materials in place of more conventional steel in applications such as shipbuilding, bridges, piers and other very large civilian and military structures is to make the individual composite parts as inexpensively as possible by pultruding them in very large sections, then using simple and easily inspected assembly methods. KCI's 10-foot wide pultrusion machine is capable of material throughput of more than 25,000 pounds per hour when making large solid laminates that might be employed for ship superstructure. It can also make parts with a length limited only by shipping and handling considerations. These large parts reduce production labor cost to the noise level on a per-pound basis, and reduce fabrication cost by reducing the number of joints to be assembled. Work proposed in the document is intended to begin the demonstrations and developments necessary to validate these predictions. Once confirmed, ship designers will be far more comfortable employing composites in new structural developments.

ST. ONGE COMPANY
1400 Williams Road
York, PA 17402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 840-8181
Mr. Mark Avakian, P.E.
NAVY 02-049      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Lean Manufacturing Spatial Planning and Analysis Tool for U.S. Shipyards
Abstract:The last several decades have witnessed a dramatic decline in the international competitiveness of the remaining handful of large U.S. shipyards. As a result, these domestic shipyards are almost entirely reliant upon construction contracts from the U.S. Navy for their continued survival. This is highly undesirable for reasons relating both to national defense and the loss of significant economic opportunities to foreign competitors. Recent years have seen the widespread integration of Lean Manufacturing principles in U.S. industry as a whole but only to a relatively limited extent in the U.S. shipbuilding industry. Under principles of lean manufacturing, manufacturing operations are viewed as an integrated whole and are scrutinized for opportunities to further activities which contribute to the ultimate value of the manufactured product and eliminate sources of waste. Waste can take a variety of forms, including the production and storage of inordinate amounts of inventory, multiple handlings of product and bottlenecks due to the layout of production processes, and excessive transportation of product components. One means of identifying wasteful practices is spatial analysis, which tracks the production areas dedicated to various functions. A computerized Spatial Planning and Analysis Tool holds great promise for promoting shipyard efficiency and competitiveness. Delivery of a spatial analysis tool will allow U.S. commercial and government shipyards to better monitor how space utilized for a specific process contributes to value added work, improving shipyard efficiency and competitiveness.

STEP TOOLS, INC.
216 River Street
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 687-2848
Mr. Blair Downie
NAVY 02-049      Selected for Award
Title:Technology for Shipbuilding Affordability
Abstract:STEP-NC is a feature driven language for machine control with profound consequences for the efficiency of design and manufacturing. For design it means more concise, descriptive information can be sent to manufacturing making the process of design more efficient. For manufacturing it means faster, safer and more flexible machining because a control can dynamically check the safety and optimize the performance of a part program at run time. This proposal will apply STEP-NC to pipe bending for ship building. For general purpose manufacturing operations the benefits of STEP-NC have been estimated as a 35% reduction in set-up time, a 75% reduction in the number of drawings required on the shop floor, and a 50% decrease in machining time for small to mid-sized job lots due to increased usage of 5-axis and high speed machines. This proposal will extend these advantages to pipe bending by allowing the MMAP system currently used by GDEB and NNS to control pipe bending to be deployed across the US shipbuilding industry.

VISOTEK, INC
46025 Port Street
Plymouth, MI 48170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 354-6300
Dr. Stefan Heinemann
NAVY 02-049      Selected for Award
Title:Technology for Shipbuilding Affordability
Abstract:Effective implementation of laser welding in shipbuilding is hampered by a number of issues: large capital equipment investments, multi-faceted robotic control issues, lack of effective weld cell concepts and the lack of intelligent optics for laser process control. This project proposes to develop a process and an intelligent optics for laser welding that allows thick section welding in multiple paths. Multiple path welding drastically decreases the required laser power and allows the use of more cost effective standard laser systems. The developed intelligent optic incorporates seam tracking, closed looped with beam steering to adjust the laser beam to the joint requirements of the respective path. It is also easy to integrate into the robot cell. Necessary steps will be identified to adapt the intelligent optic to the requirements for appropriate joint design, fixturing, weld cell design for shipbuilding structures, and off-line programming features needed for effective integration into a large volume, non-standard welding application. Visotek's laser welding optics is a highly integrated product that fits on almost every robot. If offers seam tracking closed looped with beam steering, simplified clamping, the possibility for on-line quality monitoring and sophisticated interfaces that allow the user to comply with high quality standards. The intelligent integrated optic created in the I-Low program will be an enabler to the use of laser welding for shipbuilding and will lead other equipment manufacturers that use thick section materials to increasingly seek ways to expand the use of lasers in the design of future products. The construction, mining, power generation and pipeline industries will be targeted for new applications of lasers utilizing the developed optic. In addition, expanded uses within the automotive and the military and commercial aerospace industries are also anticipated. This open ended capability to serve a variety of fields will create an opportunity to compile, document, package and make available integrated laser welding optics to countless non-competitive industries. The total market volume is close to $30 million annually.

WEBCORE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
591 Congress Park Drive
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-5034
Dr. Frederick Stoll
NAVY 02-049      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Composite Watertight Doors and Hatches for Navy Ship
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project is intended to develop lightweight, damage-tolerant and fire-resistant watertight composite doors and hatches for Navy ships. The salient features of the proposed door design include novel TYCOR(TM) composite panel with superior damage tolerance and fire-resistance and integration of proven operating mechanisms. Lightweight TYCOR composite panel utilizes a patented fiber reinforced foam (FRF) core, integrally stitched skin and special fire-resistant phenolic foam and resin to provide a superior combination of structural performance and fire tolerance. The watertight composite door will incorporate operating mechanisms, which have been proven on existing doors, thus ensuring reliable, trouble-free operation with reduced maintenance. The proposed door and hatch design is also applicable to doors and other watertight enclosures in military and commercial ships as well as in boats and yachts. There are numerous commercial applications of this technology in marine, transportation, industrial and construction.

RJ LEE GROUP, INC
350 Hochberg Road
Monroeville, PA 15146
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 325-1776
Mr. Niels Thaulow
NAVY 02-050      Selected for Award
Title:Predictive Durability Model for Life Extension of Naval Waterfront Concrete
Abstract:Concrete durability and its impact on life-cycle infrastructure costs and military readiness is a major societal issue. This SBIR Phase I project focuses on the development and demonstration of the feasibility of key aspects of a plan for the implementation of new concrete durability software. Existing service-life prediction models do not capture the complexity and severity of marine exposure environments. The ultimate model will account for the major mechanisms of deterioration: corrosion, carbonation, alkali-silica reaction, and external sulfate attack, as well as porosity, transport properties, and mix design. By its unique structure (designed to take into account the occurrence of numerous, potentially coupled, deterioration phenomena), and its integration with state-of-the-art concrete forensics technology, this new model will be particularly well adapted to the prediction of the performance of Naval waterfront concrete structures. The model will also have an economic impact analysis module to evaluate various repair options and assess cost in life-cycle terms. The key deliverable under the work in Phase I will be the elaboration of the structure of this new model. Additional deliverables include review of existing Naval condition assessments and focused forensic investigations. As a result, the Navy will have specific modeling parameters to input into existing durability software. Annually, the toll paid for treatment or lost service due to destructive corrosion or other forms of concrete deterioration amounts to billions of dollars. It is common for structures to require costly repairs after only twenty years in service. This is particularly problematic considering that actual design service life expectations for U.S. Navy structures are extending to 100 years. The premature degradation of concrete structures jeopardizes Naval activities and therefore the readiness of the U. S. Navy. This comprehensive modeling and forensics approach will help the Navy and other government agencies design structures for longer service life and evaluate remediation strategies with confidence and assured readiness. The new durability software will also be useful to designers of highways, bridges, water/waste treatment facilities, parking structures, commercial and residential buildings. It is anticipated that successful commercialization of this model and approach to condition assessment will result in a new industry generating at least a hundred millions dollars per year in condition assessment and design revenues, and that it will revolutionize the military and construction industries' approach to procurement and remediation.

TECHNOVA CORPORATION
1232 Mizzen Drive
Okemos, MI 48864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 485-9583
Dr. Habibur Chowdhury
NAVY 02-050      Selected for Award
Title:Predictive Durability Model for Life Extension of Naval Waterfront Concrete
Abstract:The ultimate goal of the proposed project is to develop predictive durability models applicable to design, maintenance/repair and life-cycle cost analysis of concrete structures exposed to marine environments. Watefront concrete facilities are subject to a multitude of interacting damaging phenomena, including corrosion of steel reinforcement and deterioration of concrete under a host of chemical and physical effects (sulfate attack, aklai-silica reaction, salt crystallization, delayed ettringite formation, freeze-thaw, erosion, cation-exchange, etc.). The proposed Phase I research will: (1) develop theoretical principles and mechanistic models, in the context of a time-step approach, for deterioration of reinforced concrete in marine environments, and identify pertinent system and environmental parameters and quantifiable manifestations of damage; (2) collect field data to substatiate the limit states, and to assess the means and statistical distributions of the random variables built into the mechanistic models defining damage in terms of system and environmental parameters and time; (3) Employ the models to conduct reliability analysis of waterfront concrete structures in order to validate and refine the approach using historic data, and develop environmental models reflecting on the severity of marine exposures; and (4) transfer the predictive models and field data to industry modeling committees. Technova Corporation has formed a coalition with Construction Technology Laboratories, W.R. Grace, National Institute of Standards and Technology, UC Berkeley (Dr. Monteiro), Virginia Tech (Dr. Weyers) and Michigan State University (Dr. Soroushian) to implement the proposed project and transfer the outcomes to commercial markets. Concrete structures (including waterfront concrete facilities) form te backbone of our civilian and military infrastructure; aging and deterioration of these facilities represent a major burden on our economy. Development of predictive models and software systems for systematic consideration of durability issues in design and maintenance/repair of concrete structures would provide a rational basis to control the life-cycle cost of concrete facilities. The urgent need in this area has prompted joint industry/government/university activities, based on which new models and software systems (e.g., LIFE 365 and ConcLife) are emerging for durability analysis of concrete structures. Our project will generate predictive durability models and comprehensive field data to be incorporated into these emerging software systems in order to enhance their application to waterfront concrete structures.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Paul Koola
NAVY 02-051      Selected for Award
Title:Wave Carpet
Abstract:We propose to conceptualize and design a deep offshore wave-power floating system "Wave Carpet" that will Have overall low life cycle cost due to Integrated design, Be rapidly deployable, Be easier to maintain and have inherent reliability by design, And also ensure better steady power output from the randomly fluctuating input wave power source using built in energy storage and an internal electric grid. Independent of wave direction and ensures better short crested sea performances. Low power dynamically positioned device, Non-corrosive maintenance free hull design, Self-propulsion by advanced controls with minimal tug power. Use of device as a wave damper thereby sharing the cost of power generated. Once successful this concept will act as wave dampers to protect crucial offshore structures, aircraft carriers, MOB's etc. in addition to providing power. This dual power and damping nature of this device will make the cost of power attractive even in today's lop-sided costing for power from polluting sources. We also envision the wave carpet to be used for recreational purposes in the ocean like an ocean trampoline. The multi-functional use of this device should trigger private offshore firms and defense contractors to take a look at this design. We intend to sell of the design to those who want to mass-produce them.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. Edward M. Patton
NAVY 02-051      Selected for Award
Title:Dynamic Non-linear Interactions for Deep Water Wave Power Generation
Abstract:We propose a better way to extract usable electrical energy from deep water ocean waves, using a taut synthetic single-point mooring and keeping the generator below the surface, relatively motionless, while a surface float transmits the slow-moving high-magnitude wave force to it. This stands in stark contrast to shore-based or shallow water methods which are the most successful to date, but are inherently incompatible with rapid deployment or use in deep water. By placing the generator below the ocean surface and keeping it relatively motionless using a single-point mooring with a taut synthetic line, we can leverage inherent non-linearities in both the structure of the mooring and the synthetic mooring line material, tuning the dynamic response and extracting maximum energy from the waves. This concept lends itself especially well to SARA's MHD OWEC approach as demonstrated under a Phase I Navy SBIR last year, but can also be adapted to any system where a surface float is separated from a subsurface generator, with the latter intended to remain motionless. The result is both compact and highly deployable, and can be moved easily from one place to another by pulling up the single anchor. The proposed technology has numerous commercial and military applications, with the nearest term being provision of electrical power to remote ocean and coastal locations. In contrast to shore based or permanently mounted systems, this new approach offers the promise of rapid deployability in a compact and moveable system, and could eventually replace traditional fossil fueled portable generators for remote ocean locations, or along deep water shorelines.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORPORATION
Electro-Optic & Holography Div, 20600 Gramercy Pl
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Michael Piliavin
NAVY 02-052      Selected for Award
Title:Material Properties Synthesis and Neural Network Based Property Prediction
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel Neural Network Assisted Material Property Prediction (NNAMPP) software. This Windows-based software engine consists of modules to calculate electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, etc. Modularity will make it simple and easy to upgrade this tool for predicting the properties of materials before they are synthesized. The proposed NNAMPP software engine will consist of a kernel that will oversee the tasks performed for each type of property, a number of property analysis modules, each performing a distinct function, and a neural network select materials to synthesize that would have desired properties. The neural network will take the material properties as input, and work backward to material composition and synthesis. The NNAMPP engine will benefit the national welfare by synthesizing and predicting material properties of national importance such as flame resistance, toughness, and even superconduction. In Phase I we will develop and demonstrate a preliminary feasibility prototype NNAMPP software engine. Using the proposed NNAMPP, new materials can be synthesized for submarine hulls and spacecraft skins, superconductive cables, and spacecraft or submarine windows. Stronger materials will bring us lighter and stronger automobiles, and apparel and pharmacological synthesis can lead to new classes of medicines.

FASTVDO LLC
7150 Riverwood Dr.
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 442-6063
Dr. Pankaj Topiwala
NAVY 02-053      Selected for Award
Title:Characterize and Optimize ATR Performance for EO/IR Sensors
Abstract:This project will research and develop novel approaches to capture the edge information on targets in EO/IR imagery, using new decompositions. We will also develop innovative function-theoretic measures of activity. Faster, more robust target-processing of EO/IR imagery.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, #500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Jason Geng
NAVY 02-054      Selected for Award
Title:A High Depth of Field Omnidirectional Video Camera With Selective High Resolution Imaging Capability
Abstract:Although the current omnidirectional camera technology possesses the advantage of having a ultra-wide (hemispherical) field of view(FOV), the image resolution for a given object in the surrounding scene is lower than that acquired by a standard video camera. Number of pixels on a given video sensor is fixed. If the FOV is larger, the number of pixels allocated to a given size object will be inverse-proportionally smaller, resulting in a lower pixel counts for the object in the omnidirectional images. Furthermore, the depth of field (or rather lack of it) in the optical system design for the omnidirectional camera is also an issue of concern. Design methods that attempt to achieve higher depth of field have always been a compromise of the image sharpness in both the close-up and the far-field distances. The primary objective of this SBIR program is to overcome the drawbacks of existing omnidirectional video camera techniques, and to design and demonstrate a novel omnidirectional video camera concept, dubbed as the Super-OmniEye, that is able to provide both ultra-wide FOV of the dynamic scene and selective high-resolution video images for the object of interest (OOI). Furthermore, the Super-OmniEye employs a special optical design thus the high depth of field performance can be achieved. The commercial and military markets for the technology to be developed under this SBIR are obviously sizable. In military arena, the proposed Super-OmniEye systems can be used in battlefield visualization, remote manipulation in hazardous environments, situational awareness, surveillance and monitoring. Commercial applications include surveillance and security monitoring public and private facilities in US, from airports, schools, universities, Government facilities, corporations, and sport events.

VISION TECHNOLOGY,INC.
1808 Foxborough Ct.
Champaign, IL 61822
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 398-0161
Mr. John Hart
NAVY 02-054      Selected for Award
Title:High Depth-of-Field Panoramic Video Acquisition and Analysis of Dynamic Scenes
Abstract:This project is aimed at investigating the feasibility of the design of a family of versatile new image sensors. A typical such sensor can (i) have an infinite depth of field, (ii) provide a panoramic images of up to 360-degree wide visual fields, (iii) provide an estimate of the depth of each visible point in the scene, (iv) preserve the image resolution across the panoramic image, and (v) image a dynamic scene, and (vi) offers a trade off between cost and performance measured in terms of the quality of focus (resolution of the depth of field), reliability of depth estimates and the width of the visual field. A progressive design that will offer 5 such tradeoffs will be investigated. Two designs add new capabilities to a prototype developed under a previous SBIR award and being commercialized by a major company. Two additional designs examine the feasibility of a new approach to further extend the capabilities. The feasibility of the final design, which provides all aforementioned capabilities in a single system, is proposed as an option along with the analysis of the acquired images for object motion detection and estimation, and 3D modeling. All proposed designs appear integrable and commercially viable Imaging pervades all walks of everyday life - business, industry, education and homes alike. Since the proposed new imaging technology will introduce hitherto unavailable capabilities as well as lead to significant strides in existing capabilities, it is expected to have a major commercial impact. Potential Commercial Applications include: Surveillance of buildings, compounds, homes and stores; Wide-scene studio photography; Outdoor nature photography; Endoscopic and neurosurgery; Television broadcasting; 3D scene modeling; 3D object modeling for computer aided manufacturing; Virtual reality using omnifocused 3D display; Advertising; Visual art; Monitoring of hazardous environments; Visualization; Interactive video games.

NANONEX CORPORATION
7 FOULET DRIVE
PRINCETON, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 683-3973
Dr. Linshu Kong
NAVY 02-055      Selected for Award
Title:Nanoimprint Lithography of Parallel Patterning of Nanoscale Magenetoelectronic Devices
Abstract:The goal of the project is to develop nanoimprint lithography based fabrication processes for low-cost, parallel patterning of magnetic device structures of a size below 50 nm feature size. In particular, nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and reactive ion etching (RIE) of nanoscale rectangles and hollow cylinders in insulators will be studied. A variety of NIL masks will be fabricated using electron-beam lithography and RIE. NIL processes, resists and machines will be investigated to make them suitable to meet the particular needs of fabrication of nanomagnetoelectronic devices. A variety of reactive ion etching (RIE) recipes will be explored to ensure the high-fidelity etching of these nanoscale structures. Several key technical personnel of Nanonex Corporation are former post-docs and graduate students of Prof. Chou of Princeton University's group, and are experts in nanofabrication, particularly NIL, RIE, and nanomagnetic structures. Professor Chou will serve as a consultant to the proposed project. The success of the proposed project will present a significant step forward in fabricating nanoscale magneto-electronic devices. Such devices are essential to many Navy and other military hardwires. The fabrication technology can also benefit other nanostructures needed in military and civilian applications.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.)
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-9217
Mr. John M. Anderson
NAVY 02-055      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra-scaleable Vertical Transport GMR Devices
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal, "Ultra-scaleable Vertical Transport GMR Devices," addresses the need for ultra-submicron Giantmagnetoresistive (GMR) cells in high-density nonvolatile MRAM. The Navy particularly displays need for this technology in their vertical memory effort. Issues that complicate submicron memory cells are twofold. First, is the need to pattern magnetic devices at, or below, the limits of projected semiconductor processes. Second, and most critical, is that at the dimensions required for high-density MRAM, below 0.1 micron, thermal instability and thermal dissipation cause crippling failure rates. NVE proposes to resolve these issues by building ultra-submicron cells that take advantage of thermal dissipation. In addition, the program will investigate parallel processes to replace ebeam, which will become critical in Phase II development and Phase III production. Phase I technical objectives are (A) design thermally assisted test cells; (B) fabricate test cells using ebeam; (C) characterize the cells for functionality and to profile the process; and (D) outline a parallel fabrication process that will be employed in the Phase II development effort. The results of the Phase I effort will demonstrate ultra-submicron memory test cells and provide a path for prototype production in Phase II. Vertical MRAM is applicable in general ultra-dense, nonvolatile random-access memory, "inaccessible"or non-retrievable information storage applications, and as a potential hard disk replacement. NVE will benefit in the way of technology licensing and applying the technology to niche memory applications.

MEZZO SYSTEMS
LBTC, Rm d-102, South Stadium Dr.
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(225) 334-6394
Mr. Andrew B. McCandless
NAVY 02-056      Selected for Award
Title:Packaging and Thermal Management for kW/cm2 Microwave Amplifiers
Abstract:It is proposed to develop micro-jet cooling arrays (MJCA) to obtain high heat flux density cooling for microwave amplifiers. MJCA has advantages over existing technologies both in terms of the thermal load that it can remove and in terms of maintaining the junction temperature at acceptable levels. MJCA will be fabricated by the LIGA technique. The Phase I effort will demonstrate 100x100 array of micro-jets with diameters in the range of 100-400 microns. The Phase II effort will involve fabrication of a complete cooling cycle based on MJCA and testing of the developed system in a high power density system. Effective removal of waste heat from high power devices has applications in a large variety of military and commercial systems. The proposed thermal management system promises to result in a compact, low weight, and low cost heat removal system that would meet the heat removal needs of current and future generations of high power systems.

MICROENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2007 E. Fourth Plain Blvd.
Vancouver, WA 98661
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 694-3704
Dr. Reza Shekarriz
NAVY 02-056      Selected for Award
Title:High Heat Flux Cooling Module Rosette for Power Amplifier Thermal Solution
Abstract:MicroEnergy Technologies, Inc. (MicroET) proposes to demonstrate the feasibility and the major advantages of an innovative electronic cooling system with substrate-integrated ceramic (e.g., SiC) microchannels in which a ceramic nanoparticles suspension (i.e., SiC nanofluid coolant) is driven using a unique pumping approach to yield high intensity heat removal from the substrate. The particular thermal management system addresses the DoD requirements for cooling of power electronics where it is to be compatible with SiC and GaN based wide bandgap semiconductor microwave amplifiers. The heat transfer within the self-contained cooling module is high because of two key reasons, namely, high surface area of the microchannel surface geometry for efficient heat rejection to the coolant and very high heat transfer coefficients induced by the SiC nanofluid coolant. Combining these two effects is expected to produce heat rejection rates significantly higher than 1000 W/cm2 from the surface of the substrate to be cooled with pumping pressure drops of less than 1000 Pa (or less than 10 mW/cm2 of substrate surface area pumping power requirements) . In the proposed phase I work we intend to demonstrate a specific application of nanofluids where the morphology of the particles and the rheology of the mixture have major impact on the system performance. Based on our collective experience in thermal systems miniaturization, we believe SiC nanoparticles suspensions can be tailored to provide a unique opportunity for thermal management and enhanced heat transfer rates in high heat flux heat sinks and heat exchangers. The rosette microchannel arrangement and the particular method by which the fluid is pumped through the microchannels give rise to very low pumping power requirements while increasing the substrate surface temperature uniformity. The final product, high heat flux cooling module rosette, in addition to application in defense technologies, will have a significant commercial value to a broader industry, including the aerospace and space electronics manufacturers. Efficient distributed cooling will reduce the risk of system failure, increase system throughput, and reduce the complexity, size, and weight of the system.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Dr. Arthur J. Fortini
NAVY 02-056      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight, Low-Cost, High-Performance Heat Sink for High-Power Electronics
Abstract:A key design limitation of many current electronic systems is heat rejection. As microchips become ever more densely packed with greater quantities of components, the amount of heat generated per unit area likewise increases rapidly. As the junction temperatures within an electronic component increase, the reliability and useful lifetime of the device decrease rapidly, even silicon carbide (SiC) components. In this project, Ultramet proposes to model and fabricate a lightweight, low-cost, high-performance heat sink for actively cooled high-power SiC-based electronics. This new heat sink will utilize open-cell silicon carbide foam as its key component, which will act as a high thermal conductivity, high surface area cooling fin. Because silicon carbide has a higher thermal conductivity per unit weight than copper, and because the foam will have a useful surface area an order of magnitude greater than typical aluminum fin devices, the proposed device will greatly outperform the current devices and simultaneously provide a substantial weight savings. The perfect thermal expansion match between the advanced SiC-based electronic components and the heat sink will greatly simplify design issues. Ultramet will not only fabricate and test a SiC foam cold plate, but also model its performance at a fundamental engineering level. Commercial applications for advanced heat sinks for electronic components include military radar, military, civil, and commercial satellites, manned and unmanned spacecraft, military and commercial aircraft, and mainframe and even personal computers, to name just a few. With the rapid growth of the electronics industry and the ever-increasing power density of integrated circuits, the need for advanced electronic heat sinks will only increase.

NAVSYS CORPORATION
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Mr. Daniel Sullivan
NAVY 02-057      Selected for Award
Title:All-Weather Landmark Identification, Correlation, Geolocation, and Inertial Measurement Unit
Abstract:Under this proposed SBIR effort, NAVSYS will develop an integrated video and inertial sensor system design, capable of being used to provide a back-up navigation capability for a UAV in the event of GPS jamming. The system will be able to automatically perform landmark identification and tracking from the video imagery. The location of these landmarks extracted from the video imagery will be applied as video updates (VUPTs) to the on-board inertial navigation solution to reset the navigation error drift from the inertial sensors. Under the Phase I project, the video/navigation system operation will be prototyped and tested using a flight test data collected through a CRADA with the Air Force Academy. The design will heavily leverage our previous activities developing a video/inertial precision targeting system and also low cost GPS/inertial UAV avionics. In Phase I a design will be developed for a low cost, miniature video/inertial sensor and gimbal payload, to be built under the Phase II project, that will be suitable for installation on a small UAV. Market opportunities for this product exist for manned and unmanned aircraft guidance, unmanned ground vehicle guidance, in-building or underground navigation, and also to provide a video tracking capability for instrumenting flight tests. The video/navigation technology provides a robust navigation capability during periods where GPS is unavailable and can also provide precision target coordinates extracted from the sensor data.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC. (OKSI)
4030 Spencer St, Suite 108
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 371-4445
Dr. Nahum Gat
NAVY 02-057      Selected for Award
Title:Video-based autonomous navigation
Abstract:As a part of a precision agriculture project OKSI operates a suite of remote sensing sensors including multi-, hyperspectral, thermal IR, and a color video, from a Cessna aircraft. In order to properly register and georeference the imagery OKSI has developed algorithmic tools for image registration to a landmark reference (e.g., satellite) image, and for platform attitude (roll pitch and yaw extraction). These tools can also address differences in brightness or illumination and seasonal changes in the scene. In Phase-I we will use our sensors to acquire flight data under various environment conditions including day/night and different terrain types. We will use satellite imagery from OKSI's archives to test the robustness of the algorithms in image georegistration, and platform attitude determination. A miniaturized low cost flight sensor package will then be designed for use on board a UAV down to the size of SWARM. The experience gained in recent years through OKSI's precision agriculture project will be used to develop "autonomous video based navigation system" for use under denial of GPS conditions. Similarly, enhancements in the technology will be used by OKSI to further its remote sensing in precision farming business opportunities.

