---------- DTRA ----------

24 Phase I Selections from the 02.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
AGENTAI, INC.
1099 E. Champlain Drive, Suite A184
Fresno, CA 93720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(559) 434-1285
Mr. Kevin E. Mahaffy
DTRA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Kinetic Fireball Incendiaries for Agent Defeat Missions
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility and military utility of employing an innovative incendiary, based on state-of-the-art solid rocket propellant technology to defeat chemical and biological agents. This is accomplished by highly effective convective heating of the interior of the facility to temperatures in excess of 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit for the extended period of time necessary to accomplish complete destruction. These incendiaries are suitable for integration into current and advanced penetrating munitions. This approach is tailored to avoid massive explosive effects, which could result in the release of dangerous agents. The technology developed on this project will provide the US Air Force with an innovative and effective approach to defeating chemical and biological agents. This approach is tailored to avoid massive explosive, which could result in the release of these dangerous agents. The commercial benefit of this technology will be in the area of neutralization of hazards resulting from the chemical industry.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. Jay Cleckler
DTRA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Acoustically Rate Enhanced Particle Scavenging (AREPS)
Abstract:In order to prevent chem./bio attacks before they occur, the US military must be willing to strike chem/bio weapons, storage facilities and research centers before the chemical or biological agents can be used to kill people in the United States. The problem however, is that bombing such facilities results in collateral footprints that may exceed the size of a nation, putting millions of civilian non-combatants at risk. It is therefore imperative that the US develop weapons that can mitigate the collateral footprint associated with defeating a nation's/organization's WMD capabilities. SARA proposes a concept where collateral release neutralization is achieved by driving counter-agent/agent aerosol particles into one another with intense sound energy. This concept is supported by SARA laboratory results that show aerosol collision rates can be enhanced by a factor of 320,000 with intense sound waves. In addition to effective neutralization, acoustically rate enhanced particle scavenging(AREPS) has the potential of achieving added levels of defeat by causing much of the agent to fall out of their air immediately, accelerating rates of long term fallout, and by moving aerosol agent particles above the size limit where they could be respirated by potential victims. The benefits of a acoustically rate enhanced particle scavenging (AREPS) muniton will be: strong agent aerosol neutralization immediate agent particle removal from a collateral plume acceleration of the long term agent fallout rate increase in the agent particle diameter to above the limit that it can be respirated Potential commercial applications of AREPS technology include: agent defeat in a collateral release site remediation (eg. Hart Senate Building) civil defense force protection

SOLUS, INC.
6555 Fort Myer Dr., Suite 700
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 351-5262
Dr. Roger von Hanwehr
DTRA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Agent Defeat Triad Polymer Technology for Enhanced HTI Counterforce Weaponry
Abstract:Solus INC. proposes development of a Triad of Agent Defeat Polymers, termed Triad Polymer Agent Defeat or TPAD, which are designed to be directly incorporated into the standard HTI titanium boride / perboric acid / hexachloroethane HTI explosive matrix utilized by the Weapons Directorate at Eglin AFB. The triad polymer complex consists of three novel proprietary families of polymers functioning optimally The polymers will be packed and dispersed between HTI detonation elements either as compartmentalized polymer sections (Polymer Type 1), or as intimate polymer admixtures (Polymer Types 2 and 3). This technology will be tailored for delivery within an HTI strike ordinance package. An HTI strike involving the propagation of a flash fusion plasma at the blast zone will epicentrically- introduce, and concentrically spread, the vaporized agent defeat polymer ionization components outward from a target-centered detonation site. The TPAD technology will be designed to achieve total multi-spectrum agent defeat both dynamically and with residual effects, thereby insuring that any biothreat agents surviving the intial counterforce event will experience replicative failure should any potential germinative event occur downline. The polymer ionization mechanics involved will be extensively optimized using models which address clumping and distribution escape phenomena during the blast wave propagation and any subsequent potential aerosolization of surviving agent. Post Sept. 11 market studies indicate a combined defense-military-government and commercial agent defeat market of $800 million in North America alone. DOD acquisitions markets for the Triad Polymer Agent Defeat Technology (TPAD) include counterforce neutralization of biothreat agent storage and production facilities, counterproliferation interdiction activities, as well as BWA neutralization in depots, R&D storage sites, contaminated bases and post-strike/post-conflict theater terrain. In Phase III, our company will pursue incorporation of the TPAD technology into working Agent Defeat Weapon (ADW) munitions manufactured by major DOD weapons contractor who are presently being recruited as likely partners, a key objective of our pre-commercialization plan. The commercial market opportunities extend well beyond military, DOD, and intelligence community customers, to homeland defense, industrial HAZMAT and Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) First Responder Forces. The potential market scope for the TPAD is thus deemed extensive, particularly since this technology has no equivalent commercial sector competitors in terms of effectiveness and breath of applications scope for neutralization of both BW and CW threats.