ACULIGHT CORPORATION
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Mark S. Bowers
NAVY 02-058      Selected for Award
Title:High Energy, Modular, Long Pulse Laser
Abstract:The Advanced Integrated Warfare System (AIEWS) will require a high-energy, long-pulse laser that emits wavelengths in the visible to near infrared for optical countermeasures of anti-ship missiles. To meet this future Navy need, Aculight Corporation proposes an affordable and modular diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser that is frequency converted to the visible and near infrared. This modular approach provides the required pulse energy and temporal pulse width by beam combination of multiple, moderate-pulse-energy laser modules. This concept allows for nearly complete coverage in the 425-800 nm wavelength range. The output spectrum can be tailored over this entire wavelength range, making counter-countermeasures on the threat impractical. In the Phase I, analysis and breadboard experiments will be performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the modular laser concept. Results from the Phase I will be used in the option task to design the laser modules that will be built in the Phase II. The proposed affordable, diode-pumped, solid-state laser module has commercial applications in a variety of material processing applications.

LIGHT AGE INCORPORATED
2 Riverview Drive
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 563-0600
Dr. Bruce Boczar
NAVY 02-058      Selected for Award
Title:High Energy, Long Pulse Laser (Multispectral line long pulse solid state laser)
Abstract:The objective of the proposed effort is to demonstrate feasibility for a high power multi-wavelength long pulse (0.5-10 microsecond) visible to near IR laser system. The system will provide high power output simultaneously at multiple wavelengths suitable for countermeasure applications. The output will be nearly impossible to filter because it will be more than three wavelengths simultaneously and at high power. The underlying technology could also be tailored in the future to provide on-the-fly dynamic wavelength changes. The proposed a solid state system has an alexandrite laser to deliver a few Joules output at 750 nm. A proprietary Raman converter generates 1 micron light (Stokes) and other visible (anti-Stokes) wavelengths. The Stokes output is frequency doubled to provide high power green/yellow outputs at about 560 nm. This program integrates three proprietary technologies that Light Age has utilized in its custom commercial laser sources: high energy alexandrite laser output; pulse stretching to produce hard to reach 0.5 to 5 ms pulse durations; and high power Raman converters. Elements of the system and the basic technology developed herein will address diverse commercial needs having specific application to certain state of the art medical procedures. The technology that will be developed under this program will be very important to a number of commercial fields today and in the future. It is particularly important to certain medical applications. Given our approach to addressing the stated need, we will develop a long pulse duration multi wavelength solid state laser (SSL) technology. Today there are a variety of very good tunable SSL sources but they unfortunately are limited to pulse durations in the sub-20 ns temporal regime. There are several medical applications that require significant peak and average powers delivered endoscopically in order to be efficacious. However, nanosecond class lasers with high pulse energies can not be easily coupled to small optical fibers and endoscopes. Applications in cardiology, thrombolysis, ophthalmology, lithotripsy and cancer diagnostics would benefit from this technology. In addition, a high pulse energy, long pulse, three color laser would find use the field of three color holography. Recently Light Age has also played a role in making a laser for the fabrication of carbon nanotubes. Single walled nanotubes, which are an integral part of new hydrogen fuel cells under development, fabrication can be better controlled using a adjustable pulse width using Light Age pulse stretched alexandrite laser with pulses 0.5 ms to 5 ms. This field although in its infancy and impossible to predict a market may lead to many technological breakthroughs.

WEBB RESEARCH CORPORATION
82 Technology Park Drive
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 548-2077
Mr. Douglas C. Webb
NAVY 02-059      Selected for Award
Title:A New, Autonomous, Current, Temperature and Salinity Profiler for Storm Conditions
Abstract:A new instrument, capable of measuring repeated profiles of ocean currents during hurricanes and severe storms, is proposed. Our understanding of ocean and atmosphere dynamics during severe storms is handicapped in part by a lack of instruments and deployment techniques suitable for this severe environment. The joining of two proven technologies is described. Horizontal velocity of seawater can be determined by measurement of electric currents induced in the water as it moves through the earth's magnetic field. We propose to integrate this proven sensor technology with a mature autonomous ocean profiling instrument, the APEX (Autonomous Profiling Explorer), of which over 400 units have been built. The APEX vehicle can be deployed before or during a storm, from ships or C130 aircraft. APEX is certified by US DOD for deployment from C130 aircraft, and has been deployed by this method in the Atlantic Ocean and Red, Japan, Mediterranean, and South China seas. The technology is also applicable to numerous other ocean measurement programs and the platform design is suitable for additional sensor systems. Improved understanding of storm dynamics will benefit storm forecasters, Naval and commercial ship operations, coastal communities and the insurance and offshore petroleum industry. Navy operational environmental assessment, using input from a covert platform, could be enhanced. The instrument would perform several hundred vertical cycles, measuring subsurface horizontal velocity, and temperature-salinity profiles. Bi-directional data telemetry via satellite, and GPS locations, occur during brief surface intervals. The vehicle spends most of its life below the surface, safe from wave damage. Improved understanding of storm dynamics will benefit storm forecasters, naval and commercial ship operations, coastal communities and the insurance and offshore petroleum industry. Navy operational environmental assessment, using input from covert platforms, could be enhanced. The instrument can be programmed for a very wide range of applications other than storm conditions and could become a useful addition to the inventory of tools of many oceanographers. More sensors are likely to be added and the utility of autonomous profilers, already in widespread use, could be further enhanced. Measurement of currents and other environmental variables in inaccessible sites is made possible. The inaccessibility may be due to ice cover or uncooperative territorial situations.

FOSTER-MILLER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
431 New Karner Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 456-9919
Dr. Hsiang Ming Chen
NAVY 02-060      Selected for Award
Title:Compact, High Density Energy Storage Devices
Abstract:A reliable bearing system is key to the success of any flywheel energy storage system. The bearings must consume little power and provide proper stiffness and damping properties so that the rotor can achieve stable high-speed operation without critical speed or resonance problems. Development of an innovative all-active magnetic suspension system is proposed for retrofit and proof-of-concept testing in an existing flywheel energy storage system. The improvements offered by this suspension system include more damping to avoid structural resonance as well as lower power loss and wear. Longer service life and the potential for higher speeds and more power are additional benefits. Phase II will refine and further test flywheels with the new suspension system, and address additional system-level requirements, including packaging to reduce overall system size and weight. The end result will be a flywheel energy storage system that meets or exceeds the goals of 50 kW over 10 sec in a compact, energy dense package. This system will provide the Navy with a proven means of adapting commercially available energy storage technology for its unique and often low-volume needs. From powering orbiting satellites during their traverse of the earth's shadow to accelerating cars and buses, there is a ubiquitous need for efficient storage of electrical energy for rapid on-demand delivery. A high-speed flywheel energy storage system is one of the most promising technologies to meet this need. The Navy has many similar applications that range from launching aircraft to powering swimmer delivery vehicles. In addition to marine applications, the aerospace and land-based power quality markets hold significant commercial potential for a reliable, compact, high-density energy storage device.

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0520
Dr. Badawi Dweik
NAVY 02-060      Selected for Award
Title:High Performance, Lower Cost Electrochemical Capacitors for the Navy's Deployable, Long-Endurance Acoustic Source Device Application
Abstract:Electrochemical Capacitors (EC) with low cost, high performance and low equivalent series resistance (ESR) are needed to develop a wide range of military, space, and industrial applications. The primary objective of this project is to develop a high energy density, high power density, all-solid polymer electrolyte EC stack whose ESR and cost are substantially reduced. Innovative low-cost highly conductive solid electrolyte membrane and electrode materials will be utilized in order to reduce the cost and the ESR of the EC. The specific innovative concept is the development of a repeating capacitor element, based on the use of a highly conductive metal oxide particulate, unitized with a low-cost, low-resistance, highly conductive thin proton-exchange membrane electrolyte, to provide a high-energy-density, high-power-density EC device. This innovation is based on Giner, Inc.'s extensive knowledge in electrode materials and solid polymer electrolyte processing. This proposed EC stack, which targets the Navy's application for a deployable, long-endurance acoustic source represent more than a 60% volume and weight reduction compared to the current state of the art ultracapacitor technology. The advantages of the proposed EC design includes long life, small size, high power density, and the extension to be used in many other applications. The EC to be developed during the proposed program may be used in a number of different applications, particularly those that require short-duration, high-energy-density, high-power-density devices. Potential adopters include the Navy (active sonar pulses and burst speed power for surface and submerged vehicles), the Army (electric guns and kinetic﷓energy weapons), industry (electric vehicle and load leveling), and space applications (power conditioning systems and components for space missions).

SCHAFER CORPORATION
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 447-0555
Mr. John Mead
NAVY 02-060      Selected for Award
Title:Super-capacitor Energy Storage System for Compact High Power Applications
Abstract:Ocellus Technologies has developed an integrated approach for the application of double-layer capacitors. Starting with the application's power and energy specifications and using its novel conformal electrode design, Ocellus will develop a complete integrated energy storage systems optimized for the given sonar application's weight and volume constraints. Integration issues such as power conversion and system protection are addressed during the packaging and capacitor design process. Ocellus Technologies uses nano-scale carbon foams that have a continuous porosity and a very high surface area per volume making them ideal for double-layer capacitor designs. These nano-scale foams can be extruded, formed and shaped to produce conformal electrode designs to meet a variety of volume and environmental constraints. They are manufactured using processes that achieve greater efficiency, lower cost and additional utility. Under this Phase I proposal a conformal electrode design optimized for an organic electrolyte will be constructed and tested. The electrode will be designed to scale into a prototype energy storage system for a 50kW, 10 second pulse Low Frequency Acoustic Source application. The project will address integration issues related to double-layer capacitor applications specifically looking at mechanical packaging designs, power conversion options, and voltage balancing of cell stacks. There are several needs for short-duration, high-power energy storage devices in such applications as hybrid electrical vehicles, active sonar, power-quality ride through, and load-leveling in fuel cells and micro-turbines. By combining low power energy sources with these high power energy storage systems, reductions can be made in cost, overall weight, and volume within the complete system and performance improvements can be made in duty cycle and cycle life. The integrated design approach developed under Phase I of this proposal is scaleable to meet energy needs ranging from small energy applications such as smart munitions to large power applications such as sonar pulsing.

ARTIUM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
150 West Iowa Avenue, Suite 101
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 737-2364
Dr. William D. Bachalo
NAVY 02-061      Selected for Award
Title:Development of an airborne integrated phase Doppler interferometer/imaging probe for accurate cloud droplet size distribution measurement
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal seeks to investigate the feasibility of developing an optical probe based on phase Doppler interferometry (PDI) for reliable and accurate measruement of the cloud droplet size distribution from airbonre platforms. The key features of this device are high accuracy and precision droplet sizing, large dynamic range, accurate concentration measurement throughout the entire instrument dynamic range, very low coincidence errors, and large counting volume. The other key featues of the proposed instrument are: low cost, low power consumption, compactness, and real-time data monitoring and transmission to ground-based facilities. Additionally, we propose to also investigate the feasibility of simultaneous (in the same view volume) discrimination of ice crystals from water drops, and subsequent imaging of these particles. The integration of the imaging probe with a phase-Doppler system will permit measurement of both spherical and non-spherical particles. This instrument package represents a significant improvement over past cloud droplet measurement devices, and thereby directly addresses the need for atmospheric instruments/sensors that the Navy has identified in topic N02-61 of the FY2002 SBIR solicitation. Clouds are a very important component of the climate system because of their effects on longwave and shortwave radiation, atmospheric heat, moisture, and mass transport, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry. Clouds and feedback mechanisms associated with them are widely acknowledged as one of the key uncertainties in understanding climate and future climate prediction. A thorough understanding of clouds is also critical for weather prediction. Quantitative precipitation forecasting is one of the primary focus areas for the US Weather Research Program. The development of a suitable cloud probe will therefore have immense scientific value. Besides clouds, there are wide ranges of applications for an instrument that can characterize sprays and droplet fields over a wide size range. The immediate goal of producing a probe for measuring icing clouds and other cloud drop size distributions has a limited but adequate market potential. The obsolescence of the PMS probes has left a market opportunity for new probes based on advanced technology. There are also significant applications requiring an imaging probe for process evaluation and control. For example, in spray drying, the usual light scattering methods fail because the drops are not transparent or homogeneous. In such cases, an imaging system is the best method to use since it is not affected by the peculiarities of the droplet material. Another area deals with research in fire suppression systems used in commercial buildings. A system is needed to characterize sprays from sprinklers and to help develop these systems. No system exists for these applications whereas the number of spray drying processes including food processing, drug manufacturing, and other industrial processes is enormous. One of the complaints about the PDI method is that it cannot cover the entire drop size range in many sprays and that the larger nonspherical drops can produce significant measurement error.

MSP CORPORATION
1313 Fifth St., SE
Minneapolis, MN 55414
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 379-3963
Dr. William Dick
NAVY 02-061      Selected for Award
Title:Single-Particle, Angular Light-Scattering Apparatus for Aircraft Sampling
Abstract:The objective of MSP's three-phase SBIR program is to design and build a state-of-the-art Multi-Angle Light-Scattering Spectrometer integrated with a high performance inlet and sampling system for accurate in-flight particle monitoring. The system would be kept small in physical size by the use of solid-state lasers and photo-detectors. By combining the compact Aerosol Size Spectrometer with a state-of-the-art inlet and sampling inlet, a small aircraft sampling system with superior performance can be obtained. In the Phase I project, several design alternatives will be investigated, and several novel features will be demonstrated experimentally. In Phase II, we will build a working instrument, based on the best design options elucidated in Phase I. In further Phase III work, commercial instruments will be made available for aircraft sampling and other applications. The aircraft sampling system would substantially increase the ability of the aerosol research community to contribute to questions of national defense and global climate change. In addition, the resulting aerosol spectrometer would assist civil authorities with their anti-terrorism response planning and could also be used for industrial hygiene monitoring.

SEQUOIA SCIENTIFIC, INC.
Westpark Technical Center, 15317, NE 90th St.
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 867-2464
Dr. Yogesh Agrawal
NAVY 02-061      Selected for Award
Title:Four Dimensional (4-D) Atmospheric Instrumentation
Abstract:We are proposing an airborne version of our LISST-series laser diffraction particle sensors for measuring cloud droplet properties. The instrument will be configured as an aircraft borne device, though an ultra-low weight version for balloon-sonde applications is also possible. The device measures concentration in 32 log-spaced size classes. It will be self-contained, with laser and electronics enclosed in a single package, to be mounted below an aircraft wing. The size-range of interest is 1.2-250 microns. The concentration range of interest is from 0.1-1000 micro-liter of water/meter^3 of air. The principal task of this proposal is to advance the achievable sensitivity of the laser diffraction device. A laboratory set up is to be constructed. The device is needed as a lower-cost alternative to present day sensors that are used for research on cloud dynamics .

PRAXIS, INCORPORATED
2200 Mill Road, 5th Floor
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 837-8400
Mr. R. Jack Chapman
NAVY 02-062      Selected for Award
Title:Ocean Data Telemetry Microsat Link
Abstract:Current communications relay satellite systems do not meet validated needs for global ocean observing system data collections. A complete system architecture, including the network for providing access between the data providers and users, and the system for managing the data generated in both real-time and delayed-mode, has yet to be developed. Global ocean observing system data collections require a low-cost, robust solution using bi-directional delay-tolerant messaging capable of providing internet-like services. The proposed work would enable a robust, cost-effective two-way (space-to-ground and ground-to-space) communication relay system with significant increases in collected data from autonomous platforms. Primary is a two-way delay-tolerant messaging capability providing internet-like services on a global basis. Enablers include increased signal-to-noise at the satellite via coding, a bi-directional software radio, and a store-and-forward overlay network used in a manner similar to e-mail. The proposed microsatellite architecture will allow evolution and expansion for future sensors, and it decouples autonomous platforms from future space segment system upgrades. The system could be deployed as a mix of stand-alone microsatellites and secondary payloads aboard host space vehicles. The work proposed in this SBIR is the first step toward the development of a cost-effective space-qualified Communications Relay Payload to meet the DoD and Civil Sector needs for a real-time Integrated Ocean Observing System. Key government agencies that can further benefit from the commercialization of the communications relay and microsatellite technology concepts include: DoD laboratories, research organizations, and program offices that are developing next-generation sensor and network-centric systems; DoD organizations that are deploying sensors in rugged environments and remote locations, including portable or mobile applications; and DoD and government agencies that are deploying sensor networks for applications such as environmental monitoring, surveillance, security, machine monitoring, and battlefield awareness.

WAVIX, INCORPORATED
8100 Professional Place, Suite 205
Landover, MD 20785
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 459-6682
Dr. Jeffrey N. Shaumeyer
NAVY 02-062      Selected for Award
Title:Ocean Data Telemetry Microsat Link
Abstract:Despite careful planning, one extremely critical aspect of oceanographic data collection has been neglected. Although it is now possible to deploy thousands of oceanographic data collection platforms that can collect prodigious amounts of data for relatively little money, there is no practical, timely way to get all that data from those remote platforms to researchers. The oceanography community has tacitly assumed that by the time they needed satellite communications for their data collection programs, a number of commercial systems would be in place to choose from. The fallacy of that assumption is suddenly very clear with the bankruptcy of nearly every satellite communication company that made it so far as having satellites in orbit. This proposal lays out the first phase of a plan for the concept, design, and development of a satellite communication system that is specifically targeted to the needs of the oceanographic community. In this phase we propose to update our awareness of the needs of the oceanographic community, develop a current set of system requirements, and with that input, develop an end-to-end satellite communication system concept. This concept will comprise the proposed constellation, satellite hardware subsystems, communications protocols, ground systems infrastructure, and ocean platform hardware. The size of the market for oceanographic data retrieval is relatively small, with potential users counted in thousands. This is the main reason there are no satellite systems that fully address the needs of this market. Wavix has developed a business plan that allows us to profitably serve this niche market at very affordable prices. There are other niche markets that such a system can serve that, when aggregated, become a significant opportunity. There is a high demand world-wide for inexpensive data transmission services. By dropping the price for such services many new markets will begin to open such as providing inexpensive e-mail and data services on ships for crew and passengers and Arctic, Antarctic, and other remote locations of scientific research. A satellite system designed to serve oceanographic research can easily accommodate these additional niche markets.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4188
Dr. Patrick Henning
NAVY 02-063      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Lubricant Quality Monitoring Using Optical Computing
Abstract:As a leader in sensor development for online oil condition based maintenance, Foster-Miller is pleased to respond to the Office of Naval Research's call for a low cost online lubricant condition sensor system. We presently have one of the few demonstrated capabilities for online oil monitoring with our commercially available Oil Condition Monitor (OCM). We developed this unique, "wedge" spectrometer since filter-based IR systems have limited ability to do comprehensive analysis in a simple package. For this proposed effort, Foster-Miller proposes to use emerging innovations in the field of optical computing to develop a lower cost sensor which can provide comprehensive oil analysis online. The proposed sensor will have the ability to convolute a multitude of lubricant properties simultaneously and provide an instant measure of overall lubricant quality. The successful demonstration of this innovative approach to oil condition monitoring will result in a small, robust, low-cost system which will significantly expand the application platforms for continuous online monitoring. (P-020172) A sensor which can monitor the status of several condition properties simultaneously but which is at the same time small, robust, and low-cost is a continuing challenge. Optical computing provides the potential to break the trade-off cycle between more information and larger size and cost of instrumentation. Such a sensor would have broad application in military and industrial lubricant monitoring arenas, and significantly accelerate condition-based maintenance program proliferation in both sectors.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-6273
Mr. Carl Byington
NAVY 02-063      Selected for Award
Title:Broadband Impedance Spectroscopy Sensor for Real-time In-situ Analysis of Fluid System Health
Abstract:Impact Technologies LLC, in collaboration with the Penn State Applied Research Laboratory, proposes to develop and demonstrate a fluid quality monitoring system based upon broadband impedance spectroscopy. The approach described herein includes prototype sensor design, signal processing, electrochemical property evaluation, and oil quality feature analysis combined with automated reasoning and prediction algorithms. Oil quality measurements are based on additive depletion, oxidation, thermal breakdown, or other physical/chemical properties changes. Research indicates that these changes are detectable through the analysis of the oil's bulk response to a broadband alternating current input. Preserving the phase and amplitude of the response and identifying specific features allows the classification of oil properties and relative changes. The automated reasoning will be designed to identify viscosity, water content, acid number, and additive package changes as well as predict the future values based upon a rate of degradation. This proposed sensing system will significantly improve the state of on-line oil analysis by providing inexpensive, robust measurements of oil quality parameters. With the integration of this sensor-diagnostic package to monitor the condition of fuels, lubricants, coolants, and hydraulic fluids into to condition monitoring systems there exists great potential to increase readiness, reliability, and mission assurance for platform machinery systems. The oil quality monitoring system will be developed using laboratory test stand evaluations described in the facilities section of the proposal. A commercially available, laboratory grade instrument will be used to validate and verify the oil quality parameters predicted by the system. A demonstration of the prototype hardware will be presented at the end of Phase I. Plans for the evaluation of subsequent Phase II prototypes on a variety of potential test platforms are also provided within the proposal. The proposed oil sensor system could be implemented in a wide range of military as well as commercial applications in the propulsion, prime mover and power transmission arena. Within the DoD, land vehicles, shipboard systems and aircraft could benefit from improved in-situ sensing of fluid properties and degradations. The developed technologies could also be applied to commercial land and water vehicle drive systems, industrial actuation systems, fluid power transmissions, and robotic applications. By providing an on-line assessment of fluid condition, health management systems will be able to provide better inferences on a platform's ability to complete a mission. More accurate predictions of current and future state can also reduce costly inspection routines and premature replacements by using a risk-based, maintenance optimization technique (Condition-based Maintenance, CBM). The end benefits of the CBM and integrated health management approach is a reduction of total ownership costs, increased readiness, and improved safety.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Michael A. White
NAVY 02-063      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Methods for Real-time in situ Analysis of Lubricants, Coolants, Hydraulic Fluids, and Fuels for Condition Based Maintenance
Abstract:A novel three-stage optical multi-sensor for condition monitoring of working fluids is proposed. This device combines several detection modalities developed by Physical Sciences Inc. into a compact, powerful tool for acquiring quantitative information on the status of a fluid. The proposed device will measure particulate contamination concentration and morphology, including information on the particulate size, shape and iron content. Simultaneously, spectral features of the fluids, contaminants, and additives will be measured using proven laser absorption spectroscopy techniques. The resulting multi-sensor will provide a robust and reliable monitoring system to be installed in-line with fluid flow systems to provide a detailed look into the "blood chemistry" of machines. This system will allow real-time monitoring and alarm based on each species of contaminant as well as a combined diagnosis of the probability of failure and performance degradation. If the proposed project succeeds through Phases I, II, and III, then a robust new technology will be available to the military for facilitating the detection of particulate and dissolved chemicals in working fluids. While the current proposal is aimed at the expressed Navy need in reference to condition-based maintenance, it is likely that this technology will find widespread application to non-military mechanical systems as well. Industrial producers may utilize the techniques described to automate refinery operations, and the techniques may find applications that cannot yet be envisioned. These applications could include virtually any liquid process where low-probability mechanical failure constitutes a serious problem.

FERRO SOLUTIONS
204 Norfolk Street
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 838-8298
Mr. Jiankang Huang
NAVY 02-064      Selected for Award
Title:A Novel Vibration Energy Scavenging (VES) System
Abstract:Ferro Solutions proposes to develop a novel Vibration Energy Scavenging System (VES) for naval applications. The technology behind the proposed VES takes advantages of our novel high-sensitivity, passive magnetic electroactive sensors (PME). . This vibration energy scavenging system will have the advantages of high-output voltage; efficiently work to varying vibration condition and easy implementation for a variety of output requirement. The development and engineering of relaxor piezoelectric single crystals and magnetostrictive materials make it possible to provide low-cost, and high-sensitivity, passive magnetic electroactive sensors (PME). The sensor is the core of the vibration energy scavenging system. There has been much demand in recent years for energy scavenging systems for wireless sensor networks. These wireless sensor networks include detection of cracks, corrosion, and impact damage to buildings, bridges, underground structures, ships, submarines, aircrafts and engines. It is imperative that the energy source last the lifetime of the sensors they power.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4188
Dr. Patrick Henning
NAVY 02-064      Selected for Award
Title:Energy Scavenging Resonator for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to develop a novel self-optimizing energy scavenging device for condition-based maintenance applications specifically targeted to engine condition monitoring sensors. The device will be able to generate up to 10 mW of DC power for online sensors and wireless CBM network nodes in the vicinity of a diesel engine. The device will scavenge energy from the intrinsic vibrations in the engine and have the ability to tune itself for optimal power output at any engine speed. A novel electrical generator based on a mechanical resonator will be developed that produces power via electromagnetic induction. Initial calculations show that a 10 mW generator can be built within a 2.5  2.5  0.5 cm3 enclosure. Additional space of comparable size is required for up to 10 J of energy storage and power conditioning electronics. The phase I program will investigate the vibration spectrum of diesel engines and design the resonator system to exploit existing vibration energy sources with a goal of producing 5 mW of DC power and store 5 J. Phase II will expand the development of the energy scavenger, upgrade the design to produce 10 mW and develop the processes necessary for limited manufacture and field testing. (P-020234) The proposed energy scavenging system will enable autonomous operation of engine condition-based monitoring and data transmission systems and reduce the complexity of under-hood power distribution. The energy scavenging system will also enable higher reliability and redundancy by distributing power generation sources to provide engine monitoring capability in the event of electrical system failure.

RLW, INC.
1346 South Atherton Street
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 975-2210
Ms. Susan E. George
NAVY 02-064      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Energy Scavenging System for Condition-Based Maintenance
Abstract:RLW and Rockwell Automation propose to develop and demonstrate an adaptable, power scavenging device able to generate a minimum of 5mW of power and store 5J of energy. All viable energy sources and transduction methodologies for the CBM environment will be evaluated. Three will be built to scavenge mechanical energy using piezo-electric technology, mechanical energy using magnet and coil generation, and visible light using photovoltaic cells. The device will adapt to diverse energy sources and operating conditions and be scaleable to larger power and energy levels. Demonstration will occur in the Phase I Option period to explore the limits of power generation potential as a function of operating environment. A substantial portion of the effort will go toward establishing viable application scenarios for the application of CBM2 using self-powered wireless smart sensors and the results of analyzing those scenarios will inform the design and scaling concepts. CBM2 enabled by truly wireless smart sensors has extensive applicability to all branches of the services and all industries. RLW envisions broad commercial appeal when the technology proposed matures into product matched with our ongoing smart wireless sensor development.

AZTEX, INC.
360 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5506
Ms. Constance Magee
NAVY 02-065      Selected for Award
Title:Metal Truss X-Cor Structures for Marine Expeditionary Fighting Vehicles
Abstract:Aztex has developed an open cell periodic metal truss structure, Metal Truss X-Cor, as a multi-functional alternative to metallic honeycomb and stochastic cellular metal structures currently under consideration for the Marine Expeditionary Family of Fighting Vehicles (MEFFV). This all-metal structure can offer to maximize the efficiency of a metal truss design by employing defect free, wrought metal wires or tubing into a straight pin truss array. This array of pins can be bonded to metal facesheets using a Transient Liquid Phase process (TLP). The key to this approach is to provide an open cell multi-functional structure with excellent corrosion resistance, damage tolerance, structural stiffness, and weight savings in excess of 75%. In this program, Aztex and Princeton University propose to adapt an existing Aztex core technology, X-CorT, used for polymer composite structures in military aircraft. The structural performance of X-CorT material is comparable to aluminum honeycomb with the added benefit of corrosion resistance and damage tolerance. By adapting this baseline technology to all-metal structures, it will be possible to extend proven aerospace technology to the harsh environment of expeditionary vehicles using inexpensive materials and processes. Currently available metal core structures include honeycomb, metal foams, periodic metal structures from textiles and formed perforated metals. Honeycomb is the most common and inexpensive material but lacks damage tolerance and corrosion resistance. Metal foams are becoming more available in aluminum but potential weight reduction has not yet been realized. The periodic metal structures offer significant performance benefits and weight reduction when compared to metal foams due to the optimized design of the truss network. Aztex Metal Truss X-CorT technology provides a means to achieve an metal truss structure with existing technology which can expedite the development and reduce overall cost of the product. Metal Truss X-CorT technology is applicable not only to MEFFV structures but also to ship board components such as doors, hatches, and elevators.

CELLULAR MATERIALS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
3355 Free Union Road
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 548-2137
Dr. Shaw M. Lee
NAVY 02-065      Selected for Award
Title:Ultralight Woven Truss and Truss-core Cellular Metal Panels
Abstract:Ultra-lightweight high strength/high stiffness structural materials are needed for advanced military vehicles, such as the Marine Expeditionary Family of Fighting Vehicles (MEFFV). Cellular Materials International (CMI) proposes to develop and manufacture structural panel materials satisfying these criteria, suitable for corrosive marine environments, based on proprietary periodic cellular metals concepts. In particular, CMI will develop structural panels, based on woven metal textile and formed expanded metal truss cores, bonded to metallic face sheets. These materials will be 75 to 95% less dense than conventional (solid) structural panels of comparable mechanical performance. During Phase I of the proposed SBIR, CMI will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing of truss core and metal textile-based periodic cellular metal materials suitable for marine military vehicle applications. In addition to military applications, these ultralight, high performance structural materials will be attractive for a wide spectrum of commercial application; due to their low cost, coupled with light weight and excellent mechanical properties, they will be attractive for commercial shipbuilding, transportation and civil infrastructure. Further, the proposed manufacturing method is amenable to a wide variety of metallic materials, including ferrous, cuprous, nickel, aluminum and titanium-base alloys. The panels are also amenable to joining by conventional methods, including mechanical fasteners, brazing and welding. cost effective structural panels for Marine Expeditionary Family of Fighting Vehicles (MEFFV).

JONATHAN AEROSPACE MATERIALS CORP
JAMCORP, 17 Jonspin Rd.
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 988-0050
Mr. Jonathan Priluck
NAVY 02-065      Selected for Award
Title:MicroPerf Lattice Block Materials in Marine Expeditionary Vehicles
Abstract:JAMCORP proposes to develop MicroPerf Lattice Block Material using progressive coining dies to increase production rates above the current method of photolithography. MicroPerf is an octet truss based material with high strength to weight. MicroPerf is manufactured by attaching alternate layers of flat and corrugated sheet metal with much of the material removed. The layers are resistance welded forming a very stiff, very light sheet steel replacement. MicroPerf Lattice Block Material is a direct, high strength replacement for many sheet steel applications. By increasing the strength and stiffnees of sheet steel, MicroPerf will reduce the expense, complexity, and development time of the internal structures currently required in vehicles. Coining die production will yield a higher quality material at a lower cost per sheet of LBM.

ACOUSTECH CORPORATION
P. O. Box 139
State College, PA 16804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 867-2629
Mr. James A. McConnell
NAVY 02-066      Selected for Award
Title:Naval Device Applications of Relaxor Piezoelectric Single Crystals
Abstract:Acoustech proposes a Phase I study to develop an acoustic dyadic sensor using piezoelectric single crystals. The study combines theoretical and numerical modeling along with experimental data obtained from a pre-prototype unit to assess the feasibility of developing a full scale unit during Phase II for a surveillance application. Greater sensor directivity in a comparable or smaller sized package translates into greatly improved sensor performance.

ADVANCED CERAMETRICS, INC.
P.O. Box 128, 245 North Main Street
Lambertville, NJ 08530
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 397-2900
Dr. Ajmal Khan
NAVY 02-066      Selected for Award
Title:TRANSDUCERS FROM 1-3 COMPOSITES, MADE WITH ORIENTED PSEUDO SINGLE-CRYSTAL RELAXOR FERROELECTRIC FIBERS, FOR NAVY SONOBUOY APPLICATIONS
Abstract:Advanced Cerametrics, Inc. (ACI) has developed a technology to produce functional quantities of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) fibers with oriented pseudo single-crystal microstructures. These have been assembled into rudimentary composite transducers. They have also been used as seeds for larger diameter fibers to help promote templated growth for active fiber composites. This work arose, in part, from a Phase II SBIR (N00014-00-C-0188) nearing completion. The aim of that effort has been to develop a process to make the relaxor-based materials into fiber form and to assemble them into very basic functioning devices. The proposed work will build on the past work to provide devices specific to navy applications that utilize the high electromechanical coupling, d33 coefficient and strain properties of these new materials to advantage. In the Phase I effort ACI plans to fabricate and test the feasibility of constructing 1-3 composites made with oriented pseudo single-crystal fibers for use as transducers in sonobuoys. These novel transducers will have greater bandwidth, sensitivity and source levels versus current transducers while being low weight and since they are produced in an economically scalable process, cost effective. ACI intends to apply for the Phase II SBIR Fast Track. Commercial uses track Navy applications. Acoustic signal generation and reception with higher bandwidth and improved sensitivity has numerous applications ranging from musical reproduction and amplification to much improved medical ultrasound (imaging and wound healing). Active structural control is just beginning to use active fiber composites, but vibration reduction is as important to industry as it is to the military. These devices are viewed as much improved replacements for current state of the art piezoelectric composites.

BTECH ACOUSTICS
East Bay Office Complex, 1445, Suite 115
East Providence, RI 02915
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 245-2282
Dr. David A. Brown
NAVY 02-066      Selected for Award
Title:Naval Device Applications of Relaxor Piezoelectric Single Crystals
Abstract:We propose a directional, broadband, highly efficient underwater acoustic transducer using a baffled cylinder made out from piezoelectric single crystals. The prospective application areas will be for an underwater acoustic modem communication and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), in which high efficiency of the transducer system is required due to the limited energy availability (battery) and the size of the transducer needs to be sufficiently small to fit the relatively small housing space and delivery system. In a multi-user communication network, a directional transducer may be desired in order to focus the acoustic beam in a particular direction in order to reduce the interference of communication signals and to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The significance of this project will be the reduction of transducer dimension and broadening of operational frequency range by exploiting the low sound speed and high coupling coefficient of piezoelectric single crystals. The transducer must be small and broadband but highly efficient as it will be delivered with a A-size sonobuoy and will have limited battery energy. Utilization of piezoelectric single crystals will realize this smaller dimension, broaden the bandwidth and prolong the lifetime of the device in comparison with conventional piezoelectric materials e.g. PZT-4, PZT-5A or PZT-8. The Navy will gain a very broadband, leight weight directional source that is highly efficient

BTECH ACOUSTICS
East Bay Office Complex, 1445, Suite 115
East Providence, RI 02915
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 433-1100
Dr. David A. Brown
NAVY 02-066      Selected for Award
Title:Naval Device Applications of Relaxor Piezoelectric Single Crystals
Abstract:This proposal is for the development of a high sensitivity pressure gradient acoustic motion sensor (accelerometer) of the flexural plate type using piezoelectric single crystals. The pressure gradient acoustic motion sensor is based on flexural plate elements operating below resonance in the accelerometer mode. The high piezoelectric coefficients for single crystals is ideal for increasing the sensitivity and low frequency range of the proposed sensor. A three axis device with combined pressure sensor (hydrophone) is proposed to realize a "Vector Sensor" suitable to meet all performance goals of the Low Frequency Bow Array (LFBA) program. Variants of the proposed sensor are also applicable to conformal arrays, hull arrays, and seismic monitoring. Improved pressure gradient sensors of the fixed diffraction type are also demonstrated. The inherent problem for pressure gradient sensors with conventional materials is the lack of sensitivity at low frequencies. This application of single crystals (SCr) seems to be ideal in the sense that the material's beneficial properties are clearly exploited and its disadvantages are avoided. Thus, high coupling coefficient keff is exploited and the small sound velocity makes it possible to effectively use the trilaminar plate design with passive materials having a small Young's modulus for strain enhancement. The improved sensor may be used in a Low Frequency Bow Array (LFBA). Other applications include conformal arrays, hull arrays and vibrations sensing.

KCF TECHNOLOGIES, INC
119 S. Burrowes St., Suite #605
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 867-4097
Dr. Jeremy E. Frank
NAVY 02-066      Selected for Award
Title:High Torque Single-Crystal PMN-PT Driven Motor to Morph Naval Flow Control Surfaces
Abstract:High performance motors are in extreme demand for use in navy underwater flow applications. Specifically, compact motors are needed that are conformable to unusual shapes and sizes, and can deliver higher torque and power than a similarly sized EM motor. A direct-drive smart material motor will be developed with significant performance improvements over existing designs. The drastic improvements result directly from taking advantage of the special properties of single-crystal ferroelectrics. The main challenge to use piezoelectric materials as the driving engine for high force, high displacement actuators centers on motion amplification. This is because the micro-level displacements generated with today's conventional piezomaterial must be converted to macro-level displacements for the device to have practical applications. However, it is well accepted that any motion amplifier design is problematic. With the advent of the high strains observed in single crystals, these new materials can be used as the direct-driving element in mechanical diode motors, thus greatly simplifying the design and operation. In Phase I of this proposed effort, we will demonstrate the benefit of using single crystal stacks as driving engines for a new generation of smart material motors - more compact, more reliable (fewer moving parts) and with much higher torque and power density than existing designs. Initial commercialization efforts by KCF Technologies for the smart material motor will be in naval applications. After a Phase II demonstration, the technology will be transitioned into an actuator product sold to Naval contractors. Plans are in place to design and sell a contained fin actuator (incorporating the smart material motor) for the Anti-Torpedo Torpedo (ATT) propulsor. The actuator and controller will be packaged as a unit, allowing for maximal ease of integration. The enabling characteristic of the motor concept is its conformability, which allows us to match the motor shape to that of the fin application in a way not possible with conventional actuators. Looking forward, the technology promises high frequency response with high torque and power density while satisfying unique packaging challenges at low-to-reasonable costs. These features lend themselves to the following applications, among others: missile and torpedo fins, valve controls (e.g., STS O2 valve), aircraft braking, active surface controls (e.g., blended wing, surface flexure de-icing) and active armor protection. KCF Technologies is convinced that smart materials-based actuation will be important to their industry, and is prepared to invest in a future product line. Thus, the commercialization plan is to into the actuator supplier market in the ATT, and multiple airline applications.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS INC.
543 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Mr. James M. Glynn
NAVY 02-066      Selected for Award
Title:Solid State Converted Single Crystal Transducer Development for the MK 54 Torpedo Array
Abstract:A program to develop transducers incorporating solid-state converted transduction materials for the MK 54 Torpedo is proposed. The program addresses the need for a broadband, high power transducer that can be integrated with the MK 54. The program leverages several millions of dollars of DARPA investment in a pilot manufacturing process for solid state converted transduction materials with properties that approach those of single crystal transduction materials, but which can be fabricated at much lower cost. The Phase I program is directed towards developing a proof of concept transducer design for the MK 54 Torpedo and culminates with an in-water test. The test data shall be scaled to estimate the performance achievable in a full-scale device. The proposed program spans 6 months, with a three month program option. The proposed program shall demonstrate that transducers incorporating solid-state converted transduction materials can provide the performance needed to satisfy the demanding requirements of the US Navy MK54 Torpedo program. Successful completion of this program will result in a manufacturable transducer design that provides an upgrade path to the MK54 Torpedo in the 2005 timeframe.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS INC.
543 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Mr. James M. Glynn
NAVY 02-066      Selected for Award
Title:Solid State Converted Transducers for the Next Generation Countermeasure
Abstract:A program to develop transducers incorporating solid-state converted transduction materials for the Next Generation Countermeasure (NGCM) is proposed. The program addresses the need for a low cost, compact, broadband, high power transducer that can be integrated with the NGCM. The program leverages several millions of dollars of DARPA investment in a pilot manufacturing process for solid state converted transduction materials with properties that approach those of single crystal transduction materials, but which can be fabricated at much lower cost. The Phase I program is directed towards developing a proof of concept transducer design for the NGCM and culminates with an in-water test. The test data shall be scaled to estimate the performance achievable in a full-scale device. The proposed program spans 6 months, with a three month program option. The proposed program shall demonstrate that transducers incorporating solid-state converted transduction materials can provide the performance needed to satisfy the demanding requirements of the US Navy NGCM program. Successful completion of this program will result in a manufacturable transducer design that enhances the capabilities of the NGCM.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Dr. Paul Rehrig
NAVY 02-066      Selected for Award
Title:Naval Device Applications of Relaxor Piezoelectric Single Crystals
Abstract:The properties of single crystal piezoelectrics will be exploited for broad bandwidth, high frequency sonar. Crystal sonar investigations based on Tonpilz transducers utilizing the "33" resonance mode have shown limitations on bandwidth due to less than ideal resonator aspect ratio. This is a result of the crystals' low elastic stiffness, which leads to short resonators with large lateral dimensions. To address this issue an alternative design is proposed utilizing the "31" resonance mode with the resonating length oriented along the <110> crystallographic direction. Crystals with this orientation are known to have high properties; and since prestress for such a design would be applied perpendicular to the poling direction, "31" mode Tonpilz elements may exhibit lower loss and higher reliability than "33" mode designs. The feasibility of "31" mode Tonpilz resonators will be determined through property measurements and finite element analysis. For the Phase I Option a prototype single element Tonpilz will be constructed and tested. The targeted application for this work is broadband (>100%), high frequency (45 kHz) synthetic aperture arrays for unmanned underwater vehicles. A feasibility study of crystals for high frequency (>100 kHz) side look sonar is also proposed. High frequency sonar is becoming ever more important to the Navy through expanded use of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV). Proposed missions for many UUV's involve shallow water operation where broad bandwidth is required making these applications ideal candidates to use single crystal piezoelectrics. In addition, many UUV sonar systems have commercial uses including oceanographic research, oil and mineral prospecting, salvage, and undersea equipment inspection and maintenance.

WILCOXON RESEARCH, INC.
21 Firstfield Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 947-7964
Dr. Paul Wlodkowski
NAVY 02-066      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Miniature Towed Array Hydrophone Elements with Single PiezoCrystals
Abstract:While towed arrays have been commonly employed to detect sonic vibrations in the past, existing towed arrays are subject to extraneous noise due to movement through the water and are sensitive to acceleration forces which may not be due to sonic vibration. Fundamentally, there is much to gain by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio for a given geometrical form factor. Wilcoxon Research, Inc. proposes to advance the state-of-the- art in towed array sensing through the design and development of hydrophones with single piezocrystals. The Company has garnered significant experience in the design, development and manufacture of directional, acoustic particle velocity transducers with single piezoelectric crystals. These Vector sensors have demonstrated unprecedented levels of performance at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Acoustic Test Facility in Newport, Rhode Island, and at the Seneca Lake site in New York State. In a similar manner, the Company proposes to develop a new hydrophone transducer, incorporating single piezocrystals, that will enable the TB-16 and TB-29 towed array elements to realize a 5 dB and 13 dB improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio, respectively. The Navy has made a substantial investment in hydrophone development for towed and fixed arrays, ranges, etc., over the past eighty years. With this single piezocrystal hydrophone design, the potential for very low electrical noise referred to the water is in hand. Applications with electrical noise levels 15 dB below Arctic ambient has been extremely difficult to achieve with existing technology but is now possible with this very sensitive crystal technology. All future towed arrays will benefit from this concept. The output of this SBIR leverages the advances in this single crystal technology to towed arrays and allows the Navy to switch to this technology for newer equipment

IKTARA AND ASSOCIATES
8824 Burning Tree Road
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 405-5294
Dr. Dave K Anand
NAVY 02-067      Selected for Award
Title:Archival Knowledge for the Design, Manufacture and Visualization of a Set of Energetic Devices
Abstract:Computer aided design systems have gained significant popularity in recent years. These systems are routinely used to create 3D models of parts and assemblies. Such models are saved in files that are named using part numbers. Currently design models only store geometric data and do not have any information about functionality of the designs. Recently, designers have saved such information using text files. Such documents are not suitable for supporting database-type searches. This work develops a search engine for designers using geometric characteristics and functionality information derived from existing designs. This includes development of indexing schemes for archiving geometry-based information in cad/pad device database, development of taxonomy for creating functionality-based design information models, development of search algorithm for supporting functionality based queries and finally development algorithms for spatially arranging existing cad/pad devices in virtual warehouse for efficient "walk-throughs." The methodology is generalized to allow the design of other electomechanical systems. There is no search engine available that integrates functionality and geometry for design purposes. Nor is there is there a capability to design parts by specifying geometric characteristics. The successful outcome of this research shall be an engine which allows designers to use functionality and geometric characteristics in the design process. Such a search engine has a significant commercial market.

TAO OF SYSTEMS INTEGRATION, INC.
471 McLaws Circle, Suite 1
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 220-5040
Dr. Garimella R. Sarma
NAVY 02-068      Selected for Award
Title:Miniature, Shear Stress Measurement System for Marine Applications
Abstract:A miniature shear stress measurement system will be developed for marine hydrodynamic applications. Tao Systems will design and fabricate a miniature waterproofed sensor array with at least 32 sensor elements. The sensor will be mounted on a representative water-tunnel model which has well-known shear stress distribution and location of flow separation. The instrumented model will be tested in Tao Systems' in-house water tunnel with a maximum rated speed of 15 knots. Well-established analytical expressions for shear stress distribution as a function of the location of the sensor will be used to calibrate sensors. This calibration will be verified at other flow conditions. We will also artificially change the ambient temperature of the flow field to verify the calibration. Real-time detection of flow separation will be simultaneously demonstrated in this experiment. The design of marine vehicles relies on a knowledge of the normal and tengential forces and moments exerted by the fluid on the vehicle during operation. The ability to measure shear stress simultaneously at many points, and thus drag, and to detect separation regions on a maneuvering vehicle provides needed data comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses and for the development and assessment of current and future designs. There is a large market for both military and commercial applications of the solicited system.

VIOSENSE CORPORATION
36 South Chester Avenue
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 432-9950
Dr. Darius Modarress
NAVY 02-068      Selected for Award
Title:An Array of Miniature, Conformal and Waterproof Optical Shear Stress Sensors for Naval and Marine Vehicle Applications
Abstract:The time-averaged wall-shear stress is related to a number of important aerodynamic parameters such as viscous drag and flow separation, which in turn determines the performance of moving bodies such as naval and marine vehicles. Measurement of the wall shear at many points of a maneuvering vehicle provides needed data for the development of current and future designs. Existing thermal and optical shear stress sensors are not suitable for the operational environments of marine vehicles. We propose to develop an array of miniature, conformal and waterproof shear stress sensors based on a promising new Optical MEMS technology. The unique design of the proposed array of compact optical shear stress sensors allows for its application to submerged vehicles for operation in both fresh and saltwater. During the Phase I effort, a prototype array of four sensors will be manufactured for test and validation. During the phase II of the proposed effort, an integrated array of sensors will be developed and demonstrated on a captive submarine model at NSWCCD. Plans for the transition to larger scale surface ships and submarine vehicle and large-scale autonomous submarine models will be provided. These compact, robust and non-intrusive shear stress sensors will have numerous applications in both military and commercial markets. Potential applications include: 1. Wind tunnel, water tank, and flight testing in commercial and governments laboratories, 2. Monitoring skin friction as a feedback for drag reduction devices 3. Detection of reversed flow and incipient stall 4. Micro-channel devices being developed for chemical and biological applications.

ALPHA STAR
5199 E. PACIFIC COAST HWY, SUITE # 410
LONG BEACH, CA 90804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 985-1100
Dr. Frank Abdi
NAVY 02-069      Selected for Award
Title:Simplified Analytical Procedure for Prediction of Fracture Damage in Composite Structures
Abstract:It is proposed to develop simplified composite analytical procedure (SAP) for naval joint design that will perform: 1) material constituent analysis (MCA), 2) material uncertainty analysis (MUA), and fracture damage, and the percentage contribution of each material constituent to failure mechanisms. The SAP will then be utilized by an integrated computational design tool, that automatically iterates all analytical procedures such as: 1) MCA, 2) MUA, 3) progressive failure analysis (PFA), and 4) probabilistic failure analysis under hygral conditions. SAP will be used to predict, under all operational conditions (temperature/thermal gradient, humidity, oxidative/corrosive agents): 1) constituent/ply mechanical properties, 2) property degradation by implementing the multifactor interaction model, and 3) effects of bond line strength/thickness/voids on failure. PFA can automatically integrate SAP to predict the durability/reliability of a typical marine composite joint/structure, including determination of the failure mechanisms contribution to the critical damage events (crack initiation/propagation), residual strength, sensitivity of joint design parameters (e.g. configuration, bond-thickness, ply-schedule) to the probability of failure. As a synergistic demonstration SAP and PFA will perform an integrated joint design analysis to identify: 1) failure mechanisms (e.g. delamination or disbond), 2) strain energy release rate, 3) durability, and 4) reliability trade studies of an adhesively bonded T-joint. Different types of joint applications can be optimized for life performance, on Navy applications, using the SAP and PFA approaches. Providing a commercial viable, user friendly software for simplified, rapid and accurate computational simulation of the considerable complexities of adhesive bonded joints in PMC marine structures will provide the naval ship, and marine engineering designers with a much needed tool to evaluate durability and reliability during the design, testing and life cycle assessment of adhesive bonded PMC structure with minimal impact on costs and time to market. The proposed enhancement of the existing commercially available GENOA software will provide Naval, and Aerospace industries with such a tool verified for: 1) accurate analytical evaluation of service lifetimes of adhesive bonded PMC structure and 2) prediction and optimization of inspection, repair, and maintenance intervals for adhesive bonded PMC structure in new marine structure designs and aging marine structure. Evaluation cost and time savings in the range of 30% are anticipated to be realized by use of the proposed software. The beneficiaries of the proposed software technology are: 1) Navy ship design, 2) Marine engineering, 3) Aerospace industry, airframe/engines, 4) automobile industry, 5) civil/infrastructure, and 6) air transportation safety industry, periodic inspection intervals

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4099
Dr. Jonathan Arata
NAVY 02-069      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Method for Rapid Turnaround Damage Analysis of Composite Structures
Abstract:Composite structures are inherently difficult and time-consuming to analyze due to their material and geometric complexities and the vast number of interfaces present in the material. Conventional analysis techniques, such as the finite element method, can provide acceptably accurate predictions of fracture damage in composites, but at a tremendous expense in time and computational resources. We propose an innovative application of the finite element method that incorporates state-of-the-art numerical damage modeling techniques in a unified analysis package that provides for rapid turnaround damage analysis of composite structures. Our goal is the creation of methodology that substantially decreases the time necessary for early parametric analyses on large structures by 1) minimizing the user input necessary to perform such analyses, 2) utilizing an element constitutive model that predicts the likelihood of failure due to debond and/or decohesion, 3) does all this without sacrificing the accuracy of the prediction, and 4) folds this methodology into a user-friendly, PC Windows based interface that is either stand-alone or interfaces with a commercial software package such as ANSYS or LS-DYNA. In Phase I, we will develop and verify the innovative theoretical damage model using a simple, though practical, example to prove our concept. (P-020150) Composite structural analysis methods that are computationally efficient, user-friendly, and allow for substantial reductions in design cycle time would have broad application across a wide range of industries, military and commercial. Any industry that utilizes such materials, and particularly those that design and manufacture such materials, would be interested in utilizing this tool as a design device. This modeling program could not only be used on the front end of design to maximize the useful life of components and subsystems, but on the back-end, to diagnose any prospective material failure. Thus, this program could find wide audience in the commercial aviation, automotive, and power industries, to name just a few, as well has having broad application potentially across the entire military spectrum.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORPORATION
500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Mr. Gerald V. Flanagan
NAVY 02-069      Selected for Award
Title:Simplified Analytical Procedure for Prediction of Fracture Damage in Composite Structures (MSC P1B16-203)
Abstract:A software package is needed that can efficiently model typical composite bonded and co-cured joints used in Naval ship construction. This package must be able to accurately compute the strain-energy-release-rate for user defined cracks. Materials Sciences Corporation (MSC) has an existing code called SUBLAM that performs this operation using closed-form solutions of high-order plate assemblages. When plates are stacked, the interfacial tractions and displacements are computed exactly (within the assumptions of the plate theory). This approach leads to accurate interlaminar stresses and, therefore, accurate fracture calculations. The plates can be assembled in a manner similar to the finite element method, allowing one to model complex joint configurations. Many validation problems have shown the code to be highly accurate. For the Phase I SBIR, MSC will modify this code to more directly applicable to the structures of concern, and will demonstrate a graphical user interface. The user interface will include predefined parametric models of typical joints. Similar aids will be created to interpret the output so that failure predictions, and failure interaction diagrams are automatically generated. Failure loads of joints for composite structures are notoriously difficult to predict. This project will result in a user-friendly, efficient, and accurate software product that will enable engineers to rapidly assess typical joints. The availability of this code will reduce risk for future ship programs, and lower the associated costs of element testing.