GLOBAL SEISMOLOGICAL SERVICES
601 16th St., #C390
Golden, CO 80401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 278-4089
Dr. Eric A. Bergman
DTRA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Probability density functions for secondary seismic phase arrivals
Abstract:Under this proposal we will develop, test, and document new methodologies for creating probability density functions (PDFs)of first-arriving and secondary seismic phases from datasets of seismic phase arrival times and hypocenters. Algorithms will be developed to use seismic phase PDFs in standard earthquake location procedures in the context of phase association and weighting. Tests will be conducted to determine the magnitude of difference in location parameters relative to traditional methods, emphasizing data at regional distances. Seismic phase PDFs will be tested as an indicator of heterogeneity in different regions. Results of this work are expected to lead to improved algorithms for seismic source localization, especially in suport of the U.S. nuclear monitoring program for which statistical rigor of results has a high priority. Bias in hypocenters and their uncertainties will be reduced. The same benefits will be propagated to earthquake data centers, improving their ability to carry out earthquake monitoring and hazard reduction programs.

WESTON GEOPHYSICAL CORP.
57 Bedford Street, Suite 102
Lexington, MA 02420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 860-0125
Dr. Ileana Tibuleac
DTRA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Secondary Phase Detection Using Wavelet Techniques
Abstract:The primary objective of this proposed research is to develop a new detector that uses the wavelet transform for accurate, reliable and automatic detection of secondary phases such as Pg, Lg, and pPn. We propose to extend the semi-automatic wavelet detector of Tibuleac and Herrin (1999) to an automatic, multi-component detector for use on both single-component array data as well as three-component seismic data. Additional research tasks include developing a rigorous statistical framework to evaluate the wavelet detector's performance on seismic data recorded in regions of high monitoring interest, where Pg and Lg propagation ranges from highly efficient to complete blockage. We will demonstrate that a wavelet detector offers significant improvement in secondary phase detection by comparing the method to traditional Fourier-based detectors. The final task will be to demonstrate the capability of wavelet detectors to detect and identify regional depth phases, primarily pPn, including a parallel comparison with Fourier-based depth phase detectors. Based upon the preliminary successes demonstrated by Tibuleac and Herrin (1999, 2001), we believe that arrival times determined from automated wavelet processing will produce a higher level of accuracy in the hypocentral estimates for small-to-intermediate magnitude seismic events than has previously been achieved. A major challenge for nuclear monitoring organizations is the detection, location, and identification of small seismic events at regional distances. In regions with relatively few seismic stations and small-to-intermediate magnitude events, traditional location methods cannot provide the location accuracy needed to satisfy existing operational monitoring requirements. Secondary phases, such as Pg, Lg, and pPn, must be considered to improve location accuracy. The development of an automated secondary phase detector that identifies reliable and consistent arrival times would greatly enhance the seismic event location capability of monitoring organizations. The method would provide the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) and the Center for Monitoring Research (CMR) with a technique that would eliminate the well-known inconsistencies associated with human analyst picking of these important seismic phases.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
6370 Nancy Ridge Drive, Suite 101
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 535-9680
Dr. Jeffrey Ridgway
DTRA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:New Sensors to Discriminate Between Nuclear Explosions and Chemical Explosions or Natural Events
Abstract:The fusion of seismic and magnetotelluric data holds promise in discriminating between underground nuclear blasts and earthquakes. MT measurements can sense several different effects of nuclear blasts: the acoustic wave which travels slowly away from the blast center, the upward propagating wave which generates Alfvn waves, and the direct electromagnetic pulse (EMP) which propagates through the earth's atmosphere after traveling from the buried location to the surface. These signals are mixed in with noise signals which will mask their presence: plane wave ionospheric resonances, and worldwide lightning which can mimic EMPs from explosions. This proposed work will reduce this noise to increase the SNR to detectable levels, and rule out lightning as the source of the EMP. We will explore the aspect of sensor arrays, beam-forming, and multivariate noise reduction. We will draw on our experience with multivariate algorithms for coherent noise mitigation, and in the location of global lightning. A demonstration experiment will validate the concept of using a localized array of sensors in California to derive directional EMP location information, and the identification of plane-wave signals which constitute noise. This experiment will demonstrate the concept of fusing magnetic with seismic data to differentiate between nuclear explosions and earthquakes. This work will demonstrate that important observable electromagnetic phenomena produced by explosions are observable after noise mitigation operating on multi-sensor arrays is executed. It will also demonstrate that spurious signals such as lightning can be differentiated from the sought-after explosion-induced EM signals, using geographic location techniques. It will also demonstrate the utility of multi-sensor data fusion of standard geophysical data streams, with magnetotelluric data. New algorithms developed in this program to maximumally identify and remove plane-wave ionospheric signals from magnetometer arrays will be written using the most modern numerical algorithms and languages (most probably in Matlab). This software will have as a baseline for comparison, the pre-existing MT multivariate array processing code written by Egbert (1997), which is used in multi-station MT data collected for petroleum exploration. Improvements over the Egbert algorithm could be sold to the petroleum exploration businesses who actively use MT methods for reconnaissance exploration of geologic structures not easily imaged with seismic techniques. If the Phase I study identifies significant improvements attainable using new software in comparison to the Egbert algorithm, then this will provide impetus in Phase II to further include these algorithms into a fully develop software product, which will have applications to petroleum time-series magnetotelluric analysis.

BIOTRACES, INC.
13455 Sunrise Valley Dr., #200
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 793-1550
Dr. Andrzej K. Drukier
DTRA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Botanicals as Chemical Warfare Agent Indicators
Abstract:We developed a super-sensitive technique called Multi-Photon Detection (MPD). MPD has been used to improve the sensitivity of protein detection, including immunodiagnostics and proteomics. The development of MPD enabled methods for detecting a sub attomole/ml amounts of proteins has been documented. The detection of the differentially displayed proteins, i.e. elucidation of promising set of the markers will be the focus of the Phase I effort. We will use the proprietary MPD enhanced differential protein display (dd-PROT/MPD). In Phase II we will develop a panel of MPD enhanced immunoassays (IA/MPD) targeting several of these markers. We will then extend this method to the use of MPD enhanced protein microarrays (P-chips/MPD). The proposed study on proteomic responses of maize to organophoshate pesticides has clear relevance for the use of maize as a chemical warfare indicator species, but it also is useful for agricultural studies on maize improvment. The market for improved varieties of maize is very large.

BIOMETRIX, INC
2419 Ocean Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 333-0624
Dr. Ademola
DTRA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Sub-Lethal Chemical Weapons Exposure Detection in Humans
Abstract:PROPOSAL COVER SHEET We will develop non-invasive, non-serum based methodology for measuring exposure of humans to chemical warfare-related agents; determine optimal sample collection and preparation, analytical procedures and assays for sample matrices for detecting CW-exposure in humans. We will optimize procedures for collecting and preparing sample matrices obtained non-invasively from humans for analysis, and develop methods for measuring the CW-related chemicals in the biological samples. Sample matrices will be exposed to doses of prototypic CW-related chemicals; the concentration of these chemicals in these sample matrices will be measured. This research will provide useful scientific information, document sampling requirements and testing protocols of the sample matrices as markers for exposure to CW-related chemical compounds. These studies will also demonstrate the feasibility of detecting sub-lethal levels of target compounds using non-invasive sample matrices. The goal of this proposal is to adapt and develop non-serum based assays to detect sub-lethal levels of target compounds in battlefield or terrorist attack situations. Such a non invasive detection device will play a vital role in tracking cumulative exposure, verification of CW allegedly used, the types of chemicals believed used, the extent of the alleged use, characteristics of possible toxic agents and will also support efforts to curb their spread and aid rapid intervention/treatment strategies and may significant reduce the risk of a massive population exposure (Khan et al. 2000)

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 East Evelyn Ave., Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7778
Dr. Douglas S. Baer
DTRA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Sub-Lethal Chemical Weapons Exposure Detection in Humans
Abstract:Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a breath analyzer based on Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy to measure the ratio of the isotopic abundances of 13C to 12C. The analyzer will serve as a portable medical diagnostic instrument that will report measurements of the 13C/12C ratio in breath with sufficient sensitivity and precision to determine exposure to chemical and biological agents. For Phase I, we will develop an instrument to record precise measurements of isotopic CO2 in exhaled breath for diagnosis of exposure to chemical agents in real time. During Phase II, we will develop and deliver a prototype instrument to a faculty researcher at a leading university who will incorporate it into their ongoing research on the role of isotopic carbon ratio as an early marker for infection or toxic insult. To date, progress in this area of research has been hampered by the difficulty in performing the measurements using mass spectroscopy. The proposed instrument would facilitate the confirmation and expansion of this research, permit consent-based human trials, and accelerate the exploration of other markers too difficult to pursue with existing technology. The proposed instrument may be applied for nonintrusive detection of various medical conditions including infection, and Helicobacter pylori. This technology may also be extended for measurements of selected volatile organic compounds in breath for detection of various types of cancer. The proposed instrument may also be applied for industrial process monitoring, atmospheric measurements, environmental monitoring, and other applications that require accurate and sensitive measurements of gas concentrations.