SURBEC-ART ENVIRONMENTAL, LLC
3200 Marshall Ave., Suite 200
Norman, OK 73072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 364-9726
Dr. Matthew E. Caldwell
NAVY 02-070      Selected for Award
Title:Methods for Monitoring Biodegradation of Pollutants in Estuarine Sediments
Abstract:The use of microorganisms to bioremediate hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments is being investigated as an attractive alternative to the conventional means of environmental restoration efforts in which dredging and disposal of harbor sediments can become cost prohibitive. Where the aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons is well established, many of the hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments become anoxic within millimeters of the sediment-water interface. Recently, the ability of anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria to biodegrade a variety of hydrocarbons including straight and branched alkanes, mono- and alkylaromatic hydrocarbons, as well as polyaromatic hydrocarbons has been well documented. The ability to assess whether in situ remediation of hydrocarbons are occurring in marine sediments is an important aspect in the remedial strategy of natural attenuation. This proposal will deal with the ability to extract pore water from marine sediments and analyze them by GC/MS for the presence of known intermediates of aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon decay. The ability to detect signature metabolites of hydrocarbon biodegradation will provide strong evidence for the natural attenuation of these pollutants in marine sediments. Further, the potential commercialization of a screening method and protocol could provide the basis for testing an extensive array of marine and harbor environments around the United States. The ability to rapidly screen and determine whether intrinsic bioremediation is occurring within marine or estuarine sediments goes beyond the interests of just of U.S. Navy. With increased pressure from local and federal authorities on the protection of public waterways and the clean up of polluted environments, the work proposed herein would be applicable to a number of companies involved from shipping to offshore oil drilling operations, in their ability to assess potential bioremediation efforts or the effects of natural attenuation in contaminated marine environments. Surbec-ART Environmental could potentially use the strategies garnered from this proposal to provide a service which would enhance remediation assessments by companies or regulatory agencies in a more timely manner then the traditional laboratory based degradation studies currently used to monitor the bioremediation potential of microorganisms within sediments.

CONTINUUM DYNAMICS, INC.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 538-0444
Dr. William J. Usab, Jr.
NAVY 02-071      Selected for Award
Title:A Passive Delayed Stall Propulsor for Enhanced Thrust and Reduced Noise
Abstract:The Navy has reached the limit of propulsor system development based on conventional steady state aerodynamic theories. Further advances only appear possible through the innovative application of unsteady lift concepts like those found in biological forms of flight. Continuum Dynamics, Inc. (C.D.I.) proposes the innovative application of unsteady lift enhancement through delayed stall, to increase the lift on rotor blades without adding mechanical complexity. Our concept increases propeller performance by harnessing unsteady vortical structures, resulting in either increased thrust or a reduction in propeller rotational speed. Advantages of the proposed concept include: (1) it is a completely passive and robust, with no on-blade actuators or additional moving parts; (2) it is easily retrofitted into existing propulsor systems; (3) it works equally well with ducted and unducted, single and counter-rotating propulsors; and (4) It is low cost and will be simple to implement. C.D.I. is uniquely positioned to develop this concept, having extensive experience in the development of the fast aerodynamic computational tools needed to reduce this concept to practice. The proposed Phase I effort will carry out the conceptual design and hydrodynamic analysis studies demonstrating "proof of concept," which can then be carried to Phase II/III product development. Development of this thrust enhancement concept for marine propellers offers improved propulsive performance and maneuverability to Navy, commercial, and recreational vessels. This technology also offers the potential for reducing sound radiation through a decrease in the propeller rotational speed, which is of special importance to the Navy for improved torpedo homing effectiveness. This technology also has direct application to improved performance of turbomachinery and pump systems.

NEKTON RESEARCH LLC
4625 Industry Lane
Durham, NC 27713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 405-3993
Dr. Mathieu Kemp
NAVY 02-071      Selected for Award
Title:Biology-Inspired Propulsion
Abstract:Mature, efficient propellers still produce noise that can reduce the stealth of the Navy's unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) and compromise sensitive missions. In the interests of national security, it is essential that UUVs operate as quietly as possible. We propose to increase UUV stealth with a practical biomimetic device, the Oscillation OverThruster, that substantially reduces a propeller's radiated noise by decreasing propeller RPM (w) while maintaining the same thrust output (t). This is made possible because a portion of the radiated noise of a spinning propeller is proportional to w6. Our device is mechanically simple and is based on analyses of an unsteady phenomenon that has been shown to increase lift on animal wings to 150% of the values expected for the steady state used by propellers. We propose a three-step, cost-efficient effort aimed at quickly transforming this natural phenomenon into Navy-usable technology-specifically, a retrofit Oscillation OverThruster silencing unit (O2) for Naval UUVs. OverThruster-enhanced propeller systems promise more stealth, greater speed, and extended range, all of which are critical success factors in UUV missions. In addition to tactical applications, the Oscillation OverThruster should find widespread use in civilian applications.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Bruce D. Anderson
NAVY 02-071      Selected for Award
Title:Biology-Inspired Propulsion
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop marine propulsion concepts that employ biologically inspired aerodynamic mechanisms to enhance propulsor thrust and decrease the propeller rotation rate necessary to maintain a specified forward speed. Flying animals take advantage of three unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms to generate lift and propulsive power greater than that predicted from quasi-steady conventional airfoil theory. The three mechanisms are delayed stall, rotational circulation (including the clap and fling mechanism), and wake capture. In Phase I we will formulate three propulsion concepts, each incorporating one or more biomimetic unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms. Using phenomenological models and experimental data from literature, the concepts will be evaluated for lift production, efficiency, simplicity, and ease of practical implementation. Key physical and non-dimensional flow parameters will be identified for each concept. The most promising propulsion concept will be experimentally investigated in the PSI low speed wind tunnel to understand unsteady flow mechanisms. Phase I will conclude with a recommendation of which of the proposed designs, or modified designs, should be further studied in Phase II. In Phase II various models of promising concepts will be fabricated and the propulsive forces produced by these models will be measured in a wind or water tunnel. The proposed propulsion concept will allow military marine vehicles and devices including UUVs, ROVs, torpedoes, and Anti-Torpedo Torpedoes to travel at a specific speed with a lower propeller rotation rate, hence radiating less detectable noise. This will increase the stealth of these devices. The proposed mechanisms may also increase the fuel economy of these vehicles as well as surface ships. Potential applications of this device include commercial UUVs and ROVs as well as recreational boating.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Magnus Snorrason
NAVY 02-073      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Surveillance and Intrusion detection for Ships (ISIS)
Abstract:The ability of the Navy to protect its forces during overseas and domestic port calls is critical for the successful completion of its missions. The USS Cole incident and more recent events call for an effective in-port surveillance system for the Navy and the development of effective surveillance systems to protect other high-value national assets. However, this is a challenging task given the amount of port traffic and the lack of appropriate vision sensors on board Navy vessels. Commercial surveillance systems cannot be used because of sensor placement requirements and assumptions about lighting conditions and background types that do not hold in port scenarios. We propose to develop an intelligent shipboard surveillance system. The system utilizes catadioptric vision to achieve panoramic coverage. A combination of visible-light and IR sensors enables day and night operation. The software portion of the system consists of a specialized background analysis and clutter mitigation module, a multi-object tracking module and an intelligent agent that uses high-level knowledge and contextual information (if available from other shipboard sensors) to control system parameters. The output of the system is a set of tracks as well as an annotated video stream for easy visualization by the watchstanders. An intelligent surveillance system that provides omni-directional scene awareness and does not require a large network of sensors would find immediate use in a number of critical government and commercial asset-protection scenarios.

DIAMONDBACK SYSTEMS, INC.
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 791-4620
Mr. Bill Severson
NAVY 02-073      Selected for Award
Title:Mast-mounted In-Port Video Surveillance System
Abstract:ObjectVideo will assess the feasibility of developing an omni-directional situational awareness system for mast-mounted in-port video surveillance. An initial system design will be developed and an estimate of system performance will be assessed as a function of sensor resolution, threat size, range, speed, and other relevant parameters. ObjectVideo will build on and adapt its patent pending object segmentation, background scene modeling, object detection, and tracking algorithms to design and assess the surveillance system. An omni-directional sensor, potentially using super-resolution techniques will be used to provide a surround view and provide full 360 situational awareness. The final system when built in Phase II will be able to detect, track, classify, and alert Watchstanders through a situational awareness map-view display of potential threats to the ship. As an optional Phase II bridge task, ObjectVideo will provide the next level of system design and functional specifications. The proposed effort will provide a feasibility assessment and initial design of a panoramic video surveillance system that can give real-time warning of potential terrorist attacks against ships in port. A mast-mounted 360 in-port video surveillance system, capable of monitoring watercraft around an in-port ship and people and vehicles pier side could provide a critical edge for responding and potentially interdicting attackers before they are in range to do significant damage as was done in the Cole incident. This benefit is potentially of great value not only to ships of the U.S. Navy but also to commercial shipping under any nation's flag subject to terrorist threat.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, #500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Jason Geng
NAVY 02-073      Selected for Award
Title:An Intelligent Visible/Infrared Omnidirectional Camera for Mast-mounted In-Port Video Surveillance System
Abstract:The primary objective of this SBIR program is to develop a novel mast-mounted, omnidirectional, all-weather high-resolution video sensor that overcomes the drawbacks of conventional video surveillance systems and existing omnidirectional cameras. The proposed sensor, dubbed as the "Omni-Watchdog", combines a 360-degree "OmniEye" camera with a high-resolution pan/tilt/zoom camera that has complementary functionalities to obtain simultaneous hemispherical field of view and high-resolution image for selective targets. Its unique design also offers three dimensional measurement capability for gauging the distance and location of the identified object. To facilitate the operations in day/night and all weather (fog, cloud, dust, smoke, and haze) conditions, we also integrate an infrared sensor into the Omni-Watchdog design. The co-registered visible and IR video images provide a rich source of information for object detection, tracking, classification, alarm setting and digital recording and video analysis. The Omni-Watchdog is well suited for serving as one of critical components of an in-port ship perimeter monitoring security system for dockside and adjacent water coverage for detecting/tracking unauthorized personnel or small vessels within a ship's security perimeter. The commercial market for the technology to be developed under this SBIR is obviously sizable. The proposed Omni-Watchdog systems can be used in security enhancement for any types of military and civilian vessels. In additional, such technology can also be used in other security applications, ranging from warehouse, train-stations, airports, Government facilities, corporations, sport events, to public and private schools in US, from elementary to university. The tragic event of 9/11 triggers tremendous interests in the security enhancement for all private sectors. We see great potentials for the commercial applications of the technologies developed under this SBIR project.

REMOTEREALITY CORPORATION
4 Technology Dr
Westborough, MA 01581
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 898-8612
Mr. David Mendelsohn
NAVY 02-073      Selected for Award
Title:Mast-mounted In-Port Video Surveillance System
Abstract:The materials below describe a proposal for Phase I efforts for research and design of omnidirectional imaging and tracking equipment for force protection of Navy vessels when stationed in or near ports. Omnidirectional optics are proposed, covering a full 360 view of the horizon and the areas near the base of the ship. The high-resolution, omnidirectional camera images will be passed through contact detection and tracking software that is designed for outdoor applications with moving reference frames such as a ship. Tracking data may then be used to direct a pan/tilt platform with a zoom camera and/or ordnance focused on a contact of interest. Phase I will result in a system design that will include characterization of all systemic issues relating to shipboard deployment and a design of an image capture and processing system that handles issues of resolution, range, ship motion, communications and potential integration with other sensors. RemoteReality is a pioneer in this field and can apply patented methods to this end, while consultants at McQ Associates have especially relevant experience in sensor integration and system deployment. The major benefits of the technology include the combination of wide field of view and narrow field of view video capture systems for search and targeting applications respectively. In addition, intelligent software which can detect and track motion will direct a standard pan/tilt/zoom narrow field of view camera to track multiple subjects and zoom in for closer inspection. There are at least four important market areas for which this omnidirectional tracking product could be commercialized. These include transportation systems, remote sensors for military operations, commercial security, and law enforcement. In these areas, the technology would be commercialized as a software product for continuous 360 degree monitoring and subject tracking. A system would generally consist of a configurable combination of a 360 degree omni-camera and auto tracking software with pan/tilt/zoom camera control for close inspection of tracked subjects. Optional facial recognition software may also be available in a final product configuration.

AEROSPACE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
P.O. Box 672
Niwot, CO 80544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 535-0384
Dr. H. L. Gier
NAVY 02-074      Selected for Award
Title:Conversion of Supercritical Air Self-contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) for Diving Applications
Abstract:The proposed breathing apparatus makes uses of moderate pressure gases (?750 psi) and a low temperature (<-170C) to store a greater quantity of breathing gas in the same volume. Two hours of supercritical cryogenic breathing air will have the same volume as one hour of 4500 psi compressed breathing air. The supercritical breathing gas is single phase so that it will feed identically in any attitude, unlike liquid air. This is particularly important for underwater work as the attitudes are extremely variable. Because of the moderate or higher pressure the system will supply gas at any useable depth of dive. When out of the water the apparatus may be used for full respiratory protection against airborne chemical or biological agents. In addition, due to the cryogenic storage of the air there is considerable cooling capacity to reduce heat stress in the user during hot climate deployments or when wearing impermeable garments. For normal underwater operations the heat to warm the breathing gas will come from the surrounding water, whereas for hot environment and land operations the heat will be supplied by the users body. The metabolic energy and heat transfer from the surrounding water is transferred to the breathing gas before it is consumed. An added feature which could be investigated in the Phase I option would be the use a small heater to allow warming of the user in both cold water and in cold land operations. The supercritical cryogenic(SCC) SCUBA will have many commercial applications in professional diving and recreational industries. The greatly increased bottom time will be economically useful in photographic, salvage, and archeological work. The cooling capability will allow diving in hot springs where time is now extremely restricted. With the addition of the option to provide a heating system in addition to the cooling the complete envelope of diving capability would be expanded into both thermal extremes.

CONTINENTAL CONTROLS AND DESIGN, INC.
1921 N. Gaffey Suite J
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 831-8669
Mr. James P. Hynes
NAVY 02-075      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Ship Motion and Air Wake Sensing and Prediction
Abstract:Landing on a carrier that is moving about in rough seas is a difficult piloting skill, whether flying fixed wing aircraft, helicopters, LCAC or other assault craft. Many attempts have been made over the past 30 years to predict the ship motions at least 10 to 20 seconds into the future so the pilot could know where the `target' would be when he got there. A less ambitious goal is to tell the pilot when the ship will be in a relatively quiescent state. Most of the work has been purely statistical, where `optimum' predictors of various forms were used to estimate the current ship dynamic state, and propagate that state based on the recent time history and stochastic input. Neural nets, Kalman filters, fuzzy logic and (last year) even chaos theory has been tried, but none with demonstrable success. Our approach is to instead combine deterministic and statistical prediction methods. New low cost instrumentation, including DGPS and MEMS inertial sensors are used by small expendable ROVs to `preview' the incoming wave field. The surface elevation profile is deterministically projected forward in space/time using Fourier transforms and the dispersion relation of deep-water ocean waves. A linear strip theory ship model continually restarts with the current state estimate and propagates forward using the anticipated waves as forcing function, providing improved estimates of future ship motion. In addition to its military uses, motion prediction models and their input to control systems will generate commercial interest in the commercial shipping, general aviation and ground transportation industries. A mission critical Navy application is the ability of this technology to enable amphibious combat operations to commence or continue under conditions that currently halt these types of operations.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 222-0444
Dr. Chiman Kwan
NAVY 02-075      Selected for Award
Title:Ship Motion and Air Wake Prediction Using PCA and Fuzzy CMAC
Abstract:Maintaining a satisfactory and safe ship operation is very important in Navy operations. An automatic forecast tool that can provide useful information to the ship operator will help to achieve this. The proposed short term forecast tool can learn the nonlinear and time varying relationship between the weather variables such as wind, wave and ship motion. The tool has the necessary learning capability as well as a fast learning speed which is about 10 times faster than conventional neural nets. Hence it is suitable for real-time implementation. The tool can relieve the operator from monitoring the large number of weather variables simultaneously so that he or she can concentrate on making decisions by optimally adjusting the available resources such as speed and direction of the ship to maintain a satisfactory landing operation. One important advantage of the proposed method is that a custom hardware can be easily designed to implement the forecasting and control tool with reasonably low cost. We will also use ultrawideband radar to measure wave front parameters such as angle of arrival, range, velocity, and acceleration. The proposed prediction algorithm may be useful for aircraft landing in aircraft carriers. During rough sea conditions, even the big aircraft carrier may exhibit large motions, which prevent a safe landing. The algorithm will also be useful for container loading. If a forecast tool is available for predicting short-term ship motion, the loading frequency can be increased, which will result in an annual saving of millions of dollars.

DIMENSION TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
PO Box 2557
Fair Oaks, CA 95628
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 631-9830
Mr. Renato Rindone
NAVY 02-076      Selected for Award
Title:Synthesis of Polyacetylene Curing Agents
Abstract:This proposal will reveal facile synthetic procedures to safely make Compound 1, 1,4-bis(cyanoethynyl)benzene; Compound 2, dipropargylterephthalate; Compound 3, tripropargylmesitylate; and Compound 4, dodecane-2,11-dione-1,12-dipropiolate and to propose that Dimension Technology Chemical Systems, Inc., prepare Compounds 1 through 4 in 450 gram quantities for the Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division. In addition to having the required quantities of materials to advance the propellant gumstock studies by the Navy, the results of this effort will define chemical processing methods that will have the following chemical processing attributes: (1) High Yield; (2) High Quality; (3) Acceptable Safety Risks in Processing; (4) Scalable to Product Plant Equipment; (5) High Chemical Integrity (No quality surprises on scale-up to plant equipment) and (6) Cost effective. Implementation of the technology revealed in this proposal will shorten the time necessary to scale-up chemical manufacturing procedures to pilot or production plant equipment. Because of the simplicity of the recommended processes to make Compounds 1 through 4, the Phase II developmental research cost will be significantly lower and there will be a greater opportunity for a larger number of chemical companies to compete for the production of these materials.

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Ave.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Dr. Kurt Baum
NAVY 02-076      Selected for Award
Title:Synthesis of Polyacetylene Curing Agents
Abstract:Composite propellants and explosives typically consist of solid oxidizers, metallic fuels, and rubbery binders that provide the needed mechanical properties. Most binder systems are cured by the formation of urethane linkages by the reaction of oligomeric diols with diisocyanates or triisocyanates. A variety of available diols and isocyanates enables the formulation of binders with optimum physical properties for specific systems. New energetic ingredients are being investigated that have chemical properties incompatible with the polyurethane system. Limited investigations have been conducted of an alternative cure system based in the reaction azido-terminated oligomers with di- or polyacetylenes to form polytriazoles. It is anticipated that azides and acetylenes will be not be affected by the reactivity of the new ingredients. The acetylenic components, however, were obtained only on a gram scale, and larger quantities are needed. The objective of the Phase I program is to synthesize 100 to 450 g batches of each of the following acetylenic compounds: (1) 1,4 -di(cyanoethynyl)-benzene, (2) dipropargyl terephthalate, (3) tripropargyl mesitylate, and (4) dodecane-2,11-dione-1,12-dipropiolate. The major DOD use is as components for rocket propellant binders to enable the use of energetic ingredients incompatible with polyurethanes. The result is improved performance, i.e., range and payload. Commercial markets include use as an alternate to polyurethanes.

MAXDEM INCORPORATED
140 East Arrow Highway
San Dimas, CA 91773
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 394-0644
Dr. Virgil Lee
NAVY 02-076      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Approaches for the Synthesis of Polyacetylene Curing Agents
Abstract:Recent advances in explosives technology has created a need for new polymer binder technologies. One promising class of such new binders is based on blends of azido-terminated oligomers and multi-acetylene functionalized crosslinking agents. The Navy would like to determine whether these new compositions offer promise in binder applications by studying the structure-activity relationships of these materials. Unfortunately, such studies have been hampered by the lack of availability of the acetylene-containing components. Thus, Navy has requested proposals for preparing 100-500 g quantities of four promising acetylene-containing compounds. This Phase I program addresses the Navy's requests by proposing the preparation of 500 g of each of the four requested acetylene derivatives. Routes that are well precedented in the chemical literature will be used to synthesize these materials. While two of the proposed synthetic routes follow those used in Navy labs, the other two are highly novel and bypass the need for potentially explosive intermediates. The proposed acetylene compounds may find immediate application in explosives, initially for military uses and possible later for commercial explosive applications. Additionally, the di- nd triacetylene derivatives of this proposal might also find application as reactive additives to alter the properties of thermosetting polymers.

ARETE ASSOCIATES
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 413-0290
Dr. John Dugan
NAVY 02-077      Selected for Award
Title:Use of High Quality UAV Based Data to Correct Satellite Derived DEMs
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR proposal is to develop and demonstrate a technique for improving the accuracy of DEMs generated from satellite imagery by using appropriate airborne imagery. It is anticipated that the positioning and pointing capabilities of future UAVs will provide much more accurate geo-location of features on the ground than satellite systems and they, therefore, can provide the surrogate "ground truth" for correcting satellite data that has much larger area coverage. The algorithm will be developed and exercised using IKONOS satellite-derived DEMs in combination with imagery data from the Arete Associates developed Airborne Remote Optical Spotlight System (AROSS), which a field-tested and robust EO system designed for research on tactical UAV applications such as this one. In Phase 1, we will develop the algorithm for extracting highly accurate 3-D geodetic coordinates for multiple images collected from this UAV surrogate and develop the algorithm that uses these results to correct the satellite data. In addition, we will evaluate the approach by applying the correction algorithm to an IKONOS imagery-derived DEM, using AROSS data and in situ ground truth collected during a recent experiment. Assuming success, phase 2 will develop robust software to automatically make these corrections of satellite data using UAV data, and perform a more complete evaluation of the accuracy on a much larger data set. Phase I will develop enhanced DEM-generation and DEM correction algorithms. Based upon a successful Phase I, Phase II will develop a prototype software system that produces DEMs with accuracies of 2-4 m for corrected DEMs derived from spaceborne imagery. There is a critical need for highly accurate DEM products to support a variety of military missions including, targeting, mission planning, and ISR collectiion planning and management. Additionally, commercial potential includes surveying, earth-resource management, planning and monitoring and as an affordable alternative to traditional photogrammetric applications.

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF VIRTUAL ORG., INC.
DBA, IAVO Research and Scienti, 1010 Gloria Ave.
Durham, NC 27701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 688-8212
Dr. Matthew Heric
NAVY 02-077      Selected for Award
Title:Elevation Data Generation using UAV Imagery
Abstract:The US Navy is seeking improved capabilities to generate automatically digital elevation models (DEMs) from digital stereoscopic imagery in support of targeting and navigation. Currently, DEMs are derived primarily from orbiting systems, yet these sources have historically not provided the spatial resolutions needed for extremely high resolution and accurate DEMs. The goal is to develop a feasibility concept to utilize imagery from unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) to supplement orbital imagery, and that the combined synergistic results will lead to DEMs having higher accuracy. Specifically, methods for generating and propagating DEMs are required with the objectives of: - Combining the strengths of multiple imagery sources to improve output accuracy; - Providing elevation information requiring little or no interactive editing; - Generating elevation data to support Navy weapons delivery programs; and - Meeting future targeting accuracies through results consistent with Navy requirements. A number of opportunities for an improved DEM solution exist in the marketplace. The most promising involves providing solutions to commercial satellite systems vendors and their value-added resellers and product generation partners for sale and resale. Also, remote sensing/GIS vendors should be receptive to reselling a solution as an add-on or replacement of their existing capabilities. Lastly, DoD, intelligence, and defense mapping agencies worldwide are potential customers of bulk sales of the solution. During both Phase I (Option) and Phase II, research into all logical marketplaces will be performed to finalize anticipated revenue levels and per unit pricing. We believe at this point that the market value for the solution will be in the $7,500-$10,000/copy range, with embedded versions resold by partners for roughly 30-50% off standalone pricing.

AGILTRON CORPORATION
20 Arbor Lane
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-0513
Dr. Jing Zhao
NAVY 02-078      Selected for Award
Title:Microchip Laser Beam Switch
Abstract:This program addresses the development of a solid-state optical switching technology. Current optical switches do not simultaneously meet the requirements of high speed, low loss, high extinction ratio, low power consumption, high damage threshold, and high reliability. Sub-microsecond and multiple-port optical switches of low loss and low cost are long sought after performance attributes. This type of high performance optical switches is in great demand for use in modern defense systems and optical communication networks. AGILTRON Inc. proposes to develop a micro-optic solid-state laser beam switching technology, using new crystal materials having large electro-optic effect and excellent thermal stability. This platform technology potentially offers state-of-the-art performance attributes of electro-optic high-speed operation and low optical insertion loss, low cost via matured production method, as well as crystal ruggedness for high optical power handling and long-term stability. The design is free of piezoelectric resonance and potentially offers high fidelity steering and control of laser pulse propagation. Moreover, the design is simple, compact, and cost effective. It is anticipated that state-of-the-art performance in several key specifications can be achieved through this program. Prototype electro-optical switches will be fabricated to demonstrate functionality. It is anticipated that the proposed high performance switch will have wide application in DoD systems such as photonic radar and fiberoptic microwave distribution network. The anticipated commercial communication switching market is very large with forecasted reaching billion dollars by year 2006.

PHOTERA TECHNOLOGIES
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 755-8855
Dr. Maurice Pessot
NAVY 02-078      Selected for Award
Title:Compact High Efficiency Opto-electronically Programmable Switch (CHEOPS)
Abstract:To meet the demands placed on military and commercial photonic systems, Photera Technologies, Inc. proposes the development of a 1 x 4 laser-beam switch which promises technical specifications not achievable by existing devices. Aptly named Compact High Efficiency Opto-electronically Programmable Switch (CHEOPS), this laser beam switch has the ability to direct a beam to four separate positions in a non-sequential, true-random-access manner with switching speeds of less than a microsecond. Our proprietary design is based upon a ceramic electro-optic (EO) polarization rotation switch. When combined with birefringent materials in a cascade configuration, this electro-optic approach enables the development of a 1x(2**N)switch which is compact (<2 cubic inches) and high speed (<1 microsecond switching time). Meanwhile, our material choice yields a switch that is free of piezoelectric resonances while providing excellent optical transmission and damage threshold characteristics in the visible and near IR. As a ceramic material, the switch is expected to be inexpensive compared to alternative technologies, and is compatible with mass manufacturing and low-cost production. The technology proposed herein provides the core for the development of numerous active components for optical networks, including programmable polarization rotators, gain equalizers, variable optical attenuators, and optical switches. Advances in optical networks, and therefore components required to support those networks, continue to be a major area of commercial development and focus. When measured against the standards of today, tomorrow's optical networks will require a substantial amount of additional functionality. Optical switches are major components integrated into networks, providing for the reconfiguration of wavelength assignments within networks, provisioning, add/drop multiplexing/demultiplexing and, ultimately, wavelength based routing of packets of information.

FILTRATION SOLUTIONS, INC.
432 Sand Shore Road, Unit 8
Hackettstown, NJ 07840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 684-4000
Mr. Chang-Wei Jen
NAVY 02-079      Selected for Award
Title:Flight/Hangar Deck Cleaner
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative surface cleaning technique that combines an advanced water blasting and reclamation system for deck cleaning, a compact, low maintenance filtration system for oily wastewater recycling, and a Zamboni type vehicle into a mobile, self-contained, and self-propelled deck cleaner. A bench-scale prototype cleaning head and oily wastewater recycling system will be created in Phase I for testing. The proposed system will increase the overall efficiency of the surface cleaning and maintenance process by decreasing both the timeframe needed to complete the overall procedure and the total manpower necessary to do the job aboard Navy air capable ships. There are many potential applications for the developed surface cleaning equipment in commercial areas such as construction sites, airports, highway tollbooths, gas stations, major oil companies, etc.

TRIVERUS LLC
7623 Duben Ave. Unit C
Anchorage, AK 99504
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(907) 830-9098
Mr. Hans E. Vogel
NAVY 02-079      Selected for Award
Title:Flight/Hangar Deck Cleaner
Abstract:The demanding cleaning requirements for deck surfaces aboard aircraft carriers present unique challenges in cleaning effectiveness and expense/resource management. The current method contributes to premature wear of the non-skid deck coating and hazardous waste problems. The resulting premature non-skid wear from the current deck cleaning method has caused mission interruption due to the need to re-apply skid coating mid-deployment. Equally, the large amount of oil/soap contaminated water becomes a significant issue in the area of hazardous waste disposal. Triverus LLC proposes a progressive, rapid development approach to solving the problem using advanced computer solid modeling combined with accurate assumptions of the deck cleaning requirements. During Phase I, a Low Pressure Water Jet (LPWJ) vehicle prototype will be designed in principle that will capitalize on existing technology in order to solve the premature wear problems as well as greatly reduce hazardous waste disposal requirements. A pressurized hot water cleaning jet will be substituted for the existing mechanical brush removal. An effluent recovery and water recycle system will reduce net water usage during cleaning while minimizing the amount of hazardous waste to process. The net effect of such a machine will be effective cleaning while meeting waste recovery and disposal requirements. Work performed will lay a modular design foundation that will lead to development of like products scaled for environmental cleanup, shipboard tank cleaning, or large vehicle washing systems.

CARMEL APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
807 Donnell Blvd. Suite F
Daleville, AL 36322
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 380-2013
Mr. Brian Holmes
NAVY 02-080      Selected for Award
Title:Vertical Flight Deck Operations Trainer
Abstract:This Phase I proposal describes the process used by CATI to identify the technologies available for developing a Vertical Flight Deck Operations Trainer (VFDOT). The proposal also describes how the CATI will determine what Commercial, Off-the-Shelf (COTS) hardware and software is best suited to develop a method to represent a generic VSTOL aircraft during shipboard operations. As part of the Phase I effort, CATI is proposing to do a Task and Skills Analysis for the LSE and HCO, and perform Systems Engineering Analysis to define the required LSE and HCO functionality. CATI will develop a prototype of the LSE Station for the VFDOT, which will be demonstrated to the Navy at the end of Phase I. CATI is also proposing a Phase I Option, which will be used to prototype and demonstrate an HCO Station for the VFDOT. CATI's X-IG image generator will be used as the cornerstone of the VFDOT to provide around-the-clock simulation of all weather conditions. The results of the Phase I effort will be a demonstration of a prototype of the Vertical Flight Deck Operations Trainer for LSE training that will be based on the Task and Skills Analysis and Systems Engineering Analysis performed as part of the Phase I effort. The prototype LSE Station of the VFDOT will provide the low risk basis of the Phase II implementation, as CATI?s proposed Phase I work leverages our Commercially-available X-IG image generator that is already in use for several military visual simulation applications. The baseline capabilities of the X-IG greatly increase the probability for success in a Phase I effort, as the real-time visualization of the helicopters is one of the most critical components for a VFDOT. Helicopters are used for a wide variety of applications, including air ambulances, fire fighting, news and traffic reporting, as well as a means of private and commercial transportation. Many of these applications require ground signalman that have little or no training to use hand signals to communicate with pilots during landing operations. Potential commercial applications of the Phase I effort would be a low-cost version of the VFDOT that would provide similar training as the VFDOT, but would be targeted for non-military applications.

VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
5400 Shawnee Road, Suite 203
Alexandria, VA 22312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 658-7050
Mr. Victor Polkowski
NAVY 02-080      Selected for Award
Title:Vertical Flight Deck Operations Trainer
Abstract:The control, direction, and coordination of activities of shipboard Vertical/Short Take Off Landing (VSTOL) operations demands a firm understanding of the roles and responsibilities of all personnel under all potential conditions, and proficiency in performing each station's duties with precision and efficiency. The live operational environment leaves no margin for error, and the safety and effectiveness of all parties can be significantly improved using state-of-the-art technologies to provide a virtual training environment to support Landing Signal Enlisted (LSE) and Helicopter Control Officer (HCO) personnel. Distributed simulation technologies have become widely used for multilevel training and mission rehearsal. Virtual Technology Corporation (VTC), along with our teaming partners L3 Communications, Link Simulation & Training (Link) and Soar Technology, Inc., proposes to develop an innovative training environment (RealLanding), based upon a modular, open architecture to train personnel the vital Naval Aviation Training and Operating Procedures Standardization (NATOPS) hand signals, coordination, and communication used between the LSE, HCO, and pilots. By placing the LSE and HCO trainees in a virtual environment, the student can be more effectively exposed to the wide range of scenarios and dynamic conditions that otherwise can not be trained in a safe environment. A virtual environment can also provide a repetitive experience where the student can rehearse scenarios until they understand and perform the proper procedures while being provided with visual feedback to demonstrate correct signaling when not performed properly. After gaining this experience and the confidence to properly signal the aircrew, the student can more effectively assimilate and appreciate the live training exercise.

CODAR OCEAN SENSORS, LTD.
1000 Fremont Avenue, Suite 145
Los Altos, CA 94024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 773-8240
Dr. Donald E. Barrick
NAVY 02-081      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Static SeaSonde Ocean Current Mapping by Ships Underway
Abstract:The proposed SBIR efforts build on CODAR Ocean Sensors' extensive base of commercial HF radar products and technology, including demonstrated bistatic and multi-static deployment capabilities. We will extend these concepts heretofore intended for coastal siting to ships underway, with the goal of mapping ocean surface currents for rapid environmental assessment in littoral zones without the need for instrumentation on unfriendly shores. A moving transmitter and/or receiver on a vessel represents the principal challenge, followed by the expected distortion to antenna patterns due to ship superstructure. Phase 1 will augment our existing HF radar simulator to include transmitter/receiver movement, as well as distorted antenna patterns. Simulated radar data will then be used to assess and optimize performance, as quantified in terms of accuracy, resolution, and coverage area. We will determine constraints on vessel operations during such current-mapping surveys. Finally, we will design modifications to our existing GPS timing synchronization system that allows multiple transmitters and receivers to share the same frequency channel simultaneously, to accommodate moving transmitters and receivers without losing coherence or degrading echo signal quality. During Phase 2 we will test the designs, algorithms, and operating scenarios developed under Phase 1, employing oceanographic research vessels that can gather simultaneous ground-truth data. Based on the results of Phase 1, we will able to begin immediate testing and operations during Phase 2 from oceanographic research vessels underway, demonstrating the capability of mapping surface currents from moving ships. At the end of Phase 2, CODAR Ocean Sensors will offer algorithms and hardware technology that will augment its commercial inventory of SeaSonde HF radar current mapping systems, allowing civilian research cruises to map surface currents underway. We will also provide this technology for naval vessels for data-gathering surveys in non-U.S. littoral zones.

BENTHOS, INC.
49 Edgerton Drive
North Falmouth, MA 02556
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 563-1000
Mr. Dale Green
NAVY 02-082      Selected for Award
Title:Directional Acoustic Transponder
Abstract:The U.S. Navy requires the development of an AUV-based, AUV localization system which will inform multiple vehicles of their range and bearing from a central controller. There are existing systems which do this now, but they are limited in range, use very unsophisticated signaling techniques which generally preclude clandestine operations, or use by multiple units. Furthermore, they may require synchronized clocks between the controller and the vehicle, are very expensive, and are not necessarily suitable for use on an AUV platform. Benthos, with a long history of military and commercial development of underwater acoustic communications (acomms), proposes to enhance our existing technology to provide the required capability. Virtually all AUVs either currently use or will require acomms. Our proposal will use a COTS modem, installed on the vehicle without modification, to communicate with a central controller aboard a separate AUV, itself built around a standard modem. The controller will receive a ranging inquiry from the vehicle (a standard technique), will evaluate bearing from that signal using either a modified ultra-short baseline technique, or a novel, physically small beamformer, and will return the ranging signal along with the computed bearing. Because the system is modem-based, it may also provide conventional telemetry functions. The system will use a modified version of the multi-access signaling scheme developed jointly with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for the Office of Naval Research. The controller will be able to accommodate up to four vehicles simultaneously, or more with a simple modification to the signaling scheme. Modems for the vehicles typically cost approximately $7,000, and we estimate that a controller can be produced in small quantities for approximately $15,000. The bearing/ranging technology described in this proposal provides a means of accurate navigation relative to a single reference point, without the need for surface expression. When that is combined with the spread spectrum signaling technology used in our modems, the probability of clandestine navigation is greatly enhanced. Furthermore, the system can support several AUVs at one time, unlike a conventional LBL system. This technology will be immediately useful to the Autonomous Operations FNC at ONR, by providing a non-invasive means of acquiring range and bearing. The vehicle merely uses its existing modem for this task. In addition, the system can evolve to support distributed undersea networks (such as the SPAWAR DADS) by providing an inexpensive method of vectoring an arbitrary vehicle around the network. We use an interoperable signaling technique, so this system will be available to systems employing any modem which likewise "speaks" the same modulation scheme. However, the availability of this system will enhance the sale of our modems to the Navy and to commercial users of AUVs. We believe there is much to be gained from additional miniaturization of the electronics which will be used in the prototype system. This will have two important commercial impacts: the reduction in weight and size will make the overall system more attractive for diver use; and the reduced system will make our commercial modems more attractive for small platforms, and less expensive to manufacture.

GORCA TECHNOLOGIES
PO Box 1685
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 273-8200
Dr. Marc Olivieri
NAVY 02-082      Selected for Award
Title:Directional Acoustic Transponder for Underwater Positioning of a Clandestine UUV Network
Abstract:The problem of Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) positioning in remote locations poses a significant technological challenge. In future NAVY missions, networks of multiple UUVs are expected to perform in remote locations for forward-deployed forces (sometimes clandestinely) and therefore the platforms positioning system must also be forward-deployed. Today, acoustic-based positioning systems (LBL, SBL and USBL) have offered good solutions. However, in the case of remote clandestine missions the pre-deployment of multiple beacons and/or buoys for positioning is impractical. Also, the cost of high accuracy USBL systems hosted on surface platforms is prohibitive for UUV applications. As a result, accurate positioning in remote locations is becoming a key to the success of future UUV missions. In Phase I of this work, GTI will develop several design concepts for a directional transponder mountable onto a UUV type SAHRV, to provide positioning of a clandestine UUV network. The approach offers a low cost/lightweight/small size solution that meets requirements for positioning accuracy, covert operation and operation in shallow water. The concept is based on proprietary broadband adaptive technology successfully demonstrated on other DoD programs, and based on GTI?s past experience in tracking UUV platforms from acoustic sensors mounted onto a UUV. Offering a solution to accurate positioning of UUV platforms in SW applies to many NAVY problems in the littoral environment. UUV use for Ocean Sampling Networks, MCM missions as well as ASW missions have been clearly identified in the NAVY?s current FNCs and most recently laid out in the NAVY UUV Master Plan (April 2000). The approach proposed here combines advanced proprietary broadband acoustic algorithms for detection, direction finding, acoustic network communication, covert operation along with innovative acoustic array designs for UUV platforms. The impact of GTI's broadband technology goes beyond the specific application of undersea platform positioning. This technology can significantly contribute to several DoD programs such as the SAHRV program, the Autonomous Operation FNC, the Organic MCM FNC, NAVSEA Manta program, as well as various DARPA's ASW programs using UUV or small undersea vehicles as forward-deployed platforms. Other DoD applications include positioning and tracking for divers operations, for Explosive Ordnance Disposal, Special Operations (SEAL), and Search and Rescue. DoD applications are a significant part of GTI's commercialization plan. However, commercial undersea applications in the private sector are being identified for the next generation survey platforms (ROVs and UUVs) for cable laying, pipe laying, environmental and gas industry

MICHIGAN AEROSPACE CORPORATION
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 975-8777
Mr. Carl A. Nardell
NAVY 02-083      Selected for Award
Title:Composite Ruggedized Tunable Fabry-Perot Etalon
Abstract:It is the objective of this proposal to explore three innovations that would improve this technology in a way that would result in a commercially available etalon for use as a filter spectrometer, or imaging Fabry-Perot system for spaceflight use in unusually harsh environments. The first innovation involves the development of an implementation of an existing proven design using materials that would improve the weight and thermal performance of the system, such as composites. The finesse of an etalon is strongly dependent upon the design of the mount in which it is housed. The second objective is to develop an alternative thermal compensation scheme to achieve a zero temperature coefficient in the motor metering system. The third objective would be to design an implementation of this etalon as a filter in an imaging remote sensing system. This third objective is being proposed as an option. The result of this work would be a design for rugged tunable Fabry-Perot etalons that would be capable of surviving launch into space. These etalons would be available at costs that have historically not been possible, since a great deal of heritage will be collected and leveraged in this proposed effort.

RL ASSOCIATES
4 Tanglewood DR.
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 269-1694
Dr. Richard Billmers
NAVY 02-083      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a High-Efficiency Ultra-Narrowband Volume Holographic Optical Filter
Abstract:RL Associates plans to study the feasability in phase I and build in phase II an optical filter based upon volume holographic diffraction gratings permanently written in thick photopolymeric materials. We hope to demonstrate in this study that this type of filter is feasible to build and will be able to withstand the harsh operating environment of a spaced-based or airborne military platform. the filter will have the following characteristics: Operating Wavelength: Visible (currently 514.7 nm), Filter Linewidth: < 0.1nm, Tuning sensitivity: ~0.5 /nm, Tuning Range at least 3 nm Efficiency: > 75%, Aperture:~ 1.5". WE believe that the ultra-narrowbandpass optical filter based on volume holographic diffraction gratings in thick polymeric materials has numerous commercial applications and benefits. It will clearly increase the S/N of military systems employing light detection and ranging during daytime operations. It will also benefit the netwrok communications industry as it can be used as a wavelength division muliptlexer as well as sattelite and spaced-based communications.

INTERNATIONAL RADIATION DETECTORS INC.
2527 W. 237th Street, Unit A
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 534-3661
Dr. Raj Korde
NAVY 02-084      Selected for Award
Title:EUV Active Pixel Sensor Array
Abstract:Design of EUV Active Pixel Sensor (APS) array with 100% internal quantum efficiency photodiodes has been proposed. Design of the photosensing element of the APS array is based on our AXUV photodiode products which are being used by NIST and other national laboratories as transfer standards in 1 nm to 250 nm spectral region. APS arrays having 100 micron X 100 micron pixels with directly deposited EUV filter will be designed and fabricated during the phase I research. This will investigate feasibility of final APS array fabrication in Phase II. In contrast to tens of k-rads hardness of CCDs, the proposed arrays are expected to have a hardness of 1 G-rad when exposed to EUV photons. Owing to their superior radiation hardness, the developed arrays will be extremely useful for EUV imaging of the sun, planets, asteroids and other stars. Other applications of the fabricated arrays will be in plasma diagnostics, UV/EUV lithography and soft x-ray microscopy of biological specimens.

SPECTRASCAN
9362 Malahine Drive
Huntington Beach, CA 92646
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 403-4675
Dr. Rodolfo Iturriaga
NAVY 02-085      Selected for Award
Title:A Compact Fluorescence-Scattering System
Abstract:An innovative flow through system with independent sensing units to determine the scattering and fluorescence properties of particulate and dissolved matter is proposed. Near-forward and near-backward scattering will be measured using a highly collimated 660nm diode laser beam, and a set of CCD-Shutter-systems positioned such that the light beam axis intersects their center. Two CCD arrays will be used to determine the Volume Scattering Function (VSF) from 0 to 5 deg (near-forward) and from 175 to 180 deg (near-backward) with 0.005 deg resolution. Using a CCD will allow continuous monitoring of the quality of the beam and consequently provide the ability to correct for misalignments while the instrument is operating. In addition it will simplify calibration. This will allow measurement of the beam attenuation of the water flowing through the system. Fluorescence measurements will be performed using a short-arc high energy, UV flash. The spectral emission of the natural dissolved and particulate fluorochromes, will be measured using a miniature spectrometer diode array module. The Compact Fluorescence-Scattering System (FSS) will be field deployable and capable of functioning as an autonomous unit on different environmental platforms or as a bench-top instrument. The versatility, compactness and low cost of the proposed system will facilitate its application in any environmental context to monitor water quality, such as fresh water reservoirs, industrial outflows, sewage treatment, aquaculture installations and many others. The system is directly applicable for naval needs to assess water clarity, lidar propagation calculations and target recognition efficiency, and to provide a ground-truth calibration of remote sensing systems. In oceanic waters, the resolving power for laser line scanning imaging system is limited by (M. Strand 1995) very-narrow-angle forward/backward light scattering .

INDIGO SYSTEMS CORPORATION
5385 Hollister Ave #103
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 690-6620
Dr. Eric Beuville
NAVY 02-086      Selected for Award
Title:Compact Electronics and Segmented Nuclear Detectors for Radiation Imaging
Abstract:Detection, identification and localization of radioactive materials in a terrorist or battlefield environment can be achieved with a position sensitive gamma ray detector. The detector provides identification of nuclear materials of strategic interest, and can determine the location and distribution of these materials. Broader applications for the same technology include nuclear medicine and high-energy astrophysics. This proposal focuses on the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for highly segmented semi-conducting detectors such as germanium, or silicon. PHASE I: During the Phase I of this project Indigo Systems proposes to complete a trade study of a state-of-the-art multi-channel integrated circuit readout for a position sensitive gamma ray detector. Specifications and requirements to achieve high efficiency gamma ray detection will be proposed and analyzed for different type of available detectors. Two readout architectures will be proposed and analyzed, the first classic type of architecture includes a fast timing discriminator, providing the time of arrival of the detector signal, and a shaping amplifier with peak detection providing pulse amplitude for spectroscopy. The second architecture proposed will include an analog pipeline memory. The detector signal after amplification and filtering is sampled and stored at high rate onto successive memory elements, preserving, with the pulse amplitude, the shape of the signal. The number of storage elements and the sampling rate define the depth of the pipeline memory. All channel signals are stored simultaneously allowing additional off-chip signal processing to improve g ray source localization. Simultaneous sensing and readout (write and read) eliminates the dead time necessary to avoid pileup and will allow higher event rate capability. Amplifier gain and filtering time constant programmability combined with the pipeline memory architecture will be suitable to readout various types of detectors for extended imaging applications. Trade-offs of the two readout approaches will be analyzed. Preliminary simulations and estimated performance in terms of timing and energy resolution, as well as power consumption will be completed. It is anticipated that the Phase I will last 3 months. PHASE I Option: The Phase I continuation (Phase I Option) will last 2 months during which time Indigo will begin the preliminary detailed design process of the ROIC. The outcome will be an Interim Design Report. PHASE II: During the Phase II, Indigo will design, fabricate and test the ROIC. The ROIC will be assembled to available germanium or silicon double-sided strip detectors provided by either the Navy Research Laboratory or the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to demonstrate the performance of radioactive material detection and localization. PHASE III: During the Phase III, Indigo will transition the technology to a production scale in support the manufacture of fieldable nuclear detector systems. The commercial applications of these electronics include gamma ray detection for nuclear non-proliferation applications and prevention of radioactive material smuggling, for astrophysics applications, PET scanners and other nuclear medicine imaging applications.

QUINSTAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
Dr. H. J. Kuno
NAVY 02-087      Selected for Award
Title:Antenna for Shipboard Missile Detection System
Abstract:Millimeter-wave can penetrate fog, smoke, clouds, and dust. Because of the short wavelength, millimeter-waves, when used in sensor systems such as radars, can provide sensing accuracy. In addition, relatively small antennas can provide high gain and narrow beamwidth at millimeter-wave frequencies. For these reasons, a great deal of interest and effort has been directed toward the development of millimeter-wave missile seekers over the years. It is widely projected that anti-ship missile systems will be operated in the Ka-band and W-band where low atmospheric attenuation windows exist around 35 GHz and 94 GHz, respectively. In order to defend ships against such threats, detection systems with a high probability of intercept (detection) will be needed. One of the key elements that will enable the development of such a system is a high gain omni-directional antenna. The proposed program is aimed at the development of omnidirectional millimeter-wave antennas with high gain in the elevation plane, with the peak gain pointed toward the horizon for early detection of incoming missile attacks. The antennas will be able to detect vertical and horizontal polarizations. They will be small and will be able to be inserted into existing systems. The omni-directional millimeter-wave antenna design to be developed will have potential opportunities for wider applications. Examples of wider applications include the extension of the technology to W-band missile detection systems, Ka-band LMDS systems, and millimeter-wave wireless local area network systems.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Kevin C. Higgins
NAVY 02-087      Selected for Award
Title:Antenna for Shipboard Missile Detection System
Abstract:Current shipboard electronic warfare (EW) systems do not adequately cover the full frequency range of likely future radar missile seeker threats. Toyon Research Corporation proposes a "building-block" antenna approach that would provide low cost omni-directional azimuth antenna coverage for detecting threat signals in an ultrawide frequency (through Ka) band, with a straightforward growth path to localizing the threat accurately in azimuth and elevation by adding additional building-block antenna sets along with beam-forming hardware, but without an antenna set redesign. The proposed antenna comprises three parts: power divider, multi-element notch antenna array covering signals in an ultra-wide frequency band, and a radome/polarizer. Two to four antenna sets, located either together or on different parts of a ship, can cover 360 degrees in azimuth. Future improvements using arrays of such antenna sets can be combined and phased to provide scanned beams or multiple fixed beams for threat localization. Toyon's experience with such antenna systems is extensive with more than 20 years' experience designing and building the SLQ-32 Semi-Omni Antenna (including a radome/polarizer) as well as two predecessor antenna upgrades. In 2001, members of the Toyon team completed a similar Ka-band missile seeker antenna with integral power divider and phase shifters. The AN/SLQ-32 missile detection system is currently used on nearly 500 Navy ships. The proposed antenna system could be used on all ships that presently have the AN/SLQ-32 system. In addition to shipboard locations the Navy LAMPS Helicopter has a missile detection system. The proposed antenna system could also be used on all ships that presently have LAMPS Helicopters.

TOXSOR, INC.
PO Box 1174
St. Charles, MO 63302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(636) 949-2664
Mr. Stanley Wilson
NAVY 02-088      Selected for Award
Title:Buoyancy Control Package for Miniature Undersea Sensors
Abstract:The proposed is an buoyancy control module based on the "Cuttlefish". It substitutes man-made Smart Material and MEMS technology to duplicate capabilities occuring in nature. The proposed strategy would emulate the functionality of the Cuttlefish and its natural capability to maintain neutrally buoyancy. The solution is envisioned as a smart Micro Fluidic Control System that would be etched into a single micro-chip with a combination of channels, pumps, valves and associated control circuitry. The challenge in the proposed work will be the merging of smart materials and MEMS components with the associated control systems for buoyancy and propulsion while working within the low-energy and size restraints of the system. The key to the success of this proposal will be leveraging the diverse technologies and techniques to meet U.S.Navy requirements. The research is expected to establish the micro-machining of smart materials and micro-concepts for buoyancy control as energy-efficient and scalable solution.

WEBB RESEARCH CORPORATION
82 Technology Park Drive
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 548-2077
Mr. Douglas C. Webb
NAVY 02-088      Selected for Award
Title:Buoyancy Control Package for Miniature Undersea Sensors
Abstract:Littoral antisubmarine warfare and surveillance plans incorporate a vision of a distributed network of miniature, neutrally buoyant, undersea sensors capable of maintaining a desired depth at 10 to 1,000 meters or a position on a 5 to 20 degree Celcius temperature contour. A miniature vehicle is proposed which will carry the sensor system and will equilibrate on a predetermined isothermal surface. The operation exploits a change-of-state in a control substance, which acts to both measure the temperature and deliver work to change the vehicle buoyancy. No battery or other stored energy is used. The work done results from heat flow from the ocean thermocline. This approach can also be used to create a vehicle which cycles vertically indefinitely, a perpetual oscillator, which draws all propulsion energy from the thermocline. Very small devices are practical. Initial designs are for the sensor package total volume of approximately 32 ml. A provision for one time ascent to the surface for radio communication is included. The use of a large number of smart, expendable, miniature probes for detection of submarines in the littoral environment may prove to be an important Navy tool. If a success for the Navy, it would be procured in larger quantity, i.e., 10,000 per batch, an attractive commercial opportunity. Quantity manufacture may result in an attractive low-cost platform with application in dynamic littoral ocean observation, turbulence, fronts, internal waves, or in monitoring dispersion of toxic plumes.