QUANTUM APPLIED SCIENCE AND RESEARCH INC.
6730 Mesa Ridge Road, Suite A
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 373-0832
Dr. Robert Matthews
DTRA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Non-Contacting Borehole Sensor to Measure Stress Waves in Rock
Abstract:A novel stress sensor is proposed that does not require mechanical or electrical contact to its surroundings, and is thus easy to deploy in almost all measurement scenarios. The sensor is based on a recent breakthrough in electric field sensing that has already demonstrated a sensitivity improvement of over an order of magnitude at the Nevada Test Site and other locations. In Phase I laboratory experiments will be done to relate peak stress and stress-time history in granite, quartzite, sandstone, and concrete to the associated free-space E-field. Simple pressure and impact methods will be investigated to calibrate the stress to E-field coupling ratio while the sensor is emplaced. Based on these results, a design study will be carried out for compact systems for use in a borehole and also a larger system for a tunnel. In Phase II several prototype systems will be built for evaluation by DTRA. The proposed sensor is a significant advance in stress measurement technology and could have widespread use in science and engineering. Potential government and commercial applications include exploration, mining, seismology, geophysics, diagnostics for explosives testing, battle damage assessment, nuclear non-proliferation, and possibly planetary research.

CREARE INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Michael G. Izenson
DTRA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight, Rugged, Portable Fuel Cell
Abstract:To operate sensors to verify future arms control agreements, inspectors will need a portable power source. The power source must be rugged, lightweight, reliable, adaptable to a variety of different sensor applications with different current/voltage requirements, and simple to refuel in the field. We propose to develop a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell that is ideal for arms control inspectors. The system is based on proven membrane/electrode assemblies. Innovative cell components and system design make the system rugged, reliable, lightweight, and easily transportable. A "smart" power control system enables the system to supply power at any voltage between 12 and 120 V. The system uses fuel that is easily transportable and/or obtainable nearly anywhere in the world. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of this system by demonstrating the operation of a prototypical fuel cell stack, assessing the key design trade-offs, and producing a conceptual design for the prototype fuel cell. In Phase II we will develop the system components, complete a detailed system design, fabricate the stack, and assemble the system. Phase II will culminate with a demonstration that the system can produce 220 W of power for 12 hours. For arms control inspectors, the proposed system will eliminate the logistical burden of supplying power for critical sensors: it is easily transportable, provides output voltage suitable for a variety of sensors, and can be easily refueled nearly anywhere. Proven PEM technology leads to long working life. Low-cost components and silent operation will make the device commercially attractive as a portable power source for recreation, remote communications, police applications, environmental monitoring, and uninterruptible power supplies.

ELEMENT ONE ENERGY
10 Valley View
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 509-1116
Mr. Richard Woods
DTRA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Fuel Cells for Arms Control Applications
Abstract:Element One Energy has developed a novel solution to optimize the benefits and solve the challenges of direct methanol fuel cells. It is proven that a direct methanol fuel cell can be given a potential and used as an electrochemical methanol reformer (EMR). With a direct methanol fuel cell, modified slightly to be a producer of hydrogen, rather than to generate current, cross-over is no longer an issue. Element One Energy's EMR integrated with an optimized PEM stack for power generation results in a methanol based power system with significantly fewer parts, a reduction in weight of 60%, a reduction in volume by 40%, and nearly instant recharging using liquid methanol modules. The global market for portable power systems is primarily fed by batteries and small internal combustion engine generators (IC Gensets). Small batteries are currently a $6 billion annual market, and the demand for such devices is growing faster than the consumer electronics market itself. The growing power needs of these consumer electronics with soon outpace the improvement in small battery technology. Fuel cell technology has been identified as the most likely technological candidate to address this issue. The unique EOE portable power generation system will provide competitive advantages based on reduced size, greater duration of power provided, and rapid recharging characteristics. In the US, IC Gensets are primarily used for remote power generation, emergency power, or recreation applications. Considered a $12 billion dollar industry, the IC Genset market is susceptible to both the customer's demands of reduced noise and pollution, and government regulation of their emissions. The EOE portable power generation system will be poised to make significant inroads into the IC Genset replacement market with its silent operation and practically zero emissions.