METATECH CORPORATION
358 S. Fairview, Suite E
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 243-0681
Dr. Tom Larkin
NAVY 02-089      Selected for Award
Title:Estimation of the Electromagnetic Energy Protection Provided for Electronic Equipment by Various Dielectric Materials and Shielding Configurations
Abstract:A statistical methodology for susceptibility analysis of electronic devices under illumination of electromagnetic fields is proposed. The methods cast susceptibility data sets into a generalized form so that different data sets can be pooled to increase the empirical basis for drawing inferences. Given underpinning data for a specific type of electronic device, the methods permit the device's susceptibility probabilities to be estimated in new scenarios for a wide range of EM stresses. Any problem concerning the susceptibility of devices to radiated EM fields can be addressed using the methodology, pointing to commercial application in the EMI or IEMI areas. The methodology can provide more efficient means for commercial EMC/EMI testing of commercial and consumer elecronic equipment to standards requirements.

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES, INC.
6100 Uptown Blvd. NE, Suite 700
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 861-0503
Mr. Ted Lehman
NAVY 02-089      Selected for Award
Title:Shielding Effectiveness Estimation using Statistical Modeling Techniques
Abstract:An investigation to determine the applicability of statistical modeling techniques to shielding effectiveness estimation of complex, irregular structures is proposed. In particular, the ability to extrapolate existing shielding effectiveness data to similar structures (similitude) is of interest. Accuracy, efficiency, validation and usefulness are the evaluation criteria used to establish applicability. Using statistical techniques, it has already been demonstrated that the shielding effectiveness of electrically large, metallic walled irregular structures can be uniquely defined. Techniques for accurately measuring and estimating the shielding effectiveness exist. Validation, measurement and computational costs are minimal and applications of similitude are straightforward. The definition is also compatible with vulnerability assessment requirements so it is also useful. The proposed effort will investigate the applicability of these techniques and/or modification of these techniques to structures with different wall materials and/or smaller electrical sizes. Wall materials of interest include dielectric and combinations of dielectric/metal (re-enforced concrete). Accurate, cost effective techniques for estimating the shielding effectiveness of a wide class of structures would provide lower cost solutions for protecting critical electronic systems. This approach would provide the tools necessary for identifying the most vulnerable components in electronic systems. Potential applications of this technology are: military and civilian aircraft, ships, communication facilities, data processing centers, control rooms.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-6600
Dr. Werner Thiel
NAVY 02-090      Selected for Award
Title:Numerical Modeling of Complex Electronic Systems
Abstract:A hybrid technique combining frequency and time domain methods is proposed to accurately and efficiently model the energy coupling in complex electronic systems. With a hybrid technique, each sub-circuit of a complex system can be analyzed by the most proper numerical method so that the computational effort can be significantly decreased. Whereas large-scale regions will be characterized by a Haar-based Multiresolution Time-Domain (MRTD) scheme, sub-circuits containing a lot of details are modeled with the Method of Moments (MoM), Finite Element (FEM) or Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) technique. Huygens surface currents are applied on the boundary surfaces of the sub-geometries to interface the frequency and time-domain methods. In addition to the MoM method, an analytical approach is proposed to model penetrable conductive shields in FDTD or MRTD efficiently. Furthermore, for highly nonlinear sub-circuits, an extended FDTD method will be available and will be combined with the MRTD method. Finally, the computational efficiency of the hybrid method will be demonstrated by a comparison of the accuracy and computation time with a brute-force full-wave method. The outcome of this project will benefit electronic system designers in both the military and industry by letting them accurately characterize the electromagnetic coupling effects among the various sub-circuits.

RM ASSOCIATES
1211 Deerfield Drive
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 865-1298
Dr. Raj Mittra
NAVY 02-090      Selected for Award
Title:Numerical Modeling of Complex Electronic Systems
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop strategies for electromagnetic modeling of highly complex systems by using a suite of Computational Electromagnetic (CEM) codes based on a variety of algorithms, and hybridizations thereof. Although a wide array of CEM tools are currently available for modeling objects with arbitrary geometries and inhomogeneities, they are typically limited, severely, in the size of the problem they can handle. Furthermore, many of the existing codes do not have an interface that enables the user to conveniently enter the object geometry using their own CAD tools, and to view the fields and induced currents computed by the code without considerable amount of manipulation of the output data set generated by the modeling code. Given this state of the existing CEM codes, we propose to develop novel approaches, described below, that would substantially extend the range of applicability of existing CEM tools and enable them to be scaled to much larger problems. We also propose to develop User interfaces for the codes that would work with existing databases or CAD files for the objects in a convenient manner. Anticipated improvements in the CEM tools would be of immediate use to several other projects of interest to various DoD agencies, especially the Navy, in connection with EMI analysis of proposed or existing designs, for which no accurate tools are currently available.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-3500
Ms. Mike Poole
NAVY 02-091      Selected for Award
Title:Data Standardization and Brokering
Abstract:The problem of effecting data standardization and brokering for purposes of infrastructure protection is one that unavoidably involves a wide range of types of domain knowledge, data sources and client types. Furthermore, information requirements may be unpredictable but also require fast and efficient gathering of complete and reliable data. IET contends that this problem is inherently bifurcated. Solutions resulting in robust systems must involve both the implementation of semantically rich metadata standards and consideration of procedures to reason with imperfect query results. IET will develop a semantically rich metadata standard to use in marking up data sources within the energy sectors and demonstrate how this can result in efficient and accurate data matching between client needs and source. IET will implement their experience in Bayesian reasoning to offer unique solutions to the semantic interoperability problems by developing methods to reason about knowledge credibility from network and metadata information as well as extract useable knowledge when query results are imperfect. The result of this research effort will be the design and prototype of a brokering environment and markup language that provides a central medium to leverage software applications and data being managed by various communities supporting critical infrastructure assurance initiatives. There are several organizations within the government in general and the DoD in particular that are potential customers for this technology. These include the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) and DARPA's Control Agent Based Systems (CoABS) grid as well as national organizations such as the Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs). The commercial market includes the commercial components of the critical infrastructure grid that are going to be required to comply with government regulations and standards regarding data sharing are good candidates.

SOHAR INCORPORATED
8421 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 201
Beverly Hills, CA 90211
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(323) 653-4717
Mr. Myron Hecht
NAVY 02-092      Selected for Award
Title:Infrastructure Vulnerability Analysis System
Abstract:This research will develop a methodology and a decision support tool to determine vulnerabilities for identified threats and hazards, determine appropriate countermeasures, and provide for infrastructure facilities and services to military facilities. The key innovation in this research is the integration of dependency graphs and Fault Tree Analysis. Methods of dependency analysis will include Colored Petri Nets and Simulation. A geographical information system will be used to select critical infrastructure facilities. The benefit is a scalable solution that can address both individual infrastructure vulnerabilities and the consequences of a facility loss on the "dependency web" of the military facility. In the Phase I research, we will document the methodology, develop a prototype tool we call RAID (Rapid Assessment of Infrastructure Dependencies), and demonstrate feasibility. The net result of this research, if successful, will be a decision support system that can be used as a planning aid to identify and eliminate vulnerabilities as well as to determine the optimal approach to restoring services after a series of terrorist attacks. The Decision Support Tool (RAID) emerging from this research will be of value not only to the U.S. Navy but also to many Federal, State, and Local Government authorities responsible for planning and responding to terrorist attacks and disasters. The tool may also be useful to the risk management departments of corporations and insurance companies as well.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORPORATION
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Mr. Vinod Sharma
NAVY 02-096      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Noise, High Efficiency Propeller Designs for Small UAVs
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop low noise propellers for application in a UAV concept called SWARM. We propose a combined effort of theoretical and experimental studies to be fully responsive to the need of the SWARM program. Accurate Automation Corporation (AAC) offers a comprehensive approach to design and manufacture a propeller that reduces the noise by 12dBA with respect to the commercially available propeller for similar thrust requirements. There is an uncompromising need for quiet operation of the UAVs to minimize detection by listening devices. The noise generated by a propeller must be lowered to make it consistent with the remaining components, such as exhaust, of a propulsion system. AAC is uniquely positioned to expand the propeller design experience gained during the Gun Launched Observation Vehicle program under Navy (NSWC) supervision. As an optional task, we offer to conduct extensive testing and refinement of our propeller. During the follow-on phases, AAC proposes to study the acoustic noise suppression due to unsteady pressures generated by propeller blade vibrations. Shunted piezoelectric actuators strategically embedded in the blades will be considered for blade vibration suppression in the Phase II and III of this program. AAC has an outstanding record in the UAV development arena. We have integrated from propellers to small turbo-jet engines in our UAVs. The quiet propeller is a critical component for our future platforms. We are investing Venture Capital funds to supplement the tasks required to perform on this project in a time and cost constrained manner. There is need for this technology for the hobby market as well as the large aircraft with propellers. At the end of the Phase II effort, AAC expects to have an advanced propeller design and manufacturing process in place.

CONTINENTAL CONTROLS AND DESIGN, INC.
1921 N. Gaffey Suite J
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 831-8669
Mr. James P. Hynes
NAVY 02-096      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Noise, High Efficiency Propeller Designs for Small UAVs
Abstract:This topic addresses the design and development of novel propeller shapes, configurations and construction that significantly reduce the radiated noise of small propellers while simultaneously maintaining relatively high propulsive efficiency. Propellers are fast becoming the dominant noise source in small UAVs, as muffler designs improve. The conflicting goals of low noise, high efficiency and low cost are complicated by structural and aerodynamic interaction with the single cylinder diesel engine and airframe. In this project we draw from international expertise to analytically and experimentally pursue optimized quiet, efficient and inexpensive designs. Besides the obvious military application, this technology will benefit model airplane hobbyists and residents of nearby flying fields as open space becomes increasingly scarce.

CONTINUUM DYNAMICS, INC.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 538-0444
Dr. Todd R. Quackenbush
NAVY 02-096      Selected for Award
Title:Design Technology for Quiet UAV Propellers
Abstract:The coming generation of small, lightweight UAVs will require new quiet propeller designs to maximize acoustic stealth while building on off-the-shelf hardware and leveraging existing design technology to minimize cost. To meet an aggressive development schedule, it is necessary to exploit validated design analysis tools to minimize the expensive and time-consuming cut and try aspects of wind tunnel propeller testing. The proposed effort will build on the experience of a proven design team to develop a quiet UAV propeller that maintains high efficiency while realizing 12+ dB noise reductions. The effort will use established noise analysis tools to accelerate the design process as well as to allow the assessment of noise sources due to unsteady interactions not easily simulated in a wind tunnel environment. Phase I will also exploit recent insights into small scale (low Re) airfoil behavior as well as enhancements to established proprotor modeling and optimization software to support a wind tunnel testing effort that will be undertaken to validate the predicted performance and noise levels. Following demonstration of promising designs, a manufacturing plan will be developed to ensure that cost and manufacturability targets can be met for production versions of the new propeller hardware. The recent rapid expansion of micro aircraft roles in defense applications is being mirrored by growth in possible civil roles for such concepts, including surveillance, imaging, and inspection. The long term goal of this effort would be to produce and market a family of quiet, efficient propellers for next generation UAVs, as well as software to support optimization of such vehicles through advanced design tools.

DELTA GROUP INTERNATIONAL LLC
1049 Tari Drive, Suite B
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 405-1143
Dr. Ben Wel-C. Sim
NAVY 02-096      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Noise, High Efficiency Propeller Designs for Small UAVs
Abstract:The objectives of this Phase I SBIR are to design, fabricate, test, and evaluate low noise, highly efficient propellers at two different airspeeds over a range of propeller rpm. The noise and performance results will be compared with the best (chosen a priori) commercially available two-bladed propeller. The quiet, highly efficient propeller will be designed to maintain optimum propulsive efficiency while still meeting the low noise objectives. This Phase I program uses a combined theoretical-experimental approach with an emphasis on producing propeller designs that meet noise and performance goals with less emphasis on mass production design and manufacturing. Design variables such as propeller diameter, blade number, blade shape, etc., will be systematically analyzed to achieve program objectives. A novel hub/blade design will facilitate parametric testing so that theory can be validated early and often. Manufacturing techniques are developed to produce five propellers of the same design for testing by the Navy at the end of Phase I. In the later stages of the program (Phases II and III), new designs will be proposed that further reduce noise levels while maintaining good performance. Mass production methods will be employed to produce propellers that are durable and consistently perform as designed. The realization of a very quiet, highly efficient, safe, cost-effective propeller for small UAVs will be welcomed by DoD, other government agencies, and the model airplane hobbyist. There are many military needs and requirements for this technology, but there may be even more demand for this technology for civilian applications. Having a quiet propeller (together with a quiet engine) will help make model airplane flying less of an annoyance to the urban communities that normally surround practice airfields. If the cost, performance, and safety of the resulting propeller is comparable to the two bladed rotor, a very large market will develop. Because of the increased interest on security and surveillance, there is little doubt of the need of this technology. The Navy has already indicated a potential need for several thousand quiet propellers for use in their small UAV program. A market study of these needs for government and civilian uses will be conducted in Phase III of this program. Commercialization for the government and civilian markets will be approached in several ways. All phases of DGI's small UAV propeller program will be open to the government, the small propeller manufacturing industry, and the hobbyist. We will solicit ideas from the users and manufacturers through our local contacts. When we have documented significant noise reductions with good performance, we will report these results in the open literature. In Phase III of the program, when the final propeller designs are tested by the Navy, we will encourage flight demonstrations with the military and civilian flying clubs to demonstrate the operational potential of this low noise propeller. In Phase III, DGI will also use the chosen manufacturing partner or subcontractor's marketing network to commercialize the low noise, highly efficient propeller. Coincident with these efforts, DGI will make special presentations to interested members of government agencies and commercial vendors.

GLOBAL AIRCRAFT CORPORATION
P.O. Box 850
Starkville, MS 39760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 324-2800
Dr. Michael R. Smith
NAVY 02-096      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Noise, High Efficiency Propeller Designs for Small UAVs
Abstract:The proposed SBIR program offers a unique opportunity to use design and fabrication technology developed in recent government and industry funded programs to design a low-cost, high-performance, light-weight, low-noise propeller for Small UAV's. Global Aircraft Corp.(GAC) has the technology to design and manufacture composite propellers with scimitar shaped blades that flex to change pitch. This ability to flex allows the propeller to provide high performance over a wide range of operating conditions. This technology was developed under NASA SBIR and NASA AGATE funding. The design process has been recently automated using a rules-based computer program that performs finite analysis of blade geometry to show the effect of operating condition on blade deflection and vibratory modes that must be addressed in a structurally sound propeller design. The objective of the proposed SBIR Phase I project is to design, fabricate, and test proof-of-concept propellers that produce 12 dB less noise than commercially available hobby industry 2-blade propellers. The Phase II work is to further reduce the noise of the propeller developed in Phase I by 8 or more dB while maintaining performance within 5% of the Phase I design. The proposed SBIR project will increase the knowledge base concerning the design of low-noise, high-efficiency propellers for small UAVs. This knowledge can be applied to the design of propellers for numerous military and industrial UAVs, most of which currently use propellers designs based on seventy year old propeller technology. The technology generated in this project is directly applicable to design and production of propellers for the model airplane industry and will result in much quieter and more efficient operations. The knowledge and experience gained in this project will also extend to the design and production of propellers for low power recreational aircraft and general aviation airplanes.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CORP.
15210 Dino Drive
Burtonsville, MD 20866
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 989-8050
Dr. Anthony Barbera
NAVY 02-097      Selected for Award
Title:Cooperative Behavior and Control in Groups of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:The goal of this proposed effort is build a modular and expandable control system architecture that will flexibly accommodate multiple autonomous unmanned aircraft, which must perform assigned missions in coordinated cooperation with all mission aircraft. The control system must feature the ability to adaptively respond to losses during the mission, such that degraded communications or destruction of aircraft generate new allocations of responsibilities among mission members. A control system backbone in the form of a hierarchical organizational structure of agent control modules simultaneously executing many layers of control and planning in real-time will be created. This will be accomplished by applying an advanced control system concept, called RCS (Real-time Control System), to the task of coordinated control of multiple unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). This organizational structure can carry out cooperative autonomous behavior in large groups of UAVs in various tactical situations. This control system will exhibit varying autonomous capabilities, such as regrouping with losses, reallocation of resources, and reordering of priorities, while carrying out a variety of mission assignments including reconnaissance, searching, tracking, relay communications, target identification and navigational guidance. Autonomous vehicles including land vehicles, aircraft, and undersea vehicles, have demonstrated many advantages over manned vehicles. Complex tasks have been performed either by remotely piloted vehicles with a person executing the control, or with the vehicle executing some tasks using an automated control system without full time human insertion. The complexity of the vehicles is moving in two developmental axes simultaneously: viz. the addition of more complexity to the vehicle as evidenced by larger and more integrated sensor suites, and the addition of more vehicles to form ensembles of vehicles operating simultaneously. This task addresses the needs to move into the multiple, simultaneous, autonomous vehicle operational scenario. While the starting point of design is a relatively simple individual vehicle operating in an ensemble, this scenario can be extended into groups of more complex vehicles. The opportunity presents itself then for scalable ensembles of vehicles ranging from low unit cost vehicles to higher unit cost vehicles all operating on a control system that is easily reconfigurable as the mission and the vehicle changes. The concept is not unique to the military but could be quite interesting to any organization interested in large area survey, such as natural mineral survey.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Mr. Michael L. Curry
NAVY 02-097      Selected for Award
Title:Control Architecures for Autonomous Teams (CAAT)
Abstract:Cooperative, autonomous control is required to realize the full potential of autonomous UAVs in a tactical military setting. This proposal addresses the cooperative platform control problem where the control task is to coordinate teams of small, expendable, platforms to perform Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) tasks. When viewed as a centralized control problem under uncertainty, Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) provides the optimal control strategy for this stochastic problem; however, this solution approach is not computationally feasible for most problems, and requires excessive centralization of information and computation. Moreover, the impact of imperfect communication performance decreases the overall performance achievable by large, centrally controlled teams. We propose innovative distributed control architectures that extend previous ALPHATECH Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP) successes to cooperative control of teams of UAVs. ADP is used as a basis for control of centralized and decentralized architectures. The Phase I work, organized around a simulation-based trade study, begins with the evaluation of a centralized architecture. Insights into the centralized implementation are used to identify and address significant issues organic to all decentralized architectures. Phase II extends the work of Phase I by incorporating additional dimensions in the trade space and increasing the size and realism of the simulation. The proposed technology would enable autonomous teams of distributed UAVs to cooperatively perform reconnaissance, search, tracking, relay communications, target identification, and provide navigational guidance in a highly dynamic, uncertain environment, with limited human input. This concept of operations would support a rapid tailoring of ISR resources, and thus achieve the benefits of the large more traditional UAVs with greatly reduced cost and increased effectiveness. In the commercial sector, this technology is directly transferable to many applications involving autonomous systems, such as deep-sea exploration and salvage, hazardous material handling, flexible manufacturing systems and space-based assembly and repair.

BIG FUN DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
620 Lakeshore Drive
Duluth, GA 30096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 300-0308
Mr. Dov Jacobson
NAVY 02-097      Selected for Award
Title:Cooperative Behavior and Control in Groups of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:SUAVE (Simulated Unmanned Air Vehicle Experience) Big Fun, a commercial game development studio, proposes a novel approach to identifying superior strategies for UAV communication and cooperation. SUAVE is an accurate UAV simulation presented as entertainment - as a game. A variety of strategies under consideration are programmed into the game. It is published online, and played immediately by tens of thousands of individuals. Each player eagerly, intelligently, and uniquely challenges all these candidate strategies, seeking weaknesses. The game server monitors outcomes. Superior control structures very quickly emerge from the flawed ones. The bad are abandoned. The good are improved. Large, heterogenous databases of experience are collected overnight. By day, strategists can repair their wounded algorithms and send them back into battle, iterating nightly toward perfection. Better still, the game permits players to script their own strategies. The creative energy of a million minds is applied to both sides of the equation. This is the natural process of evolution - at warp speed. Like natural evolution, it exploits both dramatic developmental breakthroughs and microscopic refinements applied over and over. This project will produce a very capable web based unmanned air battle simulator. It will be available to large numbers of simultaneous participants. It will be accurate, secure and responsive. Aerial battles are an extremely popular game genre and a game that encourages programmability would remain popular for a long time. (Big Fun is in the business of producing computer games, and has good relationships with most game publishers.)

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Ajay Verma
NAVY 02-097      Selected for Award
Title:Command and Control for Active Intra-Group Co-Operation of UAVs (C-CAGO)
Abstract:In past, the major thrust of research has been on developing algorithms for cooperative control of a group of entities such as uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs), but there has not been any effort for the integrated design of command and control of the group and the communication layer. The practical implementation of the command and control of a group is limited by the available bandwidth for the communication. This proposal will focuses on optimizing the bandwidth requirement without compromising the functionality of command and control of UAVs. The major task of this project is to design a communication network for supporting the command and control of a platoon of UAVs for a task of formation flying. The overall design should provide robust control of the group when: bandwidth available for communication is limited, data transmitted may be corrupted, data received may be corrupted, there is loss or gain of UAVs during the operation . The major objectives of cooperative control for UAVs is to solve the high end problem for: formation configuration control, i.e. intra-group control of individual entities maintaining the formation, and restructuring of the formation as well as communication layer in the event of accretion or attrition of UAVs. The proposed effort will be invaluable for the implementing cooperative control for a platoon of uninhabited aerial vehicles. The technology that will be developed in this project has a wide scope of commercialization. This technology will also be applicable to a wide variety of uninhabited space vehicles, ground vehicles ( UGVs) and underwater vehicles (UUVs).

C-K TECHNOLOGIES L.L.C.
116 Holloway Road
Ballwin, MO 63011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(636) 394-3331
Mr. Harold McCormick
NAVY 02-098      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Noise, High Efficiency Propeller Designs for Small UAVs
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop an expansion chamber/exhaust muffler system which will optimize the fuel economy/power density of small two-cycle compression engines while simultaneously providing 16 db or greater noise reduction. State-of-the-art validated computer models will be employed with the objective of minimizing the number of experimental iterations required to achieve the objective. The current commercial practice for producing expansion chmber/muffler systems for two-cycle engines (chainsaws, weed eaters, etc.) is divided into two categories:  Low volume engine production (less than 1,000 units per year): The engine producer contracts with an outside supplier for the design, manufacture, and supply of the unit. The current business model of C-K Technologies would be to act as the designer/supplier of systems for the low-volume two-cycle engine applications. An identified market exist specifically for noise reduction of model airplane engines. This market will be served by producing product for the engine producer as well as kits for retrofitting existing engines. These kits would be provided for distributors who provide product for this market.  Mid volume/high volume engine production: Due to the need to be cost competitive in the marketplace, the engine manufacturer typically produces the expansion chamber muffler integral to the engine manufacturing operation. The objective of new and advanced technologies developed above through work funded in the Phase I/Phase II portions of this project is to develop a proprietary position which would be licensed to the engine manufacturer.

KALSCOTT ENGINEERING, INC.
104 Walker Pl.
Lawrence, KS 66049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 760-1371
Mr. Tom Sherwood
NAVY 02-098      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Noise, High Efficiency Muffler Designs for Small UAVs
Abstract:The role of small acoustically stealthy UAVs for battlefield operations is identified. The challenges associated with noise reduction for such vehicles is described. Novel approaches to reducing the noise emanating from the engine exhaust using an advanced muffler are presented. These include custom muffler designs, and matching of the aeroacoustic characteristics of the engine and the muffler for optimum efficiency, while reducing noise. The goal is to develop a lightweight (<100 grams), low volume (<24 cu. in. volume, with a max. feature size of 5 in.), low-cost (<$35 each) muffler that retains high efficiency, while reducing noise by 16 dB in Phase I and an extra 10 dB in Phase II. A detailed Phase I work plan is presented, covering analysis, design, build, testing and design evolution tasks. The commercial market for noise-reduction devices is rapidly expanding due to increasing noise concerns in many communities. Small mufflers can be adapted for use with small gas engines in generators, all classes of motor vehicles, gas-powered tools, model vehicles, and ultralights.