TRULITE
573 East 950 North
Orem, UT 84097
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 376-3456
Mr. Andrew J. Nielson
DTRA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:220 Watt, Man-Portable, Chemical Hydride Based Fuel Cell System for Arms Control Applications
Abstract:Now that reliable, robust, commercial proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are available, the problem has shifted to fuel storage. PEMFCs function most efficiently (>50%) when supplied with pure hydrogen. Unfortunately, storing large quantities of hydrogen in a compact, lightweight form has proven to be very difficult. Most of the hydrogen storage methods that have been developed for fuel cell powered vehicles, including liquid hydrogen, compressed hydrogen, methanol, gasoline reformers, etc., are not appropriate for man-portable systems. However, chemical hydrides, such as LiH, LiAlH4, LiBH4, NaH, and NaBH4, produce large quantities of pure hydrogen, when reacted with water. The problem with chemical hydrides has been the difficulty in controlling these exothermic reactions to prevent runaway. At Trulite, we have developed a simple, fail-safe method for controlling the reaction of chemical hydrides with water, resulting in a pure hydrogen source with the highest, overall energy density of any other source. We propose to design (Phase I) and demonstrate (Phase II) a 220 watt, man-portable PEMFC system that will provide 12 hrs of continuous DC electrical power and will weigh less than 5 pounds. Our proposed chemical hydride supplied PEMFC power source will be ideal for all types of portable electronic equipment, including biological, chemical and nuclear threat detection equipment. In addition, the compact, lightweight design can be made small enough to power a laptop computer or cell phone for 10-20 times longer than a typical Li-ion battery before recharging.

VIATRONIX
40 Amherst Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 899-6924
Dr. Philip Lamarre
DTRA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Fuel Cells for Arms Control Applications
Abstract:Future efforts to verify arms control agreements will require new technologies that are self-contained and man-portable. Potable power will, of course, be needed to energize and maintain this equipment in an unattended mode. Fuel cells offer the best alternative for these power requirements, because of their high energy and power density. Unfortunately, there is no current fuel cell technology that can meet the requirements for unattended arms verification equipment. The proposed Phase I research seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of a new micro fuel cell architecture that may satisfy the portable power needs described in this topic. The Phase I effort will entail fabrication and evaluation of a prototype micro fuel cell using a new, as yet undeveloped, ultra high surface area electrode catalyst. The performance of the proposed device will form the basis for determining if the system metrics defined in this topic can be achieved in a full scale device in a Phase II follow on effort. A cost evaluation of the final power system will also be achieved in the Phase I effort. Miniature and micro fuel cell technology is in its nascent stage. Ever increasing portable power demands in the private sector will spur the development of this new technology. Successful development of small energy dense power systems, such the one proposed here, will find an enthusiastic audience throughout the consumer electronics market.

MISSION RESEARCH CORPORATION
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7709
Mr. Jeffrey D. Black
DTRA 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:Hardened by Design (HBD) Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) Technology
Abstract:Electronics technology for space systems is at a critical juncture, especially for strategic systems. Maintenance and improvement of the two dedicated radiation hardened foundries will cost a lot of money and may still fall short of commercial foundry performance. Hardened by design techniques have been applied to digital electronics produced on commercial foundries with good success in both performance and radiation hardness. Design techniques are also being applied to analog and mixed-signal electronics with success. Cryogenic electronics are currently being overlooked. This project will revisit readout integrated circuit (ROIC) electronics technology for focal place arrays applied in space systems. Specifically, this project will examine alternative foundries for development of radiation hardened ROICs. MRC will perform an analysis of ROIC needs, develop a test device, and evaluate its radiation response under cryogenic conditions. This project will advance technology for space surveillance systems, enabling the application of improved focal plane arrays. As a result, this capability will improve nuclear weapons surety.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORPORATION
2235 Polvorosa Avenue, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 436-5143
Dr. Philip L. Coleman
DTRA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a Fully Time-Resolved X-ray Spectrograph
Abstract:The Decade Quad/Half plasma radiation source (PRS) will provide environments to test the radiation hardness of critical military systems. Optimizing the Decade PRS will require a set of x-ray diagnostics that measure not only the net x-ray yield but also the temperature and density of the plasma that produces the x-rays. High quality spectral data are needed to derive the temperature and density. This SBIR proposal is for a time-resolved spectrograph that makes use of linear detectors that provide continuous time coverage. No critical time gating is required. The sensors will be silicon pin diodes that have a very stable, well-defined sensitivity and sub-nanosecond response. Especially with our new interest in the free-bound continuum as a fidelity enhancement, understanding the time-dependence of plasma temperature and density should help us optimize PRS output. In addition, from the point of view of the test object, it is quite important to know when the various spectral components hit the target. The fidelity of the simulation can be greatly compromised if different photon energies arrive at the test point at different times. In Phase II, we can design a more advanced system that includes spatial resolution. The instrument developed under this SBIR project will enable us to better diagnose and therefore to improve the efficiency of high current x-ray simulators. Wherever z-pinches or dense plasma focus systems are used as point x-ray or XUV sources for applications including sub-micron lithography and microscopy, this type of x-ray spectrometer would be a useful, non-invasive diagnostic that monitors system reproducibility and reliability.

BERKELEY SCHOLARS, INC.
P.O. Box 983
Berkeley, CA 94701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 750-3434
Dr. Leonid I. Rudakov
DTRA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Transportable, High-Power, Repetitive Electron-Beam Generator for Emergency Radiation Sterilization Applications
Abstract:Repetitive Pulsed Power technology using Repetitive Plasma Opening Switches (RPOS), as developed at the Kurchatov Institute, Russia, can be used for radiation sterilization applications in situations where standard techniques cannot be used. A relatively compact, inexpensive RPOS generator could be transported (by truck, for example) to a site where sterilization by electron- beam or x-ray irradiation could be accomplished over a period of a few hours. The system could be made to be self-contained with no need for external power or other auxiliary systems, allowing operation in remote areas. Developing such a system requires research on critical components, such as the RPOS, and system integration studies. An RPOS generator produces a 30-40 kA, 3-4 MeV electron beam with 100 ns pulse duration and 10 kJ per shot. The generator can be operated repetitively at 1-10 Hz (10-50 kW average power) for hundreds of hours if necessary. The electron beam can create a few kGy/shot in 1 m x 1 m surface irradiated matter with dose rate up to 10 GGy/s. At dose rates greater than a few MGy/s, experiments at the Kurchatov Institute indicate 2-5 times greater sterilization efficiency (dose required to kill microorganisms) compared with continuous radiation sources, such as radioisotopes or conventional electron accelerators. This allows development of a compact and economical sterilizer. System investigation of a RPOS Sterilizer will be performed. On the basis of this analysis, the design of a transportable RPOS Sterilizer for emergency use will be developed. The RPOS Sterilizer can be applicable for military and emergency uses. In response to the threat of terrorist bio-attack, the transportable, self- contained emergency sterilizer can be expediently moved to a facility (e.g. military site, US Post Office) to kill bio-attack agents (e.g. anthrax spores) in mail and to sterilize the space. Other applications can include radiation chemistry experiments for liquid and gaseous hazardous substances and chemical and biological weapon destruction.

FARTECH, INC.
10350 Science Center Drive, Building 14, Suite 150
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-6655
Dr. Ioan N. Bogatu
DTRA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Diagnostic Tool for Voltage of Ta Bremsstrahlung Sources and Electron Energy in Plasmas
Abstract:Development of warm bremsstrahlung sources could benefit from diagnostic techniques for monitoring the evolution of electron beams for diode optimization. FARTECH, Inc., proposes an innovative diagnostic tool to provide time resolved measurements of electron energy (diode voltage). This diagnostic tool will accurately measure the ratio of Ta characteristic Ka-line and the continuum intensities within adjacent narrow energy bands. It will provide the modeling tools, the proof-of-principle test, and physical basis for the development of a small size X-ray scintillation probe that will measure electron energy in a plasma medium, such as plasma opening switch (POS) or Z-pinch. This technology will greatly assist the development of advanced bremsstrahlung sources like reflex diodes/triodes especially in the presence of a POS where inductively corrected voltage monitors become uncertain for electron beam energy and with studies of Z-pinches to determine the mechanism for ion-to-electron energy transfer. During Phase I, FARTECH, Inc., will design and fabricate the optimum balanced filter configuration for an external diode voltage probe and demonstrate its efficacy on a DTRA Ta X-ray source. In Phase II, we will design, fabricate and test a prototype of the in-situ X-ray scintillation probe, for measuring plasma electron energy. Compact diagnostic tools for quantitatively measuring the time evolution of electron beam energy and warm X-ray spectra could have broad use in research and development and commercial applications. X-ray spectrometers based on the balanced filter technology will benefit the diagnostics of high intensity pulsed power X-ray sources, such as low energy bremsstrahlung sources, Z-pinch plasmas sources, inertial and magnetic confinement fusion plasma devices. With higher energy-bin discrimination, they can enhance the contrast of medical radiographic and tomographic images to a new level. Their compactness will allow their use in space vehicles or satellites to measure astrophysical X-ray emission sources. The innovative small size X-ray scintillation probe proposed in this study will provide researchers a new tool for measuring the electron energy inside beams and plasmas. It will provide many benefits to radiation source developers, electron pumped laser development, and other evolving technologies that are using electron beam physics, i.e. with free radical chemistry for water purification.