SAGETECH CORPORATION
2170 W. Eugene Street
Hood River, OR 97031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 386-6999
Mr. Kelvin Scribner
NAVY 02-098      Selected for Award
Title:Very Low Noise, High Efficiency Propeller Designs for Small UAVs
Abstract:Sagetech Corporation proposes by this document to perform Navy SBIR task N02-098, Very Low Noise, High Efficiency Muffler Designs for Small UAV's (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). There are several discrete sources of noise in small aircraft: propeller noise, engine crankcase radiation, engine inlet (carburetor) noise, exhaust noise, and vibration induced airframe noise. Other work (N02-096) addresses propeller noise, the present solicitation addresses exhaust noise, and the other sources of noise are addressed elsewhere, insignificant, or unaccounted for. Sagetech Corporation is prepared to address engine crankcase noise, vibration induced airframe noise, and engine inlet noise should the need arise. The stock OS Max LA 0.4 engine and muffler was analyzed and the task found to be feasible. A design methodology comprising of equal parts computer assisted noise modeling, test bench hardware verification, and actual hardware noise measurement is proposed to rapidly converge on a cost effective exhaust design which balances noise performance with engine performance. An analysis is presented in which the stock muffler is characterized and a preliminary design is evaluated, nearly meeting design goals. From this it is surmised that the task is feasible and within the technical capability of Sagetech Corporation Commercial applications for the proposed work lie primarily in the RC airplane industry as well as small garden tools (weed wackers). Improved mufflers which enhance engine performance are certain to be popular with model airplane enthusiasts. Military benefits are primarily in decreased dectability of reconnaissance UAV's resulting in improved probability of mission accomplishment

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-4359
Dr. Alan Grieve
NAVY 02-099      Selected for Award
Title:Thermal Management Techniques for Bonded Electronic Components
Abstract:There is a growing need for improvement in the performance of thermally-conductive polymeric adhesives used in the bonding of electronic structures for use in high-temperature environments, such as the operating environment of high power wide bandgap electronic devices. Many polymeric adhesives for electronics use are epoxide-based. While epoxides offer good processability and have good mechanical and chemical resistance properties, their performance at high temperatures and high humidities is poor. This leads to more frequent and costly repairs due to premature failures. While there are numerous examples of polymers with superior performance to epoxides, few offer the same level of processability or low costs of epoxide-based formulations. We have developed a new resin formulation that, with some modification, will address all of these performance issues. Our patent-pending resin formulation incorporates cyanate esters, bismaleimides and epoxides. It is solvent-free and easily processed. The key to this formulation is a novel reactive diluent containing both allyl and epoxide functionalities. Incorporation of a novel filler combination into this resin formulation will also allow the preparation of composite materials with improved thermal and electrical conductivity to better address the thermal and electrical management needs of high power devices There is an immediate need for adhesive materials with improved high temperature performance in a myriad of high volume consumer and defense products, particularly those materials that have improved thermal and/or electrical properties. It is a multimillion-dollar business. With the elimination of lead-based solders a priority in Europe, and, to a lesser extent, Japan, high reliability electrically conductive adhesives will find increasing application as a replacement for metallurgical-attach materials

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4118
Mr. Thomas Tiano
NAVY 02-099      Selected for Award
Title:Highly Thermally Conductive Anisotropic Thermoplastic Film Adhesive
Abstract:In this effort, Foster-Miller will develop an affordable and novel high temperature resistant, thermally conductive polymeric adhesive for bonding high-power electronic structures. The Foster-Miller system will consist of a highly adhesive thermoplastic film with the conductive filler aligned through the thickness of the film. This anisotropic adhesive will maximize thermal conductivity and heat throughput by directing heat flow in the desired direction - away from the heat generating components and into the heat sink. A novel electrical alignment technique will be utilized to align the filler, thereby maximizing its effectiveness by allowing higher unidirectional conductivity while retaining the adhesive properties of the polymer. The use of commercially available, high temperature elastomeric thermoplastic, cast into a film creates a system that has a high bond strength and can be readily reworked upon application of minimal heat, while being able to meet the mechanical and environmental properties required for Navy applications. These meltable films have the further advantages of a very short application time because there is no curing, and they do not require the use of autoclaves. The resulting film adhesive can be processed using typical equipment utilized in the microelectronics industry. (P-020138) Development of a highly thermally conductive adhesive will help solve the ever increasing "heat problem" associated with high power microelectronics. It will allow simpler thermal management designs and the use of smaller and more powerful microchips in both commercial and military electronics. The use of thermoplastic films will also increase the mechanical and physical properties of the adhesive and allow for easier rework.

POLYCOMP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13963 Recuerdo Drive
Del Mar, CA 92014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 530-2151
Dr. Chuk L Leung
NAVY 02-099      Selected for Award
Title:Thermal Management Techniques for Bonded Electronic Components
Abstract:In sufficient dissipation of heat generated by high-power electronic components via the bonded structure loweres the performance and service life of the package. Polycomp Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop novel die-attach adhesives that are reworkble, highly electrically and thermally conductive, and environmentally stable. By the use nanomaterials, such properties can be achieved without adversely affecting the processibility of the adhesive. Commercial electronic industries are seeking new thermally and electrically conductive die attach adheives that can be used to bond dissimilar materials. The novel adhesives will enable the fabrication of electronic packages that are environmentally stable with increased ability for repair and rework.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Kevin S. Millikin
NAVY 02-100      Selected for Award
Title:A Framework for Software Reverse Engineering Protection
Abstract:Military software systems are vulnerable to Information Warfare attacks. If an enemy can gain knowledge of the software, then the software and the systems it runs on can be attacked, either directly or indirectly. One method the enemy may employ is reverse engineering, attempting to recover the program's source code from the binary executable file. Software obfuscation is a defensive information warfare technique that tries to make the cost of reverse engineering prohibitive to the enemy. Obfuscation can also protect software from theft and subsequent reuse. In addition, a software obfuscation capability can enable active offensive information warfare and protection from attacks such as viruses and worms. Architecture Technology Corporation proposes the research and development of technologies and products necessary for software obfuscation technology for the Navy. There are three products of this research and development effort. A predictive obfuscation model will allow Navy software engineers to anticipate the cost and effectiveness of obfuscating transformations, and to intelligently design obfuscating solutions. Second, a catalog of transformations known from scientific literature and engineering folklore as well as several novel transformations will be produced. Finally, a prototype implementation will validate the model and serve as a proof of the concept of object to object obfuscation, as well as a prototype to an automatic obfuscation tool.

INKITIKI CORPORATION
P.O. Box 816
Kapaa, HI 96746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 821-1533
Paulo Machado
NAVY 02-100      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Anti-Tamper Protection for Software
Abstract:Automatic code obfuscation is the most viable method to protect software against reverse-engineering attacks. However, current obfuscators apply obfuscation transformations haphazardly. The actual utility and impact of all accumulated transformations are not considered. Instead, protection is hoped to arise as the number of complex transformations builds up. Yet, dependable software protection requires a trustworthy approach with guaranteed protection levels, and without incurring excessive and unnecessary computational overhead. Formal models for software protection are believed to offer such benefits (akin to guarantees in current cryptographic models), but no such models have been identified. An alternative route is Artificial Intelligence (AI). High-level planning and reasoned decisions can selectively guide application of transformations, while gauging complex trade-offs between guaranteed protection level and computational overhead. AI meta-cognitive planners are known for excelling in this type of situation, but were not applied to this particular problem. We propose to undertake this promising route, with the goal of producing an intelligent anti-tamper protection system for software that is effective, reliable, and trustworthy. The proposed system will benefit the software industry and the military. Preventing IP theft increases the ROI on software, and protects the United States technological military advantage. The system is to be used to protect against reverse engineering, code hijacking and hacking.

RETHER NETWORKS INC.
99 Mark Tree Road, suite 301
Centereach, NY 11720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 467-4381
Dr. Tzi-cker Chiueh
NAVY 02-100      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Reverse Engineering Protection for Software
Abstract:The Tamper Resistant Software (TRS) technology is a technology that transforms a given computer program into a form that is difficult to understand and thus to modify. In theory, it is impossible for a piece of software to be completely tamper proof. However, the goal of the TRS technology is to deter the potential crackers to the extent that either the required cracking effort is too excessive or the gain is not worth the effort. Obviously the degree of tamper resistance depends on the physical rsource available to the attackers. The TRS technology designed to fend off state-backed attackers is among the most challenging and is the focus of this research project. We propose to carry out a comprehensive attack analysis on existing software-based TRS technologies, deduce a set of guiding design principles from such an analysis, develop a set of new program transformation techniques that could further strengthen software/intellectual property protection, and implement a selective subset of these proposed techniques to gauge their effectiveness, implementation complexity and practical feasibility. There are two commercial endeavors that could potentially benefit greatly from the research and development of the TRS program transformation technology described in this project. First, digital content management (DRM) systems can greatly benefit from the software protection provided by the TRS technology, because it can prevent users from tampering and thus bypassing the DRM mechanism. Without proper software protection, DRM is essentially useless as a method to secure monetary revenue for digital content owners/providers. Second, the TRS program transformation technology will also play an important role in disguising the essential intellectual property underlying software programs from users of those systems of which the programs are a component. Examples of such systems include military/defense systems and any high-priced commercial embedded systems that are built on standard PC platforms.

CYMFONY, INC.
600 Essjay Road
Buffalo, NY 14221
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-9114
Dr. Wei Li
NAVY 02-101      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Verb Sense Identification
Abstract:This task seeks to develop an automated, domain-portable module for verb sense identification (VSI) in natural language processing (NLP). Since verbs are pivot carriers of event concepts, VSI, a primary sub-task of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD), has significant impact on Information Extraction (IE). Currently, only keyword-based IE, mainly identification of named entities and simple, general events, is available. Concept-based extraction of events requires support from WSD. A scalable VSI system will extend InfoXtract, an IE system equipped with machine learning and grammar development toolkits. Language-specific, key-verb-based representation of extracted events will be translated into an `interlingua' based on action concepts. Previous systems for sense disambiguation are limited to research prototypes relying on human-annotated corpora. The proposed approach is based on unsupervised machine learning from an InfoXtract-parsed corpus. Decision list models will be trained on an InfoXtract-parsed corpus from which a domain-dependent, WordNet-like thesaurus is constructed. Bootstrap training, using initial seeds, is performed on a new corpus without human intervention by leveraging the core IE engine. Deliverables include: (i) a VSI system demonstrating domain-specific machine learning and application of the learned model; (ii) integrating VSI into InfoXtract to demonstrate added value in event extraction and retrieval in political and military domains. The resulting component technology can be used in a variety of text processing and information applications, with the capability of automatically tuning to any domain. This includes supporting Event Extraction, Concept Indexing, Question Answering, and Automatic Summarization. The technology will assist computerized information systems to make key information extracted from large volumes of free text accessible to information analysts and decision makers.

LANGUAGE COMPUTER CORPORATION
6440 North Central Expressway, Suite 205
Dallas, TX 75206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 378-8311
Dr. Mihai Surdeanu
NAVY 02-101      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Verb Sense Identification
Abstract:Language Computer Corporation (LCC) is the leader in open-domain Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) and other natural language processing (NLP) technologies such as Question Answering (QA) and Summarization. This proposed work builds on our experience with semantically disambiguating all verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs in open-domain texts. The WSD approach uses hybrid methods that combine machine readable dictionaries, iterative algorithms, and machine learning. LCC's WSD algorithm will be extended with advanced proprietary NLP tools such as a high-performance probabilistic parser and named-entity recognizer, and tailored for the military domain with dedicated machine learning algorithms. The WSD technology developed in this Phase 1 project will be used to improve the other NLP products currently developed at LCC: QA, Information Extraction, Summarization, and Semantic Indexing. The WSD system developed as a result of this Phase I project will be integrated in other commercial natural language products developed at LCC, such as Question Answering (QA), Information Extraction (IE), Summarization, and Semantic Indexing. In addition, a WSD software package will be prepared and market as a NLP development tool. However, the market for such a tool is rather small compared to the QA and IE market on which the impact of the WSD technology will be felt. LCC is currently marketing its QA and IE products to government, media, and Internet service providers as primary markets. Secondary markets we target include: telecommunications, corporate relationship management (CRM), call centers, financial services, e-commerce and consumer applications. WSD can bring a significant contribution to LCC's main products, as well as being a stand-alone tool useful to computational linguists and system developers.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOCIATES, INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Mr. Ronald Braun
NAVY 02-101      Selected for Award
Title:Verb Sense Disambiguation Using Integrated Feature Experts
Abstract:We propose an innovative combination of machine learning techniques coupled with an extensible framework of integrated feature type classifiers (called "feature experts") capable of performing high-accuracy verb sense disambiguation. Our Disambiguating Integrated Verb Sense Experts (DIVERSE) system combines a committee of feature experts with a common representational ontology bootstrapped for a new domain using cooperative learning techniques and an unannotated domain corpus. The result will be an adaptive, user-trainable system that leverages multiple predictive features (to be selected from a comprehensive survey) to generate sense tags and associated confidence levels with respect to a predetermined catalog of verb senses. Active learning and bootstrapping techniques minimize system reliance on a non-linguist user during ontology tuning. An iterative development cycle ensures that the system is rapidly trained to sufficient levels of accuracy within a new task domain. Our extensible framework provides a solid foundation for a systematic evaluation of feature experts operating in isolation and in coordination with other experts. Phase I research and development of a proof-of-concept limited prototype will demonstrate the feasibility and utility of DIVERSE's verb sense identification capability and will lay the groundwork for its Phase II implementation and eventual commercialization. DIVERSE is applicable across language processing tasks (information extraction, machine translation) and multiple commercial domains (competitive, market, and intelligence analysis, health care).

AETION TECHNOLOGIES LLC
93 East Riverglen Drive
Worthington, OH 43085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 882-2445
Mr. Mark Carroll
NAVY 02-102      Selected for Award
Title:Component-Based Compositional Simulator for Multi-Criterial Optimization
Abstract:Aetion Technologies LLC will study the feasibility of applying its SFV decision-support technology to visualization of modeling and simulation processes. The technical and scientific merit will be assessed of applying SFV technology to build up models and observe them being simulated, in whole or in part. This use of SFV will be evaluated by applying Generic Task methodology to analyze the information-processing requirements of specific sub-tasks, by rapid prototyping to demonstrate capability and gain feedback, and by assessing the technical practicality of extending Aetion's existing code base to meet the needs in this area. If SFV can be successfully applied to this problem, there is a high likelihood that it can be successfully applied to a broader range of military and civilian simulation problems, thus providing a path for successful commercialization of the SFV technology. Aetion's technology will enable people to make better decisions, more confidently, because they will have a greater understanding of the range of alternatives and the value tradeoffs. Potential commercial applications include: military planning, re-planning and simulation, civilian planning, re-planning and simulation; military and civilian engineering design; rational drug design (high-throughput screening in silico); and infrastructure vulnerability analysis (anti-terrorism, FEMA, targeting).

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Mr. Steven Jilcott
NAVY 02-102      Selected for Award
Title:A Knowledge-Based Adaptable Modeling and Simulation Visualization Environment
Abstract:Effective use of models and simulations (M&S) requires the visualization of model-related information at three stages-model construction, model manipulation, and model analysis. M&S applications do not always have a native visualization environment, but even when they do, the environment rarely permits visualization at all three stages of M&S use. An adaptable visualization environment that could be tailored to function for specialized M&S applications would be a powerful tool to unify an organization's analysis and reporting efforts. Realizing this environment requires advanced data abstraction, a formalism for generating visual transforms based on context, general-purpose analysis aids, and a methodology for tailoring M&S input and output. This proposal explores the innovative use of knowledge-based technologies from artificial intelligence to represent M&S data in a domain-independent way. The knowledge-based approach permits users to view and navigate M&S data while treating the M&S application as a "black box". Our visualization environment employs a relational algebra formalism to query the knowledge-base, a mathematical analysis toolbox for understanding causal connections, and data wizards to help analysts who are not knowledge engineers tailor an M&S application to the environment. The technology developed under this program will immediately benefit organizations seeking to unify their M&S analysis and reporting efforts. Examples include logistics, intelligence, law enforcement, and infrastructure protection organizations.

INTERACTIVE DATA VISUALIZATION
1233 Washington St. Suite 610
Columbia, SC 29201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 799-1699
Mr. Chris King
NAVY 02-102      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Visualization of Modeling and Simulation Processes
Abstract:Modeling and simulation (M&S) packages like Matlab and ACSL allow users to create independent executable modules that enable them to more readily engage in what if scenarios. In this document, we propose a flexible M&S visualization system that facilitates these types of investigations, allowing the user to make simulation adjustments as the visualization is displayed. We propose a system that allows engineers from multiple disciplines using numerous simulation packages to input data from a variety of sources, both run-time and off-line, in a manner that allows them to examine that data in boundless ways. The architecture should allow for a high degree of flexibility and extensibility, enabling engineers to add multiple types and styles of real-time 2D and 3D visualization methods, different methods and formats of data input, and diverse methods of data manipulation and processing. This type of flexibility provides utility to engineers at all levels of the design process; each engineer using a common visualization platform. The objective of this Phase I research project is to determine the feasibility and potential effectiveness of this type of system, and if successful, to design a suitable architecture for meeting these goals. Currently, there are a number of popular packages used for modeling and simulation, each with various forms of visualization capabilities. Our aim is to define a new standard for M&S interactive visualization. This can be achieved by providing a visualization environment that contains numerous standard utilities like interactive 2D and 3D plotting, but also provides an extensible visualization subsystem, the ability to read data in various formats and methods (which can be modified and extended), and most importantly can interface directly with the models created by the engineers. Such an environment could emerge as the visualization standard for engineers working at the micro or macro level and across multiple disciplines. This system could provide simulation designers with the ability to more effectively communicate the effectiveness of their designs to customers, colleagues, and decision makers.

PREDICTION SYSTEMS, INC
309 Morris Avenue, Suite G
Spring Lake, NJ 07762
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 449-6800
Mr. Bob Wassmer
NAVY 02-102      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Visualization of Modeling and Simulation Processes
Abstract:Develop and prototype an Open Visual Toolkit (OVT) architecture with an open library of models, and enhanced visual environment for model development and interactive simulations. OVT is a new paradigm in M&S that builds on the robust, and technically successful foundations of the General Simulation System (GSS) and Run-Time Graphics (RTG) established by PSI. OVT maximizes the cognitive abilities of modelers and analysts be allowing them to build, grow, and visually interact and modify models while running, and focus on and attain rapid, high performance, and high quality solutions to M&S tasks rather than get bogged down with build and debug complexities of low level languages and environments. OVT advanced capabilities include: Open Visual Library of models, including communication system elements, weapons systems, air, land and sea vehicles, movement paths, sensor systems, C2 units, terrain, data sources, etc., that can be tailored and connected as needed in the visual M&S realization environment. New paradigms for visually navigating complex simulation spaces: geographies, multi-tiered hierarchies, etc. Dramatically increased capacity for iconic representations - over one million icons. Support for 3D Visualization and industry standard overlays. Easy ability to visualize external simulations for collaboration, fusion, and display of information. Profound improvement in the speed, quality, accessibility, and state-of-the-art of M&S. OVT can leverage and increase the value of multimillion dollar DoD investments in PSI models and those of other vendors by providing a more powerful environment for reuse, and new developments. OVT has great potential for commercial applications including manufacturing, process control, banking and financial industries, etc.

MICROCOSM, INCORPORATED
401 Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 726-4100
Dr. James Wertz
NAVY 02-104      Selected for Award
Title:Miniature Star Sensor Using "Camera-on-a-Chip" CMOS Arrays for Daytime Stellar Imaging
Abstract:Microcosm, with Eastman Kodak as a subcontractor, proposes to design and develop a new star sensor capable of viewing stars in daylight from sea level based on an optical head designed by Microcosm and the Kodak DIGITAL SCIENCE CMOS array which provides enhanced responsiveness in the near IR. Optical requirements for daylight stellar imaging will be developed by Kodak using image chain models that incorporate atmospheric haze, Sun illumination angles, seasonal variations, and stellar characteristics. The sensor head uses all reflective optics to avoid any IR absorption. The sensor has a small opening and narrow field of view to allow extensive light baffling to minimize sky glow. The Kodak array has a high sensitivity to compensate for the small aperture and extensive on-chip processing to allow multiple techniques to pick out stars from the bright background. Among the approaches to be evaluated are MEMS micro-mirrors to provide sky background removal by chopping, high dynamic range (20 bits) A-to-D conversion for digital signal accumulation, and an enhanced microlens to provide a high effective fill factor and minimum cross-talk. Phase I will refine the system requirements and define the baseline approach. Phase II will develop, fabricate, and test a complete prototype sensor. The commercial applications are numerous. The simple design, high accuracy and dynamic range, low weight, low power, and low recurring cost makes the sensor applicable to commercial, military, and scientific sea-based or land-based vehicles for day and night autonomous position determination. A single unit can be used to augment or as an alternative to GPS, with a corresponding savings in cost and complexity.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORPORATION
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 646-5479
Dr. Mikhail Belen'kii
NAVY 02-104      Selected for Award
Title:Daytime Electronic Stellar Imaging
Abstract:The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the best navigation system for worldwide, day-and-night position determination. However, GPS depends on man-made components such as satellites and transmitters. Therefore, it is vulnerable to hostile attack and jamming. The Automated Celestial Navigation (ASN) system would provide an independent alternative to GPS in the case of GPS denial. We propose to design, build, and demonstrate a novel, inexpensive, strapdown, fully automated star tracker for imaging individual stars both day and night with angular resolution less than 3 arcsec and a field-of view of 3 degrees aboard a surface ship. During Phase I we will determine the sensor optical requirements, develop and test the contrast enhancement and noise reduction algorithm, evaluate the sensor performance and production cost, perform the trade-off studies, and select an optimal design approach. We expect the performance analysis and trade-off studies will be completed, the contrast enhancement algorithm will be developed and tested, and optimal design approach will be selected. This effort will validate a feasibility of the proposed daytime stellar tracker, which will provide an instantaneous determination of the ship attitude with respect to the celestial reference frame both day and night, and thus further enhance navigation capability for the U.S. Navy. The proposed development of a daytime electronic stellar tracker has both military and commercial law enforcement and surveillance applications. Electronic imagers sensitive in the infrared portion of the spectrum as well as the contrast enhancement algorithm would have numerous applications in crime fighting, drug surveillance, and interdiction, and home and business intruder-detection systems. A wide field-of-view, infrared imager developed under this program will be a key element in this system. A contrast enhancement and noise reduction algorithm will enhance the performance of optical sensors used in commercial law enforcement and surveillance applications.

PROMETHEUS INC.
103 Mansfield Street
Sharon, MA 02067
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 849-5389
Dr. William Moran
NAVY 02-105      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Doppler Processing
Abstract:An integrated probabilistic data association (IPDA) tracker will be exploited in a towed array sonar context to provide detection capability in the near zero Doppler region where heavy clutter/reverberation predominates. Detection will occur as a result of the tracker's ability to effectively measure the consistency of kinematics of a moving object with large inertia. This capability will be enhanced in the proposed system by agility of the sonar configuration: pulse repetition interval (PRI), waveform, and transmit and receive beampatterns are selected at each epoch to best discriminate between the clutter/reverberation and potential target according to an estimate of the environment provided in association with the IPDA tracker. The system will permit operator intervention including full manual over-ride. Anticipated Benefits: Detection and tracking, based on the IPDA methodology, of slow moving underwater targets in heavy low velocity clutter/reverberation; Algorithms to choose the sonar configuration to optimally exploit the environment; A library of waveforms and beamshapes optimized to the underwater environment. Potential Commercial Applications: The methodology developed here will have security applications both in the military and private sectors. It will transfer to a radar system, to be used to detect movements of humans and ground vehicles in heavily cluttered environments. In this context, it will produce enhanced detection capability for monitoring of sensitive facilities.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
NAVY 02-106      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Task Optimization and Real-time Management (STORM)
Abstract:The emergence of the digital battlespace and the emphasis on military joint operations provide access to a plethora of information resources and collection assets. Sensor management, in general, and the capability to automate scheduling and dynamically re-task sensor assets in light of changing operational requirements and mission objectives, forms a key element to ensuring information dominance for our warfighters. Here, we propose a Sensor Task Optimization and Real-time Management (STORM) system for the scheduling, coordination, and path planning of heterogeneous sensor assets and the dynamic adaptation and re-allocation of those assets in response to changing battlespace conditions. The system uses threat prediction to prioritize the search area and a geometric partitioning scheme to divide the area into smaller, more manageable parts. Our scheduling module uses these results to create an optimal search schedule for available sensor assets using an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm, which is an agent-based approach that incorporates heterogeneous sensors and is extendable to new sensor technologies. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing Navy sensor management capabilities and in the rapidly growing commercial applications of scheduling and routing solutions. Commercial applications of the proposed approach to schedule optimization exist for a wide variety of domains including transportation, airways and railway time-tabling, and inventory control. In addition, the proposed effort will impact the development and enhancement of our Intelligent Agent Toolkit (IAT) product, via the incorporation of the adaptation and scheduling components of the proposed STORM developed under this SBIR effort.

AMBALUX CORPORATION
5264 N. Calle Bujia, Tucson, AZ 85718
Tucson, AZ 85718
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 991-3594
Dr. Philip Lacovara
NAVY 02-107      Selected for Award
Title:Fiber Optic Interconnect Technology
Abstract:The proposed fiber-optic terminus provides high-bandwidth connectivity to an optical transceiver on an underwater vehicle or other platform. Unique technology is used to provide full azimuthal coverage with no moving parts for acquisition, tracking, transmission and reception. The receiver, in particular, combines very high sensitivity with high bandwidth to support data rates in excess of 10 Mbps. The terminus is designed to be low-cost and easy to manufacture. Commercial opportunities are possible with the offshore oil/gas drilling industry, which is increasing its use of ROVs and other undersea technology, and the fiber-communications industry, for which this technology could provide diagnostic connections for undersea fiber-optic amplifier or regenerator locations. Other applications include communication and safety equipment for divers (commercial and pleasure) and improved short-range, high-bandwidth terrestrial FSO communications devices.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORPORATION
8809 Sudley Road, Suite 101
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Dr. Brian Turner
NAVY 02-107      Selected for Award
Title:Fiber Optic Interconnect Technology
Abstract:Undersea surveillance systems typically use fiber optic cables on the ocean bottom to bring acoustic and magnetic senor data back to a shore site where it is processed and analyzed. The topology of these fiber optic cable systems can vary and can potentially be several thousand kilometers long.Currently, the sensor information contained in these cable systems cannot be accessed by undersea platforms in the vicinity of the sensors or cables. A low power terminus integrated with fiber optic to allow information transmission to undersea platforms would be of significant operational value.The Progeny/NRL/APL-UW team's extensive experience in COTS applications, its ability to focus leading-edge technologies to real-world applications, thorough knowledge of ARCI acoustic processing, laser design expertise, and hands-on oceanographic experience will generate a innovative comprehensive end-to-end system architecture design that will incorporate leading edge commercial and defense technology. Our team will evaluate the technologies that provide the optimum balance between optical terminus connectivity, data rate, quality of service, and power demand. Minimizing unique components by using commercial based products will keep system production costs to a minimum while providing a hedge against obsolescence. Leveraging existing defense department technology will provide maximum capability while minimizing research and development costs. The results of this project are anticipated to have application to both commercial and military systems. Initially, this product would be best applied to government agencies and DoD where there is a real need to provide a better solution for undersea connectivity. Since the research is targeted toward blue-green laser technology, several commercial markets are using blue-green lasers in their applications. These commercial markets include: Biomedical; Scanning; Laser Display; Fiber Illumination; Special Effects; Holography; Metrology; Photoluminescence; and Micro-material processing. Of particular interest will be the maturity of fiber pumped laser technology since it promises higher efficiency and the subsequent reduction in heating and power demand. During the development cycle, we will be in constant contact with industry, military, and university experts in the related fields. This will provide us with the opportunity to identify new applications of this technology.