HY-TECH RESEARCH CORPORATION
104 Centre Ct.
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 639-4019
Dr. Edward J. Yadlowsky
DTRA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Intergral Static Gas Filled/uv Filter Load for Plasma Radiation Simulators
Abstract:The perturbation of the plasma density and current flow of an imploding gas puff load by the Rayleigh Taylor (R-T) instability is predicted to be the major impediment to using a long current pulse generator to produce x-rays for radiation simulation application. HY-Tech proposes a thin wall low Z cylinder to statically confine a gas puff load in the anode-cathode gap of a plasma radiation source (PRS) to address this issue. This load configuration should provide a radially and axially uniform gas distribution which should both minimize R-T growth through snowplow damping and eliminate load zippering. Reliable breakdown initiation is expected along the inside surface of the ceramic cylinder which is expected to survive well past the x-ray emission time. The surviving cylinder will function as a debris filter by absorbing the UV emitted by the pinch and confine the expanding plasma while transmitting k-shell x-rays whose energies are greater than 3 keV. This dual load/debris filter configuration is expected to optimize the yield from a PRS and maximize the on target fluence by bringing the coupon closer to the source in present simulators and substantially reduce the cost of constructing the next generation simulator. The load/uv filter combination will find wide spread application in Defense Threat Reduction Agency simulators as a research tool to optimize the load configuration for long use time accelerators, in present accelerators to increase the on-target fluence, and in the design and operation of next generation radiation simulators.

KTECH CORPORATION
2201 Buena Vista SE, Suite 400
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 998-5830
Mr. Frank W. Davies
DTRA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Diaphragm Pressure Gauge
Abstract:Nuclear Weapons Effects Tests (NWET) frequently require that the test article be irradiated in an ultra-clean environment, making survivable shields a necessary part of many debris systems. Survivable shields as large as 12 inches in diameter are required but have yet to be demonstrated in Plasma Radiating Source (PRS) environments. The loads on a survivable shield are a combination of radiation induced blowoff generated by the UV part of the PRS spectrum; pressure loads exerted by expanding plasma from the PRS source region and UV filters; particle impacts from the PRS and UV filters; and radiation induced line loads and moments. Structural failures of survivable shields result primarily from the pressure loads. No measurements of the critical loads exerted on the shield have been achieved. Without these measurements, shield design becomes an arbitrary selection of dimensions. Phase I will evaluate diaphragm pressure gauges to measure the loads on survivable shields. Fiber optic displacement gauge technology, which has been used successfully in radiation environments, will be used to measure the pressure induced diaphragm motions. Preliminary calculations indicate that thin aluminum diaphragms can detect impulsive loads as low as 25 taps. The diaphragm pressure gauge addresses a critical NWET need. The diaphragm pressure gauge will provide critically needed data for the optimized design of large diameter survivable shields thus allowing the performance of key NWE certification experiments. Additionally, the development of fiber optic displacement gauge technology provides key measurement technologies for PRS structural response experiments.

KTECH CORPORATION
2201 Buena Vista SE, Suite 400
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 998-5830
Mr. Frank W. Davies
DTRA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Adiabatic Thermopile for Radiation Dosimetry
Abstract:Measurements of fluence from a Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) are critical to the performance of accurate Nuclear Weapon Effects (NWE) experiments. Fast, total stopping calorimeters have been demonstrated to provide a robust, reusable, economic sensor for fluence measurements. However, the output of these sensors is a few millivolts and thus high signal to noise recording is difficult to achieve, particularly at early times in PRS environments. This proposal presents a new calorimeter technology based on thermopiles. Thin film, thermopile calorimeters provide at least an order of magnitude higher output than the single element thermopile designs. Additionally, these self-powered sensors provide fast response, can be very accurately calibrated using independent physical measurements, and are relatively inexpensive. The feasibility of a fast thermopile calorimeter with its ancillary data acquisition system will be demonstrated in this Phase I project. The thermopile calorimeter will provide a fast, robust, self-powered sensor with a high signal output. It will be designed to be nearly adiabatic during the short measurement time necessary, less than 10 milliseconds. However, the sensor will be compatible with the dynamic error compensation analysis techniques, developed by Ktech, and can be accurately calibrated by independent physical measurements. This calorimeter will provide an improved sensor for a critical NWE experiment requirement; fluence spatial distribution measurements. With some modifications, this calorimetry technique has the potential to provide accurate dose measurements in bremsstrahlung, gamma, and neutron environments.

NU-TREK
16428 Avenida Florencia
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 487-8149
Dr. John E. Rauch
DTRA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:GaAs and Higher Z PCDs for Flash X-ray Diagnostics
Abstract:We will develop, demonstrate, and commercialize detectors, dose rate monitors, ratio monitors, and other diagnostics using GaAs and higher Z PCDs. In order to ensure the reliability and efficacy of the detectors, they will be subjected to a stringent test protocal that will evaluate them agianst 8 performance requirements. In Phase II we will design and demonstrate spectrometers and other diagnostics that use the PCDs developed. As part of the demonstration we will use the diagnostics to characterize flash X-ray sources with endpoint energies up to 1.5 MeV. (1) GaAs PCD for the direct measurement of dose rate GaAs.(2) Commercial source for detectors and diagnostics using GaAs and other high Z PCDs for use for the characterization of flash X-ray sources with endpoint energies up to 1.5 MeV. The availability of these detectors will enable the design of spectrometers and other diagnostics with significantly improved spectral resolution.(3)The detector technology developed will also have significant non-DTRA applications in areas such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computarized tomography (SPECT), nuclear spectroscopy, radionuclide identification, dosimetry, radiation monitoring, and non-destructive testing.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 260-9589
Mr. Joseph D. Cuchiaro
DTRA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:CeMnO3 1T Bipolar Memory
Abstract:Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) are used for power and mixed signal applications in radiation environments. Current BJT devices perform with volatile operation requiring constant power supply for uninterrupted access. We propose to create a nonvolatile BJT memoy device using proprietary SMI cerium based ferroelctric mterial (patent pending) prodced by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) to form a radiation hard single transistor (1T) Random Access Memory (RAM). Ferroelectric dipoles retain information by physcal distortion of the crystal lattice which unlike electronic tunneling, is resistant to state change from exposure to radiation and loss of information from repeated switching. This program will build a proof of principle radiation resistant ferroelectric capacitor BJT 1T memory device. We will ue commercial JT devices with SMI produced cerium films to demonstrate greater than 1 hour 1T retention in Phase I. In Phase II w will extend this work to a prototype memory array. To accomplish this task, we will work with United Technologies Microelectronic Systems (UTMC), to assure that a commercializable structure and process are deveoped. Our Phase III commercializatioon will begin with UTMC introduction of a radiation hardened nonvolatile memoy product and SMI licensing of project generated intellectual property, followed by integration of the inovation into next generation IC memory devices. A ferroelectric 1T memory will advance current memory technology to be compatible with microprocessor speed in a main memory product that has potential to replace nonvolatie memory and address a market of $6B and increase radiation hard memory density significantly.

XSCI-TEK, INC
24001 Swallowtail Drive
Laguna Niguel, CA 92677
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 305-9818
Dr. Eusebio Garate
DTRA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Planar laser induced fluorescence as a diagnostic for determining mass distribution in gas puff PRS loads
Abstract:Accurate diagnostics for determining the mass distribution in next generation DTRA gas puff loads are essential for increasing plasma radiation source (PRS) predictability, efficiency and yield. Recently, laser induced fluorescence (LIF) has been used to diagnose the mass distribution in gas puffs. Comparison between LIF using an acetone tracer and laser interferometry measurements on a DTRA argon gas puff assembly show good agreement at plenum pressures below 30 psia. At higher pressures the results diverge with LIF yielding significantly higher density than interferometry measurements, possibly due to acetone clustering. In Phase I we will undertake planar laser induced fluorescence measurements on the previously diagnosed gas puff assembly but using nitric oxide (NO) as the tracer. NO and argon have essentially the same boiling point so no questions about tracer clustering should arise. Comparisons between NO LIF, acetone LIF and laser interferometry will be carried out. The overall goal of the Phase I and Phase II program is the development of a straightforwardly implemented LIF diagnostic that can be fielded in-situ on PRS systems to reliably, accurately and confidently diagnose the mass distribution of gas puff loads. The development of a reliable diagnostic for determining mass distribution in gas puff PRS loads could lead to substantial improvements in existing and future radiation source capability in terms of yield, power, and spectral fidelity. Applications for these XUV sources include nuclear weapons effects simulations, x-ray lithography, and material surface treatments.