AVTEC SYSTEMS, INC.
10530 Rosehaven Street, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 273-2211
Mr. Phuc Nguyen
NAVY 02-108      Selected for Award
Title:Real-Time Adaptability to the Dynamic Tactical Network
Abstract:This SBIR seeks to investigate, identify and design adaptive algorithm(s) to enable real-time adaptability for tactical wireless networks. Avtec proposes to develop a "smart software" solution to exploit the real-time adaptability in tactical wireless network, specifically Link-16, based on subscriber request for bandwidth-on-demand connections. Avtec's approach will explore a signaling protocol and neural network to enable real-time connections based on subscriber's requirements. In Phase I, Avtec will (1) identify, design and evaluate Link-16 signaling protocols and adaptive algorithms for Bandwidth on Demand support, (2) demonstrate and validate the viability of the signaling protocol and adaptive learning algorithm(s) with associated Link-16 terminals and network configurations, and (3) a prototype design document will be developed for software development in Phase II. We anticipate that work in this SBIR will lead to future activities to implement other subscribers' features related to real-time dynamic wireless tactical network as well as commercial wireless networks. In addition, we see that the smart software development can be further utilized in other fields such as distributed sensor networks, multicast/broadcast networks, and both real-time and image processing systems.

OMEGA OPTICS, INC.
12100 Technology Blvd.
Austin, TX 78727
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 401-4150
Dr. Daniel Xuegong Deng
NAVY 02-109      Selected for Award
Title:Reconfigurable Compact Phased-Array Antenna for Scalable Wideband Operations
Abstract:In the Phase I program, Omega Optics, Inc. will demonstrate a reconfigurable compact phased array antenna for scalable, wideband operations in X through Q frequency bands. The system architecture of the antenna is based on three-dimensional (3-D) integrated thin-film waveguide true-time-delay (TTD) lines. The proposed RF signal distribution network is highly favored in the field environment and can easily be scaled up for high-demanding performance upgrade. The device is unique in that it covers the TTD range of , as well as coupling waveguides in adjacent layers. Packaging is greatly simplified, and the layered integration of the waveguides offers greater compactness than any other known geometry. Multifunction or configurability will be achieved through significant hardware reduction architecture. The proposed architecture would ultimately create a deployable all-optical TTD platform that can be tuned across multi-band. The photonic module will be developed under the highly scalable architecture. It maximizes the advantages of photonics with an improved performance at a reduced cost. The technology developed can also be directly employed in high bandwidth or cellular service satellite communication systems, such as direct TV, ICO, or mobilsat.

CREARE INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Mark V. Zagarola
NAVY 02-110      Selected for Award
Title:Compact, Highly Reliable, Zero-Maintenance Cryocoolers for Submarine-Based High-Temperature Superconducting Systems
Abstract:The U.S. Navy requires a reliable, low-maintenance, long-life, vibration-free cryocooler to enable the use of High-Temperature Superconducting (HST) systems on submarines. The cryocooler must be integrated within an antenna mast or periscope imposing tight physical constraints on the cooler. Currently, no cryocooler exists that meets the unique requirements and constraints of this application. To meet these challenging requirements, we propose to develop an advanced turbomachine-based reverse-Brayton cryocooler (turbo-Brayton cryocooler). The cryocooler will incorporate high-speed, miniature turbomachines and high-performance, compact recuperators to attain excellent efficiency in a compact package. The critical design feature of the proposed turbo-Brayton cooler is the use of non-contacting, gas-film bearings in the miniature turbomachines. The bearings provide reliable, vibration-free, and maintenance-free operation. During Phase I, we will design the cooling system, define the interfaces, and demonstrate the operation of a key component, the miniature turbine, at the brassboard level. During Phase II, we will build a turbine optimized for this application, integrate the turbine in a brassboard turbo-Brayton cryocooler, and demonstrate the performance of the cooling system at prototypical environmental and operating conditions. This program will result in the development of a turbo-Brayton cryocooler that exhibits zero vibration; low mass; compact size; long, maintenance-free life; high reliability; and high efficiency. Military applications include cooling for submarine-based high temperature superconducting systems, space-based surveillance systems, and cryogenic fuels on orbiting platforms. Commercial applications include cooling for communication satellites, superconducting circuits and motors, and hypercomputers.

KAB LABORATORIES INC.
3116 Mercer Lane
San Diego, CA 92122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 224-8489
Dr. Clifford V. Comisky
NAVY 02-111      Selected for Award
Title:Automatic Feature Evaluator (AFE)
Abstract:This proposal attacks the Navy clustering problem by first dividing the reported features into two classes: primary features (those intended to be useful) and secondary features (those unintentionally useful). Subject matter experts will then explain how they have used the secondary features to form initial clusters of primary features. An expert system based upon the human experts will be developed and iteratively combined with statistics such as a modified Bayesian statistic to estimate the number of clusters, eigenvectors to estimate the number of dimensions, and a modified F-ratio to estimate the strength of each feature. The result will be an estimate of which features to use and how to use them for the new class, and will provide an initial set of clusters. This development would have very broad applicability to commercial systems that need to operate in real time based upon inputs that are varied in type and quality.

OCEAN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CORPORATION (OSEC)
3142 West Vista Way, Suite 400
Oceanside, CA 92056
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 524-3014
Mr. Carl Armstrong
NAVY 02-112      Selected for Award
Title:Smart Signal Parser (SSP) and Actionable Intelligence Extraction (AIE)
Abstract:The SSP AIE SBIR effort will examine non-deterministic, deterministic rules based and expert methods for automatically parsing and extracting high-value information and knowledge from recognized, demodulated signal events as they occur. This process is essentially independent of classic signal recognition and could be applied to any digitized message, although signal recognition performs a necessary pre-filtering function in today's cryptologic applications when considering high-density signal environment that is becoming increasingly more challenging due to increased problem complexity and manning and training issues. This effort will leverage lessons learned and will investigate a variety of viable techniques for parsing messages and automatically extracting meaningful or "actionable" intelligence from these messages. Phase I will examine requirements, and will make recommendations for parsing signals and for extracting actionable intelligence, including N-grams and other techniques. Information/knowledge storage structures requirements will also be examined and initial standards will be recommended. Phase I will determine the best technical approach and recommend the appropriate techniques and algorithms to be demonstrated in Phase II. Military Cryptologists and intelligence officers in Federal, State and local government service today encounter an increasingly complex, dynamic, and dense signal environment in which to perform signals intelligence operations. These organizations, including all of the U. S. Armed Services, the U. S. Coast Guard, U. S. Government intelligence and law enforcement agencies and local police departments, would benefit greatly from this technology. This technology would speed an facilitate the search for desired intelligence, thereby providing more meaningful information quickly to the decision maker with much less time waited on manual analysis and on meaningless messages. Because of required design and operational standards compliance, this capability will be software based and will be easily integrated into the operational systems used by the potential future users listed above.

GMA INDUSTRIES, INC.
20 Ridgely Avenue, Suite 301
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 267-6600
Mr. R. Glenn Wright
NAVY 02-113      Selected for Award
Title:Fusion and Visualization of Disparate METOC Data Sources
Abstract:The proposed effort involves the creation of revolutionary data fusion and visualization techniques that will enable users to simultaneously view and interpret multiple data sources, and facilitate the creation of products required to assist in mission related decision-making. Our approach focuses on the identification of logical relationships between various visual, analog and digital environmental data and their uses. Methods for organizing and presenting these data in a reasonable manner that preserves their usefulness and integrity are developed, as are tools for automating the creation of resulting metadata. The Phase I technical objectives focus on the specification of software requirements for METOC/GIS interfaces, image and data processing algorithms, and user interfaces for the proposed software, plus the creation of an overall design concept that will form the basis for Phase II implementation. Key elements of our approach are developed during Phase I and demonstrated in a prototype software application to reduce overall project risk. Benefits include gains in speed, efficiency and accuracy in processing and interpreting numerous data sources, and disseminating analysis results to users. A side benefit includes a possible dramatic reduction in the amount of data actually communicated to the user, resulting in diminished bandwidth requirements and increased data throughput.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORPORATION
Information Technologies Div., 20600 Gramercy Pl
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Eugene Levin
NAVY 02-113      Selected for Award
Title:Look-Measure-Analyze Toolset for Image Processing and Geographic Information Systems
Abstract:The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command is seeking automated technology to revolutionize the way human operator/analysts observe, interpret, and fuse visual, analog, and digital environmental data from civil and military environmental satellites, battlespace in-situ sensors, and numerous numerical geospatial models. This technology must integrate geographic information system (GIS), photogrammetric, and remote-sensing tools, and it must support multiple databases and metadata formats. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an innovative universal "Look-Measure-Analyze" (LMA) GIS/remote sensing software system for effective human analysis and processing of visual and semantic geospatial data. The proposed LMA system will make imaging, measurement, and interpretation far more efficient. The system configuration will include POC's proprietary software and universal workstation products for operational effectiveness and simplicity. It will support observation and analysis of images from all current satellite and in-situ battlespace sensor sources, even under severe conditions. This performance increment will be achieved by enhancing the unique physiological aspects of the human operator/analyst's vision system. POC's proposed system is based on the latest software engineering technologies, so that the software is maximally compatible with GIS environments and supports all standard metadata formats. Successful integration of the proposed POC technology with current GIS and imaging tools will substantially enhance the productivity and accuracy of such tools. LMA can be customized for GIS, photogrammetric, and remote-sensing workstations, and can be used by numerous government agencies for risk assessment to quickly estimate disaster damage based on satellite and other sensor imagery.

AUSTIN INFO SYSTEMS, INC.
1605 Capital Avenue
Plano, TX 75074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 424-7740
Mr. Mark Cavalier
NAVY 02-114      Selected for Award
Title:Broadband/Multi-band Reflector Antenna Feeds Supporting X, Ku, K, Ka, and Q Frequency Bands.
Abstract:The subject design effort will attempt to utilize current technology to produce a feed or feeds capable of operation in the following satellite bands, X-band, Ku-Band, K-band, Ka-band and Q-band. The effort will leverage off past designs to package the feeds to meet the physical constraints of the subject antenna. The new feed designs will be able to utilize the existing antenna reflector and antenna structure and will be a direct replacement for the existing antenna feeds. The benefits of the research will be multiband feeds that are packaged in a way that minimizes the physical size. This would open up the possibility of varied commercial applications as more satellites are launched containing multiple frequency bands. This research is directly applicable to many applications requiring reduced size.

---------- AF ----------

386 Phase I Selections from the 02.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 222-0444
Dr. Chujen Lin
AF 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:UWB for Target Identification
Abstract:We propose to develop a target identification system using Time Modulated Ultra-Wide Band (TM-UWB) radars. The prototype hardware will be based on the TM-UWB ASIC chips developed by Time Domain Corporation of Huntsville AL. The only signals transmitted by UWB radars are pulses generated pseudo-randomly in time. The pulses we are currently using are nanosecond in duration and the energy extends approximately from roughly .8 to 3 gigahertz. The energy content in any conventional frequency band is below the noise, making TM-UWB transmission highly covert unless you know the specific pseudo-random sequence. With TM-UWB there is no carrier frequency, no up-conversion and no down-conversion, and the output stage can be a single transistor which creates a binary pulse, all resulting in decreased radio size, cost, and complexity. The duty cycle of the pulse generated by our current hardware is approximately 1/200, resulting in low power consumption because 99.5% of the time, nothing is being transmitted. Because of the low frequency content of TM-UWB signals, they are able to penetrate foliage and nonmetallic obstacles better than conventional radars. During Phase I, we will design a UWB conformal array antenna system and demonstrate the prototype system in a laboratory environment. The primary potential military application for this technology is the location and identification of obscured objects. Civilian applications include future time domain communications systems as well as airborne mapping of buried cables, pipelines, and mine shafts. IAI and TDC are aggressively working to develop through-the-wall imaging radar for use by polices, fire fighters, and for use by the military for MOUT operations. There is great interest in through the wall imaging, and congress has specifically earmarked substantial funds for this development. The developments from the subject work should lead to the next generation of through-the-wall imaging radar. The ability to electronically steer radio transmissions will also increase the range and/or data rate of TM-UWB radios.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. Michael Marino
AF 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Identification of Small Metallic Objects Using UWB Excitation
Abstract:SARA proposes to design a coherent, hybrid, UWB detector and analyzer (CHUDA) system that uses commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology. SARA will use proven technologies and algorithms, developed during the conduct of 5 previous Phase II SBIR programs. CHUDA is comprised of multiple wideband conformal antennas, a hybrid radio frequency (RF) receiver, and a digital signal processor (DSP). This architecture has the combined benefits of spectrum analyzer and transient digitizer systems, while greatly reducing the disadvantages of these systems. The system will detect, identify, and localize ground objects. This SBIR addresses the receive system. We expect "small, metallic object detection" to be the primary product of the proposed technology. This system holds great promise as a commercial product and we envision the following commercial and military applications: The primary military application will be the a mobile and/or airborne system capable of detecting and identifying small (less than 6 ft.) metallic objects in a clutter environment. The system can be used to scan public places (airports, schools, sport stadiums, demonstrations, ...) to detect and pinpoint persons carrying metallic weapons. This system could augment search and rescue efforts. Sensors would be installed at various mountain peaks that are commonly used by hikers and cross country skiers. The system could locate lost individuals from their cell phone transmissions or by providing them with a transponder at the start their trip. The system could be installed in urban areas for localizing cellular 911 emergency calls. The system could be installed in urban areas for stolen vehicle recovery systems. The system could be used by local law enforcement for locating unauthorized transmitters.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORPORATION
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Joseph Tesar
AF 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:An Optical Health Monitor for High Power Lasers
Abstract:Research on high energy lasers (HELs) has been taking place in laboratories for several years. As the technology matures, HELs are moving out of the laboratory and into applications such as military weapons, industrial material processing and fusion research. HELs make significant demands on the optical components, often subjecting coatings, mirrors and lenses to optical energy near the damage threshold of the element. In less-than-ideal environments, contamination of mirrors and lens elements can quickly cause optical coatings to degrade. For this reason, the need exists for on-going monitoring of the critical elements in a HEL system. Cybernet proposes to develop an automated optical health monitoring system that can alert the laser operator to degraded performance and coordinate predictive maintenance. The system acquires data from a number of standard metrology instruments, storing diagnostic data into a dynamic database. Optical characteristics to monitor include reflectance, transmittance, scatter, photothermal and photomechanical response. Once data from the optical sensors is in the database, software routines based on expert systems will track diagnostic data and alert maintenance personnel when performance decreases, or when optically induced damage is imminent. Commercial applications include industrial material processing (welding, cutting, etc) and fusion research.

CLARK-MXR, INC.
7300 Huron River Drive
Dexter, MI 48130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 426-2803
Dr. Larry Walker
AF 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Drilling 170 Micron Diameter Holes
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I program is to define the system concept (including hardware and software) needed to produce holes whose entrance, bore, and exit are contoured to user-defined parameters, reliably and repeatedly time-after-time, with a minimum of intervention by the user, and in less than one minute per hole (hopefully substantially less.) We will demonstrate basic concepts by drilling 170 micron diameter holes in 1 mm thick metal plates using a commercial, ultrashort pulse micromachining workstation, and then compare the results to the requirements set forth in "Specifications for Rapid Hole Drilling" by William Latham. This Phase I program will lay the groundwork for construction and commissioning of a system whose performance provides the best fit to these requirements. This work will find applications in the military in the ABL program, in the automotive industry in the manufacture of fuel injectors that result in better fuel atomization (and consequently more efficient and cleaner burn), in the heavy-duty truck industry by helping them meet the EPA's goal for reducing emissions by CY-2007 (see www.epa.gov/otag/diesel.htm), in micromachining inkjet printers by eliminating the need to use the hazardous and corrosive gases required to run excimer lasers, in biomedical applications in the design and fabrication of "lab-on-a-chip" devices, and in the fabrication of stents serving specialized medical needs.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURE & MATERIALS, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Dr. Jeffrey S. N. Paine
AF 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Rapid Hole Array Drilling Using Laser and Mechanical Processes
Abstract:An innovative solution is proposed for production of precise hole arrays in metals and other materials. To create arrays of holes on the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mm diameter and 0.5 to 5 mm deep, DSM proposes a combination of high peak-power lasers and very precise and accurate part manipulation. "Pico and femto-second" lasers with very short pulse duration and very high rep-rates produce streams of high intensity energy pulses that excel at micro-drilling of metals. A critical requirement for precise drilling and cutting is the avoidance of heat dissipation and the loss of concentrated energy at the ablation site. With the ability to deposit the energy at very short intervals and high rep-rates, heat dissipation can be minimized. By attempting the precise drilling of sample materials with a number of laser sources, an effective combination of laser wavelength, pulse duration and rep-rate will be determined. A novel part handling and precision manipulation platform will be used to achieve precise drilling control and correct for any laser beam quality errors (taper and/or non-circularity errors). Finally, Phase I will demonstrate the ability to rapidly position and process the part to achieve desired hole production throughput. Precision micro-machining and micro-processing of materials is an increasingly important tool for the production of MEMS, biomedical devices, photonics components, and precision apertures. The ability to accurately drill precise holes and handle the parts to facilitate rapid production of micron level features makes the production of these devices much less expensive. Devices such as the Singlet Oxygen Generator for the ABL and other injection devices can also be realized in a reasonable amount of time with rapid and accurate hole production.

E. M. OPTOMECHANICAL, INC.
#310, 13170B Central Ave, SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 281-1746
Mr. Thomas A. Swann
AF 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Rapid Laser Drilling and Inspection of Contoured Holes
Abstract:The Air Force's Airborne Laser System needs technology to rapidly produce high-quality 170-micron diameter contoured holes in quantities of millions. At a target rate of one hole per minute, a single production workstation running 24/7 would take 46 years to produce the number of holes required for a fully operational system consisting of seven aircraft. E. M. Optomechanical, Inc. is proposing a unique combination of laser micromachining, machine vision, and robotics technologies into a cost effective workstation capable, with multiple workstations, of meeting the Air Force's quality and throughput requirements. The most critical feasibility issues are how fast can holes be produced, with the techniques necessary to produce high quality contoured holes, and how can the quality of the holes be assessed. The objective of this Phase I technical proposal is to experimentally produce high-quality contoured holes in one minute or less per hole and to determine a means to ensure the quality of the holes that are produced. E. M. Optomechanical has assembled a highly qualified team experienced in producing systems that incorporate laser micromachining, machine vision, and robotics technologies as well as the successful commercialization of work funded through the SBIR program. The Air Force's application is to produce holes in the injector heads of singlet oxygen generators that are used in chemical oxygen iodine lasers. In addition to drilling holes, the system proposed would be versatile enough to be used for many other laser micromachining applications. Commercial micromachining applications include microelectronics packaging, semiconductor manufacturing, medical devices and diagnostics, data storage devices, telecommunications devices, and computer peripherals.

EXTRUDE HONE CORPORATION
1 Industry Blvd, P.O. Box 1000
Irwin, PA 15642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 863-5900
Mr. Ralph Resnick
AF 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Drilling 170 Micron Diameter Holes
Abstract:This project proposes to develop and quantify the performance characteristics for processing the holes in the injector heads of the ABL weapon system. The objective is to provide the Air Force and supporting contractors with the technology and equipment to manufacture holes of virtually arbitrary size, contour and accuracy. Techniques and concepts that will form the basis of machining holes with a new short-pulse laser system will be investigated. Specifically, it will be determined if it is feasible to produce holes of sufficient quality and at production rates capable of meeting specifications for the injector heads of the laser modules for the Air Force ABL weapon system. Development of short-pulse laser machining technology and processing parameters will lead to the design, manufacture and demonstration of a prototype Short-Pulse Laser Machining system capable of meeting the objectives of the injector heads for the laser modules on the Air Force ABL in Phase II. The new short-pulse laser technology proposed represents a significant advance in precision manufacturing and its potential is of the same order as other revolutionary new machining technologies of the past few decades. Short-pulse lasers can be used to precisely machine virtually any material, including metals, dielectrics, semiconductors and those that are optically transparent, and the process yields no heat affected zone, no mechanical damage, burr-free cuts, and no modification of material properties. It is clear that the technology will have broad impact over a range of market sectors and user communities. Both the commercial sector and the DOD would be attracted by the potential of the SP laser as an industrial tool.

LASER FARE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY GROUP
70 Dean Knauss Drive
Narragansett, RI 02882
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 738-5777
Dr. Paul Jacobs
AF 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Drilling 170 Micron Diameter Holes
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force must develop the ability to rapidly drill many millions of 170 micron diameter holes through metal plates, to form injector heads as part of its ABL program. The holes must be high quality, non-invasive to the surrounding metal, and the process must be less labor and time intensive than present methods. As discussed in this proposal the physics of material removal with pulsed lasers is uniquely different for short pulse laser drilling (pulse duration < 20 ps) than for the more common long pulse laser drilling ( > 20 ps.). During the proposed Phase I program we will perform analytical modeling of both long pulse and short pulse laser systems. Also, we will down-select the best candidate laser(s), based upon anticipated drilling speed and hole quality. Next, we will assemble/locate prototype candidate laser systems. This prototype system(s) will drill 300 holes in each of three 316 stainless steel plates, 0.2 mm, 1.0 mm, and 5 mm thick. Statistically significant mean value and standard deviation values of : (1) hole drilling time, (2) inlet diameter, (3) inlet eccentricity, (4) outlet diameter, (5) outlet eccentricity, and (6) surface roughness will be demonstrated in Phase I. The ability to drill precise, high aspect ratio holes at a highly productive, cost efficient rate is not only critical to the ABL lasing process, but it is also an enabling capability for other applications such as in the filtration industry and in the airframe industry. Small diameter precision holes have long been considered for the leading edges of airfoils (wings and stabilizers)for drag reduction, but lack of cost effective capability has stifled development of this concept Although these types of holes can be drilled on a limited, ideal condition basis, the time (schedule) and cost make it prohibitive to incorporate large numbers of these holes in concept designs. The benefit of consistent quality, high speed hole drilling on a virtually lights out 24/7 basis would enable these concepts to be a reality.

PARADIGM LASERS, INC.
402 Commercial Street
East Rochester, NY 14445
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 248-0290
Mr. Tim Irwin
AF 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Drilling 170 Micron Diameter Holes
Abstract:To achieve the required accuracy, precision and production rate we propose to apply our specialized experience in lasers and Electrical Discharge Machining(EDM)for drilling precise 170m diameter holes. The proposed technique combines the advantages of each of these technologies. Using a DPSS Laser to pre-drill the holes, rapidly removing 90% of the material, and EDM to finish the drilling process, ensures the desired hole geometry and internal surface quality, while having the goal of achieving an operational rate of one BHP injector head every two hours. We will demostrate the drilling process to confirm the soundness of our approach and provide a number of holes in the specified metal stock. A combined process drilling machine will be conceptualized and described for BHP injector production. There is a strong need in the industry for rapid drilling of small diameter precision holes in a variety of materials, a problem that as yet has not been adequately solved. Examples of applications are automotive fuel injection systems, ink jet printers, near-field optical scanning microscopes, Laval nozzles for gas dynamic lasers and many others. We believe that our approach will provide a good solution.

PHOTON PRIME INC.
119 South Vine Street
Plainfield, IN 46168
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(317) 627-4829
Mr. David E. Stucker
AF 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Drilling 170 Micron Diameter Holes
Abstract:The process of producing tightly toleranced holes on the order of 170 microns enters into a realm of great difficulty. Though thousands of holes are produced in the automotive industry daily approximating this size, standard EDM techniques do not approach the tolerances requested of <0.01 X hole feature for a reasonable process time. Further compounding the problem is the increased difficulty of producing a said hole in a thicker substrate material as could be required for this particular program. In this Phase I Program, a 500W TRW DP-11 high brightness DPSSL laser, as developed under the DARPA sponsored Precision Laser Machining Program, will be used to laser process small diameter holes and evaluated as to define whether the required tolerances may or may not be met in a reasonable cycle time. If successful, it is projected that this process could replace a major portion of the EDM processed holes as done today. Given the success of this Phase I Program, an immediate benefit would be to provide the ABL and GBL Laser Programs a confirmed process and site for limited production of components. If carried through Phase II, it is proposed that a beta turnkey system would result allowing gasoline and diesel fuel injector drilling. Medical component processing would likely follow as applications arise.

PHYSICS, MATERIALS & APPLIED MATH RESEARCH, L.L.C.
1333 N. Tyndall Ave. suite 212
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 882-7349
Dr. Kevin Kremeyer
AF 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Small Holes, Drilled in Hard Materials, Using Ultrasort Laser Pulses.
Abstract:Ultrashort laser pulses are able to deposit nearly all of their energy before the target material responds significanly. As a result, they avoid the losses/scattering which typically accompany other forms of laser processing. Another benefit is the absence of the melt-phase with its associated slag and thermal trauma/cracking. The amount of material ablated by each pulse can be controlled by adjusting the pulse energy and spot size. For very small pulse energies, incremeental amounts of material can be removed. If the spot size is gradually reduced from pulse to pulse, the hole can be very smoothly tapered/contoured. Small pulse energies enable fine control, but also necessitate high pulse repetition rates in order to be useful. One of the main concerns involved in rapid pulse succession is the interaction of a given pulse with the ablation plume of its preceding pulse. This problem can be mitigated by machining in a vacuum, however when multiple holes are drilled, the pulses can be alternated among many holes, allowing sufficient time between pulses at any given hole. We propose the application of ultrashort laser pulses to drill arrays of small holes in hard and/or coated materials. lower cost, finer control, drill through coatings, etc The anticipated benefits of this technology are much lower cost and time requirements over conventional drilling methods in the ABL program. The method will also allow higher precision than conventional methods, leading to much finer control, and better mixing in the ABL combustion chamber. If coatings are used on the injector heads to make them more inert, the ultrafast laser drilling method will allow easy penetration of any coating that may be implemented. Another government application is the DOE's request for small holes of very large aspect ratios in diesel fuel injectors to increase their efficiency. This application is clearly for the commercial market, and will lead to advances that are useful to most all liquid combustion applications. Beside these government applications, there are many applications in commercial micro machining and micro-fluidics, as well as medical applications, such as dentistry.

BRASHEAR LP
615 Epsilon Dr
Pittsburgh, PA 15238
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 967-7831
Robert Sobek
AF 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Beam Train Flexible Structure Control for Airborne/Space-Based Systems
Abstract:Brashear LP proposes to characterize the problem and possible solutions for acoustic induced disturbances. This problem will likely drive the LOS jitter stability of ABL and similar airborne pointing applications. The research will characterize the acoustic disturbance on ABL hardware then use this detailed description to employ more sophisticated methods of jitter control. Such methods include mechanical